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Sample records for blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoke induces a vast cohort of deleterious effects on biological structures. In the present paper, the effect of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on the activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. Although the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke inhibits the luminol oxidation catalysed by horseradish peroxidase, it strongly interacts with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibits their phorbol-induced chemiluminescence in the presence of either luminol or lucigenin. The results indicate that at least some of the components of the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke may strongly interfere with polymorphonuclear cells, contributing to the deleterious effects of smoke products. PMID:10862145

  2. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  3. Inhibitory effect of stobadine on FMLP-induced chemiluminescence in human whole blood and isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Drbikov, Katarna; Jancinov, Viera; Nosl, Radomr; Pecivov, Jana; Macickov, Tatiana; Turcni, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) technique with luminol and isoluminol was used to characterize the effect of stobadine on reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) generation in human whole blood and in isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) stimulated with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenyl-alanine (FMLP). In whole blood and in isolated PMNL, stobadine in the concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 micromol/L significantly inhibited the CL signal after FMLP, which activated predominantly extracellular generation of ROM. The same concentrations of stobadine were effective on CL in a cell-free system. On the other hand, myeloperoxidase (MPO) liberation was decreased by stobadine only in the concentration of 100 micromol/L. The results showed stobadine to act as a potent inhibitor/scavenger of extracellularly produced ROM in human PMNL and indicated interference of stobadine with ROM as well as with signalling events resulting in NADPH-oxidase activation and MPO liberation. PMID:16871535

  4. Hyperthermia, antipyretics and function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, T. W.; Truant, G.

    1978-01-01

    Whether hyperthermia (temperature, 40 degrees C), salicylates, acetaminophen or phenacetin has an adverse effect on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function was examined. Migration experiemnts were carried out in Boyden chambers with bacterial chemotactic factor as the attract, and bactericidal assays were done with Staphylococcus aureus and serum from an AB blood group donor as a source of opsonins. PMNL viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion method. Neither hyperthermia nor any of the drugs tested affected PMNL viability adversely, but sodium salicylate and phenacetin suppressed PMNL migration. Early staphylococcal killing was greater at 40 degrees C; however, after 2 hours the converse was true. Bactericidal activity was suppressed by acetylsalicylic acid, sodium salicylate and phenacetin. Hence it appears PMNL function is similar at 37 degrees and 40 degrees C but that some commonly used antipyretics have an adverse effect on PMNL activity. PMID:305282

  5. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte function during otitis media.

    PubMed

    Giebink, G S; Berzins, I K; Cates, K L; Huff, J S; Quie, P G

    1980-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function was evaluated in children with serous (SOM) and mucoid otitis media (MOM) and in an experimental model of acute purulent otitis media due to Streptococcus pneumoniae using chinchillas. Twenty-three of 100 children with SOM or MOM had depressed peripheral blood PMN chemotactic, bactericidal or chemiluminescence activity. Depressed PMN chemotactic activity was observed in 17(18%) of 97 children. Children whose middle ear effusions cultured Hemophilus influenzae were more than twice as likely to have depressed PMN chemotactic activity as children whose effusions were sterile. Depressed PMN bactericidal activity was observed in seven (23%) of 30 children, and depressed PMN chemiluminescence activity was found in three (16%) of 19 children. Combined chemotactic and bactericidal dysfunction was observed in four (13%) of 30 children. All seven of the chinchillas with pneumococcal otitis media showed significantly depressed PMN chemotactic activity during the first week after inoculation, while only two of ten uninfected control chinchillas showed the same degree of chemotactic depression (P = .002). The association of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae with depressed PMN function suggested that bacterial components of these microbes might have functional similarities. Both bacteria are surrounded by capsular polysaccharides which are known to persist in mammalian tissues for an extended period. It is possible that these or other components of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae, or even host factors generated during middle ear infection and inflammation, impair the PMN response to middle ear infection resulting in delayed bacterial killing and persistent middle ear effusion. PMID:6778295

  6. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). ► 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was paralleled by increased debris of cells. ► Oxidative DNA damage of PMNs is associated with arsenic-related skin lesions.

  7. Are soluble factors relevant for polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysregulation in septicemia?

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Graninger, W

    1995-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of twelve patients with gram-negative septicemia exhibited a decreased capacity to phagocytize Escherichia coli and generate reactive oxygen products which normalized within 7 days of treatment. Ex vivo exchange of plasma from age-, sex-, and blood-group-identical normal controls resulted in an increase of both phagocytic capacity and reactive oxygen intermediate generation in PMNs of septicemic patients and transiently reduced phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediate production in PMNs of normal controls. These results suggest that extrinsic factors are crucial for PMN function. PMID:7697538

  8. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion trapping. • Human peripheral blood leukocytes capture and concentrate quinacrine. • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes do so with higher apparent affinity. • Polymorphonuclear are also more competent than lymphocytes for pinocytosis.

  9. The effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocyte response experiment MA-032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    In a series of studies performed at intervals from 30 day before flight to 30 days after recovery, blood samples were obtained from the three astronauts of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and from eight control subjects. To determine the effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tests were performed on blood samples obtained as quickly as possible after splashdown and on the day following recovery. The astronauts' inhalation of propellant gases and the inception of corticosteroid therapy 1 day after recovery provided an additional opportunity to investigate the possible effects of these factors on leukocyte function. Data were obtained during each time period on the total leukocyte count, differential count, leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte migration and chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and histochemical staining for leukocyte acid and alkaline phosphatase. These observations present a variety of in vitro correlates to white blood cell function within the body. Taken together, they serve as a reasonable approximation of the effects of space flight on leukocyte function.

  10. The Binding of Human Immunoglobulin G1 Monomer and Small, Covalently Cross-Linked Polymers of Immunoglobulin G1 to Human Peripheral Blood Monocytes and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kurlander, Roger J.; Batker, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Covalently cross-linked dimers and oligomers composed of 2-4 subunits of monoclonal human IgG1 were prepared by incubation of purified monomeric IgG1 with glutaraldehyde followed by gelfiltration chromatography. Monomers, dimers, and oligomers then were labeled with 125I and used to compare the binding properties of IgG Fc receptors on human peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Binding of IgG1 to monocytes at 37C and of IgG1 polymers to PMN at 4C could be readily measured and were found to be reversible and saturable. Scatchard plots of binding were linear in each instance. Monocytes bound a mean of 20,2006,800 molecules/cell of IgG1 monomer at saturation and comparable amounts of dimer or oligomer. The mean association constant (Ka) for binding of IgG1 monomer to monocytes was 8.6 108M?1 and the Ka for binding of dimer and oligomer were three-to fivefold greater. In contrast, PMN bound a mean of 460,000130,000 molecules of IgG1 dimer at saturation and comparable amounts of oligomer. The Ka of binding in both cases was 100-1,000-fold lower than the Ka for binding of the same preparations to monocytes. Binding of labeled IgG1 to both cell types was more potently inhibited by unlabeled IgG1 and IgG3 than by IgG4 or IgG2. Binding of labeled polymers of IgG1 to monocytes was 10-100-fold more easily inhibited by monomeric IgG1 than was binding to PMN. Thus, there are significant quantitative and qualitative differences between the binding properties of Fc receptors present on monocytes and PMN. Images PMID:7054230

  11. Isolation, In-111 labeling, and abscess detection efficiency of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from blood and peritoneal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, K.M.; Elson, M.K.; Gerding, D.N.; Bamberger, D.M.; Forstrom, L.A.; Shafer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In-111 labeled blood and peritoneal exudate PMN were compared for labeling efficiency and ability to migrate to sites of experimental abscesses using both direct sampling and visual imaging techniques. Blood PMN were prepared by combining heparinized blood with 6% Hetastarch for 1 hour and layering the plasma over a double density Ficoll-Hy-paque gradient (S.G. 1.076 over 1.141). The PMN layer (90-99% PMN) at the interface yielded 10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/ PMN from 80-120 ml of blood. Peritoneal PMN were obtained by infusion of 0.1% glycogen, followed by infusion of saline after 4 or 18 hours. The exudate yielded 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ PMN (80-99% PMN). PMN suspensions were labeled for 30 minutes by addition of 100 ..mu..Ci of In-111-oxine, then washed twice. Percent cell-associated radioactivity of the labeled blood, 4 hour, and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 89%, 88%, and 86%. The labeled PMN were injected intravenously into rabbits which had two of three abdominal capsules (table tennis balls drilled with 250 1.5 mm holes) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus 4 hours earlier. Peak venous recovery of circulating labeled PMN, for blood, 4 hour and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 60%, 43%, and 19%. Gamma camera images 24 hours after infusion into infected rabbits were superior with 4 hour peritoneal PMN. The peritoneal PMN harvested 4 hours after glycogen stimulation are simple to prepare, are obtainable in greater numbers than blood PMN, and result in better abscess visualization.

  12. Effect of tobacco smoking on the functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Corberand, J; Nguyen, F; Do, A H; Dutau, G; Laharrague, P; Fontanilles, A M; Gleizes, B

    1979-01-01

    Eight tests investigating the function of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes were performed in 68 subjects, half of whom smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day. Comparison of the two groups allowed determination of the in vivo effect of tobacco smoke on the nonspecific defense system of the body. Ingestion ability, oxygen consumption, and bactericidal activity were normal in smokers. Myeloperoxidase and neutrophil alkaline phosphatase activities also were unchanged. The nitroblue tetrazolium reduction and the serum lysozyme levels were slightly increased in smokers. The capillary tube random migration, though, was depressed, and intensive smoking further aggravated this change. It is suggested that tobacco smoke acts directly on one (or several) unidentified target site of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This impairment, demonstrated in vivo, probably plays a role in the genesis of the bronchopulmonary diseases so frequent in heavy smokers. PMID:222675

  13. Technetium-99m labeling of polymorphonuclear leukocytes: preparation with two different stannous agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kelbaek, H.; Fogh, J.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for in vitro labeling of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes with Tc-99m is described. Titration of stannous fluoride and stannous pyrophosphate concentrations for pretinning was performed, and optimal amounts of the stannous agents were added to polymorphonuclear leukocytes efficiency isolated from 100 ml of blood. Labeling with 10-15 mCi Tc-99m resulted, after three washings of cell suspensions, in yield of 1.6-4.8 mCi, corresponding to 20.5-33.5% of added tracer. Cell-bound activity in the final cell suspensions was 92.3% +/- 1.9 of the added dose. Cell function was not impaired by the labeling technique. Sterility and exclusion of bacterial endotoxins in the final cell suspensions were demonstrated. The method may prove of diagnostic value in the isolation, labeling, and reinjection of autologous leukocytes for scintigraphic imaging of acute inflammatory lesions.

  14. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

  15. Monocyte and polymorphonuclear leukocyte toxic oxygen metabolite production in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M; Levine, P H; Weiner, B H; Vaudreuil, C H; Natale, A; Johnson, M H; Hoogasian, J J

    1988-04-01

    Lipid-laden macrophages, which are predominantly derived from blood monocytes, are present at sites of active multiple sclerosis demyelination and are assumed to be involved in the demyelinating process. These inflammatory cells produce a variety of toxic oxygen metabolites which can mediate host tissue destruction. We measured production of two oxygen metabolites by monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes in MS patients and controls. Stimulated monocytes produced significantly more hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and chemiluminescence in the MS group than controls. The polymorphonuclear leukocyte, an inflammatory cell that appears to contribute little to MS demyelination, did not demonstrate increased production of toxic oxygen metabolites in the MS patients as compared to controls. These results suggest that blood monocytes in MS patients are primed to produce increased amounts of cytotoxic oxygen metabolites when exposed to inflammatory stimuli. PMID:2839419

  16. Effects of in vivo dexamethasone administration on in vitro bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, J A; Kaeberle, M L

    1981-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte function was evaluated in vitro after in vivo administration of a single dose of dexamethasone to cattle. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes from dexamethasone-treated cattle displayed enhanced random migration under agarose but impaired ingestion of Staphylococcus aureus, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction, chemiluminescence, iodination, and antibody-dependent, cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The depression of iodination may have been related to a drop in the proportion of eosinophils present in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte preparations after dexamethasone administration. PMID:7275311

  17. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by oxygenated sterol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.I.; Bass, J.; Yachnin, S.

    1980-07-01

    When preincubated with certain oxygenated sterol compounds in lipoprotein-depleted serum (20% (vol/vol)), human polymorphonuclear leukocytes show inhibition of chemotaxis toward the synthetic dipeptide N-formylmethionylphenylalinine without alteration of random movement or loss of cell viability. These effects can occur at sterol concentrations as low as 6.25 ..mu..M and after as little as 5 min of preincubation, but they are increased at higher concentrations and longer preincubation times. The inhibition can be almost completely reversed by preincubation in lipoprotein-replete serum (human AB serum, 20% (vol/vol)) and may be partially corrected by addition of free cholesterol (0.125 mM) to the medium. These effects are unlikely to be due to inhibition of cellular sterol synthesis, competition for chemotaxin membrane binding sites, or deactivation of the leukocytes but they may be a consequence of insertion of the sterol molecule into the leukocyte plasma membranes.

  18. Nerve growth factor: stimulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gee, A P; Boyle, M D; Munger, K L; Lawman, M J; Young, M

    1983-01-01

    Topical application of mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) to superficial skin wounds of mice has previously been shown to accelerate the rate of wound contraction. Results of the present study reveal that NGF in the presence of plasma is also chemotactic for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, and the concentration of NGF required for this effect is similar to that which stimulates ganglionic neurite outgrowth. This property does not arise from liberation of the C5a fragment of complement, nor does it require the known enzymic activity of NGF. (NGF inactivated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate is equally active.) We conclude that NGF can display biological effects on cells of nonneural origin and function, and this feature might play a role in the early inflammatory response to injury. PMID:6580641

  19. Influence of light sources on the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Beard, Richard B.; Dai, Xiaoyan

    1995-05-01

    In the process of inflammation, leukocytes must travel from the intraluminal space of the capillary to the interstitial space in order to reach the site of the inflammation. The two major populations of mature human leukocytes based on the morphology are the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and mononuclear leukocytes (MNL). Previous research on PMNs and MNLs at the Biomedical Engineering and Science Institute of Drexel University have shown that their migration can be markedly enhanced by excitation with electric and magnetic fields. This presentation demonstrates that the migration of PMNs under excitation of photons is enhanced in the red light region of (lambda) equals 660 nm and inhibited in the green light region of (lambda) equals 565 nm. There is an intensity threshold at which red light enhances migration and an intensity threshold at which green light inhibits migration. In these experiments the Boyden technique was used with the distance of the cell migration through a cellulose filter measured in terms of the leading edge. The comparison of the relative value of the distance to cell migration under a light to cell migration without a light stimulus was recorded as a cytokinetic index, K.I.. K.I. is a measure of the cytokinesis which is the progress of the cell movement in which the migration is enhanced by substances in the cell environment irrespective of a concentration gradient. The cytotactic index is a measure of cytotaxis which is the directional movement along a chemical gradient formed by a chemotactic factor. A Russian pulsed commercial laser biostimulator in the near infrared wavelength above an intensity threshold enhances PMN migration. Intermittent green and red stimulators below the intensity threshold markedly influence the cytokinetic index of PMNs while above the intensity threshold, this influence is deminished.

  20. Especially polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but also monomorphonuclear leukocytes, roll spontaneously in venules of intact rat skin: involvement of E-selectin.

    PubMed

    oude Egbrink, Mirjam G A; Janssen, Gijsbertus H G W; Ookawa, Keiko; Slaaf, Dick W; Reneman, Robert S; Wehrens, Xander H T; Maaijwee, Kristel J M; Ohshima, Norio; Struijker Boudier, Harry A J; Tangelder, Geert Jan

    2002-02-01

    White blood cells roll spontaneously in venules of intact, noninflamed rat skin. We investigated noninvasively in two experimental series which leukocyte subtypes participate in this phenomenon and the possible involvement of E-selectin. Male Lewis rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, and intravital video microscopy was performed on postcapillary venules in the nail-fold of a hind leg. In series 1 acridine yellow was infused for 15 min (50 mg per kg intravenously) to stain the leukocyte nuclei in situ. With the use of fluorescence microscopy rolling leukocytes could be classified unequivocally as polymorphonuclear (granulocytes) or monomorphonuclear (lymphocytes/monocytes) by the shape of their nucleus. Irrespective of vessel depth beneath the skin surface (25-45 microm), most identified rolling leukocytes were classified as granulocytes (72%-100%; median 89%). This percentage was independent of total rolling leukocyte flux, systemic leukocyte count, or their in vitro differentiation pattern. In series 2, rats were treated with either a synthetic, highly selective E-selectin blocking peptide or a control peptide (intravenously, 12 mg peptide per kg bolus, followed by 50 mg per kg per h). E-selectin blockade significantly reduced the leukocyte rolling level to about 50% of baseline (p <0.01), whereas the rolling velocity increased (p <0.01); the control peptide had no effect. In summary, most of the leukocytes rolling spontaneously in postcapillary venules of intact rat skin are granulocytes, despite the absence of an acute inflammatory reaction. One of the adhesion molecules involved in this phenomenon is E-selectin. PMID:11841551

  1. Role of lipopolysaccharide in signaling to subepithelial polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, W L; Sansonetti, P J

    1997-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration and migration across colonic intestinal epithelia is a hallmark of inflammation in Shigella flexneri-mediated dysentery. To identify bacterial signals associated with this process, potential stimulatory factors mediating initial PMN association with the epithelium and subsequent transepithelial migration were examined in an in vitro model system. Quantitative analyses revealed that purified S. flexneri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deposited at the apical surface of polarized intestinal epithelial cells transcytosed to the basolateral pole, a process dependent on the stage of epithelial cell differentiation. Transcytosed LPS in the presence of normal human serum (NHS), a source of LPS binding protein and soluble CD14, mediated both interleukin-8 secretion at the basolateral pole and enhanced PMN adherence. In addition, LPS stimulated a significant degree of directed transepithelial migration of PMNs, an event that was further enhanced in the presence of NHS. These results implicate LPS in signaling subepithelial PMN emigration and enhancing PMN-epithelium interactions prior to and during subsequent Shigella-induced transepithelial migration. PMID:9353011

  2. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L. , Decatur, GA )

    1990-06-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

  3. Effects of irradiation on endothelial cell-polymorphonuclear leukocyte interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.M.; Drab, E.A.; Rubin, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    Prominent early effects of irradiation include neutrophilic vasculitis and interstitial inflammation. To examine the role of the endothelium in these events, bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) were irradiated (5 Gy) under ambient conditions followed by measurements of neutrophil chemotaxis toward conditioned media and adherence to EC. Neutrophil chemotactic activity increased at 4, 24, and 72 h in both the sham-treated (4.2 +/- 2.5, 15.2 +/- 4.8, and 20.0 +/- 2.7 microns, respectively) and irradiated EC-conditioned media (5.0 +/- 2.1, 18.7 +/- 4.5, and 24.1 +/- 3.4 microns, respectively), and the difference between them was significant at 72 h. The chemoattractant was trypsin sensitive, heat resistant, and chemotactic. It was not present in the EC sonicate. Adherence of neutrophils to EC that were irradiated 4 h earlier (19.3 +/- 4.2%) increased compared with controls (11.1 +/- 2.4%) and was similar to EC pretreated with zymosan-activated serum (22.0 +/- 4.0%), which is a potent inducer of adherence. Thus, following irradiation, bovine aortic EC have greater neutrophil chemotactic activity in their media and are more adherent to polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  4. Effects of mercury on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Contrino, J.; Marucha, P.; Ribaudo, R.; Ference, R.; Bigazzi, P. E.; Kreutzer, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of heavy metals are recognized as environmental pollutants, and although a significant body of literature exists on the acute toxicity of these metals in various tissues, little is known about the effects of metals such as mercury on host defense. Therefore, the effect of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) function in vitro was evaluated. The acute toxicity of HgCl2 for human PMN was calculated initially using vital dye exclusion (trypan blue), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Concentrations of HgCl2 less than or equal to 10(-6) M did not induce significant LDH release, or uptake of trypan blue. Additionally, HgCl2 at less than or equal to 10(-7) M produced no ultrastructural alterations in the PMN. The effects of HgCl2 on human PMN functions involved in host defense were evaluated next. HgCl2 consistently suppressed human PMN adherence, polarization, chemotaxis, and erythrophagocytosis at concentrations between 10(-6) and 10(-17) M. Because of the established role of oxygen metabolites in host defense, the effects of HgCl2 on human PMN chemiluminescence and H2O2 production were evaluated next. These studies demonstrated that low concentrations of HgCl2 (ie, 10(-9)-10(-15) M) significantly enhanced chemiluminescence, as well as stimulated H2O2 production by the PMN. These studies clearly demonstrate the ability of extremely low levels of HgCl2 not only to suppress various PMN functions involved in host defense, but also to stimulate oxygen metabolism. In vivo, these HgCl2 effects would not only compromise host defense but also promote tissue injury via the local production of oxygen metabolites. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3394794

  5. Effects of antiretroviral dideoxynucleosides on polymorphonuclear leukocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Roilides, E; Venzon, D; Pizzo, P A; Rubin, M

    1990-01-01

    Dideoxynucleosides (zidovudine[AZT], dideoxycytidine[ddC], and dideoxyinosine[ddI]) are promising new agents for the management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. In light of recent data demonstrating defects in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) bactericidal activity of HIV-1-infected patients and since many chemotherapeutic agents affect PMN function, we examined their effects on the function of PMNs from both healthy and HIV-1-infected individuals in vitro. AZT (0.1 to 25 microM), ddC (0.01 to 1 microM), and ddI (0.2 to 50 microM) had no effect on viability, chemotaxis to N-fromylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine, phagocytosis of Candida albicans or Staphylococcus aureus, or superoxide production following stimulation by N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine. Killing of C. albicans was not affected by AZT but was enhanced by 0.1 and 1 microM ddc (a 1 microM, killing was 26.0 +/- 2.02% compared with 17.0 +/- 0.73% for controls: P = 0.006) and 0.2 to 50 microM ddI (at 10 microM, killing was 25.0 +/- 0.68% compared with 17.8 +/- 0.91% for controls; P = 0.002). Killing of S. aureus was unchanged by AZT and ddC but was significantly enhanced by ddI at 0.2 to 20 microM (at 2 microM, killing was 71.2 +/- 5.57% compared with 51.4 +/- 6.29% for controls; P = 0.0045). In addition, the preexisting defective bactericidal capacity of PMNs from HIV-1-infected patients was enhanced by ddI (P less than 0.025). Potential enhancement by these dideoxynucleosides of certain PMN functions of HIV-1-infected patients deserves further study. PMID:2178334

  6. [Possibility of diagnostics of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs intolerance with a change in the chemiluminescent glow of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes of the peripheral blood].

    PubMed

    Chausova, S V; Gurevich, K G; Bondareva, G P; Filatov, O Ju; Malyshev, I Y

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the intensity of barium sulfate stimulated luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (SLCL) of pre-incubated blood with various concentrations of sodium salicylate, sodium metamizol or sodium diclofenac. Blood was received from healthy donors and patients with intolerance to aspirin and/or sodium metamizol and/or sodium diclofenac. Revealed valid differences in SLCL of blood received from healthy donors and patients with intolerance to these drugs allows us to use chemiluminescence method for the diagnosis of intolerance to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:25980237

  7. Effect of human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes on chromosomal and plasmid DNA of Escherichia coli. Role of acid DNase

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenberg-Arska, M.; van Strijp, J.A.; Hoekstra, W.P.; Verhoef, J.

    1984-05-01

    Phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are important host resistance factors against invading microorganisms. Evidence showing that killing is rapidly followed by degradation of bacterial components is limited. Therefore, we studied the fate of Escherichia coli DNA following phagocytosis of E. coli by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (/sup 3/H)Thymidine-labeled, unencapsulated E. coli PC2166 and E. coli 048K1 were incubated in serum, washed, and added to leukocytes. Uptake and killing of the bacteria and degradation of DNA were measured. Although phagocytosis and killing by mononuclear leukocytes was less efficient than that by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, only mononuclear leukocytes were able to degrade E. coli PC2166 DNA. Within 2 h, 60% of the radioactivity added to mononuclear leukocytes was released into the supernate, of which 40% was acid soluble. DNA of E. coli 048K1 was not degraded. To further analyze the capacity of mononuclear leukocytes to degrade E. coli DNA, chromosomal and plasmid DNA was isolated from ingested bacteria and subjected to agarose gel-electrophoresis. Only chromosomal DNA was degraded after phagocytosis. Plasmid DNA of E. coli carrying a gene coding for ampicillin resistance remained intact for a 2-h period after ingestion, and was still able to transform recipient E. coli cells after this period. Although we observed no DNA degradation during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lysates of both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes contained acid-DNase activity with a pH optimum of 4.9. However, the DNase activity of mononuclear leukocytes was 20 times higher than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No difference was observed between DNase activity from polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes from a chronic granulomatous disease patient with DNase activity from control polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes.

  8. Isolation and Properties of Phagocytic Vesicles from Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stossel, Thomas P.; Pollard, Thomas D.; Mason, Robert J.; Vaughan, Martha

    1971-01-01

    A method for the isolation of intact phagocytic vesicles from guinea pig peritoneal-exudate granulocytes and human peripheral-blood leukocytes is presented. After leukocytes ingested the particles of a stable emulsion of paraffin oil, the uningested emulsion was washed away and the cells were homogenized. The homogenate was placed in the middle of a three-step discontinuous sucrose gradient and centrifuged for 1 hr at 100,000 g. The phagocytic vesicles, containing the low density paraffin-oil particles, were simultaneously washed and collected by floatation, while the other organelles, chiefly granules, sedimented through the lower wash layer, and the particle-free supernatant remained in the middle of the gradient. Emulsion particles stained with Oil Red O were employed to assay the rate of phagocytosis and to mark the location of the particles in subcellular fractions. The dye was extracted from washed cells or cell fractions with dioxane and colorimetrically quantified. The purity of phagocytic vesicles obtained by this method was assessed by electron microscopy, chemical analysis, and assay of enzyme composition. Granule-associated enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, and peroxidase were present in the phagocytic vesicles and originated from the granules. Cyanide-resistant NADH (reduced form of diphosphopyridine nucleotide) oxidase was also found. Enzymes associated with the vesicles exhibited latency to Triton X-100. Uptake of particles and the transfer of total protein and phospholipid into phagocytic vesicles occurred simultaneously Accumulation of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the vesicles continued until phagocytosis ceased. Peroxidase, NADH oxidase, and β-glucuronidase activities in the phagocytic vesicles, on the other hand, were maximal by 30 min and increased little thereafter even when phagocytosis was still going on. Images PMID:4106463

  9. Fc and complement receptor (CR1 and CR3) expression on neonatal human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Fleit, H B

    1989-01-01

    Fc gamma receptor III (Fc gamma RIII) and complement receptors (CR1 and CR3) were examined on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from neonatal cord blood and adult blood using monoclonal antibodies directed against these receptors. Receptor expression was determined by flow cytometry. Fc gamma RIII, CR1 and CR3 expression was examined in whole blood at 4 degrees C, at 37 degrees C with or without stimulation with the chemotactic peptide f-met-leu-phe, and on PMN isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation and dextran sedimentation. There was no significant difference between adult and cord PMN in the percent of cells which expressed Fc gamma RIII, CR1 and CR3 when examined in whole blood at 4 or 37 degrees C, or following stimulation with f-met-leu-phe. The percentage of PMN expressing CR1 and CR3 was lower on cord PMN compared to adult PMN when these cells were examined following Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation and dextran sedimentation. The mean peak fluorescence of PMN which stained positively for CR1 and CR3 increased following f-met-leu-phe treatment of whole blood from adults and neonates. Since neonatal cord PMN were capable of upregulating complement receptors in response to chemotactic factors these results do not explain the increased susceptibility to infection exhibited by neonates. PMID:2525933

  10. Effect of staphylococcal iron content on the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Repine, J E; Fox, R B; Berger, E M; Harada, R N

    1981-01-01

    Preincubation of Staphylococcus aureus 502A in broth with increasing concentrations of ferrous sulfate progressively increased their iron content, markedly increased their susceptibility to killing by hydrogen peroxide, and did not alter their susceptibility to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:7216492

  11. Altered polymorphonuclear leukocyte size in iron deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.; Sherman, A.R.

    1986-03-01

    Iron deficiency (-Fe) in rat pups impairs cellular growth of immunocompetent organs and phagocytosis. To determine if peripheral blood polymorphnuclear leukocytes (PMNL) size is altered, DNA and protein (PRO) were measured in PMNL during -Fe and repletion pre- and post-weaning. Dams (n = 12) were fed 6 ppm Fe (D) or 250 ppm Fe (C) from dl pregnancy until d21 lactation. Litters were adjusted to 7 pups. On d17, 1 pup/litter was used for PMNL PRO and DNA determinations. Littermates were weaned on d21 to either the same diet fed to their dams (DD,CC); repleted with Fe (DC); or fed-Fe diet (CD), until days 44, 63, and 84. PMNL were separated on a discontinuous Percoll density gradient. D17 pups of D dams had lower Hb vs C (p < .01). Littermates weaned to 6 ppm Fe (DD,CC) had lower Hb levels compared to C groups (CC,DD) postweaning (p < .01). PMNL PRO and DNA in D pups were one-half those in C pups (p < .01) on d17, however PRO:DNA was increased (p < .05). Pups repleted (DC) at d44 , 63 and 84 had increased PMNL PRO vs DD (p < .01). Diminished PMNL PRO was seen in CD pups on d44, 63 and 84. Fe repletion (DC) increased PMNL DNA 2-fold vs DD from d44 on. -Fe diet caused a marked depletion in PMNL DNA in CD vs CC at all postweaning ages. PRO:DNA in DD and CD groups shows a significant increase in PMNL size. Fe repletion (DC) reduced the hypertrophy of PMNL.

  12. In vitro Studies of Group E Streptococci in Swine Leukocytes I. Phagocytic and Bactericidal Properties of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes from Swine

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, C. F.; Olson, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    Serum from both immune and nonimmune ten-week-old swine contained factors which promoted phagocytosis of group E Streptococci (GES). The factors in nonimmune serum, which were heat labile at 70°C for ten minutes, were less efficient than the factors present in immune serum. Bactericidal activity of the polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes against GES was observed with serum from both immune and nonimmune ten-week-old swine, as well as with serum from normal sows and piglets. However, the bactericidal activity of PMN leukocytes in serum from either normal sows or immune ten-week-old swine was greater than the bactericidal activity of PMN leukocytes in either piglet serum or serum from nonimmune ten-week-old swine. When the serum was either heated to 70°C for ten minutes or treated with 2-mercaptoethanol, bactericidal activity of PMN leukocytes against GES was only observed in the presence of immune serum. PMID:4266688

  13. Modulation of human eosinophil polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration and function.

    PubMed Central

    Goetzl, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Eosinophil migration toward a concentration gradient of a chemotactic factor is regulated at four levels. Diverse immunologic pathways generate stimuli with eosinophil chemotactic activity, including the complement products C5a and a fragment of C3a and the peptide products of mast cells and basophils activated by IgE-mediated reactions, such as eosinophil chemotactic factor of anaphylaxis (ECF-A) and other oligopeptides. The intrinsic preferential leukocyte activity of the chemotactic stimuli represents the second level of modulation, with ECF-A and other mast cell-derived peptides exhibiting the most selective action on eosinophils. The third level of control of eosinophil chemotaxis is composed of inactivators and inhibitors of chemotactic stimuli and is exemplified by degradation of C5a by anaphylatoxin inactivator or chemotactic factor inactivator and of ECF-A by carboxypeptidase-A or aminopeptidases. The activity of ECF-A is uniquely suppressed by equimolar quantities of its NH2- terminal tripeptide substituent, presumably by eosinophil membrane receptor competition. Factors comprising the fourth level of regulation, which alter eosinophil responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli, include the chemotactic factors themselves, through deactivation; nonchemotactic inhibitors such as the COOH-terminal tripeptide substituent of ECF-A, the neutrophil-immobilizing factor (NIF), the phagocytosis-enhancing factor Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg, and histamine at concentrations greater than 400 ng/ml; and nonchemotactic enhancing principles represented by ascorbate and by histamine at concentrations of 30 ng/ml or less. Local concentrations of eosinophils called to and immobilized at the site of a hypersenitivity reaction may express their regulatory functions by degrading the chemical mediators elaborated including histamine, slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A), and platelet-activating factor (PAF) by way of their content of histaminase, arylsulfatase B, and phospholipase D, respectively. Immunologic pathways may thus provide the capability for early and specific host defense reactions with a later influx of eosinophils preventing irreversible local tissue alterations or distant organ effects. PMID:793410

  14. Phagocytosis of virulent Porphyromonas gingivalis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes requires specific immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, C W; Kalmar, J R; Arnold, R R

    1991-01-01

    No studies to date clearly define the interactions between Porphyromonas gingivalis and human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), nor has a protective role for antibody to P. gingivalis been defined. Using a fluorochrome phagocytosis microassay, we investigated PMN phagocytosis and killing of P. gingivalis as a function of P. gingivalis-specific antibody. Sera from a nonimmune rabbit and a healthy human subject were not opsonic for virulent P. gingivalis A7436, W83, and HG405; phagocytosis of these strains (but not 33277) required opsonization with hyperimmune antiserum (RaPg). Diluting RaPg with a constant complement source decreased proportionally the number of P. gingivalis A7436 cells phagocytosed per phagocytic PMN. Enriching for the immunoglobulin G fraction of RAPg A7436 enriched for opsonic activity toward A7436. An opsonic evaluation of 18 serum samples from adult periodontitis patients revealed that only 3 adult periodontitis sera of 17 with elevated immunoglobulin G to P. gingivalis A7436 were opsonic for A7436 and, moreover, that the serum sample with the highest enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titer was most opsonic (patient 1). However, the opsonic activity of serum from patient 1 was qualitatively and not just quantitatively different from that of the nonopsonic human sera (but was less effective opsonin than RaPg). Strain variability was observed in resistance of P. gingivalis to phagocytosis, and opsonization was strain specific for some, but not all, strains tested. An evaluation of killing of A7436 revealed that serum killing and extracellular killing of P. gingivalis were less effective alone when compared with intracellular PMN killing alone. PMID:2037370

  15. Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes by Candidate Biomaterials for an Implantable Glucose Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Andrey; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Lambris, John D; Johannessen, Erik A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Background Continuous monitoring of glucose by implantable microfabricated devices offers key advantages over current transcutaneous glucose sensors that limit usability due to their obtrusive nature and risk of infection. A successful sensory implant should be biocompatible and retain long-lasting function. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a key role in the inflammatory system by releasing enzymes, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, typically as a response to complement activation. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro analysis of PMN activation as a marker for biocompatibility of materials and to evaluate the role of complement in the activation of PMN. Methods Fifteen candidate materials of an implantable glucose sensor were incubated in lepirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. The cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b) expression on PMN was analyzed with flow cytometry and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in plasma was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complement activation was prevented by the C3 inhibitor compstatin or the C5 inhibitor eculizumab. Results Three of the biomaterials (cellulose ester, polyamide reverse osmosis membrane, and polyamide thin film membrane), all belonging to the membrane group, induced a substantial and significant increase in CD11b expression and MPO release. The changes were virtually identical for these two markers. Inhibition of complement with compstatin or eculizumab reduced the CD11b expression and MPO release dose dependently and in most cases back to baseline. The other 12 materials did not induce significant PMN activation. Conclusion Three of the 15 candidate materials triggered PMN activation in a complement-dependent manner and should therefore be avoided for implementation in implantable microsensors. PMID:22226271

  16. Effects of dietary fish oil supplementation on polymorphonuclear leukocyte inflammatory potential.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M; Upchurch, K S; Levine, P H; Johnson, M H; Vaudreuil, C H; Natale, A; Hoogasian, J J

    1986-12-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) are an important contributor to inflammation and are thus a part of the pathophysiology of many human diseases. We assessed the effect of fish oil on PMNL inflammatory potential by measuring chemiluminescence and superoxide production before and after six weeks of daily cod liver oil ingestion by healthy volunteers. Phagocytosing PMNLs demonstrated a 27% decrease in chemiluminescence (P less than 0.05) and a 64% decrease in superoxide production (P less than 0.01), following the cod liver oil supplementation. Analysis of PMNL and platelet fatty acids revealed the appearance of eicosapentaenoic acid and a significant decrease in arachidonic acid in both types of cells. PMID:3025092

  17. Accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in reperfused ischemic canine myocardium: relation with tissue viability assessed by fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Wijns, W.; Melin, J.A.; Leners, N.; Ferrant, A.; Keyeux, A.; Rahier, J.; Cogneau, M.; Michel, C.; Bol, A.; Robert, A.

    1988-11-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may participate in reperfusion injury. Whether leukocytes affect viable or only irreversibly injured tissue is not known. Therefore, we assessed the accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes in tissue samples characterized as either ischemic but viable or necrotic by metabolic, histochemical, and ultrastructural criteria. Six open-chest dogs received left anterior descending coronary occlusion for 2 hr followed by 4 hr reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined by microspheres and autologous 111In-labeled leukocytes were injected intravenously. Fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose, a tracer of exogenous glucose utilization, was injected 3 hr after reperfusion. The dogs were killed 4 hr after reperfusion. The risk and the necrotic regions were assessed following in vivo dye injection and postmortem tetrazolium staining. Myocardial samples were obtained in the ischemic but viable, necrotic and normal zones, and counted for 111In and 18F activity. Compared to normal, leukocytes were entrapped in necrotic regions (111In activity: 207 +/- 73%) where glucose uptake was decreased (26 +/- 15%). A persistent glucose uptake, marker of viability, was mainly seen in risk region (135 +/- 85%) where leukocytes accumulation was moderate in comparison to normal zone (146 +/- 44%). Thus, the glucose uptake observed in viable tissue is mainly related to myocytes metabolism and not to leukocytes metabolism.

  18. Impairment of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by 2,5-hexanedione.

    PubMed

    Governa, M; Valentino, M; Visona, I; Rocco, M

    1986-03-01

    The effect of n-hexane metabolites on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was investigated. No effect was detected when 2-hexanol, 2-hexanone and gamma-valerolactone were used; 2,5-hexanedione at 75 micrograms/ml inhibited chemotaxis and a direct correlation between increasing the xenobiotic concentration and the degree of inhibition was found. Chemotactic peptide-induced chemiluminescence was not affected by 2,5-hexanedione. In order to clarify the phenomenon, plasma membrane fluidity was investigated by fluorescence polarization of the fluorescent probe trimethylammonium diphenylhexatriene. 2,5-hexanedione increased the membrane fluidity, while the other n-hexane metabolites did not change the degree of fluorescence polarization. Results suggest that the cellular functions modulated by membrane-cytoskeletal organization are affected by 2,5-hexanedione also at the low concentrations. PMID:3267444

  19. Thermodynamic determination of beta-hexosaminidase isoenzymes in mononuclear and polymorphonuclear leukocyte populations.

    PubMed

    Casal, J Antonio; Chabs, Amparo; Tutor, J Carlos

    2003-01-30

    Isoenzymes of beta-hexosaminidase (Hex) were determined in mononuclear (MN) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, with a thermodynamic method using the chromogenic substrate sodio-3,3'-dichlorophenolsulfonphthaleinyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide. Imprecision was very satisfactory, and the results are very much in agreement with those obtained using the fluorogenic substrates 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide and 4-methylumbelliferyl N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminide 6-sulfate. In 163 healthy individuals we found, for the proportion as a percentage of the Hex A isoenzyme, significantly higher values (P < 0.001) in PMN than in MN cells (71.56 +/- 0.30% vs. 54.28 +/- 0.24%), meaning that it would not appear advisable to use total leukocyte lysates for evaluating this variable. The method is fast, precise, and highly suitable for the biochemical diagnosis and heterozygote screening of GM2 gangliosidoses, and would be applicable in cases of thermolabile Hex B and for detecting the B1 variant. PMID:12503097

  20. Dithranol mediates pro-oxidative inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration and lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Lukey, P T; Dippenaar, U; Eftychis, H A; Findlay, G H; Wooten, M W; Nel, A E

    1987-10-01

    Dithranol (0.01-1 micrograms/ml), but not the auto-oxidized form, caused a dose-related enhancement of the generation of reactive oxidants by leukoattractant-activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in vitro. At the same concentrations dithranol inhibited both PMNL migration to leukoattractants and mitogen-stimulated mononuclear leukocyte (MNL) proliferation. Catalase (50-100 units/ml) protected both PMNL migration and MNL proliferation from dithranol whilst ascorbate and cysteine (1 mM), which maintain dithranol in the biologically active reduced state, potentiated the inhibition. To establish the molecular mechanism of the pro-oxidative activity of dithranol its effects on cytosolic protein kinase C (PKC) activity were investigated. Dithranol caused a dose-related activation of PKC by apparent substitution for 1,2-diolein. These results demonstrate that dithranol, but not its auto-oxidation products, activates PKC which in turn initiates the generation of reactive oxidants by PMNL. Since reactive oxidants are immunosuppressive the therapeutic mechanisms of dithranol may be related to pro-oxidative interactions of this agent with skin phagocytes. PMID:3676090

  1. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis induced by zinc, copper and nickel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hujanen, E S; Sepp, S T; Virtanen, K

    1995-10-19

    Metallic dental restorations and prosthetic constructions are susceptible to corrosion in oral environment, resulting in the release of various heavy metal ions. Chloride salts of zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, iron and gold were tested for their ability to promote the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Using a modified Boyden chamber assay for chemotaxis zinc, copper and nickel enhanced the migration of PMN cells in concentration range of 0.5-1.0 mM, whereas no augmentation in migratory activity was noted using chromium or iron. In contrast, an inhibition in migratory activity was observed in cells directed toward gold ions. Exposure of cells to zinc, copper or nickel ions induced an orientation reaction in leukocytes in a similar fashion as the polarization reaction induced by a potent peptide chemoattractant, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP), in these cells. Exposure of PMN cells to zinc or nickel in chemotactic concentrations stimulated the chemotaxis of these cells to fMLP 2-fold, whereas pretreatment of the cells with zinc prior to assay markedly decreased the subsequent chemotactic migration of the cells to this metal or to fMLP. The enhanced locomotion of PMN cells induced by zinc, copper or nickel ions was found to be in greater extent due to an increase in directed migration (chemotaxis) rather than an augmentation in random movement (chemokinesis) as assessed by Zigmond-Hirsch checkerboard analysis. These results suggest that zinc, copper and nickel ions attract leukocytes by inducing and promoting the chemotactic response in these cells, which may modulate the inflammatory response of host tissue around such metals. PMID:7492570

  2. Ceruloplasmin reduces the adhesion and scavenges superoxide during the interaction of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes with endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Broadley, C.; Hoover, R. L.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma protein, ceruloplasmin, has been implicated as an anti-inflammatory agent, although this property has not been demonstrated unequivocally in vivo. The role of this protein in an in vitro system of cultured endothelial cells and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. One of the initial steps in an inflammatory response is increased adhesion between PMNs and the endothelial lining of the blood vessels. The results showed that ceruloplasmin interferes with this process and reduces the number of phorbol myristate acetate-activated leukocytes that adhere to endothelium. Preincubation of either the activated PMNs or the endothelium with ceruloplasmin did not produce the same results, suggesting that the continuous presence of ceruloplasmin is required. During attachment PMNs become activated and release a variety of substances, including toxic oxygen species such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. In the in vitro system used in this study no injury occurred to the endothelial cells, as measured by 51Cr release, when activated PMNs were added with ceruloplasmin. The data show that ceruloplasmin reduced, in a dose dependent manner, the levels of superoxide produced by the activated PMNs, further supporting ceruloplasmin's previously reported role as a scavenger of superoxide. Ceruloplasmin also reduced the levels of superoxide when activated PMNs were in contact with endothelial cells. Although ceruloplasmin interfered with the copper-dependent scavenger enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), in a cell-free system, ceruloplasmin had no effect on SOD in intact endothelial cells. These results suggest that ceruloplasmin may act as an anti-inflammatory agent by reducing the number of PMNs attaching to endothelium and by acting as an extracellular scavenger of superoxide. PMID:2552811

  3. Effect of homocysteine on polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Mordente, A; Persichilli, S; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2000-01-01

    Homocysteine is a non-protein-forming sulphur amino acid that plays an important role in remethylation and trans-sulphuration processes. In recent years, a high plasma homocysteine concentration has been implied as a possible pathophysiological factor in atherosclerosis and artery and deep vein thrombosis, probably through generation of H(2)O(2), enhanced platelet activity and increased production of macrophage-derived tissue factor. Furthermore, an increase of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activity mediated by homocysteine-generated H(2)O(2) has also been reported. Because some preliminary experimental results in our laboratory did not confirm this effect of homocysteine on PMNs, we investigated the effect of homocysteine on the activity of PMNs, measured by their luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Moreover, we also studied the effect of homocysteine in a luminol-hypochlorite chemiluminescent system. Our results clearly indicate that homocysteine at micromol/L concentrations (10-100 micromol/L) slightly inhibits neutrophil chemiluminescence, while it strongly inhibits the luminescence of the luminol-hypochlorite system. Therefore, the hypothesis that homocysteine induces an increase of H(2)O(2)-mediated neutrophil activity is not supported and, probably, the common opinion that views the H(2)O(2) generated by homocysteine as a possible mechanism for cardiovascular damage should be reconsidered. PMID:10931639

  4. Complement receptor type three (CD11b/CD18) of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes recognizes fibrinogen.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, S D; Weitz, J I; Huang, A J; Levin, S M; Silverstein, S C; Loike, J D

    1988-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) have previously been shown to bind to aggregates of fibrin and to fibrinogen-coated surfaces. During their interactions with fibrinogen-coated surfaces, PMN make such close contact with the surface that a portion of the secreted elastase activity is protected from macromolecular protease inhibitors in the surrounding medium. Here we show that the receptor on PMN that mediates this interaction is complement receptor type 3 (CR3; CD11b/CD18), a molecule previously identified as a receptor for the complement protein fragment C3bi. Monoclonal antibodies against CR3 that block the binding of C3bi also block the binding of PMN to fibrinogen-coated surfaces and the formation of a protected compartment. The region of fibrinogen recognized by CR3 lies at the carboxyl terminus of the gamma chain, since peptides based on this sequence effectively inhibit the binding of PMN to fibrinogen-coated surfaces. These peptides also block the binding of C3bi-coated erythrocytes to CR3, thus indicating that a single binding site is used for binding both C3bi and fibrinogen. Sequence analysis shows strong structural similarity between this region of fibrinogen and other known ligands of CR3. These studies thus indicate that CR3 functions as a receptor not only for C3bi but also for fibrinogen. Images PMID:2971974

  5. Heparin Interaction with the Primed Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte CD11b Induces Apoptosis and Prevents Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mazor, Meital; Mazor, Rafi; Kristal, Batya; Kistler, Erik B.; Ziv, Inbal; Chezar, Judith; Sela, Shifra

    2015-01-01

    Heparin is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, yet the mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that heparin has a direct effect on activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), changing their activation state, and can explain its anti-inflammatory effect. To test our hypothesis, we designed both in vitro and ex vivo studies to elucidate the mechanism by which heparin modulates PMNL functions and therefore the inflammatory response. We specifically tested the hypothesis that priming of PMNLs renders them more susceptible to heparin. Amplified levels of CD11b and increased rate of superoxide release manifested PMNL priming. Increase in cell priming resulted in a dose-dependent increase in heparin binding to PMNLs followed by augmented apoptosis. Blocking antibodies to CD11b inhibited heparin binding and abolished the apoptotic response. Moreover, heparin caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the rate of superoxide release from PMNLs, which was blunted by blocking antibodies to CD11b. Altogether, this study shows that the interaction of heparin with the PMNL CD11b results in cell apoptosis and explains heparin's anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26819958

  6. Reduced bioenergetics and toll-like receptor 1 function in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in aging

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Guo, Xiuyang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yuan, Xiaoling; Chen, Shu; Malawista, Stephen E.; Bockenstedt, Linda K.; Allore, Heather G.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in immune function (immunosenescence) resulting in an increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections. Here we show reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and an underlying age-dependent deficiency in PMN bioenergetics. In older (>65 years) adults, stimulation through TLR1 led to lower activation of integrins (CD11b and CD18), lower production of the chemokine IL-8, and lower levels of the phosphorylated signaling intermediate p38 MAP kinase than in PMN from younger donors (21-30 years). In addition, loss of CD62L, a marker of PMN activation, was reduced in PMN of older adults stimulated through multiple pathways. Rescue of PMN from apoptosis by stimulation with TLR1 was reduced in PMN from older adults. In seeking an explanation for effects of aging across multiple pathways, we examined PMN energy utilization and found that glucose uptake after stimulation through TLR1 was dramatically lower in PMN of older adults. Our results demonstrate a reduction in TLR1 expression and TLR1-mediated responses in PMN with aging, and reduced efficiency of bioenergetics in PMN. These changes likely contribute to reduced PMN efficiency in aging through multiple aspects of PMN function and suggest potential therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24595889

  7. Proteinase 3. A distinct human polymorphonuclear leukocyte proteinase that produces emphysema in hamsters.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, R C; Wehner, N G; Skubitz, K M; Gray, B H; Hoidal, J R

    1988-01-01

    Studies were designed to explore the possibility that human polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule constituents in addition to elastase (HLE) had the potential to cause emphysema. A two-step purification of three serine proteinases was developed. Granule extract proteins were initially separated by dye-ligand affinity chromatography. Fractions eluted were divided into four pools. Hamsters were given a single intratracheal instillation of saline +/- 0.1 mg protein of each pool. While pool 2 contained HLE and cathepsin G, the most dramatic bullous emphysema developed in animals treated with pool 4. The esterase from pool 4, designated proteinase 3 (PR-3) was purified, characterized in vitro, and tested for its ability to cause emphysema. PR-3 is a neutral serine proteinase with isoenzyme forms. Its ability to degrade elastin at pH 6.5 is slightly greater than that of HLE, but it is less active than HLE at pH 7.4 or 8.9. PR-3 has weak activity against azocasein. Its ability to degrade hemoglobin is intermediate to that of HLE and cathepsin G at pH 7.4. PR-3 has no activity against chromogenic substrates specific for HLE or cathepsin G. Its pI is substantially less than HLE or cathepsin G. It is also immunologically distinct from HLE. It induces emphysema in hamsters commensurate with that of HLE. We conclude that PR-3 may be important in the pathogenesis of human emphysema. Images PMID:3198760

  8. Potential use of indium-111-labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes for the detection of lung microvascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Das, D.K.; Steinberg, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Hoory, S.

    1988-05-01

    The early stages of microvascular injury are often difficult to detect due to the lack of a suitable marker to assess such an injury. We utilized the well known phenomenon of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration to the microvascular bed as a result of acute inflammatory reactions originating from the damaged cells. A radiotracer technique was developed, employing indium-111-labeled PMN for the detection of microvascular injury induced by hyperoxia. New Zealand white rabbits exposed to either 100% oxygen or air for various intervals of time were injected with indium-111-tropolone or oxine-labeled PMNs. Influx of radioactive PMN into the lung was detected in 72 hr/oxygen-exposed animals using gamma scintigraphic technique. Analysis of dry/wet ratios and histological examinations of the lung biopsies indicated noncardiogenic edema formation at this stage. Mortality was 50% beyond 96 hr/oxygen exposure. Our study thus provided a means to detect early microvascular injury during 72 hr/oxygen-exposure, which was not detectable by any other noninvasive techniques. The use of indium-111-labeled PMN thus appears to be a potentially important tool for the clinical assessment of lung microvascular injury.

  9. Bactericidal activity of fractionated granule contents from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: role of bacterial membrane lipid.

    PubMed Central

    Modrzakowski, M C; Paranavitana, C M

    1981-01-01

    Granule contents from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were prepared by extraction with 0.2 M acetate, pH 4. A buffer extract fraction (peak D) obtained by Sephadex G-100 column chromatography demonstrated distinct antimicrobial activity toward Acinetobacte sp. independent of added H2O2 or Cl-. The protein of this fraction had an apparent molecular weight of 9,000 and demonstrated time and dose dependence that was more active against stationary-growth cells than mid-log-phase cells. The bactericidal activity of the fraction was most active at 37 degrees C, with only slight activity demonstrated at 22 degrees C and no activity at 4 degrees C. Boiling the granule fraction for 30 min did not affect the antimicrobial activity. However, pronase or trypsin pretreatment of the peak D fraction reduced its antimicrobial activity. When the membrane lipid composition of Acinetobacter sp. was altered by growth on specific n-alkane carbon sources, the susceptibility to the granule fraction was also altered. Resistance to the activity of the granule fraction increased as the carbon chain length of the growth substrate increased. Liposomes formed from Acinetobacter sp. lipid extracts and containing glucose were made leaky with the addition of the granule fraction (boiled and not boiled), suggesting a membrane-disruptive activity of the granule protein against Acinetobacter sp. membranes. PMID:7019076

  10. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 Production by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Modulates Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jon M.; Rasmussen, Susan B.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2005-01-01

    Many strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) produce cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1), a toxin that constitutively activates the Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. We previously showed that CNF1 contributes to the virulence of UPEC in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection and a rat model of acute prostatitis and that a striking feature of the histopathology of the mouse bladders and rat prostates infected with CNF1-positive strains is an elevation in levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We also found that CNF1 synthesis leads to prolonged survival of UPEC in association with human neutrophils. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CNF1 production by UPEC diminishes the antimicrobial capacity of mouse PMNs by affecting phagocyte function through targeting Rho family GTPases that are critical to phagocytosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species. We found that, as with human neutrophils, CNF1 synthesis provided a survival advantage to UPEC incubated with mouse PMNs. We also observed that CNF1-positive UPEC down-regulated phagocytosis, altered the distribution of the complement receptor CR3 (CD11b/CD18), enhanced the intracellular respiratory burst, and increased levels of Rac2 activation in PMNs. From these results, we conclude that modulation of PMN function by CNF1 facilitates UPEC survival during the acute inflammatory response. PMID:16113245

  11. The role of polymorphonuclear leukocyte trafficking in the perpetuation of inflammation during inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Jennifer C; Louis, Nancy A; Parkos, Charles A

    2013-06-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs; Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis) are chronically relapsing inflammatory disorders of the intestine and/or colon. The precise etiology of IBD remains unclear, but it is thought that a complex interplay between various factors including genetic predisposition, the host immune system, and the host response to luminal microbes play a role in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, numerous lines of evidence have implicated the accumulation of large numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) in the mucosa and epithelial crypts of the intestine as a hallmark of the active disease phase of IBD. Massive infiltration of PMNs is thought to be instrumental in the pathophysiology of IBD with the degree of PMN migration into intestinal crypts correlating with patient symptoms and mucosal injury. Specifically, migrated PMN have been implicated in the impairment of epithelial barrier function, tissue destruction through oxidative and proteolytic damage, and the perpetuation of inflammation through the release of inflammatory mediators. This review highlights the multifactorial role of PMN egress into the intestinal mucosa in the pathogenesis of IBD because it represents an important area of research with therapeutic implications for the amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBD. PMID:23598816

  12. Entry of roxithromycin (RU 965), imipenem, cefotaxime, trimethoprim, and metronidazole into human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hand, W L; King-Thompson, N; Holman, J W

    1987-01-01

    Entry of antibiotics into phagocytes is necessary for activity against intracellular organisms. Therefore, we examined the uptake of five of the newer antibiotics--roxithromycin (RU 965), imipenem, cefotaxime, trimethoprim, and metronidazole--by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Antibiotic uptake by PMN was determined by a velocity gradient centrifugation technique and expressed as the ratio of the cellular concentration of antibiotic to the extracellular concentration (C/E). Cefotaxime, like other beta-lactam antibiotics, was taken up poorly by phagocytes (C/E less than or equal to 0.3). The metronidazole concentration within PMN was similar to the extracellular level. Imipenem bound rapidly to phagocytes (C/E = 3), but cell-associated drug progressively declined during the incubation period. Trimethoprim was well concentrated by PMN (C/E = 9 to 13), and uptake was unexpectedly greater at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The most striking finding was that roxithromycin was more avidly concentrated by PMN (C/E = 34) than any other antibiotic we studied. Entry of roxithromycin into phagocytes was an active process and displayed saturation kinetics characteristic of a carrier-mediated membrane transport system. Ingestion of microbial particles by PMN slightly decreased the ability of these cells to accumulate roxithromycin (C/E = 24 to 31). These studies identified two antibiotics, trimethoprim and especially roxithromycin, which are markedly concentrated within human PMN and may prove useful in treatment of infections caused by susceptible intracellular organisms. PMID:3481246

  13. Antipseudomonal Agents Exhibit Differential Pharmacodynamic Interactions with Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes against Established Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen infecting the lower respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, where it forms tracheobronchial biofilms. Pseudomonas biofilms are refractory to antibacterials and to phagocytic cells with innate immunity, leading to refractory infection. Little is known about the interaction between antipseudomonal agents and phagocytic cells in eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Herein, we investigated the capacity of three antipseudomonal agents, amikacin (AMK), ceftazidime (CAZ), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), to interact with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) against biofilms and planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from sputa of CF patients. Three of the isolates were resistant and three were susceptible to each of these antibiotics. The concentrations studied (2, 8, and 32 mg/liter) were subinhibitory for biofilms of resistant isolates, whereas for biofilms of susceptible isolates, they ranged between sub-MIC and 2 × MIC values. The activity of each antibiotic alone or in combination with human PMNs against 48-h mature biofilms or planktonic cells was determined by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. All combinations of AMK with PMNs resulted in synergistic or additive effects against planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates compared to each component alone. More than 75% of CAZ combinations exhibited additive interactions against biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates, whereas CIP had mostly antagonistic interaction or no interaction with PMNs against biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Our findings demonstrate a greater positive interaction between AMK with PMNs than that observed for CAZ and especially CIP against isolates of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract of CF patients. PMID:25645829

  14. Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Restrict Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kragh, Kasper N.; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter .; Moser, Claus; Scheike, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Seier Poulsen, Steen; Eickhardt-Srensen, Steffen Robert; Trstrup, Hannah; Christoffersen, Lars; Hougen, Hans-Petter; Rickelt, Lars F.; Khl, Michael; Hiby, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have increased susceptibility to chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the ecophysiology within the CF lung during infections is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo growth physiology of P. aeruginosa within lungs of chronically infected CF patients. A novel, quantitative peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)-based method was used to estimate the in vivo growth rates of P. aeruginosa directly in lung tissue samples from CF patients and the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also observed in vitro, where this limitation was alleviated in the presence of the alternative electron acceptor nitrate. The finding that P. aeruginosa growth patterns correlate with the number of surrounding PMNs points to a bacteriostatic effect by PMNs via their strong O2 consumption, which slows the growth of P. aeruginosa in infected CF lungs. In support of this, the growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly higher in the respiratory airways than in the conducting airways of mice. These results indicate a complex host-pathogen interaction in chronic P. aeruginosa infection of the CF lung whereby PMNs slow the growth of the bacteria and render them less susceptible to antibiotic treatment while enabling them to persist by anaerobic respiration. PMID:25114118

  15. Role of Yersinia pestis Toxin Complex Family Proteins in Resistance to Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Aaron B.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis carries homologues of the toxin complex (Tc) family proteins, which were first identified in other Gram-negative bacteria as having potent insecticidal activity. The Y. pestis Tc proteins are neither toxic to fleas nor essential for survival of the bacterium in the flea, even though tc gene expression is highly upregulated and much more of the Tc proteins YitA and YipA are produced in the flea than when Y. pestis is grown in vitro. We show that Tc+ and Tc? Y. pestis strains are transmitted equivalently from coinfected fleas, further demonstrating that the Tc proteins have no discernible role, either positive or negative, in transmission by the flea vector. Tc proteins did, however, confer Y. pestis with increased resistance to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Resistance to killing was not the result of decreased PMN viability or increased intracellular survival but instead correlated with a Tc protein-dependent resistance to phagocytosis that was independent of the type III secretion system (T3SS). Correspondingly, we did not detect T3SS-dependent secretion of the native Tc proteins YitA and YipA or the translocation of YitA or YipA?-lactamase fusion proteins into CHO-K1 (CHO) cells or human PMNs. Thus, although highly produced by Y. pestis within the flea and related to insecticidal toxins, the Tc proteins do not affect interaction with the flea or transmission. Rather, the Y. pestis Tc proteins inhibit phagocytosis by mouse PMNs, independent of the T3SS, and may be important for subverting the mammalian innate immune response immediately following transmission from the flea. PMID:23959716

  16. Stimulatory effects of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on carcinogen activation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Constantin, D; Mehrotra, K; Rahimtula, A; Moldus, P; Jernstrm, B

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory processes and of cancer in the human respiratory tract is intimately associated. One of the major factors in this is probably the recruitment of and stimulated activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) in conjunction with the ability of these cells to convert various carcinogens to their ultimate active metabolites. In this study, we demonstrate that nitrite and sulfite, the major dissolution products of the environmental pollutants nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in water enhance the metabolic activation of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BP-7,8-dihydrodiol), the proximal carcinogen of benzo[a]pyrene, to trans-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) and tetraols, the corresponding hydrolysis products, in human PML prestimulated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Nitrite was more efficient than sulfite in stimulating the formation of reactive intermediates of BP-7,8-dihydrodiol in PML that covalently bind to extracellular DNA and, in particular, to intracellular proteins. The mechanism by which sulfite stimulates the metabolism of BP-7,8-dihydrodiol most probably involves the intermediate formation of a sulfur trioxide radical anion (SO3.-) the subsequent formation of the corresponding sulfur peroxyl radical anion (.OOSO3-) in the presence of oxygen. The mechanism underlying the stimulatory action of nitrite is less clear but the major pathway seems to involve myeloperoxidase. These results offer an explanation for the increased incidence of lung cancer in cigarette smokers living in urban areas. The major glutathione transferase (GST) isoenzyme in human PML is GST P1-1, a Pi-class form. The GST activity of PML was found to be inversely correlated with the extent of binding of BP-7,8-dihydrodiol products to exogenous DNA. These results suggest that individuals exhibiting high GST-activity in the PML may be better protected against the type of carcinogenic dealt with in this study. PMID:7821291

  17. Nongenomic effect of thyroid hormone on free-radical production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Mezosi, E; Szabo, J; Nagy, E V; Borbely, A; Varga, E; Paragh, G; Varga, Z

    2005-04-01

    Over the past few years increasing evidence has suggested the nongenomic effects of thyroid hormone, such as the activation of the signal transduction pathways and the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB by the induction of oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of thyroid hormone on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) which are known as important sources of reactive oxygen species in the circulation. The production of superoxide anion (O2-) and the activity of myeloperoxidase were determined in the presence and absence of several inhibitors of the signalling pathway. L-thyroxine (T4) l-3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3) and L-3,5-di-iodothyronine (T2) stimulated O2- production in PMNLs in a dose-dependent manner within a few minutes of addition to cells. Thyroid hormone-stimulated O2- production was partially inhibited by pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of GTP-binding G protein, and was completely abolished by the protein kinase C inhibitors calphostin C and Ro-32-0432, and by a calcium chelator (BAPTA; bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid). Thyroid hormone stimulated myeloperoxidase activity and induced 125I- incorporation into PMNLs. Furthermore, thyroid hormone pre-incubation enhanced O2- production for n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl- phenylalanine (FMLP) stimulation. In conclusion, novel nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone, the induction of superoxide anion production and the stimulation of myeloperoxidase activity in PMNLs were demonstrated. The induction of O2- production requires calcium and is mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein via stimulation of protein kinase C(s). These results suggest the existence of a membrane-bound binding site for thyroid hormone in PMNLs and a physiological role for thyroid hormone in the cellular defence mechanisms by stimulating free-radical production. PMID:15817833

  18. Quantitative microscopy: I. A computer-assisted approach to the study of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, A T; Donovan, R M; Miller, M E; Bettendorff, A J; Goldstein, E

    1987-06-01

    A computer-assisted approach has been designed to analyze and quantitate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis. This approach involves a rapid, objective, and semiautomated (user-directed) image-analysis system that is video- and microscope-based. The entire system consists of a microvideo set-up that is put on line with a Digital DEC-LSI-11/73 microcomputer, interfaced with a Datacube analog-digital/digital-analog converter. Video signals of PMN movement are digitized by the system at a resolution of 240 pixels vertically by 320 pixels horizontally (at 256 gray levels) and stored in a 76,800-byte frame buffer. The digitized data are stored for later use or utilized immediately for image segmentation, image display, movement, and morphometric computations for each PMN in a maximum phase field (at 645 X high dry) of 50 PMNs at 10-second intervals. The digitized data are used for computation of cell perimeter, surface area, optical density, contour-ratio, position, speed, and direction of locomotion with the utilization of micro-image-analysis programs written in FORTRAN and MACRO assembly language, with the computer operating under RT-11/TSX+. The reliability, objectivity, and reproducibility of measurements made with this quantitative approach have been tested by comparing with manual-tracing measurements of PMN movement. A correlation factor of 0.99 has been obtained. However, the quantitative-microscopic approach is much faster, more objective, less tedious, and much easier to operate than the conventional manual-tracing method. PMID:3474331

  19. Increased activity of 5-lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from asthmatic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mita, H.; Yui, Y.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasueda, H.; Shida, T.

    1985-09-09

    The formation of 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE, was determined in 100,000 x g supernatant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with extrinsic asthma and 15 patients with intrinsic asthma. After the supernatant was incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in the presence of calcium and indomethacin, the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were separated by thin layer chromatography. The results were expressed as the percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into the product per 10/sup 7/ cells. The formation of 5,12-diHETE, but not of the 5-HETE, was significantly increased in the cells from the group of patients with extrinsic asthma (4.38 +/- 0.78%, mean +/- S.E.; p < 0.01) and intrinsic asthma (6.09 +/- 1.11%; p < 0.01), when compared to normal subjects (1.74 +/- 0.30%). Both extrinsic and intrinsic asthmatics had significantly enhanced 5-lipoxygenase activity, which was expressed as the sum of percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE. The percentage conversion in normal subjects was 4.19 +/- 0.39%, 6.24 +/- 0.84% for 17 patients with extrinsic asthma (p < 0.05), and 8.59 +/- 1.29% for 15 patients with intrinsic asthma (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between these asthmatic groups. These results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activity is increased in patients with bronchial asthma. 22 references, 3 figures.

  20. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and its suppression by dexamethasone in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: newborn versus adult.

    PubMed

    Vancurova, I; Bellani, P; Davidson, D

    2001-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of the newborn, to a greater extent than those of the adult, have the ability to amplify PMN recruitment to an inflammatory site by their own release of IL-8, and this process is inhibited by dexamethasone. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) could explain the previous observations. NF-kappaB is a transcription factor pivotal for expression of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines such as IL-8, but NF-kappaB has not been previously studied in the PMN of the newborn. NF-kappaB activation was measured by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay in nuclear extracts prepared from PMN isolated from adults and cord blood from newborns. Two distinct molecular forms of NF-kappaB were identified after tumor necrosis factor-alpha stimulation; this included the previously characterized p50/65 heterodimer and a newly identified p50/50 homodimer. Both NF-kappaB dimers were activated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha to significantly higher levels in the neutrophil of the newborn versus adult. An additional new finding was that pretreatment of PMN with dexamethasone (10(-7) M, therapeutic range) inhibited activation of both NF-kappaB complexes in both the newborn and the adult PMN. We conclude that the increased activation of NF-kappaB by the PMN of the newborn may play an important role in neonatal inflammatory reactions. Eventually, specific targeting of NF-kappaB activation in the neutrophil may be an effective molecular approach for the treatment of neutrophil-mediated disorders in the newborn. PMID:11158523

  1. [Changes and significance of chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in endotoxin-induced lung injury in conscious sheep].

    PubMed

    Chen, J K

    1992-04-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and its relation with pulmonary microvascular permeability after endotoxin-induced lung injury in conscious sheep with lung lymph fistula were observed. Four hours after the injury the CL of PMNs increased from 0.27 cpm/PMN of baseline to 0.69 cpm/PMN (P < 0.05). The increment of the CL had positive correlation with the increment of lung lymph flow or permeability index (r = 0.632 0.638 P < 0.05), suggesting that the increase of pulmonary microvascular permeability after the endotoxin injury had relation with the increase of the respiratory tract of PMNs. PMID:1394599

  2. Dendritic Cells Take up and Present Antigens from Viable and Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Carlos; Suarez, Natalia; Oate, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, Jose L.; Martinez-Forero, Ivan; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Perez, Guiomar; Bolaos, Elixabet; Palazon, Asis; de Sanmamed, Miguel Fernandez; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8), for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs. Such internalization was abrogated at 4C and partly inhibited by anti-CD18 mAb. In mice, DC which had internalized PMNs containing electroporated ovalbumin (OVA) protein, were able to cross-present the antigen to CD8 (OT-1) and CD4 (OT-2) TCR-transgenic T cells. Moreover, in humans, tumor cell debris is internalized by PMNs and the tumor-cell material can be subsequently taken up from the immunomagnetically re-isolated PMNs by DC. Importantly, if human neutrophils had endocytosed bacteria, they were able to trigger the maturation program of the DC. Moreover, when mouse PMNs with E. coli in their interior are co-injected in the foot pad with DC, many DC loaded with fluorescent material from the PMNs reach draining lymph nodes. Using CT26 (H-2d) mouse tumor cells, it was observed that if tumor cells are intracellularly loaded with OVA protein and UV-irradiated, they become phagocytic prey of H-2d PMNs. If such PMNs, that cannot present antigens to OT-1 T cells, are immunomagnetically re-isolated and phagocytosed by H-2b DC, such DC productively cross-present OVA antigen determinants to OT-1 T cells. Cross-presentation to adoptively transferred OT-1 lymphocytes at draining lymph nodes also take place when OVA-loaded PMNs (H-2d) are coinjected in the footpad of mice with autologous DC (H-2b). In summary, our results indicate that antigens phagocytosed by short-lived PMNs can be in turn internalized and productively cross-presented by DC. PMID:22206007

  3. Effect of aqueous cigarette smoke extract on the chemiluminescence kinetics of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and on their glycolytic and phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Minucci, A; Stasio, E D; Carlino, P; Pagliari, G; Giardina, B; Sole, P D

    2001-01-01

    Water-soluble extracts of cigarette smoke are easily formed in some body compartments, such as saliva or fluid lining alveolar spaces, and can act on both cellular and extracellular compartments. In this paper we have analysed the effect of aqueous smoke extract on some metabolic and functional aspects of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In particular, the following cellular aspects were studied: chemiluminescence, glycolysis, membrane fluidity and microscopic interaction with zymosan particles. While chemiluminescence and glycolytic activity are highly inhibited, no effect of smoke extract on membrane fluidity was observed. Moreover, the response of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was significantly delayed, while that of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence was anticipated. Furthermore, the phagocytic ability of neutrophils pretreated with aqueous smoke extract was also significantly hindered. All these results might indicate that the finely tuned activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is somehow hampered by the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke in a way which makes these cells less effective against bacteria and more noxious towards surrounding tissues. PMID:11590703

  4. Chemical, biochemical, pharmacokinetic, and biological properties of L-680,833: a potent, orally active monocyclic beta-lactam inhibitor of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, J B; Shah, S K; Finke, P E; Dorn, C P; Hagmann, W K; Hale, J J; Kissinger, A L; Thompson, K R; Brause, K; Chandler, G O

    1993-01-01

    A series of potent and highly selective time-dependent monocyclic beta-lactam inhibitors of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase (PMNE, EC 3.4.21.37) is described. The intrinsic potency of these compounds, as exemplified by L-680,833 (k(inactivation)/K(i) of 622,000 M-1.s-1), is reflected at the cellular level where it inhibits generation of the specific N-terminal cleavage product A alpha-(1-21) from the A alpha chain of fibrinogen by enzyme released from isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe with an IC50 of 0.06 microM. The inhibitory activity of L-680,833 is also apparent in whole blood stimulated with A23187, where it inhibits formation of A alpha-(1-21) and PMNE-alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complex formation with IC50 values of 9 microM. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that after oral dosing L-680,833 is bioavailable in rats and rhesus monkeys. This oral bioavailability is reflected by the inhibition (i) of tissue damage elicited in hamster lungs by intratracheal instillation of human PMNE and (ii) enzyme released from human PMN stimulated after their transfer into the pleural cavity of mice. The properties of L-680,833 allow it to effectively supplement the activity of natural inhibitors of PMNE in vivo, suggesting that this type of low-molecular-weight synthetic inhibitor could have therapeutic value in diseases where PMNE damages tissue. PMID:8378355

  5. Influence of He-Ne laser radiation on biogenic amines content and cytochemical parameters of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in short-term stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Dobrovolsky, Gennady A.; Romanova, Tatyana P.; Porozova, Svetlana G.; Brill, Alexander G.

    1997-06-01

    In experiments on white male rats short-term immobilization- sound stress was modelled. Decrease of glycogen content and myeloperoxidase activity, increase of lysosomal cationic proteins level and NBT-test parameters as well as fall of adrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine amount in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were observed. Preliminary transcutaneous He-Ne laser irradiation modified metabolic reaction of leukocytes to stress and prevented stress- induced decrease of biogenic amines content in cells.

  6. Naringenin suppresses K562 human leukemia cell proliferation and ameliorates Adriamycin-induced oxidative damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; FENG, YING-QIAN; CHEN, JUN-HUI; GE, LIN-TONG; XIAO, SHU-YUAN; ZUO, XUE-LAN

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for leukemia remain unsatisfactory. Conventional chemotherapy agents that aim to kill tumor cells may also damage normal cells and thus result in severe side-effects. Naringenin, a natural polyphenolic compound with antioxidant effects, has been revealed to have significant antitumor effects with low toxicity in preliminary studies. Thus, it is considered as one of the most promising flavonoids in the treatment of leukemia. In the present study, the effects of naringenin on the K562 human leukemia cell line and the underlying mechanisms were explored in vitro. In addition, human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were used as a normal control in order to evaluate the effects of naringenin on normal granulocytes and in the mediation of Adriamycin (ADM)-induced oxidative damage. The results revealed that K562 proliferation was significantly inhibited by naringenin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; however, minimal cytotoxic effects were observed in PMNs when naringenin was used at concentrations <400 ?mol/l. Morphological changes indicative of apoptosis were observed in naringenin-treated K562 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the K562 cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a significantly upregulated rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, in the naringenin-treated K562 cells, the labeling index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was observed to be increased by immunochemical staining, the mRNA and protein expression levels of p21/WAF1 were strongly upregulated in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, whereas p53 gene expression was not significantly changed. In PMNs to which naringenin (50~80 ?mol/l) was added 1 h subsequent to ADM, the cell damage induced by ADM was significantly reduced, coincident with reductions in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increases in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. However, the cytotoxic effect of ADM in K562 cells was not significantly altered by naringenin, and the oxidative stress indices in K562 cells remained stable. In conclusion, the present study revealed the promising value of naringenin in leukemia treatment. Naringenin demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of K562 cells but not on normal PMNs. Furthermore, naringenin protected PMNs from ADM-induced oxidative damage at low concentrations. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing effects, achieved through p53-independent p21/WAF1 upregulation, are likely to be the mechanism of the antileukemic effects of naringenin, and the protective effect against ADM chemotherapy-induced damage in PMNs may be due to the antioxidant capability of this agent at low concentrations. PMID:25667616

  7. β2 integrins (CD11/18) are essential for the chemosensory adhesion and migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Hana; Park, Hye Rim; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Cheung-Seog; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been studied widely for applications in biomedical materials such as prosthetic artificial blood vessels owing to its unique characteristics, which include nontoxicity and nonimmunogenicity as compared with synthetic biopolymers such as expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE). However, to date, studies on the relative effect of leukocytes on BC as a prosthetic vascular graft are insufficient. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a pivotal role in early-phase immune response to bacterial or periprosthetic infection. PMN recruitment at sites of infection or inflammation mediated by various integrins such as β2 integrin family (CD11/CD18 family). Therefore, we discuss our investigations into the mechanisms by which β2 integrins-mediated chemosensory adhesion and migration of PMN on the vascular graft surface, BC. Our results show that CD11b/CD18 components mainly mediate PMN adherence on BC. CD11b/CD18 displays weak coordination with the other two α subunits (CD11a and CD11c). Furthermore, it was found that the β subunit (CD18) plays a critical role in both the adhesion and migration of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMN on BC. The activity of CD18 contrasts with that of the individual α subunits. Among these, only CD11b displayed inhibition of PMN migration on BC surfaces. PMID:25231265

  8. Promotion of DNA strand breaks in cocultured mononuclear leukocytes by protein kinase C-dependent prooxidative interactions of benoxaprofen, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, G.; Beyers, A.D.; Anderson, R.; Nel, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    At concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and greater the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug benoxaprofen caused dose-related activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Benoxaprofen-mediated activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence by PMNL was increased by UV radiation and was particularly sensitive to inhibition by the selective protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. To identify the molecular mechanism of the prooxidative activity of benoxaprofen, the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on the activity of purified protein kinase C in a cell-free system were investigated. Benoxaprofen caused a dose-related activation of protein kinase C by interaction with the binding site for the physiological activator phosphatidylserine, but could not replace diacylglycerol. When autologous mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were cocultured with PMNL and benoxaprofen in combination, but not individually, the frequency of DNA strand breaks in MNL was markedly increased. UV radiation significantly potentiated damage to DNA mediated by benoxaprofen and PMNL. Inclusion of superoxide dismutase, H-7, and, to a much lesser extent, catalase during exposure of MNL to benoxaprofen-activated PMNL prevented oxidant damage to DNA. These results clearly demonstrate that potentially carcinogenic prooxidative interactions, which are unlikely to be detected by conventional assays of mutagenicity, may occur between phagocytes, UV radiation, and certain pharmacological agents.

  9. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  10. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. )

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  11. Role of the Yersinia pestis Ail Protein in Preventing a Protective Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Response during Bubonic Plague?

    PubMed Central

    Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Callison, Julie A.; Gardner, Donald; Buchanan, Susan K.; Plano, Gregory V.

    2011-01-01

    The ability of Yersinia pestis to forestall the mammalian innate immune response is a fundamental aspect of plague pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of Ail, a 17-kDa outer membrane protein that protects Y. pestis against complement-mediated lysis, on bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats. The Y. pestis ail mutant was attenuated for virulence in both rodent models. The attenuation was greater in rats than in mice, which correlates with the ability of normal rat serum, but not mouse serum, to kill ail-negative Y. pestis in vitro. Intradermal infection with the ail mutant resulted in an atypical, subacute form of bubonic plague associated with extensive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN or neutrophils) to the site of infection in the draining lymph node and the formation of large purulent abscesses that contained the bacteria. Systemic spread and mortality were greatly attenuated, however, and a productive adaptive immune response was generated after high-dose challenge, as evidenced by high serum antibody levels against Y. pestis F1 antigen. The Y. pestis Ail protein is an important bubonic plague virulence factor that inhibits the innate immune response, in particular the recruitment of a protective PMN response to the infected lymph node. PMID:21969002

  12. Solubilization and functional reconstitution of polymorphonuclear leukocyte formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine receptors and guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) binds to specific polymorphonuclear leukocyte plasma membrane receptors stimulating chemotaxis and bactericidal responses. One of the initial events of the ligand receptor interaction is a rise in inositol trisphosphate, which triggers intracellular calcium release. The generation of inositol trisphosphate is mediated by the fMLP-activated phospholipase C via a GTP-binding protein (G-protein). In analogy to the adrenergic stimulation of adenylate cyclase, the following signal transduction model has been proposed: The fMLP receptor activates a G-protein which then stimulates phospholipase C to hydrolyse phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate to inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. This work has focused on characterizing the structural and functional coupling fMLP receptor and G-proteins in native membranes, detergent micelles and reconstituted phospholipid vesicles. Tight coupling between the fMLP receptor and G-protein has been demonstrated in both native and solubilized membranes by assaying quanine nucleotide-induced inhibition of (/sup 3/H)fMLP binding and fMLP stimulated GTPase activity.

  13. Role of the Yersinia YopJ protein in suppressing interleukin-8 secretion by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Justin L; Hasenkrug, Aaron M; Shannon, Jeffrey G; Kobayashi, Scott D; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, in addition to their direct bactericidal activities, produce cytokines involved in the activation and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response to infection. In this study we evaluated the cytokine response of human PMNs following incubation with the pathogenic Yersinia species. Yersinia pestis strains with the pCD1 virulence plasmid, which encodes cytotoxic Yop proteins that are translocated into host cells, stimulated little or no cytokine production compared to pCD1-negative strains. In particular, PMNs incubated with pCD1-negative Y. pestis secreted 1000-fold higher levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8), a proinflammatory chemokine important for PMN recruitment and activation. Deletion of yopE, -H, -T, -M or ypkA had no effect on pCD1-dependent inhibition, whereas deletion of yopJ resulted in significantly increased IL-8 production. Like Y. pestis, the enteropathogenic Yersinia species inhibited IL-8 secretion by PMNs, and strains lacking the virulence plasmid induced high levels of IL-8. Our results show that virulence plasmid-encoded effector Yops, particularly YopJ, prevent IL-8 secretion by human PMNs. Suppression of the chemotactic IL-8 response by Y. pestis may contribute to the delayed PMN recruitment to the infected lymph node that typifies bubonic plague. PMID:26361732

  14. Plasma myeloperoxidase level and polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation in horses suffering from large intestinal obstruction requiring surgery: preliminary results.

    PubMed Central

    Grulke, S; Benbarek, H; Caudron, I; Deby-Dupont, G; Mathy-Hartert, M; Farnir, F; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

    1999-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a specific enzyme of neutrophil azurophilic granules with a strong oxidative activity. Thanks to a radioimmunoassay of equine myeloperoxidase, the authors have observed a significantly higher plasma level of MPO in horses operated for strangulation obstruction of the large intestine (n = 6) than in horses suffering from a non-strangulating displacement of the large intestine (n = 9). For the 2 groups, 3 phases were distinguished: reception (P1), intensive care (P2) and terminal phase (P3). The mean peak values of MPO for these phases were 121.6 ng/mL (P1), 168.6 ng/mL (P2), and 107.0 ng/mL (P3) for the non-strangulating group, and 242.6 ng/mL (P1); 426.0 ng/mL (P2), and 379.5 ng/mL (P3) for the strangulation group. The variations of the mean peak values of plasma MPO were significantly different between the 2 groups and between the different phases. A significant increase of the least square means of MPO was observed between P1 and P2. A significant decrease of the least square means of the number of circulating leukocytes was observed between P1 and P3. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation could play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute abdominal disease and endotoxic shock. PMID:10369573

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa variants isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis are killed by a bactericidal protein from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Siefferman, C M; Regelmann, W E; Gray, B H

    1991-01-01

    The susceptibility of paired mucoid and nonmucoid variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from 13 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) to killing by a 55,000-Da bactericidal protein (BP55) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. Mucoid and nonmucoid variants were equally sensitive to killing by BP55 at both pH 5.6 and pH 7.2. Eleven of the isolates were resistant to the bactericidal activity of 10% normal human serum but were as sensitive as the serum-sensitive isolates to BP55. Similarly, the 15 isolates with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) containing O-polysaccharide side chains (smooth LPS) were as sensitive to BP55 as those isolates with rough LPS.P. aeruginosa isolates from patients in poor clinical condition were more likely to have LPS of the smooth type and to be resistant to killing by 10% human serum than the isolates from patients in good clinical condition. We have concluded that the susceptibility of the P. aeruginosa isolates from patients with CF to killing by BP55 does not correlate with mucoid or nonmucoid variations, with the presence or absence of smooth LPS, or with the sensitivity or resistance to killing by normal human serum. Images PMID:1903774

  16. Purification of the active C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a receptor - G sub i complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, T.E.; Siciliano, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Cianciarulo, D.N.; Bonilla-Argudo, V.; Collier, K.; Springer, M.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors have isolated, in an active state, the C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The purification was achieved in a single step using a C5a affinity column in which the C5a molecule was coupled to the resin through its N terminus. The purified receptor, like the crude solubilized molecule, exhibited a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a K{sub d} of 30 pM. Further, the binding of C5a retained its sensitivity to guanine nucleotides, implying that the purified receptor contained a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). SDS/PAGE revealed the presence of three polypeptides with molecular masses of 42, 40, and 36 kDa, which were determined to be the C5a-binding subunit and the {alpha} and {beta} subunits of G{sub i}, respectively. The 36- and 40-kDa polypeptides were identified by immunoblotting and by the ability of pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate the 40-kDa molecule. These results confirm their earlier hypothesis that the receptor exists as a complex with a G protein in the presence or absence of C5a. The tight coupling between the receptor and G protein should make possible the identification of the G protein(s) involved in the transduction pathways used by C5a to produce its many biological effects.

  17. A Novel Murine Anti-Lactoferrin Monoclonal Antibody Activates Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes through Membrane-Bound Lactoferrin and TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Xu, Yan-Rui; Yan, Ru; Sun, Shu-Liang; Dong, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jun; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soluble lactoferrin (LTF) is a versatile molecule that not only regulates the iron homeostasis, but also harbors direct microbicidal and immunomodulating abilities in mammalian body fluids. In contrast, little is known about the function of membrane-bound LTF (mbLTF), although its expression on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (huPMNs) has been reported for decades. Given that LTF/anti-LTF antibodies represent a potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with immune disorders, we wished, in the present study, to generate a novel human LTF- (huLTF-) specific mAb suitable for detailed analyses on the expression and function of mbLTF as well as for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. By using the traditional hybridoma cell fusion technology, we obtained a murine IgG1 (kappa) mAb, M-860, against huLTF. M-860 recognizes a conformational epitope of huLTF as it binds to natural, but not denatured, huLTF in ELISA. Moreover, M-860 detects mbLTF by FACS and captures endogenous huLTF in total cell lysates of huPMNs. Functionally, M-860 induces the activation of huPMNs partially through TLR4 but independently of phagocytosis. M-860 is thus a powerful tool to analyze the expression and function of human mbLTF, which will further our understanding of the roles of LTF in health and disease. PMID:26649297

  18. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections. PMID:23165961

  19. Role of the Yersinia pestis Ail protein in preventing a protective polymorphonuclear leukocyte response during bubonic plague.

    PubMed

    Hinnebusch, B Joseph; Jarrett, Clayton O; Callison, Julie A; Gardner, Donald; Buchanan, Susan K; Plano, Gregory V

    2011-12-01

    The ability of Yersinia pestis to forestall the mammalian innate immune response is a fundamental aspect of plague pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of Ail, a 17-kDa outer membrane protein that protects Y. pestis against complement-mediated lysis, on bubonic plague pathogenesis in mice and rats. The Y. pestis ail mutant was attenuated for virulence in both rodent models. The attenuation was greater in rats than in mice, which correlates with the ability of normal rat serum, but not mouse serum, to kill ail-negative Y. pestis in vitro. Intradermal infection with the ail mutant resulted in an atypical, subacute form of bubonic plague associated with extensive recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN or neutrophils) to the site of infection in the draining lymph node and the formation of large purulent abscesses that contained the bacteria. Systemic spread and mortality were greatly attenuated, however, and a productive adaptive immune response was generated after high-dose challenge, as evidenced by high serum antibody levels against Y. pestis F1 antigen. The Y. pestis Ail protein is an important bubonic plague virulence factor that inhibits the innate immune response, in particular the recruitment of a protective PMN response to the infected lymph node. PMID:21969002

  20. [Influences of anti-allergic drugs on superoxide generation from the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system or polymorphonuclear leukocytes].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T; Naito, Y; Takahashi, S; Tanigawa, T; Oyamada, H; Ueda, S; Takemura, T; Sugino, S; Kondo, M

    1989-06-01

    The influences of anti-allergic drugs on superoxide generation from the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were studied by an electron spin resonance assay using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trapper. The intensity of DMPO-OOH signal generated from the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system was not influenced by the presence of azelastine, ketotifen, disodium cromoglycate, mequitazine, or methylprednisolone, but it decreased in the presence of AA-673. A kinetic study showed that the second order rate constant for reaction between AA-673 and superoxide anion at pH 7.4 was 2.9 x 10(8)M-1S-1. The relative intensity of DMPO-OOH spin adduct generated from PMN stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or opsonized zymosan (OZ) significantly decreased in the presence of azelastine: from the PMN-PMA system, with 10.7 microM concentration of molar concentration causing 50% reduction of the signal intensity (IC50), while from the PMN-OZ system, with 10.5 microM concentration of IC50, and also decreased in the presence of mequitazine: from the PMN-PMA system, with 10.8 microM concentration of IC50, while from the PMN-OZ system, less than 2.0 microM concentration of IC50. These results suggest that some anti-allergic drugs may have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions due to scavenging superoxide radicals or due to inhibiting superoxide production. PMID:2574029

  1. Role of Ca2+ in activation of reactive oxygen species production in polymorphonuclear leukocytes during tumour growth in rats.

    PubMed

    Pustovidko, A; Potselueva, M; Kochegarov, A; Evtodienko, Y

    2007-01-01

    The role of Ca(2+) ions in PMA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was studied during Zajdela hepatoma growth in the peritoneal cavity of rats. In PMNL from control healthy animals, a manifold Ca(2+)-induced enhancement of ROS generation and its significant reduction in the presence of Ca(2+) binding agent (BAPTA-AM) were observed. In contrast, ROS generation by PMNL from tumour-carrying animals dramatically increased in Ca(2+)-free medium, being practically insensitive to the agents, which can increase or decrease intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Free cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) in control PMNL was found to be relatively low ( approximately 250 nmol/L), rising slowly after Ca(2+) addition and further to two-fold in the presence of Ca(2+) and ionomycin in the incubating medium. Tumour growth in animals was accompanied with a significant [Ca(2+)](i) elevation. In Ca(2+)-free medium, [Ca(2+)](i) elevation was up to 480 nmol/L in tPMNL with the additions of Ca(+) and ionomycin as well as EGTA and ionomycin being able to increase [Ca(2+)](i) to 700-900 nmol/L onward. It was concluded that a higher Ca(2+) permeability of the plasma membrane and higher Ca(2+) accumulation in intracellular pools of PMNL was developed at the advanced stages of malignant disease. These results indicate the primed state of circulating PMNL and the independence of PMA-induced ROS generation at intra- and extracellular Ca(2+) levels at the advanced stages of tumour growth in animals. PMID:17262735

  2. Binding of C-reactive protein to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: evidence for association of binding sites with Fc receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.; Fehr, J.

    1986-03-15

    The functional similarities between C-reactive protein (CRP) and IgG raised the question as to whether human phagocytes are stimulated by CRP in the same way as by binding of antigen-complexes or aggregated IgG to their Fc receptors. Studies with the use of highly purified /sup 125/I-labeled CRP showed specific and saturable binding to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNM) with a K/sub D/ of 10.5 +/- 5.7 x 10/sup -8/ M only when carried out in heat-inactivated plasma. The number of specific binding sites per cell was estimated at 1 to 3 x 10/sup 6/. Competitive inhibition of CRP binding by antigen-complexed or aggregated IgG suggests CRP binding sites to be associated IgG suggests CRP binding sites to be associated with PMN Fc receptors. Only when assayed in heat-inactivated plasma did CRP binding induce adherence of cells to tissue culture dishes. However, no metabolic and potentially cytotoxic simulation of PMN was detected during CRP plasma-dependent attachment to surfaces: induction of aggregation, release of secondary granule constituents, and activation of the hexose monophosphate pathway were not observed. These results imply that CRP-PMN interactions is dependent on an additional factor present in heat-inactivated plasma and is followed only by a complement-independent increase in PMN attachment to surfaces. Because CRP was found to be deposits at sites of tissue injury, the CRP-mediated adherence of PMN may be an important step in localizing an inflammatory focus.

  3. Role of neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes during bovine coliform mastitis: physiology or pathology?

    PubMed

    Burvenich, C; Monfardini, E; Mehrzad, J; Capuco, A V; Paape, M J

    2004-01-01

    The review compiles some major findings concerning the inflammatory reaction in the mammary gland of dairy cows within the physiological context of the lactation cycle. The dual role of the PMN leukocyte in defense and tissue damage during experimentally induced coliform mastitis, especially around parturition and during early lactation, is highlighted. This disease affects many high producing cows in dairy herds and may cause several cases of death per year in the most severe cases. Most researchers now accept that the PMN is a key factor in the cows' defense against intramammary infection with E coli. During diapedesis of PMN into the mammary gland, several functionally important receptors are up-regulated, allowing for a more efficient phagocytosis and killing of invading pathogens. While PMN are phagocytosing and destroying the invading pathogens, they inadvertently release chemical mediators which induces swelling of secretory epithelium cytoplasm, sloughing of secretory cells, and decreased secretory activity. Permanent scarring will result in a loss of milk production. PMN's act as friends and as foes and are important components in the balance between mammary defense and damage. The mammary gland is a complex open self-regulatory system with a continuous flow of matter, energy and information. Metabolically, it has absolute priority over many other tissues except the brain. Self-regulation with change over time is characterized by a dynamic equilibrium between two mechanisms: homeostatic and homeorhetic. The defense against invaders by innate immunity and auto-repair of the damaged tissues are covered by homeostatic mechanisms while colostrogenesis and maintenance of milk secretion are controlled by mainly homeorhetic mechanisms. However, also innate immunity has to function and develop in time, depending on the lactation cycle, and its behavior and evolution in time in such a dynamical system is a challenge and a problem at the same time. In such a complex dynamic situation it is not surprising that physiology is not far away from pathology. E. coli mastitis can be a severe problem during the beginning of lactation whereas it is completely self-curing after peak lactation (8 weeks). The approach to focus on the PMN doesn't mean that the defense of the mammary gland is more simple than in other tissues. The defense of mammary gland is characterized by its complexity and over the last years many data show that there are tight connections with the mononuclear cells in mammary gland tissue. Today it is known that T cells play a central role in orchestrating the immune response. However, because of the peculiar interest in the PMN of the authors during the last 10 years, the immunobiology of the mononuclear cells in the mammary gland is not covered. PMID:15074078

  4. VARIATION AMONG GOATS IN THE ABILITY OF THEIR POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL LEUKOCYTES AND MAMMARY SECRETIONS TO SUPPORT PHAGOCYTOSIS: INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF MILK FAT GLOBULES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if fat globules and casein in goat milk were inhibitory to phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from blood, and to determine if variation existed among goats in the ability of PMN to phagocytose and in the ability of milk whey ...

  5. Iron Sucrose Impairs Phagocytic Function and Promotes Apoptosis in Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ichii, Hirohito; Masuda, Yuichi; Hassanzadeh, Tania; Saffarian, Mateen; Gollapudi, Sastry; Vaziri, Nosratola D

    2014-01-01

    Background With the recent implementation of bundling reimbursement policy the use of intravenous (IV) iron preparations for the management of anemia in the ESRD population has dramatically increased. Iron overload increases the risk of infections in individuals with or without kidney disease. IV iron administration in ESRD patients impairs bacteriocidal capacity of PMNs against Escherichia Coli. These preparations consist of an elemental iron core and a carbohydrate shell. In addition to the iron core the carbohydrate shell may affect PMNs. We therefore examined the effect of iron sucrose, a commonly used preparation, on phagocytic capacity of PMNs from a group of normal individuals against Gram positive (Staphylococcus Aureus) and Gram negative (E. Coli) bacteria. Methods Iron sucrose was added to heparinized blood samples at pharmacologically-relevant concentrations and incubated for 4 and 24 hours at 37 C to simulate in vivo condition. Blood samples mixed with equal volume of saline solution served as controls. To isolate the effects of the carbohydrate shell, blood samples were co-treated with the iron chelator, desferrioxamine. Results Iron sucrose caused significant PMN apoptosis and dose-dependent suppression of phagocytic function against both Gram positive and negative bacteria. These abnormalities were prevented by desferrioxamine which precluded contribution of the carbohydrate shell to the PMN dysfunction. Conclusions At pharmacologically-relevant concentrations iron sucrose promotes apoptosis and inhibits phagocytic activities of PMNs. The deleterious effect of iron sucrose is mediated by its elemental iron core, not its carbohydrate shell, and as such may be shared by other IV iron preparations. PMID:22722756

  6. Accelerated apoptosis of blood leukocytes and oxidative stress in blood of patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Słotwińska, Maria; Stachura, Anna; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Dubas-Slemp, Halina; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2008-04-01

    Acceleration of blood leukocyte apoptosis in major depression has been described. The present studies have been undertaken to estimate the level of apoptosis of blood leukocytes in patients with depression and to examine the mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Blood was taken from 29 patients with depression (age 48.2+/-11.2, 14 males, 15 females) and 30 healthy controls (age 41.3+/-4.1, 15 males, 15 females), and apoptosis was estimated by the cytometric method by measurements of annexin V binding, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi), bcl-2, bax, and Fas (CD95) expression in CD4+, CD8+ and CD14+ cells. The amounts of cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were also measured. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from PMNs were examined as was the serum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and total peroxidase (PER). Additionally, serum levels of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were estimated. Our experiments indicated accelerated apoptosis of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ cells (mainly neutrophils) of depressed patients as well as a significant increase in the percent of Fas-expressing cells. Bcl-2 and bax expression was higher in cells of depressed patients than in control, however, bcl-2/bax ratio was significantly decreased in CD14+ cells of depressed patients. PMNs isolated from the blood of the patients produced more ROS spontaneously and after induction with phorbol ester (PMA) than PMNs of the healthy control. A significant increase in serum activity of SOD, CAT and PER was also detected. Overproduction of superoxide anion correlated positively with the level of PMNs apoptosis (measured by cytochrome c release), suggesting that superoxide anion might be an important factor inducing apoptotic death of blood cells. The result of our experiment indicated that apoptosis of immune cells may affect patient's susceptibility to different infections and application of antioxidants in medication of patients with depression will be beneficial for them. The increased level of IL-6 in sera of the depressed patients did not correlate with overproduction of ROS, suggesting that this cytokine is not involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis of leukocytes. PMID:18083280

  7. Differential effect of exogenous interleukin-10 versus glucocorticoids on gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine release by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes of the newly born.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Dennis; Patel, Hardik; Degoy, Ana C; Gershkovich, Irina; Vancurova, Ivana; Miskolci, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation, with an abnormal influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) followed by monocytes (MONOs), occurs early in the pathogenesis of BPD. Anti-inflammatory therapy with better efficacy and safety than dexamethasone (DEX) is needed. In the present study we determined cell-specific gene expression and cytokine release in response to glucocorticoids versus interleukin-10 (IL-10). Subsequently, we hypothesized that the insensitivity of MONOs to DEX was associated with a failure of the glucocorticoid receptor to translocate to the nucleus. PMNs and MONOs were isolated from umbilical cord blood at birth, and pretreated with PBS vehicle, IL-10 or glucocorticoids prior to endotoxin (LPS)-stimulation for 4 and 18h. Genome-wide gene expressions were determined by microarray and validated by RT-qPCR. Interleukin 8 release in cell culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. To examine the mechanism of monocyte insensitivity to glucocorticoids, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor was determined by Western blots. MONOs had 6 times the number of genes changing expression with IL-10 compared to PMNs at 4h. DEX at the therapeutic level for neonates with BPD had no effect on gene expression in MONOs. The order of potency for inhibition of interleukin-8 release from MONOs was IL-10 >betamethasone >dexamethasone and hydrocortisone. Glucocorticoid potency in MONOs was directly related to glucocorticoid receptor translocation to nucleus. Gene expression profiling for IL-10 versus glucocorticoids indicates there may be major differences in therapeutic efficacy for BPD. PMID:23390570

  8. Differential effect of exogenous interleukin-10 versus glucocorticoids on gene expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine release by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes of the newly born

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Dennis; Patel, Hardik; Degoy, Ana C; Gershkovich, Irina; Vancurova, Ivana; Miskolci, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation, with an abnormal influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) followed by monocytes (MONOs), occurs early in the pathogenesis of BPD. Anti-inflammatory therapy with better efficacy and safety than dexamethasone (DEX) is needed. In the present study we determined cell-specific gene expression and cytokine release in response to glucocorticoids versus interleukin-10 (IL-10). Subsequently, we hypothesized that the insensitivity of MONOs to DEX was associated with a failure of the glucocorticoid receptor to translocate to the nucleus. PMNs and MONOs were isolated from umbilical cord blood at birth, and pretreated with PBS vehicle, IL-10 or glucocorticoids prior to endotoxin (LPS)-stimulation for 4 and 18h. Genome-wide gene expressions were determined by microarray and validated by RT-qPCR. Interleukin 8 release in cell culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. To examine the mechanism of monocyte insensitivity to glucocorticoids, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor was determined by Western blots. MONOs had 6 times the number of genes changing expression with IL-10 compared to PMNs at 4h. DEX at the therapeutic level for neonates with BPD had no effect on gene expression in MONOs. The order of potency for inhibition of interleukin-8 release from MONOs was IL-10 >betamethasone >dexamethasone and hydrocortisone. Glucocorticoid potency in MONOs was directly related to glucocorticoid receptor translocation to nucleus. Gene expression profiling for IL-10 versus glucocorticoids indicates there may be major differences in therapeutic efficacy for BPD. PMID:23390570

  9. Interleukin-10 versus dexamethasone: effects on polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Citarella, Brett V; Miskolci, Veronika; Vancurova, Ivana; Davidson, Dennis

    2009-04-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, may have therapeutic potential in the fetal inflammatory response syndrome and its sequelae such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Our aim was to compare the effects of IL-10 versus dexamethasone (DEX) on important PMN functions of the newborn. PMNs were isolated into culture medium from cord blood after elective cesarean section deliveries. IL-10 and DEX were compared on an equimolar basis corresponding to previously measured plasma levels of DEX from infants treated for BPD. The endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNFalpha) and IL-1 beta, were markedly inhibited equally by IL-10 and DEX; the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 was not released and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was released less with DEX compared with IL-10. PMNs exposed to LPS, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP), or S. aureus did not show a significant difference between control, DEX and IL-10 for apoptosis, respiratory burst, phagocytosis or killing respectively. Chemotaxis to fMLP or IL-8 was unaffected by DEX or IL-10. The principal effects of both IL-10 and DEX, on the PMN functions studied, are related to the control of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:19127214

  10. Interleukin-10 Versus Dexamethasone: Effects on Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Functions of the Newborn

    PubMed Central

    Citarella, Brett V; Miskolci, Veronika; Vancurova, Ivana; Davidson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10), an anti-inflammatory cytokine, may have therapeutic potential in the fetal inflammatory response syndrome and its sequelae such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Our aim was to compare the effects of IL-10 versus dexamethasone (DEX) on important PMN functions of the newborn. PMNs were isolated into culture medium from cord blood after elective cesarean section deliveries. IL-10 and DEX were compared on an equimolar basis corresponding to previously measured plasma levels of DEX from infants treated for BPD. The endotoxin (LPS)-stimulated release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF?) and IL-1?, were markedly inhibited equally by IL-10 and DEX; the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 was not released and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) was released less with DEX compared to IL-10. PMNs exposed to LPS, N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP), or S. aureus did not show a significant difference between control, DEX and IL-10 for apoptosis, respiratory burst, phagocytosis or killing respectively. Chemotaxis to fMLP or IL-8 was unaffected by DEX or IL-10. The principal effects of both IL-10 and DEX, on the PMN functions studied, are related to the control of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:19127214

  11. Evaluation of L-selectin expression and assessment of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes around parturition.

    PubMed

    Monfardini, Erica; Paape, Max J; Wang, Yan; Capuco, Anthony V; Husheem, Michael; Wood, Larry; Burvenich, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Impaired polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocyte (PMN) function around parturition has been associated with increased clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Rolling and attachment of PMN to the endothelium is the first step in the recruitment process and is accomplished by interaction between L-selectin on PMN and its ligand on endothelial cells. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation is involved in the initiation of many PMN functions. The objective of this work was to determine changes in expression of L-selectin and tyrosine phosphorylation in the perinatal period. Eight clinically healthy Holstein cows were used as PMN donors at d-21, -14, -7,0 (calving), +1, +2, +7, +14, +28. Evaluation of L-selectin expression was carried out on activated and resting PMN. Anti-bovine L-selectin monoclonal antibody (MAB) and flow cytometric analysis were used to measure the percentage of PMN fluorescing and receptor expression (log mean fluorescent channel, LMFC). Activated and resting PMN showed similar trends in % PMN fluorescence and LM FC. The percentage of PMN fluorescing tended to decrease at parturition, followed by a significant increase at d +14 and +28 (P < 0.02). For LMFC a decrease was observed on d +1 followed by an increase through d +28 (P < 0.01). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation of lysates prepared from PMN isolated throughout the study was detected by electrophoresis and western blotting using anti-phosphotyrosine MAB. Several protein bands were tyrosine phosphorylated. Two of these bands (42-44 kDa and 90 kDa) varied in intensity over time. The intensity of the 42-44 kDa band gradually increased from d -7, peaked at d +7 (P < 0.03), and steadily decreased to d +28 (P < 0.02). Antibody to activated mitogen protein kinase reacted with the 42-44 kDa band. Reduced PMN function during the periparturient period could be related to reduced L-selectin adhesion molecules on the cell surface, and to modulation in the phosphorylation of functionally important molecules. PMID:12056478

  12. Quantitative Studies of Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes: Use of Emulsions to Measure the Initial Rate of Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stossel, Thomas P.; Mason, Robert J.; Hartwig, John; Vaughan, Martha

    1972-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes suspended in Krebs-Ringer phosphate medium ingest paraffin oil containing Oil Red O emulsified with a variety of substances. Spectrophotometric determination of Oil Red O in the cells after uningested particles have been removed by differential centrifugation provides a quantitative measure of phagocytosis. This system has been used to investigate the effects of several drugs and hormones on the initial rate of phagocytosis and to approach the question of how the surface of a particle influences its acceptability as a substrate for phagocytosis. The rate of uptake of paraffin oil emulsified with bovine albumin was constant for 6 min and was proportional to cell concentration when saturating concentrations of paraffin oil emulsion were used. At lower concentrations of substrate, the initial rate of phagocytosis was directly proportional to paraffin oil concentration. The increment in glucose oxidation associated with phagocytosis varied directly with the initial rate of particle uptake. The rate of ingestion of the albumin emulsion was not altered by serum (2-20%, v/v), glucose (5-20 mM), or omission of potassium from the medium. The rate of phagocytosis was decreased 65% if magnesium was omitted, and was essentially zero in the absence of divalent cations. The initial rate of uptake was inhibited by inhibitors of glycolysis, by N-ethylmaleimide (0.05-1 mM), colchicine (0.001-0.1 mM), theophylline (1 and 2 mM), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 mM), hydrocortisone (2.1 mM), and ethanol (85 mM). Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation and dexamethasone (0.01 mM) were without effect, while insulin (2 mU/ml) slightly stimulated the phagocytic rate. Paraffin oil emulsified with different agents was used to approach the question of how the surface of a particle influences its acceptability as a substrate for phagocytosis. Emulsions prepared with nonionic detergents, methylated proteins, and proteins with a weak net charge at pH 7.4 were poorly ingested. On the other hand emulsions prepared with agents of strong net positive or negative charge were rapidly taken up. The effect of divalent cations on the rate of phagocytosis varied with the nature of the emulsifier, but was not related in any simple, direct fashion to the net surface charge of the particles. However, it has not been conclusively established that charge was the only variable of the emulsion particles employed. PMID:4334720

  13. Activation of the Annexin A1 pathway underlies the protective effects exerted by estrogen in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Suchita; Cooper, Dianne; Brancaleone, Vincenzo; Bena, Stefania; Perretti, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Objective The anti-inflammatory properties of the female sex hormone estrogen have been linked to a reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we addressed whether estrogen could activate vasculo-protective mechanisms via Annexin A1 (AnxA1) mobilization in human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). Methods and Results Using whole blood flow cytometry, we demonstrated that pre-menopausal women expressed higher levels of surface AnxA1 on circulating PMN, compared to males. This correlated with high plasma estrogen during the menstrual cycle. The addition of estrogen in vitro to male PMN induced rapid mobilization of AnxA1, optimal at 5ng/ml and 30 min incubation period; this effect was abolished in the presence of the estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI182780. Estrogen addition to human PMN induced a distinct AnxA1hi CD62Llo CD11blo phenotype, and this was associated with lower cell activation as measured by microparticle formation. Treatment of human PMN with E2 inhibited cell adhesion to an endothelial cell monolayer under shear, which was absent when endogenous AnxA1 was neutralized. Of interest, addition of estrogen to PMN flown over the endothelial monolayer amplified its upregulation of AnxA1 localization on the cell surface. Finally, in a model of intravital microscopy, estrogen inhibition of white blood cell adhesion to the post-capillary venule was absent in mice nullified for AnxA1. Conclusion We unveil a novel AnxA1-dependent mechanism behind the inhibitory properties of estrogen on PMN activation, describing a novel phenotype, with a conceivable impact on the vasculo-protective effects of this hormone. PMID:21836070

  14. Blood spotlight on leukocytes and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carvalheira, Jose Barreto Campello; Qiu, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    The rise of obesity and its attendant pathological sequelae, including type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, constitute an ongoing public health catastrophe in both the developed and, more recently, the developing world. Although the underlying pathophysiology is complex, chronic low-grade inflammation has emerged as a central driver of both primary metabolic dysfunction and subsequent tissue failure. Importantly, this inflammation has been shown to arise as a consequence of both the disruption of homeostatic tissue resident leukocytes and the recruitment of antagonistic effector cells from the circulation. In this review, we discuss the roles of visceral adipose tissue’s salient leukocyte lineages in the transition to obesity and highlight key points at which this emerging immune axis may be manipulated for therapeutic effect. PMID:24065242

  15. Differing antimicrobial potency and specificity of peripheral blood and autologous exudative polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Lam, C; Schtze, E; Gmoser, U

    1984-01-01

    Little is known about the antimicrobial potency and specificity of polymorphonuclear leucocytes which actually appear at the sites of bacterial invasion in tissues. In the present work we have compared inflammatory leucocytes induced by intraperitoneal injection of casein in rabbits with autologous peripheral blood cells in killing Escherichia coli serotype 01 and Staphylococcus aureus 502A. The results indicate that inflammatory leucocytes differ significantly from their virgin blood ancestors. While the blood leucocytes were only able to suppress the growth of the gram-negative bacteria, autologous exudative cells killed more than 95% of the test organisms within 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. The enhanced microbicidal activity of the inflammatory cells however, was only specific for the gram-negative bacteria, as evidenced by the failure of leucocytes to kill Staph. aureus to the same extent as the peripheral blood cells. In association with the enhanced gram-negative microbicidal activity the inflammatory cells produced chemiluminescence and released two to three times more O2-anions than the peripheral cells. We interpret these observations to mean that chemotactic factors such as casein activate inflammatory cells to increase their oxidative metabolism. Since microbicidal action of leucocytes is thought to proceed in part through oxygen-dependent reactions, the inflammatory leucocytes would be expected to effectively kill bacteria that are highly susceptible to these lethal oxygen metabolites. It cannot therefore be assumed that assessment of the functional capacity of the virgin peripheral blood PMNs would provide information on the functional characteristics of activated leucocytes which actually migrate to and accumulate at inflammatory sites. PMID:6094092

  16. Dielectric Characterization of Leukocytes from Human Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Alvarado, Jess; Gutirrez, Gilberto; Snchez, Antonio; Sosa, Modesto; Hernndez, Francisco; Guerrero, Carlos; Villagmez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual; Contreras, Ana L.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance spectroscopy technique was used to perform a comparative study on blood samples from leukemia and from healthy people. An electric circuit model was used to determine the numerical parameters of each sample. The capacitive properties, reflected in the constant phase element of a Cole model, show the capability to analyze the dielectric and spectral behavior of blood cells, in particular, with cells from leukemia. The spectra and the capacitive parameters are shown, as well as de model fitted to the experimental data.

  17. Characterization of the interaction between recombinant human interferon-gamma and its receptor on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, B.D.; Finbloom, D.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of human recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma) with human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) was investigated. Bolton-Hunter radioiodinated rIFN-gamma bound to PMN in a specific and saturable manner. Eleven hundred binding sites were observed with a Ka of 0.56 x 10(10) M-1. Binding to PMN was rapid with a K1 of 9 x 10(5) M-1 sec-1 at 4{degree}C. At 37{degree}C binding was complete within 6 min. About 50% of bound ligand was internalized within 30 min at 37{degree}C. The receptor demonstrated moderate lability at 37{degree}C in culture. After 1 h at 37{degree}C, PMN lost 80% of their {sup 125}I-rIFN-gamma binding sites. This loss was reversed in part by the presence of interleukin-1 in the culture, but not tumor necrosis factor. These studies provide a framework for further investigation into the signalling process of rIFN-gamma on PMN.

  18. Plunder of Human Blood Leukocytes Containing Ingested Material, by Other Leukocytes: Where Is the Fusagen That Allows Preservation of Membrane Integrity and Motile Function?

    PubMed Central

    Malawista, Stephen E.; Chevance de Boisfleury, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In studying phagocytosis of zymosan particles by human blood monocytes in phase-contrast videomicroscopy, we found that monocytes loaded with zymosan particles became chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) which closed on them and purloined their particle content. This despoliation usually occurred in monocytes that had begun to swellprefiguring their death. The violent seizure of their contents by the aggressing PMN often tore the monocytes apart. However, some apparently healthy monocyte survived the removal of zymosan content by PMN or, more commonly, its removal by another monocyte. PMNa much hardier cell in slide preparationsthat were similarly loaded with zymosan particles, also attracted PMN. The latter could remove zymosan from the target cell without killing it. Thus, leukocytes were sacrificing significant portions of themselves without losing residual membrane integrity and motile function. Their behavior with respect to other particles (e.g., bacteria) will be of interest. We suggest that the membrane fusagen resides in the inner membrane leaflets when they are brought together in an extreme hourglass configuration. This event may be similar to the fragmentation of erythrocytes into intact pieces, the formation of cytokineplasts, the rear extrusion of content by migrating cells on surfaces, and the phagocytic process itself. PMID:23840370

  19. Signal transduction pathway in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes for chemotaxis induced by a chemotactic factor. Distinct from the pathway for superoxide anion production.

    PubMed

    Yasui, K; Yamazaki, M; Miyabayashi, M; Tsuno, T; Komiyama, A

    1994-06-15

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors erbstatin and herbimycin A inhibited the chemotactic response to FMLP (2 x 10(-7) M) and the superoxide anion (O2-) production stimulated by FMLP (1 x 10(-6) M) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in similar manners. These compounds also inhibited phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed breakdown of phosphatidyl choline, suggesting a possible link between tyrosine kinase and PLD. In the presence of propranolol (phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphohydrolase inhibitor), or ethanol, the activation of PLD results in the modulation of PA and/or diglyceride (DG) generation, producing an irregularity in O2- production. However, PMN motility was not affected in these conditions. These results suggest that PLD is a downstream effector of FMLP-induced tyrosine kinase activation that leads to activation of the PMN superoxide release but not to chemotactic migration. In contrast, the tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not inhibit inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate generation and increase of intracellular concentration of free calcium. Furthermore, a protein kinase C inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H-7), did not affect the migration of PMN and the activation of PLD induced by FMLP at concentrations of less than 50 microM. These results support the premise that there is a specific signaling pathway for chemoattractant-induced PMN locomotion. PMID:8207217

  20. The protective effect of zinc on rosin and resin acid toxicity in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and human gingival fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sunzel, B; Sderberg, T A; Johansson, A; Hallmans, G; Gref, R

    1997-10-01

    Combinations of rosin and zinc are used in dentistry as components of periodontal dressings and cements and as root canal sealers. The composition and properties of rosins differ largely depending on source and refinement processes. Rosin (colophony) is composed of approximately 70% resin acids. In order to study the toxic effects of different natural rosins and purified resin acids and the detoxifying effects of zinc, these compounds were analyzed and tested on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cells) and human gingival fibroblasts using the radiochromium release method. The rosins and the pure resin acids showed a strong dose-related cytotoxicity, which was inhibited by increased zinc concentrations. The purified resin acids (isopimaric, levopimaric, and neoabietic acid) were more toxic than the natural rosins. The contents of these resin acids might explain the difference in toxicity of the rosins tested. It is concluded that rosin and zinc are not to be considered inert compounds and that the cytoprotective effects of zinc and its role in dentistry products merit further investigations. PMID:9335345

  1. Tracking flow of leukocytes in blood for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharat, Arslan; Turner, Wesley; Stephens, Gillian; Badillo, Benjamin; Lumpkin, Rick; Andre, Patrick; Perera, Amitha

    2011-03-01

    Modern microscopy techniques allow imaging of circulating blood components under vascular flow conditions. The resulting video sequences provide unique insights into the behavior of blood cells within the vasculature and can be used as a method to monitor and quantitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells at sites of vascular injury/ inflammation and potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker, helping screen new therapies and individualize dose and combinations of drugs. However, manual analysis of these video sequences is intractable, requiring hours per 400 second video clip. In this paper, we present an automated technique to analyze the behavior and recruitment of human leukocytes in whole blood under physiological conditions of shear through a simple multi-channel fluorescence microscope in real-time. This technique detects and tracks the recruitment of leukocytes to a bioactive surface coated on a flow chamber. Rolling cells (cells which partially bind to the bioactive matrix) are detected counted, and have their velocity measured and graphed. The challenges here include: high cell density, appearance similarity, and low (1Hz) frame rate. Our approach performs frame differencing based motion segmentation, track initialization and online tracking of individual leukocytes.

  2. Is there a special mechanism behind the changes in somatic cell and polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts, and composition of milk after a single prolonged milking interval in cows?

    PubMed Central

    Lakic, Branislav; Wredle, Ewa; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Östensson, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Background A single prolonged milking interval (PMI) e.g. after a technical stop in an automated milking system is of concern for the producer since it is associated with a short-lasting increase in milk somatic cell count (SCC), which is a major quality criterion used at the dairy plants. The content of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and how the milk quality is influenced has not been much investigated. The SCC peak occurs without any obvious antigen challenge, possibly indicating a different leukocyte attraction mechanism after a PMI than we see during mastitis. Methods Composite cow milk samples were taken at the milkings twice daily during 7 days before and 5 days after a PMI of 24 h. Milk was analyzed for SCC, PMN, fat, protein and lactose, and at some occasions also casein and free fatty acids (FFA). Results During the PMI the proportion of milk PMN increased sharply in spite of marginally increased SCC. The peak SCC was not observed until the second milking after the PMI, in the afternoon day 1. However, the peak SCC value in morning milk did not occur until one day later, concomitantly with a decrease in the proportion of PMN. After declining, SCC still remained elevated while PMN proportion was decreased throughout the study as was also the milk yield, after the first accumulation of milk during the PMI. Milk composition was changed the day after the PMI, (increased fat and protein content; decreased lactose, whey protein and FFA content) but the changes in the following days were not consistent except for lactose that remained decreased the rest of the study. Conclusion The PMI resulted in increased SCC and proportion of PMN. Additionally, it gave rise to minor alterations in the milk composition in the following milkings but no adverse effect on milk quality was observed. The recruitment of PMN, which was further enhanced the first day after the PMI, appeared to be independent of milk volume or accumulation of milk per se. Hence, we suggest that there is a special immunophysiological/chemoattractant background to the increased migration of leukocytes into the milk compartment observed during and after the PMI. PMID:19146680

  3. Simultaneous measurement of phagocytosis and respiratory burst of leukocytes in whole blood from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) utilizing flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Keogh, M J; Spoon, T; Ridgway, S H; Jensen, E; Van Bonn, W; Romano, T A

    2011-12-15

    Phagocytic and respiratory burst activity was simultaneously measured by flow cytometry in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes in whole blood from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Blood was collected from 16 adult dolphins, 12 males (6-34 years of age) and 4 females (11-30 years) and subsequently incubated with a bacteria-to-leukocyte ratio of 25:1 and 10 ?l of 500 ?M 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate for 70 min at 37C. PMN (44.5 3.2%) and monocytes (33.5 3.0%) were positive for propidium iodide-labeled Staphylococcus aureus, indicating phagocytosis. Respiratory burst activity after 70 min as measured by the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was 68.0 14.4 in PMN and 47.0 10.3 in monocytes. There were no significant differences in MFI or percentage of phagocytizing PMN (p > 0.094) or monocytes (p > 0.275) after storage at 4C for 24h when compared to activity measured in fresh blood. Nor was there an effect of storage on respiratory burst activity (MFI or percentage) in PMN (p > 0.420) or monocytes (p > 0.301). This assay may be particularly useful to assess the ability of dolphins to effectively combat bacterial pathogen challenges with minimal amounts of blood. PMID:21930305

  4. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion'' dated September 2012. The guidance document provides blood establishments with recommendations for pre-storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood and blood components intended for......

  5. Relationship between zinc malnutrition and alterations in murine peripheral blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.E.; Morford, L.A.; Fraker, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Studies using a murine model have shown that the immune system responds rapidly and adversely to zinc deficiency. The extent of alteration of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and immunoglobulin levels were investigated in four zinc dietary groups: zinc adequate (ZA); restricted fed zinc adequate (RZA); marginal zinc deficient (MZD, 72-76% of ZA mouse weight); and severely zinc deficient. The peripheral white blood cell count was 3.66 {plus minus} 1.08 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/ml for ZA mice decreasing by 21%, 28% and 54% for RZA, MZD and SZD mice respectively. An equally dramatic change in the flow cytometric light scatter profile was found. ZA mice had 66% lymphocytes and 21% polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in their peripheral blood while MZD and SZD mice contained 43% and 30% lymphocytes and 40% and 60% PMNs respectively. Analysis of the phenotypic distribution of specific classes of lymphocytes revealed ZA blood contained 25% B-cells and 40% T-cells (CD5{sup +}). B-cells decreased 40-50% for RZA and MZD mice and 60-70% for SZD mice. The decline in CD5{sup +} T-cells was more modest at 30% and 45% for MZD and SZD mice. A nearly 40% decline in both T{sub h} and T{sub c/s} cells was noted for both MZD and SZD mice. Radioimmunoassay of serum for changes in IgM and IgG content revealed no change among dietary groups while serum zinc decreased 10% for RZA mice and 50% for both MZD and SZD mice. The authors conclude that peripheral blood differential counts in concert with total B and T-cell phenotype may serve as indicators of zinc status while serum zinc and Ig will not.

  6. CD44 ligation on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells induces interleukin-6 production.

    PubMed

    Sconocchia, G; Campagnano, L; Adorno, D; Iacona, A; Cococcetta, N Y; Boffo, V; Amadori, S; Casciani, C U

    2001-06-01

    Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) contribute to the initiation and progression of the immune response by mediating cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion. Because CD44 serves as a cytotoxic-triggering molecule on PMNs, it was hypothesized that it could also trigger cytokine production. In this study, the effect of anti-CD44 antibodies on interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in human PMNs was assessed. By using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, it was shown that PMNs stimulated with a mouse monoclonal or a rabbit polyclonal F(ab)(2) anti-CD44 transcribe IL-6 messenger RNA. A similar effect was obtained when an anti-CD44 antibody was replaced with hyaluronic acid (HA). Kinetic studies showed that anti-CD44 and HA induced IL-6 gene transcription, initiated 3 hours after stimulation, peaked between 12 and 24 hours, and disappeared after 48 hours. Analogous results were achieved when secreted IL-6 protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the PMN culture supernatants. To characterize which metabolic pathways regulated CD44-dependent IL-6 production in PMNs, an RNA polymerase inhibitor, actinomycin D, and 2 protein kinase inhibitors, such as genistein and staurosporine, were tested. Actinomycin D and genistein blocked IL-6 production, whereas staurosporine did not, suggesting that CD44-dependent IL-6 production requires gene transcription and tyrosine kinase activity. Furthermore, the relationship between CD44 and cytokines that affect PMN function, including interferon gamma (IFNgamma) and IL-2, was investigated. Without CD44 cross-linking, IFNgamma did not trigger IL-6 production. However, on CD44 cross-linking, IFNgamma produced a strong synergistic effect on IL-6 syntheses in human PMNs. (Blood. 2001;97:3621-3627) PMID:11369659

  7. Association of leukocyte telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with endometrial cancer risk in Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhui; Zhang, Liren; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of each chromosome and play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. Interindividual variation of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risks of developing many human diseases including several cancers. The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometrial cancer risk is still inconsistent. Using a case-control study of endometrial cancer patients (n = 139) and control subjects (n = 139) in a Caucasian population, we assessed the association of relative LTL with the risk of endometrial cancer. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. We also determined the joint effects of LTL with established risk factors of endometrial cancer. The normalized LTL was significantly longer in endometrial cancer cases (median, 0.93; range, 0.19-1.62) than in controls (median, 0.70; range, 0.03-2.14) (P < 0.001). When individuals were dichotomized into long and short groups based on the median LTL value in the controls, individuals with long LTL had a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (adjusted OR, 3.84; 95%CI, 2.16-6.85; P < 0.001) compared to those with short LTL. When individuals were categorized into three groups or four groups according to tertile or quartile LTL value in the controls, there was a significant dose-response association between LTL and the risk of endometrial cancer (P < 0.001). Joint effects between LTL and smoking status, body mass index and a history of hypertension or diabetes in elevating endometrial cancer risk were observed. Long telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:26385889

  8. Role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and oxygen-derived free radicals in chronic gastric lesion induced by acetic acid in rat.

    PubMed

    Motilva, V; Martn, M J; Luque, M I; Alarcn de la Lastra, C

    1996-04-01

    This study examined the role of oxygen-derived free radicals, the potential involvement of neutrophils and the possible mucosal vascular permeability changes involved in the pathogenesis and evolution of gastric mucosal lesions induced by acetic acid in the rat. Myeloperoxidase activity was assayed and used as an index of leukocyte infiltration. Application of acetic acid produced a significant increase in this activity 7 and 14 days after induction of chronic injury. Administration of hydroxyurea intraperitoneally was associated with a decrease in the severity of chronic ulceration and neutrophil infiltration into the gastric lesion. This effect was detectable enzymatically and microscopically. Orally administered allopurinol did not produce any beneficial effects on either the macroscopic and histological appearance or on vascular permeability. These results suggest that oxygen-derived free radicals may contribute to the formation and development of chronic lesions and that oxygen-derived free radicals were generated from neutrophils, but not from the xanthine oxidase pathway. These inflammatory cells may, therefore, have a lesive role in the origin and course of acetic acid ulcer disease. PMID:8723542

  9. Protein nitration in cutaneous inflammation in the rat: essential role of inducible nitric oxide synthase and polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Greenacre, S A B; Rocha, F A C; Rawlingson, A; Meinerikandathevan, S; Poston, R N; Ruiz, E; Halliwell, B; Brain, S D

    2002-01-01

    We have examined the relationship between neutrophil accumulation, NO production and nitrated protein levels in zymosan-mediated inflammation in rat skin in vivo. Rats were anaesthetized and cutaneous inflammation was induced by zymosan (injected intradermally, i.d.). Experiments were carried out up to 48 h, in recovery procedures as appropriate. Assays for neutrophil accumulation (measurement of myeloperoxidase), nitric oxide (assessment of NO2?/NO3?) and nitrated proteins (detected by ELISA and Western blot) were performed in skin extracts. The results demonstrate a close temporal relationship between these parameters. Samples were assayed at 1, 4, 8, 24 and 48 h after i.d. injection of zymosan. The highest levels measured of each parameter (P<0.001 compared with vehicle) were found at 48 h, with a reduction towards basal levels by 24 h. Selective depletion of circulating neutrophils with anti-neutrophil antibody abolished neutrophil accumulation and protein nitration. In addition substantially decreased NO levels were found. A selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, N-3-aminomethyl-benzyl-acetamidine-dihydrochloride (1400W) also significantly reduced neutrophil levels and NO production and substantially inhibited protein nitration. We conclude that the neutrophil leukocyte plays an essential role in the formation of iNOS-derived NO and nitrated proteins in inflammation, in a time-dependent and reversible manner. The NO-derived iNOS also has a role in stimulating further neutrophil accumulation into skin. This suggests a close mechanistic coupling between neutrophils, NO production and protein nitration. PMID:12145098

  10. Activation of the respiratory burst enzyme in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by chemoattractants and other soluble stimuli. Evidence that the same oxidase is activated by different transductional mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    McPhail, L C; Snyderman, R

    1983-01-01

    Chemoattractant-receptor coupling triggers several biologic responses in phagocytic cells including activation of the respiratory burst. Prior evidence in intact cells implied that stimulation of the respiratory burst by chemoattractants was by a mechanism different from other soluble agents suggesting the possibility that different oxidative enzymes were responsible. We now show that the chemoattractants N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and a split fragment of the fifth component of complement (C5a) stimulate an NADPH oxidase activity, measured in the 50,000-g particulate fraction from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Levels of oxidase activity stimulated by the chemoattractants were both time and dose dependent and required the presence of cytochalasin B during stimulation. In contrast, activation by two nonchemotactic stimuli, the ionophore A23187 and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), did not require cytochalasin B. Temporal patterns of oxidase activation suggested that different stimuli follow different transductional pathways. Chemoattractant-mediated activation was immediate (no lag); peaked by 45 s and declined rapidly to approximately 50% of maximal by 2 min. In contrast, activation by A23187 or PMA had a 15-30-s lag and increased more slowly. Stimulation by A23187 peaked at 5 min, then declined. Stimulation by PMA plateaued at 20 min and did not decline by 90 min. Comparison of Km values for NADPH and NADH obtained by Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the oxidase activity stimulated by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, A23187, and PMA suggested that the same enzyme was activated by all stimuli. Thus, chemoattractants and other soluble stimuli appear to activate the same respiratory burst enzyme in PMN but they utilize different transductional mechanisms and are regulated differently. PMID:6409928

  11. Derivative of wheat germ agglutinin specifically inhibits formyl-peptide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by blocking re-expression (or recycling) of receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, H.D.; Elfman, F.; Lobo, E.; Sklar, L.; Chenoweth, D.; Hooper, C.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanism of action of a derivative of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-D) which specifically and irreversibly inhibits N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis was examined. At a concentration that completely inhibited PMN chemotaxis, WGA-D had no effect on either the uptake or release of (/sup 3/H)-FMLP by PMN. Similarly, WGA-D did not affect either the short-term binding to, or internalization by, PMN of a fluoresceinated FMLP analog. WGA-D did interfere, however, with the re-expression (or recycling) of FMLP receptors by PMN that had been preincubated with 1 ..mu..M FMLP for 10 min at 4/sup 0/C. This effect was specific for WGA-D, because it was not observed when concanavalin A was used. Scatchard plot analysis of FMLP binding to PMN after receptor re-expression demonstrated that WGA-D-treated PMN had a significant diminution in the number of high affinity receptors. WGA-D-mediated inhibition of FMLP receptor re-expression was associated with inhibition of FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis, but had no effect on either FMLP-induced PMN superoxide anion generation or degranulation. Studies using (/sup 12/%I)-WGA-D demonstrated that PMN did not internalize WGA-D spontaneously. The data indicate that WGA-D perhaps by binding to the FMLP receptor, inhibits FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis by blocking the re-expression (or recycling) of a population of receptors required for continuous migration.

  12. Thyroid hormone regulation of cell migration and oxidative metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: clinical evidence in thyroidectomized subjects on thyroxine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Marino, Franca; Guasti, Luigina; Cosentino, Marco; De Piazza, Davide; Simoni, Cinzia; Piantanida, Eliana; Cimpanelli, Mariagrazia; Klersy, Catherine; Bartalena, Luigi; Venco, Achille; Lecchini, Sergio

    2006-02-01

    Migration and superoxide anion (O2-) generation were studied in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from 14 athyreotic patients, previously treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and from age- and sex-matched euthyroid healthy controls. Patients were studied twice: in hypothyroidism (visit 1) and after TSH-suppressive L-T4 replacement therapy (visit 2). Random migration and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) 0.1-microM induced chemotaxis were similar in cells from patients at both visit 1 and visit 2 and from healthy controls. On the contrary, resting O2- generation in cells from patients was significantly lower than control values, both at visit 1 and 2. At visit 1, fMLP 0.1 muM-induced O2- generation was significantly lower than control values, while phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA) 100-ng/ml induced O2- generation was similar in cells from patients and from controls. At visit 2 both responses increased, resulting in fMLP-induced O2- generation superimposable to control values and PMA-induced O2- generation significantly higher with respect to both visit 1 and cells from controls. In vitro exposure of PMNs from healthy subjects to L-T4 did not affect O2- generation in resting cells, and significantly increased that induced by fMLP or PMA only at high, supra-physiological concentrations. Neither TSH nor T3 had significant effects at any of the concentrations tested. The present results document the existence of a correlation between thyroid status and oxidative metabolism of human PMNs, which is however unlikely to depend upon a direct action of thyroid hormones on these cells. PMID:16154598

  13. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 Delivered by Outer Membrane Vesicles of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Attenuates Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Antimicrobial Activity and Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jon M.; Carvalho, Humberto M.; Rasmussen, Susan B.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2006-01-01

    Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1), a toxin produced by many strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), constitutively activates small GTPases of the Rho family by deamidating a single amino acid within these target proteins. Such activated GTPases not only stimulate actin polymerization within affected cells but also, as we previously reported, decrease membrane fluidity on mouse polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In that same investigation we found that this diminished membrane movement impedes the clustering of the complement receptor CD11b/CD18 on PMNs and, in turn, decreases PMN phagocytic capacity and microbicidal activity on PMNs in direct contact with CNF1-expressing UPEC as well as on those in proximity to wild-type UPEC. The latter observation suggested to us that CNF1 is released from neighboring bacteria, although at the time of initiation of the study described here, no specific mechanism for export of CNF1 from UPEC had been described. Here we present evidence that CNF1 is released from the CNF1-expressing UPEC strain CP9 (serotype O4/H5/K54) in a complex with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and that these CNF1-bearing vesicles transfer biologically active CNF1 to PMNs and attenuate phagocyte function. Furthermore, we show that CNF1-bearing vesicles act in a dose-dependent fashion on PMNs to inhibit their chemotactic response to formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, while purified CNF1 does not. We conclude that OMVs provide a means for delivery of CNF1 from a UPEC strain to PMNs and thus negatively affect the efficacy of the acute inflammatory response to these organisms. PMID:16861625

  14. Mannose-inhibitable adhesins and T3-T7 receptors of Klebsiella pneumoniae inhibit phagocytosis and intracellular killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Pruzzo, C; Debbia, E; Satta, G

    1982-01-01

    It has recently been shown that Klebsiella pneumoniae strains adhere to human epithelial cells and that adherence is mediated by mannose-inhibitable adhesins which are also receptors for coliphages T3 and T7. We have now found that Klebsiella strain K59, which adheres to human epithelial cells and carries the receptors for coliphages T3 and T7, adheres to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) at 4 degrees C. Strains KRTT1 and KRTT2, which are spontaneous mutants unable to adsorb coliphages T3 and T7 and adhere to human epithelial cells, at this temperature did not adhere to PMN. Adherence of K59 cells to PMN at 4 degrees C was inhibited by D-mannose, by UV-inactivated T7 phages, and by pepsin-digested anti-K59 antibodies absorbed with KRTT1 cells. At 37 degrees C the number of PMN with KRTT bacteria associated was fourfold higher than at 4 degrees C. On the contrary, the number of PMN with K59 bacteria associated at this temperature was fourfold lower than at 4 degrees C. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing experiments performed at 37 degrees C showed that KRTT1 and KRTT2 were phagocytized and killed at a higher rate than K59. After blocking of the mannose-inhibitable adhesins and T3-T7 receptors (MIAT) by D-mannose, UV-inactivated bacteriophage T7, or specific antibodies, K59 cells became more sensitive to phagocytosis and intracellular killing at 37 degrees C. K59 cells lysogenic for prophage AP3 were approximately as sensitive to phagocytosis and intracellular killing by human PMN as strains KRTT1 and KRTT2. Unencapsulated Klebsiella strains isolated from clinical specimens were found to carry MIAT most often. Four such strains were found much more resistant to phagocytosis and intracellular killing than their spontaneous mutants resistant to bacteriophages T3 and T7. PMID:7047402

  15. Contact activation of C3 enables tethering between activated platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes via CD11b/CD18

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Osama A.; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Fromell, Karin; Kozarcanin, Huda; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.; Ekdahl, Kristina N.; Nilsson, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Complement component C3 has a potential role in thrombotic pathologies. It is transformed, without proteolytic cleavage, into C3(H2O) upon binding to the surface of activated platelets. We hypothesise that C3(H2O) bound to activated platelets and to platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) contributes to platelet-PMN complex (PPC) formation and to the binding of PMPs to PMNs. PAR-1 activation of platelets in human whole blood from normal individuals induced the formation of CD16+/CD42a+ PPC. The complement inhibitor compstatin and a C5a receptor antagonist inhibited PPC formation by 50 %, while monoclonal antibodies to C3(H2O) or anti-CD11b inhibited PPC formation by 75–100 %. Using plasma protein-depleted blood and blood from a C3-deficient patient, we corroborated the dependence on C3, obtaining similar results after reconstitution with purified C3. By analogy with platelets, PMPs isolated from human serum were found to expose C3(H2O) and bind to PMNs. This interaction was also blocked by the anti-C3(H2O) and anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies, indicating that C3(H2O) and CD11b are involved in tethering PMPs to PMNs. We confirmed the direct interaction between C3(H2O) and CD11b by quartz crystal microbalance analysis using purified native C3 and recombinant CD11b/CD18 and by flow cytometry using PMP and recombinant CD11b. Transfectants expressing CD11b/CD18 were also shown to specifically adhere to surface-bound C3(H2O). We have identified contact-activated C3(H2O) as a novel ligand for CD11b/CD18 that mediates PPC formation and the binding of PMPs to PMNs. Given the various roles of C3 in thrombotic reactions, this finding is likely to have important pathophysiological implications. PMID:26293614

  16. Contact activation of C3 enables tethering between activated platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes via CD11b/CD18.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Osama A; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Fromell, Karin; Kozarcanin, Huda; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Nilsson, Bo

    2015-11-25

    Complement component C3 has a potential role in thrombotic pathologies. It is transformed, without proteolytic cleavage, into C3(H2O) upon binding to the surface of activated platelets. We hypothesise that C3(H2O) bound to activated platelets and to platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) contributes to platelet-PMN complex (PPC) formation and to the binding of PMPs to PMNs. PAR-1 activation of platelets in human whole blood from normal individuals induced the formation of CD16+/CD42a+ PPC. The complement inhibitor compstatin and a C5a receptor antagonist inhibited PPC formation by 50?%, while monoclonal antibodies to C3(H2O) or anti-CD11b inhibited PPC formation by 75-100?%. Using plasma protein-depleted blood and blood from a C3-deficient patient, we corroborated the dependence on C3, obtaining similar results after reconstitution with purified C3. By analogy with platelets, PMPs isolated from human serum were found to expose C3(H2O) and bind to PMNs. This interaction was also blocked by the anti-C3(H2O) and anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies, indicating that C3(H2O) and CD11b are involved in tethering PMPs to PMNs. We confirmed the direct interaction between C3(H2O) and CD11b by quartz crystal microbalance analysis using purified native C3 and recombinant CD11b/CD18 and by flow cytometry using PMP and recombinant CD11b. Transfectants expressing CD11b/CD18 were also shown to specifically adhere to surface-bound C3(H2O). We have identified contact-activated C3(H2O) as a novel ligand for CD11b/CD18 that mediates PPC formation and the binding of PMPs to PMNs. Given the various roles of C3 in thrombotic reactions, this finding is likely to have important pathophysiological implications. PMID:26293614

  17. Modified Leukocyte Filter Removes Tumor Cells from the Salvaged Blood

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Fengjiang; Gong, Lina; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Tang, Yumin; Jiang, Chunling; Liu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Intraoperative blood salvage, an effective blood conservation strategy, has not been applied in onco-surgery, because of potential malignant cell contamination. In this study we tested effectiveness of a modified leukocyte depletion filter (M-LDF) for removal of tumor cells. Materials and Methods The effects of M-LDF and regular LDF on removal of cells (HepG2 cell line) were compared. The safety of M-LDF was tested with blood (collected and washed during onco-surgery), the salvaged blood mixed with tumor cells from the solid tumor of the same patient, or mixed with HepG2 cells (n=30 in each protocol). Cancer cells were identified by flow cytometry, culture and bioassay with and without filtration. Results M-LDF removed 5-log of HepG2 and nucleated cells, which was much higher than regular LDF, and cells were destroyed when they passed through M-LDF. Cytokeratin-positive cells in all samples were removed by M-LDF. Invasive growth adherent cells were found in most of unfiltered samples and 67% of the inoculated nude mice developed tumors in LDF-treated sample. Neither adherent cells nor nude mice developed tumors were found in M-LDF-treated samples. Discussion and Conclusion Since M-LDF can effectively remove and destroy cancer cells in the salvaged blood, it has great potential for clinical application. PMID:26098626

  18. Severe microvascular injury induced by lysosomal releasates of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Increase in vasopermeability, hemorrhage, and microthrombosis due to degradation of subendothelial and perivascular matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Movat, H. Z.; Wasi, S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the lesions in the microcirculation of the dermis of rabbits induced with lysosomal releasates of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). No attempt was made in the studies presented in this publication to deal with the offending agent in the releasate. Four parameters of microvascular injury were quantitated: increase in vascular permeability with 125I-labeled serum albumin, hemorrhage with 59Fe-labeled erythrocytes, accumulation (aggregation) of platelets with 111In-labeled platelets. In one experiment accumulation of 51Cr-PMNs was investigated. The lysosomal releasate induced a rapid increase in vasopermeability, but both hemorrhage and exudate formation peaked 1 hour after intradermal injection. Platelet accumulation was also demonstrable in these lesions, and microthrombosis was a very prominent feature. The microvascular injury, including microthrombosis, could be elicited also in animals rendered leukopenic with nitrogen mustard. Simultaneous injection of prostaglandin E2 with the releasate enhanced the microvascular injury. The morphologic changes in the microcirculation of the rabbit's dermis were assessed in lesions 5 minutes to 5 hours old. Several changes were encountered, primarily in the wall of venules and small veins and to a lesser degree in small arteries and capillaries. Ultrastructurally very early lesions (up to 15 minutes) had gaps or spaces in the endothelium, resembling those induced by mediators such as histamine or bradykinin. Older lesions were different, quite characteristic, and represent the hallmark of these lesions. Lysis and disappearance of vascular basement membrane, of perivascular collagen, and of the internal elastic lamina were a frequent finding, best demonstrable when microthrombi did not abut on vessel walls. Cellular components of vessels (endothelium, pericytes, smooth muscle) showed fragmentation, leading to complete disappearance of cellular elements. These lesions were usually walled off by platelet aggregates and fibrin. At times microthrombi occluded an entire vessel. These changes were interpreted as hemostasis. The mild accumulation of PMNs at the site of injury did not contribute significantly to the microvascular injury. The findings indicate that the unique changes in the microcirculation, not described before, may occur quite frequently, when the microvascular injury is elicited primarily by release of lysosomal constituents by phagocytic or nonphagocytic stimuli. One can conclude that the hallmark of this type of injury is disappearance of basement membrane followed secondarily by disintegration of the vascular wall, followed in turn by hemo Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:3907363

  19. Sensitivity of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes to visible light.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, L M; Polack, E; Nahmod, V E; Glikin, G C

    1995-01-01

    Overnight light exposure of cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes [PBML], significantly increased basal [3H]thymidine incorporation and upon stimulation with phytohemagglutinin [PHA]. Melatonin (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) enhanced the light-induced increase of [3H]thymidine incorporation, while serotonin (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation in the dark. The wavelengths responsible of this effect were restricted to the blue-green zone of the spectrum. The stimulatory effect of visible light on PHA-induced DNA replication had a circannual rhythm, being maximal during winter. In winter, white light also reduced melatonin and serotonin binding to PBML membranes and switched the PBML indole metabolism towards serotonin and 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid [HIAA] synthesis, with a concomitant decrease of melatonin production. PMID:7658917

  20. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood leukocytes by laser scanning cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, A; Laffers, W; Bootz, F; Tárnok, A

    2000-12-01

    Many clinical situations demand repeated analyses of blood parameters but permit only minimal amounts of peripheral blood to be taken, e.g., in neonates with low birth weight, during extensive operations of young children, or in patients with restricted bone marrow function. In these cases laser scanning cytometry is the ideal tool to determine the distribution of different leukocyte-subsets. The purpose of this protocol is to describe stepwise a new method of immunophenotyping by laser scanning cytometry. In this assay nuclear DNA is stained by 7-aminoactinomycin-D (7-AAD) and surface antigens are detected by direct three-colour immunofluorescence. For data acquisition, measurements are triggered on the 7-AAD-fluorescence. Data are obtained for forward scatter, green, orange, and long red fluorescence by excitation with the argon-laser, and for far red fluorescence by excitation with the helium-neon-laser. Using this protocol the amount of peripheral blood needed is minimised to 10 microl. Specimens can be stained a second time in a different way and analysed repeatedly and archived. PMID:11121558

  1. Goat cathelicidin-2 is secreted by blood leukocytes regardless of lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    PubMed

    Srisaikham, Supreena; Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    It has been reported that goat cathelicidin-2, an antimicrobial peptide, localizes in leukocytes and is present in milk. Here, we examined whether cathelicidin-2 is secreted by leukocytes. Different concentrations (10(5) -10(8) cells/mL) of blood leukocytes were cultured for 0-48?h with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After culture, the concentrations of cathelicidin-2 in the conditioned media were measured. Blood was collected from male goats 0-24?h after the intravenous injection of Escherichia coli O111:B4 LPS. The plasma cathelicidin-2 concentrations were determined and the blood leukocytes immunostained with anti-cathelicidin-2 antibody to calculate the proportion of cathelicidin-2-positive cells in the total leukocytes. When higher concentrations of leukocytes were cultured, the cathelicidin-2 concentrations in the media increased significantly, whereas the addition of LPS to the media caused no further increase. The plasma cathelicidin-2 concentrations did not increase with time after LPS infusion. The proportion of cathelicidin-2-positive cells in the total leukocytes was significantly reduced 1?h after LPS injection compared with that at 0?h, but increased again at 6?h and thereafter. These results suggest that cathlicidin-2 is secreted by leukocytes even without LPS stimulation, whereas LPS may be required for cathelicidin-2-containing leukocytes to be recruited from the blood to tissues showing inflammation. PMID:26212721

  2. Seasonal variation of peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica: a population based observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length is increasingly being used as a biomarker of aging, but its natural variation in human populations is not well understood. Several other biomarkers show seasonal variation, as do several determinants of leukocyte telomere length. We examined whether there was monthly variation in leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica, a country with strong seasonal differences in precipitation and infection. Methods We examined a longitudinal population based cohort of 581 Costa Rican adults age 60 and above, from which blood samples were drawn between October 2006 and July 2008. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from these samples using the quantitative PCR method. Multivariate regression models were used to examine correlations between month of blood draw and leukocyte telomere length. Results Telomere length from peripheral blood leukocytes varied by as much as 200 base pairs depending on month of blood draw, and this difference is not likely to be due to random variation. A moderate proportion of this association is statistically accounted for by month and region specific average rainfall. We found shorter telomere length associated with greater rainfall. Conclusions There are two possible explanations of our findings. First, there could be relatively rapid month-to-month changes in leukocyte telomere length. This conclusion would have implications for understanding the natural population dynamics of telomere length. Second, there could be seasonal differences in constituent cell populations. This conclusion would suggest that future studies of leukocyte telomere length use methods to account for the potential impact of constituent cell type. PMID:24615938

  3. Biomimetic autoseparation of leukocytes from whole blood in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Munn, Lance L; Bitensky, Mark W

    2005-02-01

    Leukocytes comprise less than 1% of all blood cells. Enrichment of their number, starting from a sample of whole blood, is the required first step of many clinical and basic research assays. We created a microfluidic device that takes advantage of the intrinsic features of blood flow in the microcirculation, such as plasma skimming and leukocyte margination, to separate leukocytes directly from whole blood. It consists of a simple network of rectangular microchannels designed to enhance lateral migration of leukocytes and their subsequent extraction from the erythrocyte-depleted region near the sidewalls. A single pass through the device produces a 34-fold enrichment of the leukocyte-to-erythrocyte ratio. It operates on microliter samples of whole blood, provides positive, continuous flow selection of leukocytes, and requires neither preliminary labeling of cells nor input of energy (except for a small pressure gradient to support the flow of blood). This effortless, efficient, and inexpensive technology can be used as a lab-on-a-chip component for initial whole blood sample preparation. Its integration into microanalytical devices that require leukocyte enrichment will enable accelerated transition of these devices into the field for point-of-care clinical testing. PMID:15679363

  4. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P; Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N; Matyunin, S N; Nazarov, M M; Cherkasova, O P

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 μW cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  5. Phytohemagglutinin enhancement of dengue-2 virus replication in nonimmune rhesus monkey peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Marchette, N J; Halstead, S B

    1978-01-01

    Phytohemagglutinin treatment of peripheral blood leukocytes from dengue nonimmune monkeys enhanced dengue-2 virus replication. Enhancement was due primarily to an increase in the number of infected cells. Destruction of mononuclear phagocytes with silica did not significantly inhibit virus replication in phytohemagglutinin-treated cultures. Pokeweed mitogen, concanavalin A, and streptolysin O stimulated increased deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis in monkey leukocytes but did not enhance virus replication. None of the mitogens significantly affected virus replication in cultures of dengue-immune monkey peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:203535

  6. Leukocytes are primed in peripheral blood for activation during term and preterm labour.

    PubMed

    Yuan, M; Jordan, F; McInnes, I B; Harnett, M M; Norman, J E

    2009-11-01

    We hypothesized that the priming and activation of maternal leukocytes in peripheral blood is a key component of parturition, and that inappropriate preterm priming of leukocytes might initiate preterm labour and delivery. The purpose of this study was to characterize peripheral blood leukocyte activation during human term and preterm labour. We obtained blood samples from pregnant women at term and preterm, both in labour and not in labour. Leukocytes were characterized according to cell subtype and cell surface marker expression. Additionally, we quantified leukocyte cytokine mRNA production, migratory ability and reactive oxygen species production of neutrophils and macrophages. We found that both term and preterm labour were associated with an increase in monocyte and neutrophil proportion or number-neutrophil migratory ability and cell surface marker expression indicating activation. Messenger RNA expression of IL-1beta and IL-8, MCP-1 and TLR-2 was also increased. We conclude that leukocytes in peripheral blood are primed in preparation for activation during term and preterm labour, and that this may contribute to the pathophysiological events of parturition. These data may lead to novel therapies and diagnostic tools for the prevention and/or diagnosis of preterm birth. PMID:19628509

  7. Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

    1984-11-01

    To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.

  8. Genotoxic effect of ozone in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Daz-Llera, Silvia; Gonzlez-Hernndez, Yanela; Prieto-Gonzlez, E A; Azoy, Angel

    2002-05-27

    The genotoxic effect of ozone was studied in human leukocytes in vitro, using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. Cell treatment for 1 h at 37 degrees C with 0.9-5.3 mM O(3) resulted in a dose-dependent increase of DNA damage, comparable to that induced by 4-40 mM of H(2)O(2), used as a positive control. This effect of ozone was reversed by post-treatment incubation of the cells for 45-90 min at 37 degrees C, and prevented by pre-incubation of the cells with catalase (20 microg/ml). These results demonstrate that O(3) induces DNA-damage in primary human leukocytes. The damage is rapidly repaired, and probably mediated by the formation of H(2)O(2). PMID:12034304

  9. Report: Nuclei segmentation of leukocytes in blood smear digital images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naveed; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    The Leukocytes are differentiated from each other on the basis of their nuclei, demanded in many Medical studies, especially in all types of Leukemia by the Hematologists to note the disorder caused by specific type of Leukocyte. Leukemia is a life threatening disease. The work for diagnosing is manually carried out by the Hematologists involving much labor, time and human errors. The problems mentioned are easily addressed through computer vision techniques, but still accuracy and efficiency are demanded in terms of the basic and challenging step segmentation of Leukocyte's nuclei. The underlying study proposed better method in terms of accuracy and efficiency by designing a dynamic convolution filter for boosting low intensity values in the separated green channel of an RGB image and suppressing the high values in the same channel. The high values in the green channel become 255 (background) while the nuclei always have low values in the green channel and thus clearly appear as foreground. The proposed technique is tested on 365 images achieving an overall accuracy of 95.89%, while improving the efficiency by 10%. The proposed technique achieved its targets in a realistic way by improving the accuracy as well as the efficiency and both are highly required in the area. PMID:26408877

  10. Flow cytometric detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in peripheral blood leukocytes of persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Qvist, P; Aasted, B; Bloch, B; Meyling, A; Rnsholt, L; Houe, H

    1990-01-01

    Flow cytometry was investigated for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of persistently infected cattle. The mononuclear leukocytes were purified by sedimentation in a gradient of Ficoll-Paque, fixed, permeabilized, and then labelled by indirect immunofluorescence using biotinylated immunoglobulins from a porcine antiserum to BVDV. Flow cytometric analysis of blood samples obtained from persistently infected cattle revealed virus in 3.0-21.0% (mean +/- SD, 11.2% +/- 6.4%) of the mononuclear leukocytes. Fluorescent cells were not observed in controls. Flow cytometric detection of BVDV in blood cells of persistently infected bovines is a rapid and objective technique which does not require cell culture facilities. PMID:2174298

  11. Leukocyte-adjusted epigenome-wide association studies of blood from solid tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Scott M; Houseman, E Andres; Accomando, William P; Koestler, Devin C; Christensen, Brock C; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R; Marsit, Carmen J; Wiencke, John K; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Epigenome-wide studies of DNA methylation using blood-derived DNA from cancer patients are complicated by the heterogeneity of cell types within blood and the associated cell lineage specification of DNA methylation signatures. Here, we applied a novel set of analytic approaches to assess the association between cancer case-status and DNA methylation adjusted for leukocyte variation using blood specimens from three case-control cancer studies (bladder: 223 cases, 205 controls; head and neck: 92 cases, 92 controls; and ovarian: 131 cases, 274 controls). Using previously published data on leukocyte-specific CpG loci and a recently described approach to deconvolute subject-specific blood composition, we performed an epigenome-wide analysis to examine the association between blood-based DNA methylation patterns and each of the three aforementioned solid tumor types adjusted for cellular heterogeneity in blood. After adjusting for leukocyte profile in our epigenome-wide analysis, the omnibus association between case-status and methylation was significant for all three studies (bladder cancer: P = 0.047; HNSCC: P = 0.013; ovarian cancer: P = 0.0002). Subsequent analyses revealed that CpG sites associated with cancer were enriched for transcription factor binding motifs involved with cancer-associated pathways. These results support the existence of cancer-associated DNA methylation profiles in the blood of solid tumor patients that are independent of alterations in normal leukocyte distributions. Adoption of the methods developed here will make it feasible to rigorously assess the influence of variability of normal leukocyte profiles when investigating cancer related changes in blood-based epigenome-wide association studies. PMID:24671036

  12. Characterization of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes by light-scattering flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F I; Williams, T J; el-Awar, F Y; Pang, V F; Hahn, E C

    1987-01-01

    As a basis for other experiments using flow cytometry of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes, cell fractions were isolated by various methods and analyzed by forward angle light scatter and 90 degree light scatter. Cytospin smears of cell samples were also studied by leukocyte differential counts and nonspecific esterase staining. Three main populations of peripheral blood leukocytes [lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (primarily neutrophils)], were defined in the log 90 degree light scatter by forward angle light scatter histogram. Partial overlap was observed between lymphocyte and monocyte, and between monocyte and granulocyte domains. Correlation between leukocyte differential counts and flow cytometric quantification based on bitmap statistics of appropriate domains was between r = 0.872-0.892 for lymphocyte and granulocyte. Percoll density gradients were used for subfractionation of leukocyte populations, especially for the enrichment of granulocytes. The specific densities were calculated for lymphocytes (1.0585-1.0819 g/cc), monocytes (1.0585-1.0702 g/cc), granulocyte (1.0819-1.0936 g/cc), and erythrocytes (greater than 1.0952 g/cc). We suggest that light scatter characterization is a basis for future studies of porcine blood by flow cytometry. PMID:3453262

  13. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  14. Clofazimine-mediated regulation of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration by pro-oxidative inactivation of both leukoattractants and cellular migratory responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R; Lukey, P; Van Rensburg, C; Dippenaar, U

    1986-01-01

    The effects of clofazimine (0.15-20 micrograms/ml) on the spontaneous and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-stimulated migration, membrane-associated oxidative metabolism, degranulation and production of prostaglandin (PG) E2 by human polymorphonuclear in vitro have been investigated. Clofazimine at concentrations of 0.3 microgram/ml and greater significantly increased both the spontaneous and FMLP-stimulated chemiluminescence (CL), hexose monophosphate shunt (HMS) activity, myeloperoxidase-mediated protein iodination, auto-iodination, degranulation and PGE2 production by PMNL. At the same concentrations clofazimine inhibited both random and leukoattractant-induced migration of PMNL. Inhibition of PMNL migration by clofazimine was due to both a cell-directed auto-oxidative mechanism and by functional inactivation of FMLP. Clofazimine mediated inhibition of PMNL migration was prevented by the anti-oxidants cysteine and dapsone but not by the potent inhibitors of PG synthetase indomethacin and piroxicam. Anti-oxidants also protected FMLP from functional inactivation by clofazimine-exposed PMNL. Clofazimine increased both the spontaneous and FMLP-stimulated production of PGE2 by PMNL from four children with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). Clofazimine is not an oxidising agent nor did it stimulate membrane-associated oxidative metabolism in CGD or NaF-pulsed normal PMNL. These data show that clofazimine-mediated inhibition of PMNL migration is dependent on intact cellular membrane-associated oxidative metabolism. Clofazimine is therefore a pro-oxidative anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:3793326

  15. Long Telomeres in Blood Leukocytes Are Associated with a High Risk of Ascending Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Huusko, Tuija J.; Santaniemi, Merja; Kakko, Sakari; Taskinen, Panu; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesäniemi, Y. Antero; Savolainen, Markku J.; Salonurmi, Tuire

    2012-01-01

    Ascending aortic aneurysm is a connective tissue disorder. Even though multiple novel gene mutations have been identified, risk profiling and diagnosis before rupture still represent a challenge. There are studies demonstrating shorter telomere lengths in the blood leukocytes of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients. The aim of this study was to measure whether relative telomere lengths are changed in the blood leukocytes of ascending aortic aneurysm patients. We also studied the expression of telomerase in aortic tissue samples of ascending aortic aneurysms. Relative lengths of leukocyte telomeres were determined from blood samples of patients with ascending aortic aneurysms and compared with healthy controls. Telomerase expression, both at the level of mRNA and protein, was quantified from the aortic tissue samples. Mean relative telomere length was significantly longer in ascending aortic aneurysm blood samples compared with controls (T/S ratio 0.87 vs. 0.61, p<0.001). Expressions of telomerase mRNA and protein were elevated in the aortic aneurysm samples (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Our study reveals a significant difference in the mean length of blood leukocyte telomeres in ascending aortic aneurysm and controls. Furthermore, expression of telomerase, the main compensating factor for telomere loss, is elevated at both the mRNA and protein level in the samples of aneurysmal aorta. Further studies will be needed to confirm if this change in telomere length can serve as a tool for assessing the risk of ascending aortic aneurysm. PMID:23209831

  16. Levosimendan inhibits release of reactive oxygen species in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in patients with acute heart failure and septic shock: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Levosimendan is an extensively investigated inodilator showing also cardioprotective and antiinflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to explore the influence of levosimendan on polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), a main source of reactive oxygen species, in vitro and in patients with acute heart failure or septic myocardial depression. Methods PMN isolated from healthy volunteers were incubated with levosimendan in vitro. After stimulation with N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) respiratory burst was quantified using a fluorescent dye. Apoptosis and expression of cell adhesion molecules of PMN were measured by flow cytometry. For determination of in vivo effects patients with acute heart failure (n = 16) or septic cardiac failure (n = 9) receiving levosimendan treatment were enrolled consecutively. PMN were isolated to measure respiratory burst activity before treatment as well as one and two hours after initiation of levosimendan administration. Furthermore inflammatory, hemodynamic and renal function parameters were obtained. Results In vitro, levosimendan suppressed respiratory burst activity in fMLP or PMA stimulated PMN in a dose dependent manner by 30 11% (P < 0.001) at 100 ng/mL and by 27 17% (P < 0.001) at 1000 ng/mL respectively. Markers of apoptosis and PMN cell adhesion molecule expression remained unaffected by levosimendan treatment. In vivo, levosimendan treatment for two hours resulted in a significant reduction of PMA stimulated oxidative burst by 45% (P < 0.01) and fMLP stimulated oxidative burst by 49% (P < 0.05) in patients with acute heart failure. In patients suffering from septic shock levosimendan treatment decreased oxidative burst activity in unstimulated, fMLP and PMA stimulated PMN by 48% (P < 0.05), 46% (P < 0.01) and 43% (P < 0.01) respectively. Conclusions Levosimendan appears to exert distinct immunomodulatory effects by decreasing oxidative burst activity of PMN. This property might contribute to the previously described cardioprotective effects of the drug. PMID:21749676

  17. EFFECTS OF THE MAMMARY GLAND ON FUNCTIONAL CAPACITIES OF BLOOD MONOCULEAR LEUKOCYTE POPULATIONS FROM PERIPARTURIENT COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition and functional capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte populations from dairy cows are altered substantially during the peripartal period. These changes are associated with a heightened susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. It has been postulated that the met...

  18. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C. )

    1990-10-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count.

  19. Laser-induced priming of human blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichuk, Tatyana V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Strashkevich, I. A.; Klebanov, Gennady I.

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the influence of He-Ne ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm) laser irradiation (LI) on a functional activity of human blood leucocytes. The method of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with the zymosan-activated phagocytes was used. The leucocytes were irradiated without and in the presence of autologic human blood plasma, containing of the endogenous (porphyrins) and/or exogenous (phthalocyanine) photosensitizers. The LI initiated a priming of the leucocytes. Priming revealed itself after the activation of the phagocytes by zymosan. The changes of the calcium concentration in leucocytes cytoplasm were studied too. Fluorimetric method with Fura-2AM was used for this. The laser irradiation initiated the changes of the calcium concentration in the leucocytes cytoplasm. All the investigating parameters depended on the irradiation dose and on the concentration of photosensitizers. The results of this work allowed to formulate the main theses of the free radical mechanism of the low intensive laser irradiation action on human blood leucocytes.

  20. TNFalpha release from peripheral blood leukocytes depends on a CRM1-mediated nuclear export.

    PubMed

    Miskolci, Veronika; Ghosh, Chandra C; Rollins, Janet; Romero, Carlos; Vu, Hai-Yen; Robinson, Staci; Davidson, Dennis; Vancurova, Ivana

    2006-12-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a major role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders such as septic shock and arthritis, respectively. Leukocytes stimulated with inflammatory signals such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the predominant producers of TNFalpha, and thus control of TNFalpha release from stimulated leukocytes represents a potential therapeutic target. Here, we report that leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear protein export, inhibits TNFalpha release from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells. In addition, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and immunoblotting analysis indicate that TNFalpha is localized in the nucleus of human neutrophils and mononuclear cells. This study demonstrates that the cellular release of TNFalpha from stimulated leukocytes is mediated by the CRM1-dependent nuclear export mechanism. Inhibition of CRM1-dependent cellular release of TNFalpha could thus provide a novel therapeutic approach for disorders involving excessive TNFalpha release. PMID:17064665

  1. Altered expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral blood leukocytes in feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2013-10-25

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, coronavirus-induced systemic disease in domestic and wild felids. The pathology associated with FIP (multifocal granulomatous vasculitis) is considered to be elicited by exaggerated activation and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes. As changes in the expression of adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes precede their margination and emigration, we reasoned that the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules may be altered in FIP. In present study, the expression of principal adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte transmigration (CD15s, CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD49d, and CD54) on peripheral blood leukocytes from cats with naturally occurring FIP (n=15) and controls (n=12) was quantified by flow cytometry using a formaldehyde-based rapid leukocyte preparation technique. T- and B-lymphocytes from FIP patients exhibit higher expression of both subunits (CD11a and CD18) composing the ?2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1. In addition, the expression of the ?4 subunit (CD49d) of the ?1 integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 was elevated on B-lymphocytes from FIP patients. The expression of CD11b and CD18, that combine to form the ?2 integrin macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), was elevated on monocytes, whereas the density of CD49d was reduced on this population in FIP. Granulocytes of FIP cats displayed an increased expression of the ? chain of Mac-1 (CD11b). These observations suggest that leukocytes from FIP patients show signs of systemic activation causing them to extravasate into surrounding tissues and ultimately contribute to pyogranuloma formation seen in FIP. PMID:23910523

  2. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts.

    PubMed

    Fay, Meredith E; Myers, David R; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J; Switz, Neil A; Sulchek, Todd A; Graham, Michael D; Lam, Wilbur A

    2016-02-23

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  3. The effect of acupuncture on leukocyte levels in peripheral blood is modified by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Vilchis, José Federico; Barrera-Escorcia, Eduardo; Fregoso-Padilla, Martha

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that acupuncture can modify circulating levels of subpopulations of leukocytes. There have been few investigations on the effect of acupuncture on prostaglandins metabolism. Aspirin is capable of inhibiting the metabolism of prostaglandins and to produce several pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior administration of aspirin could modify the action of acupuncture on levels of circulating leukocytes. Fourteen healthy males (age: 19-23 years) were recruited from a university student population. This study was a placebo-controlled, prospective, cross-over design. Subjects were randomly assigned into A or B groups. Group A received aspirin 500 mg and group B placebo, after 1 week of a washout period, group A received placebo and group B aspirin. Subjects were given acupuncture with manual needling in GV14 (Dazhui) acupoint 2 hr after receiving medication. The needle was stimulated for 10 sec and was kept in place for 5 min. Leukocytes and their subpopulations were quantified in blood samples taken immediately before and 2 hr after acupuncture treatment. In each subject pre-acupuncture values were compared to those post-acupuncture. The results showed that acupuncture significantly increased overall leukocytes (p=0.006) and neutrophils (p<0.001). Aspirin partially inhibited these effects. The data suggest that the effect of acupuncture on leukocytes may be related to levels of prostaglandins. PMID:22128425

  4. Interferon and tumor necrosis factor production by peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, T; Kandefer-Szerszeń, M; Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Rzeszowska, G; Markowska, H; Modrzewska, R

    1996-01-01

    Blood samples from 29 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) in phases of acute disease and convalescence were obtained. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activity was detected in sera of patients both in: acute and convalescence phase, however when IFN titers were higher in the acute than convalescence phase, TNF titers were the highest in convalescence. In the whole blood assay Newcastle disease virus (NDV), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as cytokine inducers. A significant decrease in IFN titer induced in vitro with NDV, PHA and ConA was observed in blood leukocytes of patients in the acute IM phase. In convalescence the ability of blood leukocyte of IM patients to produce IFN returned to normal, comparable with control. However, blood leukocytes of IM patients in the acute phase produced more TNF in response to LPS than in convalescence. The role of the observed overproduction of TNF in the course of IM similar to that in HIV infection should be elucidated. PMID:9017151

  5. [Effects of leukocyte elimination before storage on quality of red blood cell concentration].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Bao; Liu, Jing-Han; Lin, Zi-Lin; Li, Xi-Jin; L, Liu-Cai; Ouyang, Xi-Lin; Huang, Ning

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the possible effects of leukocyte elimination by filteration before storage on the quality of red blood cell concentrations (RCC) that prepared through two procedures. Eight units of red blood cell concentrations derived from whole blood after plasma separated (RCC1) and eight units of red blood cell concentrations derived from whole blood after platelet-rich plasma separated (RCC2) were divided randomly into filtered group and control group respectively. The RCC of filtered group were filtered by leukocyte deplete filter before storage. The control group didn't have any other treatments. These two groups were stored for five weeks at 4 degrees C according to AABB standard. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and plasma concentration of K(+) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), free hemoglobin (FHb), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) of red blood cell of all RCC were evaluated weekly, and bacteria contamination of all RCC was also detected after five weeks of storage. The results showed that there was no difference of MCV, MCH and MCHC and ATP level of red blood cell in all RCC of two groups, the ATP of red blood cell was lower than the control group on week 4 and 5. The average concentration of K(+) of the filtered group was less than the control group. The differences are significant except that of RCC1 stored till the third week. The plasma LDH concentration of filtered group was less than the control group, and the differences were exacerbate during the storing time prolonged. FHb release in the filtered group of RCC2 was significant less than that of control, but no significant difference was found between the two groups of RCC1. It was concluded that leukocyte elimination by filter before storage could be benefit to RCC preservation. PMID:14706153

  6. Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with childhood autism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongchang; Tang, Jinsong; Li, Hong; Chen, Shan; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Wei, Zhen; Wan, Guobin; Xiang, Xi; Xia, Kun; Chen, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are protective chromosomal structures that play a key role in preserving genomic stability. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the abnormal telomere length in leukocytes is associated with some mental disorders and age-related diseases. However, the association between leukocyte telomere length and autism has not been investigated. Here we investigated the possible association between relative telomere length (RTL) in peripheral blood leukocytes and childhood autism by using an established real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We observed significantly shorter RTL in patients with childhood autism than in controls (p = 0.006). Individuals with shorter RTL had a significantly increased presence of childhood autism compared with those who had long RTL. In patients, we found that family training interventions have a significant effect on telomere length (P = 0.012), but no correlations between RTL and clinical features (paternal age, maternal age, age of onset, illness of duration, CARS score and ABC score) were observed in this study. These results provided the first evidence that shorter leukocytes telomere length is significantly associated with childhood autism. The molecular mechanism underlying telomere length may be implicated in the development of autism. PMID:25399515

  7. Reduced Responsiveness of Blood Leukocytes to Lipopolysaccharide Does not Predict Nosocomial Infections in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Scicluna, Brendon P; Belkasim-Bohoudi, Hakima; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Critically ill patients show signs of immune suppression, which is considered to increase vulnerability to nosocomial infections. Whole-blood stimulation is frequently used to test the function of the innate immune system. We here assessed the association between whole-blood leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent occurrence of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). All consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the ICU between April 2012 and June 2013 with two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and an expected length of ICU stay of more than 24 h were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included as controls. Blood was drawn the first morning after ICU admission and stimulated ex vivo with 100 ng/mL ultrapure LPS for 3 h. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were measured in supernatants. Seventy-three critically ill patients were included, of whom 10 developed an ICU-acquired infection. Compared with healthy subjects, whole-blood leukocytes of patients were less responsive to ex vivo stimulation with LPS, as reflected by strongly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in culture supernatants. Results were not different between patients who did and those who did not develop an ICU-acquired infection. The extent of reduced LPS responsiveness of blood leukocytes in critically ill patients on the first day after ICU admission does not relate to the subsequent development of ICU-acquired infections. These results argue against the use of whole-blood stimulation as a functional test applied early after ICU admission to predict nosocomial infection. PMID:25895151

  8. Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

    2001-05-01

    Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

  9. Comparison of photonic and electromagnetic effects on the human leukocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Beard, Richard B.; Feng, D.; Dai, Xiaoyan; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Priezzhev, Alexander V.

    1998-06-01

    The dielectric and magnetic influence on human cells have been widely studied previously by the authors. Recently, the effects of energy in the visible electromagnetic spectrum have been investigated. In this subsequent study, the photonic effects on the in vitro migration of the polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are compared with the corresponding electromagnetic field effects. Dielectric spectra of the polymorph in the 300 KHz to 400 KHz and 700 KHz to 800 KHz range have been measured. At frequencies of 350 KHz and 720 KHz an increase in the migration of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte have been observed. This stimulation was attributed to the charges on the nuclear surface. Recent preliminary data have shown a similar increased migration in the 20 MHz range. Photonic studies have indicated an enhanced migration for the polymorphonuclear leukocytes at a wavelength of 660 nm (red) and an inhibited migration at 565 nm (green). The photonic effects were postulated to be the results of a biochemical interaction rather than a membranous surface charge displacement secondary to an electric field. The migration of the white blood cells were measurement via the Boyden chamber technique and expressed in terms of a cytokinetic index which expresses the cellular movement independent of its environmental concentration gradient.

  10. TNF{alpha} release from peripheral blood leukocytes depends on a CRM1-mediated nuclear export

    SciTech Connect

    Miskolci, Veronika; Ghosh, Chandra C.; Rollins, Janet; Romero, Carlos; Vu, Hai-Yen; Robinson, Staci; Davidson, Dennis; Vancurova, Ivana . E-mail: vancuroi@stjohns.edu

    2006-12-15

    Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a major role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders such as septic shock and arthritis, respectively. Leukocytes stimulated with inflammatory signals such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the predominant producers of TNF{alpha}, and thus control of TNF{alpha} release from stimulated leukocytes represents a potential therapeutic target. Here, we report that leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear protein export, inhibits TNF{alpha} release from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells. In addition, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and immunoblotting analysis indicate that TNF{alpha} is localized in the nucleus of human neutrophils and mononuclear cells. This study demonstrates that the cellular release of TNF{alpha} from stimulated leukocytes is mediated by the CRM1-dependent nuclear export mechanism. Inhibition of CRM1-dependent cellular release of TNF{alpha} could thus provide a novel therapeutic approach for disorders involving excessive TNF{alpha} release.

  11. The influence of carbamazepine on cytokine and superoxide anion production in blood leukocytes of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Dubas-Slemp, Halina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether carbamazepine (CBZ) may influence in vitro cytokine and superoxide anion (O2-) production by blood leukocytes of healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were induced in vitro with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) + lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of CBZ. Cytokine concentration in culture media was measured by ELISA method. The influence of CBZ on resting (not induced) and phorbol ester (PMA)-induced O2- production by neutrophils isolated from the blood of healthy volunteers was also examined. CBZ at 1 microM concentration caused a significant decrease in IL-2, IL-4 and lymphotoxin, but enhanced IL-10 and TGF-beta production. CBZ also stimulated PMA-induced O2- production. In conclusion, the in vitro study revealed that CBZ may exert immunoregulatory activity inhibiting "stimulatory" cytokines, enhancing the production of "inhibitory" ones and enhancing the "oxidative burst" of neutrophils. PMID:16146078

  12. Red blood cells, platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils of patients with sickle cell disease exhibit oxidative stress that can be ameliorated by antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Amer, Johnny; Ghoti, Hussam; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Koren, Ariel; Levin, Carina; Fibach, Eitan

    2006-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is basically a red blood cell (RBC) disorder characterised by sickling and haemolysis, but platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are also involved. Oxidative damage may play a role in the pathogenesis of SCD. Using flow cytometry, we measured oxidative-state markers simultaneously in RBC, platelets and PMN obtained from 25 normal donors, nine homozygous (SS) patients and six SS/beta-thalassaemia patients. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured following staining of blood samples with fluorescence probes and gating on specific subpopulations based on size and granularity. Ten- to 30-fold higher ROS production and 20-50% lower GSH content were found in RBC, platelets and PMN from SCD patients versus those of their normal counterparts. This could in part account for the clinical manifestations, such as haemolysis, a hypercoagulable state, recurrent bacterial infections and vaso-occlusive incidences, in SCD. We further showed that exposure of SCD samples to antioxidants, such as N-acetyl-cysteine, vitamin C and vitamin E, decreased their oxidative stress. These results suggest that antioxidant treatment of patients with SCD could reduce oxidative damage to RBC, PMN and platelets, thereby alleviating symptoms associated with their pathology. The flow cytometry techniques presented herein could assist in monitoring the efficacy of such treatment. PMID:16371026

  13. Biochemical and Cellular Changes in Leukocyte-Depleted Red Blood Cells Stored for Transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Diana; Rocha, Susana; Abreu, Estela; Costa, Elsio; Santos-Silva, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate biochemical and cellular changes associated with the storage of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells (RBCs). Methods We investigated 10 leukocyte-depleted RBC units, randomly chosen from volunteer donors. Every week an aliquot was collected for laboratorial evaluation, which included complete cell blood count, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity, extracellular sodium, potassium and pH, membrane-bound hemoglobin (MBH), band 3 profile, and quantification of RBC membrane proteins composition. Results We observed an increase in mean cell volume (from 91.86 4.65 fl to 98.10 5.80 fl, day 0 vs. day 21; p < 0.05), red cell distribution width, percentage of macrocytic RBCs, reticulocyte hemoglobin content and a decreased percentage of microcytic RBCs, mean cell volume concentration and G6PD activity. The extracellular concentration of sodium decreased, and that of potassium increased significantly over time. RBC membrane composition revealed an increase in spectrin/ankyrin ratio after 21 days (from 4.84 0.99 to 5.27 0.94, day 0 vs. day 21; p < 0.05). At day 35, a decrease in ankyrin (from 6.44 1.70% to 5.49 1.96%, day 0 vs. day 35; p < 0.05), in protein 4.1/band 3, protein 4.2/band 3, and ankyrin/band 3 ratios and in band 5 was observed. Conclusions Our data show that leukocyte-depleted RBCs present changes in the RBC morphology, membrane protein composition, enzymatic activity, and extracellular electrolyte concentration and pH. PMID:25960715

  14. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  15. Peripheral blood leukocytes transcriptomic signature highlights the altered metabolic pathways by heat stress in zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Vamsikrishna; Upadhyay, R C; Singh, Dheer

    2014-02-01

    High temperature during summer greatly affects animal production due to altered reproductive and metabolic functions. However, information regarding high throughput analysis of change in gene expression in diary animals are relatively nil. In present study, gene expression profiling by microarray was done in peripheral blood leukocytes of heat exposed (42 C, 4h) cattle (n=3), Tharparkar (Bos indicus). A total 460 transcripts were differentially expressed with a fold change of ? 2. Randomly selected real-time validation showed that 73.08% correlation with microarray data. Functional annotation and pathway study of the DEGs reveals that, up-regulated genes significantly (P<0.05) affect the protein processing and NOD like receptor pathways, while down regulated genes were significantly (P<0.05) found to associated with Glycolytic pathways. In conclusion, the present study showed that heat stress affects expression of significant number of genes in peripheral blood leukocytes and further analysis is required to understand their functional role in livestock. PMID:24367940

  16. Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

  17. Dengue viruses and mononuclear phagocytes. II. Identity of blood and tissue leukocytes supporting in vitro infection.

    PubMed

    Halstead, S B; O'Rourke, E J; Allison, A C

    1977-07-01

    Studies were made on the identity of human and monkey mononuclear leukocytes permissive to antibody-enhanced dengue 2 virus (D2V) infection. In cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) inoculated immediately after separation, it was concluded that only mononuclear phagocytes support dengue infection. This is based upon observations that D2V-permissive cells were resistant to 1,200 rads, were both plastic adherent and nonadherent, were removed when passed through nylon wool columns in 10 percent fetal bovine serum or 100 percent autologous serum, and were destroyed by incubation with 100 mug/ml particulate silica. On direct immunofluorescence staining, perinuclear dengue antigen was visualized at 24 h, becoming maximal at 60 h. Antigen-containing cells had ample cytoplasm, ruffled cytoplasmic membrane, and 73 percent were actively phagocytic. As further evidence of the infection of mononuclear phagocytes, antibody-enhanced D2V replication was observed in bone marrow cultures from five of five rhesus monkeys, but not in cell cultures of spleen, thymus, or lymph nodes prepared from the same animals. It is hypothesized that dengue virus complexed with non-neutralizing antibody is internalized by immune phagocytosis in a mononuclear phagocyte with a defective virus-destroying mechanism. Dengue permissiveness may depend upon cellular immaturity since bone marrow leukocytes could be infected even when held for 4 days before infection while PBL held for this time decreased in permissiveness. In vitro antibody-dependent infection of mononuclear phagocytes should prove useful as a model for study of immunopathologic mechanisms in human dengue. PMID:195000

  18. Role of nitric oxide in tumor microcirculation. Blood flow, vascular permeability, and leukocyte-endothelial interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Fukumura, D.; Yuan, F.; Endo, M.; Jain, R. K.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to define the role of nitric oxide (NO) in tumor microcirculation, through the direct intravital microcirculatory observations after administration of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor and NO donor both regionally and systemically. More specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: 1) endogenous NO derived from tumor vascular endothelium and/or tumor cells increases and/or maintains tumor blood flow, decreases leukocyte-endothelial interactions, and increases vascular permeability, 2) exogenous NO can increase tumor blood flow via vessel dilatation and decrease leukocyte-endothelial interactions, and 3) NO production and tissue responses to NO are tumor dependent. To this end, a murine mammary adenocarcinoma (MCaIV) and a human colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T) were implanted in the dorsal skinfold chamber in C3H and severe combined immunodeficient mice, respectively, and observed by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy. Both regional and systemic inhibition of endogenous NO by N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mumol/L superfusion or 10 mg/kg intravenously) significantly decreased vessel diameter and local blood flow rate. The diameter change was dominant on the arteriolar side. Superfusion of NO donor (spermine NO, 100 mumol/L) increased tumor vessel diameter and flow rate, whereas systemic injection of spermine NO (2.62 mg/kg) had no significant effect on these parameters. Rolling and stable adhesion of leukocytes were significantly increased by intravenous injection of L-NAME. In untreated animals, both MCaIV and LS174T tumor vessels were leaky to albumin. Systemic NO inhibition significantly attenuated tumor vascular permeability of MCaIV but not of LS174T tumor. Immunohistochemical studies, using polyclonal antibodies to endothelial NOS and inducible NOS, revealed a diffuse pattern of positive labeling in both MCaIV and LS174T tumors. Nitrite and nitrate levels in tumor interstitial fluid of MCaIV but not of LS174T were significantly higher than that in normal subcutaneous interstitial fluid. These results support our hypotheses regarding the microcirculatory response to NO in tumors. Modulation of NO level in tumors is a potential strategy for altering tumor hemodynamics and thus improving oxygen, drug, gene vector, and effector cell delivery to solid tumors. Images Figure 5 PMID:9033284

  19. Assessment of malathion and its effects on leukocytes in human blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Udita; Gaur, Mulayam Singh; Tiwari, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present paper, we report a reproducible, cost effective, fast response method for detection of malathion and its effects on leukocytes in different human blood groups. Spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis spectrometry) and Fourier transform infrared coupled with solid phase extraction were applied for analyzing malathion content in human blood plasma. The spiking levels of malathion in the range of 0.1-1.7 g/mL were extracted from blood plasma samples using SPE. The present active functional groups (C = O; P-O-C; -OH; P = S) were also characterized. The recovery rate of malathion was 80%4.5%. The calculated correlation coefficient was 0.9799, indicating the linearity of the results. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were (0.1-1.7) g/mL and (0.3-1.5) g/mL, respectively. Malathion <1.0 g/mL showed no significant change while higher levels of malathion exposure (1.5 g/mL and 3.0 g/mL) reduced the number of white blood cells. In conclusion, the spectroscopic results may be useful to understand the mechanism of other pesticides such as methyl parathion and parathion.

  20. Methods for axolotl blood collection, intravenous injection, and efficient leukocyte isolation from peripheral blood and the regenerating limb.

    PubMed

    Debuque, Ryan J; Godwin, James W

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate immune system comprises both adaptive and innate immune cells with distinct functions during the resolution of inflammation and wound healing after tissue injury. Recent evidence implicates a requirement for innate immune cells from the myeloid lineage during the early stages of limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl. Understanding the functions of innate and adaptive immune cells in the axolotl has been hampered by a lack of approaches to isolate and analyze these cells. Here we describe a protocol to isolate myeloid cells from the regenerating axolotl limb that incorporates intravenous delivery of physiological labels. In addition we provide a protocol to enrich for leukocytes in the peripheral blood. These protocols produce single-cell suspensions that can be analyzed using flow cytometry or sorted into specific subsets using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS is a routine approach to sort cells based on their physical characteristics as well as their cell surface antigen repertoire. Isolated cell populations can then be analyzed in a wide range of downstream assays to facilitate a greater understanding of leukocyte biology in the axolotl. PMID:25740489

  1. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes and the aggressiveness of localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Huakang; Gu, Jian; Meng, Qing H.; Kim, Jeri; Davis, John W.; He, Yonggang; Wagar, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Timothy C.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in peripheral blood leukocytes at diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of the aggressive form of the tumor and disease progression among localized prostate cancer (PCa) patients. We recruited 1,751 non-Hispanic white men with previously untreated PCa from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. mtDNAcn was categorized into three groups according to tertiles. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of mtDNAcn with the risk of having aggressive PCa at diagnosis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for disease progression. We observed an inverse association between aggressiveness of PCa and mtDNAcn (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, compared to patients in the highest tertile of mtDNAcn, those in the second and lowest tertiles had significantly increased risks of presenting with the high-risk form of PCa, as defined by the D'Amico criteria, with ORs of 1.33 (95% CI, 0.89–1.98; P = 0.17) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02–2.30; P = 0.04), respectively. Furthermore, PCa patients in the lowest and second tertiles combined relative to those in the highest tertile had a 56% increased risk of disease progression (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.96–2.54; P = 0.07). In summary, our results suggested that low mtDNAcn in peripheral blood leukocytes was associated with aggressive PCa at diagnosis and might further predict poor progression-free survival among localized PCa patients. PMID:26515605

  2. Age gene expression and coexpression progressive signatures in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Irizar, Haritz; Goi, Joaqun; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Castillo-Trivio, Tamara; Olascoaga, Javier; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Otaegui, David

    2015-12-01

    Both cellular senescence and organismic aging are known to be dynamic processes that start early in life and progress constantly during the whole life of the individual. In this work, with the objective of identifying signatures of age-related progressive change at the transcriptomic level, we have performed a whole-genome gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in a group of healthy individuals with ages ranging from 14 to 93 years. A set of genes with progressively changing gene expression (either increase or decrease with age) has been identified and contextualized in a coexpression network. A modularity analysis has been performed on this network and biological-term and pathway enrichment analyses have been used for biological interpretation of each module. In summary, the results of the present work reveal the existence of a transcriptomic component that shows progressive expression changes associated to age in peripheral blood leukocytes, highlighting both the dynamic nature of the process and the need to complement young vs. elder studies with longitudinal studies that include middle aged individuals. From the transcriptional point of view, immunosenescence seems to be occurring from a relatively early age, at least from the late 20s/early 30s, and the 49-56 year old age-range appears to be critical. In general, the genes that, according to our results, show progressive expression changes with aging are involved in pathogenic/cellular processes that have classically been linked to aging in humans: cancer, immune processes and cellular growth vs. maintenance. PMID:26362218

  3. RNA-seq Transcriptional Profiling of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes from Cattle Infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    PubMed Central

    McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Nalpas, Nicolas C.; Rue-Albrecht, Kvin; Browne, John A.; Magee, David A.; Killick, Kate E.; Park, Stephen D. E.; Hokamp, Karsten; Meade, Kieran G.; OFarrelly, Cliona; Gormley, Eamonn; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, is a major endemic disease affecting cattle populations worldwide, despite the implementation of stringent surveillance and control programs in many countries. The development of high-throughput functional genomics technologies, including gene expression microarrays and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), has enabled detailed analysis of the host transcriptome to M. bovis infection, particularly at the macrophage and peripheral blood level. In the present study, we have analyzed the peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) transcriptome of eight natural M. bovis-infected and eight age- and sex-matched non-infected control Holstein-Friesian animals using RNA-seq. In addition, we compared gene expression profiles generated using RNA-seq with those previously generated using the high-density Affymetrix GeneChip Bovine Genome Array platform from the same PBL-extracted RNA. A total of 3,250 differentially expressed (DE) annotated genes were detected in the M. bovis-infected samples relative to the controls (adjusted P-value ?0.05), with the number of genes displaying decreased relative expression (1,671) exceeding those with increased relative expression (1,579). Ingenuity Systems Pathway Analysis (IPA) of all DE genes revealed enrichment for genes with immune function. Notably, transcriptional suppression was observed among several of the top-ranking canonical pathways including Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling. Comparative platform analysis demonstrated that RNA-seq detected a larger number of annotated DE genes (3,250) relative to the microarray (1,398), of which 917 genes were common to both technologies and displayed the same direction of expression. Finally, we show that RNA-seq had an increased dynamic range compared to the microarray for estimating differential gene expression. PMID:25206354

  4. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

  5. Effects of spaceflight on rat peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichiki, A. T.; Gibson, L. A.; Jago, T. L.; Strickland, K. M.; Johnson, D. L.; Lange, R. D.; Allebban, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The white blood cell (WBC) elements and the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cell populations were analyzed to ascertain adaptation to micro-gravity and subsequent readaptation to 1 G in rats flown on the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission. Bone marrow cells were harvested from one group of rats killed inflight (FD13) and blood was drawn from three other groups at various times. The WBC level was normal on FD14 with the exception of neutrophilia. On FD13, numbers of colony-forming units-granulocyte (CFU-G), CFU-GM, and CFU-M from flight animals were decreased compared with ground controls when incubated with recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) alone or in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo). On recovery (R + 0), flight rats had decreased numbers of total leukocytes and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes with elevated neutrophils compared with control rats. They had lower numbers of CD4, CD8, CD2, CD3, and B cells in the peripheral blood but no differences in spleen lymphocytes.

  6. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  7. Red blood cells are a sink for interleukin 8, a leukocyte chemotaxin.

    PubMed

    Darbonne, W C; Rice, G C; Mohler, M A; Apple, T; Hébert, C A; Valente, A J; Baker, J B

    1991-10-01

    IL-8 (also known as neutrophil-activating peptide 1) is recognized as a potent effector of neutrophil functions. Several different cell types that contact blood, namely T lymphocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells, secrete this polypeptide following stimulation by cytokines, or lipopolysaccharide. Here we show that when IL-8 is added to blood it rapidly partitions from the plasma fluid to the blood cells and that erythrocytes account for the vast majority of this binding. Analysis of 125I-IL-8 binding [( ala-IL-8]77 form) to human red cells indicates a single, 5 nM Kd affinity class of binding sites, present at approximately 2,000 per red cell representing approximately 15 nmol of red cell IL-8 binding sites per liter of blood. These sites are protease sensitive. Their binding of IL-8 is rapidly reversible and does not result in receptor internalization, although bound IL-8 is resistant to extraction by pH 3 buffer at 5 degrees C. 125I-IL-8 binding to red cells was not inhibited by epidermal growth factor or interleukin 1, but was inhibited by monocyte chemotactic peptide-1, which is not a neutrophil chemotaxin, but is a member of the same family of polypeptides as IL-8. FACS analysis of IL-8-mediated mobilization of Ca2+ in neutrophils indicates that the IL-8 bound to red cells is incapable of stimulating neutrophils. Thus, red cell absorption of IL-8 may function to limit stimulation of leukocytes by IL-8 released into blood. PMID:1918386

  8. Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Is Associated with Severity of Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Udomsinprasert, Wanvisa; Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Vejchapipat, Paisarn; Zhan, Dong; Honsawek, Sittisak

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with the severity of biliary atresia (BA). Methods One hundred and fourteen BA patients and 114 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Relative telomere length (RTL) was assessed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate RTL as an independent risk factor of BA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to calculate the accuracy of biomarkers in the prediction of liver cirrhosis. Results BA patients had significantly shorter telomeres than healthy controls (p < 0.0001). The RTL in BA patients with jaundice was considerably lower than that of patients without jaundice (p = 0.005). Moreover, RTL was markedly shorter in patients with cirrhosis (F4), as compared to patients with mild fibrosis (F2) and non-fibrosis (F0-F1, p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that short RTL was associated with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis in BA. Tertile analysis showed a dose-response effect for this association (p trend < 0.0001). Additionally, RTL in BA children revealed a negative correlation with age (r = -0.50, p < 0.001). We noted an association between reduction of RTL and liver stiffness scores, adjusted for age and gender (b = -0.01, p < 0.0001). Short RTL can be employed to distinguish cirrhosis patients from non-cirrhosis patients (AUC = 0.78). Further analysis showed a linear correlation between leukocyte RTL and liver RTL in BA patients (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study provide evidence that telomere shortening is associated with an elevated risk of liver cirrhosis in BA. PMID:26230851

  9. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 μg /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  10. Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.

    PubMed

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2014-06-01

    In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear. PMID:24792441

  11. Hypermethylation of gene promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes in humans long term after radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Nina S; Lapteva, Nellya Sh; Rubanovich, Alexander V

    2016-04-01

    Some human genes known to undergo age-related promoter hypermethylation. These epigenetic modifications are similar to those occurring in the course of certain diseases, e.g. some types of cancer, which in turn may also associate with age. Given external genotoxic factors may additionally contribute to hypermethylation, this study was designed to analyzes, using methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the CpG island hypermethylation in RASSF1A, CDKN2A (including p16/INK4A and p14/ARF) and GSTP1 promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation long time ago. One hundred and twenty-four irradiated subjects (24-77 years old at sampling: 83 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant clean-up workers, 21 nuclear workers, 20 residents of territories with radioactive contamination) and 208 unirradiated volunteers (19-77 years old at sampling) were enrolled. In addition, 74 non-exposed offspring (2-51 years old at sampling) born to irradiated parents were examined. The frequency of individuals displaying promoter methylation of at least one gene in exposed group was significantly higher as compared to the control group (OR=5.44, 95% CI=2.62-11.76, p=3.9×10(-7)). No significant difference was found between the frequency of subjects with the revealed promoter methylation in the group of offspring born to irradiated parents and in the control group. The increase in the number of methylated loci of RASSF1A and p14/ARF was associated with age (β=0.242; p=1.7×10(-5)). In contrast, hypermethylation of p16/INK4A and GSTP1 genes correlated with the fact of radiation exposure only (β=0.290; p=1.7×10(-7)). The latter finding demonstrates that methylation changes in blood leukocytes of healthy subjects exposed to radiation resemble those reported in human malignancies. Additional studies are required to identify the dose-response of epigenetic markers specifically associating with radiation-induced premature aging and/or with the development of age-associated cancer and non-cancer diseases. PMID:26708527

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Blood Brain/Nerve Barrier Dysfunction and Leukocyte Infiltration: Closely Related or Discordant?

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Gesa; Stoll, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood nerve barrier (BNB) preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf) allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) and perfluorocarbons enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage) infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients. PMID:23267343

  13. Delayed Processing of Blood Samples Influences Time to Positivity of Blood Cultures and Results of Gram Stain-Acridine Orange Leukocyte Cytospin Test?

    PubMed Central

    Schwetz, I.; Hinrichs, G.; Reisinger, E. C.; Krejs, G. J.; Olschewski, H.; Krause, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated in vitro whether storage of blood samples influences the time to positivity used for the calculation of the differential time to positivity (DTP) and the results of the Gram stain-acridine orange leukocyte Cytospin (AOLC) test. A 24-hour storage of blood samples at room temperature may lead to false-negative DTP and false-positive Gram stain-AOLC test results, whereas storage at 4C does not. PMID:17537945

  14. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W.; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mrgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-?. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection. PMID:26646682

  15. Estimation of human age according to telomere shortening in peripheral blood leukocytes of Tibetan.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fu; Li, Changyong; Xi, Huanjiu; Wen, Youfeng; Huang, Keqiang

    2009-09-01

    In most normal somatic cells, the terminal restriction fragments (TRF) length and age are inversely correlated, which can be used to determine individual age. However, very little is known about the quantitative relationship between human telomeres and age. The aim of the present study was to investigate age-, gender-, and ethnicity-related changes in telomere length in human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Changes with age in telomere lengths were assessed by Southern blotting. The results shown that telomeres shorten in human PBLs in an age-dependent manner (r = -0.913, P < 0.01). The formula for age estimation according to telomere shortening was Y = -16.539X + 236.287 (Y: age, year; X: mean TRF length, kb). We analyzed the mean TRF length in males and females and found that males had shorter telomeres than females. Moreover, we compared the TRF length of Tibetan and Han population in China and found that telomere length did not differ between 2 populations. We conclude that estimation of human age according to telomere shortening in PBLs is a novel method especially when there is no morphologic information, furthermore, the gender must be considered when age estimation is carried out based on telomere shortening. PMID:19696580

  16. Cultured peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from anorexia nervosa patients are refractory to visible light.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, L M; Polack, E; Nahmod, V E; Glikin, G C

    1995-01-01

    Cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes [PBML] from patients with anorexia nervosa [AN] did not respond to light stimulation as PBML of normal controls [NC] did. During winter, visible light increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of NC-PBML stimulated with phytohemagglutinin [PHA]. This effect was enhanced by 10(-7) M melatonin. PHA-stimulated DNA synthesis of PBML from AN patients failed to respond to photic stimulation during winter, and their proliferative response to melatonin was significantly blunted. In vitro photic stimulation of NC-PBML reduced melatonin while increasing both serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole 3-acetic acid [HIAA] production in both basal and PHA-stimulated conditions. In contrast AN-PBML, that in darkness enhanced the oxidative deamination of serotonin into HIAA more than NC-PBML, did not switch their indole metabolism in response to light. Light did not inhibit the binding of both melatonin and serotonin to AN-PBML as occurred in NC-PBML. The present data suggest that AN-PBML do not respond to light in vitro, because of a failure in the regulation of serotonin and melatonin metabolism. PMID:7542723

  17. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mrgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-?. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection. PMID:26646682

  18. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 redistributes leukocytes from primary immune organs to secondary immune organs, lung, and blood in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Li, Zhanzhuo; Gao, Ji-Liang; Wan, Wuzhou; Ganesan, Sundar; McDermott, David H; Murphy, Philip M

    2015-06-01

    AMD3100 (plerixafor), is a specific CXCR4 antagonist approved by the FDA for mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow to blood for transplantation in cancer. AMD3100 also mobilizes most mature leukocyte subsets to blood; however, their source and trafficking potential have not been fully delineated. Here, we show that a single injection of AMD3100 10 mg/kg into C57Bl/6 mice rapidly mobilizes (peak ? 2.5 h) the same leukocyte subsets to blood as in humans. Using this model, we found that AMD3100 mobilization of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes to blood is not reduced by splenectomy or by blockade of lymphocyte egress from lymph node with FTY720, but is coupled to (i) reduced content of each of these cell types in the bone marrow; (ii) reduced T-cell numbers in thymuses; (iii) increased lymphocytes in lymph nodes; and (iv) increased neutrophil and monocyte content in the lung. Direct intrathymic labeling showed that AMD3100 selectively mobilizes nave thymic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to blood. Finally, AMD3100-induced neutrophil mobilization to blood did not reduce neutrophil trafficking to thioglycollate-inflamed peritoneum. Thus, AMD3100 redistributes lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils from primary immune organs to secondary immune organs, peripheral tissues, and blood, without compromising neutrophil trafficking to inflamed sites. PMID:25801950

  19. Activation of human leukocytes on tantalum trabecular metal in comparison to commonly used orthopedic metal implant materials.

    PubMed

    Schildhauer, T A; Peter, E; Muhr, G; Kller, M

    2009-02-01

    We analyzed leukocyte functions and cytokine response of human leukocytes toward porous tantalum foam biomaterial (Trabecular Metaltrade mark, TM) in comparison to equally sized solid orthopedic metal implant materials (pure titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, pure tantalum, and tantalum coated stainless steel). Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) were cocultured with equally sized metallic test discs for 24 h. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to the other used test materials there was a significant increase in the release of IL (interleukin)-1ra and IL-8 from PMN, and of IL-1ra, IL-6, and TNF-alpha from PBMC in response to the TM material. The cytokine release correlated with surface roughness of the materials. In contrast, the release of IL-2 was not induced showing that mainly myeloid leukocytes were activated. In addition, supernatants of these leukocyte/material interaction (conditioned media, CM) were subjected to whole blood cell function assays (phagocytosis, chemotaxis, bacterial killing). There was a significant increase in the phagocytotic capacity of leukocytes in the presence of TM-conditioned media. The chemotactic response of leukocytes toward TM-conditioned media was significantly higher compared to CM obtained from other test materials. Furthermore, the bactericidal capacity of whole blood was enhanced in the presence of TM-conditioned media. These results indicate that leukocyte activation at the surface of TM material induces a microenvironment, which may enhance local host defense mechanisms. PMID:18286637

  20. Toward a reference method for leukocyte differential counts in blood: comparison of three flow cytometric candidate methods.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Mikael; Davis, Bruce H; Fest, Thierry; Wood, Brent L

    2012-11-01

    A Complete Blood Count performed by an automated hematology analyzer frequently requires a microscopic slide review. Recently, we and others have proposed combinations of monoclonal antibodies for an extended leukocyte differential by flow cytometry. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of these proposals. Ninety-two samples were analyzed at 2 sites to compare the accuracy of three published methods. Reference methods used were i) cell counter for leukocyte count and ii) microscopic review as defined by CSLI H20-A2 for cell subsets. Comparison of flow cytometers from 2 manufacturers (FC500 and CANTO/LSRII) was performed. Published protocols were adapted to three different models of flow cytometer and each provided similar results in leukocyte subset enumeration, although some discrepancies were noted for each protocol in comparison with the reference method. The conclusion is that each protocol carries advantages and disadvantages and there is no clear "winner". This study supports the fact that flow cytometry is a candidate to become a reference method for the leukocyte differential. None of the tested protocols clearly demonstrated superiority and each had demonstrable deficiencies. Additional work to develop a consensual 8 to 10 color panel is concluded to be necessary for a satisfactory reference method. PMID:22736499

  1. Expression of ?2-integrin on leukocytes in liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Panasiuk, Anatol; Zak, Janusz; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta; Panasiuk, Bozena; Prokopowicz, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze ?2-integrin expression on blood leukocytes in liver cirrhosis. METHODS: In 40 patients with liver cirrhosis and 20 healthy individuals, the evaluation of expression of CD11a (LFA-1?), CD11b (Mac-1?), CD11c (?X) and CD49d (VLA-4?) on peripheral blood leukocytes was performed using flow cytometry. The analysis was carried out in groups of patients divided into B and C according to Child-Pughs classification. RESULTS: An increased CD11a, CD11b, CD11c and CD49d integrin expression was observed on peripheral blood leukocytes in liver cirrhosis. The integrin levels were elevated as the advancement of liver failure progressed. The highest expression of integrins occurred predominantly on monocytes. A slight expression of VLA-4 was found on lymphocytes and granulocytes and it increased together with liver failure. A positive correlation was noted between median intensity of fluorescence (MIF) expression on polymorphonuclear cells of CD11a and CD11c and CD49d (r = 0.42, P < 0.01; r = 053, P < 0.01, respectively) in liver cirrhosis stage C. However, no correlation was observed between integrin expression on leukocytes. The concentrations of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and TNF?, were significantly elevated in liver cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: ?2-integrin expression on leukocytes increases in liver cirrhosis decompensated as the stage of liver failure increases, which is a result of permanent activation of leukocytes circulating through the inflamed liver environment. ?2-integrin expression on circulating leukocytes can intensify liver cirrhosis. PMID:17036394

  2. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:25748163

  3. Differential Expression of Intracellular and Extracellular CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Protein by Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Julie T.; Harui, Airi; Kiertscher, Sylvia M.; Roth, Jeffrey D.; Roth, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    mRNA encoding for the CB2 cannabinoid receptor is expressed by many subsets of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), but little is known about the resulting protein expression and function. Employing clones from the A549 and 293T cell lines that were constructed to express both full-length human CB2 and GFP, we developed a flow cytometry assay for characterizing CB2 protein expression. A monoclonal antibody directed against human CB2 selectively stained the surface of transduced but not parental cell lines. When cells were fixed and permeabilized, imaging flow cytometry identified large stores of intracellular protein. Total cellular staining for CB2 corresponded closely with the level of GFP expression. When exposed to Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CB2-expressing cells internalized cell surface CB2 receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Applying these approaches to human PBL, CB2 protein was identified on the surface of human B cells but not on T cells or monocytes. In contrast, when PBL were fixed and permeabilized, intracellular CB2 expression was readily detected in all three subsets by both conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Similar to the protein expression pattern observed in fixed and permeabilized PBL, purified B cells, T cells, and monocytes expressed relatively equal levels of CB2 mRNA by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our findings confirm that human PBL express CB2 protein but that its distribution is predominantly intracellular with only B cells expressing CB2 protein at the extracellular membrane. The differential role of intracellular and extracellular CB2 receptors in mediating ligand signaling and immune function remains to be determined. PMID:23299999

  4. The effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria. III. Bacteriolysis induced by extracts of different leukocyte populations and the inhibition of lysis by macromolecular substances.

    PubMed

    Lahav, M; Ne'eman, N; James, J; Ginsburg, I

    1975-02-01

    The lysis of 14C-labeled bacteria by hydrolases of human and rabbit leukocytes was studied in vitro. While Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus mutans were highly susceptible to lysis, Staphylococcus auresus was intermediate in its susecptibility to lysis by the leukocyte enzymes. Group A Streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium smegmatis were very resistant to degradation by these enzymes. The lytic activity of leukocyte lysates from human and rabbit blood was probably due to acid hydrolases of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Extracts of human blood monocytes and of rabbit peritoneal and lung macrophages were less lytic for the bacteria tested. Lymphocytes and platelet extracts were not bacteriolytic. The lytic effect of the leukocyte lysates was not inhibited by KCN or sodium azide, but was abolished to a large extent by cationic polyelectrolytes such as protamine sulfate, histone and leukocyte cationic proteins, and poly-lysine, as well as by the anionic polyelectrolytes such as heparin, chondroitin sulfate, DNA, carrageenin, alginate sulfate, dextran sulfate, and ploy-L-glutamic acid. Other potent inhibitors of bacteriolysis were trypan blue, congo red, phosphatidic acid, normal immunoglobulins, and components of streptococcal cell wall. PMID:804017

  5. Specific Role of Each Human Leukocyte Type in Viral Infections I. Monocyte as Host Cell for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Edelman, Robert; Wheelock, E. Frederick

    1967-01-01

    Each major leukocyte type of the peripheral blood of healthy donors was studied in vitro for its ability to support vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. Purified cultures of each white blood cell type were prepared by the selective adsorption and elution of cells from silicone-treated glass beads. It was found that monocytes and macrophages (derived from the rapid transformation of monocytes in vitro) were the principal host cells for VSV replication. Interferon added to mixed leukocyte cultures, prior to virus inoculation, reduced virus yields and prevented destruction of macrophages. Cultures of small lymphocytes, containing no detectable monocytes or macrophages, produced amounts of virus equivalent to 1% of that produced in leukocyte cultures which contained 7% monocytes. Small lymphocytes did not undergo demonstrable cytopathic alterations in virus-infected cultures. VSV neither replicated nor produced cytopathic effects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Images PMID:4316248

  6. Leukocyte, red blood cell and morphological adaptation to moderate physical training in rats undernourished in the neonatal period

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Perez, Manuella Cavalcanti; Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Gilberto de Freire; de Castro, Clia Maria Machado Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the impact of moderate physical exercise on the total and differential leukocyte counts and red blood cell count of 36 sixty-day-old adult male Wistar rats subjected to early malnourishment. Methods The rats were divided in nourished (N - casein 17%) and malnourished groups (M - casein 8%) and thesegroups were then subdivided in trained (T) untrained (U) creating four groups NT, NU, MT and MU. The NT and MTgroups were submitted to moderate physical exercise using a treadmill (60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Onthe 1st day, before the training started T0 and 24 hours after the last training day of the week (T1 until T8), a 1 mLaliquot of blood was collected from the animals' tails for analysis. The total leukocyte count was evaluated in a cellcounter with an electronic microscope. The cyanmethemoglobin technique was used to measure the hemoglobin level. The hematocrit values were determined as a percentage using the micro-hematocrit technique with a microcapillaryreader and a cell counter was used to determine the red blood cell count. The t-test was used for statistical analysis and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Data are expressed as means standard deviation. Results There was a significant difference in the total leukocyte count between the NT (9.1 0.1) and MT groups (8.0 0.1) from T1 and in neutrophils between the NT (22.1 0.6) and MT groups (24.6 1.8) from T7 (p < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in the hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count from T1. Conclusions According to the results of this study, moderate physical exercise seems to have induced physiologic adaptation in adult rats from T1. PMID:23049442

  7. Expression profile of interferon tau-stimulated genes in ovine peripheral blood leukocytes during embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Kose, M; Kaya, M S; Aydilek, N; Kucukaslan, I; Bayril, T; Bademkiran, S; Kiyma, Z; Ozyurtlu, N; Kayis, S A; Guzeloglu, A; Atli, M O

    2016-04-01

    Early and efficient detection of embryonic death (ED) has a valuable impact as important as early pregnancy diagnosis in ruminants. Among early pregnancy diagnosis methods, detection of the expression of interferon tau-stimulated genes (ISGs) in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) is well documented in cows and ewes. Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression profile of ISGs in PBLs might also be useful for detecting ED in these animals. For this purpose, pregnant ewes were used as an experimental model. Pregnancy was detected on Day 18 after mating by transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnant ewes were divided into a control group (sham injection on Day 18, n = 10) and ED group (treated with 75 μg synthetic PGF2α on Day 18, n = 12). PBLs and plasma were collected on Days 0 (mating day), 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, and 25 by jugular venipuncture. Total RNA was isolated from PBLs. ISGs expression levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction in triplicate. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was used to measure progesterone (P4) levels in plasma. In the ED group, the P4 level declined to less than 1 ng/mL on Day 19 and remained at a low level until the end of the study. Compared with that on Day 0, receptor transporter protein 4 (RTP4) and ISG15 expression was upregulated on Day 15 and remained high until Day 21 in both groups, and RTP4 and ISG15 mRNA levels were attenuated on Days 23 and 25 only in the ED group (P < 0.001). Myxovirus resistance 1 expression was upregulated on Day 15 and remained high until Day 23 in both groups, but was attenuated on Day 25 in the ED group (P < 0.05). The B2-microglobulin mRNA level did not change significantly during the study in either group. These results indicate that the decline in P4 concentration was an immediate response to PGF2α and that the embryo may have survived longer than the CL on the basis of the extended period of ISGs expression. This suggests that the absence of P4 could be the reason for ED rather than a direct effect of PGF2α. In conclusion, the expression of ISGs, including ISG15, RTP4, and myxovirus resistance 1, but not B2-microglobulin, in PBLs may serve as a marker of ED. PMID:26748865

  8. Microchannel array flow analyzer for measurement of whole blood rheology and flow characteristics of leukocytes activated by bacterial stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Yuji; Fujieda, Sadao; Kikuchi, Hiroko E.

    1997-03-01

    Microgrooves (width 6, 7, and 8 micrometer, each with length 20, 30, and 40 micrometers, respectively; depth 4.5 micrometers; number 4704 in parallel of one size per chip; chip dimensions 12 multiplied by 12 mm) photofabricated in the surface of a single-crystal silicon substrate were converted to leak-proof microchannels by tightly covering them with an optically flat glass plate. Using the microchannels as a model of physiological capillaries, total flow rate of heparinized whole blood taken from healthy subjects was determined under a constant suction of 20 cmH2O, while flow behavior of blood cells through individual channels was microscopically observed. The apparent viscosity (ratio to that of saline) of whole blood was obtained as 4.7 plus or minus 0.5, 3.7 plus or minus 0.3, and 3.4 plus or minus 0.2 (mean plus or minus SD, n equals 4) for 6, 7, and 8 micrometer width channels, respectively. Normal leukocytes passed, showing a round shape, through the channels much more slowly then erythrocytes, but caused no appreciable interference with passage of erythrocytes. Meanwhile, cells exposed to the chemotactic peptide FMLP (1 - 10 nM) and bacterial cells (Escherichia coli K 12; 6 multiplied by 106/ml) slowed further greatly, showing very irregular shapes, and eventually blocked the channels. Such a response of leukocytes took place immediately after the exposure to FMLP, but it appeared gradually with time after the exposure to the cells.

  9. Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S

    PubMed Central

    žilinskas, Juozas; žekonis, Jonas; žekonis, Gediminas; Šadzevičienė, Renata; Sapragonienė, Marija; Navickaitė, Justina; Barzdžiukaitė, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10−4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients. PMID:21525811

  10. IgE-mediated 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) generation by peripheral blood leukocytes: its association with basophil activation

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Moskwa, Sylwia; Kowalski, Marek L.; Grzegorczyk, Janina ?.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Allergen-induced basophil activation has been associated with the release of several mediators and with an increased expression of CD203c molecules on basophils. Aim To assess the influence of specific allergens on the generation of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (15-HETE) from peripheral blood leukocytes in relation to basophil activation, on the basis of CD203c molecule expression and histamine release. Material and methods The study included 15 patients with clinical symptoms of birch pollen allergy confirmed by a positive skin prick test with the birch allergen, and 6 healthy controls. Leukocytes isolated from peripheral blood were incubated with 3 concentrations of the birch pollen allergen (Bet v 1), anti-IgE or with ionophore A23187. Results In vitro challenge of leukocytes from allergic patients with 1 ng/ml of allergen induced a significant increase in 15-HETE generation. An increase above 30% was observed in almost half the allergic patients, with mean values ranging from 40% to 46%, but not in healthy controls. Anti-IgE antibodies increased 15-HETE generation in 5 patients (termed IgE+), and the allergen induced a significant increase in 15-HETE in all patients who reacted to anti-IgE. The mean CD203c expression on basophils of the allergic patients increased after allergen challenge, but a significant increase (> 30%) was observed only in patients who demonstrated an increased expression after anti-IgE exposure. A significant correlation was seen between 15-HETE generation and histamine release induced by the highest concentration of the allergen (r = 0.95; p < 0.01). Conclusions Allergen-induced, IgE-mediated activation of basophils is associated with a significant increase in 15-HETE generation. PMID:26366149

  11. Longitudinal Frequencies of Blood Leukocyte Subpopulations Differ between NOD and NOR Mice but Do Not Predict Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Telieps, Tanja; Köhler, Meike; Treise, Irina; Foertsch, Katharina; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Verschoor, Admar; Adler, Kerstin; Bonifacio, Ezio; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Immune phenotyping provides insight into disease pathogenesis and prognostic markers. Trajectories from age of 4 to 36 weeks were modeled for insulin autoantibodies and for leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood from female NOD (n = 58) and NOR (n = 22) mice. NOD mice had higher trajectories of insulin autoantibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, IgD+IgM− B lymphocytes, and NK cells and lower trajectories of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes, IgM+ B lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes than NOR mice (all p < 0.001). Of these, only the increased IAA trajectory was observed in NOD mice that developed diabetes as compared to NOD mice that remained diabetes-free. Therefore, the profound differences in peripheral blood leukocyte proportions observed between the diabetes-prone NOD mice and the diabetes-resistant mice do not explain the variation in diabetes development within NOD mice and do not provide markers for diabetes prediction in this model. PMID:26966692

  12. The receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator is deficient on peripheral blood leukocytes in patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Ploug, M; Plesner, T; Rnne, E; Ellis, V; Hyer-Hansen, G; Hansen, N E; Dan, K

    1992-03-15

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an acquired clonal defect in bone marrow-derived cells and is clinically associated with intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and an increased frequency of venous thrombosis. The common denominator of PNH-affected blood cells appears to be a defect in the membrane attachment of proteins normally anchored by glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI). We report here that the cellular receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PAR) is deficient on affected peripheral blood monocytes and granulocytes from four individuals with PNH as evidenced by chemical cross-linking analysis as well as by immunofluorescence flow cytometry using a monoclonal anti-u-PAR antibody. In contrast, on normal blood monocytes and granulocytes we find significant amounts of u-PAR, which is attached to the plasma membrane by a GPI-anchor as defined by its sensitivity towards a specific phospholipase treatment. By two-color flow cytometry it was shown that deficiency of u-PAR expression paralleled that of another GPI-anchored protein. As u-PAR is involved in the initiation of pericellular proteolysis, the reduced expression of u-PAR on PNH-affected leukocytes led to an overall reduction in the capacity for plasminogen activation by cell-surface-bound urokinase. Whereas the abnormal susceptibility of PNH-affected erythrocytes to lysis by autologous complement has been related to the low expression of three GPI-anchored complement regulatory proteins on the cell surface, we now propose that lack of u-PAR expression on the surface of peripheral blood leukocytes may be causally related to the high incidence of venous thrombosis observed in PNH patients. PMID:1312369

  13. Development of methods to examine the effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zussman, Lisa Ann

    In vitro methods to study the effect of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on leukocyte function using human peripheral blood were developed. These methods were demonstrated using the blood of 1-5 individuals and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urban PM #1648, diesel PM #1650, silica PM, and a locally collected PM sample (New Jersey PM10). For the blood samples analyzed in this study NIST urban PM and New Jersey PM10 treatment mediated the release of granule contents from peripheral blood leukocytes and induced structural changes associated with degranulation. Flow cytometry revealed PM-induced changes in phagocytosis and cell structure associated with degranulation. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed NIST urban PM-induced cell structure changes were associated with PM internalization. Colorametric and electrophoretic methods showed no PM-induced release of primary granules and a slight PM-induced release of secondary granules associated with only NIST urban PM. Enzyme Immunosorbent Assays detected increased histamine release from basophils treated with NIST urban PM, a locally collected PM, and the soluble and insoluble components of these particles. NIST urban PM was found to be a potent inducer of histamine release in 4 out of 6 individuals tested. Fractionation studies revealed that soluble (aqueous) and insoluble fractions of NIST urban PM contain histamine-releasing activity. This was also demonstrated for the New Jersey PM10 sample for which the soluble fraction exhibited the most activity. Complementary studies with inhibitors of IgE-mediated histamine release conducted on one test subject suggest that PM-induced histamine release was partially mediated by IgE. A new hypothesis has been formed, suggesting that particle toxicity is related to PM-induced histamine release. Due to the bioactive nature of histamine and its association with many cardiopulmonary responses, the PM- mediated release of histamine should be investigated further.

  14. Effect of Very Low Dose Fast Neutrons on the DNA of Rats' Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Sherif S; Saeed, Abdu; Shaheen, Salem A; El Assouli, Sufian M; El Assouli, M-Zaki; Raouf, Gehan A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of very low dose fast neutrons on the chromatin and DNA of rats' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and leukocytes has been studied in the present work using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Fourteen female Wistar rats were used; seven were irradiated with neutrons of 0.9 cGy (Am-Be, 0.02 cGy h(-1)), and seven others were used as control. Second derivative and curve fitting were used to analyze the FTIR spectra. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify the group spectra. Meanwhile, the tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as indicators to sense the breaking and the level of damage in DNA. The analysis of FTIR spectra of the PBMC of the irradiated group revealed a marked increase in the area of phosphodiesters of nucleic acids and the area ratios of RNA/DNA and phosphodiesters/carbohydrates. A sharp significant increase and decrease in the areas of RNA and DNA ribose were recorded, respectively. In the irradiated group, leukocytes with different tail lengths were observed. The distributions of tail moments and the percentage of DNA in the tail of irradiated groups were heterogeneous. The mean value of the percentages of DNA in the tail at 0.5 h post-irradiation represented low-level damage in the DNA. Therefore, one can conclude that very low dose fast neutrons might cause changes in the DNA of PBMC at the submolecular level. It could cause low-level damage, double-strand break, and chromatin fragmentation of DNA of leukocytes. PMID:26606065

  15. Inhibition of interferon gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of patients with sarcoidosis. Pathogenic implications.

    PubMed

    Bertrn, G; Arzt, E; Resnik, E; Mosca, C; Nahmod, V

    1992-04-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production by stimulated peripheral mononuclear leukocytes of 30 patients with sarcoidosis was studied. A significant inhibition (64 percent, 5 to 330 IU/ml vs normal individuals = 1,000 +/- 250 IU/ml) in the IFN-gamma synthesis was found. The inhibition is due to a defect in the circulating monocytes and not in the peripheral T lymphocytes of these patients. This defect in the peripheral IFN-gamma production could be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:1555475

  16. Effects of immunoglobulin binding on signal transduction in bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulins are major molecules that mediate humoral immune responses. Their functional effects on leukocytes are mediated by the cell surface receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulins (FcR). Ligation of FcR on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is capable of triggering a wide rang...

  17. The effects of oil exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes and splenic melano-macrophage centers of Gulf of Mexico fishes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad Omar; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Ford, Lorelei; Dail, Mary Beth; Pruett, Stephen; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2014-02-15

    In August and November 2010 we collected and examined peripheral blood and tissues from three species of Gulf of Mexico fish. Findings were compared to non-exposed control fish. The leukocyte counts of exposed alligator gar were not significantly different from controls, while exposed Gulf killifish and sea trout had significantly decreased lymphocyte counts. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) values from sea trout were significantly greater than control sea trout EROD values, suggesting poly aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Splenic melano-macrophage centers (MMCs) from exposed sea trout and Gulf killifish showed a significant increase in number compared to non-exposed fish. Sea trout splenic MMCs were also significantly greater in size. These findings suggest that Gulf fish sampled were exposed to crude oil from the Macondo well and were in a lymphopenic or immuno-compromised state. PMID:24405733

  18. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Hypertensive Children Is Associated with the Severity of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gackowska, Lidia; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Trojanek, Joanna; Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Niemirska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Michalkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether peripheral blood leukocyte adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) protein expression patterns (flow cytometry) differ between the primary hypertension children (n = 57) and healthy controls (n = 19) and if their expression levels are related to selected clinical parameters. The group of 26 patients [AdipoR(−)] showed lower and the group of 31 patients [AdipoR(+)] showed higher AdipoRs protein expression than the control and each other (P < 0.01 for neutrophils, P < 0.05 for monocytes). The AdipoR(+) leukocytes expressed higher AdipoR1 mRNA levels (RT-PCR) than AdipoR(−) ones and controls (P = 0.022 and P = 0.007, resp.). Despite greater BMI, the AdipoR(−) patients had unchanged serum adiponectin levels. In contrast, AdipoR(+) patients had lower serum adiponectin concentrations than the AdipoR(−) ones and controls (P < 0.001). The AdipoR(+) patients had higher blood pressure (P = 0.042) and greater carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.017) than the AdipoR(−) ones. The stage of hypertension was associated with increased neutrophil but not monocyte AdipoR1 density (AdipoR1 MFI) (P < 0.05). Severe ambulatory hypertension was presented more often in AdipoR(+) patients than in AdipoR(−) ones (51.6% versus 26.9%, resp.; P < 0.01). In conclusion, neutrophil AdipoRs upregulation was associated with early stages of vascular injury, hypertension severity, and low serum levels of adiponectin. PMID:26146630

  19. Increased expression of peripheral blood leukocyte genes implicate CD14+ tissue macrophages in cellular intestine allograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, Chethan; Ningappa, Mylarappa; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Higgs, Brandon W; Sun, Qing; Schmitt, Lori; Snyder, Sara; Dobberstein, Jennifer; Branca, Maria; Jaffe, Ronald; Zeevi, Adriana; Squires, Robert; Alissa, Feras; Shneider, Benjamin; Soltys, Kyle; Bond, Geoffrey; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Humar, Abhinav; Mazariegos, George; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sindhi, Rakesh

    2011-10-01

    Recurrent rejection shortens graft survival after intestinal transplantation (ITx) in children, most of whom also experience early acute cellular rejection (rejectors). To elucidate mechanisms common to early and recurrent rejection, we used a test cohort of 20 recipients to test the hypothesis that candidate peripheral blood leukocyte genes that trigger rejection episodes would be evident late after ITx during quiescent periods in genome-wide gene expression analysis and would achieve quantitative real-time PCR replication pre-ITx (another quiescent period) and in the early post-ITx period during first rejection episodes. Eight genes were significantly up-regulated among rejectors in the late post-ITx and pre-ITx periods, compared with nonrejectors: TBX21, CCL5, GNLY, SLAMF7, TGFBR3, NKG7, SYNE1, and GK5. Only CCL5 was also up-regulated in the early post-ITx period. Among resting peripheral blood leukocyte subsets in randomly sampled nonrejectors, CD14(+) monocytes expressed the CCL5 protein maximally. Compared with nonrejectors, rejectors demonstrated higher counts of both circulating CCL5(+)CD14(+) monocytes and intragraft CD14(+) monocyte-derived macrophages in immunohistochemistry of postperfusion and early post-ITx biopsies from the test and an independent replication cohort. Donor-specific alloreactivity measured with CD154(+) T-cytotoxic memory cells correlated with the CCL5 gene and intragraft CD14(+) monocyte-derived macrophages at graft reperfusion and early post-ITx. CCL5 gene up-regulation and CD14(+) macrophages likely prime cellular ITx rejection. Infiltration of reperfused intestine allografts with CD14(+) macrophages may predict rejection events. PMID:21854741

  20. [DNA extraction from coagulated human blood for application in genotyping techniques for human leukocyte antigen and immunoglobulin-like receptors].

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Daniela Maira; Guelsin, Glucia Andria; Clementino, Samaia Laface; Melo, Fabiano Cavalcante de; Braga, Marco Antnio; Souza, Cleonice de; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to standardize a method for extracting high-quality DNA from samples of coagulated blood. Forty-eight samples of human coagulated blood were used for DNA extraction by means of the EZ-DNA commercial kit (Biological Industries, Beit Haemek, Israel), the Neoscience column kit (One Lambda Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and a modified salting-out method. Only the salting-out method was able to extract high concentrations of DNA (mean, 180 ng/(1/4)microl), which were measured using the Qubit fluorescence detector (Invitrogen, USA). This method enabled amplification of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) genes using the Luminex PCR-SSO (polymerase chain reaction - sequence-specific oligonucleotide) technology, which demands good quality DNA, and amplification of KIR (killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor) genes using an in-house PCR-SSP (polymerase chain reaction - sequence-specific primer) technique, which demands a specific concentration of DNA (10 ng/(1/4)microl). We concluded that the modified salting-out technique was very efficient, simple and fast for DNA extraction from human coagulated blood samples, with the aim of genotyping the HLA and KIR genes. PMID:20209349

  1. PrPSc Is Not Detected in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Scrapie-Infected Sheep: Determining the Limit of Sensitivity by Immunohistochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from scrapie-infected sheep were evaluated for the presence of PrPSc using dissociated retropharyngeal lymph node cells (DRLN) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrPSc positive cells were detected in 2.05% with a variance of .28% of 3,000,000DRLN cells but were not de...

  2. IL-6 blockade reverses the abnormal STAT activation of peripheral blood leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M A; Diaz-Torné, C; Hernández, M V; Reina, D; de la Fuente, D; Castellví, I; Moya, P; Ruiz, J M; Corominas, H; Zamora, C; Cantó, E; Sanmartí, R; Juarez, C; Vidal, S

    2015-06-01

    Considering the interplay of multiple STATs in response to cytokines, we investigated how IL-6 and its blocking affect STAT signaling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Leukocytes obtained from RA patients before and after tocilizumab treatment and healthy donors (HDs) were cytokine-stimulated and STAT phosphorylation was analyzed by cytometry. RA patients had significantly fewer pSTAT1+, pSTAT3+, and pSTAT6+ monocytes and pSTAT5+ lymphocytes than HDs. After 24weeks of treatment, percentages of IFNγ-induced pSTAT1+ and IL-10-induced pSTAT3+ monocytes in RA patients increased, reaching levels comparable to HDs. pSTAT1+ and pSTAT3+ cells correlated inversely with RA disease activity index and levels of pSTAT+ cells at baseline were higher in patients with good EULAR response to tocilizumab. IFNγ-induced pSTAT1+ cells correlated inversely with memory T cells and anti-CCP levels. IL-10-induced pSTAT3+ cells correlated with Treg/Teff ratio. Our findings suggest that IL-6 blocking reduces the inflammatory mechanisms through the correction of STAT1 and STAT3 activation status. PMID:25847223

  3. Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier in vitro and in vivo geared towards targeted molecular therapies for peripheral neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Greathouse, Kelsey M; Palladino, Steven P; Dong, Chaoling; Helton, Eric S; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuroinflammation is characterized by hematogenous mononuclear leukocyte infiltration into peripheral nerves. Despite significant clinical knowledge, advancements in molecular biology and progress in developing specific drugs for inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis, there are currently no specific therapies that modulate pathogenic peripheral nerve inflammation. Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the blood-nerve barrier using a reliable human in vitro model and potential intravital microscopy techniques in representative animal models guided by human observational data should facilitate the targeted modulation of the complex inflammatory cascade needed to develop safe and efficacious therapeutics for immune-mediated neuropathies and chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:26732309

  4. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... blood components intended for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control... for transfusion, including recommendations for validation and quality control monitoring of the... same title dated January 2001 (January 31, 2001, 66 FR 8410). The draft guidance, when finalized,...

  5. Cervical leukocytes and spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Patricia J.; Sheikh, Sairah; David, Anna L.; Peebles, Donald M.; Klein, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to characterise cervical leukocyte populations and inflammatory mediators associated with term and recurrent spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) in pregnant women with a history of SPTB. A prospective observational study was undertaken on 120 women with a history of SPTB. A cytobrush was used to sample cells from the cervix at 12–25 weeks’ gestation. Cells were enumerated and characterised by flow cytometry. Cytokines and chemokines were also measured. Participants were then grouped according to delivery at term (>36 + 6 weeks), late SPTB (34–36 + 6 weeks) or early SPTB (<34 weeks). Differences in leukocyte sub-populations, cytokine and chemokine levels were compared with outcome. Cervical leukocytes comprised up to 60% of the host-derived cells. Most of these (90–100%) were polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). Most of the remaining cells were mucosal macrophages expressing CD68 and CD103 in addition to markers shared with blood-borne monocytes. Failure to detect cervical macrophages in at least 250,000 cervical epithelial cells was a feature of women who experienced early SPTB (6 out of 6 cases, 95% CI 61–100%) compared with 34% (30 out of 88 cases, 95% CI 25–43%, P < 0.001) of women delivering after 34 weeks. CCL2 (MCP-1) was also low in SPTB before 34 weeks and levels above 75 ng/g and/or the presence of macrophages increased the specificity for birth after 34 weeks from 66% to 82% (55 out of 67 cases, 95% CI 73–91%). Absence of cervical macrophages and low CCL2 may be features of pregnancies at risk of early SPTB. PMID:26637953

  6. Leukocyte Activation in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Minervino, Daniele; Gumiero, Daniela; Nicolazzi, Maria Anna; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Fuorlo, Mariella; Guidone, Caterina; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Fattorossi, Andrea; Mingrone, Geltrude; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The rising prevalence of obesity is a major global health problem. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery (BS) allows to obtain a significant weight loss and comorbidities improvement, among them one of the factors is the thrombotic risk. In this observational study, we measured indices of leukocyte activation in severely obese patients as markers of increased thrombotic risk in relation with serum markers of inflammation before and after BS. Frequency of polymorphonuclear neutrophil-platelet (PLT) and monocyte (MONO)-PLT aggregates as well as of tissue factor (TF) expressing MONOs was measured in the peripheral blood of 58 consecutive obese patients and 30 healthy controls. In 31 of the 58 obese patients, data obtained at the enrollment were compared with those obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months after BS. Compared with healthy controls, obese patients showed a higher frequency of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)-PLT aggregates (7.47 ± 2.45 [6.82–8.11]% vs 5.85 ± 1.89 [5.14–6.55]%, P = 0.001), MONO-PLT aggregates (12.31 ± 7.33 [10.38–14.24]% vs 8.14 ± 2.22 [7.31–8.97]%, P < 0.001), and TF expressing MONOs (4.01 ± 2.11 [3.45–4.56]% vs 2.64 ± 1.65 [2.02–3.25]%, P = 0.002). PMNL-PLT and MONO-PLT aggregate frequency was positively correlated with TF expressing MONOs (R2 = 0.260, P = 0.049 and R2 = 0.318, P = 0.015, respectively). BS was performed in 31 patients and induced a significant reduction of the body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences. These effects were associated with a significant decrease of PMNL-PLT aggregates at 12 months (7.58 ± 2.27 [6.75–8.42]% vs 4.47 ± 1.11 [3.93–5.01]%, P < 0.001), and a reduction of TF expressing MONOs at 6 (3.82 ± 2.04 [3.07–4.57]% vs 1.60 ± 1.69 [0.30–2.90]%, P = 0.008) and 12 months (3.82 ± 2.04 [3.07–4.57]% vs 1.71 ± 0.54 [1.45–1.97]%, P = 0.001) after BS. These data suggest that leukocyte-PLT aggregate formation and MONO activation represent an important mechanism underlying the increased thrombotic risk of obese patients. We also show that BS is effective in normalizing these inflammatory indices. PMID:26447995

  7. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Topalović DŽ; Živković L; Čabarkapa A; Djelić N; Bajić V; Dekanski D; Spremo-Potparević B

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger.

  8. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Topalović, Dijana Žukovec; Živković, Lada; Čabarkapa, Andrea; Djelić, Ninoslav; Bajić, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  9. Modulating effect of interleukin 2 therapy on interferon production by blood leukocytes of patients with minimal residual hematological disease.

    PubMed

    Kandefer-Szerszeń, M; Legieć, W; Dmoszyńska, A; Szuster-Ciesielska, A

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of 1.8 x 10(6) U/day interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapy on interferon (IFN) production. Patients enrolled in the study suffered from multiple myeloma (MM), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). All of them were in remission after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Results indicated that IL-2 given subcutaneously at a dose of 1.8 x 10(6) U/day for 3 weeks induced IFN-gamma in serum of patients and caused a prolonged effect on the ability of blood leukocytes to produce IFN-gamma after stimulation in vitro by mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Such enhancement of IFN-gamma production may be beneficial for antitumor immune response. Low-dose IL-2 therapy was well tolerated by all patients and side effects not exceeding II grade of toxicity according to WHO scale were observed. Five patients with MM have relapsed 3-10 months after cesation of IL-2 therapy but 15 patients 18 months after therapy were in complete remission. PMID:9597084

  10. Dry Olive Leaf Extract Counteracts L-Thyroxine-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Žukovec Topalović, Dijana; Živković, Lada; Čabarkapa, Andrea; Djelić, Ninoslav; Bajić, Vladan; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  11. A dolphin peripheral blood leukocyte cDNA microarray for studies of immune function and stress reactions.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Annalaura; Lundqvist, Mats L; Romano, Tracy A; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Fair, Patricia A; Kindy, Mark S; Ellis, Blake C; Gattoni-Celli, Sebastiano; McKillen, David J; Trent, Harold F; Chen, Yian Ann; Almeida, Jonas S; Gross, Paul S; Chapman, Robert W; Warr, Gregory W

    2007-01-01

    A microarray focused on stress response and immune function genes of the bottlenosed dolphin has been developed. Random expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were isolated and sequenced from two dolphin peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) cDNA libraries biased towards T- and B-cell gene expression by stimulation with IL-2 and LPS, respectively. A total of 2784 clones were sequenced and contig analysis yielded 1343 unigenes (archived and annotated at ). In addition, 52 dolphin genes known to be important in innate and adaptive immune function and stress responses of terrestrial mammals were specifically targeted, cloned and added to the unigene collection. The set of dolphin sequences printed on a cDNA microarray comprised the 1343 unigenes, the 52 targeted genes and 2305 randomly selected (but unsequenced) EST clones. This set was printed in duplicate spots, side by side, and in two replicates per slide, such that the total number of features per microarray slide was 19,200, including controls. The dolphin arrays were validated and transcriptomic profiles were generated using PBL from a wild dolphin, a captive dolphin and dolphin skin cells. The results demonstrate that the array is a reproducible and informative tool for assessing differential gene expression in dolphin PBL and in other tissues. PMID:17084893

  12. CYTOKINE SECRETION BY BOVINE POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL LEUKOCYTES (PMN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid recruitment and bacterial phagocytosis and killing by PMN are the most effective defenses against establishment of infection. In addition, PMN may play a key supportive role through secretion of cytokines during the inflammatory response. We sought to determine whether bovine PMN secrete cyt...

  13. Increased chromium uptake in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from burned patients

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Illner, H.; Dineen, P.

    1984-12-01

    Following thermal injury neutrophil function is severely impaired and thought to be hypometabolic; however, the host is considered to be hypermetabolic. To further investigate the metabolism and the function of neutrophils following thermal injury, neutrophil migration and chromium uptake were studied using radio-labelled neutrophils. Random and directed migration were found to be significantly reduced compared to control values. Neutrophil lysozyme content was also reduced in these burn cells while serum lysozyme from the same patients was significantly elevated over control values. These data suggest lysozyme is released by the neutrophil into the circulatory system. The influx of chromium in cells from burned patients was much greater than the influx in normal cells used in studies for chemotaxis. Influx of chromium over time and over varying concentrations of chromium was linear in cells from burned patients and normals. Cells from burned patients, however, took up more chromium than normals. Influx velocity of chromium was also determined and found to be greater in burn cells than normal cells. Since it has been shown that chromium influx is an energy-dependent reaction it is suggested that cellular energy stores are being depleted by the influx of chromium. Whether this is a response to an intracellular deficit or uncoupling of metabolic pathways is not known at this time.

  14. Underweight Full-Term Indian Neonates Show Differences in Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocyte Phenotype: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Deepak K.; Nair, Deepa; Raza, Saimah; Saini, Savita; Singh, Reeta; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Reva; Ramji, Siddarth; Batra, Aruna; Aggarwal, Kailash C.; Chellani, Harish K.; Arya, Sugandha; Bhatla, Neerja; Paul, Vinod K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh; Agarwal, Nidhi; Mehta, Umesh; Sopory, Shailaja; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bal, Vineeta; Rath, Satyajit; Wadhwa, Nitya

    2015-01-01

    Background While infections are a major cause of neonatal mortality in India even in full-term neonates, this is an especial problem in the large proportion (~20%) of neonates born underweight (or small-for-gestational-age; SGA). One potential contributory factor for this susceptibility is the possibility that immune system maturation may be affected along with intrauterine growth retardation. Methods In order to examine the possibility that differences in immune status may underlie the susceptibility of SGA neonates to infections, we enumerated the frequencies and concentrations of 22 leukocyte subset populations as well as IgM and IgA levels in umbilical cord blood from full-term SGA neonates and compared them with values from normal-weight (or appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) full-term neonates. We eliminated most SGA-associated risk factors in the exclusion criteria so as to ensure that AGA-SGA differences, if any, would be more likely to be associated with the underweight status itself. Results An analysis of 502 such samples, including 50 from SGA neonates, showed that SGA neonates have significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a higher myeloid DC (mDC) to pDC ratio, more natural killer (NK) cells, and higher IgM levels in cord blood in comparison with AGA neonates. Other differences were also observed such as tendencies to lower CD4:CD8 ratios and greater prominence of inflammatory monocytes, mDCs and neutrophils, but while some of them had substantial differences, they did not quite reach the standard level of statistical significance. Conclusions These differences in cellular lineages of the immune system possibly reflect stress responses in utero associated with growth restriction. Increased susceptibility to infections may thus be linked to complex immune system dysregulation rather than simply retarded immune system maturation. PMID:25898362

  15. Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

    1982-02-01

    The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

  16. Systemic suppression of human peripheral blood phagocytic leukocytes after whole-body UVB irradiation.

    PubMed

    Leino, L; Saarinen, K; Kivist, K; Koulu, L; Jansen, C T; Punnonen, K

    1999-05-01

    We examined systemic effects of whole-body UVB irradiation on human peripheral blood phagocytes. We found that 24 h after a single erythemal dose of UVB radiation two phagocyte functions, adhesion and phagocytosis, were reduced by 50%. This functional suppression was accompanied by a significant decrease in the expression of complement receptors (CR1 and CR3) and IgG Fc receptors (FcRII and FcRIII). The greatest reduction (47%) was observed in CR3, which is important for both adhesion and phagocytosis. A kinetic analysis showed that both CR1 and CR3 levels started to decrease 15 min after the UVB exposure, reaching the lowest levels at 4.5- and 24-h time points, respectively. The down-modulation of CRs after whole-body UVB exposure was not due to a defective receptor synthesis or translocation from internal stores to plasma membrane because the maximal CR levels in stimulated cells were not affected by UVB. No change in the serum soluble ICAM-1 was detected after UVB, which rules out CD1 1b epitope masking by sICAM-1. UVB did not release low-receptor-density myeloid progenitor cells from storage pools into circulation. Interleukin 10, a mediator of UVB-induced immunosuppression, was unable to modulate CR expression in vitro. When seven suberythemal whole-body UVB exposures were given repeatedly within 2 weeks, a significant decrease in CR expression was seen, which was greatest after three irradiations. Our data suggest that an exposure to UVB has systemic effects in humans which, possibly due to the down-modulation of preexisting cell-surface receptors, suppress some important functions of circulating phagocytic cells. PMID:10331484

  17. The effect of injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum superoxide dismutase activity of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Lima, S F; Bicalho, M L S; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Felippe, M J; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous supplementation of 300?mg of zinc, 50?mg of manganese, 25?mg of selenium, and 75?mg of copper on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at 10??2 days in milk (DIM), and on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during the transition period and subsequent lactation of multiparous Holstein cows. A total of 250 multiparous cows were randomly allocated into one of two treatments groups, namely, trace mineral supplemented (TMS) or control. Cows in the TMS group were injected at 230 and 260 days of gestation, and 35 days postpartum. Serum SOD activity was measured at enrollment, and 10, 60 and 100 DIM. Serum BHBA concentration and leukocyte function were assessed at 10 DIM. Overall serum SOD activity for TMS and control was 16.01 and 12.71?U/mL, respectively. The interaction between treatment and time of serum collection was significant. Additionally, overall serum SOD activity was 12.85 and 14.78?U/mL for cows diagnosed with mastitis and unaffected cows, respectively. Treatment did not affect leukocyte function. For parity >2, TMS cows had lower serum BHBA concentrations than control cows; BHBA concentrations were 0.41 and 0.27?mmol/L for control and TMS cows, respectively. In conclusion, cows diagnosed with mastitis had decreased serum SOD activity, and trace mineral supplementation increased serum SOD activity although leukocyte function was not affected by supplementation. PMID:24685102

  18. Activation of Cannabioid Receptor 2 Attenuates Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions and Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction under Inflammatory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Servio H.; Hask, Jnos; Skuba, Andrew; Fan, Shongshan; McCormick, Ryan; Dykstra, Holly; Reichenbach, Nancy; Krizbai, Istvan; Mahadevan, Anu; Zhang, Ming; Tuma, Ronald; Son, Young-jin; Persidsky, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that modulation of the receptor-mediated cannabinoid system during neuroinflammation can produce potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. However in this context, little is known about how selective activation of the cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R) affects the activated state of the brain endothelium and blood brain barrier (BBB) function. Using human brain tissues and primary human brain endothelial cells (BMVEC) we demonstrate that the CB2R is highly upregulated during inflammatory insult. We then examined whether the CB2R agonists could attenuate inflammatory responses at the BBB using a mouse model of LPS-induced encephalitis and highly selective CB2R agonists. Visualization by intravital microscopy revealed that administration of JWH133 or a novel resorcinol-based compound O-1966, greatly attenuated leukocyte adhesion in surface pial vessels and in deep ascending cortical post-capillary venules. BBB permeability assessments with small and large fluorescent tracers showed that CB2R agonists were effective at preventing barrier leakiness after LPS administration. To determine whether the effects by CB2R agonists on barrier protection are not only due to the CB2R modulation of immune cell function, we tested the agonists in-vitro with barrier forming primary BMVEC. Remarkably, the addition of CB2R agonist increased trans-endothelial electrical resistance and increased the amount of tight junction protein present in membrane fractions. Furthermore, CB2R agonists decreased the induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 surface expression in BMVEC exposed to various pro-inflammatory mediators. Together, these results suggest that pharmacological CB2R ligands offer a new strategy for BBB protection during neuroinflammation. PMID:22442067

  19. Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid.

    PubMed

    Levin, Milton; Joshi, Dhanashree; Draghi, Andrew; Gulland, Frances M; Jessup, David; De Guise, Sylvain

    2010-04-01

    During red tide bloom events, the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produces the toxin domoic acid (DA), which has been associated with stranding and mortality events involving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). In addition to these well-documented DA-induced neurotoxic events, there is increasing concern that DA may exert chronic effects, such as immunomodulation, which may potentially increase an individual's susceptibility to a number of opportunistic infections following nonlethal exposure. We investigated the effects of DA on innate (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and adaptive (mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation) immune functions with the use of peripheral blood leukocytes collected from healthy California sea lions and southern sea otters upon in vitro exposure to 0 (unexposed control), 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 microM DA. Domoic acid did not significantly modulate phagocytosis or respiratory burst in either species. For California sea lions, DA significantly increased ConA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation upon exposure to DA concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 10 microM, resulting in a nonlinear dose-response curve. There was no effect on lymphocyte proliferation at the highest concentration of DA tested. No effects on lymphocyte proliferation were observed in southern sea otters. Importantly, the in vitro DA concentrations affecting T-cell proliferation were within or below the range of DA in serum measured in free-ranging California sea lions following natural exposure, suggesting a risk for immunomodulation in free-ranging animals. Understanding the risk for immunomodulation upon DA exposure will contribute in the health assessment and management of California sea lions and southern sea otters, as well as guide veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators in caring for and treating afflicted animals. PMID:20688647

  20. Carrageenan Primes Leukocytes To Enhance Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Masanori; Matsui, Takashi; Kita, Toshiro; Shigematsu, Akio

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported that pretreatment with carrageenan (CAR) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production in and lethality for mice. Whole blood cultured in vitro was used to show that CAR pretreatment results in about a 200-fold increase in LPS-induced TNF-α production. CAR by itself did not induce TNF-α production. However, CAR-treated cultured medium sensitized whole blood to make more LPS-induced TNF than did saline-treated cultured medium in vitro. It was also demonstrated that CAR pretreatment increases TNF-α mRNA levels of both blood cells and peritoneal exudate cells, but not of bone marrow cells. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages are TNF-α-producing cells in CAR-treated mice. In CAR-treated mice, TNF-α was seen early after LPS injection in leukocytes in hepatic sinusoids and on the surfaces of endothelial cells. TNF-α was also detected late after LPS injection in hepatocytes which become edematous. These results suggest that CAR primes leukocytes to produce TNF-α in response to LPS and that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver injury. PMID:10377102

  1. DNA extraction for short tandem repeat typing from mixed samples using anti-human leukocyte CD45 and ABO blood group antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shizue; Honda, Katsuya; Kaminiwa, Junko; Nishi, Takeki; Iwabuchi, Yayoi; Sugano, Yukiko; Kurosu, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    DNA testing from mixed cell samples can be difficult to use successfully in criminal investigations. Here, we present a method for the extraction of DNA from mixed bloodstains involving plural contributors, after antibody-microbead captured cell separation. This method, together with the multiplex short tandem repeat typing presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles corresponding to the ABO blood type. Methodological steps include magnetic separation using leukocyte specific CD45 antibody-coated microbeads and centrifugal separation of leukocyte agglutination by ABO antibody. The detection results of variable mixed ratio showed that the target DNA was detected accurately as low as 1:512 mixed ratio, regardless of the large amount of the background DNA present. The method presented here is applicable to PCR-based identification for various kinds of mixed samples. PMID:24680125

  2. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes and the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melkonian, Stephanie C.; Wang, Xin; Gu, Jian; Matin, Surena F.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Wood, Christopher G.; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-01-01

    Variation of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risk of various cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We assessed the association between mtDNAcn and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) risk in 608 cases and 629 controls frequency-matched on age and gender. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, history of hypertension, total energy intake and physical activity. Our results suggest an association between low mtDNAcn and ccRCC risk (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.97–1.68, P = 0.09). Lower mtDNAcn was associated with increased ccRCC risk in younger individuals (age <60, OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.13–2.49, P = 0.01), women (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.03–2.73, P = 0.04), individuals without history of hypertension (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.09–2.41, P = 0.02) and individuals with low physical activity levels (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.02–2.37, P = 0.05). We observed significant and marginally significant interactions between both age and history of hypertension and mtDNAcn in elevating ccRCC risk (P for interaction = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively). Additionally, low mtDNAcn was associated with ccRCC risk in younger individuals with low levels of physical activity [ORs and 95% CI for medium and low physical activity levels, respectively, 2.31 (1.18–4.52) and 2.09 (1.17–3.75), P interaction = 0.04]. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the role of mtDNAcn in the ccRCC subtype and the first to suggest that this association may be modified by risk factors including age, gender, history of hypertension and physical activity. PMID:25524925

  3. Physiologic imaging of radiolabeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiolabeling of leukocytes and other cellular elements of the blood has allowed a number of physiologic processes to be investigated. In addition, many commonly performed clinical nuclear medicine procedures utilize these techniques. The following is a review of the labeling technique and of the utility of radiolabeled leukocytes. 87 references.

  4. White blood cell count - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Interfering factors: Acute emotional or physical stress can increase WBC counts. There are various types of white blood cells (WBCs) that normally appear in the blood: neutrophils (polymorphonuclear ...

  5. Hesperidin Displays Relevant Role in the Nutrigenomic Effect of Orange Juice on Blood Leukocytes in Human Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Dragan; Deval, Christiane; Dubray, Claude; Mazur, Andrzej; Morand, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background We previously showed, in healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, that orange juice decreases diastolic blood pressure and significantly improves postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity and that hesperidin could be causally linked to the observed beneficial effect of orange juice. The objective was to determine the effect of chronic consumption of orange juice on the gene expression profile of leukocytes in healthy volunteers and to assess to what extent hesperidin is involved in the effect of orange juice. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were included in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Throughout three 4-week periods, volunteers consumed daily: 500 ml orange juice, 500 ml control drink plus hesperidin or 500 ml control drink and placebo. Blood samplings were performed on 10 overnight-fasted subjects after the 4-week treatment period. Global gene expression profiles were determined using human whole genome cDNA microarrays. Both orange juice and hesperidin consumption significantly affected leukocyte gene expression. Orange juice consumption induced changes in expression of, 3,422 genes, while hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1,819 genes. Between the orange juice and hesperidin consumption groups, 1,582 regulated genes were in common. Many of these genes are implicated in chemotaxis, adhesion, infiltration and lipid transport, which is suggestive of lower recruitment and infiltration of circulating cells to vascular wall and lower lipid accumulation. Conclusions This study shows that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00983086 PMID:22110589

  6. Inhibition of antigen-induced and interleukin-2-induced proliferation of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes by inactivated bovine herpes virus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, D L; Campos, M; Qualtiere, L; Babiuk, L A

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism by which bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) predisposes cattle to bacterial pneumonia was investigated by using an in vitro system to demonstrate immunosuppression. At a multiplicity of infection of 0.001, live or inactivated BHV-1 induced a 50% inhibition of the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes to antigen (vaccinia virus in vaccinia virus-immunized cattle which were BHV-1 negative) or interleukin-2. At this same multiplicity of infection, the mitogen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes was unaffected. This inhibition of antigen and interleukin-2-induced proliferative responses could not be reversed by the addition of excess amounts of interleukin-2 and could not be prevented by the addition of indomethacin to block prostaglandin production. Antibodies to BHV-1, especially those specific for glycoproteins gI and gIV, were able to block the inhibitory effect of BHV-1 in these in vitro assays. These results showed that antibody to BHV-1 blocks the immunosuppressive effect of the virus in vitro and suggested that an appropriate antibody response to BHV-1 could protect cattle from virus-induced immunosuppression leading to secondary bacterial pneumonia. PMID:2166810

  7. Leukocyte Activation in Obese Patients: Effect of Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Daniele; Gumiero, Daniela; Nicolazzi, Maria Anna; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Fuorlo, Mariella; Guidone, Caterina; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Fattorossi, Andrea; Mingrone, Geltrude; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2015-10-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity is a major global health problem. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery (BS) allows to obtain a significant weight loss and comorbidities improvement, among them one of the factors is the thrombotic risk. In this observational study, we measured indices of leukocyte activation in severely obese patients as markers of increased thrombotic risk in relation with serum markers of inflammation before and after BS.Frequency of polymorphonuclear neutrophil-platelet (PLT) and monocyte (MONO)-PLT aggregates as well as of tissue factor (TF) expressing MONOs was measured in the peripheral blood of 58 consecutive obese patients and 30 healthy controls. In 31 of the 58 obese patients, data obtained at the enrollment were compared with those obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months after BS.Compared with healthy controls, obese patients showed a higher frequency of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)-PLT aggregates (7.47??2.45 [6.82-8.11]% vs 5.85??1.89 [5.14-6.55]%, P?=?0.001), MONO-PLT aggregates (12.31??7.33 [10.38-14.24]% vs 8.14??2.22 [7.31-8.97]%, P?leukocyte-PLT aggregate formation and MONO activation represent an important mechanism underlying the increased thrombotic risk of obese patients. We also show that BS is effective in normalizing these inflammatory indices. PMID:26447995

  8. Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases proinflammatory signaling in peripheral blood human leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Fadia; Haines, David; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Dashti, Ali A; Al-Awadhi, Adel; Ibrahim, Basel; Al-Zayer, Bashayer; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2014-05-01

    Sour cherry seed extract (SCE) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-treated human peripheral blood T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the chemokine interleukin-8. Both proteins are diagnostic biomarkers for inflammatory pathologies. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 11 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 8 healthy control subjects were co-cultured for 24h in lipopolysaccharide and the extract, then evaluated by flow cytometry for T cell activation and by enzyme-linked immunoassay for lymphocyte-associated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. There was a dose-dependent decrease in expression of the immunophenotypes: CD3+TNF-?+, and CD3+IL8+ in cultures from RA patients to a greater extent than in cells from healthy participants. These results suggest that the extract may have a modulatory roll in RA and other inflammatory disorders via the induction of HO-1, thus abating oxidative stress and strengthening regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:24631368

  9. Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

  10. Biphasic control of polymorphonuclear cell migration by Kupffer cells. Effect of exposure to metabolic products of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Fainsilber, Z.; Feinman, L.; Shaw, S.; Lieber, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the Kupffer cells in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis, rat liver Kupffer cells were cultured and exposed to products of ethanol metabolism. The resultant supernatants were tested to study their ability to stimulate or inhibit polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis. Kupffer cells produced increased chemokinetic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; when incubated with soluble products of microsomal peroxidation, the Kupffer cells engendered more chemokinetic activity than that produced by untreated Kupffer cells. When Kupffer cells were incubated with acetaldehyde, the chemokinetic activity that appeared in the supernatant did not differ from control. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear cells was not observed when the Kupffer cell supernatants were tested by checkerboard analysis.

  11. Anandamide inhibits Theiler's virus induced VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells and reduces leukocyte transmigration in a model of blood brain barrier by activation of CB1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background VCAM-1 represents one of the most important adhesion molecule involved in the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is an essential step in the pathogenesis of MS. Several evidences have suggested the potential therapeutic value of cannabinoids (CBs) in the treatment of MS and their experimental models. However, the effects of endocannabinoids on VCAM-1 regulation are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of anandamide (AEA) in the regulation of VCAM-1 expression induced by Theiler's virus (TMEV) infection of brain endothelial cells using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methods i) in vitro: VCAM-1 was measured by ELISA in supernatants of brain endothelial cells infected with TMEV and subjected to AEA and/or cannabinoid receptors antagonist treatment. To evaluate the functional effect of VCAM-1 modulation we developed a blood brain barrier model based on a system of astrocytes and brain endothelial cells co-culture. ii) in vivo: CB1 receptor deficient mice (Cnr1-/-) infected with TMEV were treated with the AEA uptake inhibitor UCM-707 for three days. VCAM-1 expression and microglial reactivity were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Anandamide-induced inhibition of VCAM-1 expression in brain endothelial cell cultures was mediated by activation of CB1 receptors. The study of leukocyte transmigration confirmed the functional relevance of VCAM-1 inhibition by AEA. In vivo approaches also showed that the inhibition of AEA uptake reduced the expression of brain VCAM-1 in response to TMEV infection. Although a decreased expression of VCAM-1 by UCM-707 was observed in both, wild type and CB1 receptor deficient mice (Cnr1-/-), the magnitude of VCAM-1 inhibition was significantly higher in the wild type mice. Interestingly, Cnr1-/- mice showed enhanced microglial reactivity and VCAM-1 expression following TMEV infection, indicating that the lack of CB1 receptor exacerbated neuroinflammation. Conclusions Our results suggest that CB1 receptor dependent VCAM-1 inhibition is a novel mechanism for AEA-reduced leukocyte transmigration and contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of endocannabinoid system in the Theiler's virus model of MS. PMID:21851608

  12. Immunological changes in canine peripheral blood leukocytes triggered by immunization with first or second generation vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Arajo, Mrcio Sobreira Silva; de Andrade, Renata Aline; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Magalhes, Camila Paula; Carvalho, Andra Teixeira; Andrade, Marilia Chaves; Campolina, Sabrina Sidney; Mello, Maria Norma; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Mayrink, Wilson; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Rocha, Luciana Morais; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2011-05-15

    In this study, we summarized the major phenotypic/functional aspects of circulating leukocytes following canine immunization with Leishvaccine and Leishmune. Our findings showed that Leishvaccine triggered early changes in the innate immunity (neutrophils and eosinophils) with late alterations on monocytes. Conversely, Leishmune() induced early phenotypic changes in both, neutrophils and monocytes. Moreover, Leishvaccine triggered mixed activation-related phenotypic changes on T-cells (CD4+ and CD8+ and B-lymphocytes, whereas Leishmune() promoted a selective response, mainly associated with CD8+ T-cell activation. Mixed cytokine profile (IFN-?/IL-4) was observed in Leishvaccine immunized dogs whereas a selective pro-inflammatory pattern (IFN-?/NO) was induced by Leishmune vaccination. The distinct immunological profile triggered by Leishvaccine and Leishmune may be a direct consequence of the distinct biochemical composition of these immunobiological, i.e. complex versus purified Leishmania antigen along with Bacillus Calmette-Gurin (BCG) versus saponin adjuvant. Both immunobiologicals are able to activate phagocytes and CD8+ T-cells and therefore could be considered as a putative vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). PMID:21439654

  13. Short telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with an increased risk of oral premalignant lesion and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bau, Da-Tian; Lippman, Scott M.; Xu, Enping; Gong, Yilei; Lee, J. Jack; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are precursors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Short telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with increased risks of several cancers. However, whether short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) predisposes to OPL and OSCC is unclear. Methods LTLs were measured in PBLs of 266 patients with OPL (N=174) or OSCC (N=92) at diagnosis and 394 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The association between LTL and OPL or OSCC risk, as well as the interaction of telomere length, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking on OPL or OSCC risk were analyzed. Results The age-adjusted relative LTL was the shortest in OSCC (1.640.29), intermediate in OPL (1.750.43), and longest in controls (1.820.36) (P for trend < 0.001). When dichotomized at the median value in controls, adjusting for age, gender, smoking and alcohol drinking status, the odds ratio (OR) for OPL and OSCC risks associated with short LTL was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.293.21) and 3.47 (95% CI = 1.846.53), respectively, with significant dose-response effects for both associations. Among 174 OPL patients, 23 progressed to OSCC and the mean LTL was shorter than in progressors than non-progressors (1.660.35 vs. 1.770.44), although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.258) likely due to the small number of progressors. Interaction analysis shows that short LTL, smoking, and alcohol drinking are independent risk factors for OPL and OSCC. Conclusion Short LTL is associated with increased risks of developing OPL and OSCC and likely predisposes to the malignant progression of OPL patients. PMID:24105340

  14. Cytokine profiles of cord and adult blood leukocytes: differences in expression are due to differences in expression and activation of transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, Andreas; Zhang, Meixia; Clauss, Theresa; Siegert, Wolfgang; Brune, Kay; Pahl, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Background Stem cell transplantation as therapy for hematological disorders is often hampered by severe graft-versus-host-disease. This may be reduced by umbilical cord blood transplantation, an effect that has been attributed to qualitative differences between neonatal and adult T cells. We compared levels of secreted proteins and cytokine mRNA induced in cord blood leukocytes (CBL) and adult blood leukocytes (ABL) by various stimuli. Results While interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels were similar in CBL and ABL, there was less induction of the Th1 cytokine interferon-? in CBL. Production of the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and the hematopoietic cytokine IL-3 was much lower in CBL versus ABL after T-cell receptor-mediated stimulation, whereas production of GM-CSF was comparable in the 2 cell types. The lower levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines were maintained in CBL during a 4-day time-course study, while after 12 hours IL-3 and GM-CSF reached in CBL levels similar to those in ABL. For all cytokines except IFN?, the IC50 values for inhibition by cyclosporin A were similar in ABL and CBL. In contrast, there was less expression and activation of transcription factors in CBL. Activation of NF-?B by TPA/ionomycin was detected in ABL but not CBL. Furthermore, there was less expression of the Th subset-specific transcription factors T-bet and c-maf in CBL versus ABL, whereas GATA-3 expression was similar. Expression of T-bet and c-maf correlated with expression of the Th1 and Th2 cytokines, respectively. Time course experiments revealed that T-bet expression was stimulated in both cell types, whereas c-maf and GATA-3 were induced only in ABL. Conclusion The diminished capability of CBL to synthesize cytokines is probably due to decreased activation of NF-?B, whereas differences in Th subsets are due to differences in regulation of Th lineage-specific transcriptions factors. We propose that the reduced incidence and severity of GvHD after allogeneic transplantation of umbilical CB cells is due to lesser activation of specific transcription factors and a subsequent reduction in production of certain cytokines. PMID:17764543

  15. Evaluation of propolis, honey, and royal jelly in amelioration of peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model

    PubMed Central

    El-Aidy, Waleed K.; Ebeid, Ahmad A.; Sallam, Abd El-Raouf M.; Muhammad, Ibrahim E.; Abbas, Ayman T.; Kamal, M.A.; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2014-01-01

    Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model. The mice in group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice in group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies. The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells. PMID:26587007

  16. Evaluation of propolis, honey, and royal jelly in amelioration of peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model.

    PubMed

    El-Aidy, Waleed K; Ebeid, Ahmad A; Sallam, Abd El-Raouf M; Muhammad, Ibrahim E; Abbas, Ayman T; Kamal, M A; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2015-11-01

    Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model. The mice in group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice in group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies. The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells. PMID:26587007

  17. Comparative study of peripheral blood leukocytes in healthy dogs and in dogs with cancer and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Garca-Sancho, Mercedes; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Rodrguez-Franco, Fernando; Sainz, Angel

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the peripheral blood lymphocyte subset distribution was compared between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease, dental and skin conditions, and cancer. The immunophenotype of the group with chronic gastrointestinal disease and the group with dental and skin conditions showed no statistically significant differences with other groups of healthy or diseased dogs. When compared with healthy dogs, animals with cancer showed significantly lower absolute values of T cytotoxic cells (CD3+, CD8+) and lymphocytes that express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (MHC-II+) in peripheral blood. The results suggest that peripheral blood immunophenotype is mainly altered in dogs with cancer but not in other diseases. Further studies are required to evaluate the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:24518278

  18. Modulatory effects of dietary beta-carotene on blood and mammary leukocyte function in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Michal, J J; Heirman, L R; Wong, T S; Chew, B P; Frigg, M; Volker, L

    1994-05-01

    Beginning 4 wk prior to predicted calving, 14 Holstein cows per treatment were fed diets 1) unsupplemented (control) or supplemented daily with 2) 300 mg of beta-carotene, 3) 600 mg of beta-carotene, or 4) 120,000 IU of vitamin A. Blood was collected around calving on wk -4, -2, -1, 0 (within 24 h postcalving), 1, 2, and 4 for isolation of lymphocytes and neutrophils and for the analysis of plasma vitamins. Lacteal secretions were collected on wk 0, 1, 2, and 4 for the isolation of phagocytes. Cows supplemented with 600 mg of beta-carotene had higher concentrations of plasma beta-carotene and retinol than did unsupplemented cows. Supplemental vitamin A increased plasma retinol on wk 4 and decreased plasma beta-carotene on wk -1 and 0. Treatment did not affect concentrations of plasma alpha-tocopherol. Blood lymphocyte proliferation in response to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweed mitogen during the peripartum period was higher in cows supplemented with beta-carotene than in unsupplemented controls. Phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils was enhanced on wk 1 in cows fed 300 mg of beta-carotene. Intracellular killing by blood neutrophils was enhanced in cows supplemented with beta-carotene (wk 0) and vitamin A (wk 0 and 1). Iodine uptake and nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by blood neutrophils was stimulated in cows supplemented with beta-carotene. Phagocytic activity, iodine uptake, and nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by mammary phagocytes from all cows generally were lower postpartum than on the day of calving. The incidence of retained placenta and metritis was higher for unsupplemented cows than for cows supplemented with beta-carotene. Therefore, dietary beta-carotene can elevate peripartum concentrations of blood beta-carotene, enhance host defense mechanisms by potentiating lymphocyte and phagocyte function, and decrease the incidence of certain reproductive disorders. PMID:8046080

  19. Whole transcriptome RNA sequencing data from blood leukocytes derived from Parkinson's disease patients prior to and following deep brain stimulation treatment

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, Lilach; Salomonis, Nathan; Guffanti, Alessandro; Bergman, Hagai; Israel, Zvi; Soreq, Hermona

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates the power of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) for identifying valuable and urgently needed blood biomarkers and advancing both early and accurate detection of neurological diseases, and in particular Parkinson's disease (PD). RNA sequencing technology enables non-biased, high throughput, probe-independent inspection of expression data and high coverage and both quantification of global transcript levels as well as the detection of expressed exons and junctions given a sufficient sequencing depth (coverage). However, the analysis of sequencing data frequently presents a bottleneck. Tools for quantification of alternative splicing from sequenced libraries hardly exist at the present time, and methods that support multiple sequencing platforms are especially lacking. Here, we describe in details a whole RNA-Seq transcriptome dataset produced from PD patient's blood leukocytes. The samples were taken prior to, and following deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment while being on stimulation and following 1h of complete electrical stimulation cessation and from healthy control volunteers. We describe in detail the methodology applied for analyzing the RNA-Seq data including differential expression of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). We also provide details of the corresponding analysis of in-depth splice isoform data from junction and exon reads, with the use of the software AltAnalyze. Both the RNA-Seq raw (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE42608) and analyzed data (https://www.synapse.org/#!Synapse:syn2805267) may be found valuable towards detection of novel blood biomarkers for PD. PMID:26484149

  20. PCR-based human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ alpha typing of blood stained light and dark blue denim fabric.

    PubMed

    Del Rio, S A; Marino, M A; Belgrader, P

    1996-05-01

    Obtaining typable PCR products from DNA purified from blood stained blue denim has been difficult since inhibitors of PCR in blue denim apparently co-purify with the DNA. Organic and chelex extraction methods were tested for their ability to purify typable DNA from either light or dark blue denim fabric both stained with blood. DNA purified from the light blue denim using either method was successfully used in obtaining correct HLA-DQ alpha typing results. The chelex, but not the organic, procedure was able to yield typable DNA when the dark blue denim was the substrate. Therefore, the chelex method may be more effective than the organic method in preventing compounds that inhibit PCR from co-purifying with the DNA. PMID:8656191

  1. The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

  2. Pharmacological effects of a specific leukotriene B(4) receptor antagonist (VML 295) on blood leukocytes, cutaneous inflammation and epidermal proliferation.

    PubMed

    Seegers, B A; Andriessen, M P; van Hooijdonk, C A; de Bakker, E S; van Vlijmen-Willems, I M; Parker, G L; van Erp, P E; van de Kerkhof, P C

    2000-01-01

    VML 295 (LY 293111) is a potent and specific leukotriene(4) receptor antagonist. It has previously been shown in human volunteers that VML 295 at a dosage of 48 mg twice daily inhibits the ex vivo leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4))-induced upregulation of CD11b on peripheral blood neutrophils. A clear dose-response relatinship was shown. In addition, VML 295 inhibits various inflammatory aspects resulting from LTB(4) challenge of the skin, again showing a dose-response relationship. In view of the large variation in the elimination half-life of VML 295 (25-88.5 h) in individual human subjects, the present pharmacological study was designed to provide information on the pharmacodynamics of the drug by the assessment of VML 295 plasma concentrations, ex vivo LTB(4)-induced CD11b upregulation of neutrophils, neutrophil accumulation in the skin following epicutaneous application of LTB(4) and epidermal regeneration following standardized surface trauma. A group of 36 healthy volunteers were treated in a double-blind study with VML 295 at 200 mg twice daily, VML 295 at 200 mg once daily or placebo for 7 days. Before treatment, at the end of treatment and following discontinuation of treatment, VML 295 plasma concentrations and CD11b upregulation of blood neutrophils were assessed. In 18 subjects, the effects of the three treatments on LTB(4)-induced inflammatory were assessed before and at the end of treatment, and in the remaining 18 subjects the effects of these treatments on epidermal regeneration were assessed similarly. VML 295 at 200 mg either twice or once daily has a profound inhibitory effect on ex vivo LTB(4)-induced CD11b upregulation of blood neutrophils, LTB(4)-induced neutrophil accumulation in the skin, trauma-induced hyperproliferation of the epidermis and regenerative keratinization. The twice daily dose schedule was significantly more effective than the once daily regimen in reducing ex vivo CD11b stimulation of neutrophils, in blood samples collected 24 h after discontinuation of VML 295 treatment. The twice daily schedule tended to be more efficient in skin biopsies, although this difference was not statistically significant in the number of subjects investigated. A plasma concentration of 100 ng/ml proved to be the threshold for these effects. The profound biological effects, both systemically and cutaneously, as well as the safety profile, make VML 295 a promising drug for skin disorders characterized by epidermal proliferation and neutrophil accumulation. PMID:10754455

  3. Pathogenic Triad in Bacterial Meningitis: Pathogen Invasion, NF-κB Activation, and Leukocyte Transmigration that Occur at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shifu; Peng, Liang; Gai, Zhongtao; Zhang, Lehai; Jong, Ambrose; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains the leading cause of disabilities worldwide. This life-threatening disease has a high mortality rate despite the availability of antibiotics and improved critical care. The interactions between bacterial surface components and host defense systems that initiate bacterial meningitis have been studied in molecular and cellular detail over the past several decades. Bacterial meningitis commonly exhibits triad hallmark features (THFs): pathogen penetration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in coordination with type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists mainly of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). This review outlines the progression of these early inter-correlated events contributing to the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and injury during the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. A better understanding of these issues is not only imperative to elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of bacterial meningitis, but may also provide the in-depth insight into the development of novel therapeutic interventions against this disease. PMID:26925035

  4. Cloning and expression of recombinant equine interleukin-3 and its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jozef; Lehmann, Melissa; Luttmann, Werner; Marti, Eliane

    2015-02-15

    Interleukin-3 is a growth and differentiation factor for various hematopoietic cells. IL-3 also enhances stimulus-dependent release of mediators and cytokine production by mature basophils. Function of IL-3 has not been studied in horses because of lack of horse-specific reagents. Our aim was to produce recombinant equine IL-3 and test its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Equine IL-3 was cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. PBL of 19 healthy and 20 insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH)-affected horses were stimulated with Culicoides nubeculosus extract with or without IL-3. Sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) production was measured in supernatants by ELISA and mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-13 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) assessed in cell lysate by quantitative real-time PCR. Recombinant equine IL-3 (req-IL-3) had a dose dependent effect on sLT production by stimulated equine PBL and significantly increased IL-4, IL-13 and TSLP expression compared to non-primed cells. IL-3 priming significantly increased Culicoides-induced sLT production in IBH-affected but not in non-affected horses and was particularly effective in young IBH-affected horses (≤ 3 years). A functionally active recombinant equine IL-3 has been produced which will be useful for future immunological studies in horses. It will also allow improving the sensitivity of cellular in vitro tests for allergy diagnosis in horses. PMID:25530476

  5. Pathogenic Triad in Bacterial Meningitis: Pathogen Invasion, NF-κB Activation, and Leukocyte Transmigration that Occur at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifu; Peng, Liang; Gai, Zhongtao; Zhang, Lehai; Jong, Ambrose; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains the leading cause of disabilities worldwide. This life-threatening disease has a high mortality rate despite the availability of antibiotics and improved critical care. The interactions between bacterial surface components and host defense systems that initiate bacterial meningitis have been studied in molecular and cellular detail over the past several decades. Bacterial meningitis commonly exhibits triad hallmark features (THFs): pathogen penetration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in coordination with type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists mainly of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). This review outlines the progression of these early inter-correlated events contributing to the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and injury during the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. A better understanding of these issues is not only imperative to elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of bacterial meningitis, but may also provide the in-depth insight into the development of novel therapeutic interventions against this disease. PMID:26925035

  6. Differential expression of Raf-1 protooncogene in resting and activated human leukocyte populations

    SciTech Connect

    Colotta, F.; Polentarutti, N.; Mantovani, A. )

    1991-06-01

    In this study the authors examined by Northern blot analysis the expression of Raf-1 protooncogene in normal human peripheral blood leukocytes. Unlike thymocytes, circulating lymphocytes did not express appreciable levels of Raf-1 mRNA. In contrast, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) had high levels of Raf-1 transcripts. Also density gradient separated monocytes showed Raf-1 mRNA but at lower levels compared to PMN. Expression of Raf-1 was constitutive inasmuch as it was not induced by the purification procedure. The half-life of Raf-1 mRNA in PMN was > 4 h. Functional activation of PMN and monocytes with various stimuli (phorbol esters, tumor necrosis factor, colony stimulating factors, LPS) did not affect Raf-1 expression. Circulating lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens also expressed high levels of transcripts of this protooncogene. PHA-induced transcripts in lymphocytes had an half-life > 4 h. The pattern of expression of Raf-1 resting and activated leukocytes suggests that this protooncogene may play a role in expression of differentiated functions and activation of these cells.

  7. Assessment of DNA sensitivity in peripheral blood leukocytes after occupational exposure to microwave radiation: the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay.

    PubMed

    Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Orescanin, Visnja

    2009-02-01

    DNA sensitivity in peripheral blood leukocytes of radar-facility workers daily exposed to microwave radiation and an unexposed control subjects was investigated. The study was carried out on clinically healthy male workers employed on radar equipment and antenna system service within a microwave field of 10 muW/cm(2)-20 mW/cm(2) with frequency range of 1,250-1,350 MHz. The control group consisted of subjects of similar age. The evaluation of DNA damage and sensitivity was performed using alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay (bleomycin-sensitivity assay). The levels of DNA damage in exposed subjects determined by alkaline comet assay were increased compared to control group and showed inter-individual variations. After short exposure of cultured lymphocytes to bleomycin cells of subjects occupationally exposed to microwave (MW) radiation responded with high numbers of chromatid breaks. Almost three times higher number of bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined in comparison with control group. The difference in break per cell (b/c) values recorded between smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant in the exposed group. Regression analyses showed significant positive correlation between the results obtained with two different methods. Considering the correlation coefficients, the number of metaphase with breaks was a better predictor of the comet assay parameters compared to b/c ratio. The best correlation was found between tail moment and number of chromatid with breaks. Our results indicate that MW radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard using the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive biomarkers of individual cancer susceptibility. PMID:18214694

  8. Determination of acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase enzyme activity in peripheral blood leukocytes of gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa).

    PubMed

    Altunay, H; Harem, I S; Harem, M K; Asti, R N; Kurtdede, N

    2008-12-01

    We examined gazelle peripheral blood leucocytes using the alpha-Naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining technique (pH 5.8). Our purpose was to determine the percentage of ANAE positive lymphocytes. The proportion of ANAE positive T-lymphocytes was 72%. T-lymphocytes showed an ANAE positive reaction, but eosinophilic granulocytes and monocytes also showed a positive reaction. By contrast, no reaction was detected in B-lymphocytes, neutrophil granulocytes or platelets. The reaction observed in T-lymphocytes was a red-brown coloration, usually 1-2 granules, but enough granules to fill the cytoplasm were detected rarely. As a result of ANAE enzyme staining, we concluded that the staining technique can be used as a cytochemical marker for gazelle T-lymphocytes. PMID:19085516

  9. Gene-diet interactions in exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines and bulky DNA adduct levels in blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vikki; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Chen, Jian; King, Will D

    2015-08-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), carcinogens produced in meat when cooked at high temperatures, are an emerging biologic explanation for the meat-colorectal cancer relationship. HAAs form DNA adducts; left unrepaired, adducts can induce mutations, which may initiate/promote carcinogenesis. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between dietary HAAs, genetic susceptibility and bulky DNA adduct levels. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between dietary HAA exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels in blood measured using (32)P-postlabeling among 99 healthy volunteers. Gene-diet interactions between dietary HAAs and genetic factors relevant to the biotransformation of HAAs and DNA repair were also examined. No main effects of dietary HAAs on bulky DNA adduct levels was found. However, those with the putative NAT1 rapid acetylator phenotype had lower adduct levels than those with the slow acetylator phenotype (P?=?0.02). Furthermore, having five or more 'at-risk' genotypes was associated with higher bulky DNA adduct levels (P?=?0.03). Gene-diet interactions were observed between NAT1 polymorphisms and dietary HAAs (P?

  10. Hyperreactivity of Blood Leukocytes in Patients with NAFLD to Ex Vivo Lipopolysaccharide Treatment Is Modulated by Metformin and Phosphatidylcholine but Not by Alpha Ketoglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Daniluk, Jadwiga; Słabczyńska, Olga; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Toll-like receptor 4 and proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We investigated IL-1, IL-6 and TNFα production and toll-like receptor 4 in both—obese and lean patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who met different sets of metabolic syndrome criteria and linked the results with the disease burden. Materials and Methods 95 subjects were divided into four groups depending on the following criteria: presence or absence of metabolic syndrome and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, glucose tolerance (prediabetes or normoglycemia) and BMI value (obese or lean). We determined the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and monocyte toll-like receptor 4 expression in fresh blood as well as in blood cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide with or without metformin, alphaketoglutarate or phosphatidylcholine supplementation. Results The blood leukocytes of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide treatment and produce elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to ex vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, they overexpress toll-like receptor-4. Hyperreactivity was typical mainly for obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease together with metabolic syndrome and decreased with the severity of disease. Metformin was the most effective in attenuation of hyperreactivity in all groups of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but in obese patients the effectiveness of metformin was weaker than in lean. The reduction of cytokine level by metformin was accompanied by the decrease in toll-like receptor-4 expression. phosphatidylcholine also attenuated hyperreactivity to lipopolysaccharide but mainly in obese patients. Alpha ketoglutarate did not modulate cytokines’ level and toll-like receptor 4 expression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients. Conclusions Metformin and phosphatidylcholine attenuated lipopolysaccharide induced toll-like receptor 4 overexpression and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, their efficacy depended on combined presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:26629827

  11. Time-resolved in situ assembly of the leukotriene-synthetic 5-lipoxygenase/5-lipoxygenase-activating protein complex in blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Gerstmeier, Jana; Weinigel, Christina; Rummler, Silke; Rdmark, Olof; Werz, Oliver; Garscha, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the initial steps in the biosynthesis of proinflammatory leukotrienes. Upon cell activation, 5-LO translocates to the nuclear membrane where arachidonic acid is transferred by 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) to 5-LO for metabolism. Although previous data indicate association of 5-LO with FLAP, the in situ assembly of native 5-LO/FLAP complexes remains elusive. Here, we show time-resolved 5-LO/FLAP colocalization by immunofluorescence microscopy and in situ 5-LO/FLAP interaction by proximity ligation assay at the nuclear membrane of Ca(2+)-ionophore A23187-activated human monocytes and neutrophils in relation to 5-LO activity. Although 5-LO translocation and product formation is completed within 1.5-3 min, 5-LO/FLAP interaction is delayed and proceeds up to 30 min. Though monocytes and neutrophils contain comparable amounts of 5-LO protein, neutrophils produce 3-5 times higher levels of 5-LO products due to prolonged activity, accompanied by delayed 5-LO nuclear membrane translocation. Arachidonic acid seemingly acts as adaptor for 5-LO/FLAP assembly, whereas FLAP inhibitors (MK886, 100 nM; BAY X 1005, 3 M) disrupt the complex. We conclude that FLAP may regulate 5-LO activity in 2 ways: first by inducing an initial flexible association for efficient 5-LO product synthesis, followed by the formation of a tight 5-LO/FLAP complex that terminates 5-LO activity.-Gerstmeier, J., Weinigel, C., Rummler, S., Rdmark, O., Werz, O., Garscha, U. Time-resolved in situ assembly of the leukotriene-synthetic 5-lipoxygenase/5-lipoxygenase-activating protein complex in blood leukocytes. PMID:26396238

  12. The role of G-CSF and IL-6 in the granulopoiesis-stimulating activity of murine blood serum induced by perorally administered ultrafiltered pig leukocyte extract, IMUNOR.

    PubMed

    Vacek, Antonín; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Weiterová, Lenka; Streitová, Denisa; Svoboda, Jaroslav

    2007-05-01

    IMUNOR, a low-molecular weight (< 12 kD) ultrafiltered pig leukocyte extract, has been previously found to have significant stimulatory effects on murine hematopoiesis supressed by ionizing radiation or cytotoxic drugs. This communication shows data on the mechanisms of these effects. Using ELISA assay, significantly increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed. On the contrary, no detectable levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CFC) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) have been found in blood serum of IMUNOR-treated mice. Incubation of the serum from IMUNOR-treated mice with antibodies against G-CSF caused abrogation of the ability of the sera to stimulate in vitro growth of colonies originating from granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC). In contrast, incubation of the serum with antibodies against IL-6 did not change its colony-stimulating activity. It may be inferred from these findings that G-CSF is probably the main cytokine responsible for the granulopoiesis-stimulating effects of IMUNOR. When the serum from IMUNOR-treated mice with G-CSF inactivated by anti-G-CSF antibodies (but with elevated IL-6) was added to cultures of bone marrow cells together with a suboptimum concentration of IL-3, a significant increase in the numbers of GM-CFC colonies was found. Moreover, conjoint inactivation of G-CSF and IL-6 significantly decreased the numbers of GM-CFC colonies in comparison with those observed when only G-CSF was inactivated. This observation strongly suggests that though IMUNOR-induced IL-6 is not able to induce the growth of GM-CFC colonies alone, it is able to potentiate the hematopoiesis-stimulating effect of IL-3. These findings represent a new knowledge concerning the hematopoiesis-stimulating action of IMUNOR, a promising immunomodulatory agent. PMID:17386413

  13. The Effect of Hypertonic Saline on mRNA of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Polymorphonuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Youn; Moon, Sung-Woo; Cho, Young-Duck; Yeom, Ji-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertonic saline is often used to resuscitate patients experiencing shock. In such conditions, polymorphonuclear cells and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an essential part of early induced innate immunity. Objective To investigate the immunomodulatory effect of hypertonic saline on polymorphonuclear cells by evaluating the changes in TLR-4 receptors and proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from whole blood using Polymorphprep (Axis-Shield, Oslo, Norway). The isolated polymorphonuclear cells were plated at a density of 1 106cells/mL in 6-well flat-bottomed culture plates and were stimulated with 1 ?g/mL lipopolysaccharide or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The stimulated polymorphonuclear cells were cultured in hypertonic saline at 10, 20, or 40 mmol/L above isotonicity. After that, the changes in TLR-4 and cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Results The level of TLR-4 mRNA expression decreased after stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, but hypertonic saline did not affect the TLR-4 mRNA expression. TLR-4 mRNA expression was clearly induced upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, and the addition of hypertonic saline restored TLR-4 mRNA expression in polymorphonuclear cells. The interleukin-1? mRNA expression was decreased in the hypertonic environment. On the other hand, the tumor necrosis factor-? value was not influenced by the addition of hypertonic saline. Conclusions Hypertonic saline has an immunomodulatory effect on polymorphonuclear cells through the TLR-4 pathway, and the interleukin1?-associated pathway is influenced more by hypertonic saline than is the tumor necrosis factor?-associated pathway. PMID:25067987

  14. Role of complement activation in cell adhesion to polymer blood contact surfaces. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Herzlinger, G.A.; Cumming, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Activation of complement components is well known to mediate chemotactic, adhesive, and phagocytic responses of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) to foreign substances in the inflammatory process. Complement dependent mechanisms of platelet injury have been described which are applicable to the canine model, which is most commonly used for the short-term evaluation of biomaterials and devices. In addition, complement activation at nylon leukapheresis filters and dialysis membrane blood contact surfaces has already been demonstrated. In this study the role of complement activation in mediating PMN and platelet adhesion to polymer blood contact surfaces using an ex vivo blood flow experiment with normal dogs, and dogs whose complement C3 level had been sharply reduced in vivo by prior administration of cobra venom factor (CVF) have been investigated. The effects of CVF on blood chemistry, hematology and ADP induced platelet aggregation (a noncomplement dependent process) were also investigated.

  15. Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, Hayk A

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation. PMID:25259410

  16. Biologic and immunohistochemical analysis of interleukin-6 expression in vivo. Constitutive and induced expression in murine polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Terebuh, P. D.; Otterness, I. G.; Strieter, R. M.; Lincoln, P. M.; Danforth, J. M.; Kunkel, S. L.; Chensue, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered an important multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular responses, including the induction of acute-phase protein synthesis, lymphocyte activation, and hematopoiesis. In vitro studies have identified many cells that can produce IL-6, but the cellular sources under physiologic conditions have yet to be identified. Using immunoaffinity purified goat anti-murine IL-6, the authors performed immunohistochemical studies to localize cells expressing IL-6 in selected organs of normal and endotoxin challenged NIH-Swiss outbred mice. In the blood, findings were correlated with cell-associated bioactivity using the standard B9 cell proliferation assay. In normal mice, constitutive expression was seen in granulocytes, monocytes and their precursors as well as in bone marrow and splenic stromal macrophages. Hepatic macrophages were negative, as were lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors, and endothelial cells. In the absence of significant serum levels of IL-6, cell-associated IL-6 bioactivity was detected in circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not lymphocytes. After endotoxin challenge, there was a threefold increase in PMN IL-6 content from 1 to 3 hours followed by almost complete depletion at 6 hours. This correlated well with a threefold increase of IL-6 mRNA in the bone marrow followed by a decrease at 6 hours. This pattern also correlated with serum levels of IL-6, which peaked at 3 hours and dropped significantly by 6 hours. By 24 hours, cell-associated IL-6 showed recovery with no increase in serum levels. In vivo findings showing IL-6 expression in bone marrow macrophages support in vitro studies suggesting a role for IL-6 in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, PMNs as well as macrophages are likely important sources of IL-6 during inflammatory and septic states. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:1372159

  17. Expression Profile of Cytokines and Enzymes mRNA in Blood Leukocytes of Dogs with Leptospirosis and Its Associated Pulmonary Hemorrhage Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maissen-Villiger, Carla A.; Schweighauser, Ariane; van Dorland, H. Anette; Morel, Claudine; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Francey, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Background Dogs with leptospirosis show similar organ manifestations and disease course as human patients, including acute kidney injury and pulmonary hemorrhage, making this naturally-occurring infection a good animal model for human leptospirosis. Expression patterns of cytokines and enzymes have been correlated with disease manifestations and clinical outcome in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to describe mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in canine leptospirosis and to compare it with other renal diseases to identify patterns characterizing the disease and especially its pulmonary form. Methodology and Principal Findings The mRNA abundance of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β) and enzymes (5-LO, iNOS) was measured prospectively in blood leukocytes from 34 dogs with severe leptospirosis and acute kidney injury, including 22 dogs with leptospirosis-associated pulmonary hemorrhages. Dogs with leptospirosis were compared to 14 dogs with acute kidney injury of other origin than leptospirosis, 8 dogs with chronic kidney disease, and 10 healthy control dogs. Canine leptospirosis was characterized by high 5-LO and low TNF-α expression compared to other causes of acute kidney injury, although the decreased TNF-α expression was also seen in chronic kidney disease. Leptospirosis-associated pulmonary hemorrhage was not characterized by a specific pattern, with only mild changes noted, including increased IL-10 and decreased 5-LO expression on some days in affected dogs. Fatal outcome from pulmonary hemorrhages was associated with low TNF-α, high IL-1β, and high iNOS expression, a pattern possibly expressed also in dogs with other forms of acute kidney injury. Conclusion The patterns of cytokine and enzyme expression observed in the present study indicate a complex pro- and anti-inflammatory response to the infection with leptospires. The recognition of these signatures may be of diagnostic and prognostic relevance for affected individuals and they may indicate options for newer therapies targeting the identified pathways. PMID:26824356

  18. Influence of SkQ1 on Expression of Nrf2 Gene, ARE-Controlled Genes of Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Activity in Rat Blood Leukocytes under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Vnukov, V V; Gutsenko, O I; Milutina, N P; Kornienko, I V; Ananyan, A A; Danilenko, A O; Panina, S B; Plotnikov, A A; Makarenko, M S

    2015-12-01

    The study demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by hyperoxia (0.5 MPa for 90 min) resulted in reduction of mRNA levels of transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, CAT, GPx4) in peripheral blood leukocytes of rats. The changes in gene expression profiles under hyperoxia were accompanied by disbalance of activity of antioxidant enzymes in the leukocytes, namely activation of superoxide dismutase and inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. Pretreatment of rats with SkQ1 (50nmol/kg for five days) significantly increased mRNA levels of transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes SOD2 and GPx4 and normalized the transcriptional activity of the SOD1 and CAT genes in the leukocytes in hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress. At the same time, the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase was increased, and the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase returned to the control level. It is hypothesized that protective effect of SkQ1 in hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress can be realized via a direct antioxidant property and the stimulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 redox-sensitive signaling system. PMID:26638685

  19. Substitution of Aspartate for glycine 1018 in the Type III procollagen (COL3AI) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: The mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother

    SciTech Connect

    Kontusaari, S.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Prockop, D.J. ); Stolle, C. ); Pope, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an [alpha] chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the [alpha]1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro[alpha](III) chain by adding 167.). Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Substitution of aspartate for glycine 1018 in the type III procollagen (COL3A1) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: the mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother.

    PubMed

    Kontusaari, S; Tromp, G; Kuivaniemi, H; Stolle, C; Pope, F M; Prockop, D J

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino acid position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an alpha chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the alpha 1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro alpha(III) chain by adding 167.) Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. PMID:1496983

  1. Surface modification of polymeric materials and its effect on blood compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Archuleta, T.; Barthell, B.L.; Kossowsky, R.; London, J.E.; Lehnert, B.E.; Duchane, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    The surfaces of commercially available polymeric materials have been modified through the chemical infusion process and physical vapor deposition. The surfaces of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been modified through a chemical infusion process by treatment of the sample with a solution containing varying amounts of titanium(IV)isopropoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The surfaces of silicone rubber samples have been coated with a thin coating of titanium dioxide with an ion beam sputtering technique. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and neutron activation analysis. The infused samples were evaluated for blood compatibility using two biological assays: an adherence assay in which the adherence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the samples was determined, and a hemolysis assay using rat blood erythrocytes to determine the hemolytic activity of the samples. Based on the results of these assays, the PMMA samples treated with PVP alone resulted in an improvement in reactivity with the blood cells. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  2. PEO-like plasma polymerized tetraglyme surface interactions with leukocytes and proteins: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mingchao; Martinson, Laura; Wagner, Matthew S; Castner, David G; Ratner, Buddy D; Horbett, Thomas A

    2002-01-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO) surfaces reduce non-specific protein and cell interactions with implanted biomaterials and may improve their biocompatibility. PEO-like polymerized tetraglyme surfaces were made by glow discharge plasma deposition onto fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) substrates and were shown to adsorb less than 10 ng/cm2 of fibrinogen in vitro. The ability of the polymerized tetraglyme surfaces to resist leukocyte adhesion was studied in vitro and in vivo. Polymerized tetraglyme and FEP were implanted subcutaneously in mice and removed after 1 day or 4 weeks. Histological analysis showed a similar degree of fibrous encapsulation around all of the 4-week implants. Darkly stained wells were present in the fibrous tissues at the tissue-material interface of both FEP and tetraglyme. Scanning electron micrographs showed that in vivo macrophage adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was much higher than to FEP. After 2-hour contact with heparinized whole blood, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was much higher than to FEP, while platelet adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was lower than to FEP. When PMNs isolated from blood were suspended in 10% autologous plasma, cell adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was higher than to FEP; however when the cells were suspended in heat inactivated serum, cell adhesion to FEP was higher than to polymerized tetraglyme. The surface chemistry of polymerized tetraglyme did not change after 2-hour blood contact, but displayed nitrogen functional groups after 1-day implantation and became slightly degraded after 4-week implantation. The surface chemistry of FEP did not change significantly after blood contact or implantation. Loosely bound proteins such as fibrinogen on polymerized tetraglyme may contribute to the adhesion of PMNs and macrophages and ultimately to fibrous encapsulation (the foreign body response) around the implants. PMID:12160299

  3. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation) method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate), ER (Overall Error Rate), and RDE (Relative Distance Error). The presented LC (Lobe Counting) method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight), and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector). PMID:21073711

  4. Feature selection and classification of leukocytes using random forest.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Mukesh; Arya, K V

    2014-12-01

    In automatic segmentation of leukocytes from the complex morphological background of tissue section images, a vast number of artifacts/noise are also extracted causing large amount of multivariate data generation. This multivariate data degrades the performance of a classifier to discriminate between leukocytes and artifacts/noise. However, the selection of prominent features plays an important role in reducing the computational complexity and increasing the performance of the classifier as compared to a high-dimensional features space. Therefore, this paper introduces a novel Gini importance-based binary random forest feature selection method. Moreover, the random forest classifier is used to classify the extracted objects into artifacts, mononuclear cells, and polymorphonuclear cells. The experimental results establish that the proposed method effectively eliminates the irrelevant features, maintaining the high classification accuracy as compared to other feature reduction methods. PMID:25284218

  5. Replication and persistence of measles virus in defined subpopulations of human leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, B S; Lampert, P W; Oldstone, M B

    1975-01-01

    Replication of Edmonston strain measles virus was studied in several human lymphoblast lines, as well as in defined subpopulations of circulating human leukocytes. It was found that measles virus can productively infect T cells, B cells, and monocytes from human blood. These conclusions were derived from infectious center studies on segregated cell populations, as well as from ultrastructural analyses on cells labeled with specific markers. In contrast, mature polymorphonuclear cells failed to synthesize measles virus nucleocapsids even after infection at a relatively high multiplicity of infection. Measles virus replicated more efficiently in lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens than in unstimulated cells. However, both phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen had a negligible stimulatory effect on viral synthesis in purified populations of monocytes. In all instances the efficiency of measles virus replication by monocytes was appreciably less than that of mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes or of continuously culture lymphoblasts. Under standard conditions of infection, all of the surveyed lymphoblast lines produced equivalent amounts of measles virus regardless of the major histocompatibility (HL-A) haplotype. Hence, no evidence was found that the HL-A3,7 haplotype conferred either an advantage or disadvantage with respect to measles virus synthesis in an immunologically neutral environment. A persistent infection with measles virus could be established in both T and B lymphoblasts. The release of infectious virus from such persistently infected cells was stable over a period of several weeks and was approximately 100-fold less than peak viral titers obtained in each respective line after acute infection. Images PMID:1081602

  6. Effects of prepartum stocking density on innate and adaptive leukocyte responses and serum and hair cortisol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Silva, P R B; Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Cerri, R L A; Haines, D M; Ballou, M A; Endres, M I; Chebel, R C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of prepartum stocking density on innate and adaptive leukocyte responses, serum cortisol and haptoglobin concentrations and hair cortisol concentration of Jersey cows. The cows (2543d of gestation) were balanced for parity (nulliparous vs. parous) and previous lactation projected 305-d mature equivalent milk yield and assigned to one of two treatments: 80SD=80% stocking density (38 animals/48 headlocks) and 100SD=100% stocking density (48 animals/48 headlocks). Pens (n=4) were identical in size and design and each pen received each treatment a total of 2 times (4 replicates; 80SD: n=338; 100SD: n=418). A sub-group of cows (n=48/treatment per parity) was randomly selected on week 1 of each replicate from which blood was sampled weekly from d -14 to 14 (d 0=calving) to determine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and expression of CD18 and L-selectin, and hemogram. The same sub-group of cows was treated with chicken egg ovalbumin on d -21, -7, and 7 and had blood sampled weekly from d -21 to 21 for determination of serum IgG anti-ovalbumin concentration. Blood was sampled weekly from d -21 to 21 to determine glucose, cortisol, and haptoglobin concentrations in serum. Hair samples collected at enrollment and within 24h of calving were analyzed for cortisol concentration. The percentage of leukocytes classified as granulocyte and the granulocyte to the lymphocyte ratio were not affected by treatment. Treatment did not affect the percentage of PMNL positive for phagocytosis and oxidative burst or the intensity of phagocytosis and oxidative burst. Similarly, treatment did not affect the percentage of PMNL expressing CD18 and L-selectin or the intensity of expression of CD18 and L-selectin. Concentration of IgG anti-ovalbumin was not affected by treatment. Serum concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol were not affected by treatment. Similarly, hair cortisol concentration at calving was not affected by treatment. According to the current experiment, a target stocking density of 80% did not improve leukocyte responses compared with 100% target stocking density. PMID:26827837

  7. Beta Adrenergic Receptors of Polymorphonuclear Particulates in Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Galant, Stanley P.; Duriseti, Lakshmi; Underwood, Sharon; Allred, Sandra; Insel, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    We have tested the beta adrenergic receptor theory of bronchial asthma by determining the number and affinity of binding sites of the beta adrenergic radioligand [3H]dihydroalprenolol (DHA) and the activity of adenylate cyclase in broken cell preparations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). We studied 31 control subjects (group 1), 30 asthmatics receiving no systemic adrenergic medication (group 2), and 17 asthmatics receiving adrenergic agonists systemically (group 3). Control subjects and asthmatics taking no adrenergic drugs bound similar amounts of DHA at 0.5 nM and 30 nM DHA and had about 900 binding sites per PMN. In contrast, asthmatics receiving adrenergic agonists had a >70% decrease in their number of DHA binding sites per PMN (25457). In a subset of our three groups of subjects (eight from group 1, six from group 2, and five from group 3) we measured DHA binding at several DHA concentrations and found similar values (0.4-0.7 nM) for the dissociation constant of DHA among these subjects. In further studies we examined the interaction of the agonist (?)-isoproterenol with beta adrenergic receptors in 8 normal subjects and 10 asthmatics not receiving adrenergic medication. We tested the ability of isoproterenol to compete for DHA binding sites and to stimulate adenylate cyclase in sonicates prepared from PMN and examined under identical conditions. The dissociation constants for the competition of isoproterenol for DHA binding sites in normal and asthmatic subjects were virtually identical (?1.0 ?M). In addition, the (activation constant) values for stimulation of adenylate cyclase were similar (0.16-0.19 ?M) in the two groups of subjects. Thus, these data suggest that asthma per se is not associated with alteration in either the number or affinity of beta adrenergic receptors in PMN. Our findings indicate that previous reports of abnormal beta adrenergic receptor function in asthmatic patients may in part be explained by prior treatment of such patients with adrenergic agonists. Because the asthmatics who received adrenergic agonists in our study tended to be more ill and to receive additional medication compared to subjects in group 2, we cannot rule out unequivocally that severe asthma may be associated with decreased binding to beta adrenergic receptors. Nevertheless, we conclude that beta adrenergic receptors on PMN from asthmatics are relatively normal unless such patients are treated with adrenergic agonists. PMID:6101600

  8. N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4) attenuates oxidative stress in beta-thalassemia blood cells.

    PubMed

    Amer, Johnny; Atlas, Daphne; Fibach, Eitan

    2008-02-01

    Many aspects of the pathology in beta-hemoglobinopathies (beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia) are mediated by oxidative stress. In the present study we tested a novel thiol compound, N-acetylcysteine amide (AD4), the amide form of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) for its antioxidant effects. Using flow-cytometry, we showed that in vitro treatment of blood cells from beta-thalassemic patients with AD4 elevated the reduced glutathione (GSH) content of red blood cells (RBC), platelets and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, and reduced their ROS. These effects resulted in a significant reduced sensitivity of thalassemic RBC to hemolysis and phagocytosis by macrophages. Intra-peritoneal injection of AD4 to beta-thalassemic mice (150 mg/kg) reduced the parameters of oxidative stress (p<0.001). Our results show the superiority of AD4, compared to NAC, in reducing oxidative stress markers in thalassemic cells both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:18082636

  9. Diagnosis approach of chronic lymphocytic leukemia on unstained blood smears using Raman microspectroscopy and supervised classification.

    PubMed

    Happillon, Teddy; Untereiner, Valrie; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Gobinet, Cyril; Daliphard, Sylvie; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Quinquenel, Anne; Delmer, Alain; Troussard, Xavier; Klossa, Jacques; Manfait, Michel

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy combined with supervised classification algorithms to diagnose a blood lymphoproliferative disease, namely chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This study was conducted directly on human blood smears (27 volunteers and 49 CLL patients) spread on standard glass slides according to a cytological protocol before the staining step. Visible excitation at 532 nm was chosen, instead of near infrared, in order to minimize the glass contribution in the Raman spectra. After Raman measurements, blood smears were stained using the May-Grnwald Giemsa procedure to correlate spectroscopic data classifications with cytological analysis. A first prediction model was built using support vector machines to discriminate between the two main leukocyte subpopulations (lymphocytes and polymorphonuclears) with sensitivity and specificity over 98.5%. The spectral differences between these two classes were associated to higher nucleic acid content in lymphocytes compared to polymorphonuclears. Then, we developed a classification model to discriminate between neoplastic and healthy lymphocyte spectra, with a mean sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 91% respectively. The main molecular differences between healthy and CLL cells were associated with DNA and protein changes. These spectroscopic markers could lead, in the future, to the development of a helpful medical tool for CLL diagnosis. PMID:26017101

  10. Human polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation with arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. J.; Sam, L. M.; Justen, J. M.; Leach, K. L.; Epps, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The capacity of arachidonic acid (AA) to stimulate granule exocytosis from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was investigated. AA induced the selected extracellular release of azurophil (myeloperoxidase, lysozyme) and specific (lysozyme, vitamin B12 binding protein) granule constituents from human PMNs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cytochalasin B (CB) enhanced but was not required for PMN activation with AA. Although extracellular calcium had no effect on granule exocytosis, AA did stimulate the mobilization of intracellular sequestered Ca2+ which resulted in an increase in cytosolic-free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) as reflected by increased fluorescence of Fura-2-treated cells. AA stimulated Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PK-C) activity in PMNs. 4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulphonic acid stilbene (DIDS), an anion channel blocker, caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of granule enzyme release. Activation of PMNs with AA was unaffected by the lipoxygenase/cycle-oxygenase inhibitors, 5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) and benoxaprofen, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, 6, 9, deepoxy-6,9-(phenylimino) delta 6,8-prostaglandin 1(1) (piriprost potassium) or a pure cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen. These data define the properties of AA as a secretory stimulus for human PMNs. PMID:3111576

  11. Serum opsonin, bacteria, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte interactions in subacute bacterial endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Ronald P.; Laxdal, Throstur; Quie, Paul G.; Williams, Ralph C.

    1968-01-01

    The effect of anti-?-globulin factors on 7S ?-globulin opsonins from patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis has been examined with a quantitative in vitro phagocytosis system. Human anti-?-globulin factors from patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis and rheumatoid arthritis inhibited the opsonic action of 7S ?-globulin specifically bound to bacteria. A similar antiopsonic effect was obtained with rabbit antiserum to human ?G globulin. The antiopsonic effect of anti-?-globulin factors did not correlate with their ability to potentiate agglutination of bacteria by 7S antibody. Competition was demonstrated between the antiopsonic effect of anti-?-globulin factors and the phagocytosis-promoting action of heat-labile serum factors containing hemolytically active complement. PMID:5645856

  12. Novel post-translational incorporation of tyrosine in PMA-activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, J.; Oliver, C.; Ohno, Y.; Gallin, J.I.

    1986-03-05

    During studies undertaken to determine whether stimulation of tubulin tyrosinolation occurs in PMA-activated PMN, a distinctly different and novel post-translational incorporation of tyrosine into multiple PMN proteins was observed. The reaction also occurred in organelle-depleted neutrophil cytoplasts and was highly exaggerated in organelle-enriched karyogranuloplasts. The incorporation was specific for tyrosine, did not require extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ and was inhibited in the presence of a variety of reducing agents, intracellular scavengers of oxygen radicals and inhibitors of peroxidase-mediated reactions. The PMA-induced incorporation of tyrosine was completely absent in PMN from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, but occurred normally in PMN of a patient with myeloperoxidase deficiency. Moreover, the incorporation of tyrosine was blocked by N-acetyl-L-tyrosine but not by phenylalanine suggesting a requirement for the phenolic group. A two-fold increase in stable protein carbonyl derivatives was demonstrated suggesting an increased oxidative modification of the proteins. SDS urea PAGE and reversed phase HPLC did not reveal any detectable changes in the extent of protein cross-linking. The PMN tyrosine pool was approximately 900 ..mu..M and yet only 1 ..mu..M tyrosine was added in these experiments. The functional significance of this reaction is not yet clear.

  13. SERUM INHIBITION OF THE OXIDATIVE BURST IN HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. (R826781)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. SERUM INHIBITION OF THE OXIDATIVE BURST IN HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. (R827354C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. Phosphatidic acid as a second messenger in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Effects on activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, D E; McPhail, L C; Sozzani, S; Bass, D A; McCall, C E

    1991-01-01

    Receptor-mediated agonists, such as FMLP, induce an early, phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) which may play a role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN. We have determined the effect of changes in PA production on O2 consumption in intact PMN and the level of NADPH oxidase activity measured in a cell-free assay. Pretreatment of cells with various concentrations of propranolol enhanced (less than or equal to 200 microM) or inhibited (greater than 300 microM) PLD-induced production of PA (mass and radiolabel) in a manner that correlated with enhancement or inhibition of O2 consumption in PMN stimulated with 1 microM FMLP in the absence of cytochalasin B. The concentration-dependent effects of propranolol on FMLP-induced NADPH oxidase activation was confirmed by direct assay of the enzyme in subcellular fractions. In PA extracted from cells pretreated with 200 microM propranolol before stimulation with 1 microM FMLP, phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-digestion for 90 min, followed by quantitation of residual PA, showed that a minimum of 44% of PA in control (undigested) sample was diacyl-PA; alkylacyl-PA remained undigested by PLA1. Propranolol was also observed to have a concentration-dependent enhancement of mass of 1,2-DG formed in PMN stimulated with FMLP. DG levels reached a maximum at 300 microM propranolol and remained unchanged up to 500 microM propranolol. However, in contrast to PA levels, the level of DG produced did not correlate with NADPH oxidase activation. Exogenously added didecanoyl-PA activated NADPH oxidase in a concentration-dependent manner (1-300 microM) in a reconstitution assay using membrane and cytosolic fractions from unstimulated PMN. In addition, PA synergized with SDS for oxidase activation. Taken together, these results indicate that PA plays a second messenger role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN and that regulation of phospholipase D is a key step in the activation pathway. Images PMID:1864964

  16. Pharmacological control of neutrophil-mediated inflammation: Strategies targeting calcium handling by activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tintinger, Gregory R; Steel, Helen C; Theron, Annette J; Anderson, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Unlike most other effector cells of the innate, as well as the adaptive immune systems, the neutrophil is a relatively undiscerning aggressor with scant regard for damage limitation. Although this highly combative, professional phagocyte has become increasingly implicated in the immunopathogenesis of many acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, of both infective and noninfective origin, effective pharmacological strategies to counter neutrophilaggression have remained elusive. Activation of neutrophils results in rapid mobilization of both stored and extracellular Ca2+, resulting in abrupt, usually transient increases in cytosolic Ca2+, which precede, and are a prerequisite for activation of the Ca2+-dependent pro-inflammatory activities of these cells. Mobilization of Ca2+ by, and restoration of Ca2+ homeostasis to activated neutrophils are multistep processes which present a number of potential targets, some well recognized and others noveland unconventional, for the pharmacological control of neutrophil-mediated inflammation. Uncovering these targets represents the primary focus of this review. PMID:19920897

  17. Pharmacological control of neutrophil-mediated inflammation: strategies targeting calcium handling by activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Tintinger, Gregory R; Steel, Helen C; Theron, Annette J; Anderson, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Unlike most other effector cells of the innate, as well as the adaptive immune systems, the neutrophil is a relatively undiscerning aggressor with scant regard for damage limitation. Although this highly combative, professional phagocyte has become increasingly implicated in the immunopathogenesis of many acute and chronic inflammatory disorders, of both infective and noninfective origin, effective pharmacological strategies to counter neutrophil aggression have remained elusive. Activation of neutrophils results in rapid mobilization of both stored and extracellular Ca(2+), resulting in abrupt, usually transient increases in cytosolic Ca(2+), which precede, and are a prerequisite for activation of the Ca(2+)-dependent pro-inflammatory activities of these cells. Mobilization of Ca(2+) by, and restoration of Ca(2+) homeostasis to activated neutrophils are multistep processes which present a number of potential targets, some well recognized and others novel and unconventional, for the pharmacological control of neutrophil-mediated inflammation. Uncovering these targets represents the primary focus of this review. PMID:19920897

  18. Synthetic probes for studying tuftsin-receptor interactions on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Amoscato, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    Tuftsin is an immunopotentiating tetrapeptide of the sequence L-Thr-L-Lys-L-Pro-L-Arg with anti-microbial and anti-tumor enhancing capabilities. These enhancing functions are manifested through the host's granulocytes and monocytes. In delineating tuftsin's mechanism of action, both radiolabeled and fluorescent probes were synthesized. The radiolabeled probe of tuftsin, (L-proly-3,4-/sup 3/H(N))-tuftsin, was obtained through the synthesis and subsequent catalytic hydrogenation of (L-3,4-dehydroproly)/sup 3/-tuftsin using tritium gas. This procedure yielded a probe with a specific activity of 44.9 Ci/mmole. This radiolabeled probe of tuftsin was used in competitive inhibition studies with tuftsin, the tuftsin analogues Lys-Pro-Arg, Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg(NO/sub 2/) and (..delta../sup 3/-pro/sup 3/)-tuftsin as well as with the chemotactic peptide f-Mewt-Leu-Phe. The studies show that tuftsin initially binds to diffusely distributed receptors on the surface of human granulocytes. The tuftsin-receptor complexes then rapidly redistribute to form patches which are then internalized. Whether redistribution and internalization of tuftsin-receptor complexes is crucial in effecting a biological response is still not clear. This process, however, may provide the target cell with an early time point in modulating the biological effects of tuftsin through down-regulation of cell surface receptor sites.

  19. Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Apoptosis Is Accelerated by Sulfatides or Sulfatides-Treated Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Grishina, Zoryana V.; Viryasova, Galina M.; Romanova, Yulia M.; Sud'ina, Galina F.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils die by apoptosis following activation and uptake of microbes or enter apoptosis spontaneously at the end of their lifespan if they do not encounter a pathogen. Here we report that sulfatides or sulfatides-treated Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria accelerated human neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophil apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. Sulfatides caused prominent increase in percentage of apoptotic cells after 2.5?hrs of incubation. Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria by themselves did not affect the basal level of apoptosis in neutrophil population. When neutrophils were added to S. Typhimurium opsonized by sulfatides, apoptotic index significantly increased, whereas the number of phagocyting cells was not influenced. Sulfatides' proapoptotic effect was strongly dependent on the activity of ?-galactosidase; inhibition of this enzyme impaired its potency to accelerate apoptosis. These data support the mechanism of neutrophil apoptosis triggering based on sulfatides' ability to accumulate in intracellular compartments and mediate successive increase in ceramide content resulting from ?-galactosidase activity. PMID:25883957

  20. Intraabdominal sepsis: enhanced autooxidative effect on polymorphonuclear leukocyte cell surface receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Simms, H H; D'Amico, R; Burchard, K W

    1991-08-01

    We investigated the effects of untreated intraabdominal sepsis on the interrelationship between PMN oxidative metabolism and cell surface receptor expression. Female swine underwent either sham laparotomy (n = 7) or cecal ligation and incision (n = 9) with assays conducted on postoperative days (POD) 0, 1, 4, and 8. Superoxide anion production, intracellular H2O2 production, and the cell surface expression of Fc gamma RII, III, CR1, and CR3 were measured. In addition, phagocytosis of serum-opsonized zymosan was used as a multivalent ligand for CR3 and subsequently Fc gamma RII, III, and CR1 expression were assayed to determine if intraabdominal sepsis induces a linkage between complement and Fc gamma receptor expression. Superoxide anion production increased between POD 0 and 4 and fell between POD 4 and 8 in animals with untreated intraabdominal sepsis. Intracellular H2O2 production rose between POD 0 and 1 and then fell progressively in animals with untreated intraabdominal sepsis. Simulation of the oxidative burst using glucose/glucose oxidase reduced Fc gamma RII and III expression in both sets of animals with a greater reduction seen by POD 4 in animals with intraabdominal sepsis. CR1/CR3 expression was increased with glucose/glucose oxidase by POD 4 in the presence of intraabdominal sepsis. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase did not alter cell surface receptor expression. Phagocytosis of serum-opsonized zymosan decreased subsequent Fc gamma RII expression in animals with intraabdominal sepsis by POD 4.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1663427

  1. Analysis of blood leukocytes in a naturally occurring immunodeficiency of pigs shows the defect is localized to B and T cells.

    PubMed

    Ewen, C L; Cino-Ozuna, A G; He, H; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K; Rowland, R R R; Wyatt, C R

    2014-12-15

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the result of a set of inherited genetic defects which render components of the immune response nonfunctional. In Arabian horses, Jack Russell terriers, and mice, the disorder is a consequence of the absence of T and B lymphocytes, while natural killer (NK) cell and other leukocyte populations remain intact. Preliminary analysis of a naturally acquired form of inherited SCID in a line of pigs showed several defects in the architecture and composition of secondary lymphoid organs. In this study, a quantitative assessment of lymphocyte populations in affected and normal littermates showed depleted T or B lymphocyte populations in affected pigs; however, NK cells and neutrophils were present in numbers comparable to unaffected littermates. The results indicate that the immune defect in pigs shares the same features as other SCID-affected species. PMID:25454085

  2. Altered expression of Fc gammaRIII (CD16) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease and pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Meddows-Taylor, S; Martin, D J; Tiemessen, C T

    1997-01-01

    Fc gammaRIII (CD16) expression on the surfaces of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was significantly reduced in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis compared to that in individuals with either disease alone or in healthy blood donors. This downregulation of Fc gammaRIII may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility of coinfected individuals to opportunistic infections. PMID:9384310

  3. Coupled Flow-Structure-Biochemistry Simulations of Dynamic Systems of Blood Cells Using an Adaptive Surface Tracking Method

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, M.H.; Kunz, R.F.; Bistline, J.E.; Dong, C.

    2009-01-01

    A method for the computation of low Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of freedom motion control and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mechanics is presented. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by presenting several three-dimensional cell system simulations, including the collision/interaction between a cancer cell and an endothelium adherent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell in a shear flow. PMID:20160939

  4. Skewing of X-inactivation ratios in blood cells of aging women is confirmed by independent methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Paquette, Yves; Provost, Sylvie; Roy, Denis-Claude; Levine, Ross L.; Mollica, Luigina; Gary Gilliland, D.

    2009-01-01

    Nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), also known as skewing, has been documented in the blood cells of a significant proportion of normal aging women by the use of methylation-based assays at the polymorphic human androgen receptor locus (HUMARA). Recent data obtained with a new transcription-based XCI determination method, termed suppressive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has shed controversy over the validity of XCI ratio results obtained with HUMARA. To resolve this disparity, we analyzed XCI in polymorphonuclear leukocytes of a large cohort of women aged 43 to 100 years with the use of HUMARA (n = 100), a TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay (n = 90), and the suppressive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay (n = 67). The 3 methods yielded similar skewing incidences (42%, 38%, and 40%, respectively), and highly concordant XCI ratios. This confirms that the skewing of XCI ratio seen in blood cells of aging women is a bona fide and robust biologic phenomenon. PMID:19202126

  5. Direct measurement of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes during hemodialysis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Tsuchiya, Ken; Akiba, Takashi; Nitta, Kosaku

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) are reported to elevate oxidative stress. Available evidence for oxidative stress is indirect measurement of oxidative stress as accumulation of byproducts by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We aimed to examine the effect of CKD and HD on ROS levels in circulating leukocytes and to compare those with conventional oxidative stress marker, F2-isoprostane, in HD patients. Methods: Using flowcytometry techniques, ROS levels in circulating leukocytes can be directly measured in 16 HD patients and 12 healthy volunteers. We also measured circulating F2-isoprostanes levels in both groups. Results: HD patients demonstrated a significant increase in serum levels of F2-isoprostanes. The direct measurement of ROS levels in leukocytes showed increase in HD patients compared to the control; 1.91-fold in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), 1.06-fold in lymphocytes, and 1.35-fold in monocytes. Significant difference between the two groups could be observed only in PMN. The ROS levels in all three fractions of leukocytes showed negative correlations with serum F2-isoprostane levels but the ROS levels only in PMN showed significant correlation (r2 = 0.774, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that direct measurement of the ROS levels in circulating leukocytes by flowcytometry is a useful method to examine oxidative stress during HD procedure. The ROS levels in circulating leukocytes showed negative correlation with serum F2-isoprostane levels. PMID:26885025

  6. Leukocyte relaxation properties.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, K L; Dong, C; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Chien, S; Skalak, R

    1988-01-01

    Study of the mechanical properties of leukocytes is useful to understand their passage through narrow capillaries and interaction with other cells. Leukocytes are known to be viscoelastic and their properties have been established by micropipette aspiration techniques. Here, the recovery of leukocytes to their normal spherical form is studied after prolonged deformation in a pipette which is large enough to permit complete entry of the leukocyte. The recovery history is characterized by the time history of the major diameter (d1) and minor diameter (d2). When the cell is removed from the pipette, it shows initially a small rapid recoil followed by a slower asymptotic recovery to the spherical shape. In the presence of cell activation and formation of pseudopods, the time history for recovery is prolonged compared with passive cell recovery. If a protopod pre-existed during the holding period, the recovery only begins when the protopod starts to retract. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3207829

  7. Decreased expression of ectonucleotidase E-NPP1 in leukocytes from subjects with severe asthma exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Montao, L M; Vargas, M H; Daz-Hernndez, V; De Ita, M; Kazakova, R; Barajas-Lpez, C

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest that ATP and related nucleotides play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the functionality of ectonucleotidases in this disease has been scantly investigated. We studied total ectonucleotidase activity in leukocytes from patients suffering from asthma exacerbation and explored the expression of E-NTPDase 1, 2, 3, and 8, and E-NPP1, 2, and 3, in their polymorphonuclear cells by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Leukocytes from patients with mild or moderate asthma exacerbation had similar ectonucleotidase activity than leukocytes from healthy subjects, while in patients with severe asthma exacerbation, this activity was lower. Of the ectonucleotidases studied, only E-NPP1 displayed diminished immunofluorescence and a significant decrease in its mRNA expression, both in patients with severe asthma exacerbation. This reduced E-NPP1 expression could be responsible for increased amounts of ATP or other nucleotides, capable of worsening asthma exacerbation, and warranting further investigation. PMID:26405014

  8. Effects of the Tumor-Leukocyte Microenvironment on MelanomaNeutrophil Adhesion to the Endothelium in a Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shile; Hoskins, Meghan; Khanna, Payal; Kunz, Robert F.; Dong, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The primary cause of cancer mortality is not attributed to primary tumor formation, but rather to the growth of metastases at distant organ sites. Tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel endothelium (EC) and subsequent transendothelial migration within the circulation are critical components of the metastasis cascade. Previous studies have shown polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) may facilitate melanoma cell adhesion to the EC and subsequent extravasation under flow conditions. The melanoma cellPMN interactions are found to be mediated by the binding between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on melanoma cells and ?2 integrin on PMNs and by endogenously secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8) within the tumor-leukocyte microenvironment. In this study, the effects of fluid convection on the IL-8-mediated activation of PMNs and the binding kinetics between PMNs and melanoma cells were investigated. Results indicate that the shear rate dependence of PMNmelanoma cell adhesion and melanoma cell extravasation is due, at least partly, to the convection of tumor-secreted proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. PMID:19865613

  9. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  10. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  11. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency: in vitro assessment of neutrophil function and leukocyte integrin expression.

    PubMed Central

    Olchowy, T W; Bochsler, P N; Neilsen, N R; Welborn, M G; Slauson, D O

    1994-01-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was identified in a two-month-old Holstein heifer calf using DNA-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the affected calf and other clinical parameters. Neutrophil integrin expression (CD18, CD11a, CD11c), aggregation, and transendothelial migration were studied in vitro. Neutrophils were isolated from the affected calf and from normal, healthy, age-matched control Holstein calves. Neutrophils isolated from the affected BLAD calf had decreased expression of leukocyte integrins on their cell surface, decreased ability to aggregate in response to chemotactic stimuli, and decreased ability to migrate across bovine endothelial cell monolayers in vitro. Transendothelial migration of neutrophils from normal calves was reduced to levels comparable to the BLAD neutrophils by treatment with an anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (MAb 60.3). Peripheral-blood lymphocytes from the BLAD calf also expressed negligible levels of leukocyte integrins, similar to their neutrophil counterparts. Our experimental findings in vitro correlate well with the clinical observations of decreased leukocyte trafficking and diminished host defense in leukocyte adhesion-deficient animals. The syndrome of BLAD may be a suitable model for one of the human leukocyte adhesion deficiency disorders. Images Fig. 4. PMID:7911733

  12. Lung injury induced by leukocytic proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Janoff, A.; White, R.; Carp, H.; Harel, S.; Dearing, R.; Lee, D.

    1979-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) contain large amounts of neutral proteases that can degrade elastin, collagen, proteoglycan, and basement membrane. The instillation of one of the purified enzymes (elastase) into dog lungs in vivo causes degradation of elastic fibers and other alveolar septal components and results in anatomic changes similar to those of human pulmonary emphysema. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor associated with pulmonary emphysema in man. One mechanism for this association may be interference with the regulation of PMN elastase activity by alveolar antiproteases. This possibility is supported by the observation that the oxidizing activity of tobacco smoke inactivates alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor in vitro. Macrophages also secrete an elastolytic protease, albeit at low levels. The short-term exposure of cultured mouse macrophages to cigarette smoke augments the rate of elastase secretion by these cells. Mouse macrophage elastase is not inhibited by alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or alpha 2-macroglobulin. This unusual property of macrophage elastase may facilitate its attack upon elastin over prolonged intervals despite very low levels of macrophage elastase production. A unified hypothesis of lung injury in pulmonary emphysema is presented, involving both PMN and macrophage elastases and the actions of cigarette smoke. (Am J Pathol 97:111--136, 1979). Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:495691

  13. Hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter in peripheral blood leukocytes is not a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Verity F; Franchina, Maria; Jaffe, Andrew E; Branham, Kari E; Othman, Mohammad; Heckenlively, John R; Swaroop, Anand; Campochiaro, Betsy; Vote, Brendan J; Craig, Jamie E; Saffery, Richard; Mackey, David A; Qian, Jiang; Zack, Donald J; Hewitt, Alex W; Merbs, Shannath L

    2013-12-26

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Aberrant DNA methylation within the promoter of IL17RC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has recently been reported in AMD. To validate this association, we examined DNA methylation of the IL17RC promoter in peripheral blood. First, we used Illumina Human Methylation450 Bead Arrays, a widely accepted platform for measuring global DNA methylation. Second, methylation status at multiple sites within the IL17RC promoter was determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing in two cohorts. Third, a methylation-sensitive quantitative PCR-based assay was performed on a subset of samples. In contrast to previous findings, we did not find evidence of differential methylation between AMD cases and age-matched controls. We conclude that hypomethylation within the IL17RC gene promoter in peripheral blood is not suitable for use as a clinical biomarker of AMD. This study highlights the need for considerable replication of epigenetic association studies prior to clinical application. PMID:24373284

  14. Omics for prediction of environmental health effects: Blood leukocyte-based cross-omic profiling reliably predicts diseases associated with tobacco smoking

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Hebels, Dennie G.; Valavanis, Ioannis; Liampa, Irene; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Johansson, Anders; Palli, Domenico; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Jennen, Danyel G. J.; Krauskopf, Julian; Jetten, Marlon J.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.; Vineis, Paolo; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Gottschalk, Ralph; van Leeuwen, Danitsja; Timmermans, Leen; de Kok, Theo M.C.M.; Botsivali, Maria; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Kelly, Rachel; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, Lutzen; Saberi-Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Melin, Beatrice; Hallmans, Göran; Lenner, Per; Keun, Hector C.; Siskos, Alexandros; Athersuch, Toby J.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Myridakis, Antonis; Fazzo, Lucia; De Santis, Marco; Comba, Pietro; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Airaksinen, Riikka; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Gilthorpe, Mark; Fleming, Sarah; Fleming, Thomas; Tu, Yu-Kang; Jonsson, Bo; Lundh, Thomas; Chen, Wei J.; Lee, Wen-Chung; Kate Hsiao, Chuhsing; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hung, Hung; Liao, Shu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The utility of blood-based omic profiles for linking environmental exposures to their potential health effects was evaluated in 649 individuals, drawn from the general population, in relation to tobacco smoking, an exposure with well-characterised health effects. Using disease connectivity analysis, we found that the combination of smoking-modified, genome-wide gene (including miRNA) expression and DNA methylation profiles predicts with remarkable reliability most diseases and conditions independently known to be causally associated with smoking (indicative estimates of sensitivity and positive predictive value 94% and 84%, respectively). Bioinformatics analysis reveals the importance of a small number of smoking-modified, master-regulatory genes and suggest a central role for altered ubiquitination. The smoking-induced gene expression profiles overlap significantly with profiles present in blood cells of patients with lung cancer or coronary heart disease, diseases strongly associated with tobacco smoking. These results provide proof-of-principle support to the suggestion that omic profiling in peripheral blood has the potential of identifying early, disease-related perturbations caused by toxic exposures and may be a useful tool in hazard and risk assessment. PMID:26837704

  15. Omics for prediction of environmental health effects: Blood leukocyte-based cross-omic profiling reliably predicts diseases associated with tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Hebels, Dennie G; Valavanis, Ioannis; Liampa, Irene; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Johansson, Anders; Palli, Domenico; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Jennen, Danyel G J; Krauskopf, Julian; Jetten, Marlon J; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Vineis, Paolo; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A

    2016-01-01

    The utility of blood-based omic profiles for linking environmental exposures to their potential health effects was evaluated in 649 individuals, drawn from the general population, in relation to tobacco smoking, an exposure with well-characterised health effects. Using disease connectivity analysis, we found that the combination of smoking-modified, genome-wide gene (including miRNA) expression and DNA methylation profiles predicts with remarkable reliability most diseases and conditions independently known to be causally associated with smoking (indicative estimates of sensitivity and positive predictive value 94% and 84%, respectively). Bioinformatics analysis reveals the importance of a small number of smoking-modified, master-regulatory genes and suggest a central role for altered ubiquitination. The smoking-induced gene expression profiles overlap significantly with profiles present in blood cells of patients with lung cancer or coronary heart disease, diseases strongly associated with tobacco smoking. These results provide proof-of-principle support to the suggestion that omic profiling in peripheral blood has the potential of identifying early, disease-related perturbations caused by toxic exposures and may be a useful tool in hazard and risk assessment. PMID:26837704

  16. THE BOVINE NEUTROPHIL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN BLOOD AND MILK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) form the first line of cellular defense against invading pathogens. The PMN is characterized by a polymorphic segmented nucleus, numerous cytoplasmic granules that provide constituents for killing bacteria, large stores of glycogen for energy and a high...

  17. Expression of CD44 variant isoforms in peripheral blood leukocytes in malignant lymphoma and leukemia: inverse correlation between expression and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Khaldoyanidi, S; Achtnich, M; Hehlmann, R; Zöller, M

    1996-10-01

    In a variety of human tumors, including high grade Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (hgNHL), a linkage between expression of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) and tumor progression has been described. In search of an easily accessible diagnostic parameter, expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and CD44 variant isoforms (exons v5, v6, v7 and v10) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of patients with hematological malignancies was evaluated by fluorescence activated cell scanning. The analysis of 30 blood samples of healthy donors and patients with non-malignant diseases and of 183 blood samples of patients with malignant hematological disorders revealed that only in patients with malignant disorders did a measurable proportion of PBLs express CD44 variant isoforms, mostly exons v5, v6, v7 and, less frequently, exon v10. Elevated levels of CD44v expression were noted in PBLs of patients with acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML: 16%, CML: 25%), Hodgkin's disease (HD: 17%), multiple myeloma (MM: 22%), polycythemia vera (PV: 33%), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL: 23%) and, most frequently, in PBLs of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL:54%). CD44v expression was not restricted to the malignant phenotype, but instead was also noted in T cells, B cells and monocytes, preferentially in a subpopulation of large cells. Furthermore, expression of CD44v in PBLs was not linked to the histological grading or clinical staging. There was, however, an inverse correlation with tumor progression, whereas response to therapy was frequently accompanied by upregulation of CD44v. Thus, expression of CD44v in the PBLs of patients with NHL mainly reflected immune responsiveness. Since NHL manifests itself primarily in lymphoid organs, its progression is difficult to follow. Monitoring of CD44v in PBLs could be used as an additional and convenient parameter for surveying the course of disease. PMID:8960109

  18. Expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF in peripheral blood leukocytes of rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak-Ryczek, Alicja; Tokarz-Deptuła, Beata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2016-04-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly morbid and mortal viral infection of European rabbits. This disease is one of the main causes of death in wild rabbits, and results in large economic losses in farms of rabbits worldwide. Although the first outbreak of this disease was noted in 1984, the pathogenesis of RHD and mechanisms of RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) pathogenecity have still not been fully elucidated. Recent studies indicate a role of the immune response, especially peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thus, in the present study we investigated the expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF genes in PBL of RHDV-infected rabbits. We also compared the expression of genes encoding these cytokines in rabbits with different course of RHDV infection (in animals that died 36h postinfection or survived until 60th h after infection). The study revealed that three (IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF) out of five investigated genes encoding cytokines showed increased expression in PBL of RHDV-infected rabbits, and the level of expression depended on the course of RHD. The results indicate the potential role of these cytokines in RHDV infection and their influence on the survival time of infected rabbits. PMID:27016760

  19. Role of superoxide dismutase and catalase as determinants of pathogenicity of Nocardia asteroides: importance in resistance to microbicidal activities of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Beaman, B L; Black, C M; Doughty, F; Beaman, L

    1985-01-01

    The roles of nocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the resistance of Nocardia asteroides to the microbicidal properties of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were determined in vitro. The neutrophils killed ca. 80% of the cells of the less virulent N. asteroides 10905 and ca. 50% of the log phase of the more virulent N. asteroides GUH-2 after 180 min of incubation. These phagocytes were not able to kill early-stationary-phase cells of strain GUH-2 that contained 10 times more intracytoplasmic catalase than log-phase cells of the same culture. However, the polymorphonuclear leukocytes were able to kill more than 50% of the cells of early-stationary-phase strain GUH-2 after treatment with purified antibody specific for surface-associated SOD. No killing was observed when the bacteria were treated with normal rabbit immunoglobulin G or with serum obtained from rabbits immunized against whole nocardial cells (containing little or no activity against SOD). These phagocytes killed more than 99% of Listeria monocytogenes used as a control. Chlorpromazine-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes killed L. monocytogenes (70%) but they were not able to kill antibody-treated cells of N. asteroides GUH-2. Exogenously added SOD partially protected strain 10905, which lacked surface-associated enzyme, but it had no effect on the killing of strain GUH-2, which already possessed significant amounts of surface-bound SOD. In contrast, catalase added to the nocardiae provided almost complete protection to the log-phase cells of strain GUH-2, but strain 10905 was only partially protected. SOD combined with catalase had additive activity which completely protected the cells of strain 10905. A mutant of N. asteroides GUH-2 (SCII-C) is more virulent during the log phase than is the parental strain. This mutant contained at least 7 times more catalase at this stage of growth than did the parent. No other differences between these two strains were observed during the log phase. In sharp contrast to those of the parent, log-phase cells of this high-catalase mutant were not killed by polymorphonuclear phagocytes. These data indicate a role for both SOD and catalase in the resistance of Nocardia spp. to human neutrophils, and they represent at least two factors associated with virulence. PMID:3880721

  20. Influence of Hydration Status on Changes in Plasma Cortisol, Leukocytes, and Antigen-Stimulated Cytokine Production by Whole Blood Culture following Prolonged Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, Ida S.; Killer, Sophie C.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated antigen-stimulated anti-inflammatory cytokine production appears to be a risk factor for upper respiratory tract illness in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged exercise and hydration on antigen-stimulated cytokine production. Twelve healthy males cycled for 120?min at 60% V?O2max? on two occasions, either euhydrated or moderately hypohydrated (induced by fluid restriction for 24?h). Blood samples were collected before and after exercise and following 2?h recovery for determination of cell counts, plasma cortisol, and in vitro antigen-stimulated cytokine production by whole blood culture. Fluid restriction resulted in mean body mass loss of 1.3% and 3.9% before and after exercise, respectively. Exercise elicited a significant leukocytosis and elevated plasma cortisol, with no differences between trials. IL-6 production was significantly reduced 2?h postexercise (P < 0.05), while IL-10 production was elevated postexercise (P < 0.05). IFN-? and IL-2 production tended to decrease postexercise. No significant effect of hydration status was observed for the measured variables. Prolonged exercise appears to result in augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine release in response to antigen challenge, possibly coupled with acute suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production, corresponding with studies using mitogen or endotoxin as stimulant. Moderate hypohydration does not appear to influence these changes. PMID:24967270

  1. Photonic effects on mononuclear leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Beard, Richard B.; DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.

    1996-05-01

    The effects of pulsed light (2 Hz) with a 55% duty ratio and continuous light on the migration of human mononuclear leukocytes, MNLs (monocytes and lymphocytes) are reported for red light ((lambda) equals 660 nm) and green light ((lambda) equals 565 nm). The comparison of the relative value of the distance to blood cell migration under light to the control cell migration without light stimulus is recorded as cytokinetic index, K.I. K.I. is a measure of the cytokinesis which is the progress of the cell movement in which the migration is enhanced by substances in the cell environment irrespective of a concentration gradient. Red light stimulation produces K.I.'s for PMNs which are 30% grater than for MNLs. Green light stimulation produces K.I.'s for PMNs less than 1.0 indicative of inhibited migration, while for MNLs the K.I.'s are slightly greater than 1.0 indicative of enhanced migration.

  2. Uptake of indium-111-labeled leukocytes by brain metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Balachandran, S.; Husain, M.M.; Adametz, J.R.; Pallin, J.S.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.M.

    1987-04-01

    Uptake of indium-labeled leukocytes was seen in two cases of histologically proven brain metastasis. In one, this led to misdiagnosis of the lesion as an abscess. On histological evaluation, a large number of white blood cells or macrophages was seen at the neoplastic sites. Reasons for leukocyte accumulation around metastatic brain neoplasms are discussed. In contrast to the current reports that indium-labeled leukocyte scans can differentiate intracranial infection from tumor, these cases demonstrate their lack of specificity in the detection of brain abscess.

  3. Blood differential test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also called leukocytes, normally appear in the blood: Neutrophils Lymphocytes (B cells and T cells) Monocytes Eosinophils ... white blood cells are given as a percentage: Neutrophils: 40 to 60% Lymphocytes: 20 to 40% Monocytes: ...

  4. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil chemotaxis under aerobic and anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Casciato, D A; Goldberg, L S; Bluestone, R

    1978-01-01

    The motility of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils was studied in vitro under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Chemotactic factors were generated from plasma with immune complexes or with whole bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Bacteroides fragilis). Chemotaxis induced by chemotactic factors generated from immune complexes was identical under both conditions. However, chemotaxis utilizing chemotactic factors generated from bacteria was markedly depressed under anaerobic conditions. Mean random tubemoltility was not significantly different under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These data indicate that different metabolic pathways may be involved in polymorphonuclear neutrophil movement. Some of these pathways require oxygen (chemotaxis in response to factors generated by bacteria in plasma), whereas others do not (random tube migration and chemotaxis in response to factors generated by immune complexes in plasma). These observations may be important in the induction of inflammatory responses within hypoxic tissues. PMID:357284

  5. Reduced prostaglandin F2 alpha release from blood mononuclear leukocytes after oral supplementation of omega3 fatty acids: the OmegAD study.

    PubMed

    Vedin, Inger; Cederholm, Tommy; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Basun, Hans; Hjorth, Erik; Irving, Gerd Faxn; Eriksdotter-Jnhagen, Maria; Schultzberg, Marianne; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Palmblad, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, e.g., dokosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eikosapentaenoic acid (EPA), ameliorate inflammatory reactions by various mechanisms, but the role of prostaglandins remains unclear. Our aim was to determine if dietary supplementation with a DHA-rich fish oil influenced the release of PGF(2alpha) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the OmegAD study, 174 Alzheimer disease patients received either 1.7 g DHA plus 0.6 g EPA or a placebo daily for six months. PBMCs from the 21 (9 on fish oil and 12 on placebo) first-randomized patients were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) before and after 6 months. Our results showed that plasma concentrations of DHA and EPA increased significantly at 6 months in the omega-3 group. PGF(2alpha) release from LPS- (but not from PHA-) stimulated PBMC was significantly diminished in this group; no change was noted in the placebo group. PGF(2alpha) changes correlated inversely with changes in plasma DHA and EPA. Decreased IL-6 and IL-1(beta) levels correlated with decreased PGF(2alpha) levels. The stimulus-specific PGF(2alpha) release from PBMC after 6 months of oral supplementation with the DHA-rich fish oil might be one event related to reduced inflammatory reactions associated with omega-3 fatty acid intake. PMID:19965584

  6. Reduced prostaglandin F2? release from blood mononuclear leukocytes after oral supplementation of ?3 fatty acids: the OmegAD study

    PubMed Central

    Vedin, Inger; Cederholm, Tommy; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Basun, Hans; Hjorth, Erik; Irving, Gerd Faxn; Eriksdotter-Jnhagen, Maria; Schultzberg, Marianne; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Palmblad, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, e.g., dokosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eikosapentaenoic acid (EPA), ameliorate inflammatory reactions by various mechanisms, but the role of prostaglandins remains unclear. Our aim was to determine if dietary supplementation with a DHA-rich fish oil influenced the release of PGF2? from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the OmegAD study, 174 Alzheimer disease patients received either 1.7 g DHA plus 0.6 g EPA or a placebo daily for six months. PBMCs from the 21 (9 on fish oil and 12 on placebo) first-randomized patients were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) before and after 6 months. Our results showed that plasma concentrations of DHA and EPA increased significantly at 6 months in the omega-3 group. PGF2? release from LPS- (but not from PHA-) stimulated PBMC was significantly diminished in this group; no change was noted in the placebo group. PGF2? changes correlated inversely with changes in plasma DHA and EPA. Decreased IL-6 and IL-1? levels correlated with decreased PGF2? levels. The stimulus-specific PGF2? release from PBMC after 6 months of oral supplementation with the DHA-rich fish oil might be one event related to reduced inflammatory reactions associated with omega-3 fatty acid intake. PMID:19965584

  7. Efficacy of large doses of IL-2-activated human leukocyte antigen haploidentical peripheral blood stem cells on refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shui; Wang, Yun-Liang; Ren, Xiu-Bao; Yu, Jin-Pu; Ren, Bao-Zhu; Zhang, Xin-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Han, Ying

    2011-08-01

    Traditional immunotherapy for patients with refractory metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is limited because the tumors themselves induce immunosuppression. The aim of this article was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the infusion of a high dose of interleukin (IL)-2-activated allogeneic haploidentical peripheral blood stem cells (haplo-PBSCs) in patients with advanced intractable RCC. Ten advanced RCC patients and their haploidentical relatives, who were haplo-PBSC donors, were enrolled in this study. All patients accepted one cycle of activated haplo-PBSCs. The clinical and immunologic responses were evaluated. A range from 2.3 to 5.510(10) of activated haplo-PBSCs were harvested after exposure to recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2), along with a significant increase in the proportion of natural killer cells and activated lymphocytes (CD69+ and CD25+). Enhanced cytotoxicity of haplo-PBSCs for RCC was also observed. After treatment, 2 (2/10) cases of partial remission, 6 (6/10) cases of stable disease, and 2 (2/10) cases of progressive disease were identified in these 10 patients. The median progression-free survival of the 10 patients was 5.5 months (3-14 months). The adoptive transfusion of IL-2-activated haplo-PBSCs can induce sustained antitumor effects for advanced intractable RCC patients who have had no response to conventional immunotherapy. PMID:21812652

  8. Decreased polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotactic response to leukotriene B4 in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, R H; Sorrelli, T C

    1992-01-01

    Evidence that leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a significant inflammatory mediator in chronic pseudomonal respiratory disease was sought in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis. Specific chemotaxis of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) was used as an indirect measure of remote in vivo exposure to LTB4. PMN from 17 patients showed a significant decrease in chemotaxis to 10(-7)-10(-9) M LTB4, but normal responses to 10(-8) M n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and 4 mg/ml casein, when compared with 17 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. This result is consistent with chronic production of LTB4, and specific deactivation of circulating PMN receptors for LTB4 in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of LTB4 production in vivo may help elucidate its role in the pathogenesis of lung damage in cystic fibrosis. PMID:1322257

  9. Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David

    2013-01-01

    In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

  10. Synergistic Interactions between Cytokines and AVP at the Blood-CSF Barrier Result in Increased Chemokine Production and Augmented Influx of Leukocytes after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Gandy, Jessica R.; Varone, Andrew; Shan, Rongzi; Chodobski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which primarily resides in the choroid plexus (CP), plays a significant pathophysiological role not only in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, but also in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here we investigated how arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates function of the BCSFB in the context of post-traumatic neuroinflammation. It has previously been shown that AVP exacerbates various forms of brain injury, but the mechanisms underlying this AVP action are poorly understood. Type 1A AVP receptor is highly expressed on the CP epithelium and the CP synthesizes AVP. Using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI, we demonstrated decreased post-traumatic production of proinflammatory mediators by the CP and reduced influx of inflammatory cells across the BCSFB in AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats when compared with Long-Evans rats, a parental strain for Brattleboro rats. Arginine vasopressin was also found to play an important role in post-traumatic activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the CP. In the CP epithelial cell cultures, AVP augmented the tumor necrosis factor-α– and interleukin-1β–dependent increase in synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, including neutrophil chemoattractants, an action largely dependent on the JNK signaling pathway. Under in vivo conditions, a selective JNK inhibitor decreased the post-traumatic production of neutrophil chemoattractants by the CP and reduced the influx of neutrophils across the BCSFB. These results provide evidence for the synergistic interactions between proinflammatory cytokines and AVP, a ligand for G protein-coupled receptors, and support a pathophysiological role of AVP in post-traumatic neuroinflammation. PMID:24223928

  11. Synergistic interactions between cytokines and AVP at the blood-CSF barrier result in increased chemokine production and augmented influx of leukocytes after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Gandy, Jessica R; Varone, Andrew; Shan, Rongzi; Chodobski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which primarily resides in the choroid plexus (CP), plays a significant pathophysiological role not only in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, but also in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here we investigated how arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates function of the BCSFB in the context of post-traumatic neuroinflammation. It has previously been shown that AVP exacerbates various forms of brain injury, but the mechanisms underlying this AVP action are poorly understood. Type 1A AVP receptor is highly expressed on the CP epithelium and the CP synthesizes AVP. Using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI, we demonstrated decreased post-traumatic production of proinflammatory mediators by the CP and reduced influx of inflammatory cells across the BCSFB in AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats when compared with Long-Evans rats, a parental strain for Brattleboro rats. Arginine vasopressin was also found to play an important role in post-traumatic activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the CP. In the CP epithelial cell cultures, AVP augmented the tumor necrosis factor-?- and interleukin-1?-dependent increase in synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, including neutrophil chemoattractants, an action largely dependent on the JNK signaling pathway. Under in vivo conditions, a selective JNK inhibitor decreased the post-traumatic production of neutrophil chemoattractants by the CP and reduced the influx of neutrophils across the BCSFB. These results provide evidence for the synergistic interactions between proinflammatory cytokines and AVP, a ligand for G protein-coupled receptors, and support a pathophysiological role of AVP in post-traumatic neuroinflammation. PMID:24223928

  12. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet-leukocyte interactions via suppression of P-selectin expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotland, Ramona S.; Cohen, Marc; Foster, Paul; Lovell, Matthew; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2005-10-01

    The multifaceted process of immune cell recruitment to sites of tissue injury is key to the development of an inflammatory response and involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disorders. We recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an important endothelium-derived mediator that regulates vascular tone and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigated whether CNP inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation and thereby exerts a potential antiinflammatory influence on the blood vessel wall. We assessed the effects of CNP on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo in animals with high basal leukocyte activation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, eNOS-/-) or under acute inflammatory conditions (induced by interleukin-1 or histamine). CNP suppressed basal leukocyte rolling in eNOS-/- mice in a rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CNP were mimicked by the selective natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist cANF4-23. CNP also suppressed leukocyte rolling induced by IL-1 or histamine, inhibited platelet-leukocyte interactions, and prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of human blood. Furthermore, analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets revealed that CNP selectively attenuates expression of P-selectin. Thus, CNP is a modulator of acute inflammation in the blood vessel wall characterized by leukocyte and platelet activation. These antiinflammatory effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of P-selectin expression. These observations suggest that endothelial CNP might maintain an anti-atherogenic influence on the blood vessel wall and represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. endothelium | natriuretic peptide receptor type C | atherosclerosis | thrombosis

  13. Towards a computational model of leukocyte adhesion cascade: Leukocyte rolling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khismatullin, Damir

    2005-11-01

    Recruitment of leukocytes into sites of acute and chronic inflammation is a vital component of the innate immune response in humans and plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerosis. Leukocytes extravasate into the inflamed tissue through a multi-step process called "leukocyte adhesion cascade", which involves initial contact of a leukocyte with activated endothelium (tethering), leukocyte rolling, firm adhesion, and transendothelial migration. Recently we developed a fully three-dimensional CFD model of receptor-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelium in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The model treats the leukocyte as a viscoelastic cell with the nucleus located in the intracellular space and cylindrical microvilli distributed over the cell membrane. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion is assumed to be mediated by adhesion molecules expressed on the tips of cell microvilli and on endothelium. We show that the model can predict both shape changes and velocities of rolling leukocytes under physiological flow conditions. Results of this study also indicate that viscosity of the cytoplasm is a critical parameter of leukocyte adhesion, affecting the cell's ability to roll on endothelium. This work is supported by NIH Grant HL- 57446 and NCSA Grant BCS040006 and utilized the NCSA IBM p690.

  14. Human uterine leukocytes and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Trundley, A; Moffett, A

    2004-01-01

    In human pregnancy, the embryo implants into the specialized mucosal wall of the uterus (decidua) and the placenta starts to form. Cells from the placenta (trophoblasts) invade into the uterine mucosa in order to open up maternal uterine arteries to ensure an adequate supply of blood to the developing fetus. The trophoblasts have a unique immunological phenotype compared to most cells especially with regard to their expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. On the other side of the interaction, the uterine mucosa (endometrium) differentiates in preparation for implantation. One of the changes that takes place is the appearance in the endometrium of a large number of maternal leukocytes in the final part of the menstrual cycle. If pregnancy ensues, these leukocytes continue to increase in number and are found in close contact with trophoblasts. The composition of this population of maternal immune cells is unusual compared to that seen at other mucosal sites. A lot of research has focused on whether maternal T-cell responses are suppressed or modified during pregnancy. Research has also concentrated on the specialized uterine natural killer (NK) cells, which are found in the decidua in large numbers during early pregnancy. These uterine NK cells have been shown to express receptors for trophoblast MHC antigens, but their role in pregnancy is still mysterious. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of what is known about the immunology at the implantation site and also to provide an update of some of the most recent findings in this field. PMID:14651517

  15. Increased chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes in dogs with volume overload heart failure.

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, K.; Kalra, J.; Bharadwaj, B.

    1989-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) stimulation is known to generate oxygen free radicals. Exogenous oxygen free radicals, generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase, have been implicated in the decrease of cardiac contractility. It is possible that PMN have increased capacity to release oxygen free radicals in failing heart. It was, therefore, decided to investigate PMN chemiluminescence (oxygen free radicals) from blood in dogs with heart failure due to chronic volume overload. The dogs were divided into two groups: (A) normal, six dogs; (B) dogs with mitral insufficiency (MI) of 6-9 months' duration, six dogs. Haemodynamic parameters were recorded to assess cardiac failure. Mixed venous blood was collected to measure PMN chemiluminescence. Stimulation of PMN was initiated by addition of opsonized zymosan and chemiluminescence was monitored using a luminometer. The haemodynamic parameters in dogs with MI showed that these dogs had left ventricular failure. The peak chemiluminescent activity of PMN in blood of dogs with left ventricular failure was approximately four times that in the blood from normal dogs. This increase in chemiluminescence reflects an increase in the generation of oxygen free radicals from PMN in dogs with chronic heart failure. The decrease in the myocardial contractility in cardiac failure might be due to an increase in the oxygen free radicals produced by the PMN. PMID:2765398

  16. Chronic ethanol consumption enhances endotoxin induced hepatic sinusoidal leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ohki, E; Kato, S; Horie, Y; Mizukami, T; Tamai, H; Yokoyama, H; Ito, D; Fukuda, M; Suzuki, H; Kurose, I; Ishii, H

    1996-12-01

    In alcoholic liver disease, endotoxin has been postulated to play an important role in its pathogenesis. Endotoxin is known to lead to impediment of hepatic microcirculation, including the adhesion of leukocytes to sinusoidal endothelial cells. In this study, the effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the leukocyte adhesion elicited by endotoxin was examined. Male Wistar rats were pair-fed with a liquid diet containing ethanol or an isocaloric control diet for 6 weeks. The liver of anesthetized rats were placed on the nonfluorescent cover-glass for observation by an intravital inverted microscope equipped with a silicon intensified target camera. The red blood cell (RBC) velocity in hepatic sinusoids was measured by an off-line temporal correlation velocimeter (Capiflow, Sweden) after intravenous injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled rat RBC. RBC velocity in sinusoids was more severely disturbed in ethanol fed rats than in controls. Leukocytes were stained by the intravenous injection of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester for a fluorographic observation of leukocyte adhesion. After lipopolysaccharide injection, the number of adherent leukocytes was significantly greater in ethanol-fed rats than in controls. Plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were also higher in ethanol-fed rats than in controls. These results suggest that chronic ethanol consumption aggravates endotoxin induced leukocytes adhesion that may result in hepatic microcirculatory disturbances. Leukocyte adhesion to the sinusoidal wall may be associated with increased in tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels. PMID:8986236

  17. Culture models to study leukocyte trafficking across the choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A critical point during the course of central nervous system infection is the influx of leukocytes from the blood into the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). However, experimental in vitro models to investigate leukocyte transmigration across cultured choroid plexus epithelial cells have been lacking so far. Methods We have developed a porcine and human “inverted” culture insert system that enables leukocyte transmigration specifically from the physiologically relevant basolateral side. The models use primary porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells (PCPEC) and human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP). As a prerequisite for a functional barrier, we optimized culture conditions in which cells are maintained in serum-containing medium until high barrier function is reached. Leukocyte transmigration through the plexus epithelial cells is analysed by three-dimensional Apotome®-imaging and electron microscopy, and the route of transmigration through the plexus epithelial cells, i.e. transcellular as well as paracellular, can be determined. Discussion As a functionally relevant porcine and human BCSFB model, PCPEC and HIBCPP respectively, offer a wide range of options for analysis of disease-related mechanisms at the choroid plexus epithelium, especially involving human pathogens. Moreover, our in vitro models facilitate the investigation of leukocyte entry into the CNS via the blood-CSF barrier. PMID:23305147

  18. Effects of Himatanthus lancifolius on human leukocyte chemotaxis and their adhesion to integrins.

    PubMed

    Nardin, Jeanine Marie; de Souza, Wesley Maurcio; Lopes, Juliano Ferreira; Floro, Angela; de Moraes Santos, Cid Aimbir; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane Maria

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the uleine-rich fraction extracted from the barks of Himatanthus lancifolius (Muell. Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae). To achieve this, we focused on its in vitro effects on some steps of the inflammatory response using peripheral human leukocytes. The results presented herein show that the uleine-rich fraction significantly inhibits the migration of casein-induced granulocytes and their adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin, along with mononuclear cells, by down-regulating the expression of alpha 4beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins. The data suggest that H. LANCIFOLIUS has the potential of interferring with leukocyte trafficking through its uleine-rich fraction, emphasizing its usefulness in inflammatory conditions. DEXA:dexamethasone disodium phosphate FN:fibronectin PMN:polymorphonuclear URF:uleine-rich fraction VN:vitronectin. PMID:18604779

  19. Targeting vascular and leukocyte communication in angiogenesis, inflammation and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kreuger, Johan; Phillipson, Mia

    2016-02-01

    Regulation of vascular permeability, recruitment of leukocytes from blood to tissue and angiogenesis are all processes that occur at the level of the microvasculature during both physiological and pathological conditions. The interplay between microvascular cells and leukocytes during inflammation, together with the emerging roles of leukocytes in the modulation of the angiogenic process, make leukocyte-vascular interactions prime targets for therapeutics to potentially treat a wide range of diseases, including pathological and dysfunctional vessel growth, chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In this Review, we discuss how the different cell types that are present in and around microvessels interact, cooperate and instruct each other, and in this context we highlight drug targets as well as emerging druggable processes that can be exploited to restore tissue homeostasis. PMID:26612664

  20. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil response in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the use of natural products to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic use is growing.Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play a vital role with regard to the innate immune response that affects severity and or duration of mastitis. To our knowledge, effect of c...

  1. Phospholipid turnover during phagocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Garca Gil, Merche; Alonso, Fernando; Alvarez Chiva, Vicente; Snchez Crespo, Mariano; Mato, Jos M.

    1982-01-01

    We have previously observed that the phagocytosis of zymosan particles coated with complement by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes is accompanied by a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of phosphatidylcholine synthesis by transmethylation [Garca Gil, Alonso, Snchez Crespo & Mato (1981) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 101, 740748]. The present studies show that phosphatidylcholine synthesis by a cholinephosphotransferase reaction is enhanced, up to 3-fold, during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. This effect was tested by both measuring the incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine in cells labelled with [Me-14C]choline, and by assaying the activity of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. The time course of CDP-choline:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activation by zymosan mirrors the inhibition of phospholipid methyltransferase activity previously reported. The extent of incorporation of radioactivity into phosphatidylcholine induced by various doses of zymosan correlates with the physiological response of the cells to this stimulus. This effect was specific for phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidyl-ethanolamine turnover was not affected by zymosan. The purpose of this enhanced phosphatidylcholine synthesis is not to provide phospholipid molecules rich in arachidonic acid. The present studies show that about 80% of the arachidonic acid generated in response to zymosan derives from phosphatidylinositol. A transient accumulation of arachidonoyldiacylglycerol has also been observed, which indicates that a phospholipase C is responsible, at least in part, for the generation of arachidonic acid. Finally, isobutylmethylxanthine and quinacrine, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol turnover, inhibit both arachidonic acid generation and phagocytosis, indicating a function for this pathway during this process. PMID:6181780

  2. Leukocyte filtration in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurusz, Mark; Roach, John D; Vertrees, Roger A; Girouard, Mark K; Lick, Scott D

    2002-05-01

    Controlled reperfusion of the transplanted lung has been used in nine consecutive patients to decrease manifestations of lung reperfusion injury. An extracorporeal circuit containing a roller pump, heat exchanger and leukodepleting filter is primed with substrate-enhanced reperfusion solution mixed with approximately 2000 ml of the patient's blood. This solution is slowly recirculated to remove leukocytes prior to reperfusion. When the pulmonary anastomoses are completed, the pulmonary artery is cannulated through the untied anastomosis using a catheter containing a pressure lumen for measurement of infusion pressure. An atrial clamp is left in place on the patient's native atrial cuff to decrease the risk of systemic air embolism during the brief period of reperfusion from the extracorporeal reservoir. During reperfusion, the water bath to the heat exchanger is kept at 35 degrees C and the flow rate for reperfusion solution is between 150 and 200 m/min, keeping the pulmonary artery pressure <14 mmHg. Eight of nine patients were ventilated on 40% inspired oxygen within a few hours of operation and 7/9 were extubated on or before postoperative day 1. Six of nine patients are long-term survivors. PMID:12009087

  3. Performance of CellaVision DM96 in leukocyte classification

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lik Hang; Mansoor, Adnan; Wood, Brenda; Nelson, Heather; Higa, Diane; Naugler, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Background: Leukocyte differentials are an important component of clinical care. Morphologic assessment of peripheral blood smears (PBS) may be required to accurately classify leukocytes. However, manual microscopy is labor intensive. The CellaVision DM96 is an automated system that acquires digital images of leukocytes on PBS, pre-classifies the cell type, and displays them on screen for a Technologist or Pathologist to approve or reclassify. Our study compares the results of the DM96 with manual microscopy. Methods: Three hundred and fifty-nine PBS were selected and assessed by manual microscopy with a 200 leukocyte cell count. They were then reassessed using the CellaVision DM96 with a 115 leukocyte cell count including reclassification when necessary. Correlation between the manual microscopy results and the CellaVision DM96 results was calculated for each cell type. Results: The correlation coefficients (r2) range from a high of 0.99 for blasts to a low of 0.72 for metamyelocytes. Conclusions: The correlation between the CellaVision DM96 and manual microscopy was as good or better than the previously published data. The accuracy of leukocyte classification depended on the cell type, and in general, there was lower correlation for rare cell types. However, the correlation is similar to previous studies on the correlation of manual microscopy with an established reference result. Therefore, the CellaVision DM96 is appropriate for clinical implementation. PMID:23858389

  4. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  5. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 and human cytomegalovirus in blood and saliva from patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nefzi, Faten; Ben Salem, Nabil Abid; Khelif, Abderrahim; Feki, Salma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-03-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNAs were quantified by real-time PCR assays in blood and saliva obtained from 50 patients with acute leukemia at the time of diagnosis (50 of each matrix), aplasia (65 of each matrix), remission (55 of each matrix), and relapse (20 of each matrix) to evaluate which biological matrix was more suitable to identify a viral reactivation, search for a possible link between HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations, and evaluate the relations between viral loads and count of different leukocyte types in blood. The median HHV-6 loads were 136; 219; 226, and 75 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 193 and 317 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis and remission. In the saliva samples, the HHV-6 loads were 22,165; 15,238; 30,214, and 17,454 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 8,991; 1,461; 2,980, and 4,283 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HHV-6 load in the blood was correlated to the counts of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (R(2)  = 0.5; P < 0.0001) and lymphocytes (R(2)  = 0.4; P = 0.001) and was not correlated to the monocyte counts (R(2)  = 0.07; P = 0.7). Saliva appears to be a more sensitive biological matrix than whole blood in the detection of HHV-6 or HCMV reactivations. The HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations were linked only in saliva. PMID:25163462

  6. Transmigration of polymorphnuclear neutrophils and monocytes through the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after bacterial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial invasion through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) during bacterial meningitis causes secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines followed by the recruitment of leukocytes into the CNS. In this study, we analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte transepithelial transmigration (TM) across the BCSFB after bacterial infection. Methods Using an inverted transwell filter system of human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), we studied leukocyte TM rates, the migration route by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, the secretion of cytokines/chemokines by cytokine bead array and posttranslational modification of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α via western blot. Results PMNs showed a significantly increased TM across HIBCPP after infection with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis (MC58). In contrast, a significantly decreased monocyte transmigration rate after bacterial infection of HIBCPP could be observed. Interestingly, in co-culture experiments with PMNs and monocytes, TM of monocytes was significantly enhanced. Analysis of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance confirmed an intact barrier function during leukocyte TM. With the help of the different imaging techniques we could provide evidence for para- as well as for transcellular migrating leukocytes. Further analysis of secreted cytokines/chemokines showed a distinct pattern after stimulation and transmigration of PMNs and monocytes. Moreover, the transmembrane glycoprotein SIRPα was deglycosylated in monocytes, but not in PMNs, after bacterial infection. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that PMNs and monoctyes differentially migrate in a human BCSFB model after bacterial infection. Cytokines and chemokines as well as transmembrane proteins such as SIRPα may be involved in this process. PMID:23448224

  7. Lithium dosage and leukocyte counts in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Oyewumi, L K; McKnight, M; Cernovsky, Z Z

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in leukocyte counts among patients treated with either lithium alone, antipsychotic medications alone, or a combination of both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Long-stay psychiatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between 1990 and 1993, and treated with lithium for at least 1 week and/or with antipsychotic medication for at least 2 weeks. Excluded from the study were those patients for whom complete blood counts at baseline and during therapy were not available, and those patients whose blood picture could primarily be accounted for by extraneous factors. Included in the study were 38 patients treated with lithium alone, 207 patients receiving antipsychotic medications alone, and 71 patients receiving both. OUTCOME MEASURES: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. RESULTS: Patients treated with lithium alone had significantly higher mean leukocyte and granulocyte counts than those treated with antipsychotic medication alone (analysis of variance, p < 0.05). None of the patients receiving lithium alone showed leukopenia. The dosage of lithium was significantly correlated with leukocyte count (r = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.35, p < 0.001,) and granulocyte count (r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p < 0.001), but not with lymphocyte count (r = 0.06, p = 0.286, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium therapy is associated with higher leukocyte and granulocyte levels in psychiatric patients. This leukocytotic effect of lithium may be dose dependent. PMID:10354655

  8. Endothelial-Leukocyte Interaction in Severe Malaria: Beyond the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Mariana C.; Padua, Tatiana A.; Henriques, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, accounting for 1 million deaths each year. Severe malaria is a systemic illness characterized by dysfunction of brain tissue and of one or more peripheral organs as lungs and kidney. The most severe and most studied form of malaria is associated with cerebral complications due to capillary congestion and the adhesion of infected erythrocytes, platelets, and leukocytes to brain vasculature. Thus, leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the brain vascular bed during severe malaria is singular and distinct from other models of inflammation. The leukocyte/endothelium interaction and neutrophil accumulation are also observed in the lungs. However, lung interactions differ from brain interactions, likely due to differences in the blood-brain barrier and blood-air barrier tight junction composition of the brain and lung endothelium. Here, we review the importance of endothelial dysfunction and the mechanism of leukocyte/endothelium interaction during severe malaria. Furthermore, we hypothesize a possible use of adjunctive therapies to antimalarial drugs that target the interaction between the leukocytes and the endothelium. PMID:26491221

  9. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age), very preterm (2831 wk), and moderately preterm (3236 wk), as well as term (3741 wk) infants were recruited. Colostrum (d25), transitional (d812) and mature milk (d2630) samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  10. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis.

  11. Leukocyte cells identification and quantitative morphometry based on molecular hyperspectral imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; He, Xiaofu; Xu, Dongrong; Wang, Jianbiao; Guo, Fangmin

    2014-04-01

    Leukocyte cells identification is one of the most frequently performed blood tests and plays an important role in the diagnosis of diseases. The quantitative observation of leukocyte cells is often complemented by morphological analysis in both research and clinical condition. Different from the traditional leukocyte cells morphometry methods, a molecular hyperspectral imaging system based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) was developed and used to observe the blood smears. A combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify the cytoplasm and the nucleus of leukocyte cells by integrating the fuzzy C-means (FCM) with the spatial K-means algorithm. Then the morphological parameters such as the cytoplasm area, the nuclear area, the perimeter, the nuclear ratio, the form factor, and the solidity were calculated and evaluated. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than the spectral based algorithm as the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of leukocyte cells. PMID:24388381

  12. Effects of lysosomotropic amines on human polymorphonuclear leucocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M; Thijssen, R M; Marcelis, J H; Sharma, S D; Verhoef, J

    1984-01-01

    Lysosomotropic agents interfere with lysosome function. We studied the effects of the lysosomotropic amines: lidocaine, diphenylamine and dansylcadaverine on several functions of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN): enzyme release, phagosome-lysosome fusion, superoxide anion generation upon stimulation with opsonized bacteria, and phagocytosis and killing of opsonized Staphylococcus aureus. Lidocaine depressed all cellular functions tested. Diphenylamine reduced enzyme release and phagosome-lysosome fusion in phagocytosing PMN. This was accompanied by an increase in superoxide anion generation. Dansylcadaverine enhanced enzyme release and phagosome-lysosome fusion, and reduced superoxide anion generation. Neither of these two agents influenced bacterial uptake; bacterial killing was impaired only in dansylcadaverine treated cells. Cadaverine, an analogue that does not penetrate cells, had no effect on any of the functions tested. PMID:6319273

  13. Effects of eugenol on polymorphonuclear cell migration and chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Woolverton, C J; Van Dyke, K; Powell, R L

    1987-03-01

    In this study, the effects of eugenol on human polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell migration and chemiluminescence were examined in vitro. Utilizing zymosan-activated serum or crude Bacteroides sonicate fractions as chemotractants, we found that eugenol inhibits PMN migration at 6.6 X 10(-2) to 6.6 X 10(-5) mol/L (P less than 0.05). Also, similar effects were observed in PMNs pre-incubated in eugenol. Regardless of concentration, eugenol was not found to induce chemotaxis of PMNs. An examination of PMN membrane activation through chemiluminescence gave results consistent with the chemotaxis data, demonstrating a decrease in light emission at concentrations as low as 6.6 X 10(-6) mol/L (P less than 0.05). In view of these data, the potential effect of eugenol on in vivo (sulcular or periapical) PMN function deserves further study. PMID:3475310

  14. Separation of human monocytes from a leukocyte-rich plasma.

    PubMed

    Graham, John M

    2002-06-15

    Human peripheral blood monocytes are isolated by flotation from a dense leukocyte-rich plasma (LRP) through two lower-density barriers prepared from OptiPrep. The separation from lymphocytes depends on the more rapid rate of flotation of the monocytes because of their slightly lower density and larger size. The method works optimally only with fresh (within 2 h of drawing) EDTA-anticoagulated blood. PMID:12806155

  15. Leukocyte behavior in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases claim more lives worldwide than any other. Etiologically, the dominant trajectory involves atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory process of lipid-rich lesion growth in the vascular wall that can cause life-threatening myocardial infarction (MI). Those who survive MI can develop congestive heart failure, a chronic condition of inadequate pump activity that is frequently fatal. Leukocytes – white blood cells – are important participants at the various stages of cardiovascular disease progression and complication. This review will discuss leukocyte function in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. PMID:23307733

  16. Hypoxia induces an opsonic mismatch on the polymorphonuclear leukocyte surface-reversal via Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-mediated adhesion.

    PubMed

    Simms, H H; D'Amico, R

    1993-04-01

    Hypoxia remains an important clinical problem and affects neutrophil oxygen-dependent microbicidal pathways. For adequate PMN-cidal activity to occur, two sets of opsonic receptors (FcR, CD16, CD32w; complement receptors, CD35, CD11b/CD18) must be expressed on the cell surface. We hypothesized that hypoxia would adversely affect receptor expression and that the biological surface that the PMN were adhered to would modulate the effect of hypoxia on these receptors. PMN were adhered in the presence of buffer, fibronectin, Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (RGDS), or laminin followed by assessment of PMN FcR and complement receptors using 125I-labeled monoclonal antibodies directed against these receptors. Hypoxia reduced PMN CD16 and CD32w but not CD35 and CD11b/CD18 expression. Decreasing buffer pO2 led to corresponding decreases in CD16 and CD32w expression. RGDS but not fibronectin or laminin restored CD16 and CD32w expression in the presence of hypoxia. Monensin but not cycloheximide inhibited RGDS restoration of CD16 and CD32w. (cpm bound: CD16, 958 +/- 123 vs 1602 +/- 193; CD32w, 1481 +/- 173 vs 2215 +/- 382 for hypoxia buffer+RGDS +/- monensin.) These results demonstrate that: (1) acute hypoxia creates an opsonic mismatch by reducing CD16 and CD32w without affecting complement receptors CR1 and CR3 (CD35, CD11b/CD18); (2) matrix proteins modulate the effect of acute hypoxia on PMN FcR; (3) the RGDS-binding epitope of fibronectin significantly restores PMN FcR in the face of acute hypoxia; and (4) RGDS upregulates FcR expression during acute hypoxia by increasing receptor recycling to the cell surface. PMID:8392648

  17. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a bleeding disorder. Common bleeding disorders include: Hemophilia (pronounced: hee-muh-FIL-ee-uh), an inherited ... clotting factors in the blood. People with severe hemophilia are at risk for excessive bleeding and bruising ...

  18. Intravascular staining for discrimination of vascular and tissue leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristin G; Mayer-Barber, Katrin; Sung, Heungsup; Beura, Lalit; James, Britnie R; Taylor, Justin J; Qunaj, Lindor; Griffith, Thomas S; Vezys, Vaiva; Barber, Daniel L; Masopust, David

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the cellular participants in tissue immune responses is crucial to understanding infection, cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, graft rejection and other immunological processes. previous reports indicate that leukocytes in lung vasculature fail to be completely removed by perfusion. several studies suggest that intravascular staining may discriminate between tissue-localized and blood-borne cells in the mouse lung. Here we outline a protocol for the validation and use of intravascular staining to define innate and adaptive immune cells in mice. We demonstrate application of this protocol to leukocyte analyses in many tissues and we describe its use in the contexts of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections or solid tumors. Intravascular staining and organ isolation usually takes 530 min per mouse, with additional time required for any subsequent leukocyte isolation, staining and analysis. In summary, this simple protocol should help enable interpretable analyses of tissue immune responses. PMID:24385150

  19. The degradation of serum amyloid A protein by activated polymorphonuclear leucocytes: participation of granulocytic elastase

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, S. L.; Cathcart, E. S.; Skinner, Martha; Cohen, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the role of inflammation in amyloidogenesis, we have studied the degradation of human serum amyloid A (SAA) protein by purified preparations of human blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and monocytes. When both PMN and monocytes were incubated in SAA-containing medium, the concentration of SAA as measured by a competitive anti-AA radioimmunoassay decreased over time. The rate of decrease of SAA was similar for both monocytes and PMN and there were no differences between four patients with amyloidosis and three normal controls. Resting PMN from normal volunteers were able to degrade SAA to smaller acid-soluble peptides within 16 hr while zymosan-activated PMN produced significant degradation within 1 hr (31%–50%). The supernatants from zymosan-treated PMN also caused marked SAA degradation within 1 hr. The following enzyme inhibitors were able to prevent degradation of SAA by PMN supernatants; phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, a serine esterase inhibitor; α1 anti-trypsin and soybean trypsin inhibitor; and acetyl-ala-ala-pro-val-chloromethyl ketone, an elastase inhibitor. The ability of a neutral lysosomal enzyme to degrade SAA was further confirmed by showing that purified PMN elastase significantly degraded 125I-SAA. We conclude that PMN contain one or more lysosomal enzymes capable of degrading SAA, an apoprotein of HDL3 serum lipoproteins. Alteration in SAA proteolysis by activated PMN may contribute to the deposition of amyloid fibrils in the tissues of patients with chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:6921153

  20. Programmed death ligand 1 on Burkholderia pseudomallei-infected human polymorphonuclear neutrophils impairs T cell functions.

    PubMed

    Buddhisa, Surachat; Rinchai, Darawan; Ato, Manabu; Bancroft, Gregory J; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana

    2015-05-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are terminally differentiated cells that are involved in innate immune responses and form an early line of defense against pathogens. More recently, it has been shown that PMNs have immunosuppressive abilities on other immune cells. However, the effect of PMNs on T cell responses during bacterial infection remains to be determined. In this report, we examined the interaction of PMNs and T cells in response to infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of human melioidosis. We observed that CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-? production in response to polyclonal activators is significantly inhibited by uninfected PMNs, and to a greater extent B. pseudomallei-infected PMNs. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a known regulator of T cell activation, is increased in mRNA expression in the blood of patients and upon infection of PMNs in vitro. The increased expression of PD-L1 was correlated with the degree of T cell inhibition in individuals with type 2 diabetes, a major risk factor of melioidosis. In vitro, addition of anti-PD-L1 Abs blocked this inhibitory activity and restored proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and IFN-? production, suggesting that PD-L1 on B. pseudomallei-infected PMNs is a regulatory molecule for the functions of T cells and may be involved in pathogenesis versus control of melioidosis. PMID:25801435

  1. Relationship between transportation stress and polymorphonuclear cell functions of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus.

    PubMed

    Noda, Katsura; Akiyoshi, Hideo; Aoki, Mica; Shimada, Terumasa; Ohashi, Fumihito

    2007-04-01

    Dolphins in a captive environment are exposed to various kinds of stresses. Handling and transportation are stressful events for terrestrial mammals, and such stress may affect immune system function and increase susceptibility to infectious diseases. The same phenomenon could occur in dolphins, however, few studies have reported this in dolphins. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between stress and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell function of dolphins during transportation. Four bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) were transported for 6 hr by truck. Serum cortisol levels, leukograms, phagocytosis, and superoxide production of PMN cells were evaluated during handling and transportation compared to resting values. The mean serum cortisol level was significantly increased during handling and transportation (p<0.05) when compared with the resting values. White blood cell (WBC) counts, eosinophil counts, phagocytosis, and superoxide production of PMN cells during handling and transportation stages decreased significantly in comparison with the resting stage (p<0.05). The concentration of serum cortisol was significantly correlated with the results of the WBC counts, eosinophil counts, superoxide production, and phagocytosis (p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.001, respectively). The present results indicate that handling and transportation are stressful events for dolphins and could affect their PMN cell functions, thereby leading to the impairment of the immune system. PMID:17485925

  2. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins Stimulate Crosstalk between Leukocytes and Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Glorieux, Griet; Schepers, Eva; Cohen, Gerald; Gondouin, Bertrand; Van Landschoot, Maria; Eloot, Sunny; Rops, Angelique; Van de Voorde, Johan; De Vriese, An; van der Vlag, Johan; Brunet, Philippe; Van Biesen, Wim; Vanholder, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte activation and endothelial damage both contribute to cardiovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CKD. Experimental in vitro data link several protein-bound uremic retention solutes to the modulation of inflammatory stimuli, including endothelium and leukocyte responses and cardiovascular damage, corroborating observational in vivo data. However, the impact of these uremic toxins on the crosstalk between endothelium and leukocytes has not been assessed. This study evaluated the effects of acute and continuous exposure to uremic levels of indoxylsulfate (IS), p-cresylsulfate (pCS), and p-cresylglucuronide (pCG) on the recruitment of circulating leukocytes in the rat peritoneal vascular bed using intravital microscopy. Superfusion with IS induced strong leukocyte adhesion, enhanced extravasation, and interrupted blood flow, whereas pCS caused a rapid increase in leukocyte rolling. Superfusion with pCS and pCG combined caused impaired blood flow and vascular leakage but did not further enhance leukocyte rolling over pCS alone. Intravenous infusion with IS confirmed the superfusion results and caused shedding of heparan sulfate, pointing to disruption of the glycocalyx as the mechanism likely mediating IS-induced flow stagnation. These results provide the first clear in vivo evidence that IS, pCS, and pCG exert proinflammatory effects that contribute to vascular damage by stimulating crosstalk between leukocytes and vessels. PMID:24009240

  3. Recent insights into endothelial control of leukocyte extravasation.

    PubMed

    Hordijk, Peter L

    2016-04-01

    In the process of leukocyte migration from the circulation across the vascular wall, the crosstalk with endothelial cells that line the blood vessels is essential. It is now firmly established that in endothelial cells important signaling events are initiated upon leukocyte adhesion that impinge on the regulation of cell-cell contact and control the efficiency of transendothelial migration. In addition, several external factors such as shear force and vascular stiffness were recently identified as important regulators of endothelial signaling and, consequently, leukocyte transmigration. Here, I review recent insights into endothelial signaling events that are linked to leukocyte migration across the vessel wall. In this field, protein phosphorylation and Rho-mediated cytoskeletal dynamics are still widely studied using increasingly sophisticated mouse models. In addition, activation of tyrosine phosphatases, changes in endothelial cell stiffness as well as different vascular beds have all been established as important factors in endothelial signaling and leukocyte transmigration. Finally, I address less-well-studied but interesting components in the endothelium that also control transendothelial migration, such as the ephrins and their Eph receptors, that provide novel insights in the complexity associated with this process. PMID:26794844

  4. Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

  5. Suppression of interferon response of bovine leukocytes during clinical and subclinical ketosis in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kandefer-Szerszen, M; Filar, J; Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Rzeski, W

    1992-11-01

    The influence of spontaneous ketosis on interferon alpha and gamma production in blood leucocytes and on PHA induced lymphocyte blastogenic response was investigated. Twenty three cows 4.13 +/- 2.8 weeks after calving were divided into three experimental groups on the basis of blood ketone bodies, glucose and free fatty acids concentrations. The leukocytes of cows with clinical symptoms and the highest concentration of ketones and free fatty acids in blood responded with the lowest levels of interferons alpha and gamma to three interferon inducers: Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA). Depression in interferon PHA stimulated synthesis correlated with a very low mitogenic response of blood lymphocytes. Blood leukocytes of cows with subclinical ketosis, characterized by mild clinical symptoms and a lower concentration of ketones in blood in comparison to cows with clinical ketosis, responded better to interferon and mitogenic stimulation; however, the interferon titer and blastogenesis were still lower than in leukocytes of healthy cows. Correlation between the stage of ketosis and the level of interferon production in milk leukocytes was also observed. A possible relationship between the suppression of interferon production in blood leukocytes and the increased concentration of ketone bodies in blood is discussed. PMID:1281068

  6. A possible role for polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the defence against recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in man.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A S; Miller, C

    1978-01-01

    We have used a 51Cr release assay to demonstrate that human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) can damage herpes simplex infected target cells sensitized with antiviral antibody. Effective sensitizing antibodies were found in both serum and saliva of all those persons tested who were subject to recurrent cold sores. PMNL were much less effective as killer cells than peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but as they are the predominant inflammatory cell with the HSV1 lesion they may be, quantitatively, more important. The cytotoxic effects of both PMNL and mononuclear cells were significantly reduced by prostaglandin E1 as well as by several drugs that were tested. It is suggested that antibody dependent PMNL-mediated cytotoxicity may play a role in the human host defences against recrudescent herpes simplex infection. PMID:640713

  7. Altered Mitochondrial Function and Oxidative Stress in Leukocytes of Anorexia Nervosa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Victor M.; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Saiz-Alarcon, Vanessa; Sangesa, Maria C.; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Bauls, Celia; Falcn, Rosa; Castell, Raquel; Rojo, Luis; Rocha, Milagros; Hernndez-Mijares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Context Anorexia nervosa is a common illness among adolescents and is characterised by oxidative stress. Objective The effects of anorexia on mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes from anorexic subjects were evaluated. Design and setting A multi-centre, cross-sectional case-control study was performed. Patients Our study population consisted of 20 anorexic patients and 20 age-matched controls, all of which were Caucasian women. Main outcome measures Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in the study population. To assess whether anorexia nervosa affects mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes of anorexic patients, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione levels, mitochondrial mass, and complex I and III activity in polymorphonuclear cells. Results Mitochondrial function was impaired in the leukocytes of the anorexic patients. This was evident in a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption (P<0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01) and GSH levels (P<0.05), and an increase in ROS production (P<0.05) with respect to control subjects. Furthermore, a reduction of mitochondrial mass was detected in leukocytes of the anorexic patients (P<0.05), while the activity of mitochondrial complex I (P<0.001), but not that of complex III, was found to be inhibited in the same population. Conclusions Oxidative stress is produced in the leukocytes of anorexic patients and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results lead us to propose that the oxidative stress that occurs in anorexia takes place at mitochondrial complex I. Future research concerning mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress should aim to determine the physiological mechanism involved in this effect and the physiological impact of anorexia. PMID:25254642

  8. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohns Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohns disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohns disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohns disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohns disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohns disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-? mRNA in active Crohns disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohns disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohns disease patients in remission. PMID:26140540

  9. Value of examination for fecal leukocytes in the early diagnosis of shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowski, O M; Barada, F A; Rouse, J D; Guerrant, R L

    1979-11-01

    Fecal specimens from 101 patients with diarrhea were cultured and also examined with methylene blue for leukocytes. Thirty-six patients had leukocytes in their stools and 29 had culture-proven shigellosis. The sensitivity of fecal leukocytes in shigellosis was 95% (19/20) when cup specimens were obtained, and 44% (4/9) when swab or diaper specimens were examined. Only 45% of the patients with shigellosis who provided cup specimens had grossly bloody dysentery. Twelve other patients had fecal leukocytes but no demonstrable invasive bacterial pathogens. Methylene blue examination was useful in identifying motile trophozoites of Giardia lamblia and eggs or larvae of other heavy intestinal paraistic infections. Among patients with naturally-acquired acute diarrhea, methylene blue examination of stools for leukocytes is much more sensitive than examination for blood in predicting a positive culture for Shigella spp. It is also of value in detecting parasites. PMID:507279

  10. Primary role for adherent leukocytes in sickle cell vascular occlusion: A new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Aslihan; Weiss, Linnea A.; Mohandas, Narla; Coller, Barry S.; Frenette, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    Vascular occlusion is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease but its mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate by using intravital microscopy in mice expressing human sickle hemoglobin (SS) that SS red blood cells (RBCs) bind to adherent leukocytes in inflamed venules, producing vasoocclusion of cremasteric venules. SS mice deficient in P- and E-selectins, which display defective leukocyte recruitment to the vessel wall, are protected from vasoocclusion. These data uncover a previously unsuspected paradigm for the pathogenesis of sickle cell vasoocclusion in which adherent leukocytes play a direct role and suggest that drugs targeting SS RBCleukocyte or leukocyteendothelial interactions may prevent or treat the vascular complications of this debilitating disease. PMID:11880644

  11. An evaluation of the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of experimentally induced corneal vascularization.

    PubMed Central

    Fromer, C. H.; Klintworth, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of corneal explants in the hamster cheek pouch chamber have demonstrated that blood vessels invade the cornea only if the tissue is first infiltrated by leukocytes. In view of this observation, a comparative study of the events that precede and accompany corneal vascularization was undertaken in various experimental models. A variety of established methods were used to induce corneal vascularization, including exposure of the cornea to noxious agents, intracorneal injection of antigens into sensitized animals, as well as maintaining animals on diets deficient in vitamin A or riboflavin. In all models studied, the corneal vascularization was a manifestation of the reparative phase of the inflammatory response. A conspicuous leukocytic infiltrate of the cornea preceded and accompanied the corneal vascularization in all of the models. Although the lesions varied in several respects in the different models, all models displayed three phases with regard to vascularization: an early prevascular phase of leukocytic infiltration, a second phase where blood vessels persisted in the cornea in the absence of leukocytes. The latent period that preceded vascularization was directly related to the time of the initial leukocytic infiltration. The models in which a delay occurred in the leukocytic invasion displayed a subsequent delay in the vascular ingrowth. Conversely, in experiments where there was a rapid and extensive leukocytic invasion, there was also an early and enhanced corneal vasoproliferative response. In the various modesl investigated, the sites of the leukocytic infiltration and subsequent vascular ingrowth into the cornea paralleled each other. The data further support the hypotheses that leukocytes are a prerequisite to corneal vascularization and that leukocytes produce one or more factors which stimulate directional vascular growth. Images Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 PMID:1137003

  12. Fermented papaya preparation as redox regulator in blood cells of beta-thalassemic mice and patients.

    PubMed

    Amer, Johnny; Goldfarb, Ada; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer A; Fibach, Eitan

    2008-06-01

    Many aspects of the pathology in beta-hemoglobinopathies (beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia) are mediated by oxidative stress. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) was tested for its antioxidant effects: the scavenging effect was determined spectrofluorometrically in a cell-free system using 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescin-diacetate (DCF). Both spontaneous and H(2)O(2)-induced DCF oxidations were decreased by FPP in a dose-dependent fashion. Using flow cytometry, it was shown that in vitro treatment of blood cells from beta-thalassemic patients with FPP increased the glutathione content of red blood cells (RBC), platelets and polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes, and reduced their reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxidation and externalization of phosphatidylserine. These effects result in (a) reduced thalassemic RBC sensitivity to hemolysis and phagocytosis by macrophages; (b) improved PMN ability to generate oxidative burst - an intracellular mechanism of bacteriolysis, and (c) reduced platelet tendency to undergo activation, as reflected by fewer platelets carrying external phosphatidylserine. Oral administration of FPP to beta-thalassemic mice (50 mg/mouse/day for 3 months) and to patients (3 g x 3 times/day for 3 months), reduced all the above mentioned parameters of oxidative stress (p < 0.001 in mice and p < 0.005 in patients). These results suggest that FPP, as a potent antioxidant, might alleviate symptoms associated with oxidative stress in severe forms of thalassemia. PMID:18384199

  13. Is Chronic Asthma Associated with Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length at Midlife?

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Idan; Sears, Malcolm R.; Hancox, Robert J.; Lee Harrington, Hona; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is prospectively associated with age-related chronic diseases and mortality, suggesting the hypothesis that asthma may relate to a general, multisystem phenotype of accelerated aging. Objectives: To test whether chronic asthma is associated with a proposed biomarker of accelerated aging, leukocyte telomere length. Methods: Asthma was ascertained prospectively in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort (n = 1,037) at nine in-person assessments spanning ages 938 years. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at ages 26 and 38 years. Asthma was classified as life-course-persistent, childhood-onset not meeting criteria for persistence, and adolescent/adult-onset. We tested associations between asthma and leukocyte telomere length using regression models. We tested for confounding of asthma-leukocyte telomere length associations using covariate adjustment. We tested serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts as potential mediators of asthma-leukocyte telomere length associations. Measurements and Main Results: Study members with life-course-persistent asthma had shorter leukocyte telomere length as compared with sex- and age-matched peers with no reported asthma. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length in study members with childhood-onset and adolescent/adult-onset asthma was not different from leukocyte telomere length in peers with no reported asthma. Adjustment for life histories of obesity and smoking did not change results. Study members with life-course-persistent asthma had elevated blood eosinophil counts. Blood eosinophil count mediated 29% of the life-course-persistent asthma-leukocyte telomere length association. Conclusions: Life-course-persistent asthma is related to a proposed biomarker of accelerated aging, possibly via systemic eosinophilic inflammation. Life histories of asthma can inform studies of aging. PMID:24956257

  14. Equine CRISP3 modulates interaction between spermatozoa and polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Doty, A; Buhi, W C; Benson, S; Scoggin, K E; Pozor, M; Macpherson, M; Mutz, M; Troedsson, M H T

    2011-07-01

    Equine spermatozoa induce a uterine inflammatory response characterized by a rapid, transient influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Seminal plasma proteins have been shown to modulate the interaction between spermatozoa and PMNs, but a specific protein responsible for this function has not been identified. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify a protein in equine seminal plasma that suppresses binding between spermatozoa and PMNs. Seminal plasma was pooled from five stallions, and proteins were precipitated in 60% (w/v) ammonium sulfate and dialyzed (3500 MW cutoff). Proteins were submitted to a Sephacryl S200 column, and fractions were pooled based on the fraction pattern. Each pool was analyzed for protein concentration and tested for its suppressive effect on PMN/sperm binding. Protein pools with biological activity were submitted to ion-exchange chromatography (diethylaminoethyl [DEAE] Sephadex column) with equilibration buffers containing 0.1-0.5M NaCl. Eluants were pooled, analyzed for protein concentration, and tested for suppressive effects on PMN/sperm binding. Protein distribution and purity were determined by one- and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, and the purified protein was submitted for sequence analysis and identification. This protein was identified as equine CRISP3 and was confirmed by Western blotting. Suppression of PMN/sperm binding by CRISP3 and seminal plasma was confirmed by flow cytometry (22.08% ± 3.05% vs. 2.06% ± 2.02% vs. 63.09% ± 8.67 for equine seminal plasma, CRISP3, and media, respectively; P < 0.0001). It was concluded that CRISP3 in seminal plasma suppresses PMNs/sperm binding, suggesting that CRISP3 regulates sperm elimination from the female reproductive tract. PMID:21389342

  15. Gene Expression Profile of Endotoxin-stimulated Leukocytes of the Term New Born: Control of Cytokine Gene Expression by Interleukin-10

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Dennis; Zaytseva, Alla; Miskolci, Veronika; Castro-Alcaraz, Susana; Vancurova, Ivana; Patel, Hardik

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Increasing evidence now supports the association between the fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) with the pathogenesis of preterm labor, intraventricular hemorrhage and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNs) and mononuclear cell (MONOs) infiltration of the placenta is associated with these disorders. The aim of this study was to reveal cell-specific differences in gene expression and cytokine release in response to endotoxin that would elucidate inflammatory control mechanisms in the newly born. Methods PMNs and MONOs were separately isolated from the same cord blood sample. A genome-wide microarray screened for gene expression and related pathways at 4 h of LPS stimulation (n?=?5). RT-qPCR and ELISA were performed for selected cytokines at 4 h and 18 h of LPS stimulation. Results Compared to PMNs, MONOs had a greater diversity and more robust gene expression that included pro-inflammatory (PI) cytokines, chemokines and growth factors at 4 h. Only MONOs had genes changing expression (all up regulated including interleukin-10) that were clustered in the JAK/STAT pathway. Pre-incubation with IL-10 antibody, for LPS-stimulated MONOs, led to up regulated PI and IL-10 gene expression and release of PI cytokines after 4 h. Discussion The present study suggests a dominant role of MONO gene expression in control of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome at 4 hrs of LPS stimulation. LPS-stimulated MONOs but not PMNs of the newborn have the ability to inhibit PI cytokine gene expression by latent IL-10 release. PMID:23326478

  16. Assessing leukocyte-endothelial interactions under flow conditions in an ex vivo autoperfused microflow chamber assay.

    PubMed

    Mulki, Lama; Sweigard, J Harry; Connor, Kip M

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte-endothelial interactions are early and critical events in acute and chronic inflammation and can, when dysregulated, mediate tissue injury leading to permanent pathological damage. Existing conventional assays allow the analysis of leukocyte adhesion molecules only after the extraction of leukocytes from the blood. This requires the blood to undergo several steps before peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can be ready for analysis, which in turn can stimulate PBLs influencing the research findings. The autoperfused micro flow chamber assay, however, allows scientists to study early leukocytes functional dysregulation using the systemic flow of a live mouse while having the freedom of manipulating a coated chamber. Through a disease model, the functional expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules can be assessed and quantified in a micro-glass chamber coated with immobilized endothelial adhesion molecules ex vivo. In this model, the blood flows between the right common carotid artery and left external jugular vein of a live mouse under anesthesia, allowing the interaction of native PBLs in the chamber. Real-time experimental analysis is achieved with the assistance of an intravital microscope as well as a Harvard Apparatus pressure device. The application of a flow regulator at the input point of the glass chamber allows comparable physiological flow conditions amongst the experiments. Leukocyte rolling velocity is the main outcome and is measured using the National Institutes of Health open-access software ImageJ. In summary, the autoperfused micro flow chamber assay provides an optimal physiological environment to study leukocytes endothelial interaction and allows researchers to draw accurate conclusions when studying inflammation. PMID:25590688

  17. Assessing Leukocyte-endothelial Interactions Under Flow Conditions in an Ex Vivo Autoperfused Microflow Chamber Assay

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Kip M.

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte-endothelial interactions are early and critical events in acute and chronic inflammation and can, when dysregulated, mediate tissue injury leading to permanent pathological damage. Existing conventional assays allow the analysis of leukocyte adhesion molecules only after the extraction of leukocytes from the blood. This requires the blood to undergo several steps before peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can be ready for analysis, which in turn can stimulate PBLs influencing the research findings. The autoperfused micro flow chamber assay, however, allows scientists to study early leukocytes functional dysregulation using the systemic flow of a live mouse while having the freedom of manipulating a coated chamber. Through a disease model, the functional expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules can be assessed and quantified in a micro-glass chamber coated with immobilized endothelial adhesion molecules ex vivo. In this model, the blood flows between the right common carotid artery and left external jugular vein of a live mouse under anesthesia, allowing the interaction of native PBLs in the chamber. Real-time experimental analysis is achieved with the assistance of an intravital microscope as well as a Harvard Apparatus pressure device. The application of a flow regulator at the input point of the glass chamber allows comparable physiological flow conditions amongst the experiments. Leukocyte rolling velocity is the main outcome and is measured using the National Institutes of Health open-access software ImageJ. In summary, the autoperfused micro flow chamber assay provides an optimal physiological environment to study leukocytes endothelial interaction and allows researchers to draw accurate conclusions when studying inflammation. PMID:25590688

  18. Decreased levels of peripheral leukocytes following sodium selenite treatment in female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.

    1986-08-01

    Selenium is known to be an essential micronutrient to a number of animal species (Schwarz 1961). Above its trace levels, however, selenium accumulation has long been known to induce deleterious conditions in domestic animals and in humans. Selenium has been reported to induce a hemolytic anemia, alter the configuration of plasma protein, reduce the synthesis of hemoglobin, depress packed red blood cell volume, and accumulate in renal and hepatic tissues. There are substantial data in regard to selenium effects on the erythrocyte component of peripheral blood, but there is an obvious deficiency in such information concerning the effects of selenium on the leukocyte component of blood. The major purpose of this investigation is to focus upon the effects of selenium on formed elements of the blood, and specifically, the leukocytes. Following three separate treatments of selenium, the number and class of peripheral leukocytes were determined as a function of time following administration of the selenium salt.

  19. Leukocyte margination at arteriole shear rate

    PubMed Central

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Nakaaki, Keita; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We numerically investigated margination of leukocytes at arteriole shear rate in straight circular channels with diameters ranging from 10 to 22 ?m. Our results demonstrated that passing motion of RBCs effectively induces leukocyte margination not only in small channels but also in large channels. A longer time is needed for margination to occur in a larger channel, but once a leukocyte has marginated, passing motion of RBCs occurs continuously independent of the channel diameter, and leukocyte margination is sustained for a long duration. We also show that leukocytes rarely approach the wall surface to within a microvillus length at arteriole shear rate. PMID:24907300

  20. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  1. A Complement-Optimized EGFR Antibody Improves Cytotoxic Functions of Polymorphonuclear Cells against Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Derer, Stefanie; Cossham, Michael; Rsner, Thies; Kellner, Christian; Beurskens, Frank J; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Lohse, Stefan; Sina, Christian; Peipp, Matthias; Valerius, Thomas

    2015-11-15

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) has been suggested to be an important mechanism of action of tumor-targeting Abs. However, single unmodified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting IgG1 Abs fail to trigger efficient CDC. For the current study, we generated a CDC-optimized variant of the EGFR Ab matuzumab (H425 wt) by introducing amino acid substitutions K326A/E333A (H425 mt). This Ab was then used to elucidate the impact of complement activation on the capacity of effector cells such as mononuclear cells (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) to exert Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). H425 mt, but not H425 wt, significantly induced complement deposition, release of anaphylatoxins, and CDC against distinct tumor cell lines, whereas no differences in ADCC by MNC or PMN were detected. Notably, stronger cytotoxicity was induced by H425 mt than by H425 wt in whole blood assays and in experiments in which MNC or PMN were combined with serum. Although MNC-ADCC was not affected by C5 cleavage, the cytotoxic activity of PMN in the presence of serum strongly depended on C5 cleavage, pointing to a direct interaction between complement and PMN. Strong cell surface expression of C5a receptors was detected on PMN, whereas NK cells completely lacked expression. Stimulation of PMN with C5a led to upregulation of activated complement receptor 3, resulting in enhanced complement receptor 3-dependent PMN-ADCC against tumor cells. In conclusion, complement-optimized EGFR Abs may constitute a promising strategy to improve tumor cell killing by enhancing the interaction between humoral and cellular effector functions in Ab-based tumor therapy. PMID:26475927

  2. A model of canine leukocyte telomere dynamics.

    PubMed

    Benetos, Athanase; Kimura, Masayuki; Labat, Carlos; Buchoff, Gerald M; Huber, Shell; Labat, Laura; Lu, Xiaobin; Aviv, Abraham

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have found associations of leukocyte telomere length (TL) with diseases of aging and with longevity. However, it is unknown whether birth leukocyte TL or its age-dependent attrition--the two factors that determine leukocyte TL dynamics--explains these associations because acquiring this information entails monitoring individuals over their entire life course. We tested in dogs a model of leukocyte TL dynamics, based on the following premises: (i) TL is synchronized among somatic tissues; (ii) TL in skeletal muscle, which is largely postmitotic, is a measure of TL in early development; and (iii) the difference between TL in leukocytes and muscle (?LMTL) is the extent of leukocyte TL shortening since early development. Using this model, we observed in 83 dogs (ages, 4-42 months) no significant change with age in TLs of skeletal muscle and a shorter TL in leukocytes than in skeletal muscle (P<0.0001). Age explained 43% of the variation in ?LMTL (P<0.00001), but only 6% of the variation in leukocyte TL (P=0.035) among dogs. Accordingly, muscle TL and ?LMTL provide the two essential factors of leukocyte TL dynamics in the individual dog. When applied to humans, the partition of the contribution of leukocyte TL during early development vs. telomere shortening afterward might provide information about whether the individual's longevity is calibrated to either one or both factors that define leukocyte TL dynamics. PMID:21917112

  3. Concanavalin A as a probe for studying the mechanism of metabolic stimulation of leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Romeo, D; Zabucchi, G; Jug, M; Miani, N; Soranzo, M R

    1975-01-01

    The disruption of the molecular organization of the plasma membrane of leukocytes by phagocytosable particles, or by agents such as surfactants, antibodies, phospholipase C, fatty acids and chemotactic factors, leads to a stimulation of the phagocyte oxidative metabolism. Concanavalin A (Con A) has been used as a tool to study the mechanism of this metabolic regulation. The binding of Con A to the surface of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) or macrophages produces a rapid enhancement of oxygen uptake and glucose oxidation through the hexose monophosphate pathway (HMP). This is explained by an activation of the granular NADPH oxidase, the key enzyme in the metabolic stimulation. The effect of Con A is not due to endocytosed lectin, since Con A covalently coupled to large sepharose beads still acts as stimulant. The metabolic changes caused by Con A are reversible. If, after the onset of stimulation, sugars with high affinity for Con A are added to the leukocyte suspension, the activity of granular NADPH oxidase and the rate of respiration and glucose oxidation return to their resting values. The metabolic burst, while partially supressed by treatment of PMNL with iodoacetate, sodium flouride and cytochalasin B, is slightly increased by colchicine. Con A induces a selective release of granular enzymes (beta-glucuronidase, peroxidase, alkaline phosphatase) from PMNL, whereas no leakage of cytoplasmic enzymes is observed. The enzyme release is inhibited by iodoacetate and by drugs known to increase cell levels of cyclic AMP. Based on a current view of the mode of interaction between Con A and cell surfaces, a model of the metabolic disruption of leukocytes is presented. PMID:168745

  4. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil function and gene expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Biswas, D; Moyes, K M

    2015-02-01

    Research on the use of natural products to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic use is growing. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play a vital role with regard to the innate immune response that affects severity or duration of mastitis. To our knowledge, effect of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (TCO) on bovine PMNL function has not been elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of TCO on bovine blood PMNL chemotaxis and phagocytosis capabilities and the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response in vitro. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from jugular blood of 12 Holstein cows in mid-lactation and were incubated with 0.0 or 0.01% TCO for 120min at 37C and 5% CO2, and phagocytosis (210(6) PMNL) and chemotaxis (610(6) PMNL) assays were then performed in vitro. For gene expression, RNA was extracted from incubated PMNL (610(6) PMNL), and gene expression was analyzed using quantitative PCR. The supernatant was stored at -80C for analysis of tumor necrosis factor-?. Data were analyzed using a general linear mixed model with cow and treatment (i.e., control or TCO) in the model statement. In vitro supplementation of 0.01% of TCO increased the chemotactic ability to IL-8 by 47%; however, migration of PMNL to complement 5a was not altered. Treatment did not affect the production of tumor necrosis factor-? by PMNL. Expression of proinflammatory genes (i.e., SELL, TLR4, IRAK1, TRAF6, and LYZ) coding for proteins was not altered by incubation of PMNL with TCO. However, downregulation of TLR2 [fold change (FC=treatment/control)=-2.14], NFKBIA (FC=1.82), IL1B (FC=-2.16), TNFA (FC=-9.43), and SOD2 (FC=-1.57) was observed for PMNL incubated with TCO when compared with controls. Interestingly, expression of IL10, a well-known antiinflammatory cytokine, was also downregulated (FC=-3.78), whereas expression of IL8 (FC=1.93), a gene coding for the cytokine IL-8 known for its chemotactic function, tended to be upregulated in PMNL incubated with TCO. Incubation of PMNL with TCO enhanced PMNL chemotaxis in vitro. The expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response was primarily downregulated. Results showed that 0.01% TCO did not impair the function of PMNL in vitro. Future studies investigating the use of TCO as an alternative therapy for treatment of mastitis, including dose and duration, for cows during lactation are warranted. PMID:25434342

  5. Visualization of a prosthetic vascular graft due to platelet contamination during /sup 111/Indium-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.

    1988-09-01

    A prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft was visualized during /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a patient referred for possible abdominal abscess. The presence of significant cardiac blood-pool activity raised the possibility that this uptake was due to deposition of contaminating labeled platelets rather than labeled leukocytes. An analysis of a small sample of the patient's blood confirmed that the circulating activity was due to labeled platelets. Increased activity along prosthetic vascular grafts in patients undergoing /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy may be due to adherent platelet, and not indicative of infection.

  6. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  7. Aminoguanidine-provoked leukocyte adherence to rat mesenteric venules: role of constitutive nitric oxide synthase inhibition.

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Belmonte, J.; Whittle, B. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of aminoguanidine on neutrophil adherence to venules and on the diameter of arterioles in the mesenteric vascular bed of the pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rat have been compared with those of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 2. Administration of L-NAME (1-10 mg kg-1, i.v.) caused a dose-dependent increase in leukocyte adherence and a reduction in leukocyte rolling velocity in postcapillary venules of the rat mesentery over 1 h. 3. Likewise, aminoguanidine (10-100 mg kg-1, i.v.) dose-dependently increased leukocyte adherence and decreased leukocyte rolling velocity over 1 h. 4. Both L-NAME and aminoguanidine caused a dose-dependent reduction in mesenteric arteriolar diameter and an increase in systemic arterial blood pressure. 5. The effects of aminoguanidine (50 mg kg-1, i.v.) on leukocyte adherence, arteriolar diameter and on blood pressure were significantly reversed by pretreatment with L-arginine (300 mg kg-1, i.v.). 6. These findings indicate that, like L-NAME, aminoguanidine can acutely promote leukocyte adherence to the mesenteric venular wall and reduce arteriolar diameter. Moreover, these acute effects were reversed by L-arginine, suggesting they are mediated through inhibition of constitutive NO synthase. PMID:8590994

  8. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test. PMID:12637206

  9. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-?-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids. PMID:26076445

  10. Highlighting the problematic reliance on CD18 for diagnosing leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1.

    PubMed

    Levy-Mendelovich, Sarina; Rechavi, Erez; Abuzaitoun, Omar; Vernitsky, Helly; Simon, Amos J; Lev, Atar; Somech, Raz

    2016-04-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency, hallmarked by defective polymorphonuclear transmigration. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CD18, which interfere with the CD18/CD11 heterodimerization and expression on leukocyte cell surface. LAD-1 diagnosis rests primarily on the measurement of CD18 expression. However, CD18 measurement entails its pitfalls. Here we present a cohort of ten LAD patients and a review of the relevant literature illustrating the difficulties in sole reliance on CD18 measurement for initial diagnosis. These include normal range expression in some mutations, great variability between patients with the same mutation and subjective interpretation of results. We think there is a need for additional markers as part of the initial LAD diagnostic algorithm. We suggest CD11a expression, which was near absent in all patients in our cohort. The dual use of CD18 and CD11a can increase testing sensitivity and prevent delayed diagnosis of LAD-1. PMID:26434744

  11. The potential of the novel leukocyte removal filter in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is indispensable for cardiac surgery but leads to systemic inflammatory responses and leukocyte activation, possibly due to blood contact with the surface of the CPB unit, surgical, ischemic reperfusion injury, etc. Systemic inflammatory responses during CPB result in increased morbidity and mortality. Activation of leukocytes is an important part of this process and directly contributes to coagulopathy and hemorrhage. This inflammatory response may contribute to the development of postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, respiratory failure, renal and neurologic dysfunction, altered liver function and ultimately, multiple organ failure. Various pharmacologic and mechanical strategies have been developed to minimize the systemic inflammatory response during CPB. For example, leukocyte removal filters were developed in the 1990s for incorporation into the CPB circuit. However, studies of this approach have yielded conflicting findings. The purpose of this was to review the studies of a novel leukocyte removal filter in patients undergoing CPB. PMID:26613267

  12. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.

  13. Locking endothelial junctions blocks leukocyte extravasation, but not in all tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kppers, Verena; Vestweber, Dietmar; Schulte, Drte

    2013-01-01

    The passage of leukocytes across the blood vessel wall is a fundamental event in the inflammatory response. During the last decades, there has been significant progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in leukocyte transmigration. However, it is still a matter of debate whether leukocytes migrate paracellularly or transcellularly through an endothelial cell layer. We could recently show that a VE-cadherin-?-catenin fusion protein locks endothelial junctions in the skin and strongly reduces leukocyte diapedesis in lung, skin and cremaster, establishing the paracellular route as the major transmigration pathway in these tissues. However, the homing of nave lymphocytes into lymph nodes and extravasation of neutrophils in the inflamed peritoneum were not affected by VE-cadherin-?-catenin. This unexpected heterogeneity of the diapedesis process in different tissues as well as the complexity and dynamics of the cadherin-catenin complex in regulating endothelial junctions will be discussed. PMID:24665379

  14. The leukocyte response to fluid stress

    PubMed Central

    Moazzam, Fariborz; DeLano, Frank A.; Zweifach, Benjamin W.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    1997-01-01

    Leukocyte migration from a hemopoietic pool across marrow endothelium requires active pseudopod formation and adhesion. Leukocytes rarely show pseudopod formation while in circulation. At question then is the mechanism that serves to minimize leukocyte pseudopod formation in the circulation. We tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress acts to prevent pseudopod formation. When individual human leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes) spreading on glass surfaces in vitro were subjected to fluid shear stress (≈1 dyn/cm2), an instantaneous retraction of pseudopods was observed. Removal of the fluid shear stress in turn led to the return of pseudopod projection and cell spreading. When steady shear stress was prolonged over several minutes, leukocyte swelling occurs together with an enhanced random motion of cytoplasmic granules and a reduction of cytoplasmic stiffness. The response to shear stress could be suppressed by K+ channel blockers and chelation of external Ca2+. In rat mesentery microvessels after occlusion, circulating leukocytes project pseudopods in free suspension or when attached to the endothelium, even though immediately after occlusion only few pseudopods were present. When flow was restored, pseudopods on adhering leukocytes were retracted and then the cells began to roll and detach from the endothelium. In conclusion, plasma shear stress in the circulation serves to reduce pseudopod projection and adhesion of circulating leukocytes and vice versa reduction of shear stress leads to pseudopod projection and spreading of leukocytes on the endothelium. PMID:9144238

  15. A requirement for microglial TLR4 in leukocyte recruitment into brain in response to lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Lapointe, Benot M; Clark, Stephen R; Zbytnuik, Lori; Kubes, Paul

    2006-12-01

    To study the mechanisms involved in leukocyte recruitment induced by local bacterial infection within the CNS, we used intravital microscopy to visualize the interaction between leukocytes and the microvasculature in the brain. First, we showed that intracerebroventricular injection of LPS could cause significant rolling and adhesion of leukocytes in the brain postcapillary venules of wild-type mice, while negligible recruitment was observed in TLR4-deficient C57BL/10ScCr mice and CD14 knockout mice, suggesting recruitment is mediated by TLR4/CD14-bearing cells. Moreover, we observed reduced but not complete inhibition of recruitment in MyD88 knockout mice, indicating both MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways are involved. The leukocyte recruitment responses in chimeric mice with TLR4-positive microglia and endothelium, but TLR4-negative leukocytes, were comparable to normal wild-type mice, suggesting either endothelium or microglia play a crucial role in the induction of leukocyte recruitment. LPS injection induced both microglial and endothelial activation in the CNS. Furthermore, minocycline, an effective inhibitor of microglial activation, completely blocked the rolling and adhesion of leukocytes in the brain and blocked TNF-alpha production in response to LPS in vivo. Minocycline did not affect activation of endothelium by LPS in vitro. TNFR p55/p75 double knockout mice also exhibited significant reductions in both rolling and adhesion in response to LPS, indicating TNF-alpha signaling is critical for the leukocyte recruitment. Our results identify a TLR4 detection system within the blood-brain barrier. The microglia play the role of sentinel cells detecting LPS thereby inducing endothelial activation and leading to efficient leukocyte recruitment to the CNS. PMID:17114485

  16. Oxaceprol, an atypical inhibitor of inflammation, reduces leukocyte adherence in mouse antigen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Veihelmann, A; Hofbauer, A; Refior, H J; Messmer, K

    2001-06-01

    Oxaceprol (N-acetyl-L-hydroxyproline), an atypical inhibitor of inflammation, is an established drug forjoint disease without serious side-effects. Recent studies have emphasized that oxaceprol has an effect on the microcirculation. Since the exact mechanism of action remains unclear, the aim of our study was to investigate the leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in oxaceprol-treated mice with antigen-induced arthritis (AiA) using intravital microscopy. In our study, Balb/c mice were allocated to 4 groups (n 7, 8, 8, 8): 2 control groups with saline or oxaceprol and 2 groups of arthritic animals which received saline or oxaceprol (100 mg/kg twice a day intraperitoneally). The severity of arthritis was quantified by the transverse knee joint diameter. For the intravital fluorescence microscopy measurements on day 10 after inducing arthritis, the patella tendon was partily resected to visualize the intraarticular synovial tissue of the knee joint. The number of rolling and adherent leukocytes as well as RBC velocity and functional capillary density (FCD) were quantified in synovial microvessels. Furthermore, leukocyte infiltration was determined in the histological sections with an established score. No significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure or functional capillary density were found in any of the groups. However, the leukocyte rolling fraction and number of leukocytes adherent to the endothelium were increased in postcapillary venules of the synovium in arthritic animals (0.16 to 0.31, 78 cells/mm2 to 220 cells/mm2). In animals with AiA treated with oxaceprol, leukocyte adherence and swelling were significantly reduced in comparison to the arthritic animals treated with saline. Furthermore, the histological score showed less leukocyte infiltration in the oxaceprol treated arthritic animals. Thus, oxaceprol reduces leukocyte adherence in vivo and leukocyte infiltration in mouse AiA, indicating an effect on synovial microcirculation. PMID:11480608

  17. Leukocyte capillary plugging in myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Engler, R. L.; Schmid-Schnbein, G. W.; Pavelec, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    After several hours of ischemia an incomplete return of blood flow has been reported in brain, kidney, skeletal muscle, and heart. The mechanisms responsible for the no-reflow phenomenon have been unclear, and perivascular edema, platelet or red cell plugs, and interstitial hemorrhage have been implicated. In the present study evidence is provided that leukocyte entrapment in capillaries might contribute to no reflow. Leukocytes are large and stiff cells, which adhere to vascular endothelium naturally and are known to alter in their adherence properties under a variety of conditions. Accordingly, 11 open-chest dogs were studied, 1-5 hours after left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Reperfusion (9 dogs) at 75 mm Hg arterial pressure was accomplished with Ringer's lactate and carbon suspension as a marker for capillary patency. In non-ischemic tissue, 98% of the capillaries contained carbon, rare leukocytes, and few erythrocytes, whereas tissue from the distribution of the occluded artery was heterogeneous: 60% of the capillaries had no carbon, high hematocrits, and approximately one leukocyte per unbranched capillary; 40% demonstrated reflow and no leukocytes. A significant correlation between capillaries without carbon (no reflow) and the frequency of leukocytes remaining in these capillaries indicated that leukocytes were present in obstructed capillaries. Furthermore, the frequency of leukocytes remaining after the washout with lactate was ten times greater than in normal arrested heart muscle without washout. Our results suggest that progressive leukocyte capillary plugging during myocardial ischemia contributes to preventing full restoration of capillary flow upon reperfusion. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6837725

  18. The role of platelets in the recruitment of leukocytes during vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ed Rainger, G.; Chimen, Myriam; Harrison, Matthew J.; Yates, Clara M.; Harrison, Paul; Watson, Stephen P.; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Nash, Gerard B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Besides their role in the formation of thrombus during haemostasis, it is becoming clear that platelets contribute to a number of other processes within the vasculature. Indeed, the integrated function of the thrombotic and inflammatory systems, which results in platelet-mediated recruitment of leukocytes, is now considered to be of great importance in the propagation, progression and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease of the arteries. There are three scenarios by which platelets can interact with leukocytes: (1) during haemostasis, when platelets adhere to and are activated on sub-endothelial matrix proteins exposed by vascular damage and then recruit leukocytes to a growing thrombus. (2) Platelets adhere to and are activated on stimulated endothelial cells and then bridge blood borne leukocytes to the vessel wall and. (3) Adhesion between platelets and leukocytes occurs in the blood leading to formation of heterotypic aggregates prior to contact with endothelial cells. In the following review we will not discuss leukocyte recruitment during haemostasis, as this represents a physiological response to tissue trauma that can progress, at least in its early stages, in the absence of inflammation. Rather we will deal with scenarios 2 and 3, as these pathways of platelet–leukocyte interactions are important during inflammation and in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Indeed, these interactions mean that leukocytes possess means of adhesion to the vessel wall under conditions that may not normally be permissive of leukocyte–endothelial cell adhesion, meaning that the disease process may be able to bypass the regulatory pathways which would ordinarily moderate the inflammatory response. PMID:26196409

  19. Leukocyte migration in synovial tissue. Leukocyte distribution, orientation, and migratory pattern after immune complex deposition in rabbit knee joints.

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, P.; Ericson, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    Complement-activating bovine serum albumin (BSA)-anti-BSA immune complexes (ICs) were injected into rabbit knee joint cavities; the contralateral control joint was injected with BSA together with normal rabbit serum. The migration of leukocytes from the synovial venules into the joint cavity was analyzed with light microscopy (LM), scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. EM autoradiography was used to study the endocytosis of ICs by leukocytes. The shape, orientation, and distribution of migrating polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNGs) were analyzed by LM morphometry. PMNGs accumulated in the joints injected with ICs. The peak of the number of PMNGs in the synovial tissue was reached after 4 hours, in the joint cavity after 6 hours. PMNGs in the synovial tissue were concentrated in the intimal layer. Migrating PMNGs were polarized, as judged by the ratio between the long (D max) and short (D min) axes of the cells. There was a close association between the migrating PMNGs and the collagen fibers. The morphometric data showed that the nonflattened, cylindrically-shaped PMNGs were oriented along the collagen bundles, running parallel to the synovial surface, and did not migrate in the straight direction of a theoretic leukotactic gradient originating in the joint cavity after IC deposition. SEM and TEM showed that the PMNGs were aligned along the collagen fibers and interacted activity with the collagen by pseudopods and cytoplasmic projections. EM autoradiography showed that the PMNGs in the joint cavity had ingested 125I-labeled ICs and were degranulated. In contrast, the PMNGs within the synovial membrane did not show any signs of IC endocytosis or any apparent degranulation. Synovial type A cells were found to contain ICs. This study indicates that the response of PMNGs in IC-induced synovitis consists of two distinct phases: an initial, mainly migratory phase in the synovial membrane where the PMNGs appear to use the collagen fibres as a climbing framework, and a second phase, in the joint cavity, characterized by PMNG metabolic activation, endocytosis of ICs, and degranulation. The apparent inability of PMNGs in the synovial membrane to ingest ICs and become degranulated might be due to not only concentration differences of ICs and leukotactic factors between the joint cavity and the synovial tissue but also might be related to the apparently active interaction with collagen. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2757115

  20. Exercise-induced leukocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Mooren, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise is well known to affect leukocyte numbers and function. While regular exercise training has been shown to enhance specific immune functions, acute bouts of intensive exercise often lead to a pro-inflammatory response accompanied by a transient lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia. It can be assumed, that lymphocytopenia can be attributed at least partially to an enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis. In contrast, regulation of neutrophil apoptosis after exercise remains controversial since studies demonstrated both an up-regulation as well as a down-regulation of cell death. However, these discrepancies may be due to differences in exercise protocols, subjects' fitness levels, and to different methodological approaches. Two major signalling pathways of exercise induced apoptosis have been identified. First the external receptor mediated pathway using death receptors, and second the internal, oxidative-mediated pathway which encompasses the mitochondria. Potential apoptosis modulating mediators are reactive oxygen species (ROS), glucocorticoids and cytokines which are part of the systemic inflammatory response evoked after acute intensive exercise. Finally, the physiological impact and clinical relevance of leukocyte apoptosis will be discussed. On the one hand, exercise-induced apoptosis might be a mechanism to remove activated and potentially autoreactive immune cells. On the other hand, apoptosis might be a regulatory mechanism which is necessary for tissue reorganization and adaptational training processes. PMID:24974724

  1. Endogenous Thrombospondin-1 Regulates Leukocyte Recruitment and Activation and Accelerates Death from Systemic Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Manso, Gema; Navarathna, Dhammika H. M. L. P.; Galli, Susana; Soto-Pantoja, David R.; Kuznetsova, Svetlana A.; Tsokos, Maria; Roberts, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Disseminated Candida albicans infection results in high morbidity and mortality despite treatment with existing antifungal drugs. Recent studies suggest that modulating the host immune response can improve survival, but specific host targets for accomplishing this goal remain to be identified. The extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin-1 is released at sites of tissue injury and modulates several immune functions, but its role in C. albicans pathogenesis has not been investigated. Here, we show that mice lacking thrombospondin-1 have an advantage in surviving disseminated candidiasis and more efficiently clear the initial colonization from kidneys despite exhibiting fewer infiltrating leukocytes. By examining local and systemic cytokine responses to C. albicans and other standard inflammatory stimuli, we identify a crucial function of phagocytes in this enhanced resistance. Subcutaneous air pouch and systemic candidiasis models demonstrated that endogenous thrombospondin-1 enhances the early innate immune response against C. albicans and promotes activation of inflammatory macrophages (inducible nitric oxide synthase+, IL-6high, TNF-?high, IL-10low), release of the chemokines MIP-2, JE, MIP-1?, and RANTES, and CXCR2-driven polymorphonuclear leukocytes recruitment. However, thrombospondin-1 inhibited the phagocytic capacity of inflammatory leukocytes in vivo and in vitro, resulting in increased fungal burden in the kidney and increased mortality in wild type mice. Thus, thrombospondin-1 enhances the pathogenesis of disseminated candidiasis by creating an imbalance in the host immune response that ultimately leads to reduced phagocytic function, impaired fungal clearance, and increased mortality. Conversely, inhibitors of thrombospondin-1 may be useful drugs to improve patient recovery from disseminated candidiasis. PMID:23144964

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed April 2014 What is leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1? Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type ...

  3. Preparation and evaluation of a /sup 99m/Tc-SnF2 colloid kit for leukocyte labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, J.I.; Tatum, J.L.; Fratkin, M.J.; Apostolides, D.L.; Quint, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    Stannous fluoride colloid (SFC) kits for instant radiolabeling with 99mTc were prepared and evaluated for suitability as a leukocyte radiolabeling agent. Technetium-99m labeling for kits stored at -15/degree/C for up to 3 mo was greater than 95% as determined by instant thin layer chromatography while colloid particles of 1-3 microns were measured by electron microscope for these preparations. Canine leukocyte preparations labeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)SFC and characterized by triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma demonstrated an 83% leukocyte association. Analysis of labeled cell preparation for up to 3 hr demonstrated label stability. Labeled leukocytes, when readministered in normal dogs, demonstrated bi-exponential blood clearance with uptake and subsequent clearance from lung. There was increasing uptake of labeled leukocytes by the liver until steady state was achieved. Furthermore, when whole blood samples were analyzed by the triple density gradient method, an increasing monocyte-to-granulocyte ratio was observed to occur with time. By 3 hr 95% of the whole blood activity was associated with the leukocyte fraction. Dogs in which a 24-hr sterile abscess was created demonstrated elevated blood-pool activity as compared to control with localization of the labeled cells at inflammatory sites within 3 hr following cell readministration.

  4. Leukocyte migration from a fish eye's view

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qing; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the last five years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has rapidly gained popularity as a model system for studying leukocyte migration and trafficking in vivo. The optical clarity of zebrafish embryos, as well as the potential for genetic manipulation and the development of tools for live imaging, have provided new insight into how leukocytes migrate in response to directional cues in live animals. This Commentary discusses recent progress in our understanding of how leukocytes migrate in vivo, including the role of intracellular signaling through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in both random and directed migration. The importance of leukocyte reverse migration in the resolution of inflammation will also be discussed. Finally, we will highlight how zebrafish models have helped to provide new insight into leukocyte migration and the way in which migration is altered in disease. PMID:23104739

  5. Rho-GTPase signaling in leukocyte extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Heemskerk, Niels; van Rijssel, Jos; van Buul, Jaap D

    2014-01-01

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is one of the crucial steps during inflammation. A better understanding of the key molecules that regulate leukocyte extravasation aids to the development of novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases, such as atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as central mediators of TEM. Clustering of these molecules by their leukocytic integrins initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within the endothelium, including a rise in intracellular Ca2+, activation of several kinase cascades, and the activation of Rho-GTPases. Activation of Rho-GTPases has been shown to control adhesion molecule clustering and the formation of apical membrane protrusions that embrace adherent leukocytes during TEM. Here, we discuss the potential regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from an endothelial point of view, with specific focus on the role of the Rho-GTPases. PMID:24621576

  6. Telomere shortening in leukocyte subpopulations in depression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Telomere shortening is a normal age-related process. However, premature shortening of telomeres in leukocytes as has been reported in depression may increase the risk for age-related diseases. While previous studies investigated telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a whole, this study investigated specific changes in the clonal composition of white blood cells of the adaptive immune system (CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and CD20+ B lymphocytes). Methods Forty-four females with a history of unipolar depression were investigated and compared to fifty age-matched female controls. Telomere lengths were compared between three groups: 1) individuals with a history of depression but currently no clinically relevant depressive symptoms, 2) individuals with a history of depression with relevant symptoms of depression, and 3) healthy age-matched controls. Telomere length was assessed using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (qFISH). Results Both groups with a history of unipolar depression (with and without current depressive symptoms) showed significantly shorter telomeres in all three lymphocyte subpopulations. The effect was stronger in CD8+ and CD20+ cells than in CD4+ cells. Individuals with a history of depression and with (without) current symptoms exhibited a CD8+ telomere length shortening corresponding to an age differential of 27.9 (25.3) years. Conclusions A history of depression is associated with shortened telomeres in the main effector populations of the adaptive immune system. Shorter telomeres seem to persist in individuals with lifetime depression independently of the severity of depressive symptoms. CD8+ cytotoxic T cells and CD20+ B cells seem to be particularly affected in depression. The total number of depressive episodes did not influence telomere length in the investigated adaptive immune cell populations. PMID:24996455

  7. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. )

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  8. The effect of HMGB1, a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, on polymorphonuclear neutrophil migration depends on its concentration.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, Florence; Fattoum, Lakhdar; Casulli, Sarah; Gozlan, Jol; Marchal, Vincent; Elbim, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) play a key role in host defenses against invading microorganisms but also potentiate inflammatory reactions in case of excessive or misdirected responses. Release of the alarmin high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) by cells that die at an inflammatory site may act as an alert signal for the immune system. We studied the effect of HMGB1 on human PMN migration, using whole-blood samples to avoid cell activation associated with isolation procedures. HMGB1 50-100 ng/ml reduced baseline PMN migration as well as formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine- and IL-8-induced PMN chemotaxis. This inhibitory effect was mediated by the RAGE receptor. In contrast, a higher HMGB1 concentration (5,000 ng/ml) had a chemoattractant effect on PMN through IL-8 production. This effect required the engagement of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in addition to the RAGE receptor. The A box component of HMGB1, which antagonizes the endogenous protein, reduced chemotaxis and also strongly inhibited the enhancement of PMN migration observed with the highest HMGB1 concentration. In contrast, the B box, reported to be the active form of HMGB1, exerted a chemoattractant effect. These results strongly point to a key regulatory role of HMGB1 in PMN recruitment to inflammatory tissues. The A box component could potentially serve to inhibit inappropriate PMN recruitment during chronic inflammatory disorders associated with excessive HMGB1 release. PMID:21860212

  9. CCR2 inhibition sequesters multiple subsets of leukocytes in the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Naoki; Xu, Baohui; Dalman, Jackson; Deng, Hongping; Aoyama, Kohji; Dalman, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates monocyte mobilization from the bone marrow (BM) and subsequent migration into target tissues. The degree to which CCR2 is differentially expressed in leukocyte subsets, and the contribution of CCR2 to these leukocyte mobilization from the BM are poorly understood. Using red fluorescence protein CCR2 reporter mice, we found heterogeneity in CCR2 expression among leukocyte subsets in varying tissues. CCR2 was highly expressed by inflammatory monocytes, dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and NK cells in all tissues. Unexpectedly, more than 60% of neutrophils expressed CCR2, albeit at low levels. CCR2 expression in T cells, B cells and NK T cells was greatest in the BM compared to other tissues. Genetic CCR2 deficiency markedly sequestered all leukocyte subsets in the BM, with reciprocal reduction noted in the peripheral blood and spleen. CCR2 inhibition via treatment with CCR2 signaling inhibitor propagermanium produced similar effects. Propagermanium also mitigated lipopolysaccharide-induced BM leukocyte egress. Consistent with its functional significance, CCR2 antibody staining revealed surface CCR2 expression within a subset of BM neutrophils. These results demonstrate the central role CCR2 plays in mediating leukocyte mobilization from the BM, and suggest a role for CCR2 inhibition in managing monocytes/macrophages-mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:26206182

  10. Leukocyte Trafficking to the Small Intestine and Colon.

    PubMed

    Habtezion, Aida; Nguyen, Linh P; Hadeiba, Husein; Butcher, Eugene C

    2016-02-01

    Leukocyte trafficking to the small and large intestines is tightly controlled to maintain intestinal immune homeostasis, mediate immune responses, and regulate inflammation. A wide array of chemoattractants, chemoattractant receptors, and adhesion molecules expressed by leukocytes, mucosal endothelium, epithelium, and stromal cells controls leukocyte recruitment and microenvironmental localization in intestine and in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALTs). Naive lymphocytes traffic to the gut-draining mesenteric lymph nodes where they undergo antigen-induced activation and priming; these processes determine their memory/effector phenotypes and imprint them with the capacity to migrate via the lymph and blood to the intestines. Mechanisms of T-cell recruitment to GALT and of T cells and plasmablasts to the small intestine are well described. Recent advances include the discovery of an unexpected role for lectin CD22 as a B-cell homing receptor GALT, and identification of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor 15 (GPR15) as a T-cell chemoattractant/trafficking receptor for the colon. GPR15 decorates distinct subsets of T cells in mice and humans, a difference in species that could affect translation of the results of mouse colitis models to humans. Clinical studies with antibodies to integrin ?4?7 and its vascular ligand mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 are proving the value of lymphocyte trafficking mechanisms as therapeutic targets for inflammatory bowel diseases. In contrast to lymphocytes, cells of the innate immune system express adhesion and chemoattractant receptors that allow them to migrate directly to effector tissue sites during inflammation. We review the mechanisms for innate and adaptive leukocyte localization to the intestinal tract and GALT, and discuss their relevance to human intestinal homeostasis and inflammation. PMID:26551552

  11. Nanowire array chips for molecular typing of rare trafficking leukocytes with application to neurodegenerative pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Minsuk; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Mi-Ri; Wu, Yu; Han, Lin; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2014-05-01

    Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective hematological analysis of the CSF from patients.Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective hematological analysis of the CSF from patients. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional data are available in the supplementary tables and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06465d

  12. Isolation and Analysis of Brain-sequestered Leukocytes from Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryg-Cornejo, Victoria; Ioannidis, Lisa J.; Hansen, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for isolation and characterization of adherent inflammatory cells from brain blood vessels of P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. Infection of susceptible mouse-strains with this parasite strain results in the induction of experimental cerebral malaria, a neurologic syndrome that recapitulates certain important aspects of Plasmodium falciparum-mediated severe malaria in humans 1,2 . Mature forms of blood-stage malaria express parasitic proteins on the surface of the infected erythrocyte, which allows them to bind to vascular endothelial cells. This process induces obstructions in blood flow, resulting in hypoxia and haemorrhages 3 and also stimulates the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes to the site of parasite sequestration. Unlike other infections, i.e neutrotopic viruses4-6, both malaria-parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) as well as associated inflammatory leukocytes remain sequestered within blood vessels rather than infiltrating the brain parenchyma. Thus to avoid contamination of sequestered leukocytes with non-inflammatory circulating cells, extensive intracardial perfusion of infected-mice prior to organ extraction and tissue processing is required in this procedure to remove the blood compartment. After perfusion, brains are harvested and dissected in small pieces. The tissue structure is further disrupted by enzymatic treatment with Collagenase D and DNAse I. The resulting brain homogenate is then centrifuged on a Percoll gradient that allows separation of brain-sequestered leukocytes (BSL) from myelin and other tissue debris. Isolated cells are then washed, counted using a hemocytometer and stained with fluorescent antibodies for subsequent analysis by flow cytometry. This procedure allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of inflammatory leukocytes migrating to the brain in response to various stimuli, including stroke as well as viral or parasitic infections. The method also provides a useful tool for assessment of novel anti-inflammatory treatments in pre-clinical animal models. PMID:23329000

  13. A separate role for ICAM-1 and fluid shear in regulating leukocyte interactions with straight regions of venular wall and venular convergences

    PubMed Central

    Sumagin, Ronen; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen A.; Sarelius, Ingrid H

    2011-01-01

    Objective Variation in expression of adhesion molecules plays a key role in regulating leukocyte behavior, but the contribution of fluid shear to these interactions cannot be ignored. Here we dissected the effects of each of these factors on leukocyte behavior in different venular regions. Methods Leukocyte behavior was quantified in blood perfused microvascular networks in anesthetized mouse cremaster muscle using intravital confocal microscopy. ICAM-1 expression and fluid shear rate were quantified using ICAM-1 fluorescent labeling, fluorescent particle tracking, and computational fluid dynamics. Results TNF?-induced an increase in ICAM-1 expression, and abolished the differences observed among control venules of different sizes. Consequently, leukocyte adhesion was increased to a similar level across all vessel sizes (5.10.46 leukocytes/100?m vs. 2.10.47 [control]), but remained significantly higher in venular convergences (7.80.4). Leukocyte transmigration occurred primarily in the smallest venules and venular convergences (23.95.1 and 31.92.7 leukocytes/10,000?m2 tissue, respectively). In venular convergences the two inlet vessels are predicted to create a region of low velocity, increasing leukocyte adhesion probability. Conclusions In straight regions of different sized venules the variability in ICAM-1 expression accounts for the differences in leukocyte behavior; in converging regions, fluid shear potentially has a greater effect on leukocyte-EC interactions. PMID:19468960

  14. Blood leukocytes from benznidazole-treated indeterminate chagas disease patients display an overall type-1-modulated cytokine profile upon short-term in vitro stimulation with trypanosoma cruzi antigens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Benznidazole (Bz)-chemotherapy is recommended to prevent Chagas disease progression, despite its limited efficacy during chronic disease. However, the host mechanisms underlying these benefits still remain to be elucidated. Methods In this study, we have used short-term whole blood cultures to describe the cytokine profile of Bz-treated Indeterminate Chagas disease patients-(INDt) as compared to untreated patients-(IND). Results Our findings showed that IND presented increased levels of IL-10+neutrophils, IL-12+ and IL-10+monocytes and IFN-?+NK-cells. Moreover, IND showed slight increase of IL-4+CD4+T-cells and enhanced levels of IL-10+CD8+T-cells and B-cells. Additional analysis of cytokine Low and High producers also highlighted the presence of High cytokine producers within IND, including IL-10 from CD4+ T-cells and IFN-? from CD8+ T-cells, as compared to NI. The Bz-treatment lead to an overall cytokine down-regulation in the innate and adaptive compartments, including low levels of IL-12+ and IL-10+neutrophils and monocytes, IFN-?+NK-cells, IL-12+, TNF-?+, IFN-?+ and IL-5+CD4+T-cells and IL-10+B-cells, along with basal levels of cytokine-expressing CD8+T-cells in INDt as compared to IND. The in vitro antigen stimulation shifted the cytokine profile toward a type 1-modulated profile, with increased levels of IL-12+ and IL-10+ monocytes, IFN-?+ and IL-4+NK-cells along with TNF-?+ and IFN-?+CD8+T-cells. Analysis of Low and High cytokine producers, upon in vitro antigen stimulation, further confirm these data. Conclusion Together, our findings showed that the Bz treatment of Indeterminate Chagas disease patients shifts the cytokine patterns of peripheral blood monocytes, NK-cells and CD8+ T-cells towards a long-lasting Type-1-modulated profile that could be important to the maintenance of a non-deleterious immunological microenvironment. PMID:22625224

  15. Microfluidics for in vitro biomimetic shear stress-dependent leukocyte adhesion assays.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Elena; Molteni, Raffaella; Pardi, Ruggero; Dubini, Gabriele

    2013-01-18

    Recruitment of leukocytes from blood to tissues is a multi-step process playing a major role in the activation of inflammatory responses. Tethering and rolling of leukocytes along the vessel wall, followed by arrest and transmigration through the endothelium result from chemoattractant-dependent signals, inducing adhesive and migratory events. Shear forces exerted by the blood flow on leukocytes induce rolling via selectin-mediated interactions with endothelial cells and increase the probability of leukocytes to engage their chemokine receptors, facilitating integrin activation and consequent arrest. Flow-derived shear forces generate mechanical stimuli concurring with biochemical signals in the modulation of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In the last few years, a host of in vitro studies have clarified the biochemical adhesion cascade and the role of shear stress in leukocyte extravasation. The limitation of the static environment in Boyden devices has been overcome both by the use of parallel-plate flow chambers and by custom models mimicking the in vivo conditions, along with widespread microfluidic approaches to in vitro modeling. These devices create an in vitro biomimetic environment where the multi-step transmigration process can be imaged and quantified under mechanical and biochemical controlled conditions, including fluid dynamic settings, channel design, materials and surface coatings. This paper reviews the technological solutions recently proposed to model, observe and quantify leukocyte adhesion behavior under shear flow, with a final survey of high-throughput solutions featuring multiple parallel assays as well as thorough and time-saving statistical interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:23200903

  16. The evaluation of leukocytes in response to the in vitro testing of ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chris H H; Hilton, Andrew; Foster, Graham; Hawkins, Karl M; Badiei, Nafiseh; Thornton, Catherine A

    2013-09-01

    Infection is a clinically relevant adverse event in patients with ventricular assist device (VAD) support. The risk of infection could be linked to a reduced immune response resulting from damage to leukocytes during VAD support. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of leukocyte responses during the in vitro testing of VADs by analyzing the changes to their morphology and biochemistry. The VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump (IRBP) and RotaFlow centrifugal pump (CP) were tested in vitro under constant hemodynamic conditions. Automated hematology analysis of samples collected regularly over 25-h tests was undertaken. A new flow cytometric assay was employed to measure biochemical alteration, necrosis (7-AAD) and morphological alteration (CD45 expression) of the circulating leukocytes during the pumping process. The results of hematology analysis show the total leukocyte number and subset counts decreased over the period of in vitro tests dependent on different blood pumps. The percentage of leukocytes damaged during 6-h tests was 40.8 5.7% for the VentrAssist IRBP, 17.6 5.4% for the RotaFlow CP, and 2.7 1.8% for the static control (all n=5). Flow cytometric monitoring of CD45 expression and forward/side scatter characteristics revealed leukocytes that were fragmented into smaller pieces (microparticles). Scanning electron microscopy and imaging flow cytometry were used to confirm this. Device developers could use these robust cellular assays to gain a better understanding of leukocyte-specific VAD performance. PMID:23981196

  17. Prednisolone inhibits phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leucocytes via steroid receptor mediated events

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carolyn J. P.; Morris, Karen J.; Jayson, Malcolm I. V.

    1983-01-01

    Prednisolone, at concentrations between 278 10?6 M (1 ?g/ml) and 139 10?8 M (5 10?3 ?g/ml) exerts an inhibitory effect on the phagocytosis of latex particles by normal human polymorphonuclear leucocytes in vitro as assessed by electron microscopical analysis. This inhibition appears to be receptor-mediated, as it is dependent upon RNA and protein synthesis and is glucocorticoid specific. Images PMID:6830325

  18. Sour cherry seed kernel extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases representation of CD3+ TNF-?+ and CD3+IL-8+ subpopulations in peripheral blood leukocyte cultures from type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Fadia F; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Haines, David D; Dashti, Ali; Dashti, Hussain; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Bak, Istvan; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-05-01

    The present study evaluates a hypothesis that sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extracts (SCE) modulate CD3+ T lymphocyte activity in ways predictive of potential for uses of SCE in management of inflammatory diseases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 12 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients and eight healthy control subjects were cultured 24 h with 100 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to increase inflammatory signaling and co-incubated with 0.5-100 g/ml SCE. Cultures were evaluated by two-color flow cytometry for percent representation of CD3+ IL8+ and CD3+TNF-? cells which express interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-?, (TNF-?+) respectively, and by enzyme-linked immunoassay for lymphocyte-associated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, known to be induced by SCE). SCE dosage ranges of 0.5-100 g/ml in cell cultures significantly suppressed LPS-increased CD3+TNF-?+ and CD3+IL8+ representation from all participants (p?

  19. Preparation of surface-modified poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwovens and their application as leukocyte removal filters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yeo, Gwu-Dong; Pai, Chaul-Min; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2009-08-01

    Blood transfusion-related adverse reactions have been reported to be caused by leukocytes in blood products. It is now generally accepted that it would be highly desirable to reduce leukocytes level as low as possible. In this study, melt-blown poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven (PBT-NW) was treated with a hydroxyapatite (HA) surface-modification method for removal of leukocytes from blood components. Acrylic acid was graft-polymerized onto the surface of the PBT-NW after oxygen plasma glow discharge treatment. The PBT-NW surface was covered with a thin layer of HA produced by immersing the polymer surface in an aqueous solution containing high concentrations of PO(4) (3-) and Ca(2+) after graft-polymerization of acrylic acid, which provided the nucleus for HA crystallization. The surface was characterized using water contact angles, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. When filtration was performed with a unit of red blood cell concentrates, HA-deposited PBT-NW (PBT-HA) removed 98.5% of the leukocytes and recovered 99.5% of the erythrocytes, suggesting that HA-deposited PBT-NW is a very promising blood filter for selective removal of leukocytes. PMID:19353568

  20. Comparison of In-111-MERC leukocytes with In-111-Oxine leukocytes for abscess detection

    SciTech Connect

    Intenzo, C.M.; Desai, A.G.; Thakur, M.L.; Park, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    This study was done to compare the clinical results of generally accepted Indium-111-oxine (oxine) labeled leukocytes with a relatively newer Indium-111-2-Mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (Merc) labeled leukocytes for the detection of occult abscesses. Of the 74 patients suspected of harboring an occult abscess, autologous leukocytes of 34 patients were labeled with oxine while in 40 patients Merc labeled leukocytes were used. Whole body imaging was performed at 24 hours. Interpretation of the scans was done without the knowledge of the leukocyte label (i.e. oxine vs Merc). The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by either subsequent clinical course, radiographic correlation (CT, US, etc.), surgery pathology, or autopsy. The results presented in this paper indicate that there is no significant difference between the Merc and oxine labeled leukocytes for abscess detection. The ease of labeling and potential availability of Merc as a kit is an advantage.

  1. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions.

  2. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:25056125

  3. Optimizing Viable Leukocyte Sampling from the Female Genital Tract for Clinical Trials: An International Multi-Site Study

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Stephen C.; Martinson, Jeffrey A.; Plants, Jill; Brady, Kirsten E.; Gumbi, Pamela P.; Adams, Devin J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Galloway, Christine G.; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Gao, Dayong; Shu, Zhiquan; Nyanga, Billy; Izulla, Preston; Kimani, Joshua; Kimwaki, Steve; Bere, Alfred; Moodie, Zoe; Landay, Alan L.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Kaul, Rupert; Novak, Richard M.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hladik, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. Methods and Findings We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to compare three genital leukocyte sampling methods: cervicovaginal lavages (CVL), endocervical cytobrushes, and ectocervical biopsies. Absolute yields of mononuclear leukocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometric bead-based cell counting. Of the non-invasive sampling types, two combined sequential cytobrushes yielded significantly more viable mononuclear leukocytes than a CVL (p<0.0001). In a subsequent comparison, two cytobrushes yielded as many leukocytes (∼10,000) as one biopsy, with macrophages/monocytes being more prominent in cytobrushes and T lymphocytes in biopsies. Sample yields were consistent between sites. In a subgroup analysis, we observed significant reproducibility between replicate same-day biopsies (r = 0.89, p = 0.0123). Visible red blood cells in cytobrushes increased leukocyte yields more than three-fold (p = 0.0078), but did not change their subpopulation profile, indicating that these leukocytes were still largely derived from the mucosa and not peripheral blood. We also confirmed that many CD4+ T cells in the female genital tract express the α4β7 integrin, an HIV envelope-binding mucosal homing receptor. Conclusions CVL sampling recovered the lowest number of viable mononuclear leukocytes. Two cervical cytobrushes yielded comparable total numbers of viable leukocytes to one biopsy, but cytobrushes and biopsies were biased toward macrophages and T lymphocytes, respectively. Our study also established the feasibility of obtaining consistent flow cytometric analyses of isolated genital cells from four study sites in the US and Africa. These data represent an important step towards implementing mucosal cell sampling in international clinical trials of HIV prevention. PMID:24454917

  4. Donor indium-111 leukocyte scan in a nonleukopenic patient

    SciTech Connect

    Kolla, I.S.; Kell, M.; Pettigrew, R.

    1988-07-01

    Indium-III leukocytes are useful in localizing infection and abscess with excellent sensitivity and specificity. In this case report, heterologous Indium-III leukocytes provided the same diagnostic information as autologous leukocytes without adverse effects to the patient. A potential application of donor Indium-III leukocytes in the nonleukopenic patient is discussed.

  5. Leukocyte Adhesion Molecules in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Kousuke; Nakao, Shintaro; Ishida, Susumu; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a systemic disease that causes a number of metabolic and physiologic abnormalities. One of the major microvascular complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy (DR), a leading cause of blindness in people over age 50. The mechanisms underlying the development of DR are not fully understood; however, extensive studies have recently implicated chronic, low-grade inflammation in the pathophysiology of DR. During inflammation leukocytes undergo sequential adhesive interactions with endothelial cells to migrate into the inflamed tissues, a process known as the leukocyte recruitment cascade which is orchestrated by precise adhesion molecule expression on the cell surface of leukocytes and the endothelium. This paper summarizes the recent clinical and preclinical works on the roles of leukocyte adhesion molecules in DR. PMID:22132315

  6. Indium-111 autologous leukocyte imaging in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.R.; Spence, R.A.; Laird, J.D.; Ferguson, W.R.; Kennedy, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Thirty-nine patients with acute pancreatitis have been assessed using a prognostic factor grading system, abdominal ultrasound, and autologous leukocyte imaging. Both prognostic factor grading and leukocyte imaging can accurately assess the severity of the disease early in its course. All patients with a negative indium-labeled leukocyte image recovered without sequelae, whereas five of the 12 patients with a positive image developed complications, including two deaths. Abdominal ultrasound is of no value in assessing severity, but is a useful method of detecting those patients with gallstone-associated disease. In patients with suspected abscess formation following acute pancreatitis, indium leukocyte imaging does not differentiate between fat necrosis and abscess formation. In this situation, computerized tomography should be carried out before laparotomy is undertaken.

  7. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  8. One-carbon metabolism factors and leukocyte telomere length1234

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jason J; Prescott, Jennifer; Giovannucci, Edward; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dietary and genetic factors involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway may affect telomere length through DNA methylation and synthesis, but this has not been comprehensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We cross-sectionally examined associations between dietary and genetic factors in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and relative peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length. Design: A total of 1715 participants from the Nurses Health Study (NHS) had measurements of relative telomere length and plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, cysteine, and homocysteine. Food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measurements were also used for the assessment of folate, choline, methionine, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and alcohol intakes. Genotyping was performed on 475 participants with telomere measurements on 29 mostly nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in one-carbon metabolism. Unconditional logistic and linear regression models were used. Results: There were no significant dose-response relations between any plasma- or FFQ-measured dietary factors and relative telomere length in multivariate analyses. For folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12, results from the use of FFQ data were consistent with plasma-biomarker findings. We showed no significant associations that involved SNPs and relative telomere length after we accounted for the false discovery rate. Conclusion: Our analyses involving plasma and questionnaire measurements of one-carbon metabolism factors show that some key dietary and genetic factors in this metabolic network are not associated with relative peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length. PMID:23446900

  9. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lmmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cellcell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  10. Induced expression and functional effects of aquaporin-1 in human leukocytes in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gene expression profiling was performed via DNA microarrays in leukocytes from critically ill trauma patients nonseptic upon admission to the ICU, who subsequently developed either sepsis (n = 2) or severe sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 3). By comparing our results with published expression profiling studies in animal models of sepsis and lung injury, we found aquaporin-1 to be differentially expressed across all studies. Our aim was to determine how the water channel aquaporin-1 is involved in regulating the immune response in critically ill patients during infection acquired in the ICU. Methods Following the results of the initial genetic screening study, we prospectively followed aquaporin-1 leukocyte expression patterns in patients with ICU-acquired sepsis who subsequently developed septic shock (n = 16) versus critically ill patients who were discharged without developing sepsis (n = 13). We additionally determined aquaporin-1 expression upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and explored functional effects of aquaporin-1 induction in polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). Results Leukocyte aquaporin-1 expression was induced at the onset of sepsis (median 1.71-fold increase; interquartile range: 0.99 to 2.42, P = 0.012 from baseline) and was further increased upon septic shock (median 3.00-fold increase; interquartile range: 1.20 to 5.40, P = 0.023 from sepsis, Wilcoxon signed-rank test); no difference was observed between baseline and discharge in patients who did not develop sepsis. Stimulation of PMNs by LPS led to increased expression of aquaporin-1 in vitro, which could be abrogated by the NF-?B inhibitor EF-24. PMN hypotonic challenge resulted in a transient increase of the relative cell volume, which returned to baseline after 600 seconds, while incubation in the presence of LPS resulted in persistently increased cell volume. The latter could be abolished by blocking aquaporin-1 with mercury and restored by incubation in ?-mercaptoethanol, which abrogated the action of mercury inhibition. Conclusions Aquaporin-1 is induced in leukocytes of patients with ICU-acquired sepsis and exhibits higher expression in septic shock. This phenomenon may be due to LPS-triggered NF-?B activation that can also lead to alterations in plasma membrane permeability. PMID:24028651

  11. Insulin Resistance in PCOS Patients Enhances Oxidative Stress and Leukocyte Adhesion: Role of Myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Victor M.; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Martinez de Marañon, Arantxa; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Alvarez, Angeles; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance (IR). We have evaluated the relationship between myeloperoxidase (MPO) and leukocyte activation in PCOS patients according to homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), and have explored a possible correlation between these factors and endocrine and inflammatory parameters. This was a prospective controlled study conducted in an academic medical center. The study population consisted of 101 PCOS subjects and 105 control subjects. We divided PCOS subjects into PCOS non-IR (HOMA-IR<2.5) and PCOS IR (HOMA-IR>2.5). Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, MPO levels, interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells and leukocytes, adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were evaluated. Oxidative stress was observed in PCOS patients, in whom there was an increase in total and mitochondrial ROS production and MPO levels. Enhanced rolling flux and adhesion, and a decrease in polymorphonuclear cell rolling velocity were also detected in PCOS subjects. Increases in IL-6 and TNF-α and adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were also observed, particularly in the PCOS IR group, providing evidence that inflammation and oxidative stress are related in PCOS patients. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with hsCRP (p<0.001, r = 0.304), ROS production (p<0.01, r = 0.593), leukocyte rolling flux (p<0.05, r = 0.446), E-selectin (p<0.01, r = 0.436) and IL-6 (p<0.001, r = 0.443). The results show an increase in the rate of ROS and MPO levels in PCOS patients in general, and particularly in those with IR. Inflammation in PCOS induces leukocyte-endothelium interactions and a simultaneous increase in IL-6, TNF-α, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. These conditions are aggravated by the presence of IR. PMID:27007571

  12. Insulin Resistance in PCOS Patients Enhances Oxidative Stress and Leukocyte Adhesion: Role of Myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Victor, Victor M; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Martinez de Marañon, Arantxa; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Alvarez, Angeles; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance (IR). We have evaluated the relationship between myeloperoxidase (MPO) and leukocyte activation in PCOS patients according to homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), and have explored a possible correlation between these factors and endocrine and inflammatory parameters. This was a prospective controlled study conducted in an academic medical center. The study population consisted of 101 PCOS subjects and 105 control subjects. We divided PCOS subjects into PCOS non-IR (HOMA-IR<2.5) and PCOS IR (HOMA-IR>2.5). Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, MPO levels, interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells and leukocytes, adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were evaluated. Oxidative stress was observed in PCOS patients, in whom there was an increase in total and mitochondrial ROS production and MPO levels. Enhanced rolling flux and adhesion, and a decrease in polymorphonuclear cell rolling velocity were also detected in PCOS subjects. Increases in IL-6 and TNF-α and adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were also observed, particularly in the PCOS IR group, providing evidence that inflammation and oxidative stress are related in PCOS patients. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with hsCRP (p<0.001, r = 0.304), ROS production (p<0.01, r = 0.593), leukocyte rolling flux (p<0.05, r = 0.446), E-selectin (p<0.01, r = 0.436) and IL-6 (p<0.001, r = 0.443). The results show an increase in the rate of ROS and MPO levels in PCOS patients in general, and particularly in those with IR. Inflammation in PCOS induces leukocyte-endothelium interactions and a simultaneous increase in IL-6, TNF-α, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. These conditions are aggravated by the presence of IR. PMID:27007571

  13. COMPARISON OF TOTAL LEUKOCYTE QUANTIFICATION METHODS IN FREE-LIVING GALAPAGOS TORTOISES (CHELONOIDIS SPP.).

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Julie D; Stacy, Nicole I; Blake, Stephen; Cabrera, Fredy; Deem, Sharon L

    2016-03-01

    Reptile hematologic data provide important health information for conservation efforts of vulnerable wildlife species such as the Galapagos tortoise ( Chelonoidis spp.). Given the reported discrepancies between manual leukocyte counts for nonmammalian species, two manual leukocyte quantification methods, the Natt and Herrick's (NH) and the Eopette (EO), were compared to white blood cell (WBC) estimates from blood films of 42 free-living, clinically healthy, adult female Galapagos tortoises. To investigate the effects of delay in sample processing, estimated WBC counts and leukocyte differentials were compared for blood films prepared at time of collection under field conditions (T0) to blood films prepared from samples that were stored for 18-23 hr at 4°C in the laboratory (T1). Passing-Bablok regression analysis revealed no constant or proportional error between the NH and WBC estimates (T0 and T1) with slopes of 1.1 and 0.9, respectively. However both constant and proportional errors were present between EO and WBC estimates (T0 and T1) with slopes of 3.1 and 2.7, respectively. Bland Altman plots also showed agreement between the NH and WBC estimates where the points fell within the confidence-interval limit lines and were evenly distributed about the mean. In contrast, the EO and WBC estimate comparisons showed numerous points above the upper limit line, especially at higher concentrations. WBC estimates obtained from T0 and T1 films were in agreement, whereas heterophil and monocyte percentages based on differentials were not. Cell morphology and preservation were superior in T0 blood films because thrombocytes exhibited swelling after storage, becoming difficult to differentiate from lymphocytes. In this study, the highest quality and most reliable hematologic data in Galapagos tortoises were obtained by combining immediate blood film preparation with the NH leukocyte quantification method and a confirmatory WBC estimate from the blood film. PMID:27010280

  14. A mechanism for erythrocyte-mediated elevation of apparent viscosity by leukocytes in vivo without adhesion to the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Helmke, B P; Sugihara-Seki, M; Skalak, R; Schmid-Schnbein, G W

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the relatively small number of leukocytes in the circulation, they have a significant influence on the perfusion of such organs as skeletal muscle or kidney. However, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the current study a combined in vivo and computational approach is presented in which the interaction of individual freely flowing leukocytes with erythrocytes and its effect on apparent blood viscosity are explored. The skeletal muscle microcirculation was perfused with different cell suspensions with and without leukocytes or erythrocytes. We examined a three-dimensional numerical model of low Reynolds number flow in a capillary with a train of erythrocytes (small spheres) in off-axis positions and single larger leukocytes in axisymmetric positions. The results indicate that in order to match the slower axial velocity of leukocytes in capillaries, erythrocytes need to position themselves into an off-axis position in the capillary. In such off-axis positions at constant mean capillary velocity, erythrocyte axial velocity matches on average the axial velocity of the leukocytes, but the apparent viscosity is elevated, in agreement with the whole organ perfusion observations. Thus, leukocytes influence the whole organ resistance in skeletal muscle to a significant degree only in the presence of erythrocytes. PMID:10656051

  15. LAIR-1, a novel inhibitory receptor expressed on human mononuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Meyaard, L; Adema, G J; Chang, C; Woollatt, E; Sutherland, G R; Lanier, L L; Phillips, J H

    1997-08-01

    In the present study, we describe a novel inhibitory receptor, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1), that is constitutively expressed on the majority of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. LAIR-1 is a 32 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein with a single immunoglobulin-like domain and a cytoplasmic tail containing two immune receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. LAIR-1 recruits SHP-1 and SHP-2 phosphatases upon activation, and cross-linking of the LAIR-1 antigen on natural killer (NK) cells results in strong inhibition of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although it is structurally related to human killer cell inhibitory receptors, LAIR-1 does not appear to recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and thus represents a novel HLA class I-independent mechanism of NK cell regulation. PMID:9285412

  16. The Role of Physical Stabilization in Whole Blood Preservation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Keith H K; Sandlin, Rebecca D; Carey, Thomas R; Miller, Kathleen L; Shank, Aaron T; Oklu, Rahmi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The rapid degradation of blood ex vivo imposes logistical limitations on the utilization of blood-borne cells in medical diagnostics and scientific investigations. A fundamental but overlooked aspect in the storage of this fluid tissue is blood settling, which induces physical stress and compaction, aggregates blood cells, and causes collateral damage due to leukocyte activation. Here we show that the polymer Ficoll 70 kDa stabilized blood samples and prevented blood settling over the course of 72 hours, primarily by inhibiting depletion-mediated red blood cell aggregation. Physical stabilization decreased echinocyte formation, improved leukocyte viability, and inhibited the release of neutrophil elastase-a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In addition, Ficoll-stabilized blood was compatible with common leukocyte enrichment techniques including red blood cell lysis and immunomagnetic purification. This study showed for the first time that blood settling can be prevented using polymers and has implications in diagnostics. PMID:26876805

  17. The Role of Physical Stabilization in Whole Blood Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Keith H. K.; Sandlin, Rebecca D.; Carey, Thomas R.; Miller, Kathleen L.; Shank, Aaron T.; Oklu, Rahmi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The rapid degradation of blood ex vivo imposes logistical limitations on the utilization of blood-borne cells in medical diagnostics and scientific investigations. A fundamental but overlooked aspect in the storage of this fluid tissue is blood settling, which induces physical stress and compaction, aggregates blood cells, and causes collateral damage due to leukocyte activation. Here we show that the polymer Ficoll 70 kDa stabilized blood samples and prevented blood settling over the course of 72 hours, primarily by inhibiting depletion-mediated red blood cell aggregation. Physical stabilization decreased echinocyte formation, improved leukocyte viability, and inhibited the release of neutrophil elastase—a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In addition, Ficoll-stabilized blood was compatible with common leukocyte enrichment techniques including red blood cell lysis and immunomagnetic purification. This study showed for the first time that blood settling can be prevented using polymers and has implications in diagnostics. PMID:26876805

  18. The Role of Physical Stabilization in Whole Blood Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Keith H. K.; Sandlin, Rebecca D.; Carey, Thomas R.; Miller, Kathleen L.; Shank, Aaron T.; Oklu, Rahmi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    The rapid degradation of blood ex vivo imposes logistical limitations on the utilization of blood-borne cells in medical diagnostics and scientific investigations. A fundamental but overlooked aspect in the storage of this fluid tissue is blood settling, which induces physical stress and compaction, aggregates blood cells, and causes collateral damage due to leukocyte activation. Here we show that the polymer Ficoll 70 kDa stabilized blood samples and prevented blood settling over the course of 72 hours, primarily by inhibiting depletion-mediated red blood cell aggregation. Physical stabilization decreased echinocyte formation, improved leukocyte viability, and inhibited the release of neutrophil elastase—a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In addition, Ficoll-stabilized blood was compatible with common leukocyte enrichment techniques including red blood cell lysis and immunomagnetic purification. This study showed for the first time that blood settling can be prevented using polymers and has implications in diagnostics.

  19. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gutirrez-Salinas, Jos; Morales-Gonzlez, Jos A.; Madrigal-Santilln, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, Csar; Gonzlez-Rubio, Manuel Garca-Luna y; Sustegui-Domnguez, Sigrit; Valadez-Vega, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is naturally present in the earths crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF) as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm) NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT) oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm) for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks. PMID:20957113

  20. Exposure to sodium fluoride produces signs of apoptosis in rat leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Gutirrez-Salinas, Jos; Morales-Gonzlez, Jos A; Madrigal-Santilln, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, Csar; Gonzlez-Rubio, Manuel Garca-Luna Y; Sustegui-Domnguez, Sigrit; Valadez-Vega, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is naturally present in the earth's crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF) as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm) NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT) oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm) for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks. PMID:20957113

  1. Interactions between leukocytes and endothelial cells in gout: lessons from a self-limiting inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Chapter summary Interactions with endothelium are necessary for leukocytes to pass from the blood into extravascular tissues, and such interactions are facilitated in inflammation by the coordinated expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and chemoattractants. Although the general mechanisms and intracellular pathways of endothelial activation are now fairly well characterised in vitro, relatively little detailed information exists on how endothelial activation changes during the course of inflammatory responses and how such change influences the amount of leukocyte recruitment and the types of leukocytes recruited. Having developed a radiolabelled-antibody-uptake technique for quantifying the expression of endothelial adhesion molecules in relation to leukocyte trafficking, we have analysed the acute, self-limiting inflammatory response to injection of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Our studies have supported the view that endothelial activation is closely paralleled by leukocyte recruitment at the onset of the response and have highlighted separate vascular and extravascular stages of downregulation. More recent studies addressing the extravascular contribution to downregulation point to an important role for monocytemacrophage differentiation in limiting further endothelial activation as a consequence of phagocytosis of MSU crystals. PMID:12110127

  2. In vitro and in vivo interferon production by bovine colostral leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Kandefer-Szerszeń, M; Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Zdzisińska, B; Kamińska, T; Kondracki, M

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen healthy pregnant cows were divided into two groups. Group I (8 cows) received immediately after calving two injections of Vaccina L containing the LaSota strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (total dose 10(9) TCID50/cow) into udder lymph nodes. The second group of 8 cows served as control. Newborn calves of both groups of cows were allowed to suckle the colostrum. Interferon activity was detected 24 h after injection in whey obtained from colostrum of Vaccina L-treated dams and in supernatants of cultures of colostral leukocytes. Interferon was also present in sera of Vaccina L treated dams 48 h after injection. No IFN activity was detected in sera of calves. Cultures of leukocytes obtained from colostrum of dams 48 h after Vaccina L-treatment exhibited hyporeactivity to the second induction in vitro and produced low IFN levels in response to NDV. In contrast to hyporeactivity observed in colostral leukocytes, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of calves suckling colostrum from dams treated with Vaccina L produced higher IFN levels after induction in vitro with NDV than leukocytes of control calves. PMID:8593770

  3. Monoclonal antibody blockade of L-selectin inhibits mononuclear leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Pizcueta, P.; Luscinskas, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    L-selectin interacting with inducible endothelial counterreceptors mediates in part the initial adhesive interactions, termed rolling, between circulating blood leukocytes and vascular endothelium. While blockade of L-selectin function in in vivo models of inflammation reduces both neutrophil and lymphocyte influx at early times, little is known concerning the role of L-selectin in leukocyte recruitment at later times (> 24 hours). Using an in vivo murine model of experimentally induced inflammation of the peritoneum, the role of L-selectin in recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes to chronic sites of inflammation (48 hours) was investigated. Saturating levels of function blocking anti-L-selectin monoclonal antibody (MEL-14) or control rat IgG were maintained for 48 hours using surgically implanted mini-osmotic pumps; this treatment did not alter the circulating leukocyte cell count or differential. In animals receiving MEL-14 monoclonal antibody (MAb), macrophage and lymphocyte accumulation in response to thioglycollate was reduced by 60% (P < or = 0.0002) and > 90% (P < 0.001), respectively, at 48 hours as compared with animals implanted with pumps containing saline. Similarly, MEL-14 MAb dramatically inhibited granulocyte influx by 80% (P < 0.03) at 6 hours; recruitment at 24 and 48 hours was reduced by 50%. In contrast, the effects of purified rat IgG was not significantly different from saline. Our results suggest L-selectin, interacting with its inducible endothelial counterreceptor(s), plays an important role in circulating mononuclear leukocyte extravasation at sites of inflammation. PMID:7519828

  4. Neutrophil and Monocyte Leukocyte recruitment by PECAM, CD99 and other molecules via the LBRC

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David P.; Muller, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The recruitment of specific leukocyte subtypes to the site of tissue injury is the cornerstone of inflammation and disease progression. This process has become an intense area of research because it presents several possible steps against which disease-specific therapies could be targeted. Leukocytes are recruited out of the blood stream by a series of events that includes their capture, rolling, activation, and migration along the endothelium. In the last step, the leukocytes squeeze between adjacent endothelial cells to gain access to the inflamed tissue through a process referred to as transendothelial migration (TEM). Although many of the molecules, such as PECAM and CD99, that regulate these sequential steps have been identified, much less is understood regarding how they work together to coordinate the complex intercellular communications and dramatic shape changes that take place between the endothelial cells and leukocytes. Several of the endothelial cell proteins that function in TEM are localized to the Lateral Border Recycling Compartment (LBRC), an interconnected reticulum of membrane that recycles selectively to the endothelial borders. The recruitment of the LBRC to surround the migrating leukocyte is required for efficient TEM. This review will focus on the proteins and mechanisms that mediate TEM and specifically how the LBRC functions in the context of these molecular interactions and membrane movements. PMID:24337626

  5. Human leukocyte elastase, cathepsin G, and lactoferrin: family of neutrophil granule glycoproteins that bind to an alveolar macrophage receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, E J

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes are potentially of great importance in a variety of inflammatory processes. As part of a continuing effort to elucidate the physiologic importance of human alveolar macrophage receptor-mediated binding of neutrophil (leukocyte) elastase, I have studied the binding of leukocyte elastase and two other neutrophil granule glycoproteins, cathepsin G and lactoferrin, to human alveolar macrophages. Saturable binding of all three ligands at 0 degrees C was observed, with equilibrium dissociation constants of 4.0 x 10(-7), 2.0 x 10(-7), and 1.7 x 10(-6) M, respectively. All bound to a similar number (54-73 x 10(6)) of sites per cell. Binding of all three ligands was inhibited by the polysaccharide fucoidin, and extensive cross-inhibition of their binding to macrophages was observed. The results indicate that alveolar macrophages possess a relatively low-affinity, high-volume receptor for a family of neutrophil granule glycoproteins, which would be ideally suited for clearing released neutrophil granule contents from the extracellular space in inflamed tissues. PMID:6960357

  6. A risk factor for early-onset infection in premature newborns: invasion of chorioamniotic tissues by leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Korbage de Araujo, M C; Schultz, R; do Rosrio Dias de Oliveira, L; Ramos, J L; Vaz, F A

    1999-09-01

    The authors report a prospective study of correlation between histopathological alterations of the placenta, risk factors and early-onset bacterial infections in 224 premature newborns. They used a mathematical model for evaluation and prediction of neonatal bacterial infection according to the localization in chorioamniotic tissues (chorioamniotic plate, amniotic membranes and umbilical cord) invaded by leukocytes. Septicemia, pneumonia or omphalitis were documented in 45 (20%) infected premature newborns and inflammatory lesions in the placenta were observed in all of them. In order of statistical significance, the most important variables for early-onset bacterial neonatal infection were invasion of the chorioamniotic plate, amniotic membranes and umbilical cord tissues by PMNL (P < 0.0000), premature rupture of membranes (P < 0.0000), birthweight lower than 1500 g (P < 0.0000), gestational age under 34 weeks (P < 0.0001), foul smell (P < 0.0038), no antibiotics before delivery (P < 0.0066) and intrapartum fever (P < 0.0087). By logistic stepwise multiple regression analysis, invasion of fetal chorioamniotic plate and of amniotic membranes by leukocytes were the only statistically significant variables. The probability of neonatal infection in premature newborns, when polymorphonuclear neutrophils were present in chorioamniotic plate and in amniotic membranes, was 62.5%, while the probability was 0.5% when these tissues were normal. These data suggest that histological chorioamnionitis has to be considered as an important risk factor for early-onset infection in premature newborns. PMID:10530902

  7. The inhibitory effects of antirheumatic drugs on the activity of human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G.

    PubMed

    Steinmeyer, J; Kalbhen, D A

    1996-07-01

    The serine proteinases elastase and cathepsin G from polymorphonuclear granulocytes play a critical role in articular cartilage degradation, not only as proteolytic enzymes able to degrade the extracellular matrix but also by additionally modulating the level of active matrix metalloproteinases, key enzymes of the proteolytic destruction of cartilage during rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of our study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory drugs and selected compounds inhibited elastase and cathepsin G, and also to determine whether it is necessary to use a highly purified elastase preparation to screen drugs for their ability to block the activity of this enzyme. Eglin C and the glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex DAK-16, at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-4) M, dose-dependently inhibited elastase and cathepsin G while the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone, sulfinpyrazone and diclofenac-Na required high concentrations to demonstrate some inhibitory effects on the activity of both enzymes. None of the other anti-inflammatory drugs tested at a concentration of 10(-4) M such as acetylsalicylic acid, dexamethasone, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, oxaceprol, pirprofen and tiaprofenic acid demonstrated any marked inhibitory activity on either of these proteinases. Only a few drugs, when dosed therapeutically, achieved synovial fluid concentrations sufficient to inhibit the activities of both proteinases. The antirheumatic drugs demonstrated similar inhibition profiles in purified or partially purified elastase preparations. Thus the leukocyte extract containing the partially purified elastase and cathepsin G which can be rapidly and easily prepared at low costs appears to be an efficient mean of screening potentially new therapeutic agents for their ability to inhibit leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. PMID:8841833

  8. Diagnosing bacterial peritonitis made easy by use of leukocyte esterase dipsticks

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, Kiran; Agrawal, Yuthika; Goyal, Vipin; Khatri, Vinod; Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) requires rapid diagnosis for the initiation of antibiotics. Its diagnosis is usually based on manual examination of ascitic fluid (AF) having long reporting time. AF infection is diagnosed when the fluid polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) concentration ?250 cells/mm3. Aims and Objectives: Aim was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of leukocyte esterase (LE) reagent strip for rapid diagnosis of SBP in patients who underwent abdominal paracentesis and to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 103 patients with ascites. Cell count of AF as determined by colorimetric scale of Multistix 10 SG reagent strip was compared with counting chamber method (PMNL count ?250 cells/mm3 was considered positive). Results and Observations: Of the 103 patients SBP was diagnosed in 20 patients, 83 patients were negative for SBP by manual cell count. The sensitivity and specificity of the LE test for detecting neutrocytic SBP taking grade 2 as cut off were 95% and 96.4% respectively, with a positive predictive value of 86.4% and a negative predictive value of 98.8%. Diagnostic accuracy of LE test was 96.1%. Discussion: There was a good correlation between the reagent strip result and PMNL count. The LE strip test is based on the esterase activity of activated granulocytes which reacts with an ester-releasing hydroxyphenylpyrrole causing a colour change in the azo dye of reagent strip. It is a very sensitive and specific method for the prompt detection of elevated PMNL count, and represents a convenient, inexpensive, simple, and bedside method for diagnosis of SBP. A negative LE test result excludes SBP with a high degree of certainty. PMID:25810962

  9. Mechanisms of Lysosomal Enzyme Release from Human Leukocytes II. EFFECTS OF cAMP AND cGMP, AUTONOMIC AGONISTS, AND AGENTS WHICH AFFECT MICROTUBULE FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    Zurier, Robert B.; Weissmann, Gerald; Hoffstein, Sylvia; Kammerman, Sandra; Tai, Hsin Hsiung

    1974-01-01

    Selective release of inflammatory materials from leukocyte lysosomes is reduced by compounds which increase cyclic 3?,5?-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in suspensions of human leukocytes and is augmented by agents which increase cyclic 3?,5?-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels in these cell suspensions. Lysosomal enzymes are released in the absence of phagocytosis when cytochalasin B (5 ?g/ml) converts polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to secretory cells: lysosomes merge directly with the plasma membrane upon encounter of PMN with zymosan, and cells selectively extrude substantial proportions of lysosomal, but not cytoplasmic enzymes. ?-Adrenergic stimulation of human leukocytes produced a dose-related reduction in ?-glucuronidase release (blocked by 10-6 M propranolol) whereas ?-adrenergic stimulation (phenylephrine plus propranolol) was ineffective. In contrast, the cholinergic agonist carbamylcholine chloride enhanced enzyme secretion, an effect blocked by 10-6 M atropine. Incubation of cells with exogenous cAMP or with agents that increase endogenous cAMP levels (prostaglandin E1, histamine, isoproterenol, and cholera enterotoxin) reduced extrusion of lysosomal enzymes; in contrast, exogenous cGMP and carbamylcholine chloride (which increases endogenous cGMP levels), increased ?-glucuronidase release. Whereas colchicine (5 10-4 M), a drug which impairs microtubule integrity, reduced selective enzyme release, deuterium oxide, which favors microtubule assembly, enhanced selective release of lyosomal enzymes. The data suggest that granule movement and acid hydrolase release from leukocyte lysosomes requires intact microtubules and may be modulated by adrenergic and cholinergic agents which appear to provoke changes in concentrations of cyclic nucleotides. Images PMID:4357615

  10. ADAM9 is a Novel Product of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils: Regulation of Expression and Contributions to Extracellular Matrix Protein Degradation During Acute Lung Injury#

    PubMed Central

    Roychaudhuri, Robin; Hergrueter, Anja H.; Polverino, Francesca; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E.; Gupta, Kushagra; Borregaard, Niels; Owen, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A disintegrin and a metalloproteinase domain 9 (ADAM9**) is known to be expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Herein, we report that ADAM9 is also a product of human and murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). ADAM9 is not synthesized de novo by circulating PMNs. Rather, ADAM9 protein is stored in the gelatinase and specific granules and the secretory vesicles of human PMNs. Unstimulated PMNs express minimal quantities of surface ADAM9, but activation of PMNs with degranulating agonists rapidly (within 15 min) increases PMN surface ADAM9 levels. Human PMNs produce small quantities of soluble forms of ADAM9 (sADAM9). Surprisingly, ADAM9 degrades several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including fibronectin, entactin, laminin, and insoluble elastin as potently as MMP-9. However, ADAM9 does not degrade types I, III, or IV collagen, or denatured collagens in vitro. To determine whether Adam9 regulates PMN recruitment or ECM protein turnover during inflammatory responses, we compared wild type (WT) and Adam9?/? mice in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury (ALI). Adam9 lung levels increase 10-fold during LPS-mediated ALI in WT mice (due to increases in leukocyte-derived Adam9), but Adam9 does not regulate lung PMN (or macrophage) counts during ALI. Adam9 increases mortality, promotes lung injury, reduces lung compliance, and increases degradation of lung elastin during LPS- and/or bleomycin-mediated ALI. Adam9 does not regulate collagen accumulation in the bleomycin-treated lung. Thus, ADAM9 is expressed in an inducible fashion on PMN surfaces where it degrades some ECM proteins, and promotes alveolar-capillary barrier injury during ALI in mice. PMID:25063875

  11. Activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes following burn injury: alteration of Fc-receptor and complement-receptor expression and of opsonophagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, H; Bjerknes, R

    1994-02-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNLs) play a key role in host defense, and phagocyte dysfunction has been associated with increased susceptibility to infection in patients with thermal injury. We have used flow cytometric analysis (FCM) to longitudinally study PMNL expression of IgG Fc-receptor II (Fc gamma RII) and Fc-receptor III (Fc gamma RIII), as well as the complement receptors CR1 (receptor for C3b) and CR3 (receptor for C3bi) in 22 patients with large burns. Analyses of PMNL complement and immunoglobulin-mediated phagocytosis of Candida albicans were performed in parallel. Burn patient PMNL Fc gamma RIII expression was decreased to 58% of control values at admission, and remained low for the first 3 weeks. The expression of patient PMNL Fc gamma RII was not altered at admission or throughout the hospital stay. The CR1-dependent fluorescence was increased by 62% at admission, and reached a maximum at day 2, 138% greater than that of controls. The CR1 expression then gradually returned to normal at discharge. The PMNL CR3-dependent fluorescence showed an increase of 110% at admission and remained high during the first 3 weeks. The immunoglobulin-mediated phagocytosis was decreased by 12% at admission, whereas the lowest value was observed at day 10, with a reduction of 30% compared with controls. The patient PMNL complement-mediated phagocytosis of C. albicans was increased by about 160% at admission, and reached a maximum at day 2, before it gradually decreased to control levels at discharge. The expression of complement receptors correlated positively, whereas the expression of Fc gamma RIII correlated negatively, with total body surface area (TBSA) burn.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8114128

  12. Leukocyte trafficking and pain behavioral responses to a hydrogen sulfide donor in acute monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Andruski, Benjamin; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Ignacy, Teegan; Millen, Brandie; McDougall, Jason J

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator with the ability to modulate tissue inflammation and pain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an H(2)S donor (Na(2)S) on leukocyte-endothelium interactions, blood flow, and pain sensation in acutely inflamed knee joints. Acute arthritis was induced in urethane anesthetized C57bl/6 mice by intra-articular injection of kaolin/carrageenan (24-h recovery), and the effect of local administration of Na(2)S on leukocyte trafficking was measured by intravital microscopy. Synovial blood flow was measured in inflamed knees by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Finally, the effect of an intra-articular injection of Na(2)S on joint pain in control and inflamed rats was determined by hindlimb incapacitance and von Frey hair algesiometry. Local administration of an H(2)S donor to inflamed knees caused a dose-dependent reduction in leukocyte adherence and an increase in leukocyte velocity. These effects could be inhibited by coadministration of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker glibenclamide. Local administration of Na(2)S to inflamed joints caused a pronounced vasoconstrictor response; however, there was no observable effect of Na(2)S on joint pain. These findings establish H(2)S as a novel signaling molecule in rodent knee joints. H(2)S exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties, but with no detectable effect on joint pain. PMID:18667709

  13. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Sima, Corneliu; Gastfreund, Shoshi; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by altered host-biofilm interactions that result in irreversible inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose to ineffective control of biofilm composition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. We elucidated how leukocytes affect the course of periodontitis in Rac-null mice. Mouse models of acute gingivitis and periodontitis were used to assess the early inflammatory response and patterns of chronicity leading to loss of alveolar bone due to inflammation in Rac-null mice. Leukocyte margination was differentially impaired in these mice during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice. Inflammatory responses to subgingival ligatures, assessed by changes in peripheral blood differential leukocyte numbers, were altered in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In response to persistent subgingival ligature-mediated challenge, Rac-null mice had increased loss of alveolar bone with patterns of resorption characteristic of aggressive forms of periodontitis. These findings were partially explained by higher osteoclastic coverage of the bone-periodontal ligament interface in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that leukocyte defects, such asdecreased endothelial margination and tissue recruitment, are rate-limiting steps in the periodontal inflammatory process that lead to more aggressive forms of periodontitis. PMID:24269593

  14. An adverse wound environment activates leukocytes prematurely.

    PubMed

    Moelleken, B R; Mathes, S J; Amerhauser, A; Scheuenstuhl, H; Hunt, T K

    1991-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different wound environments on wound activation. Our wound model provided two distinct environments, a well vascularized musculocutaneous flap and a poorly perfused random-pattern flap, in miniature swine. Leukocytes were isolated and analyzed by the following three variables: surface and total cellular Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), superoxide anion expression, and lactoferrin release. Leukocytes from the unfavorable, poorly oxygenated wound environment activate on entry into the wound. Leukocytes from the musculocutaneous flap wound are better able to respond to a maximal challenge with the phorbol ester, phorbol myristate acetate. These findings may account for the enhanced bactericidal actions of the musculocutaneous flap compared with the random-pattern flap observed clinically. PMID:1847040

  15. Modulatory Role of Surface Coating of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms in Complement Opsonization and Leukocyte Uptake.

    PubMed

    Inturi, Swetha; Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K; Holers, V Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2015-11-24

    Notwithstanding rapid advances of nanotechnology in diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, the engineered nanocarriers still exhibit substantial lack of hemocompatibility. Thus, when injected systemically, nanoparticles are avidly recognized by blood leukocytes and platelets, but the mechanisms of immune recognition are not well understood and strategies to mitigate these phenomena remain underexplored. Using superparamagnetic dextran iron oxide (SPIO) nanoworms (NWs) we demonstrate an efficient and predominantly complement-dependent uptake by mouse lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes from normal and tumor bearing mice in vitro. Following intravenous injection into wild type mice, blood leukocytes as well as platelets became magnetically labeled, while the labeling was decreased by 95% in complement C3-deficient mice. Using blood cells from healthy and cancer patient donors, we demonstrated that neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils took up SPIO NWs, and the uptake was prevented by EDTA (a general complement inhibitor) and by antiproperdin antibody (an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of the complement system). Cross-linking and hydrogelation of SPIO NWs surface by epichlorohydrin decreased C3 opsonization in mouse serum, and consequently reduced the uptake by mouse leukocytes by more than 70% in vivo. Remarkably, the cross-linked particles did not show a decrease in C3 opsonization in human serum, but showed a significant decrease (over 60%) of the uptake by human leukocytes. The residual uptake of cross-linked nanoparticles was completely blocked by EDTA. These findings demonstrate species differences in complement-mediated nanoparticle recognition and uptake by leukocytes, and further show that human hemocompatibility could be improved by inhibitors of complement alternative pathway and by nanoparticle surface coating. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of hemocompatibility of nanomedicines. PMID:26488074

  16. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Women

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengmeng; Prescott, Jennifer; Kraft, Peter; Han, Jiali; Giovannucci, Edward; Hankinson, Susan E.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a potential indicator of cellular aging; however, its relation to physical activity and sedentary behavior is unclear. The authors examined cross-sectionally associations among activity, sedentary behavior, and LTL among 7,813 women aged 43–70 years in the Nurses’ Health Study. Participants self-reported activity by questionnaire in 1988 and 1992 and sedentary behavior in 1992. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes, collected in 1989–1990, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The least-squares mean telomere length (z-score) was calculated after adjustment for age and other potential confounders. For total activity, moderately or highly active women had a 0.07-standard deviation (SD) increase in LTL (2-sided Ptrend = 0.02) compared with those least active. Greater moderate- or vigorous-intensity activity was also associated with increased LTL (SD = 0.11 for 2–4 vs. <1 hour/week and 0.04 for ≥7 vs. <1 hour/week; 2-sided Ptrend = 0.02). Specifically, calisthenics or aerobics was associated with increased LTL (SD = 0.10 for ≥2.5 vs. 0 hours/week; 2-sided Ptrend = 0.04). Associations remained after adjustment for body mass index. Other specific activities and sitting were unassociated with LTL. Although associations were modest, these findings suggest that even moderate amounts of activity may be associated with longer telomeres, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies. PMID:22302075

  17. Analysis of physiologic E-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling on microvascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Georg; Barthel, Steven R; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2009-01-01

    E-selectin is a type-1 membrane protein on microvascular endothelial cells that helps initiate recruitment of circulating leukocytes to cutaneous, bone and inflamed tissues. E-selectin expression is constitutive on dermal and bone microvessels and is inducible by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1alpha/ and TNF-alpha, on microvessels in inflamed tissues. This lectin receptor mediates weak binding interactions with carbohydrate counter-receptor ligands on circulating leukocytes, which results in a characteristic rolling behavior. Because these interactions precede more stable adhesive events and diapedesis activity, characterization of leukocyte rolling activity and identification of leukocyte E-selectin ligands have been major goals in studies of leukocyte trafficking and inflammation and in the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics (1-5). The intent of this report is to provide a visual, comprehensive description of the most widely-used technology for studying E-selectin E-selectin ligand interactions under physiologic blood flow conditions. Our laboratory in conjunction with the Harvard Skin Disease Research Center uses a state-of-the-art parallel-plate flow chamber apparatus accompanied by digital visualization and new recording software, NIS-Elements. This technology allows us to analyze adhesion events in real time for onscreen visualization as well as record rolling activity in a video format. Cell adhesion parameters, such as rolling frequency, shear resistance and binding/tethering efficiency, are calculated with NIS-Elements software, exported to an Excel spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis. In the demonstration presented here, we employed the parallel-plate flow chamber to investigate E-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling activity on live human bone marrow endothelial cells (hBMEC). Human hematopoietic progenitor KG1a cells, which express a high level of E-selectin ligand, were used as our leukocyte model, while an immortalized hBMEC cell line, HBMEC-60 cells, was used as our endothelial cell model (6). To induce and simulate native E-selectin expression in the flow chamber, HBMEC-60 cells were first activated with IL-1 . Our video presentation showed that parallel-plate flow analysis is a suitable method for studying physiologic E-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling activities and that functional characterization of leukocyte E-selectin ligand(s) in the flow chamber can be ascertained by implementing protease or glycosidase digestions. PMID:19229187

  18. Indium-111-labeled leukocyte localization in hematomas: a pitfall in abscess detection

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; vanSonnenberg, E.; Kipper, S.; Bieberstein, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    Indium-111-labeled white-blood-cell scanning is a useful modality in abscess detection and has replaced gallium scanning in many institutions. Sensitivities of 72% to 90% and specificities of 90% to 100% have been reported. In searching for abscesses seven cases of indium-111-labeled leukocyte uptake were encountered in collections subsequently proved to be noninfected hematomas. Abundant red blood cells with few or no white blood cells, no bacteria, and a benign clinical course identified these noninfected hematomas. Five of the patients were being treated with hemodialysis and three were recent allograft recipients. The results indicate some limitation and nonspecificity in indium-111 scanning, despite its many benefits.

  19. Lipoxygenation of arachidonic acid as a source of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotactic factors in synovial fluid and tissue in rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Klickstein, L B; Shapleigh, C; Goetzl, E J

    1980-01-01

    The predominant lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were extracted and purified from synovial fluid and sonicates of synovial tissue of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthritis (SA), or a noninflammatory arthropathy (NIA). The concentration of 5(S),12(R)-dihydroxy-6,8,10-(trans/trans/cis)-14-cis-eicosatetraenoic acid (leukotriene B4) in synovial fluid was elevated significantly in patients with RA and a positive latex test for rheumatoid factor (P < 0.05, n = 14) and in patients with SA (P < 0.05, n = 10), compared with that of subjects with NIA (n = 9). The content of 5(S)-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), but not of leukotriene B4, was elevated significantly in synovial tissue of seven patients with RA in comparison with that of four subjects with NIA (P < 0.05). A single intra-articular injection of corticosteroid significantly lowered the synovial fluid level of leukotriene B4 in six patients with RA. These data suggest an involvement of the potent chemotactic factors 5-HETE and leukotriene B4 in human inflammatory disease. PMID:6253525

  20. Leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) induces formation of inositol-phosphates (IP's) in rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's)

    SciTech Connect

    Chi-Rosso, G.; Crooke, S.T.; Mong, S.

    1986-05-01

    LTB/sub 4/ induced rapid breakdown of prelabeled inositol-phospholipids (PI) in rat PMN. Formation of (/sup 3/H)-inositol-trisphosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/) was rapid, with a peak of 250-300% of the control level, after 5-15 sec of stimulation with LTB/sub 4/. Accumulation of (/sup 3/H)-inositol-bisphosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 2/) was rapid, peaking after 30 sec of stimulation. (/sup 3/H)-inositol-monophosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 1/) accumulated gradually in the presence of LiCl. The kinetics of (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/, (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 2/ and (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 1/ accumulation suggested that LTB/sub 4/ may interact with receptors in PMNs, activate phospholipase C which, in turn, induces hydrolysis of PI. The agonist activities of several LTB/sub 4/ analogs were employed to investigate the structure activity relationship of LTB/sub 4/ receptor mediated activation of PI hydrolysis. Increases in (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation were dependent upon the concentration of LTB/sub 4/ and the agonist analogs. The rank order potency of these analogs were equivalent to that of the pharmacological activity of LTB/sub 4/ agonists in the chemotaxis assay. Furthermore, the Islet activation protein (IAP) inhibited LTB/sub 4/ induced (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation. The tumor promoting phorbomyristate ester also inhibited LTB/sub 4/ induced (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation. These results suggest LTB/sub 4/ may interact with receptors in rat PMNs, activate G/sub i/ protein regulated phospholipase C and induce (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation.

  1. Passive mechanical properties of human leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid-Schnbein, G W; Sung, K L; Tzeren, H; Skalak, R; Chien, S

    1981-01-01

    Micropipette experiments are used to determine the rheological properties of human leukocytes. Individual cells in EDTA are subjected to a known aspiration pressure via a micropipette, and their surface deformation from the undeformed spherical shape is recorded on a television monitor. The cells are mathematically modeled as homogeneous spheres, and a standard solid viscoelastic model is found to describe accurately the deformation of the cell for small strains. These experimental and theoretical studies provide the basis for further investigations of leukocyte rheology in health and disease. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:6793106

  2. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions. PMID:24204669

  3. Modeling Leukocyte-Leukocyte Non-Contact Interactions in a Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (≅25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions. PMID:24204669

  4. Halo sign on indium-111 leukocyte scan in gangrenous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, J.M.; Boykin, M.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Cawthon, M.A.; Landry, A.J.

    1986-02-01

    A 56-year-old man with a long history of Crohn's disease was evaluated by In-111 labeled leukocyte scanning. A halo of leukocyte activity was seen around the gallbladder fossa. A gangrenous gallbladder was removed at surgery.

  5. Characterization of Leukocyte-platelet Rich Fibrin, A Novel Biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Hasan, Fadi K

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet concentrates represent promising innovative tools in the field of regenerative medicine and have been extensively used in oral surgery. Unlike platelet rich plasma (PRP) that is a gel or a suspension, Leukocyte-Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is a solid 3D fibrin membrane generated chair-side from whole blood containing no anti-coagulant. The membrane has a dense three dimensional fibrin matrix with enriched platelets and abundant growth factors. L-PRF is a popular adjunct in surgeries because of its superior handling characteristics as well as its suturability to the wound bed. The goal of the study is to demonstrate generation as well as provide detailed characterization of relevant properties of L-PRF that underlie its clinical success. PMID:26485642

  6. A Leukocyte Score to Improve Clinical Outcome Predictions in Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blot, Mathieu; Croisier, Delphine; Pchinot, Andr; Vagner, Ameline; Putot, Alain; Fillion, Aurlie; Baudouin, Nicolas; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bonniaud, Philippe; Chavanet, Pascal; Piroth, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Background ?Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is associated with high and early mortality. A simple procedure to predict mortality is crucial. Methods ?All adult patients with BPP admitted from 2005 through 2013 to the University Hospital of Dijon, France, were enrolled to study 30-day mortality and associated factors, particularly leukocyte counts. A simple leukocyte score was created by adding 1 point each for neutropenia (<1500 cells/mm3), lymphopenia (<400), and monocytopenia (<200). Results ?One hundred and ninety-two adult patients (mean age, 69 years; standard deviation [SD], 19 years) who had developed and were hospitalized for BPP (58% community-acquired) were included. The 30-day crude mortality rate was 21%. The mean Pneumonia Severity Index score was high at 127.3 (SD = 41.3). Among the 182 patients who had a white blood cell count, 34 (19%) had a high leukocyte score (?2). Multivariate analysis revealed that mortality was significantly associated with a high leukocyte score (odds ratio, 6.28; 95% confidence interval, 2.3516.78), a high respiratory rate, a low serum bicarbonate level, and an altered mental status (all P < .05). The leukocyte score was not significantly dependent on the previous state of immunosuppression, alcoholism, or viral coinfection, but it did correlate with an acute respiratory distress syndrome and a low serum bicarbonate level. Conclusions ?This new leukocyte score, in combination with the well known predictive factors, seems of interest in predicting the risk of death in BPP. A high score correlated with organ dysfunction and probably reflects the level of immunoparalysis. Its predictive value has to be confirmed in other cohorts. PMID:25734145

  7. Triggering of leukocytes by phase contrast in imaging cytometry with scanning fluorescence microscope (SFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, Jzsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Marecka, Monika; Malkusch, Wolf; Trnok, Attila

    2009-02-01

    Slide-based cytometry (SBC) leads to breakthrough in cytometry of cells in tissues, culture and suspension. Carl Zeiss Imaging Solutions' new automated SFM combines imaging with cytometry. A critical step in image analysis is selection of appropriate triggering signal to detect all objects. Without correct target cell definition analysis is hampered. DNA-staining is among the most common triggering signals. However, the majority of DNA-dyes yield massive spillover into other fluorescence channels limiting their application. By microscopy objects of >5?m diameter can be easily detected by phase-contrast signal (PCS) without any staining. Aim was to establish PCS - triggering for cell identification. Axio Imager.Z1 motorized SFM was used (high-resolution digital camera, AxioCam MRm; AxioVision software: automatic multi-channel scanning, analysis). Leukocytes were stained with FITC (CD4, CD8) and APC (CD3) labelled antibodies in combinations using whole blood method. Samples were scanned in three channels (PCS/FITC/APC). Exposition-times for PCS were set as low as possible; the detection efficiency was verified by fluorescence. CD45-stained leukocytes were counted and compared to the number of PCS detected events. Leukocyte subtyping was compared with other cytometers. In focus the PCS of cells showed ring-form that was not optimal for cell definition. Out of focus PCS allows more effective qualitative and quantitative cell analyses. PCS was an accurate triggering signal for leukocytes enabling cell counting and discrimination of leukocytes from platelets. Leukocyte subpopulation frequencies were comparable to those obtained by other cytometers. In conclusion PCS is a suitable trigger-signal not interfering with fluorescence detection.

  8. Initial Afferent Lymphatic Vessels Controlling Outbound Leukocyte Traffic from Skin to Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Teijeira, Alvaro; Rouzaut, Ana; Melero, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels (LVs), which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e., LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1, and VEGFR-3). Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid edema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. LVs are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes (LN). Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals). This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins, and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to LN is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behavior of leukocytes and condition the LV for subsequent trans-migratory events. PMID:24368908

  9. Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased leukocyte peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression

    PubMed Central

    Mac-Marcjanek, Katarzyna; Nadel, Iwona; Wo?niak, Lucyna; Cypryk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammation; thereby it participates in metabolic diseases including diabetes. Although PPAR? expression has been observed in different tissues of diabetic patients, its level in leukocytes from subjects affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate leukocyte PPARG expression in GDM patients at 2433 weeks of gestation and, in turn, to correlate these alterations with anthropometric and metabolic parameters of patients. Material and methods Leukocytes were isolated from the blood of normal glucose tolerant (NGT; n = 34) and GDM (n = 77) pregnant women between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. Leukocyte PPARG mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Univariate correlation analysis was performed to investigate associations between PPARG expression and clinical characteristics of patients. Results Leukocyte PPARG mRNA level was significantly higher in GDM than NGT women (p < 0.05). In the whole study group, PPARG expression positively correlated with plasma glucose concentrations at 1 h (r = 0.222, p = 0.049) and 2 h (r = 0.315, p = 0.020) of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and negatively correlated with plasma HDL cholesterol concentration (r = -0.351, p = 0.010). Conclusions The correlation between leukocyte PPARG overexpression and hyperglycaemia suggests that PPARG mRNA expression in these cells might be up-regulated in high-glucose conditions in GDM patients at 2433 weeks of gestation. PMID:26322090

  10. MICROWAVES, HYPERTHERMIA, AND HUMAN LEUKOCYTE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to microwaves (2450 MHz) affects the function of human leukocytes in the resting state and during antigenic or mitogenic challenge. This publication is a summary report of the construction and calibration of a waveguide...

  11. The effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria : IV. The role played by artificial enzyme "cocktails" and tissue enzymes in bacteriolysis.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, I; Neeman, N; Duchan, Z; Sela, M N; James, J; Lahav, M

    1975-03-01

    Acid hydrolases of human blood leukocytes are highly lytic toStaph. albus, Staph. aureus, andStrep. faecalis. On the other hand, group A and viridans streptococci, encapsulated staphylococci, a variety of Gramnegative rods, andMyc. smegmatis are highly resistant to lysis by leukocyte extracts. The lytic effect of the leukocyte extracts can be mimicked by an artificial "cocktail" which contains crude trypsin, lysolecithin, phospholipase C, and lysozyme. This enzyme mixture is lytic to certain Gram-negative bacteria and encapsulated staphylococci which are resistant to lysis by leukocyte enzymes. Both the leukocyte lysates and the artificial cocktail are more lytic to bacteria harvested from the logarithmic phase of growth than to older cells.Staph. albus andStrep. faecalis, which are not lysed to any appreciable extent by extracts of rabbit intestines, lymphocytes, and platelets, undergo extensive lysis upon the addition of lysozyme, indicating that these cells contain preparatory prolytic agents which are activated by lysozyme. On the other hand, the lysis ofStaph. aureus by extracts of all these cells is less dependent upon lysozyme, indicating that other non-lysozyme-dependent lytic factors are involved in the lysis of this microorganism by certain tissue extracts. It is suggested that the resistance to lysis by leukocyte enzymes of bacterial cell-wall constituents may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic sequellae, and that artificial enzyme cocktails be used for in vivo treatment of certain chronic inflammatory processes induced by bacteria. PMID:24194401

  12. Positive indium-111 leukocyte scan in Nocardia brain abscess

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, J.M.; Osenbach, R.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Youngblood, L.; Crooks, L.; Landry, A.J.; Cawthon, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    We report a case of clinically unsuspected nocardia brain abscess detected by /sup 111/In-labeled autologous leukocytes. Clinical and computed tomographic findings supported the diagnosis of primary or metastatic tumor and the patient was treated with dexamethasone for 30 days prior to the leukocyte scan. Labeled leukocytes may provide a sensitive discriminator for brain abscess despite previous therapy with steroids.

  13. Differential contribution of various adhesion molecules to leukocyte kinetics in pulmonary microvessels of hyperoxia-exposed rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Nishio, K; Suzuki, Y; Aoki, T; Suzuki, K; Miyata, A; Sato, N; Naoki, K; Kudo, H; Tsumura, H; Serizawa, H; Morooka, S; Ishimura, Y; Suematsu, M; Yamaguchi, K

    1998-02-01

    To elucidate the differential role of various adhesion molecules in distorting leukocyte behavior in the microvasculature of hyperoxia-exposed rat lungs, we investigated fluorescein-labeled leukocyte and erythrocyte kinetics in isolated lungs taken from the animals exposed to 90% O2 for 48 h under conditions in which endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin were inhibited by appropriate monoclonal antibodies (1A29 for ICAM-1 and ARP2-4 for P-selectin), while leukocyte L-selectin was restrained with fucoidin. Measurements of blood cell kinetics were made by a confocal laser luminescence microscope coupled with a high-speed video camera. In addition, we histologically examined leukocyte accumulation within the alveolar septa and ICAM-1 as well as P-selectin expressions in the lung. We found that P-selectin expression was sparsely enhanced only in arterioles, whereas ICAM-1 was significantly induced in both venules and capillaries. Firm adhesion of leukocytes was not identified in arterioles and venules, whereas leukocyte rolling was evident in both the vessels. Arteriolar rolling was regulated via a P-selectin- and ICAM-1-independent but L-selectin-dependent mechanism, whereas venular rolling was mediated via a P-selectin-independent but ICAM-1- and L-selectin-dependent pathway. Leukocyte sequestration within capillaries was augmented by an ICAM-1-related mechanism. These findings may suggest that, in hyperoxia-exposed lungs, induction of adhesion molecules and their obstacles to leukocyte behavior are qualitatively different among arterioles, venules, and capillaries. PMID:9476879

  14. Effect of Commiphora molmol on leukocytes proliferation in relation to histological alterations before and during healing from injury

    PubMed Central

    Haffor, Al-Said A.

    2010-01-01

    Myrrh, Commiphora molmol has been used as anti-inflammatory and wound healing commercial product. Leukocyte count had been reliable indicator for clinicians to monitor progress of healing for their patients. We hypothesized that myrrh supplement participate in the activation of leukocyte proliferation pathway prior and post skin injury and gastric ulcer. The purpose of the present study was to examine long-term effect of myrrh on leukocytes proliferation before injury and during different stages of healing. Results showed that all types of leukocytes were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the myrrh-treated groups before and during healing. The pretreatment with myrrh offered a time-dependent rise in leukocytes proliferation. Microscopic examination of blood smear from myrrh-treated rats with skin injury, showed an elevated count of middle-sized lymphocytes and neutrophils that were characterized with well-defined nuclear lobules and rich-granules cytoplasm. Furthermore, the microscopic examinations of the spleen and lymph nodes of myrrh-treated rats with skin injury, showed an increased thickness of lymphatic sheath around the arterioles in the white pulp that was associated with high density of the medium-sized lymphocytes in the secondary lymphoid follicles in the lymph nodes with engorged sinusoids. As myrrh enhanced leukocytes proliferation before injury, it can be concluded that myrrh posses antigenic-driven responses and that indicated some foreignness or toxicity of some constituents of myrrh. Because myrrh helped to maintain the relative rise of leukocytes counts throughout healing period and that implied it activated late steps of both proliferation and differentiation pathways for all types of leukocytes during effective phase of the specific immune responses. PMID:23961070

  15. Cytokine production in leukocyte cultures during therapy with Echinacea extract.

    PubMed

    Elssser-Beile, U; Willenbacher, W; Bartsch, H H; Gallati, H; Schulte Mnting, J; von Kleist, S

    1996-01-01

    We measured the levels of the cytokines IL-1-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in culture supernatants of stimulated whole blood cells derived from 23 tumor patients undergoing a 4-week oral treatment with a spagyric extract from Echinacea angustifolia, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Thuja occidentalis (Echinacea complex). All patients had had curative surgery for a localized solid malignant tumor. Blood was taken before treatment and after 2 and 4 weeks of therapy. Twelve untreated tumor patients at the same clinical stage, also after curative surgery, served as a control group. In the blood cell cultures of all patients, a rather wide range of cytokine levels was found. After therapy with Echinacea complex, no significant alteration in the production of the cytokines could be seen in comparison to the controls, and also the leukocyte populations remained constant. We conclude that at this application and dosage, the therapy with Echinacea complex has no detectable effect on tumor patients' lymphocytes activity as measured by their cytokine production. PMID:8951617

  16. Effect of intravascular neutrophil chemotactic factors on blood neutrophil and platelet kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Issekutz, A.C.; Ripley, M.

    1986-02-01

    Intravenous infusion of an analogue (f-met-leu-phe (FMLP)) of a bacterial-derived polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) chemotactic factor, or of the complement-derived chemotactic stimulus, zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP, containing C5ades Arg) into rabbits induces acute PMNL margination in the pulmonary vasculature. The pulmonary PMNL sequestration is accompanied by thrombocytopenia. Because of the role platelets and PMNLs play in hemostasis and defense against infection, we studied the fate of these blood elements following sequestration induced by chemotactic factors. By employing 111In-labelled platelets and external radioisotope scanning, platelets were found to sequester in the pulmonary vasculature during FMLP infusion. Simultaneous 51Cr PMNL and 111In-platelet studies showed that following sequestration, PMNLs returned to the circulation and disappeared with a normal half-life (T1/2) whereas the T1/2 of the platelets was markedly shortened (T1/2 of control = 49 +/- 3.0 hr; FMLP or ZAP infused T1/2 = 27 +/- 2.7 hr). Infusion of platelet-activating factor (PAF) induced PMN and platelet sequestration with similar abnormalities in platelet kinetics. Studies with 51Cr- and 14C-serotonin-labelled platelets showed that platelets did not release serotonin during FMLP, ZAP, or low dose PAF-induced sequestration. In contrast to platelet survival, platelet size, platelet aggregation responses, and platelet glycoproteins were not affected by transient sequestration. These results indicate that during PMNL margination induced by relatively pure PMNL stimuli such as FMLP, platelets may reversibly marginate and subsequently be cleared at an accelerated rate. The reason for accelerated platelet clearance is not a result of circulating platelet aggregates or detectable proteolytic modification of membrane glycoproteins.

  17. Ovine leukocyte profiles do not associate with variation in the prion gene, but are breed-dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion genotype in sheep confer resistance to scrapie. In cattle, lymphocyte profile has been found to be associated with prion genotype. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if variations in the sheep prion gene were associated with leukocyte populations as measured by complete blood ce...

  18. Oxidative stress and reduced responsiveness of challenged circulating leukocytes following pulmonary instillation of metal-rich particulate matter in rats.

    PubMed

    Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M; Young, Shih-Houng; Kashon, Michael L; Gu, Ja K; Hulderman, Tracy; Salmen, Rebecca; Meighan, Terence; Roberts, Jenny R; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C

    2014-01-01

    Welding fume is an exposure that consists of a mixture of metal-rich particulate matter with gases (ozone, carbon monoxide) and/or vapors (VOCs). Data suggests that welders are immune compromised. Given the inability of pulmonary leukocytes to properly respond to a secondary infection in animal models, the question arose whether the dysfunction persisted systemically. Our aim was to evaluate the circulating leukocyte population in terms of cellular activation, presence of oxidative stress, and functionality after a secondary challenge, following welding fume exposure. Rats were intratracheally instilled (ITI) with PBS or 2 mg of welding fume collected from a stainless steel weld. Rats were sacrificed 4 and 24 h post-exposure and whole blood was collected. Whole blood was used for cellular differential counts, RNA isolation with subsequent microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and secondary stimulation with LPS utilizing TruCulture technology. In addition, mononuclear cells were isolated 24 h post-exposure to measure oxidative stress by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Welding fume exposure had rapid effects on the circulating leukocyte population as identified by relative mRNA expression changes. Instillation of welding fume reduced inflammatory protein production of circulating