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Sample records for blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoke induces a vast cohort of deleterious effects on biological structures. In the present paper, the effect of aqueous extract of cigarette smoke on the activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. Although the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke inhibits the luminol oxidation catalysed by horseradish peroxidase, it strongly interacts with polymorphonuclear leukocytes and inhibits their phorbol-induced chemiluminescence in the presence of either luminol or lucigenin. The results indicate that at least some of the components of the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke may strongly interfere with polymorphonuclear cells, contributing to the deleterious effects of smoke products. PMID:10862145

  2. Identification of CD14 transcript in blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes and functional variation in Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Huang, J M; Wang, X G; Jiang, Q; Sun, Y; Yang, C H; Ju, Z H; Hao, H S; Wang, C F; Zhong, J F; Zhu, H B

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) leukocytes are primary phagocytic cells of the bovine mammary gland and a first line of defense against invading pathogens during bovine mastitis infection. Cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) is mainly expressed in macrophages and neutrophils and acts as a co-receptor that binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and recruits PMNs to CD14-LPS complexes in mammary epithelial cells. In this study, we identified a novel splice variant in PMNs, named CD14-SV, characterized by a deleted region from c.143-579 nt compared to the CD14 reference mRNA sequence. Moreover, a single nucleotide polymorphism (c.523 A>G) in exon 2 of CD14 was identified and found to modify the secondary structure and hydrophilicity of the CD14 protein. Association analysis also showed that the milk somatic cell score, an indicator of mastitis, of cows with the GG genotype was lower than that of cows with the AA and AG genotypes. Our findings suggest that the expression of CD14 in bovine blood PMNs is regulated by alternative splicing, and that CD14-SV is a candidate functional marker that may influence mastitis-resistance in dairy cows. PMID:27173290

  3. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  4. Hyperthermia, antipyretics and function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Austin, T. W.; Truant, G.

    1978-01-01

    Whether hyperthermia (temperature, 40 degrees C), salicylates, acetaminophen or phenacetin has an adverse effect on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) function was examined. Migration experiemnts were carried out in Boyden chambers with bacterial chemotactic factor as the attract, and bactericidal assays were done with Staphylococcus aureus and serum from an AB blood group donor as a source of opsonins. PMNL viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion method. Neither hyperthermia nor any of the drugs tested affected PMNL viability adversely, but sodium salicylate and phenacetin suppressed PMNL migration. Early staphylococcal killing was greater at 40 degrees C; however, after 2 hours the converse was true. Bactericidal activity was suppressed by acetylsalicylic acid, sodium salicylate and phenacetin. Hence it appears PMNL function is similar at 37 degrees and 40 degrees C but that some commonly used antipyretics have an adverse effect on PMNL activity. PMID:305282

  5. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ► Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ► 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). ► 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was paralleled by increased debris of cells. ► Oxidative DNA damage of PMNs is associated with arsenic-related skin lesions.

  6. Are soluble factors relevant for polymorphonuclear leukocyte dysregulation in septicemia?

    PubMed Central

    Wenisch, C; Graninger, W

    1995-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of twelve patients with gram-negative septicemia exhibited a decreased capacity to phagocytize Escherichia coli and generate reactive oxygen products which normalized within 7 days of treatment. Ex vivo exchange of plasma from age-, sex-, and blood-group-identical normal controls resulted in an increase of both phagocytic capacity and reactive oxygen intermediate generation in PMNs of septicemic patients and transiently reduced phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediate production in PMNs of normal controls. These results suggest that extrinsic factors are crucial for PMN function. PMID:7697538

  7. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 μM, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ≥ 2.5 μM, ≥ 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion trapping. • Human peripheral blood leukocytes capture and concentrate quinacrine. • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes do so with higher apparent affinity. • Polymorphonuclear are also more competent than lymphocytes for pinocytosis.

  8. The effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocyte response experiment MA-032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    In a series of studies performed at intervals from 30 day before flight to 30 days after recovery, blood samples were obtained from the three astronauts of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and from eight control subjects. To determine the effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tests were performed on blood samples obtained as quickly as possible after splashdown and on the day following recovery. The astronauts' inhalation of propellant gases and the inception of corticosteroid therapy 1 day after recovery provided an additional opportunity to investigate the possible effects of these factors on leukocyte function. Data were obtained during each time period on the total leukocyte count, differential count, leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte migration and chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and histochemical staining for leukocyte acid and alkaline phosphatase. These observations present a variety of in vitro correlates to white blood cell function within the body. Taken together, they serve as a reasonable approximation of the effects of space flight on leukocyte function.

  9. Isolation, In-111 labeling, and abscess detection efficiency of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from blood and peritoneal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, K.M.; Elson, M.K.; Gerding, D.N.; Bamberger, D.M.; Forstrom, L.A.; Shafer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In-111 labeled blood and peritoneal exudate PMN were compared for labeling efficiency and ability to migrate to sites of experimental abscesses using both direct sampling and visual imaging techniques. Blood PMN were prepared by combining heparinized blood with 6% Hetastarch for 1 hour and layering the plasma over a double density Ficoll-Hy-paque gradient (S.G. 1.076 over 1.141). The PMN layer (90-99% PMN) at the interface yielded 10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/ PMN from 80-120 ml of blood. Peritoneal PMN were obtained by infusion of 0.1% glycogen, followed by infusion of saline after 4 or 18 hours. The exudate yielded 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ PMN (80-99% PMN). PMN suspensions were labeled for 30 minutes by addition of 100 ..mu..Ci of In-111-oxine, then washed twice. Percent cell-associated radioactivity of the labeled blood, 4 hour, and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 89%, 88%, and 86%. The labeled PMN were injected intravenously into rabbits which had two of three abdominal capsules (table tennis balls drilled with 250 1.5 mm holes) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus 4 hours earlier. Peak venous recovery of circulating labeled PMN, for blood, 4 hour and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 60%, 43%, and 19%. Gamma camera images 24 hours after infusion into infected rabbits were superior with 4 hour peritoneal PMN. The peritoneal PMN harvested 4 hours after glycogen stimulation are simple to prepare, are obtainable in greater numbers than blood PMN, and result in better abscess visualization.

  10. Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Silberstein, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 ..mu..g/dl. Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

  11. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by oxygenated sterol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.I.; Bass, J.; Yachnin, S.

    1980-07-01

    When preincubated with certain oxygenated sterol compounds in lipoprotein-depleted serum (20% (vol/vol)), human polymorphonuclear leukocytes show inhibition of chemotaxis toward the synthetic dipeptide N-formylmethionylphenylalinine without alteration of random movement or loss of cell viability. These effects can occur at sterol concentrations as low as 6.25 ..mu..M and after as little as 5 min of preincubation, but they are increased at higher concentrations and longer preincubation times. The inhibition can be almost completely reversed by preincubation in lipoprotein-replete serum (human AB serum, 20% (vol/vol)) and may be partially corrected by addition of free cholesterol (0.125 mM) to the medium. These effects are unlikely to be due to inhibition of cellular sterol synthesis, competition for chemotaxin membrane binding sites, or deactivation of the leukocytes but they may be a consequence of insertion of the sterol molecule into the leukocyte plasma membranes.

  12. Interactions between Shiga toxins and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Brigotti, Maurizio; Carnicelli, Domenica; Ravanelli, Elisa; Barbieri, Stefania; Ricci, Francesca; Bontadini, Andrea; Tozzi, Alberto E; Scavia, Gaia; Caprioli, Alfredo; Tazzari, Pier Luigi

    2008-10-01

    Human intestinal infections by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which represents the main cause of acute renal failure in early childhood. In HUS, Stx released in the gut enter the bloodstream and are targeted to renal endothelium. The mechanism of toxin delivery is still a matter of debate, although the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) as a Stx carrier has been indicated. The aim of this paper was to better define the interactions between Stx and human PMN. Direct and indirect flow cytometric analysis and binding experiments with radiolabeled toxins demonstrated that Stx bind to the surface of human mature PMN but not to immature PMN from G-CSF-treated donors. The use of the human myeloid leukemia cell (HL-60) model for inducible cell differentiation confirmed that the toxin binding occurs only after granulocytic differentiation. Stx binding caused a delay of the spontaneous apoptosis of PMN, as shown by the delayed appearance of apoptotic nuclei and activation of caspase 3 and by the higher number of cells negative to the annexin V-binding assay after 48 h. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis of mixed Stx-positive and Stx-negative PMN populations showed that the toxins were transferred from positive to negative PMN. The delayed, spontaneous apoptosis and the passage of the toxic ligand from older PMN to new, mature cells entering the circulation from the bone marrow may explain the previously reported persistence of Stx in the blood of children with HUS. PMID:18625912

  13. Dependence of growth, bone metabolism and functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on ascorbic acid in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schwager, J; Schulze, J

    1998-01-01

    Pigs with hereditary ascorbate deficiency (OD pigs) were depleted of, or supplemented with, ascorbic acid by respective diets. Depletion of young (i.e. 5-7 weeks old) animals for at least three weeks had a negative effect on growth, body temperature and levels of bone alkaline phosphatase and induced symptoms of scurvy. Doses of 5 mg ascorbic acid kg-1 body weight day-1 were sufficient to reverse these effects. The level of ascorbic acid sharply decreased in plasma within one week of depletion, whereas in leukocytes it declined more slowly and to a lower extent. Bone alkaline phosphatase levels substantially declined in ascorbic acid depleted animals. Supplementation with > 100 mg ascorbic acid kg-1 body weight day-1 did not improve growth. Dietary ascorbic acid was absorbed from the intestinal lumen into the blood within less than 1 hour and reached a peak 5-6 hours after the meal. The extent of this absorption depended on the systemic ascorbic acid level. Ascorbic acid influenced leukocyte function, since the production of reactive oxygen intermediates by polymorphonuclear leukocytes decreased in supplemented animals. Thus, this animal model permits to establish the level of dietary ascorbic acid that is critical for growth of pigs as well as to study its absorption into the blood and the associated alterations in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone metabolism. PMID:9503048

  14. Nerve growth factor: stimulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Gee, A P; Boyle, M D; Munger, K L; Lawman, M J; Young, M

    1983-01-01

    Topical application of mouse nerve growth factor (NGF) to superficial skin wounds of mice has previously been shown to accelerate the rate of wound contraction. Results of the present study reveal that NGF in the presence of plasma is also chemotactic for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro, and the concentration of NGF required for this effect is similar to that which stimulates ganglionic neurite outgrowth. This property does not arise from liberation of the C5a fragment of complement, nor does it require the known enzymic activity of NGF. (NGF inactivated with diisopropyl fluorophosphate is equally active.) We conclude that NGF can display biological effects on cells of nonneural origin and function, and this feature might play a role in the early inflammatory response to injury. PMID:6580641

  15. Role of lipopolysaccharide in signaling to subepithelial polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, W L; Sansonetti, P J

    1997-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) infiltration and migration across colonic intestinal epithelia is a hallmark of inflammation in Shigella flexneri-mediated dysentery. To identify bacterial signals associated with this process, potential stimulatory factors mediating initial PMN association with the epithelium and subsequent transepithelial migration were examined in an in vitro model system. Quantitative analyses revealed that purified S. flexneri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deposited at the apical surface of polarized intestinal epithelial cells transcytosed to the basolateral pole, a process dependent on the stage of epithelial cell differentiation. Transcytosed LPS in the presence of normal human serum (NHS), a source of LPS binding protein and soluble CD14, mediated both interleukin-8 secretion at the basolateral pole and enhanced PMN adherence. In addition, LPS stimulated a significant degree of directed transepithelial migration of PMNs, an event that was further enhanced in the presence of NHS. These results implicate LPS in signaling subepithelial PMN emigration and enhancing PMN-epithelium interactions prior to and during subsequent Shigella-induced transepithelial migration. PMID:9353011

  16. Neisseria gonorrhoeae suppresses the oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Criss, Alison K.; Seifert, H. Steven

    2008-01-01

    Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) results in a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-driven inflammatory response, but the mechanisms by which Gc withstands PMN attack are poorly defined. Here we report that Gc can suppress the PMN oxidative burst, a central component of the PMN antimicrobial arsenal. Primary human PMNs remained viable after exposure to liquid-grown, exponential-phase, opacity-associated protein (Opa)-negative Gc of strains FA1090 and MS11 but did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), even after bacterial opsonization. Liquid-grown FA1090 Gc expressing OpaB, an Opa protein previously correlated with PMN ROS production, elicited a minor PMN oxidative burst. PMN ROS production in response to Opa− and OpaB+ Gc was markedly enhanced if bacteria were agar-grown or if liquid-grown bacteria were heat killed. Liquid-grown Opa- Gc inhibited the PMN oxidative burst elicited by isogenic dead bacteria, formylated peptides or Staphylococcus aureus but did not inhibit PMN ROS production by OpaB+ Gc or phorbol esters. Suppression of the oxidative burst required Gc-PMN contact and bacterial protein synthesis but not phagocytosis. These results suggest that viable Gc directly inhibits PMN signaling pathways required for induction of the oxidative burst, which may contribute to gonococcal pathogenesis during inflammatory stages of gonorrheal disease. PMID:18684112

  17. Effects of irradiation on endothelial cell-polymorphonuclear leukocyte interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.M.; Drab, E.A.; Rubin, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    Prominent early effects of irradiation include neutrophilic vasculitis and interstitial inflammation. To examine the role of the endothelium in these events, bovine aortic endothelial cells (EC) were irradiated (5 Gy) under ambient conditions followed by measurements of neutrophil chemotaxis toward conditioned media and adherence to EC. Neutrophil chemotactic activity increased at 4, 24, and 72 h in both the sham-treated (4.2 +/- 2.5, 15.2 +/- 4.8, and 20.0 +/- 2.7 microns, respectively) and irradiated EC-conditioned media (5.0 +/- 2.1, 18.7 +/- 4.5, and 24.1 +/- 3.4 microns, respectively), and the difference between them was significant at 72 h. The chemoattractant was trypsin sensitive, heat resistant, and chemotactic. It was not present in the EC sonicate. Adherence of neutrophils to EC that were irradiated 4 h earlier (19.3 +/- 4.2%) increased compared with controls (11.1 +/- 2.4%) and was similar to EC pretreated with zymosan-activated serum (22.0 +/- 4.0%), which is a potent inducer of adherence. Thus, following irradiation, bovine aortic EC have greater neutrophil chemotactic activity in their media and are more adherent to polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  18. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L. , Decatur, GA )

    1990-06-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

  19. Role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, I.Y.; Bowden, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    Silicosis is usually attributed to fibroblast stimulation by secretion of damaged alveolar macrophages (AMs), but the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and of continuing cell injury in the pathogenesis has not been fully studied. Mice given intratracheal injections of 2 mg of silica received 3H-thymidine 1 hour before death at intervals to 20 weeks. Cellular populations and lysosomal content of lavage fluids were correlated with morphology, DNA synthesis, and collagen content of the lung. The initial response involved rapid PMN and AM recruitment to the alveoli. Some free particles crossed Type 1 epithelial cells, and silica was found in interstitial macrophages. Focal Type 1 cell damage was rapidly repaired by Type 2 cell proliferation. Although PMN numbers dropped after a few days, they never reached control levels and rose again after 8 weeks; the number of AMs fell to control values from 2 to 8 weeks, then increased again. Glucosaminidase and glucuronidase levels in the lavage fluid were much higher than control levels throughout the study. Increased DNA synthesis by interstitial cells occurred from 2 days to 20 weeks; increased collagen synthesis was found from 4 weeks onward. The continuing inflammatory response of the lung to silica suggests may contribute to fibroblastic stimulation.

  20. Effects of antiretroviral dideoxynucleosides on polymorphonuclear leukocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Roilides, E; Venzon, D; Pizzo, P A; Rubin, M

    1990-01-01

    Dideoxynucleosides (zidovudine[AZT], dideoxycytidine[ddC], and dideoxyinosine[ddI]) are promising new agents for the management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections. In light of recent data demonstrating defects in the polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) bactericidal activity of HIV-1-infected patients and since many chemotherapeutic agents affect PMN function, we examined their effects on the function of PMNs from both healthy and HIV-1-infected individuals in vitro. AZT (0.1 to 25 microM), ddC (0.01 to 1 microM), and ddI (0.2 to 50 microM) had no effect on viability, chemotaxis to N-fromylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine, phagocytosis of Candida albicans or Staphylococcus aureus, or superoxide production following stimulation by N-formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine. Killing of C. albicans was not affected by AZT but was enhanced by 0.1 and 1 microM ddc (a 1 microM, killing was 26.0 +/- 2.02% compared with 17.0 +/- 0.73% for controls: P = 0.006) and 0.2 to 50 microM ddI (at 10 microM, killing was 25.0 +/- 0.68% compared with 17.8 +/- 0.91% for controls; P = 0.002). Killing of S. aureus was unchanged by AZT and ddC but was significantly enhanced by ddI at 0.2 to 20 microM (at 2 microM, killing was 71.2 +/- 5.57% compared with 51.4 +/- 6.29% for controls; P = 0.0045). In addition, the preexisting defective bactericidal capacity of PMNs from HIV-1-infected patients was enhanced by ddI (P less than 0.025). Potential enhancement by these dideoxynucleosides of certain PMN functions of HIV-1-infected patients deserves further study. PMID:2178334

  1. Isolation and Properties of Phagocytic Vesicles from Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stossel, Thomas P.; Pollard, Thomas D.; Mason, Robert J.; Vaughan, Martha

    1971-01-01

    A method for the isolation of intact phagocytic vesicles from guinea pig peritoneal-exudate granulocytes and human peripheral-blood leukocytes is presented. After leukocytes ingested the particles of a stable emulsion of paraffin oil, the uningested emulsion was washed away and the cells were homogenized. The homogenate was placed in the middle of a three-step discontinuous sucrose gradient and centrifuged for 1 hr at 100,000 g. The phagocytic vesicles, containing the low density paraffin-oil particles, were simultaneously washed and collected by floatation, while the other organelles, chiefly granules, sedimented through the lower wash layer, and the particle-free supernatant remained in the middle of the gradient. Emulsion particles stained with Oil Red O were employed to assay the rate of phagocytosis and to mark the location of the particles in subcellular fractions. The dye was extracted from washed cells or cell fractions with dioxane and colorimetrically quantified. The purity of phagocytic vesicles obtained by this method was assessed by electron microscopy, chemical analysis, and assay of enzyme composition. Granule-associated enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, β-glucuronidase, and peroxidase were present in the phagocytic vesicles and originated from the granules. Cyanide-resistant NADH (reduced form of diphosphopyridine nucleotide) oxidase was also found. Enzymes associated with the vesicles exhibited latency to Triton X-100. Uptake of particles and the transfer of total protein and phospholipid into phagocytic vesicles occurred simultaneously Accumulation of acid and alkaline phosphatase in the vesicles continued until phagocytosis ceased. Peroxidase, NADH oxidase, and β-glucuronidase activities in the phagocytic vesicles, on the other hand, were maximal by 30 min and increased little thereafter even when phagocytosis was still going on. Images PMID:4106463

  2. Defect of In Vitro Digestive Ability of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Paracoccidioidomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Goihman-Yahr, Mauricio; Essenfeld-Yahr, Ervin; De Albornoz, María C.; Yarzábal, Luis; De Gómez, MaríA H.; Martín, Blanca San; Ocanto, Ana; Gil, Francisco; Convit, Jacinto

    1980-01-01

    Selected functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis), in healthy control individuals, and in patients with diseases unrelated to paracoccidioidomycosis. Patients with paracoccidioidomycosis were also evaluated by standard immunological techniques. Phagocytosis and digestion of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeastlike cells in vitro was estimated by an original method. It was based on the appearance of phagocytosed P. brasiliensis in preparations stained by a modification of the Papanicolaou method and examined with phase-contrast optics. Interpretation of such findings was confirmed by electron microscopy. Two strains of P. brasiliensis were used. Strain 8506 was freshly isolated from a patient. Strain Pb9 was known to be nonpathogenic and to have a peculiar cell wall composition. Yeastlike cells of the Pb9 strain were digested significantly better than those of strain 8506. A higher number of leukocytes per fungus cells led to a higher proportion of digested P. brasiliensis. Leukocytes from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis phagocytosed the fungus in a normal way, but had a significant lower ability to digest it in vitro. When individual cases were analyzed, there was an excellent correlation between clinical evolution and digestive ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. There was good correlation between both of these and immunological parameters. Leukocytes from all groups behaved comparably in tests of general leukocyte function and in their abilities to kill and digest Candida albicans. Our results indicate that, as a group, polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with paracoccidioidomycosis had a significant, rather specific, defect in their in vitro digestive capacity against phagocytosed P. brasiliensis. There was also an inverse correlation between strain pathogenicity and its susceptibility to in vitro digestion by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Our findings are concordant with and relevant to clinical reality. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6995312

  3. Integrin engagement mediates the human polymorphonuclear leukocyte response to a fungal pathogen-associated molecular pattern.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Liz M; O'Brien, Xian M; Kim, Minsoo; Janowski, Jessie W; Albina, Jorge E; Reichner, Jonathan S

    2007-06-01

    Extravasation of leukocytes from peripheral blood is required for an effective inflammatory response at sites of tissue infection. Integrins help mediate extravasation and navigate the leukocyte to the infectious source. A novel role for integrins in regulating the effector response to a cell wall component of fungal pathogens is the subject of the current study. Although phagocytosis is useful for clearance of unicellular fungi, the immune response against large, noningestible hyphae is not well-understood. Fungal beta-glucan, a pathogen-associated molecular pattern, activates production of superoxide anion in leukocytes without the need for phagocytosis. To model polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) recognition of fungi under conditions in which phagocytosis cannot occur, beta-glucan was covalently immobilized onto tissue culture plastic. Plasma membrane-associated respiratory burst was measured by reduction of ferricytochrome C. Results show that the human PMN oxidative burst response to immobilized beta-glucan is suppressed by addition of beta(1) integrin ligands to the beta-glucan matrix. Suppression was dose dependent and steric hindrance was ruled out. beta(1) integrin ligands did not affect respiratory burst to ingestible beta-glucan-containing particles, phorbol esters or live yeast hyphae. Furthermore, in the absence of matrix, Ab activation of VLA3 or VLA5, but not other beta(1) integrins, also prevented beta-glucan-induced respiratory burst. beta(1)-induced suppression was blocked and burst response restored by treating neutrophils with either the cell-binding fragment of soluble human Fn, cyclic RGD peptide, or Ab specific to VLA3 or VLA5. Together these findings extend the functional role of beta(1) integrins to include modulating PMN respiratory burst to a pathogen-associated molecular pattern. PMID:17513777

  4. Effect of staphylococcal iron content on the killing of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Repine, J E; Fox, R B; Berger, E M; Harada, R N

    1981-01-01

    Preincubation of Staphylococcus aureus 502A in broth with increasing concentrations of ferrous sulfate progressively increased their iron content, markedly increased their susceptibility to killing by hydrogen peroxide, and did not alter their susceptibility to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. PMID:7216492

  5. Altered polymorphonuclear leukocyte size in iron deficient rats

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.; Sherman, A.R.

    1986-03-01

    Iron deficiency (-Fe) in rat pups impairs cellular growth of immunocompetent organs and phagocytosis. To determine if peripheral blood polymorphnuclear leukocytes (PMNL) size is altered, DNA and protein (PRO) were measured in PMNL during -Fe and repletion pre- and post-weaning. Dams (n = 12) were fed 6 ppm Fe (D) or 250 ppm Fe (C) from dl pregnancy until d21 lactation. Litters were adjusted to 7 pups. On d17, 1 pup/litter was used for PMNL PRO and DNA determinations. Littermates were weaned on d21 to either the same diet fed to their dams (DD,CC); repleted with Fe (DC); or fed-Fe diet (CD), until days 44, 63, and 84. PMNL were separated on a discontinuous Percoll density gradient. D17 pups of D dams had lower Hb vs C (p < .01). Littermates weaned to 6 ppm Fe (DD,CC) had lower Hb levels compared to C groups (CC,DD) postweaning (p < .01). PMNL PRO and DNA in D pups were one-half those in C pups (p < .01) on d17, however PRO:DNA was increased (p < .05). Pups repleted (DC) at d44 , 63 and 84 had increased PMNL PRO vs DD (p < .01). Diminished PMNL PRO was seen in CD pups on d44, 63 and 84. Fe repletion (DC) increased PMNL DNA 2-fold vs DD from d44 on. -Fe diet caused a marked depletion in PMNL DNA in CD vs CC at all postweaning ages. PRO:DNA in DD and CD groups shows a significant increase in PMNL size. Fe repletion (DC) reduced the hypertrophy of PMNL.

  6. In vitro Studies of Group E Streptococci in Swine Leukocytes I. Phagocytic and Bactericidal Properties of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes from Swine

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, C. F.; Olson, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    Serum from both immune and nonimmune ten-week-old swine contained factors which promoted phagocytosis of group E Streptococci (GES). The factors in nonimmune serum, which were heat labile at 70°C for ten minutes, were less efficient than the factors present in immune serum. Bactericidal activity of the polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes against GES was observed with serum from both immune and nonimmune ten-week-old swine, as well as with serum from normal sows and piglets. However, the bactericidal activity of PMN leukocytes in serum from either normal sows or immune ten-week-old swine was greater than the bactericidal activity of PMN leukocytes in either piglet serum or serum from nonimmune ten-week-old swine. When the serum was either heated to 70°C for ten minutes or treated with 2-mercaptoethanol, bactericidal activity of PMN leukocytes against GES was only observed in the presence of immune serum. PMID:4266688

  7. Selectivity of the 2-deoxyglucose transport system in human and guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Litchfield, W J; Wells, W W

    1977-01-01

    To determine whether the deleterious action of D-galactose upon phagocyte function could be related to inhibition of glucose uptake, the properties of glucose transport were investigated by following the incorporation of [G-3H]2-deoxyglucose into human and guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Uptake of [G-3H]2-deoxyglucose by guinea pig PMN proceeded in vitro with a Km of 1.8 mM and Vmax of 0.67 nmol/min per 10(6) cells. This system was competitively inhibited by glucose and mannose but was not significantly affected by galactose, fructose, or 3-0-methylglucose. Maximal uptake of 2-deoxyglucose occurred at 41 degrees C, and phosphorylation was necessary for its intracellular concentration. Transport of 2-deoxyglucose, although not altered by uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation, was sensitive to inhibitors of glycolysis. Preincubation of cells with 2 mM iodoacetate for 30 min significantly reduced the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose and the intracellular levels of adenosine-5'-triphosphate without decreasing cell viability. These results indicated that uptake of 2-deoxyglucose in guinea pig PMN occurred by facilitated diffusion with subsequent phosphorylation. Similar results were obtained with PMN isolated from human peripheral blood. PMID:873606

  8. Inhibition of Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Function by Components of Human Colostrum and Mature Milk

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Larry K.; Cleary, Thomas G.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    1983-01-01

    To compare the effect of human colostrum (days 1 to 3 postpartum) and mature milk (days 170 ± 24 postpartum) on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PMNL from the blood of 60 healthy volunteers were incubated with whole colostrum, colostral lipid, and colostral aqueous phase from 30 mothers, or with mature whole milk and its separated components from 30 mothers, and tested for resting and zymosan-stimulated oxidative metabolism, functional activity, and the presence of Fc receptors. Stimulated oxygen consumption, quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, [1-14C]glucose utilization, and Fc receptors were significantly (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001) less in PMNL exposed to whole human colostrum or colostral lipid than in non-lipid-exposed cells or cells exposed to the aqueous phase of colostrum. In contrast, PMNL exposed to whole mature milk or to its lipid or aqueous phase caused no significant decrease in any of these parameters when compared to nonexposed cells. In assays of phagocytosis, colostral PMNL or blood PMNL exposed to colostral lipid had a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in their ability to ingest [methyl-3H]thymidine-labeled Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-lipid-exposed PMNL. Blood PMNL exposed to lipid from mature milk had no decrease in ability to ingest S. aureus. Analysis of total lipid and total and individual fatty acid content revealed a uniform increase in all components in mature milk when compared to colostrum. Lipid or lipid-soluble material present in human colostrum but not mature milk causes inhibition of phagocytosis and respiratory burst-related activities of PMNL. PMID:6832838

  9. Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes by Candidate Biomaterials for an Implantable Glucose Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Andrey; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Lambris, John D; Johannessen, Erik A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Background Continuous monitoring of glucose by implantable microfabricated devices offers key advantages over current transcutaneous glucose sensors that limit usability due to their obtrusive nature and risk of infection. A successful sensory implant should be biocompatible and retain long-lasting function. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a key role in the inflammatory system by releasing enzymes, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, typically as a response to complement activation. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro analysis of PMN activation as a marker for biocompatibility of materials and to evaluate the role of complement in the activation of PMN. Methods Fifteen candidate materials of an implantable glucose sensor were incubated in lepirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. The cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b) expression on PMN was analyzed with flow cytometry and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in plasma was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complement activation was prevented by the C3 inhibitor compstatin or the C5 inhibitor eculizumab. Results Three of the biomaterials (cellulose ester, polyamide reverse osmosis membrane, and polyamide thin film membrane), all belonging to the membrane group, induced a substantial and significant increase in CD11b expression and MPO release. The changes were virtually identical for these two markers. Inhibition of complement with compstatin or eculizumab reduced the CD11b expression and MPO release dose dependently and in most cases back to baseline. The other 12 materials did not induce significant PMN activation. Conclusion Three of the 15 candidate materials triggered PMN activation in a complement-dependent manner and should therefore be avoided for implementation in implantable microsensors. PMID:22226271

  10. Production of reactive oxygen species by man-made vitreous fibres in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, M; Hirvonen, M R; Luoto, K; Savolainen, K M

    1999-06-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) or erythrocytes, isolated from human blood, were exposed to graded doses of asbestos (chrysotile), quartz, or man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF), i.e. refractory ceramic fibres (RCF), glasswool, or rockwool fibres. None of the MMVF affected either the viability of PMNL, as measured by trypan blue exclusion test, or induced haemolysis, whereas the positive controls, quartz and chrysotile, dose-dependently induced haemolysis in PMNL. MMVF did not increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the PMNL, whereas the positive controls, chrysotile and quartz, induced a marked and dose-dependent release of LDH. When PMNL were exposed to MMVF, some of the fibre types slightly increased the levels of free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) within the cells in a manner similar to that induced by chrysotile or quartz. All MMVF induced a dose-dependent production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PMNL, with RCF-induced production of ROS being the most marked. Production of ROS by MMVF seemed to depend on the availability of extracellular calcium because it could be attenuated with a Ca2+ channel blocker, verapamil, or a Ca2+ chelating agent, EGTA. Production of ROS may be a common pathway through which PMNL respond to MMVF-induced cell activation, but alterations of levels of free intracellular Ca2+ do not seem to be an absolute prerequisite for this effect. Fibre length seemed not to be an important factor in affecting the ability of MMVF to induce ROS production in PMNL. However, the balance between different elements in the fibre seemed importantly to affect the biological activity of a fibre. PMID:10413242

  11. Dithranol modulates the leukotriene B4-induced intraepidermal accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, A; Alkemade, H; van de Kerkhof, P C

    1989-06-01

    Dithranol, with and without the addition of salicylic acid, was applied daily on normal skin according to a short contact protocol as used in the treatment of psoriasis. Sellotape stripping and epicutaneous application of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were carried out within these pretreated areas. The challenged skin was subsequently biopsied and the intraepidermal accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was quantified using the marker enzyme elastase. Dithranol pretreatment yielded a significant reduction of the LTB4-induced accumulation of PMN, whereas the tape stripping-induced accumulation of PMN was not affected by dithranol pretreatment. The addition of salicylic acid did not significantly enhance the effect of dithranol. PMID:2542415

  12. Intracellular reactive oxygen species production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Souza, Fernando Nogueira de; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Latorre, Andréia Oliveira; Ramos Sanchez, Eduardo Milton; Batista, Camila Freitas; Weigel, Rebeca Alves; Renno, Francisco Palma; Sucupira, Maria Claudia Araripe; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva

    2012-02-01

    The present study assesses the oxidative burst activity from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) from bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cows. Fifteen clinically healthy cows were divided into serologically positive cows without any hematological alteration, serologically positive animals with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) and healthy serologically negative cows. The oxidative burst activity from the PMNLs was evaluated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a probe. PMNLs from each cow were incubated with heat-killed Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to stimulate oxidative burst activity. The results of the present work showed no significant difference in the oxidative burst activity without any stimulus and elicited by S. aureus. Conversely, a decrease in the oxidative burst index induced by E. coli in PMNLs was observed in BLV-infected cows. PMID:21937857

  13. Effect of type A Pasteurella multocida fractions on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions.

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, H; Kaeberle, M L; Roth, J A; Griffith, R W

    1984-01-01

    The effect of various Pasteurella multocida fractions on bovine polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) functions was examined in vitro by using two encapsulated strains, P-2383 and P-1062 (both are Carter capsular type A and of bovine origin). The ability of PMNs to ingest Staphylococcus aureus and iodinate protein was significantly inhibited in the presence of live cells, heat-killed whole cells, or saline-extracted capsules but not in the presence of the decapsulated heat-killed cells. None of the fractions of the two strains inhibited nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by PMNs. The saline extract did not inhibit the binding of iodine to protein by a reaction involving xanthine, xanthine oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase. The PMN inhibitory factor was further characterized as a heat-stable capsular material of greater than 300,000 molecular weight. PMID:6690417

  14. Soluble Pityrosporum-derived chemoattractant for polymorphonuclear leukocytes of psoriatic patients.

    PubMed

    Bunse, T; Mahrle, G

    1996-01-01

    The chemoattraction of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from psoriatic patients, atopic patients and healthy control persons by Pityrosporum orbicularelovale was investigated using the Boyden chamber method. The chemotactical attraction of PMNs from psoriatic patients by Pityrosporum (stimulation index SI = 58 +/- 50) was significantly increased (p < 0.05) compared to PMNs from atopic patients (SI = 20 +/- 17) and control persons (SI = 26 +/- 24). This effect seems to be specific for Pityrosporum, since the chemotactical response to Staphylococcus epidermidis was not increased in psoriasis. The chemotactical factor produced by Pityrosporum is hydrophilic and is destroyed by acid hydrolysis, indicating its protein nature. The yeast Pityrosporum may thus play a role in the koebnerization of psoriasis. PMID:8721481

  15. The role of lysosomal elastase in the digestion of Escherichia coli proteins by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: experiments with living leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Blondin, J; Janoff, A

    1976-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) elastase has been implicated in various pathological conditions. However, its physiological role remains undefined. One possible function of this enzyme may be digestion of bacterial proteins after phagocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we prepared Escherichia coli labeled with [3H]arginine and treated these bacteria with a lipid-soluble, active-site-directed chloromethyl ketone inactivator of pancreatic and granulocyte elastases (carbobenzoxy-L-glycyl-L-leucyl-L-alanine chloromethyl ketone, dissolved in methanol). Control bacteria were treated with methanol alone. When E. coli pretreated with the inactivator were incubated with solutions of porcine pancreatic elastase or with PMN granule extract, release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity was significantly lower than in the control E. coli. Similar results were obtained when treated and control E. coli were fed to viable human PMN. In contrast, release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity from E. coli containing [3H]thymidine was not affected by pretreatment of bacteria with elastase inactivator before feeding them to PMN, suggesting that phagocytosis of E. coli had not been inhibited by the chloromethyl ketone. When treated and control bacteria were fed to PMN, no significant difference was observed in the activity of lysosomal beta-glucuronidase recovered from post-granule supernatant fractions of homogenized leukocytes, suggesting that lysosomal degranulation had not been suppressed by the inactivator. However, elastase activity of the same fractions was depressed if the leukocytes had phagocytized chloromethyl ketone-treated E. coli, suggesting that inhibition of PMN elastase had occurred. We conclude that PMN elastase participates in digestion of E. coli proteins by human PMN. PMID:787011

  16. Cytolytically inactive terminal complement complex causes transendothelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Dobrina, Aldo; Pausa, Mario; Fischetti, Fabio; Bulla, Roberta; Vecile, Elena; Ferrero, Elisabetta; Mantovani, Alberto; Tedesco, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    Intravital microscopy was used to monitor leukocyte traffic across rat mesenteric postcapillary venules induced by the inactive terminal complement (C) complex (iTCC) topically applied to ileal mesentery. Leukocytes started rolling within 15 minutes from the administration of iTCC, and by 1 hour they adhered almost completely to the endothelium emigrating from the vessels in the next 3 hours. C5a caused a similar, though less marked, effect, whereas boiled iTCC was inactive, excluding the contribution of contaminating lipopolysaccharide. The complex stimulated the migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) across endothelial cells (ECs) in a transwell system after a 4-hour incubation of ECs with iTCC added to the lower chamber of the transwell, whereas a 30-minute incubation was sufficient for C5a and interleukin (IL)-8 to induce the passage of PMNs. C5a was not responsible for the effect of iTCC because this complex had no chemotactic activity and contained too small an amount of C5a to account for the transendothelial migration of PMNs. Similarly, the effect of iTCC was not mediated by IL-8 released by stimulated ECs because anti-IL-8 failed to inhibit the migration of PMNs induced by the complex. Unlike tumor necrosis factor-alpha, iTCC did not cause the redistribution of platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), and PMN mobilization was partially blocked by anti-PECAM-1 antibodies. PMID:11756170

  17. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte depletion with cyclophosphamide does not inhibit ozone-induced increase in airway permeability of susceptible mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeberger, S.R.; Chen, X.L.; Zhang, L.Y. )

    1991-03-11

    The role of infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in acute oxidant injury of the lung is not clear. To determine whether acute ozone (O{sub 3})-induced increase in permeability is due to migrating PMNs or direct effects of O{sub 3} on the lung, genetically susceptible C57BL/6J mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CY) in order to deplete PMNs. Following drug or vehicle (control) treatment, mice were exposed for 3 h to 2 ppm O{sub 3} or filtered air, and inflammation was assessed by inflammatory cell counts and total protein content (a marker of airway permeability) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and nasal lavage (NL) fluid. In vehicle control mice, O{sub 3} exposure caused a small but significant decrease in NL PMNs, and a highly significant increase in BAL PMNs and protein. CY treatment reduced total circulating peripheral blood granulocytes by 80%. Compared to vehicle controls, CY treatment also produced a highly significant attenuation of O{sub 3}-induced PMN influx in NL and BAL returns. However, in contrast to the hypothesized attenuating effect of PMN depletion on O{sub 3}-induced increase in permeability, CY treatment did not significantly reduce total BAL protein content compared to vehicle controls. Results indicate that PMNs do not play a major role in acute O{sub 3}-induced increase in murine airway permeability and suggest that acute O{sub 3}-induced lung injury may be due largely to direct effects of O{sub 3}.

  18. Heparin Interaction with the Primed Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte CD11b Induces Apoptosis and Prevents Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mazor, Meital; Mazor, Rafi; Kristal, Batya; Kistler, Erik B.; Ziv, Inbal; Chezar, Judith; Sela, Shifra

    2015-01-01

    Heparin is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, yet the mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that heparin has a direct effect on activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), changing their activation state, and can explain its anti-inflammatory effect. To test our hypothesis, we designed both in vitro and ex vivo studies to elucidate the mechanism by which heparin modulates PMNL functions and therefore the inflammatory response. We specifically tested the hypothesis that priming of PMNLs renders them more susceptible to heparin. Amplified levels of CD11b and increased rate of superoxide release manifested PMNL priming. Increase in cell priming resulted in a dose-dependent increase in heparin binding to PMNLs followed by augmented apoptosis. Blocking antibodies to CD11b inhibited heparin binding and abolished the apoptotic response. Moreover, heparin caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the rate of superoxide release from PMNLs, which was blunted by blocking antibodies to CD11b. Altogether, this study shows that the interaction of heparin with the PMNL CD11b results in cell apoptosis and explains heparin's anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26819958

  19. Entry of roxithromycin (RU 965), imipenem, cefotaxime, trimethoprim, and metronidazole into human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Hand, W L; King-Thompson, N; Holman, J W

    1987-01-01

    Entry of antibiotics into phagocytes is necessary for activity against intracellular organisms. Therefore, we examined the uptake of five of the newer antibiotics--roxithromycin (RU 965), imipenem, cefotaxime, trimethoprim, and metronidazole--by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Antibiotic uptake by PMN was determined by a velocity gradient centrifugation technique and expressed as the ratio of the cellular concentration of antibiotic to the extracellular concentration (C/E). Cefotaxime, like other beta-lactam antibiotics, was taken up poorly by phagocytes (C/E less than or equal to 0.3). The metronidazole concentration within PMN was similar to the extracellular level. Imipenem bound rapidly to phagocytes (C/E = 3), but cell-associated drug progressively declined during the incubation period. Trimethoprim was well concentrated by PMN (C/E = 9 to 13), and uptake was unexpectedly greater at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The most striking finding was that roxithromycin was more avidly concentrated by PMN (C/E = 34) than any other antibiotic we studied. Entry of roxithromycin into phagocytes was an active process and displayed saturation kinetics characteristic of a carrier-mediated membrane transport system. Ingestion of microbial particles by PMN slightly decreased the ability of these cells to accumulate roxithromycin (C/E = 24 to 31). These studies identified two antibiotics, trimethoprim and especially roxithromycin, which are markedly concentrated within human PMN and may prove useful in treatment of infections caused by susceptible intracellular organisms. PMID:3481246

  20. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 Production by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Modulates Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Function

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jon M.; Rasmussen, Susan B.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2005-01-01

    Many strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) produce cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1), a toxin that constitutively activates the Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42. We previously showed that CNF1 contributes to the virulence of UPEC in a mouse model of ascending urinary tract infection and a rat model of acute prostatitis and that a striking feature of the histopathology of the mouse bladders and rat prostates infected with CNF1-positive strains is an elevation in levels of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We also found that CNF1 synthesis leads to prolonged survival of UPEC in association with human neutrophils. Here, we tested the hypothesis that CNF1 production by UPEC diminishes the antimicrobial capacity of mouse PMNs by affecting phagocyte function through targeting Rho family GTPases that are critical to phagocytosis and the generation of reactive oxygen species. We found that, as with human neutrophils, CNF1 synthesis provided a survival advantage to UPEC incubated with mouse PMNs. We also observed that CNF1-positive UPEC down-regulated phagocytosis, altered the distribution of the complement receptor CR3 (CD11b/CD18), enhanced the intracellular respiratory burst, and increased levels of Rac2 activation in PMNs. From these results, we conclude that modulation of PMN function by CNF1 facilitates UPEC survival during the acute inflammatory response. PMID:16113245

  1. Potential use of indium-111-labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes for the detection of lung microvascular injury

    SciTech Connect

    Das, D.K.; Steinberg, H.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Hoory, S.

    1988-05-01

    The early stages of microvascular injury are often difficult to detect due to the lack of a suitable marker to assess such an injury. We utilized the well known phenomenon of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration to the microvascular bed as a result of acute inflammatory reactions originating from the damaged cells. A radiotracer technique was developed, employing indium-111-labeled PMN for the detection of microvascular injury induced by hyperoxia. New Zealand white rabbits exposed to either 100% oxygen or air for various intervals of time were injected with indium-111-tropolone or oxine-labeled PMNs. Influx of radioactive PMN into the lung was detected in 72 hr/oxygen-exposed animals using gamma scintigraphic technique. Analysis of dry/wet ratios and histological examinations of the lung biopsies indicated noncardiogenic edema formation at this stage. Mortality was 50% beyond 96 hr/oxygen exposure. Our study thus provided a means to detect early microvascular injury during 72 hr/oxygen-exposure, which was not detectable by any other noninvasive techniques. The use of indium-111-labeled PMN thus appears to be a potentially important tool for the clinical assessment of lung microvascular injury.

  2. The role of polymorphonuclear leukocyte trafficking in the perpetuation of inflammation during inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Jennifer C; Louis, Nancy A; Parkos, Charles A

    2013-06-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs; Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis) are chronically relapsing inflammatory disorders of the intestine and/or colon. The precise etiology of IBD remains unclear, but it is thought that a complex interplay between various factors including genetic predisposition, the host immune system, and the host response to luminal microbes play a role in disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, numerous lines of evidence have implicated the accumulation of large numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) in the mucosa and epithelial crypts of the intestine as a hallmark of the active disease phase of IBD. Massive infiltration of PMNs is thought to be instrumental in the pathophysiology of IBD with the degree of PMN migration into intestinal crypts correlating with patient symptoms and mucosal injury. Specifically, migrated PMN have been implicated in the impairment of epithelial barrier function, tissue destruction through oxidative and proteolytic damage, and the perpetuation of inflammation through the release of inflammatory mediators. This review highlights the multifactorial role of PMN egress into the intestinal mucosa in the pathogenesis of IBD because it represents an important area of research with therapeutic implications for the amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBD. PMID:23598816

  3. The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Luini, Alessandra; Bombelli, Raffaella; Corasaniti, Maria T; Bagetta, Giacinto; Marino, Franca

    2014-08-01

    Bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia) essential oil (BEO) is used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and anthelminthic and to facilitate wound healing. Evidence indicates that BEO has substantial antimicrobial activity; however its effects on immunity have never been examined. We studied the effects of BEO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the role of Ca(2+) in the functional responses evoked by BEO in these cells. Results show that BEO increased intracellular ROS production in human PMN, an effect that required the contribution of extracellular (and, to a lesser extent, of intracellular) Ca(2+) . Bergamot essential oil also significantly increased ROS production induced by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and reduced the response to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the ability of BEO to increase ROS production in human PMN. This effect could both contribute to the activity of BEO in infections and in tissue healing as well as underlie an intrinsic proinflammatory potential. The relevance of these findings for the clinical uses of BEO needs careful consideration. PMID:24458921

  4. Effect of homocysteine on polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Mordente, A; Persichilli, S; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2000-01-01

    Homocysteine is a non-protein-forming sulphur amino acid that plays an important role in remethylation and trans-sulphuration processes. In recent years, a high plasma homocysteine concentration has been implied as a possible pathophysiological factor in atherosclerosis and artery and deep vein thrombosis, probably through generation of H(2)O(2), enhanced platelet activity and increased production of macrophage-derived tissue factor. Furthermore, an increase of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activity mediated by homocysteine-generated H(2)O(2) has also been reported. Because some preliminary experimental results in our laboratory did not confirm this effect of homocysteine on PMNs, we investigated the effect of homocysteine on the activity of PMNs, measured by their luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Moreover, we also studied the effect of homocysteine in a luminol-hypochlorite chemiluminescent system. Our results clearly indicate that homocysteine at micromol/L concentrations (10-100 micromol/L) slightly inhibits neutrophil chemiluminescence, while it strongly inhibits the luminescence of the luminol-hypochlorite system. Therefore, the hypothesis that homocysteine induces an increase of H(2)O(2)-mediated neutrophil activity is not supported and, probably, the common opinion that views the H(2)O(2) generated by homocysteine as a possible mechanism for cardiovascular damage should be reconsidered. PMID:10931639

  5. Oxidative activity of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by the long-chain phosphatidic acids.

    PubMed

    Petković, M; Vocks, A; Schiller, J; Arnhold, J

    2005-01-01

    It has already been suggested that phosphatidic acids (PAs) play an important role in the regulation of signaling pathways involved in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The present study was performed to elucidate the effects of extracellularly added PA-- 1,2-distearoyl- (DSPA) and 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-phosphate (SAPA)--on the ROS production and on the elastase release by human PMNs. ROS production was monitored by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence and the elastase activity was measured in the supernatant of the PA-stimulated human PMNs by colorimetric assay. Obtained effects were compared with those of cells stimulated by either a chemotactic tripeptide, phorbol ester or calcium ionophore. Our results show that long-chain PAs at concentrations higher than 3 x 10(-5) mol/l stimulate the ROS production by human PMNs, whereas they were ineffective in promoting the elastase release. The chemiluminescence pattern of the SAPA-stimulated cells exhibited a biphasic curve, whereas cell stimulation with DSPA resulted in a monophasic chemiluminescence curve. Stimulation of the ROS production by PAs in dependence of the fatty acid composition required the activity of protein kinases. PMID:15717848

  6. Physiological effects of a bactericidal protein from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Hovde, C J; Gray, B H

    1986-01-01

    The physiological changes seen in Pseudomonas aeruginosa after exposure to a bactericidal protein (BP) from the granules of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied. It was demonstrated, using radiolabeled proline or leucine, that both the rate of cellular uptake and amino acid incorporation into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble material were markedly decreased immediately after exposure to BP. The rate of O2 consumption by P. aeruginosa was decreased immediately after exposure to BP and continued to decline exponentially until it ceased completely 30 min after exposure to BP. In the presence of 30 mM CaCl2 or MgCl2, bacteria were protected from death due to BP and respiration rates were unaffected. The cellular ATP pool of P. aeruginosa remained constant for up to 2 h after exposure to BP. Membrane depolarization was measured by the influx of the lipophilic anion thiocyanate. It was shown that the cytoplasmic membrane of P. aeruginosa was partially depolarized after exposure to BP. Purified BP killed 95% of 5 X 10(6) CFU of P. aeruginosa at a concentration of 60 to 100 ng of protein per ml. Although the concentration of bacteria and BP varied with each type of experiment, the BP/bacteria ratio required to cause a 95 to 99% loss in viability remained constant. We propose that cytoplasmic membrane depolarization is the biochemical lesion responsible for the other physiological changes seen and ultimately for the death of P. aeruginosa induced by BP. PMID:3082763

  7. Reduced bioenergetics and toll-like receptor 1 function in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in aging

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Feng; Guo, Xiuyang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yuan, Xiaoling; Chen, Shu; Malawista, Stephen E.; Bockenstedt, Linda K.; Allore, Heather G.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in immune function (immunosenescence) resulting in an increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections. Here we show reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and an underlying age-dependent deficiency in PMN bioenergetics. In older (>65 years) adults, stimulation through TLR1 led to lower activation of integrins (CD11b and CD18), lower production of the chemokine IL-8, and lower levels of the phosphorylated signaling intermediate p38 MAP kinase than in PMN from younger donors (21-30 years). In addition, loss of CD62L, a marker of PMN activation, was reduced in PMN of older adults stimulated through multiple pathways. Rescue of PMN from apoptosis by stimulation with TLR1 was reduced in PMN from older adults. In seeking an explanation for effects of aging across multiple pathways, we examined PMN energy utilization and found that glucose uptake after stimulation through TLR1 was dramatically lower in PMN of older adults. Our results demonstrate a reduction in TLR1 expression and TLR1-mediated responses in PMN with aging, and reduced efficiency of bioenergetics in PMN. These changes likely contribute to reduced PMN efficiency in aging through multiple aspects of PMN function and suggest potential therapeutic opportunities. PMID:24595889

  8. Effects of naftifine and terbinafine, two allylamine antifungal drugs, on selected functions of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vago, T; Baldi, G; Colombo, D; Barbareschi, M; Norbiato, G; Dallegri, F; Bevilacqua, M

    1994-01-01

    Many antimycotic agents negatively affect the natural immune response. Typically, these drugs impair polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) production of superoxide anion, chemotaxis, or the killing of pathogens. Allylamines are a new class of antimycotic compounds with a new mechanism of antifungal action, i.e., inhibition of the fungal squalene epoxidase. The trial that we describe aimed to evaluate the effects of two allylamines, terbinafine and naftifine, on selected functions of PMNs, i.e., superoxide anion production, chemotaxis, and killing of Candida albicans blastospores. Terbinafine and naftifine on their own did not affect superoxide anion production when they were added to PMNs. When PMNs were preincubated with allylamines and were then stimulated by N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, superoxide anion production was increased (priming effect). Since intracellular free calcium (Ca2+i) is involved in the control of superoxide anion production, we evaluated the effects of the allylamines on the Ca2+i concentration ([Ca2+]i). In the presence of terbinafine or naftifine, the [Ca2+]i increased in a dose-dependent manner; the source of Ca2+i was not extracellular since it was not affected by extracellular calcium chelation with ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid. In the presence of terbinafine or naftifine, chemotaxis of PMNs was not impaired. Terbinafine and naftifine slightly but significantly increased the killing of C. albicans blastospores (P < 0.05 at 10 and 100 microM). In conclusion, in contrast to imidazole-like drugs, the allylamine antimycotic compounds terbinafine and naftifine enhance selected functions of PMNs. PMID:7872755

  9. Increased activity of 5-lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from asthmatic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mita, H.; Yui, Y.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasueda, H.; Shida, T.

    1985-09-09

    The formation of 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE, was determined in 100,000 x g supernatant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with extrinsic asthma and 15 patients with intrinsic asthma. After the supernatant was incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in the presence of calcium and indomethacin, the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were separated by thin layer chromatography. The results were expressed as the percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into the product per 10/sup 7/ cells. The formation of 5,12-diHETE, but not of the 5-HETE, was significantly increased in the cells from the group of patients with extrinsic asthma (4.38 +/- 0.78%, mean +/- S.E.; p < 0.01) and intrinsic asthma (6.09 +/- 1.11%; p < 0.01), when compared to normal subjects (1.74 +/- 0.30%). Both extrinsic and intrinsic asthmatics had significantly enhanced 5-lipoxygenase activity, which was expressed as the sum of percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE. The percentage conversion in normal subjects was 4.19 +/- 0.39%, 6.24 +/- 0.84% for 17 patients with extrinsic asthma (p < 0.05), and 8.59 +/- 1.29% for 15 patients with intrinsic asthma (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between these asthmatic groups. These results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activity is increased in patients with bronchial asthma. 22 references, 3 figures.

  10. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes restrict growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kragh, Kasper N; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Ø; Moser, Claus; Scheike, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S; Seier Poulsen, Steen; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert; Trøstrup, Hannah; Christoffersen, Lars; Hougen, Hans-Petter; Rickelt, Lars F; Kühl, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have increased susceptibility to chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the ecophysiology within the CF lung during infections is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo growth physiology of P. aeruginosa within lungs of chronically infected CF patients. A novel, quantitative peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)-based method was used to estimate the in vivo growth rates of P. aeruginosa directly in lung tissue samples from CF patients and the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also observed in vitro, where this limitation was alleviated in the presence of the alternative electron acceptor nitrate. The finding that P. aeruginosa growth patterns correlate with the number of surrounding PMNs points to a bacteriostatic effect by PMNs via their strong O2 consumption, which slows the growth of P. aeruginosa in infected CF lungs. In support of this, the growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly higher in the respiratory airways than in the conducting airways of mice. These results indicate a complex host-pathogen interaction in chronic P. aeruginosa infection of the CF lung whereby PMNs slow the growth of the bacteria and render them less susceptible to antibiotic treatment while enabling them to persist by anaerobic respiration. PMID:25114118

  11. Nongenomic effect of thyroid hormone on free-radical production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Mezosi, E; Szabo, J; Nagy, E V; Borbely, A; Varga, E; Paragh, G; Varga, Z

    2005-04-01

    Over the past few years increasing evidence has suggested the nongenomic effects of thyroid hormone, such as the activation of the signal transduction pathways and the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB by the induction of oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of thyroid hormone on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) which are known as important sources of reactive oxygen species in the circulation. The production of superoxide anion (O2-) and the activity of myeloperoxidase were determined in the presence and absence of several inhibitors of the signalling pathway. L-thyroxine (T4) l-3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3) and L-3,5-di-iodothyronine (T2) stimulated O2- production in PMNLs in a dose-dependent manner within a few minutes of addition to cells. Thyroid hormone-stimulated O2- production was partially inhibited by pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of GTP-binding G protein, and was completely abolished by the protein kinase C inhibitors calphostin C and Ro-32-0432, and by a calcium chelator (BAPTA; bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid). Thyroid hormone stimulated myeloperoxidase activity and induced 125I- incorporation into PMNLs. Furthermore, thyroid hormone pre-incubation enhanced O2- production for n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl- phenylalanine (FMLP) stimulation. In conclusion, novel nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone, the induction of superoxide anion production and the stimulation of myeloperoxidase activity in PMNLs were demonstrated. The induction of O2- production requires calcium and is mediated by a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein via stimulation of protein kinase C(s). These results suggest the existence of a membrane-bound binding site for thyroid hormone in PMNLs and a physiological role for thyroid hormone in the cellular defence mechanisms by stimulating free-radical production. PMID:15817833

  12. Antipseudomonal Agents Exhibit Differential Pharmacodynamic Interactions with Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes against Established Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen infecting the lower respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, where it forms tracheobronchial biofilms. Pseudomonas biofilms are refractory to antibacterials and to phagocytic cells with innate immunity, leading to refractory infection. Little is known about the interaction between antipseudomonal agents and phagocytic cells in eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Herein, we investigated the capacity of three antipseudomonal agents, amikacin (AMK), ceftazidime (CAZ), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), to interact with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) against biofilms and planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from sputa of CF patients. Three of the isolates were resistant and three were susceptible to each of these antibiotics. The concentrations studied (2, 8, and 32 mg/liter) were subinhibitory for biofilms of resistant isolates, whereas for biofilms of susceptible isolates, they ranged between sub-MIC and 2 × MIC values. The activity of each antibiotic alone or in combination with human PMNs against 48-h mature biofilms or planktonic cells was determined by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. All combinations of AMK with PMNs resulted in synergistic or additive effects against planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates compared to each component alone. More than 75% of CAZ combinations exhibited additive interactions against biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates, whereas CIP had mostly antagonistic interaction or no interaction with PMNs against biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Our findings demonstrate a greater positive interaction between AMK with PMNs than that observed for CAZ and especially CIP against isolates of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract of CF patients. PMID:25645829

  13. Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Restrict Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kragh, Kasper N.; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Ø.; Moser, Claus; Scheike, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Seier Poulsen, Steen; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert; Trøstrup, Hannah; Christoffersen, Lars; Hougen, Hans-Petter; Rickelt, Lars F.; Kühl, Michael; Høiby, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have increased susceptibility to chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the ecophysiology within the CF lung during infections is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo growth physiology of P. aeruginosa within lungs of chronically infected CF patients. A novel, quantitative peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)-based method was used to estimate the in vivo growth rates of P. aeruginosa directly in lung tissue samples from CF patients and the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also observed in vitro, where this limitation was alleviated in the presence of the alternative electron acceptor nitrate. The finding that P. aeruginosa growth patterns correlate with the number of surrounding PMNs points to a bacteriostatic effect by PMNs via their strong O2 consumption, which slows the growth of P. aeruginosa in infected CF lungs. In support of this, the growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly higher in the respiratory airways than in the conducting airways of mice. These results indicate a complex host-pathogen interaction in chronic P. aeruginosa infection of the CF lung whereby PMNs slow the growth of the bacteria and render them less susceptible to antibiotic treatment while enabling them to persist by anaerobic respiration. PMID:25114118

  14. Diminished priming of neonatal polymorphonuclear leukocytes by lipopolysaccharide is associated with reduced CD14 expression.

    PubMed

    Qing, G; Rajaraman, K; Bortolussi, R

    1995-01-01

    Previous research in our laboratory has shown that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from neonates are not primed effectively in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (from Escherichia coli 0111:B4) compared with priming of adult PMN. This finding led us to speculate that differences between neonatal and adult LPS receptors may account for the lower response by neonatal PMN to LPS. In these experiments, we investigated if CD14 or other LPS receptors contribute to the priming activity of PMN by LPS. We found that unprimed neonatal and adult PMN expressed similar numbers of CD14 (11.6 +/- 9.2 versus 18.6 +/- 2.7 fluorescence units [FlU]; P > 0.05) and LPS-binding sites (2.94 +/- 1.4 versus 4.94 +/- 0.79 FlU; P > 0.05). Monoclonal antibody against CD14 (MY4) did not significantly change the binding of LPS to adult unprimed PMN, suggesting that LPS receptors other than CD14 receptors are predominant on PMN. However, when PMN were pretreated with LPS (10 ng/ml) for 45 min at 37 degrees C, expression of CD14 on adult PMN increased to 33.8 +/- 4.9 FlU (P < 0.05 versus unprimed adult PMN) while that on neonatal PMN showed little change, increasing to 17.2 +/- 10.3 FlU (P > 0.05 versus unprimed neonatal PMN; P < 0.05 versus primed adult PMN). Furthermore, MY4 specifically blocked oxidative-radical production from PMN primed with LPS (10 ng/ml) compared with that from control PMN (P < 0.01). These studies suggest that LPS primes PMN by activating CD14 expression. We conclude that lower expression of CD14 or failure to up-regulate CD14 after LPS pretreatment contributes to the inability of neonatal PMN to be primed by LPS. PMID:7528732

  15. A simple and rapid flow cytometric method for routine assessment of baker's yeast uptake by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Dérer, M; Walker, C; Kristensen, F; Reinhardt, M C

    1983-07-29

    A new method for measuring uptake of baker's yeast (BY) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) using flow cytometry is described. The method correlates excellently with the visual method, is reproducible and provides a means for investigating the early phases of the phagocytic process as well as the phagocytic capacity of PMN. This quick and accurate method allows the counting of large numbers of cells, and monitoring of the process of particle uptake and has a considerable potential in the routine assessment of polymorph function in various clinical situations. PMID:6348165

  16. Dendritic Cells Take up and Present Antigens from Viable and Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alfaro, Carlos; Suarez, Natalia; Oate, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, Jose L.; Martinez-Forero, Ivan; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Perez, Guiomar; Bolaos, Elixabet; Palazon, Asis; de Sanmamed, Miguel Fernandez; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8), for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs. Such internalization was abrogated at 4C and partly inhibited by anti-CD18 mAb. In mice, DC which had internalized PMNs containing electroporated ovalbumin (OVA) protein, were able to cross-present the antigen to CD8 (OT-1) and CD4 (OT-2) TCR-transgenic T cells. Moreover, in humans, tumor cell debris is internalized by PMNs and the tumor-cell material can be subsequently taken up from the immunomagnetically re-isolated PMNs by DC. Importantly, if human neutrophils had endocytosed bacteria, they were able to trigger the maturation program of the DC. Moreover, when mouse PMNs with E. coli in their interior are co-injected in the foot pad with DC, many DC loaded with fluorescent material from the PMNs reach draining lymph nodes. Using CT26 (H-2d) mouse tumor cells, it was observed that if tumor cells are intracellularly loaded with OVA protein and UV-irradiated, they become phagocytic prey of H-2d PMNs. If such PMNs, that cannot present antigens to OT-1 T cells, are immunomagnetically re-isolated and phagocytosed by H-2b DC, such DC productively cross-present OVA antigen determinants to OT-1 T cells. Cross-presentation to adoptively transferred OT-1 lymphocytes at draining lymph nodes also take place when OVA-loaded PMNs (H-2d) are coinjected in the footpad of mice with autologous DC (H-2b). In summary, our results indicate that antigens phagocytosed by short-lived PMNs can be in turn internalized and productively cross-presented by DC. PMID:22206007

  17. Intravenous Shiga toxin 2 promotes enteritis and renal injury characterized by polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration and thrombosis in Dutch Belted rabbits.

    PubMed

    García, Alexis; Marini, Robert P; Catalfamo, James L; Knox, Kimberly A; Schauer, David B; Rogers, Arlin B; Fox, James G

    2008-05-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection causes hemolytic uremic syndrome, a leading cause of acute renal failure in children. Dutch Belted (DB) rabbits are susceptible to EHEC-induced disease. Using real-time quantitative RT-PCR we measured the renal mRNA expression of cytokines and fibrinolytic factors in DB rabbits challenged with intravenous Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) (1200 ng/kg). Group 1 rabbits received an incremental dose during an 8-day period whereas Group 2 rabbits received a single dose. Group 1 rabbits developed mild disease. In contrast, Group 2 rabbits developed severe diarrhea, higher levels of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes, increased mean platelet volume, and increased fibrinogen levels. Group 2 rabbits developed polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration in the intestine and kidney as well as glomerular congestion, luminal constriction, and mesangial glomerulonephropathy. These renal lesions were associated with up-regulation of interleukin-8 (P<0.006), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (P<0.04), and tissue plasminogen activator (P<0.05). Circulating Stx2 promoted dose-dependent enteritis and renal injury characterized by inflammation and impaired fibrinolysis leading to thrombosis. PMID:18462972

  18. Effect of aqueous cigarette smoke extract on the chemiluminescence kinetics of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and on their glycolytic and phagocytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Minucci, A; Stasio, E D; Carlino, P; Pagliari, G; Giardina, B; Sole, P D

    2001-01-01

    Water-soluble extracts of cigarette smoke are easily formed in some body compartments, such as saliva or fluid lining alveolar spaces, and can act on both cellular and extracellular compartments. In this paper we have analysed the effect of aqueous smoke extract on some metabolic and functional aspects of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. In particular, the following cellular aspects were studied: chemiluminescence, glycolysis, membrane fluidity and microscopic interaction with zymosan particles. While chemiluminescence and glycolytic activity are highly inhibited, no effect of smoke extract on membrane fluidity was observed. Moreover, the response of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence was significantly delayed, while that of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence was anticipated. Furthermore, the phagocytic ability of neutrophils pretreated with aqueous smoke extract was also significantly hindered. All these results might indicate that the finely tuned activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes is somehow hampered by the aqueous extract of cigarette smoke in a way which makes these cells less effective against bacteria and more noxious towards surrounding tissues. PMID:11590703

  19. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a significant source of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in endotoxin-challenged lung tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Z.; Kirpalani, H.; Torry, D.; Jordana, M.; Gauldie, J.

    1993-01-01

    The kinetic expression and potential cellular source of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS) induced acute lung inflammation was investigated using a rat model by Northern blot analysis, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. LPS induced a polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltrate in the lung that peaked between 6 and 24 hours. TNF-alpha messenger (m)RNA was strongly induced by LPS in whole lung tissues shown by Northern analysis. Both alveolar macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), purified from bronchoalveolar lavage fluids of LPS-treated rats, were shown to express TNF-alpha mRNA by Northern analysis. However, PMNs displayed several times more TNF-alpha mRNA, relative to actin mRNA, than alveolar macrophages at 6 and 12 hours. By in situ hybridization, most of the cells positive for TNF-alpha mRNA at 6 and 12 hours seemed to be PMNs located within the tissue near bronchioles or vessels. By immunohistochemistry, TNF-alpha protein was localized mainly to alveolar macrophages at early times (1 to 3 hours) after LPS challenge, and thereafter, PMNs seemed to be the predominant source of TNF-alpha protein as more than 90% of total intraalveolar positive cells at 6 and 12 hours were PMN. Thus, our data provide the first in vivo evidence that PMNs can serve as a significant source of TNF-alpha at sites of acute inflammation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8213996

  20. Naringenin suppresses K562 human leukemia cell proliferation and ameliorates Adriamycin-induced oxidative damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; FENG, YING-QIAN; CHEN, JUN-HUI; GE, LIN-TONG; XIAO, SHU-YUAN; ZUO, XUE-LAN

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for leukemia remain unsatisfactory. Conventional chemotherapy agents that aim to kill tumor cells may also damage normal cells and thus result in severe side-effects. Naringenin, a natural polyphenolic compound with antioxidant effects, has been revealed to have significant antitumor effects with low toxicity in preliminary studies. Thus, it is considered as one of the most promising flavonoids in the treatment of leukemia. In the present study, the effects of naringenin on the K562 human leukemia cell line and the underlying mechanisms were explored in vitro. In addition, human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were used as a normal control in order to evaluate the effects of naringenin on normal granulocytes and in the mediation of Adriamycin (ADM)-induced oxidative damage. The results revealed that K562 proliferation was significantly inhibited by naringenin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; however, minimal cytotoxic effects were observed in PMNs when naringenin was used at concentrations <400 μmol/l. Morphological changes indicative of apoptosis were observed in naringenin-treated K562 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the K562 cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a significantly upregulated rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, in the naringenin-treated K562 cells, the labeling index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was observed to be increased by immunochemical staining, the mRNA and protein expression levels of p21/WAF1 were strongly upregulated in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, whereas p53 gene expression was not significantly changed. In PMNs to which naringenin (50~80 μmol/l) was added 1 h subsequent to ADM, the cell damage induced by ADM was significantly reduced, coincident with reductions in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increases in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. However, the cytotoxic effect of ADM in K562 cells was not significantly altered by naringenin, and the oxidative stress indices in K562 cells remained stable. In conclusion, the present study revealed the promising value of naringenin in leukemia treatment. Naringenin demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of K562 cells but not on normal PMNs. Furthermore, naringenin protected PMNs from ADM-induced oxidative damage at low concentrations. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing effects, achieved through p53-independent p21/WAF1 upregulation, are likely to be the mechanism of the antileukemic effects of naringenin, and the protective effect against ADM chemotherapy-induced damage in PMNs may be due to the antioxidant capability of this agent at low concentrations. PMID:25667616

  1. β2 integrins (CD11/18) are essential for the chemosensory adhesion and migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Hana; Park, Hye Rim; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Cheung-Seog; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been studied widely for applications in biomedical materials such as prosthetic artificial blood vessels owing to its unique characteristics, which include nontoxicity and nonimmunogenicity as compared with synthetic biopolymers such as expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE). However, to date, studies on the relative effect of leukocytes on BC as a prosthetic vascular graft are insufficient. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a pivotal role in early-phase immune response to bacterial or periprosthetic infection. PMN recruitment at sites of infection or inflammation mediated by various integrins such as β2 integrin family (CD11/CD18 family). Therefore, we discuss our investigations into the mechanisms by which β2 integrins-mediated chemosensory adhesion and migration of PMN on the vascular graft surface, BC. Our results show that CD11b/CD18 components mainly mediate PMN adherence on BC. CD11b/CD18 displays weak coordination with the other two α subunits (CD11a and CD11c). Furthermore, it was found that the β subunit (CD18) plays a critical role in both the adhesion and migration of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMN on BC. The activity of CD18 contrasts with that of the individual α subunits. Among these, only CD11b displayed inhibition of PMN migration on BC surfaces. PMID:25231265

  2. [The metabolic characteristics of the blood leukocytes in infectious-allergic myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Kubyshkin, V F; Mazurets, A F; Dziuba, M V; Legkonogov, A V; Gorelov, K P

    1993-01-01

    41 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP), 62 patients with infectious allergic myocarditis (IAMC) and 36 patients with myocarditis cardiosclerosis (MCCS) were examined cytochemically. This involved assessment of the activity of alpha-glycerophosphate- and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenases, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorases, NBT test parameters, measurements of endogenic cytochrome C and cation protein, activity of acid and alkaline phosphatase, lymphocyte peroxidase and that in peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The findings of the study confirmed a close functional and metabolic relation of the above cytochemical indices. This allows their introduction as additional laboratory criteria in differential diagnosis of inflammatory and idiopathic myocardial affections. PMID:8108802

  3. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  4. Phagocytic response of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes to different incubation conditions and following exposure to some effectors of phagocytosis and different anticoagulants in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Ducusin, R J; Sarashina, T; Uzuka, Y; Tanabe, S; Ohtani, M

    2001-01-01

    The ability of bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to phagocytose fluorescent beads in vitro was studied using flow cytometry. The effects of varying laboratory conditions (bead:PMN ratio, length of incubation, and temperature) were first determined, then the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), cytochalasin B, and formyl-met-leu-phe (fMLP) on phagocytosis were evaluated. The recommended bead:PMN ratio, incubation period, and incubation temperature are 20:1, 30 min, and 38.5 degrees C, respectively. Lipopolysaccharide increased phagocytosis at a relatively high minimum dose; PMA increased phagocytosis even at low doses; cytochalasin B increased and decreased phagocytosis at low and high doses, respectively; and fMLP had no significant effect on phagocytosis. Also, the effects of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and acid citrate dextrose (ACD) as anticoagulants were compared with heparin-treated blood PMNs. Both EDTA and ACD decreased phagocytosis. Although there are reports that demonstrated that heparin reduced PMN phagocytosis, at least among the 3 anticoagulants used, heparin remains to be the standard anticoagulant for the study of PMN phagocytosis. Images Figure 1. PMID:11227193

  5. Purification of the active C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a receptor - G sub i complex

    SciTech Connect

    Rollins, T.E.; Siciliano, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Cianciarulo, D.N.; Bonilla-Argudo, V.; Collier, K.; Springer, M.S. )

    1991-02-01

    The authors have isolated, in an active state, the C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The purification was achieved in a single step using a C5a affinity column in which the C5a molecule was coupled to the resin through its N terminus. The purified receptor, like the crude solubilized molecule, exhibited a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a K{sub d} of 30 pM. Further, the binding of C5a retained its sensitivity to guanine nucleotides, implying that the purified receptor contained a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). SDS/PAGE revealed the presence of three polypeptides with molecular masses of 42, 40, and 36 kDa, which were determined to be the C5a-binding subunit and the {alpha} and {beta} subunits of G{sub i}, respectively. The 36- and 40-kDa polypeptides were identified by immunoblotting and by the ability of pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate the 40-kDa molecule. These results confirm their earlier hypothesis that the receptor exists as a complex with a G protein in the presence or absence of C5a. The tight coupling between the receptor and G protein should make possible the identification of the G protein(s) involved in the transduction pathways used by C5a to produce its many biological effects.

  6. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. )

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  7. Contrasting effects of Mycoplasma fermentans and M. felis on the viability and chemiluminescence response of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, A; Miles, R J; Richards, L

    1993-05-15

    Trypan blue exclusion was used to estimate the viability of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in the presence of Mycoplasma felis and two strains of M. fermentans (PG18 and incognitus). The competence of PMNL to mount a respiratory burst when challenged with the mycoplasmas was also monitored by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Both un-opsonised and non-immune human serum opsonised M. felis cells had little effect on PMNL viability. In contrast, PMNL viability was reduced markedly by un-opsonised cells of M. fermentans strain incognitus and, to a lesser extent, strain PG18, and opsonisation of these mycoplasmas further enhanced killing. Death of PMNL in the presence of M. fermentans was not associated with the autonomous production of active oxygen species during the respiratory burst as M. felis induced a high CL response from PMNL, whereas that induced by M. fermentans strain incognitus was significantly lower. M. fermentans may invade mammalian cells and it is suggested that the mechanism of PMNL death could be related to the ability of M. fermentans to penetrate host cell membranes. PMID:8339908

  8. Role of the Yersinia YopJ protein in suppressing interleukin-8 secretion by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Justin L; Hasenkrug, Aaron M; Shannon, Jeffrey G; Kobayashi, Scott D; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, in addition to their direct bactericidal activities, produce cytokines involved in the activation and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response to infection. In this study we evaluated the cytokine response of human PMNs following incubation with the pathogenic Yersinia species. Yersinia pestis strains with the pCD1 virulence plasmid, which encodes cytotoxic Yop proteins that are translocated into host cells, stimulated little or no cytokine production compared to pCD1-negative strains. In particular, PMNs incubated with pCD1-negative Y. pestis secreted 1000-fold higher levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8 or CXCL8), a proinflammatory chemokine important for PMN recruitment and activation. Deletion of yopE, -H, -T, -M or ypkA had no effect on pCD1-dependent inhibition, whereas deletion of yopJ resulted in significantly increased IL-8 production. Like Y. pestis, the enteropathogenic Yersinia species inhibited IL-8 secretion by PMNs, and strains lacking the virulence plasmid induced high levels of IL-8. Our results show that virulence plasmid-encoded effector Yops, particularly YopJ, prevent IL-8 secretion by human PMNs. Suppression of the chemotactic IL-8 response by Y. pestis may contribute to the delayed PMN recruitment to the infected lymph node that typifies bubonic plague. PMID:26361732

  9. Solubilization and functional reconstitution of polymorphonuclear leukocyte formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine receptors and guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) binds to specific polymorphonuclear leukocyte plasma membrane receptors stimulating chemotaxis and bactericidal responses. One of the initial events of the ligand receptor interaction is a rise in inositol trisphosphate, which triggers intracellular calcium release. The generation of inositol trisphosphate is mediated by the fMLP-activated phospholipase C via a GTP-binding protein (G-protein). In analogy to the adrenergic stimulation of adenylate cyclase, the following signal transduction model has been proposed: The fMLP receptor activates a G-protein which then stimulates phospholipase C to hydrolyse phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate to inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. This work has focused on characterizing the structural and functional coupling fMLP receptor and G-proteins in native membranes, detergent micelles and reconstituted phospholipid vesicles. Tight coupling between the fMLP receptor and G-protein has been demonstrated in both native and solubilized membranes by assaying quanine nucleotide-induced inhibition of (/sup 3/H)fMLP binding and fMLP stimulated GTPase activity.

  10. A Novel Murine Anti-Lactoferrin Monoclonal Antibody Activates Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes through Membrane-Bound Lactoferrin and TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Xu, Yan-Rui; Yan, Ru; Sun, Shu-Liang; Dong, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jun; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soluble lactoferrin (LTF) is a versatile molecule that not only regulates the iron homeostasis, but also harbors direct microbicidal and immunomodulating abilities in mammalian body fluids. In contrast, little is known about the function of membrane-bound LTF (mbLTF), although its expression on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (huPMNs) has been reported for decades. Given that LTF/anti-LTF antibodies represent a potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with immune disorders, we wished, in the present study, to generate a novel human LTF- (huLTF-) specific mAb suitable for detailed analyses on the expression and function of mbLTF as well as for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. By using the traditional hybridoma cell fusion technology, we obtained a murine IgG1 (kappa) mAb, M-860, against huLTF. M-860 recognizes a conformational epitope of huLTF as it binds to natural, but not denatured, huLTF in ELISA. Moreover, M-860 detects mbLTF by FACS and captures endogenous huLTF in total cell lysates of huPMNs. Functionally, M-860 induces the activation of huPMNs partially through TLR4 but independently of phagocytosis. M-860 is thus a powerful tool to analyze the expression and function of human mbLTF, which will further our understanding of the roles of LTF in health and disease. PMID:26649297

  11. C5a-induced hemodynamic and hematologic changes in the rabbit. Role of cyclooxygenase products and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, C.; Marceau, F.; Hugli, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    Hemodynamic and hematologic changes occurring after intravascular complement activation have implicated the anaphylatoxins in this response. In this study, the hemodynamic and hematologic effects of purified C5a were investigated in rabbits; and involvement of prostanoids, histamine, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were examined. The anaphylatoxin C5a induces a reversible systemic arterial hypotension which coincides with an increase in central venous pressure (CVP), decreased cardiac output (CO), increased plasma prostanoid levels, as well as neutropenia. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) remained unchanged. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin abolished the C5a-induced hypotension and normalized plasma prostanoid levels without altering the C5a-induced neutropenia. The thromboxane (Tx) A2 synthetase inhibitor dazoxiben reduced TxB2 plasma levels and increased 6-keto-prostaglandin PGF1 alpha and PGE2 levels without altering the hypotensive response. However, with dazoxiben treatment both TPR and CVP decreased. The H2-receptor antagonist cimetidine reduced C5a-induced hypotension and diminished prostanoid release. Both the hypotensive response and elevated prostanoid release were observed after C5a challenge in animals rendered neutropenic prior to challenge. It is concluded that C5a-induced arterial hypotension in the rabbit is a PMN-independent reaction, mediated through cyclooxygenase products and, to some degree, by histamine. The mechanism producing systemic arterial hypotension does not seem to involve peripheral vasodilation but appears to be a secondary effect of pulmonary vasoconstriction, possibly mediated by TxA2. PMID:3115110

  12. TNF alpha primes polymorphonuclear leukocytes for an enhanced respiratory burst to a similar extent as bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Schopf, R E; Keller, R; Rehder, M; Benes, P; Kallinowski, F; Vaupel, P

    1990-12-01

    We examined whether preincubating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) with TNF alpha would result in an enhanced respiratory burst upon subsequent stimulation by various agents. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known primer of PMN, was used as control. We found that both LPS (0.01 to 10.0 microgram/ml) and recombinant TNF alpha (0.001 to 1.0 microgram/ml) act as direct stimulants of PMN as measured by chemiluminescence. Sixty minutes of preincubation of PMN with 1 microgram/ml TNF alpha or 10 micrograms/ml LPS resulted in similar priming for the respiratory burst elicited by opsonized zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate, zymosan, zymosan-activated serum, aggregated immunoglobulin, and f-met-leu-phe (FMLP) depending on the method of measurement used, i.e., chemiluminescence, production of O2-, and H2O2. Priming with TNF alpha for an enhanced response to stimulation by FMLP could be abrogated by anti-TNF alpha antibody. Cell-surface receptor numbers and binding-affinity constants for FMLP remained stable under conditions leading to priming. We conclude that TNF alpha is able to prime PMN for an enhanced respiratory burst to a similar extent as with LPS. Because PMN cell-surface receptors for FMLP are unaltered by priming, the enhanced respiratory burst seems to be due to changes in intracellular metabolism. PMID:2258638

  13. The influence of different anticoagulants and sample preparation methods on measurement of mCD14 on bovine monocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Membrane-CD14 (mCD14) is expressed on the surface of monocytes, macrophages and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN). mCD14 acts as a co-receptor along with Toll like receptor 4 (TLR 4) and MD-2 for the detection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, studies using different sample preparation methods and anticoagulants have reported different levels of mCD14 on the surface of monocytes and neutrophils. In this study, the influence of various anticoagulants and processing methods on measurement of mCD14 on monocytes and neutrophils was examined. Results Whole blood samples were collected in vacutainer tubes containing either sodium heparin (HEPARIN), ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or sodium citrate (CITRATE). mCD14 on neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood samples or isolated cells was measured by the method of flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled monoclonal antibody. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean channel fluorescence intensity (MFI) of mCD14 on neutrophils in whole blood samples anticoagulated with HEPARIN (MFI = 64.77) in comparison with those in whole blood samples anticoagulated with either EDTA (MFI = 38.25) or CITRATE (MFI = 43.7). The MFI of mCD14 on monocytes in whole blood samples anticoagulted with HEPARIN (MFI = 206.90) was significantly higher than the MFI in whole blood samples anticoagulated with EDTA (MFI = 149.37) but similar to that with CITRATE (MFI = 162.55). There was no significant difference in the percentage of whole blood neutrophils or monocytes expressing mCD14 irrespective of type of anticoagulant used. However, MFI of mCD14 on monocytes was about 3.2-folds (HEPARIN), 3.9-folds (EDTA) or 3.7 folds (CITRATE) higher than those on neutrophils. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in mCD14 levels between unprocessed whole blood monocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell preparation. Conversely, a highly significant difference was observed in mCD14 between unprocessed whole blood neutrophils and isolated neutrophils (p < 0.05). Conclusion From these results, it is suggested that sodium heparin should be the preferred anticoagulant for use in the reliable quantification of the surface expression of mCD14. Furthermore, measurement of mCD14 is best carried out in whole blood samples, both for neutrophils and monocytes. PMID:22333045

  14. Binding of C-reactive protein to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: evidence for association of binding sites with Fc receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, H.; Fehr, J.

    1986-03-15

    The functional similarities between C-reactive protein (CRP) and IgG raised the question as to whether human phagocytes are stimulated by CRP in the same way as by binding of antigen-complexes or aggregated IgG to their Fc receptors. Studies with the use of highly purified /sup 125/I-labeled CRP showed specific and saturable binding to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNM) with a K/sub D/ of 10.5 +/- 5.7 x 10/sup -8/ M only when carried out in heat-inactivated plasma. The number of specific binding sites per cell was estimated at 1 to 3 x 10/sup 6/. Competitive inhibition of CRP binding by antigen-complexed or aggregated IgG suggests CRP binding sites to be associated IgG suggests CRP binding sites to be associated with PMN Fc receptors. Only when assayed in heat-inactivated plasma did CRP binding induce adherence of cells to tissue culture dishes. However, no metabolic and potentially cytotoxic simulation of PMN was detected during CRP plasma-dependent attachment to surfaces: induction of aggregation, release of secondary granule constituents, and activation of the hexose monophosphate pathway were not observed. These results imply that CRP-PMN interactions is dependent on an additional factor present in heat-inactivated plasma and is followed only by a complement-independent increase in PMN attachment to surfaces. Because CRP was found to be deposits at sites of tissue injury, the CRP-mediated adherence of PMN may be an important step in localizing an inflammatory focus.

  15. [Influences of anti-allergic drugs on superoxide generation from the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system or polymorphonuclear leukocytes].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, T; Naito, Y; Takahashi, S; Tanigawa, T; Oyamada, H; Ueda, S; Takemura, T; Sugino, S; Kondo, M

    1989-06-01

    The influences of anti-allergic drugs on superoxide generation from the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were studied by an electron spin resonance assay using 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as a spin trapper. The intensity of DMPO-OOH signal generated from the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system was not influenced by the presence of azelastine, ketotifen, disodium cromoglycate, mequitazine, or methylprednisolone, but it decreased in the presence of AA-673. A kinetic study showed that the second order rate constant for reaction between AA-673 and superoxide anion at pH 7.4 was 2.9 x 10(8)M-1S-1. The relative intensity of DMPO-OOH spin adduct generated from PMN stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or opsonized zymosan (OZ) significantly decreased in the presence of azelastine: from the PMN-PMA system, with 10.7 microM concentration of molar concentration causing 50% reduction of the signal intensity (IC50), while from the PMN-OZ system, with 10.5 microM concentration of IC50, and also decreased in the presence of mequitazine: from the PMN-PMA system, with 10.8 microM concentration of IC50, while from the PMN-OZ system, less than 2.0 microM concentration of IC50. These results suggest that some anti-allergic drugs may have anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions due to scavenging superoxide radicals or due to inhibiting superoxide production. PMID:2574029

  16. Role of neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes during bovine coliform mastitis: physiology or pathology?

    PubMed

    Burvenich, C; Monfardini, E; Mehrzad, J; Capuco, A V; Paape, M J

    2004-01-01

    The review compiles some major findings concerning the inflammatory reaction in the mammary gland of dairy cows within the physiological context of the lactation cycle. The dual role of the PMN leukocyte in defense and tissue damage during experimentally induced coliform mastitis, especially around parturition and during early lactation, is highlighted. This disease affects many high producing cows in dairy herds and may cause several cases of death per year in the most severe cases. Most researchers now accept that the PMN is a key factor in the cows' defense against intramammary infection with E coli. During diapedesis of PMN into the mammary gland, several functionally important receptors are up-regulated, allowing for a more efficient phagocytosis and killing of invading pathogens. While PMN are phagocytosing and destroying the invading pathogens, they inadvertently release chemical mediators which induces swelling of secretory epithelium cytoplasm, sloughing of secretory cells, and decreased secretory activity. Permanent scarring will result in a loss of milk production. PMN's act as friends and as foes and are important components in the balance between mammary defense and damage. The mammary gland is a complex open self-regulatory system with a continuous flow of matter, energy and information. Metabolically, it has absolute priority over many other tissues except the brain. Self-regulation with change over time is characterized by a dynamic equilibrium between two mechanisms: homeostatic and homeorhetic. The defense against invaders by innate immunity and auto-repair of the damaged tissues are covered by homeostatic mechanisms while colostrogenesis and maintenance of milk secretion are controlled by mainly homeorhetic mechanisms. However, also innate immunity has to function and develop in time, depending on the lactation cycle, and its behavior and evolution in time in such a dynamical system is a challenge and a problem at the same time. In such a complex dynamic situation it is not surprising that physiology is not far away from pathology. E. coli mastitis can be a severe problem during the beginning of lactation whereas it is completely self-curing after peak lactation (8 weeks). The approach to focus on the PMN doesn't mean that the defense of the mammary gland is more simple than in other tissues. The defense of mammary gland is characterized by its complexity and over the last years many data show that there are tight connections with the mononuclear cells in mammary gland tissue. Today it is known that T cells play a central role in orchestrating the immune response. However, because of the peculiar interest in the PMN of the authors during the last 10 years, the immunobiology of the mononuclear cells in the mammary gland is not covered. PMID:15074078

  17. VARIATION AMONG GOATS IN THE ABILITY OF THEIR POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL LEUKOCYTES AND MAMMARY SECRETIONS TO SUPPORT PHAGOCYTOSIS: INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF MILK FAT GLOBULES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if fat globules and casein in goat milk were inhibitory to phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from blood, and to determine if variation existed among goats in the ability of PMN to phagocytose and in the ability of milk whey ...

  18. Accelerated apoptosis of blood leukocytes and oxidative stress in blood of patients with major depression.

    PubMed

    Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Słotwińska, Maria; Stachura, Anna; Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Dubas-Slemp, Halina; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2008-04-01

    Acceleration of blood leukocyte apoptosis in major depression has been described. The present studies have been undertaken to estimate the level of apoptosis of blood leukocytes in patients with depression and to examine the mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Blood was taken from 29 patients with depression (age 48.2+/-11.2, 14 males, 15 females) and 30 healthy controls (age 41.3+/-4.1, 15 males, 15 females), and apoptosis was estimated by the cytometric method by measurements of annexin V binding, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi), bcl-2, bax, and Fas (CD95) expression in CD4+, CD8+ and CD14+ cells. The amounts of cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were also measured. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from PMNs were examined as was the serum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and total peroxidase (PER). Additionally, serum levels of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were estimated. Our experiments indicated accelerated apoptosis of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ cells (mainly neutrophils) of depressed patients as well as a significant increase in the percent of Fas-expressing cells. Bcl-2 and bax expression was higher in cells of depressed patients than in control, however, bcl-2/bax ratio was significantly decreased in CD14+ cells of depressed patients. PMNs isolated from the blood of the patients produced more ROS spontaneously and after induction with phorbol ester (PMA) than PMNs of the healthy control. A significant increase in serum activity of SOD, CAT and PER was also detected. Overproduction of superoxide anion correlated positively with the level of PMNs apoptosis (measured by cytochrome c release), suggesting that superoxide anion might be an important factor inducing apoptotic death of blood cells. The result of our experiment indicated that apoptosis of immune cells may affect patient's susceptibility to different infections and application of antioxidants in medication of patients with depression will be beneficial for them. The increased level of IL-6 in sera of the depressed patients did not correlate with overproduction of ROS, suggesting that this cytokine is not involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis of leukocytes. PMID:18083280

  19. Effect of etizolam (Depas) on production of superoxide anion by platelet-activating factor and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Aratani, H; Nishida, Y; Terasawa, M; Maruyama, Y

    1988-06-01

    Effect of etizolam on platelet activating factor (PAF) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion (O2-) production in guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was investigated. Etizolam showed the inhibitory effect on PAF-induced O2- production concentration dependently, with an IC50 value of 4.7 microM, but it had no inhibitory effect on FMLP-induced O2- production at 100 microM. These results suggest that etizolam has a selectively strong inhibitory effect on PAF-induced O2- production in guinea pig PMNL. PMID:2848961

  20. Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves.

    PubMed

    Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J

    2013-06-01

    A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of metabolism in the calf at birth and the phagocytic capacity of blood neutrophils after colostrum feeding. It might be feasible to design nutrient supplements to fortify colostrum in a way that metabolic and immunologic capabilities of the calf are improved. PMID:23587395

  1. Quantitative Studies of Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes: Use of Emulsions to Measure the Initial Rate of Phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stossel, Thomas P.; Mason, Robert J.; Hartwig, John; Vaughan, Martha

    1972-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes suspended in Krebs-Ringer phosphate medium ingest paraffin oil containing Oil Red O emulsified with a variety of substances. Spectrophotometric determination of Oil Red O in the cells after uningested particles have been removed by differential centrifugation provides a quantitative measure of phagocytosis. This system has been used to investigate the effects of several drugs and hormones on the initial rate of phagocytosis and to approach the question of how the surface of a particle influences its acceptability as a substrate for phagocytosis. The rate of uptake of paraffin oil emulsified with bovine albumin was constant for 6 min and was proportional to cell concentration when saturating concentrations of paraffin oil emulsion were used. At lower concentrations of substrate, the initial rate of phagocytosis was directly proportional to paraffin oil concentration. The increment in glucose oxidation associated with phagocytosis varied directly with the initial rate of particle uptake. The rate of ingestion of the albumin emulsion was not altered by serum (2-20%, v/v), glucose (5-20 mM), or omission of potassium from the medium. The rate of phagocytosis was decreased 65% if magnesium was omitted, and was essentially zero in the absence of divalent cations. The initial rate of uptake was inhibited by inhibitors of glycolysis, by N-ethylmaleimide (0.05-1 mM), colchicine (0.001-0.1 mM), theophylline (1 and 2 mM), dibutyryl cyclic AMP (1 mM), hydrocortisone (2.1 mM), and ethanol (85 mM). Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation and dexamethasone (0.01 mM) were without effect, while insulin (2 mU/ml) slightly stimulated the phagocytic rate. Paraffin oil emulsified with different agents was used to approach the question of how the surface of a particle influences its acceptability as a substrate for phagocytosis. Emulsions prepared with nonionic detergents, methylated proteins, and proteins with a weak net charge at pH 7.4 were poorly ingested. On the other hand emulsions prepared with agents of strong net positive or negative charge were rapidly taken up. The effect of divalent cations on the rate of phagocytosis varied with the nature of the emulsifier, but was not related in any simple, direct fashion to the net surface charge of the particles. However, it has not been conclusively established that charge was the only variable of the emulsion particles employed. PMID:4334720

  2. Evaluation of L-selectin expression and assessment of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes around parturition.

    PubMed

    Monfardini, Erica; Paape, Max J; Wang, Yan; Capuco, Anthony V; Husheem, Michael; Wood, Larry; Burvenich, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Impaired polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocyte (PMN) function around parturition has been associated with increased clinical mastitis in dairy cows. Rolling and attachment of PMN to the endothelium is the first step in the recruitment process and is accomplished by interaction between L-selectin on PMN and its ligand on endothelial cells. Furthermore, tyrosine phosphorylation is involved in the initiation of many PMN functions. The objective of this work was to determine changes in expression of L-selectin and tyrosine phosphorylation in the perinatal period. Eight clinically healthy Holstein cows were used as PMN donors at d-21, -14, -7,0 (calving), +1, +2, +7, +14, +28. Evaluation of L-selectin expression was carried out on activated and resting PMN. Anti-bovine L-selectin monoclonal antibody (MAB) and flow cytometric analysis were used to measure the percentage of PMN fluorescing and receptor expression (log mean fluorescent channel, LMFC). Activated and resting PMN showed similar trends in % PMN fluorescence and LM FC. The percentage of PMN fluorescing tended to decrease at parturition, followed by a significant increase at d +14 and +28 (P < 0.02). For LMFC a decrease was observed on d +1 followed by an increase through d +28 (P < 0.01). Protein tyrosine phosphorylation of lysates prepared from PMN isolated throughout the study was detected by electrophoresis and western blotting using anti-phosphotyrosine MAB. Several protein bands were tyrosine phosphorylated. Two of these bands (42-44 kDa and 90 kDa) varied in intensity over time. The intensity of the 42-44 kDa band gradually increased from d -7, peaked at d +7 (P < 0.03), and steadily decreased to d +28 (P < 0.02). Antibody to activated mitogen protein kinase reacted with the 42-44 kDa band. Reduced PMN function during the periparturient period could be related to reduced L-selectin adhesion molecules on the cell surface, and to modulation in the phosphorylation of functionally important molecules. PMID:12056478

  3. Blood spotlight on leukocytes and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Carvalheira, Jose Barreto Campello; Qiu, Yifu

    2013-01-01

    The rise of obesity and its attendant pathological sequelae, including type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, constitute an ongoing public health catastrophe in both the developed and, more recently, the developing world. Although the underlying pathophysiology is complex, chronic low-grade inflammation has emerged as a central driver of both primary metabolic dysfunction and subsequent tissue failure. Importantly, this inflammation has been shown to arise as a consequence of both the disruption of homeostatic tissue resident leukocytes and the recruitment of antagonistic effector cells from the circulation. In this review, we discuss the roles of visceral adipose tissue’s salient leukocyte lineages in the transition to obesity and highlight key points at which this emerging immune axis may be manipulated for therapeutic effect. PMID:24065242

  4. Activated polymorphonuclear cells increase sickle red blood cell retention in lung: role of phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Johnson; Obiako, Boniface

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the activated polymorphonuclear cell (APMN) products on sickle red blood cell (SRBC) retention/adherence in the pulmonary circulation. Isolated rat lungs were perfused with (51)Cr-labeled normal RBCs (NRBC) or SRBCs (10% hematocrit) suspensions +/- PMNs. Specific activities of lung and perfusate were measured and retention (the number of SRBC/g lung) was calculated. SRBC retention was 3.5 times greater than NRBC retention. PMN activation was required to increase SRBC retention. Supernatants from APMN increased SRBC retention, which suggested soluble products such as oxidants, PAF, and/or leukotriene (LTB(4)) are involved. Heat inactivation of PMN NADPH oxidase had no effect on retention. Whereas neither platelet-activating factor (PAF) nor LTB(4) (secreted by APMN) increased SRBC retention, PAF+LTB(4) did. The PAF antagonist, WEB-2170, attenuated SRBC retention mediated by PAF+LTB(4) and APMNs. Similarly, zileuton (5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) attenuated APMN-mediated SRBC retention. We conclude the concomitant release of PAF and LTB(4) from APMN is involved in the initiation of microvascular occlusion by SRBCs in the perfused rat lung. PMID:11748055

  5. Regulatory peptides modulate adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to bronchial epithelial cells through regulation of interleukins, ICAM-1 and NF-kappaB/IkappaB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Tan, Yu-Rong; Xiang, Yang; Luo, Zi-Qiang; Qin, Xiao-Qun

    2006-02-01

    A complex network of regulatory neuropeptides controls airway inflammation reaction, in which airway epithelial cells adhering to and activating leukocytes is a critical step. To study the effect of intrapulmonary regulatory peptides on adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and its mechanism, several regulatory peptides including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), epidermal growth factor (EGF), endothelin-1 (ET-1) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), were investigated. The results demonstrated that VIP and EGF showed inhibitory effects both on the secretion of IL-1, IL-8 and the adhesion of PMNs to BECs, whereas ET-1 and CGRP had the opposite effect. Anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) antibody could block the adhesion of PMNs to ozone-stressed BECs. Using immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), it was shown that VIP and EGF down-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 in BECs, while ET-1 and CGRP up-regulated ICAM-1 expression. NF-kappaB inhibitor MG132 blocked ICAM-1 expression induced by ET-1 and CGRP. Furthermore, in electric mobility shift assay (EMSA), VIP and EGF restrained the binding activity of NF-kappaB to the NF-kappaB binding site within the ICAM-1 promoter in ozone-stressed BECs, while CGRP and ET-1 promoted this binding activity. IkappaB degradation was consistent with NF-kappaB activation. These observations indicate that VIP and EGF inhibit inflammation, while ET-1 and CGRP enhance the inflammation reaction. PMID:16474903

  6. Signal transduction pathway in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes for chemotaxis induced by a chemotactic factor. Distinct from the pathway for superoxide anion production.

    PubMed

    Yasui, K; Yamazaki, M; Miyabayashi, M; Tsuno, T; Komiyama, A

    1994-06-15

    The tyrosine kinase inhibitors erbstatin and herbimycin A inhibited the chemotactic response to FMLP (2 x 10(-7) M) and the superoxide anion (O2-) production stimulated by FMLP (1 x 10(-6) M) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in similar manners. These compounds also inhibited phospholipase D (PLD)-catalyzed breakdown of phosphatidyl choline, suggesting a possible link between tyrosine kinase and PLD. In the presence of propranolol (phosphatidic acid (PA) phosphohydrolase inhibitor), or ethanol, the activation of PLD results in the modulation of PA and/or diglyceride (DG) generation, producing an irregularity in O2- production. However, PMN motility was not affected in these conditions. These results suggest that PLD is a downstream effector of FMLP-induced tyrosine kinase activation that leads to activation of the PMN superoxide release but not to chemotactic migration. In contrast, the tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not inhibit inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate generation and increase of intracellular concentration of free calcium. Furthermore, a protein kinase C inhibitor, 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine dihydrochloride (H-7), did not affect the migration of PMN and the activation of PLD induced by FMLP at concentrations of less than 50 microM. These results support the premise that there is a specific signaling pathway for chemoattractant-induced PMN locomotion. PMID:8207217

  7. Is there a special mechanism behind the changes in somatic cell and polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts, and composition of milk after a single prolonged milking interval in cows?

    PubMed Central

    Lakic, Branislav; Wredle, Ewa; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Östensson, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Background A single prolonged milking interval (PMI) e.g. after a technical stop in an automated milking system is of concern for the producer since it is associated with a short-lasting increase in milk somatic cell count (SCC), which is a major quality criterion used at the dairy plants. The content of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and how the milk quality is influenced has not been much investigated. The SCC peak occurs without any obvious antigen challenge, possibly indicating a different leukocyte attraction mechanism after a PMI than we see during mastitis. Methods Composite cow milk samples were taken at the milkings twice daily during 7 days before and 5 days after a PMI of 24 h. Milk was analyzed for SCC, PMN, fat, protein and lactose, and at some occasions also casein and free fatty acids (FFA). Results During the PMI the proportion of milk PMN increased sharply in spite of marginally increased SCC. The peak SCC was not observed until the second milking after the PMI, in the afternoon day 1. However, the peak SCC value in morning milk did not occur until one day later, concomitantly with a decrease in the proportion of PMN. After declining, SCC still remained elevated while PMN proportion was decreased throughout the study as was also the milk yield, after the first accumulation of milk during the PMI. Milk composition was changed the day after the PMI, (increased fat and protein content; decreased lactose, whey protein and FFA content) but the changes in the following days were not consistent except for lactose that remained decreased the rest of the study. Conclusion The PMI resulted in increased SCC and proportion of PMN. Additionally, it gave rise to minor alterations in the milk composition in the following milkings but no adverse effect on milk quality was observed. The recruitment of PMN, which was further enhanced the first day after the PMI, appeared to be independent of milk volume or accumulation of milk per se. Hence, we suggest that there is a special immunophysiological/chemoattractant background to the increased migration of leukocytes into the milk compartment observed during and after the PMI. PMID:19146680

  8. Tracking flow of leukocytes in blood for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharat, Arslan; Turner, Wesley; Stephens, Gillian; Badillo, Benjamin; Lumpkin, Rick; Andre, Patrick; Perera, Amitha

    2011-03-01

    Modern microscopy techniques allow imaging of circulating blood components under vascular flow conditions. The resulting video sequences provide unique insights into the behavior of blood cells within the vasculature and can be used as a method to monitor and quantitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells at sites of vascular injury/ inflammation and potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker, helping screen new therapies and individualize dose and combinations of drugs. However, manual analysis of these video sequences is intractable, requiring hours per 400 second video clip. In this paper, we present an automated technique to analyze the behavior and recruitment of human leukocytes in whole blood under physiological conditions of shear through a simple multi-channel fluorescence microscope in real-time. This technique detects and tracks the recruitment of leukocytes to a bioactive surface coated on a flow chamber. Rolling cells (cells which partially bind to the bioactive matrix) are detected counted, and have their velocity measured and graphed. The challenges here include: high cell density, appearance similarity, and low (1Hz) frame rate. Our approach performs frame differencing based motion segmentation, track initialization and online tracking of individual leukocytes.

  9. Relationship between zinc malnutrition and alterations in murine peripheral blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.E.; Morford, L.A.; Fraker, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Studies using a murine model have shown that the immune system responds rapidly and adversely to zinc deficiency. The extent of alteration of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and immunoglobulin levels were investigated in four zinc dietary groups: zinc adequate (ZA); restricted fed zinc adequate (RZA); marginal zinc deficient (MZD, 72-76% of ZA mouse weight); and severely zinc deficient. The peripheral white blood cell count was 3.66 {plus minus} 1.08 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/ml for ZA mice decreasing by 21%, 28% and 54% for RZA, MZD and SZD mice respectively. An equally dramatic change in the flow cytometric light scatter profile was found. ZA mice had 66% lymphocytes and 21% polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in their peripheral blood while MZD and SZD mice contained 43% and 30% lymphocytes and 40% and 60% PMNs respectively. Analysis of the phenotypic distribution of specific classes of lymphocytes revealed ZA blood contained 25% B-cells and 40% T-cells (CD5{sup +}). B-cells decreased 40-50% for RZA and MZD mice and 60-70% for SZD mice. The decline in CD5{sup +} T-cells was more modest at 30% and 45% for MZD and SZD mice. A nearly 40% decline in both T{sub h} and T{sub c/s} cells was noted for both MZD and SZD mice. Radioimmunoassay of serum for changes in IgM and IgG content revealed no change among dietary groups while serum zinc decreased 10% for RZA mice and 50% for both MZD and SZD mice. The authors conclude that peripheral blood differential counts in concert with total B and T-cell phenotype may serve as indicators of zinc status while serum zinc and Ig will not.

  10. Mannose-inhibitable adhesins and T3-T7 receptors of Klebsiella pneumoniae inhibit phagocytosis and intracellular killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Pruzzo, C; Debbia, E; Satta, G

    1982-01-01

    It has recently been shown that Klebsiella pneumoniae strains adhere to human epithelial cells and that adherence is mediated by mannose-inhibitable adhesins which are also receptors for coliphages T3 and T7. We have now found that Klebsiella strain K59, which adheres to human epithelial cells and carries the receptors for coliphages T3 and T7, adheres to human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) at 4 degrees C. Strains KRTT1 and KRTT2, which are spontaneous mutants unable to adsorb coliphages T3 and T7 and adhere to human epithelial cells, at this temperature did not adhere to PMN. Adherence of K59 cells to PMN at 4 degrees C was inhibited by D-mannose, by UV-inactivated T7 phages, and by pepsin-digested anti-K59 antibodies absorbed with KRTT1 cells. At 37 degrees C the number of PMN with KRTT bacteria associated was fourfold higher than at 4 degrees C. On the contrary, the number of PMN with K59 bacteria associated at this temperature was fourfold lower than at 4 degrees C. Phagocytosis and intracellular killing experiments performed at 37 degrees C showed that KRTT1 and KRTT2 were phagocytized and killed at a higher rate than K59. After blocking of the mannose-inhibitable adhesins and T3-T7 receptors (MIAT) by D-mannose, UV-inactivated bacteriophage T7, or specific antibodies, K59 cells became more sensitive to phagocytosis and intracellular killing at 37 degrees C. K59 cells lysogenic for prophage AP3 were approximately as sensitive to phagocytosis and intracellular killing by human PMN as strains KRTT1 and KRTT2. Unencapsulated Klebsiella strains isolated from clinical specimens were found to carry MIAT most often. Four such strains were found much more resistant to phagocytosis and intracellular killing than their spontaneous mutants resistant to bacteriophages T3 and T7. PMID:7047402

  11. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 Delivered by Outer Membrane Vesicles of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Attenuates Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Antimicrobial Activity and Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jon M.; Carvalho, Humberto M.; Rasmussen, Susan B.; O'Brien, Alison D.

    2006-01-01

    Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 1 (CNF1), a toxin produced by many strains of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), constitutively activates small GTPases of the Rho family by deamidating a single amino acid within these target proteins. Such activated GTPases not only stimulate actin polymerization within affected cells but also, as we previously reported, decrease membrane fluidity on mouse polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In that same investigation we found that this diminished membrane movement impedes the clustering of the complement receptor CD11b/CD18 on PMNs and, in turn, decreases PMN phagocytic capacity and microbicidal activity on PMNs in direct contact with CNF1-expressing UPEC as well as on those in proximity to wild-type UPEC. The latter observation suggested to us that CNF1 is released from neighboring bacteria, although at the time of initiation of the study described here, no specific mechanism for export of CNF1 from UPEC had been described. Here we present evidence that CNF1 is released from the CNF1-expressing UPEC strain CP9 (serotype O4/H5/K54) in a complex with outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and that these CNF1-bearing vesicles transfer biologically active CNF1 to PMNs and attenuate phagocyte function. Furthermore, we show that CNF1-bearing vesicles act in a dose-dependent fashion on PMNs to inhibit their chemotactic response to formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, while purified CNF1 does not. We conclude that OMVs provide a means for delivery of CNF1 from a UPEC strain to PMNs and thus negatively affect the efficacy of the acute inflammatory response to these organisms. PMID:16861625

  12. Thyroid hormone regulation of cell migration and oxidative metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: clinical evidence in thyroidectomized subjects on thyroxine replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Marino, Franca; Guasti, Luigina; Cosentino, Marco; De Piazza, Davide; Simoni, Cinzia; Piantanida, Eliana; Cimpanelli, Mariagrazia; Klersy, Catherine; Bartalena, Luigi; Venco, Achille; Lecchini, Sergio

    2006-02-01

    Migration and superoxide anion (O2-) generation were studied in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from 14 athyreotic patients, previously treated by total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma, and from age- and sex-matched euthyroid healthy controls. Patients were studied twice: in hypothyroidism (visit 1) and after TSH-suppressive L-T4 replacement therapy (visit 2). Random migration and N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) 0.1-microM induced chemotaxis were similar in cells from patients at both visit 1 and visit 2 and from healthy controls. On the contrary, resting O2- generation in cells from patients was significantly lower than control values, both at visit 1 and 2. At visit 1, fMLP 0.1 muM-induced O2- generation was significantly lower than control values, while phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA) 100-ng/ml induced O2- generation was similar in cells from patients and from controls. At visit 2 both responses increased, resulting in fMLP-induced O2- generation superimposable to control values and PMA-induced O2- generation significantly higher with respect to both visit 1 and cells from controls. In vitro exposure of PMNs from healthy subjects to L-T4 did not affect O2- generation in resting cells, and significantly increased that induced by fMLP or PMA only at high, supra-physiological concentrations. Neither TSH nor T3 had significant effects at any of the concentrations tested. The present results document the existence of a correlation between thyroid status and oxidative metabolism of human PMNs, which is however unlikely to depend upon a direct action of thyroid hormones on these cells. PMID:16154598

  13. Derivative of wheat germ agglutinin specifically inhibits formyl-peptide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by blocking re-expression (or recycling) of receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, H.D.; Elfman, F.; Lobo, E.; Sklar, L.; Chenoweth, D.; Hooper, C.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanism of action of a derivative of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-D) which specifically and irreversibly inhibits N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis was examined. At a concentration that completely inhibited PMN chemotaxis, WGA-D had no effect on either the uptake or release of (/sup 3/H)-FMLP by PMN. Similarly, WGA-D did not affect either the short-term binding to, or internalization by, PMN of a fluoresceinated FMLP analog. WGA-D did interfere, however, with the re-expression (or recycling) of FMLP receptors by PMN that had been preincubated with 1 ..mu..M FMLP for 10 min at 4/sup 0/C. This effect was specific for WGA-D, because it was not observed when concanavalin A was used. Scatchard plot analysis of FMLP binding to PMN after receptor re-expression demonstrated that WGA-D-treated PMN had a significant diminution in the number of high affinity receptors. WGA-D-mediated inhibition of FMLP receptor re-expression was associated with inhibition of FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis, but had no effect on either FMLP-induced PMN superoxide anion generation or degranulation. Studies using (/sup 12/%I)-WGA-D demonstrated that PMN did not internalize WGA-D spontaneously. The data indicate that WGA-D perhaps by binding to the FMLP receptor, inhibits FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis by blocking the re-expression (or recycling) of a population of receptors required for continuous migration.

  14. Inflammation and the late phase reaction in asthma: the effect of polymorphonuclear leukocyte depletion on airways obstruction and bronchial hyperreactivity in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K R; Marsh, W R; Glezen, L S; Irvin, C G; Wilson, M C; Larsen, G L

    1986-01-01

    Increases in airway reactivity noted after antigen exposure in which a late asthmatic response (LAR) develops may be related to pulmonary inflammation. Employing an animal model of the LAR developed in our laboratory, we conducted experiments to determine if depletion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMLs) would ablate the LAR and inhibit subsequent increases in airways reactivity. Four groups of ten animals each were studied. The first group was given immune sera (I) containing anti-ragweed IgE. The second group received non-immune sera (NI). A third group of animals received immune sera plus nitrogen mustard (I + NM), while a fourth group received non-immune sera plus nitrogen mustard (NI + NM). Airways reactivity to histamine and the evaluation of different cell types in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined three days before and three days after bronchial challenge with ragweed extract (RWE). No control rabbit (NI or NI + NM) developed either an immediate asthmatic response (IAR) or an LAR, and no significant increases occurred in their airways reactivity or cells in lavage fluid after bronchial challenge with RWE. In contrast, the sensitised rabbits not given nitrogen mustard developed an LAR and airways reactivity increased markedly three days later. Those animals receiving immune sera and nitrogen mustard developed an IAR; however, no LAR occurred and no significant change in airways reactivity ws observed. BALF analysis seventy-two hours after ragweed challenge in the animals that received immune sera showed a significant increase in PMLs. However, there was no significant increase on BALF PMLs in the animals receiving immune sera and nitrogen mustard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3955267

  15. Continuous infusion of Escherichia coli endotoxin in vivo primes in vitro superoxide anion release in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes and Kupffer cells in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Mayer, A M; Spitzer, J A

    1991-12-01

    Continuous infusion of a nonlethal dose of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (0.5 mg/kg) induced early (3 h) accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in rat liver followed by later (30 h) greater extravasation of mononuclear phagocytes (MNP) (E. B. Rodriguez de Turco and J. A. Spitzer, J. Leukocyte Biol. 48:488-494, 1990). Nonparenchymal liver cells from rats treated for 3 and 30 h with LPS were recovered by centrifugal elutriation, yielding a 23-ml/min fraction (endothelial cells) and a 45-ml/min fraction (PMNL, Kupffer cells, and MNP), and compared for their capacity for basal and agonist-stimulated superoxide (O2-) production. Stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and opsonized zymosan caused a dose-dependent release of O2- from the 45-ml/min fraction derived from rats treated for 3 h with saline, but not from the 23-ml/min fraction. Further purification of the 45-ml/min fraction by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation into a Kupffer and a PMNL fraction revealed that most of the agonist-induced O2- release was generated by infiltrating PMNL at this early time point of LPS infusion. By 30 h of LPS infusion, although enhancement of the phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- and opsonized zymosan-stimulated release of O2- was observed in the 45-ml/min fraction, but not in the 23-ml/min fraction, the maximum release of O2- was smaller than that observed in the rats treated for 3 h. Our results support the following conclusions: (i) after a 3-h LPS infusion, PMNL found in the liver in increased numbers are also highly primed for agonist-stimulated release of O2-, while Kupffer cell priming is of a lesser extent; (ii) after a 30-h infusion of LPS, infiltrating MNP found in the liver in increased numbers are primed for agonist-induced O2- release, while priming of PMNL has diminished; (iii) at both 3 and 30 h of LPS infusion, liver endothelial cells are not significantly primed for agonist-stimulated O2- release; and (iv) in vivo priming by LPS infusion at both 3 and 30 h was not reversed by the experimental method used for cell recovery (ca. 3 h), thus suggesting that in vivo LPS priming of O2- release may ultimately lead to severe impairment of liver function and metabolism observed during endotoxemia and sepsis if not therapeutically blocked at an early time point. PMID:1657786

  16. Contact activation of C3 enables tethering between activated platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes via CD11b/CD18

    PubMed Central

    Hamad, Osama A.; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Fromell, Karin; Kozarcanin, Huda; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D.; Ekdahl, Kristina N.; Nilsson, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Complement component C3 has a potential role in thrombotic pathologies. It is transformed, without proteolytic cleavage, into C3(H2O) upon binding to the surface of activated platelets. We hypothesise that C3(H2O) bound to activated platelets and to platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) contributes to platelet-PMN complex (PPC) formation and to the binding of PMPs to PMNs. PAR-1 activation of platelets in human whole blood from normal individuals induced the formation of CD16+/CD42a+ PPC. The complement inhibitor compstatin and a C5a receptor antagonist inhibited PPC formation by 50 %, while monoclonal antibodies to C3(H2O) or anti-CD11b inhibited PPC formation by 75–100 %. Using plasma protein-depleted blood and blood from a C3-deficient patient, we corroborated the dependence on C3, obtaining similar results after reconstitution with purified C3. By analogy with platelets, PMPs isolated from human serum were found to expose C3(H2O) and bind to PMNs. This interaction was also blocked by the anti-C3(H2O) and anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies, indicating that C3(H2O) and CD11b are involved in tethering PMPs to PMNs. We confirmed the direct interaction between C3(H2O) and CD11b by quartz crystal microbalance analysis using purified native C3 and recombinant CD11b/CD18 and by flow cytometry using PMP and recombinant CD11b. Transfectants expressing CD11b/CD18 were also shown to specifically adhere to surface-bound C3(H2O). We have identified contact-activated C3(H2O) as a novel ligand for CD11b/CD18 that mediates PPC formation and the binding of PMPs to PMNs. Given the various roles of C3 in thrombotic reactions, this finding is likely to have important pathophysiological implications. PMID:26293614

  17. Severe microvascular injury induced by lysosomal releasates of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Increase in vasopermeability, hemorrhage, and microthrombosis due to degradation of subendothelial and perivascular matrices.

    PubMed Central

    Movat, H. Z.; Wasi, S.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nature of the lesions in the microcirculation of the dermis of rabbits induced with lysosomal releasates of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). No attempt was made in the studies presented in this publication to deal with the offending agent in the releasate. Four parameters of microvascular injury were quantitated: increase in vascular permeability with 125I-labeled serum albumin, hemorrhage with 59Fe-labeled erythrocytes, accumulation (aggregation) of platelets with 111In-labeled platelets. In one experiment accumulation of 51Cr-PMNs was investigated. The lysosomal releasate induced a rapid increase in vasopermeability, but both hemorrhage and exudate formation peaked 1 hour after intradermal injection. Platelet accumulation was also demonstrable in these lesions, and microthrombosis was a very prominent feature. The microvascular injury, including microthrombosis, could be elicited also in animals rendered leukopenic with nitrogen mustard. Simultaneous injection of prostaglandin E2 with the releasate enhanced the microvascular injury. The morphologic changes in the microcirculation of the rabbit's dermis were assessed in lesions 5 minutes to 5 hours old. Several changes were encountered, primarily in the wall of venules and small veins and to a lesser degree in small arteries and capillaries. Ultrastructurally very early lesions (up to 15 minutes) had gaps or spaces in the endothelium, resembling those induced by mediators such as histamine or bradykinin. Older lesions were different, quite characteristic, and represent the hallmark of these lesions. Lysis and disappearance of vascular basement membrane, of perivascular collagen, and of the internal elastic lamina were a frequent finding, best demonstrable when microthrombi did not abut on vessel walls. Cellular components of vessels (endothelium, pericytes, smooth muscle) showed fragmentation, leading to complete disappearance of cellular elements. These lesions were usually walled off by platelet aggregates and fibrin. At times microthrombi occluded an entire vessel. These changes were interpreted as hemostasis. The mild accumulation of PMNs at the site of injury did not contribute significantly to the microvascular injury. The findings indicate that the unique changes in the microcirculation, not described before, may occur quite frequently, when the microvascular injury is elicited primarily by release of lysosomal constituents by phagocytic or nonphagocytic stimuli. One can conclude that the hallmark of this type of injury is disappearance of basement membrane followed secondarily by disintegration of the vascular wall, followed in turn by hemo Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:3907363

  18. Modified Leukocyte Filter Removes Tumor Cells from the Salvaged Blood

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Fengjiang; Gong, Lina; Sun, Kai; Zhang, Jie; Tang, Yumin; Jiang, Chunling; Liu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Intraoperative blood salvage, an effective blood conservation strategy, has not been applied in onco-surgery, because of potential malignant cell contamination. In this study we tested effectiveness of a modified leukocyte depletion filter (M-LDF) for removal of tumor cells. Materials and Methods The effects of M-LDF and regular LDF on removal of cells (HepG2 cell line) were compared. The safety of M-LDF was tested with blood (collected and washed during onco-surgery), the salvaged blood mixed with tumor cells from the solid tumor of the same patient, or mixed with HepG2 cells (n=30 in each protocol). Cancer cells were identified by flow cytometry, culture and bioassay with and without filtration. Results M-LDF removed 5-log of HepG2 and nucleated cells, which was much higher than regular LDF, and cells were destroyed when they passed through M-LDF. Cytokeratin-positive cells in all samples were removed by M-LDF. Invasive growth adherent cells were found in most of unfiltered samples and 67% of the inoculated nude mice developed tumors in LDF-treated sample. Neither adherent cells nor nude mice developed tumors were found in M-LDF-treated samples. Discussion and Conclusion Since M-LDF can effectively remove and destroy cancer cells in the salvaged blood, it has great potential for clinical application. PMID:26098626

  19. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood leukocytes by laser scanning cytometry.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, A; Laffers, W; Bootz, F; Tárnok, A

    2000-12-01

    Many clinical situations demand repeated analyses of blood parameters but permit only minimal amounts of peripheral blood to be taken, e.g., in neonates with low birth weight, during extensive operations of young children, or in patients with restricted bone marrow function. In these cases laser scanning cytometry is the ideal tool to determine the distribution of different leukocyte-subsets. The purpose of this protocol is to describe stepwise a new method of immunophenotyping by laser scanning cytometry. In this assay nuclear DNA is stained by 7-aminoactinomycin-D (7-AAD) and surface antigens are detected by direct three-colour immunofluorescence. For data acquisition, measurements are triggered on the 7-AAD-fluorescence. Data are obtained for forward scatter, green, orange, and long red fluorescence by excitation with the argon-laser, and for far red fluorescence by excitation with the helium-neon-laser. Using this protocol the amount of peripheral blood needed is minimised to 10 microl. Specimens can be stained a second time in a different way and analysed repeatedly and archived. PMID:11121558

  20. Goat cathelicidin-2 is secreted by blood leukocytes regardless of lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    PubMed

    Srisaikham, Supreena; Suksombat, Wisitiporn; Yoshimura, Yukinori; Isobe, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    It has been reported that goat cathelicidin-2, an antimicrobial peptide, localizes in leukocytes and is present in milk. Here, we examined whether cathelicidin-2 is secreted by leukocytes. Different concentrations (10(5) -10(8) cells/mL) of blood leukocytes were cultured for 0-48 h with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After culture, the concentrations of cathelicidin-2 in the conditioned media were measured. Blood was collected from male goats 0-24 h after the intravenous injection of Escherichia coli O111:B4 LPS. The plasma cathelicidin-2 concentrations were determined and the blood leukocytes immunostained with anti-cathelicidin-2 antibody to calculate the proportion of cathelicidin-2-positive cells in the total leukocytes. When higher concentrations of leukocytes were cultured, the cathelicidin-2 concentrations in the media increased significantly, whereas the addition of LPS to the media caused no further increase. The plasma cathelicidin-2 concentrations did not increase with time after LPS infusion. The proportion of cathelicidin-2-positive cells in the total leukocytes was significantly reduced 1 h after LPS injection compared with that at 0 h, but increased again at 6 h and thereafter. These results suggest that cathlicidin-2 is secreted by leukocytes even without LPS stimulation, whereas LPS may be required for cathelicidin-2-containing leukocytes to be recruited from the blood to tissues showing inflammation. PMID:26212721

  1. Seasonal variation of peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica: a population based observational study

    PubMed Central

    Rehkopf, David H; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis; Lin, Jue; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length is increasingly being used as a biomarker of aging, but its natural variation in human populations is not well understood. Several other biomarkers show seasonal variation, as do several determinants of leukocyte telomere length. We examined whether there was monthly variation in leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica, a country with strong seasonal differences in precipitation and infection. Methods We examined a longitudinal population based cohort of 581 Costa Rican adults age 60 and above, from which blood samples were drawn between October 2006 and July 2008. Leukocyte telomere length was assayed from these samples using the quantitative PCR method. Multivariate regression models were used to examine correlations between month of blood draw and leukocyte telomere length. Results Telomere length from peripheral blood leukocytes varied by as much as 200 base pairs depending on month of blood draw, and this difference is not likely to be due to random variation. A moderate proportion of this association is statistically accounted for by month and region specific average rainfall. We found shorter telomere length associated with greater rainfall. Conclusions There are two possible explanations of our findings. First, there could be relatively rapid month-to-month changes in leukocyte telomere length. This conclusion would have implications for understanding the natural population dynamics of telomere length. Second, there could be seasonal differences in constituent cell populations. This conclusion would suggest that future studies of leukocyte telomere length use methods to account for the potential impact of constituent cell type. PMID:24615938

  2. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluts, A. A.; Gapeyev, A. B.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kosareva, O. G.; Matyunin, S. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Pashovkin, T. N.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 - 200 μW cm-2 within the frequency range of 0.1 - 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes.

  3. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P; Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N; Matyunin, S N; Nazarov, M M; Cherkasova, O P

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 μW cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  4. Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

    1984-11-01

    To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.

  5. Red blood cells initiate leukocyte rolling in postcapillary expansions: a lattice Boltzmann analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chenghai; Migliorini, Cristiano; Munn, Lance L

    2003-07-01

    Leukocyte rolling on the vascular endothelium requires initial contact between leukocytes circulating in the blood and the vessel wall. Although specific adhesion mechanisms are involved in leukocyte-endothelium interactions, adhesion patterns in vivo suggest other rheological mechanisms also play a role. Previous studies have proposed that the abundance of leukocyte rolling in postcapillary venules is due to interactions between red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes as they enter postcapillary expansions, but the details of the fluid dynamics have not been elucidated. We have analyzed the interactions of red and white blood cells as they flow from a capillary into a postcapillary venule using a lattice Boltzmann approach. This technique provides the complete solution of the flow field and quantification of the particle-particle forces in a relevant geometry. Our results show that capillary-postcapillary venule diameter ratio, RBC configuration, and RBC shape are critical determinants of the initiation of cell rolling in postcapillary venules. The model predicts that an optimal configuration of the trailing red blood cells is required to drive the white blood cell to the wall. PMID:12829477

  6. Genotoxic effect of ozone in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Daz-Llera, Silvia; Gonzlez-Hernndez, Yanela; Prieto-Gonzlez, E A; Azoy, Angel

    2002-05-27

    The genotoxic effect of ozone was studied in human leukocytes in vitro, using the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. Cell treatment for 1 h at 37 degrees C with 0.9-5.3 mM O(3) resulted in a dose-dependent increase of DNA damage, comparable to that induced by 4-40 mM of H(2)O(2), used as a positive control. This effect of ozone was reversed by post-treatment incubation of the cells for 45-90 min at 37 degrees C, and prevented by pre-incubation of the cells with catalase (20 microg/ml). These results demonstrate that O(3) induces DNA-damage in primary human leukocytes. The damage is rapidly repaired, and probably mediated by the formation of H(2)O(2). PMID:12034304

  7. Report: Nuclei segmentation of leukocytes in blood smear digital images.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naveed; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2015-09-01

    The Leukocytes are differentiated from each other on the basis of their nuclei, demanded in many Medical studies, especially in all types of Leukemia by the Hematologists to note the disorder caused by specific type of Leukocyte. Leukemia is a life threatening disease. The work for diagnosing is manually carried out by the Hematologists involving much labor, time and human errors. The problems mentioned are easily addressed through computer vision techniques, but still accuracy and efficiency are demanded in terms of the basic and challenging step segmentation of Leukocyte's nuclei. The underlying study proposed better method in terms of accuracy and efficiency by designing a dynamic convolution filter for boosting low intensity values in the separated green channel of an RGB image and suppressing the high values in the same channel. The high values in the green channel become 255 (background) while the nuclei always have low values in the green channel and thus clearly appear as foreground. The proposed technique is tested on 365 images achieving an overall accuracy of 95.89%, while improving the efficiency by 10%. The proposed technique achieved its targets in a realistic way by improving the accuracy as well as the efficiency and both are highly required in the area. PMID:26408877

  8. Characterization of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes by light-scattering flow cytometry.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, F I; Williams, T J; el-Awar, F Y; Pang, V F; Hahn, E C

    1987-01-01

    As a basis for other experiments using flow cytometry of porcine peripheral blood leukocytes, cell fractions were isolated by various methods and analyzed by forward angle light scatter and 90 degree light scatter. Cytospin smears of cell samples were also studied by leukocyte differential counts and nonspecific esterase staining. Three main populations of peripheral blood leukocytes [lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes (primarily neutrophils)], were defined in the log 90 degree light scatter by forward angle light scatter histogram. Partial overlap was observed between lymphocyte and monocyte, and between monocyte and granulocyte domains. Correlation between leukocyte differential counts and flow cytometric quantification based on bitmap statistics of appropriate domains was between r = 0.872-0.892 for lymphocyte and granulocyte. Percoll density gradients were used for subfractionation of leukocyte populations, especially for the enrichment of granulocytes. The specific densities were calculated for lymphocytes (1.0585-1.0819 g/cc), monocytes (1.0585-1.0702 g/cc), granulocyte (1.0819-1.0936 g/cc), and erythrocytes (greater than 1.0952 g/cc). We suggest that light scatter characterization is a basis for future studies of porcine blood by flow cytometry. PMID:3453262

  9. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  10. Long Telomeres in Blood Leukocytes Are Associated with a High Risk of Ascending Aortic Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Huusko, Tuija J.; Santaniemi, Merja; Kakko, Sakari; Taskinen, Panu; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesäniemi, Y. Antero; Savolainen, Markku J.; Salonurmi, Tuire

    2012-01-01

    Ascending aortic aneurysm is a connective tissue disorder. Even though multiple novel gene mutations have been identified, risk profiling and diagnosis before rupture still represent a challenge. There are studies demonstrating shorter telomere lengths in the blood leukocytes of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients. The aim of this study was to measure whether relative telomere lengths are changed in the blood leukocytes of ascending aortic aneurysm patients. We also studied the expression of telomerase in aortic tissue samples of ascending aortic aneurysms. Relative lengths of leukocyte telomeres were determined from blood samples of patients with ascending aortic aneurysms and compared with healthy controls. Telomerase expression, both at the level of mRNA and protein, was quantified from the aortic tissue samples. Mean relative telomere length was significantly longer in ascending aortic aneurysm blood samples compared with controls (T/S ratio 0.87 vs. 0.61, p<0.001). Expressions of telomerase mRNA and protein were elevated in the aortic aneurysm samples (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Our study reveals a significant difference in the mean length of blood leukocyte telomeres in ascending aortic aneurysm and controls. Furthermore, expression of telomerase, the main compensating factor for telomere loss, is elevated at both the mRNA and protein level in the samples of aneurysmal aorta. Further studies will be needed to confirm if this change in telomere length can serve as a tool for assessing the risk of ascending aortic aneurysm. PMID:23209831

  11. EFFECTS OF THE MAMMARY GLAND ON FUNCTIONAL CAPACITIES OF BLOOD MONOCULEAR LEUKOCYTE POPULATIONS FROM PERIPARTURIENT COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The composition and functional capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte populations from dairy cows are altered substantially during the peripartal period. These changes are associated with a heightened susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. It has been postulated that the met...

  12. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C. )

    1990-10-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count.

  13. Laser-induced priming of human blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichuk, Tatyana V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Strashkevich, I. A.; Klebanov, Gennady I.

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the influence of He-Ne ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm) laser irradiation (LI) on a functional activity of human blood leucocytes. The method of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with the zymosan-activated phagocytes was used. The leucocytes were irradiated without and in the presence of autologic human blood plasma, containing of the endogenous (porphyrins) and/or exogenous (phthalocyanine) photosensitizers. The LI initiated a priming of the leucocytes. Priming revealed itself after the activation of the phagocytes by zymosan. The changes of the calcium concentration in leucocytes cytoplasm were studied too. Fluorimetric method with Fura-2AM was used for this. The laser irradiation initiated the changes of the calcium concentration in the leucocytes cytoplasm. All the investigating parameters depended on the irradiation dose and on the concentration of photosensitizers. The results of this work allowed to formulate the main theses of the free radical mechanism of the low intensive laser irradiation action on human blood leucocytes.

  14. Interferon and tumor necrosis factor production by peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, T; Kandefer-Szerszeń, M; Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Rzeszowska, G; Markowska, H; Modrzewska, R

    1996-01-01

    Blood samples from 29 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM) in phases of acute disease and convalescence were obtained. Interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) activity was detected in sera of patients both in: acute and convalescence phase, however when IFN titers were higher in the acute than convalescence phase, TNF titers were the highest in convalescence. In the whole blood assay Newcastle disease virus (NDV), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as cytokine inducers. A significant decrease in IFN titer induced in vitro with NDV, PHA and ConA was observed in blood leukocytes of patients in the acute IM phase. In convalescence the ability of blood leukocyte of IM patients to produce IFN returned to normal, comparable with control. However, blood leukocytes of IM patients in the acute phase produced more TNF in response to LPS than in convalescence. The role of the observed overproduction of TNF in the course of IM similar to that in HIV infection should be elucidated. PMID:9017151

  15. The effect of acupuncture on leukocyte levels in peripheral blood is modified by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Vilchis, José Federico; Barrera-Escorcia, Eduardo; Fregoso-Padilla, Martha

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that acupuncture can modify circulating levels of subpopulations of leukocytes. There have been few investigations on the effect of acupuncture on prostaglandins metabolism. Aspirin is capable of inhibiting the metabolism of prostaglandins and to produce several pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior administration of aspirin could modify the action of acupuncture on levels of circulating leukocytes. Fourteen healthy males (age: 19-23 years) were recruited from a university student population. This study was a placebo-controlled, prospective, cross-over design. Subjects were randomly assigned into A or B groups. Group A received aspirin 500 mg and group B placebo, after 1 week of a washout period, group A received placebo and group B aspirin. Subjects were given acupuncture with manual needling in GV14 (Dazhui) acupoint 2 hr after receiving medication. The needle was stimulated for 10 sec and was kept in place for 5 min. Leukocytes and their subpopulations were quantified in blood samples taken immediately before and 2 hr after acupuncture treatment. In each subject pre-acupuncture values were compared to those post-acupuncture. The results showed that acupuncture significantly increased overall leukocytes (p=0.006) and neutrophils (p<0.001). Aspirin partially inhibited these effects. The data suggest that the effect of acupuncture on leukocytes may be related to levels of prostaglandins. PMID:22128425

  16. Cellular softening mediates leukocyte demargination and trafficking, thereby increasing clinical blood counts.

    PubMed

    Fay, Meredith E; Myers, David R; Kumar, Amit; Turbyfield, Cory T; Byler, Rebecca; Crawford, Kaci; Mannino, Robert G; Laohapant, Alvin; Tyburski, Erika A; Sakurai, Yumiko; Rosenbluth, Michael J; Switz, Neil A; Sulchek, Todd A; Graham, Michael D; Lam, Wilbur A

    2016-02-23

    Leukocytes normally marginate toward the vascular wall in large vessels and within the microvasculature. Reversal of this process, leukocyte demargination, leads to substantial increases in the clinical white blood cell and granulocyte count and is a well-documented effect of glucocorticoid and catecholamine hormones, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that alterations in granulocyte mechanical properties are the driving force behind glucocorticoid- and catecholamine-induced demargination. First, we found that the proportions of granulocytes from healthy human subjects that traversed and demarginated from microfluidic models of capillary beds and veins, respectively, increased after the subjects ingested glucocorticoids. Also, we show that glucocorticoid and catecholamine exposure reorganizes cellular cortical actin, significantly reducing granulocyte stiffness, as measured with atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, using simple kinetic theory computational modeling, we found that this reduction in stiffness alone is sufficient to cause granulocyte demargination. Taken together, our findings reveal a biomechanical answer to an old hematologic question regarding how glucocorticoids and catecholamines cause leukocyte demargination. In addition, in a broader sense, we have discovered a temporally and energetically efficient mechanism in which the innate immune system can simply alter leukocyte stiffness to fine tune margination/demargination and therefore leukocyte trafficking in general. These observations have broad clinically relevant implications for the inflammatory process overall as well as hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and homing. PMID:26858400

  17. Yogurt: effect on leukocytes and blood coagulation in an acute liver injury model.

    PubMed

    Haro, Cecilia; Lazarte, Sandra; Zelaya, Hortensia; Alvarez, Susana; Agüero, Graciela

    2009-08-01

    This study determined whether cow or goat yogurt administration has a preventive effect on the hepatic damage undergone during an acute liver injury. Acute liver injury was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine. Groups of mice were fed with cow or goat yogurt for 2 days or 7 days before the d-galactosamine injection. Blood and liver samples were obtained 12 hours after d-galactosamine inoculation. d-Galactosamine induced an increase in serum amino-transaminases, a reduction in the number of blood leukocytes, an enhancement in neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity, a recruitment of leukocytes toward the liver, an increase in cell death, and an alteration in prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and fibrinogen levels. Treatment with cow or goat yogurt was effective at increasing leukocyte number and decrease myeloperoxidase activity. We also observed a decrease in leukocyte accumulation in the liver and a reduction in cell death. Activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen were normalized, but prothrombin time only showed an improvement without reaching normal values. Cow or goat yogurts were effective at protecting against an experimental acute liver injury, especially when administered for 7 days. PMID:19735179

  18. Quantitation of acute experimental ocular inflammation with /sup 111/indium-leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, E.L. Jr.; Cole, P.W.; Cruse, V.K.; Pollycove, M.

    1988-03-01

    The cellular component of an acute ocular inflammation in rabbits was measured with autologous leukocytes exogenously labeled with /sup 111/Indium tropolonate. Inflammation was induced by intravitreal bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After 16 hr blood was removed, leukocytes separated, labeled with /sup 111/Indium tropolonate and reinjected. Three cell fractions were examined: a leukocyte rich fraction which had been prepared with Dextran; and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocyte fractions which had been prepared using a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Two hours after labeled leukocytes were injected, measurements of /sup 111/Indium were made in blood, plasma, the whole eye and in ocular compartments. From these data the numbers of each leukocyte population present were estimated and compared directly to histopathologic changes. Both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes entered ocular tissues during the 2 hr period beginning 20 hr after LPS injection. Altered ocular vascular permeability was successfully measured with /sup 125/Iodine-albumin in some of these same rabbits. Both the number and type of inflammatory cell entering ocular tissues during a set period of time of the inflammatory response could thus be measured. This technique provides an opportunity to define the relationship of leukocyte infiltration and altered ocular vascular permeability in ocular tissues during the inflammatory response.

  19. Red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients awaiting kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Silvia Fernandes Ribeiro; Ferreira, Gláucia Maria; da Silva, Sonia Leite; Alves, Tânia Maria de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Ilana Farias; Ribeiro, Thyciana Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Maria do Carmo Serpa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the rates of red blood cell and leukocyte alloimmunization in patients with chronic kidney disease awaiting kidney transplantation. Methods In this cross-sectional and prospective study, the serum of 393 chronic kidney disease patients on a transplant waiting list in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil were tested for red cell and leukocyte antibodies. In addition, demographic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Results The average age in the sample of 393 patients was 34.1 ± 14 years. Slightly more than half (208; 52.9%) were male. The average numbers of transfusions and gestations were 3.1 ± 3.3 and 1.6 ± 6, respectively. One third (33.6%) were alloimmunized: 78% with leukocyte antibodies, 9.1% with red cell antibodies and 12.9% with both. Red cell antibodies were detected in 29 cases (7.4%), 17 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001). The most frequently detected red cell antibodies belonged to the Rh (24.1%) and Kell (13.8%) blood group systems. Leukocyte antibodies were detected in 30.5% of cases, 83 of whom were women, who had received more transfusions than the males (p-value < 0.0001) and were more reactive to panel reactive antibodies (p-value < 0.0001). The mean alloreactivity to panel reactive antibodies was 47.7 ± 31.2%. Conclusion Chronic kidney disease patients on the transplant waiting list in Ceará, Brazil, display high rates of red cell (7.4%) and leukocyte (30.5%) alloimmunization. In this sample, alloimmunization was significantly associated with the number of transfusions and gender. PMID:23904808

  20. Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with childhood autism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zongchang; Tang, Jinsong; Li, Hong; Chen, Shan; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Wei, Zhen; Wan, Guobin; Xiang, Xi; Xia, Kun; Chen, Xiaogang

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are protective chromosomal structures that play a key role in preserving genomic stability. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the abnormal telomere length in leukocytes is associated with some mental disorders and age-related diseases. However, the association between leukocyte telomere length and autism has not been investigated. Here we investigated the possible association between relative telomere length (RTL) in peripheral blood leukocytes and childhood autism by using an established real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We observed significantly shorter RTL in patients with childhood autism than in controls (p = 0.006). Individuals with shorter RTL had a significantly increased presence of childhood autism compared with those who had long RTL. In patients, we found that family training interventions have a significant effect on telomere length (P = 0.012), but no correlations between RTL and clinical features (paternal age, maternal age, age of onset, illness of duration, CARS score and ABC score) were observed in this study. These results provided the first evidence that shorter leukocytes telomere length is significantly associated with childhood autism. The molecular mechanism underlying telomere length may be implicated in the development of autism. PMID:25399515

  1. Reduced Responsiveness of Blood Leukocytes to Lipopolysaccharide Does not Predict Nosocomial Infections in Critically Ill Patients.

    PubMed

    van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Scicluna, Brendon P; Belkasim-Bohoudi, Hakima; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Critically ill patients show signs of immune suppression, which is considered to increase vulnerability to nosocomial infections. Whole-blood stimulation is frequently used to test the function of the innate immune system. We here assessed the association between whole-blood leukocyte responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent occurrence of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). All consecutive critically ill patients admitted to the ICU between April 2012 and June 2013 with two or more systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and an expected length of ICU stay of more than 24 h were enrolled. Age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were included as controls. Blood was drawn the first morning after ICU admission and stimulated ex vivo with 100 ng/mL ultrapure LPS for 3 h. Tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 were measured in supernatants. Seventy-three critically ill patients were included, of whom 10 developed an ICU-acquired infection. Compared with healthy subjects, whole-blood leukocytes of patients were less responsive to ex vivo stimulation with LPS, as reflected by strongly reduced tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in culture supernatants. Results were not different between patients who did and those who did not develop an ICU-acquired infection. The extent of reduced LPS responsiveness of blood leukocytes in critically ill patients on the first day after ICU admission does not relate to the subsequent development of ICU-acquired infections. These results argue against the use of whole-blood stimulation as a functional test applied early after ICU admission to predict nosocomial infection. PMID:25895151

  2. Biophysical Description of Multiple Events Contributing Blood Leukocyte Arrest on Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Philippe; Touchard, Dominique; Bongrand, Pierre; Pierres, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Blood leukocytes have a remarkable capacity to bind to and stop on specific blood vessel areas. Many studies have disclosed a key role of integrin structural changes following the interaction of rolling leukocytes with surface-bound chemoattractants. However, the functional significance of structural data and mechanisms of cell arrest are incompletely understood. Recent experiments revealed the unexpected complexity of several key steps of cell-surface interaction: (i) ligand-receptor binding requires a minimum amount of time to proceed and this is influenced by forces. (ii) Also, molecular interactions at interfaces are not fully accounted for by the interaction properties of soluble molecules. (iii) Cell arrest depends on nanoscale topography and mechanical properties of the cell membrane, and these properties are highly dynamic. Here, we summarize these results and we discuss their relevance to recent functional studies of integrin-receptor association in cells from a patient with type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency. It is concluded that an accurate understanding of all physical events listed in this review is needed to unravel the precise role of the multiple molecules and biochemical pathway involved in arrest triggering. PMID:23750158

  3. Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

    2001-05-01

    Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

  4. Whole blood leukocyte vs. separated mononuclear cell blastogenesis in calves: time-dependent changes after shipping.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, K W; Osborne, C A; Evermann, J F; Parish, S M; Hinrichs, D J

    1981-01-01

    The blastogenic response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to mitogenic stimulation by concanavalin A was lower (P less than 0.01) after transporting 60 dairy calves 480 km than it was either one or two weeks later. The response was similar for phytohemagglutinin. There was a decrease (P less than 0.05) in the number of peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils two weeks after shipping. The transportation of calves did not affect plasma IgG1 or IgM level. The mitogenic stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes by both phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A in whole blood cultures was more variable than with the culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Technique variation, which was defined as the coefficient of variation among quadruplicate cultures, was greater than 20% for while blood assays and less than 10% for cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The variation among different calves tested at the same time and the variation within single calves tested at different times were also lower in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures than in whole blood mononuclear cell cultures than in whole blood assays. It is suggested that the variation among replicate cultures be reported in blastogenesis studies. PMID:7340911

  5. Effects of spaceflight on the number of rat peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subsets.

    PubMed

    Allebban, Z; Ichiki, A T; Gibson, L A; Jones, J B; Congdon, C C; Lange, R D

    1994-02-01

    Experiments were carried out on peripheral blood leukocytes and spleen lymphocytes from 29 male rats that were flown during the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) nine-day mission on the shuttle Columbia in June 1991 and on appropriate ground controls. On the day of landing, there was a significant decrease in the total white blood cell counts (P < 0.0001) of flight animals in comparison to controls. There was also a significant decrease in the absolute number of lymphocytes (P < 0.0001) and monocytes (P < 0.0001) in the flight animals. A slight decrease in the absolute number of eosinophils and a slight increase in the number of neutrophils were observed at landing, compared with preflight values. Immunophenotyping of the peripheral blood and spleen lymphocytes of flight and control animals indicated that, on the day of landing, there was a decrease in the absolute number of CD4 and CD8 positive cells and B lymphocytes. However, relative percentages of peripheral blood CD4+, CD8+, and B cells were not found to be depressed. No differences were discerned in the percent reactivity of spleen lymphocytes of flight animals compared with controls. The observed decrease in the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes at the immediate postflight period was transient and all values returned to the control levels by nine days postflight. PMID:8301218

  6. The influence of carbamazepine on cytokine and superoxide anion production in blood leukocytes of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Marmurowska-Michałowska, Halina; Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna; Dubas-Slemp, Halina

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether carbamazepine (CBZ) may influence in vitro cytokine and superoxide anion (O2-) production by blood leukocytes of healthy volunteers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were induced in vitro with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) + lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the absence or presence of CBZ. Cytokine concentration in culture media was measured by ELISA method. The influence of CBZ on resting (not induced) and phorbol ester (PMA)-induced O2- production by neutrophils isolated from the blood of healthy volunteers was also examined. CBZ at 1 microM concentration caused a significant decrease in IL-2, IL-4 and lymphotoxin, but enhanced IL-10 and TGF-beta production. CBZ also stimulated PMA-induced O2- production. In conclusion, the in vitro study revealed that CBZ may exert immunoregulatory activity inhibiting "stimulatory" cytokines, enhancing the production of "inhibitory" ones and enhancing the "oxidative burst" of neutrophils. PMID:16146078

  7. Comparative rheology of the adhesion of platelets and leukocytes from flowing blood: why are platelets so small?

    PubMed

    Watts, Tim; Barigou, Mostafa; Nash, Gerard B

    2013-06-01

    We investigated rheological adaptation of leukocytes and platelets for their adhesive functions in inflammation and hemostasis, respectively. Adhesion and margination of leukocytes or platelets were quantified for blood perfused through capillaries coated with P-selectin or collagen, when flow rate, suspending phase viscosity, red cell aggregation, or rigidity was modified. Independent variation of shear rate and shear stress indicated that the ability of platelets to attach at higher levels than leukocytes was largely attributable to their smaller size, reducing their velocity before attachment, and, especially, drag after attachment. Increasing red cell aggregation increased the number of marginated and adhering leukocytes but inhibited platelet adhesion without effect on the number marginated. Increasing red cell rigidity tended to inhibit leukocyte adhesion but promote platelet adhesion. The effects on platelets may be explained by changes in the depth of the near-wall, red cell-depleted layer; broadening (or narrowing) this layer to greater (or less) than the platelet diameter would decrease (or increase) the normal force applied by red blood cells and make attachment less (or more) efficient. Thus different adhesive capabilities of leukocytes and platelets may arise from their differences in size, both directly because of influence on cell velocity and force experienced at the wall and indirectly through effects of size on margination in the bloodstream and interaction with the cell-free layer. In addition, red cell aggregation (of hitherto uncertain physiological significance) may be useful in promoting leukocyte adhesion in inflamed venules but inhibiting unwanted platelet deposition in veins. PMID:23585130

  8. Effects of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody infusion on blood leukocytes in cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Gridley, D.S.; Slater, J.M.; Stickney, D.R. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a single infusion of radiolabelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) on peripheral blood leukocytes in cancer patients. Eleven patients with disseminated colon cancer, malignant melanoma, or lung adenocarcinoma were infused with 111In-labelled anti-ZCE 025, anti-p97 type 96.5c, or LA 20207 MAb, respectively. Blood samples were obtained before infusion, immediately after infusion (1 hr), and at 4 and 7 days postinfusion. Flow cytometry analysis of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD19+ lymphocytes showed increasing CD4:CD8 ratios in seven patients after infusion. This phenomenon was not restricted to antibody subclass or to type of cancer. Two of the remaining patients exhibited a marked post-infusion increase in CD8+ cells. In all three patients with malignant melanoma, decreasing levels of CD16+ lymphocytes were noted after infusion and natural killer cell cytotoxicity showed fluctuations which paralleled the changes in the CD16+ subpopulation. Oxygen radical production by phagocytic cells was markedly affected in three subjects. These results suggest that a single infusion of radiolabelled murine MAb may alter the balance of critical lymphocyte subpopulations and modulate other leukocyte responses in cancer patients.

  9. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  10. Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

  11. Dengue viruses and mononuclear phagocytes. II. Identity of blood and tissue leukocytes supporting in vitro infection.

    PubMed

    Halstead, S B; O'Rourke, E J; Allison, A C

    1977-07-01

    Studies were made on the identity of human and monkey mononuclear leukocytes permissive to antibody-enhanced dengue 2 virus (D2V) infection. In cultures of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) inoculated immediately after separation, it was concluded that only mononuclear phagocytes support dengue infection. This is based upon observations that D2V-permissive cells were resistant to 1,200 rads, were both plastic adherent and nonadherent, were removed when passed through nylon wool columns in 10 percent fetal bovine serum or 100 percent autologous serum, and were destroyed by incubation with 100 mug/ml particulate silica. On direct immunofluorescence staining, perinuclear dengue antigen was visualized at 24 h, becoming maximal at 60 h. Antigen-containing cells had ample cytoplasm, ruffled cytoplasmic membrane, and 73 percent were actively phagocytic. As further evidence of the infection of mononuclear phagocytes, antibody-enhanced D2V replication was observed in bone marrow cultures from five of five rhesus monkeys, but not in cell cultures of spleen, thymus, or lymph nodes prepared from the same animals. It is hypothesized that dengue virus complexed with non-neutralizing antibody is internalized by immune phagocytosis in a mononuclear phagocyte with a defective virus-destroying mechanism. Dengue permissiveness may depend upon cellular immaturity since bone marrow leukocytes could be infected even when held for 4 days before infection while PBL held for this time decreased in permissiveness. In vitro antibody-dependent infection of mononuclear phagocytes should prove useful as a model for study of immunopathologic mechanisms in human dengue. PMID:195000

  12. Sildenafil prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats: role of leukocyte adherence and gastric blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Camila L; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Gomes, Antoniella S; Lemos, Henrique P; Santos, Armênio A; Cunha, Fernando Q; Wallace, John L

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of gastric mucosal defense. Sildenafil (SILD), a cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, promotes an increase in cGMP concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. cGMP mediates many of the biological actions of NO.We tested the hypothesis that SILD could increase mucosal defense against indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats.SILD (1, 4 or 10 mg kg−1, p.o.) pretreatment significantly reduced (P<0.01) the gastric damage and the increase in gastric myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity elicited by indomethacin (20 mg kg−1 p.o.), with the maximal effect at the dose of 10 mg kg−1.L-NAME (3, 10 or 20 mg kg−1, i.p.) dose dependently reversed the protective effects of SILD, an effect not seen when L-arginine (L-ARG) (200 mg kg−1, i.p.) was co-administered with L-NAME.Indomethacin-induced leukocyte adhesion, assessed by intravital microscopy, was decreased (P<0.01) by SILD, and this effect was reversed by L-NAME cotreatment.Indomethacin elicited a decrease in gastric blood flow and in gastric PGE2 levels. SILD was able to prevent the decrease in gastric blood flow (P<0.01), without diminishing the inhibitory effect of indomethacin on prostaglandin synthesis.These results indicate that SILD, acting via NO-dependent mechanisms, prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy, possibly through a reduction of leukocyte adhesion and maintenance of gastric blood flow. PMID:16113693

  13. Role of nitric oxide in tumor microcirculation. Blood flow, vascular permeability, and leukocyte-endothelial interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Fukumura, D.; Yuan, F.; Endo, M.; Jain, R. K.

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to define the role of nitric oxide (NO) in tumor microcirculation, through the direct intravital microcirculatory observations after administration of NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor and NO donor both regionally and systemically. More specifically, we tested the following hypotheses: 1) endogenous NO derived from tumor vascular endothelium and/or tumor cells increases and/or maintains tumor blood flow, decreases leukocyte-endothelial interactions, and increases vascular permeability, 2) exogenous NO can increase tumor blood flow via vessel dilatation and decrease leukocyte-endothelial interactions, and 3) NO production and tissue responses to NO are tumor dependent. To this end, a murine mammary adenocarcinoma (MCaIV) and a human colon adenocarcinoma (LS174T) were implanted in the dorsal skinfold chamber in C3H and severe combined immunodeficient mice, respectively, and observed by means of intravital fluorescence microscopy. Both regional and systemic inhibition of endogenous NO by N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mumol/L superfusion or 10 mg/kg intravenously) significantly decreased vessel diameter and local blood flow rate. The diameter change was dominant on the arteriolar side. Superfusion of NO donor (spermine NO, 100 mumol/L) increased tumor vessel diameter and flow rate, whereas systemic injection of spermine NO (2.62 mg/kg) had no significant effect on these parameters. Rolling and stable adhesion of leukocytes were significantly increased by intravenous injection of L-NAME. In untreated animals, both MCaIV and LS174T tumor vessels were leaky to albumin. Systemic NO inhibition significantly attenuated tumor vascular permeability of MCaIV but not of LS174T tumor. Immunohistochemical studies, using polyclonal antibodies to endothelial NOS and inducible NOS, revealed a diffuse pattern of positive labeling in both MCaIV and LS174T tumors. Nitrite and nitrate levels in tumor interstitial fluid of MCaIV but not of LS174T were significantly higher than that in normal subcutaneous interstitial fluid. These results support our hypotheses regarding the microcirculatory response to NO in tumors. Modulation of NO level in tumors is a potential strategy for altering tumor hemodynamics and thus improving oxygen, drug, gene vector, and effector cell delivery to solid tumors. Images Figure 5 PMID:9033284

  14. Assessment of malathion and its effects on leukocytes in human blood samples

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Tiwari, Udita; Gaur, Mulayam Singh; Tiwari, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the present paper, we report a reproducible, cost effective, fast response method for detection of malathion and its effects on leukocytes in different human blood groups. Spectroscopic methods (UV-Vis spectrometry) and Fourier transform infrared coupled with solid phase extraction were applied for analyzing malathion content in human blood plasma. The spiking levels of malathion in the range of 0.1-1.7 µg/mL were extracted from blood plasma samples using SPE. The present active functional groups (C = O; P-O-C; -OH; P = S) were also characterized. The recovery rate of malathion was 80%±4.5%. The calculated correlation coefficient was 0.9799, indicating the linearity of the results. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were (0.1-1.7) µg/mL and (0.3-1.5) µg/mL, respectively. Malathion <1.0 µg/mL showed no significant change while higher levels of malathion exposure (1.5 µg/mL and 3.0 µg/mL) reduced the number of white blood cells. In conclusion, the spectroscopic results may be useful to understand the mechanism of other pesticides such as methyl parathion and parathion.

  15. Methods for axolotl blood collection, intravenous injection, and efficient leukocyte isolation from peripheral blood and the regenerating limb.

    PubMed

    Debuque, Ryan J; Godwin, James W

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate immune system comprises both adaptive and innate immune cells with distinct functions during the resolution of inflammation and wound healing after tissue injury. Recent evidence implicates a requirement for innate immune cells from the myeloid lineage during the early stages of limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl. Understanding the functions of innate and adaptive immune cells in the axolotl has been hampered by a lack of approaches to isolate and analyze these cells. Here we describe a protocol to isolate myeloid cells from the regenerating axolotl limb that incorporates intravenous delivery of physiological labels. In addition we provide a protocol to enrich for leukocytes in the peripheral blood. These protocols produce single-cell suspensions that can be analyzed using flow cytometry or sorted into specific subsets using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS is a routine approach to sort cells based on their physical characteristics as well as their cell surface antigen repertoire. Isolated cell populations can then be analyzed in a wide range of downstream assays to facilitate a greater understanding of leukocyte biology in the axolotl. PMID:25740489

  16. Immune modulation of blood leukocytes in humans by lactic acid bacteria: criteria for strain selection.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, E J; Brassart, D; Servin, A L; Rochat, F; Donnet-Hughes, A

    1997-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria in food can transiently colonize the intestine and exert beneficial effects (probiotic). Survival during intestinal transit or adhesion to epithelium or both seem to be important for modifying the host's immune reactivity. Because Lactobacillus acidophilus strain La1 is adherent to enterocytes in vitro, we hypothesize that contact with immune cells may occur in vivo. However, Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb12, which shows high fecal colonization, is another potential immunomodulator. Twenty-eight volunteers were divided into two groups and given a fermented product containing one of the two strains. Lymphocyte subsets and leukocyte phagocytic activity were studied in blood. No modifications were detected in lymphocyte subsets. In contrast, phagocytosis of Escherichia coli ssp. was enhanced in both groups (P < 0.001 for both). Bacterial adhesion to enterocytes, fecal colonization, or both seem to be valuable selection criteria for immunomodulation. Antiinfective mechanisms of defense can be enhanced after ingestion of specific lactic acid bacteria strains. PMID:9250141

  17. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes and the aggressiveness of localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Huakang; Gu, Jian; Meng, Qing H.; Kim, Jeri; Davis, John W.; He, Yonggang; Wagar, Elizabeth A.; Thompson, Timothy C.; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether low mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in peripheral blood leukocytes at diagnosis was associated with an increased risk of the aggressive form of the tumor and disease progression among localized prostate cancer (PCa) patients. We recruited 1,751 non-Hispanic white men with previously untreated PCa from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. mtDNAcn was categorized into three groups according to tertiles. We used multivariate logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association of mtDNAcn with the risk of having aggressive PCa at diagnosis. We used Cox proportional hazards model to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for disease progression. We observed an inverse association between aggressiveness of PCa and mtDNAcn (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, compared to patients in the highest tertile of mtDNAcn, those in the second and lowest tertiles had significantly increased risks of presenting with the high-risk form of PCa, as defined by the D'Amico criteria, with ORs of 1.33 (95% CI, 0.89–1.98; P = 0.17) and 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02–2.30; P = 0.04), respectively. Furthermore, PCa patients in the lowest and second tertiles combined relative to those in the highest tertile had a 56% increased risk of disease progression (HR, 1.56; 95% CI, 0.96–2.54; P = 0.07). In summary, our results suggested that low mtDNAcn in peripheral blood leukocytes was associated with aggressive PCa at diagnosis and might further predict poor progression-free survival among localized PCa patients. PMID:26515605

  18. Mitochondrial DNA 4977-base pair common deletion in blood leukocytes and melanoma risk.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Wan, Jie; Huff, Chad; Fang, Shenying; Lee, Jeffrey E; Zhao, Hua

    2016-05-01

    The 4977-base pair common deletion DmtDNA4977 is the most frequently observed mitochondrial DNA mutation in human tissues. Because mitochondrial DNA mutations are mainly caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), and given that oxidative stress plays an important role in melanoma carcinogenesis, the investigation of DmtDNA4977 may be particularly relevant to the development of melanoma. In this study, we compared DmtDNA4977 levels in blood leukocytes from 206 melanoma patients and 219 healthy controls. Overall, melanoma cases had significantly higher levels of DmtDNA4977 than healthy controls (median: 0.60 vs 0.20, P = 0.008). The difference was evident among individuals who were older than 47 yrs, women, and had pigmentation risk factors (e.g., blond or red hair, blue eye, fair skin, light, or none tanning ability after prolonged sun exposure, and freckling in the sun as a child). The difference was also evident among those who had at least one lifetime sunburn with blistering and had no reported use of a sunlamp. Interestingly, among controls, DmtDNA4977 levels differed by phenotypic index and reported use of a sunlamp. In the risk assessment, increased levels of DmtDNA4977 were associated with a 1.23-fold increased risk of melanoma (odds ratio (OR): 1.23, 95% confidence interval (90% CI): 1.01, 1.50). A significant dose-response relationship was observed in quartile analysis (P = 0.001). In summary, our study suggests that high levels of DmtDNA4977 in blood leukocytes are associated with increased risk of melanoma and that association is affected by both pigmentation and personal history of sun exposure. PMID:26988264

  19. Age gene expression and coexpression progressive signatures in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Irizar, Haritz; Goñi, Joaquín; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Olascoaga, Javier; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Otaegui, David

    2015-12-01

    Both cellular senescence and organismic aging are known to be dynamic processes that start early in life and progress constantly during the whole life of the individual. In this work, with the objective of identifying signatures of age-related progressive change at the transcriptomic level, we have performed a whole-genome gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in a group of healthy individuals with ages ranging from 14 to 93 years. A set of genes with progressively changing gene expression (either increase or decrease with age) has been identified and contextualized in a coexpression network. A modularity analysis has been performed on this network and biological-term and pathway enrichment analyses have been used for biological interpretation of each module. In summary, the results of the present work reveal the existence of a transcriptomic component that shows progressive expression changes associated to age in peripheral blood leukocytes, highlighting both the dynamic nature of the process and the need to complement young vs. elder studies with longitudinal studies that include middle aged individuals. From the transcriptional point of view, immunosenescence seems to be occurring from a relatively early age, at least from the late 20s/early 30s, and the 49-56 year old age-range appears to be critical. In general, the genes that, according to our results, show progressive expression changes with aging are involved in pathogenic/cellular processes that have classically been linked to aging in humans: cancer, immune processes and cellular growth vs. maintenance. PMID:26362218

  20. Effects of spaceflight on rat peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichiki, A. T.; Gibson, L. A.; Jago, T. L.; Strickland, K. M.; Johnson, D. L.; Lange, R. D.; Allebban, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The white blood cell (WBC) elements and the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cell populations were analyzed to ascertain adaptation to micro-gravity and subsequent readaptation to 1 G in rats flown on the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission. Bone marrow cells were harvested from one group of rats killed inflight (FD13) and blood was drawn from three other groups at various times. The WBC level was normal on FD14 with the exception of neutrophilia. On FD13, numbers of colony-forming units-granulocyte (CFU-G), CFU-GM, and CFU-M from flight animals were decreased compared with ground controls when incubated with recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) alone or in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo). On recovery (R + 0), flight rats had decreased numbers of total leukocytes and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes with elevated neutrophils compared with control rats. They had lower numbers of CD4, CD8, CD2, CD3, and B cells in the peripheral blood but no differences in spleen lymphocytes.

  1. Characterization of peripheral blood and pulmonary leukocyte function in healthy foals.

    PubMed

    Flaminio, M J; Rush, B R; Davis, E G; Hennessy, K; Shuman, W; Wilkerson, M J

    2000-03-15

    Studies in infants and foals indicate an age-dependent maturation of peripheral lymphocyte subsets. The age-dependent relationship for maturation of cellular immune responses, such as phagocytosis and lymphocyte responses of the peripheral and pulmonary-derived leukocytes, has not been characterized in foals. Lymphocyte subpopulations, mitogen stimulation response of lymphocytes, lymphokine-activated killing cell activity, phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity, and serum immunoglobulin (Ig) classes G and M concentrations were determined in developing foals. This study illustrates age-dependent changes in immunoglobulin class concentrations, lymphocyte subsets, and EqMHC Class II expression in cells of the peripheral blood and lungs of developing neonatal-to-weanling foals. The increase in peripheral blood and BAL B-lymphocytes and serum immunoglobulins in developing foals suggests expansion of immune cell populations during a time in which environmental pathogen exposure is great. General immune function, mitogenic responses, LAK cell activity, opsonized phagocytosis, and oxidative burst activity of newborns was similar to the adult horse. Total immune-cell numbers, rather than function, seemed to be the limiting factor in the development of the equine neonatal immune system. There was an age-related percent increase in the appearance of pulmonary lymphocytes, but a percent decrease in macrophages. Although development of the respiratory immune system follows changes in the peripheral blood, cellular expansion, activation, and migration may occur at a slower pace, making the respiratory environment susceptible to pathogens prior to optimal immune system maturity. PMID:10713340

  2. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  3. Red blood cells are a sink for interleukin 8, a leukocyte chemotaxin.

    PubMed

    Darbonne, W C; Rice, G C; Mohler, M A; Apple, T; Hébert, C A; Valente, A J; Baker, J B

    1991-10-01

    IL-8 (also known as neutrophil-activating peptide 1) is recognized as a potent effector of neutrophil functions. Several different cell types that contact blood, namely T lymphocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells, secrete this polypeptide following stimulation by cytokines, or lipopolysaccharide. Here we show that when IL-8 is added to blood it rapidly partitions from the plasma fluid to the blood cells and that erythrocytes account for the vast majority of this binding. Analysis of 125I-IL-8 binding [( ala-IL-8]77 form) to human red cells indicates a single, 5 nM Kd affinity class of binding sites, present at approximately 2,000 per red cell representing approximately 15 nmol of red cell IL-8 binding sites per liter of blood. These sites are protease sensitive. Their binding of IL-8 is rapidly reversible and does not result in receptor internalization, although bound IL-8 is resistant to extraction by pH 3 buffer at 5 degrees C. 125I-IL-8 binding to red cells was not inhibited by epidermal growth factor or interleukin 1, but was inhibited by monocyte chemotactic peptide-1, which is not a neutrophil chemotaxin, but is a member of the same family of polypeptides as IL-8. FACS analysis of IL-8-mediated mobilization of Ca2+ in neutrophils indicates that the IL-8 bound to red cells is incapable of stimulating neutrophils. Thus, red cell absorption of IL-8 may function to limit stimulation of leukocytes by IL-8 released into blood. PMID:1918386

  4. Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Is Associated with Severity of Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Udomsinprasert, Wanvisa; Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Vejchapipat, Paisarn; Zhan, Dong; Honsawek, Sittisak

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with the severity of biliary atresia (BA). Methods One hundred and fourteen BA patients and 114 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Relative telomere length (RTL) was assessed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate RTL as an independent risk factor of BA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to calculate the accuracy of biomarkers in the prediction of liver cirrhosis. Results BA patients had significantly shorter telomeres than healthy controls (p < 0.0001). The RTL in BA patients with jaundice was considerably lower than that of patients without jaundice (p = 0.005). Moreover, RTL was markedly shorter in patients with cirrhosis (F4), as compared to patients with mild fibrosis (F2) and non-fibrosis (F0-F1, p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that short RTL was associated with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis in BA. Tertile analysis showed a dose-response effect for this association (p trend < 0.0001). Additionally, RTL in BA children revealed a negative correlation with age (r = -0.50, p < 0.001). We noted an association between reduction of RTL and liver stiffness scores, adjusted for age and gender (b = -0.01, p < 0.0001). Short RTL can be employed to distinguish cirrhosis patients from non-cirrhosis patients (AUC = 0.78). Further analysis showed a linear correlation between leukocyte RTL and liver RTL in BA patients (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study provide evidence that telomere shortening is associated with an elevated risk of liver cirrhosis in BA. PMID:26230851

  5. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 μg /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  6. Effect of supplemental vitamin E on the peripheral blood leukocyte population in Japanese Black calves

    PubMed Central

    OTOMARU, Konosuke; SAITO, Shun; ENDO, Karura; KOHIRUIMAKI, Masayuki; OHTSUKA, Hiromichi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of supplemental vitamin E on the peripheral blood leukocyte population in Japanese Black calves. Twenty-six calves kept at the same farm were studied. They were divided into two groups; thirteen calves received 300 IU/day of vitamin E orally from 1 to 3 months of age (VE group), and the other thirteen calves did not receive the vitamin E supplement (control group). The VE group showed a higher serum vitamin E concentration at 2 and 3 months of age compared with the control group (P<0.01). The numbers of CD3+ cells and CD4+ cells were higher in the VE group than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant at 3 months of age (P<0.05). The numbers of CD21+ cells were higher in the VE group than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant at 2 months of age (P<0.05). The numbers of CD335+ cells tended to be higher in the VE group than in the control group. The numbers of CD8+ cells and CD14+ cells tended to be higher in the VE group than in the control group at 3 and 4 months of age. This study demonstrated that the supplementation of suckling Japanese Black calves with vitamin E might affect the numbers of some immune cell types in the peripheral blood. PMID:25843744

  7. Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.

    PubMed

    Chaira, Tamalika

    2014-06-01

    In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear. PMID:24792441

  8. Hypermethylation of gene promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes in humans long term after radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, Nina S; Lapteva, Nellya Sh; Rubanovich, Alexander V

    2016-04-01

    Some human genes known to undergo age-related promoter hypermethylation. These epigenetic modifications are similar to those occurring in the course of certain diseases, e.g. some types of cancer, which in turn may also associate with age. Given external genotoxic factors may additionally contribute to hypermethylation, this study was designed to analyzes, using methylation-sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the CpG island hypermethylation in RASSF1A, CDKN2A (including p16/INK4A and p14/ARF) and GSTP1 promoters in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals exposed to ionizing radiation long time ago. One hundred and twenty-four irradiated subjects (24-77 years old at sampling: 83 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant clean-up workers, 21 nuclear workers, 20 residents of territories with radioactive contamination) and 208 unirradiated volunteers (19-77 years old at sampling) were enrolled. In addition, 74 non-exposed offspring (2-51 years old at sampling) born to irradiated parents were examined. The frequency of individuals displaying promoter methylation of at least one gene in exposed group was significantly higher as compared to the control group (OR=5.44, 95% CI=2.62-11.76, p=3.9×10(-7)). No significant difference was found between the frequency of subjects with the revealed promoter methylation in the group of offspring born to irradiated parents and in the control group. The increase in the number of methylated loci of RASSF1A and p14/ARF was associated with age (β=0.242; p=1.7×10(-5)). In contrast, hypermethylation of p16/INK4A and GSTP1 genes correlated with the fact of radiation exposure only (β=0.290; p=1.7×10(-7)). The latter finding demonstrates that methylation changes in blood leukocytes of healthy subjects exposed to radiation resemble those reported in human malignancies. Additional studies are required to identify the dose-response of epigenetic markers specifically associating with radiation-induced premature aging and/or with the development of age-associated cancer and non-cancer diseases. PMID:26708527

  9. Blood leukocyte DNA hypomethylation and gastric cancer risk in a high-risk Polish population.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lifang; Wang, Hao; Sartori, Samantha; Gawron, Andrew; Lissowska, Jolanta; Bollati, Valentina; Tarantini, Letizia; Zhang, Fang Fang; Zatonski, Witold; Chow, Wong-Ho; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-10-15

    Global hypomethylation has been shown to increase genome instability potentially leading to increased cancer risk. We determined whether global methylation in blood leukocyte DNA was associated with gastric cancer in a population-based study on 302 gastric cancer cases and 421 age- and sex-matched controls in Warsaw, Poland, between 1994 and 1996. Using PCR-pyrosequencing, we analyzed methylation levels of Alu and LINE-1, 2 CG-rich repetitive elements, to measure global methylation levels. Gastric cancer risk was highest among those with lowest level of methylation in either Alu (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.9) or LINE-1 (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 0.9-2.0) relative to those with the highest levels, although the trends were not statistically significant. For Alu, the association was stronger among those aged 70 or older (OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.5, p for interaction = 0.02). We did not observe meaningful differences in the associations by other risk factors and polymorphisms examined. For LINE-1, the association tended to be stronger among individuals with a family history of cancer (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.4-7.0, p for interaction = 0.01), current alcohol drinkers (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.0-3.6, p for interaction = 0.05), current smokers (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.6, p for interaction = 0.02), those who rarely or never consumed fruit (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2-8.1, p for interaction = 0.03), CC carriers for the MTRR Ex5+123C>T polymorphism (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.2-4.4, p for interaction = 0.01) and TT carriers for the MTRR Ex15+572T>C polymorphism (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.0-2.8, p for interaction = 0.06). The association was not different by sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, intake of folate, vitamin B6 and total protein and the remaining polymorphisms examined. Our results indicate that interactions between blood leukocyte DNA hypomethylation and host characteristics may determine gastric cancer risk. PMID:20099281

  10. Dysregulated 14-3-3 Family in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Qing, Ying; Sun, Liya; Yang, Chao; Jiang, Jie; Yang, Xuhan; Hu, Xiaowen; Cui, Donghong; Xu, Yifeng; He, Lin; Han, Dongmei; Wan, Chunling

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family, which is composed of seven distinct members in humans, plays important roles in the cell cycle, apoptosis, synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation and migration. Previous genetic and post-mortem gene expression studies have linked this family to schizophrenia. However, the direction of gene expression changes in these studies has been inconsistent, and reports of 14-3-3 gene expression in living schizophrenic patients are still lacking. Here, we assessed 14-3-3 gene and protein expression levels in peripheral blood leukocytes from drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenic patients and matched controls. mRNA and protein expression levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and UPLC-MRM/MS, respectively. Expression analysis revealed four downregulated and one upregulated mRNA transcripts as well as five downregulated protein levels of 14-3-3 isoforms in schizophrenia. Moreover, significant positive correlations between 14-3-3 mRNA and protein expression levels were found in schizophrenia, and we also identified negative correlations between ε, θ and ζ isoform expression levels and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Our results suggest that gene and protein expression levels for the 14-3-3 family are dysregulated in schizophrenia, perhaps owing to specific regulatory mechanisms, and we also suggest that expression of the 14-3-3ε, θ and ζ isoform genes could be useful indicators of disease severity. PMID:27030512

  11. Dysregulated 14-3-3 Family in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Qing, Ying; Sun, Liya; Yang, Chao; Jiang, Jie; Yang, Xuhan; Hu, Xiaowen; Cui, Donghong; Xu, Yifeng; He, Lin; Han, Dongmei; Wan, Chunling

    2016-01-01

    The 14-3-3 family, which is composed of seven distinct members in humans, plays important roles in the cell cycle, apoptosis, synaptic plasticity and neuronal differentiation and migration. Previous genetic and post-mortem gene expression studies have linked this family to schizophrenia. However, the direction of gene expression changes in these studies has been inconsistent, and reports of 14-3-3 gene expression in living schizophrenic patients are still lacking. Here, we assessed 14-3-3 gene and protein expression levels in peripheral blood leukocytes from drug-naïve first-episode schizophrenic patients and matched controls. mRNA and protein expression levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and UPLC-MRM/MS, respectively. Expression analysis revealed four downregulated and one upregulated mRNA transcripts as well as five downregulated protein levels of 14-3-3 isoforms in schizophrenia. Moreover, significant positive correlations between 14-3-3 mRNA and protein expression levels were found in schizophrenia, and we also identified negative correlations between ε, θ and ζ isoform expression levels and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Our results suggest that gene and protein expression levels for the 14-3-3 family are dysregulated in schizophrenia, perhaps owing to specific regulatory mechanisms, and we also suggest that expression of the 14-3-3ε, θ and ζ isoform genes could be useful indicators of disease severity. PMID:27030512

  12. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W.; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-γ. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection. PMID:26646682

  13. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-γ. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection. PMID:26646682

  14. Estimation of human age according to telomere shortening in peripheral blood leukocytes of Tibetan.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fu; Li, Changyong; Xi, Huanjiu; Wen, Youfeng; Huang, Keqiang

    2009-09-01

    In most normal somatic cells, the terminal restriction fragments (TRF) length and age are inversely correlated, which can be used to determine individual age. However, very little is known about the quantitative relationship between human telomeres and age. The aim of the present study was to investigate age-, gender-, and ethnicity-related changes in telomere length in human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). Changes with age in telomere lengths were assessed by Southern blotting. The results shown that telomeres shorten in human PBLs in an age-dependent manner (r = -0.913, P < 0.01). The formula for age estimation according to telomere shortening was Y = -16.539X + 236.287 (Y: age, year; X: mean TRF length, kb). We analyzed the mean TRF length in males and females and found that males had shorter telomeres than females. Moreover, we compared the TRF length of Tibetan and Han population in China and found that telomere length did not differ between 2 populations. We conclude that estimation of human age according to telomere shortening in PBLs is a novel method especially when there is no morphologic information, furthermore, the gender must be considered when age estimation is carried out based on telomere shortening. PMID:19696580

  15. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:25748163

  16. Lower mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes increases the risk of endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhui; Zhang, Liren; Ho, Simon S; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are the primary source of energy generation in human cells. Low mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) has been associated with obesity and increased risks of several cancers. Since obesity is a significant risk factor for endometrial cancer, we hypothesize that low mtDNA copy number in PBLs is associated with an increased susceptibility to endometrial cancer. Using a Caucasian case-control study, we measured mtDNA copy number in PBLs from 139 endometrial cancer patients and 139 age-matched controls and determined the association of mtDNA copy number with the risk of endometrial cancer using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The normalized mtDNA copy number was significantly lower in endometrial cancer cases (median, 0.84; range, 0.24-2.00) than in controls (median, 1.06; range, 0.64-1.96) (P < 0.001). Dichotomized into high and low groups based on the median mtDNA copy number value in the controls, individuals with low mtDNA copy number had a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (adjusted OR, 5.59; 95%CI, 3.05-10.25; P < 0.001) compared to those with high mtDNA copy number. There was a significant dose-response association in tertile analysis. In addition, there was a significant joint effect between lower mtDNA copy number and never smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity in elevating the risk of endometrial cancer. Low mtDNA copy number in PBLs is significantly associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer in Caucasians. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26258624

  17. Differential Expression of Intracellular and Extracellular CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Protein by Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda, Julie T.; Harui, Airi; Kiertscher, Sylvia M.; Roth, Jeffrey D.; Roth, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    mRNA encoding for the CB2 cannabinoid receptor is expressed by many subsets of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), but little is known about the resulting protein expression and function. Employing clones from the A549 and 293T cell lines that were constructed to express both full-length human CB2 and GFP, we developed a flow cytometry assay for characterizing CB2 protein expression. A monoclonal antibody directed against human CB2 selectively stained the surface of transduced but not parental cell lines. When cells were fixed and permeabilized, imaging flow cytometry identified large stores of intracellular protein. Total cellular staining for CB2 corresponded closely with the level of GFP expression. When exposed to Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CB2-expressing cells internalized cell surface CB2 receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Applying these approaches to human PBL, CB2 protein was identified on the surface of human B cells but not on T cells or monocytes. In contrast, when PBL were fixed and permeabilized, intracellular CB2 expression was readily detected in all three subsets by both conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Similar to the protein expression pattern observed in fixed and permeabilized PBL, purified B cells, T cells, and monocytes expressed relatively equal levels of CB2 mRNA by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our findings confirm that human PBL express CB2 protein but that its distribution is predominantly intracellular with only B cells expressing CB2 protein at the extracellular membrane. The differential role of intracellular and extracellular CB2 receptors in mediating ligand signaling and immune function remains to be determined. PMID:23299999

  18. The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Rafat, Navid; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Shahidi, Maryam; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi

    2016-01-01

    The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap %) was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0) and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24) by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:27051171

  19. The modulating effect of royal jelly consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Rafat, Navid; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Shahidi, Maryam; Pourfallah, Tayyeb Allahverdi

    2016-01-01

    The present work was designed to assess the radioprotective effect of royal jelly (RJ) against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. In this study, peripheral blood samples were obtained on days 0, 4, 7, and 14 of the study from six healthy male volunteers taking a 1000 mg RJ capsule orally per day for 14 consecutive days. On each sampling day, all collected whole blood samples were divided into control and irradiated groups which were then exposed to the selected dose of 4 Gy X-ray. Percentage of apoptotic cells (Ap %) was evaluated for all samples immediately after irradiation (Ap0) and also after a 24 h postirradiation incubation at 37°C in 5% CO2 (Ap24) by the use of neutral comet assay. Concerning Ap0, collected data demonstrated that the percentage of apoptotic cells in both control and irradiated groups did not significantly change during the study period. However, with respect to Ap24, the percentage of apoptotic cells in irradiated groups gradually reduced during the experiment, according to which a significant decrease was found after 14 days RJ consumption (P = 0.002). In conclusion, the present study revealed the protective role of 14 days RJ consumption against radiation-induced apoptosis in human peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:27051171

  20. Leukocyte, red blood cell and morphological adaptation to moderate physical training in rats undernourished in the neonatal period

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Perez, Manuella Cavalcanti; Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Gilberto de Freire; de Castro, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the impact of moderate physical exercise on the total and differential leukocyte counts and red blood cell count of 36 sixty-day-old adult male Wistar rats subjected to early malnourishment. Methods The rats were divided in nourished (N - casein 17%) and malnourished groups (M - casein 8%) and thesegroups were then subdivided in trained (T) untrained (U) creating four groups NT, NU, MT and MU. The NT and MTgroups were submitted to moderate physical exercise using a treadmill (60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Onthe 1st day, before the training started T0 and 24 hours after the last training day of the week (T1 until T8), a 1 mLaliquot of blood was collected from the animals' tails for analysis. The total leukocyte count was evaluated in a cellcounter with an electronic microscope. The cyanmethemoglobin technique was used to measure the hemoglobin level. The hematocrit values were determined as a percentage using the micro-hematocrit technique with a microcapillaryreader and a cell counter was used to determine the red blood cell count. The t-test was used for statistical analysis and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Results There was a significant difference in the total leukocyte count between the NT (9.1 ± 0.1) and MT groups (8.0 ± 0.1) from T1 and in neutrophils between the NT (22.1 ± 0.6) and MT groups (24.6 ± 1.8) from T7 (p < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in the hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count from T1. Conclusions According to the results of this study, moderate physical exercise seems to have induced physiologic adaptation in adult rats from T1. PMID:23049442

  1. Expression profile of interferon tau-stimulated genes in ovine peripheral blood leukocytes during embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Kose, M; Kaya, M S; Aydilek, N; Kucukaslan, I; Bayril, T; Bademkiran, S; Kiyma, Z; Ozyurtlu, N; Kayis, S A; Guzeloglu, A; Atli, M O

    2016-04-01

    Early and efficient detection of embryonic death (ED) has a valuable impact as important as early pregnancy diagnosis in ruminants. Among early pregnancy diagnosis methods, detection of the expression of interferon tau-stimulated genes (ISGs) in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) is well documented in cows and ewes. Therefore, we hypothesized that the expression profile of ISGs in PBLs might also be useful for detecting ED in these animals. For this purpose, pregnant ewes were used as an experimental model. Pregnancy was detected on Day 18 after mating by transrectal ultrasonography. Pregnant ewes were divided into a control group (sham injection on Day 18, n = 10) and ED group (treated with 75 μg synthetic PGF2α on Day 18, n = 12). PBLs and plasma were collected on Days 0 (mating day), 15, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23, and 25 by jugular venipuncture. Total RNA was isolated from PBLs. ISGs expression levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction in triplicate. Electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was used to measure progesterone (P4) levels in plasma. In the ED group, the P4 level declined to less than 1 ng/mL on Day 19 and remained at a low level until the end of the study. Compared with that on Day 0, receptor transporter protein 4 (RTP4) and ISG15 expression was upregulated on Day 15 and remained high until Day 21 in both groups, and RTP4 and ISG15 mRNA levels were attenuated on Days 23 and 25 only in the ED group (P < 0.001). Myxovirus resistance 1 expression was upregulated on Day 15 and remained high until Day 23 in both groups, but was attenuated on Day 25 in the ED group (P < 0.05). The B2-microglobulin mRNA level did not change significantly during the study in either group. These results indicate that the decline in P4 concentration was an immediate response to PGF2α and that the embryo may have survived longer than the CL on the basis of the extended period of ISGs expression. This suggests that the absence of P4 could be the reason for ED rather than a direct effect of PGF2α. In conclusion, the expression of ISGs, including ISG15, RTP4, and myxovirus resistance 1, but not B2-microglobulin, in PBLs may serve as a marker of ED. PMID:26748865

  2. Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S

    PubMed Central

    žilinskas, Juozas; žekonis, Jonas; žekonis, Gediminas; Šadzevičienė, Renata; Sapragonienė, Marija; Navickaitė, Justina; Barzdžiukaitė, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10−4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients. PMID:21525811

  3. Flow cytometric characterizations of leukocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of northern pig-tailed macaques (Macaca leonina)

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, Hong-Yi; ZHANG, Ming-Xu; ZHANG, Lin-Tao; ZHANG, Xiao-Liang; PANG, Wei; LYU, Long-Bao; ZHENG, Yong-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemistrina group) have been extensively used as non-human primate animal models for various human diseases in recent years, notably for AIDS research due to their sensitivity to HIV-1. Northern pig-tailed macaques (M. leonina) are distributed in China and other surrounding Southeast Asia countries. Although northern pig-tailed macaques have been bred on a large scale as experimental animals since 2012, the reference value of normal levels of leukocytes is not available. To obtain such information, 62 blood samples from male and female healthy northern pig-tailed macaques at different ages were collected. The normal range of major leukocyte subpopulations, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, and the expression levels of activation or differentiation related molecules (CD38, HLA-DR, CCR5, CD21, IgD, CD80 and CD86) on lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The counts of B cells decreased with age, but those of CD8+ T cells and NK cells and the frequency of CD38+HLA-DR+CD4+ T cells were positively correlated with age. The counts of leukocyte subpopulations were higher in males than those in females except for CD4+ T cells. Males also showed higher expression levels of IgD and CD21 within B cells. This study provides basic data about the leukocyte subpopulations of northern pig-tailed macaques and compares this species with commonly used Chinese rhesus macaques (M. mulatta), which is meaningful for the biomedical application of northern pig-tailed macaques. PMID:25465082

  4. Longitudinal Frequencies of Blood Leukocyte Subpopulations Differ between NOD and NOR Mice but Do Not Predict Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Telieps, Tanja; Köhler, Meike; Treise, Irina; Foertsch, Katharina; Adler, Thure; Busch, Dirk H.; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Verschoor, Admar; Adler, Kerstin; Bonifacio, Ezio; Ziegler, Anette-Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Immune phenotyping provides insight into disease pathogenesis and prognostic markers. Trajectories from age of 4 to 36 weeks were modeled for insulin autoantibodies and for leukocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood from female NOD (n = 58) and NOR (n = 22) mice. NOD mice had higher trajectories of insulin autoantibodies, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, IgD+IgM− B lymphocytes, and NK cells and lower trajectories of CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes, IgM+ B lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes than NOR mice (all p < 0.001). Of these, only the increased IAA trajectory was observed in NOD mice that developed diabetes as compared to NOD mice that remained diabetes-free. Therefore, the profound differences in peripheral blood leukocyte proportions observed between the diabetes-prone NOD mice and the diabetes-resistant mice do not explain the variation in diabetes development within NOD mice and do not provide markers for diabetes prediction in this model. PMID:26966692

  5. The impact of HIV infection on blood leukocyte responsiveness to bacterial stimulation in asymptomatic patients and patients with bloodstream infection

    PubMed Central

    Huson, Michaëla A M; Hoogendijk, Arie J; de Vos, Alex F; Grobusch, Martin P; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-induced changes in cytokine responses to bacteria may influence susceptibility to bacterial infections and the consequent inflammatory response. Methods We examined the impact of HIV on whole blood responsiveness to bacterial stimulation in asymptomatic subjects and patients with bacterial bloodstream infection (BSI). Whole blood was stimulated ex vivo with two bacterial Toll-like receptor agonists (lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid) and two pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typhoidal Salmonella), which are relevant in HIV-positive patients. Production of interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 was used as a read-out. Results In asymptomatic subjects, HIV infection was associated with reduced interferon-γ, release after stimulation and priming of the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to non-typhoidal Salmonella. In patients with BSI, we found no such priming effect, nor was there evidence for more profound sepsis-induced immunosuppression in BSI patients with HIV co-infection. Conclusions These results suggest a complex effect of HIV on leukocyte responses to bacteria. However, in patients with sepsis, leukocyte responses were equally blunted in patients with and without HIV infection. PMID:27189532

  6. Development of methods to examine the effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zussman, Lisa Ann

    In vitro methods to study the effect of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on leukocyte function using human peripheral blood were developed. These methods were demonstrated using the blood of 1-5 individuals and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urban PM #1648, diesel PM #1650, silica PM, and a locally collected PM sample (New Jersey PM10). For the blood samples analyzed in this study NIST urban PM and New Jersey PM10 treatment mediated the release of granule contents from peripheral blood leukocytes and induced structural changes associated with degranulation. Flow cytometry revealed PM-induced changes in phagocytosis and cell structure associated with degranulation. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed NIST urban PM-induced cell structure changes were associated with PM internalization. Colorametric and electrophoretic methods showed no PM-induced release of primary granules and a slight PM-induced release of secondary granules associated with only NIST urban PM. Enzyme Immunosorbent Assays detected increased histamine release from basophils treated with NIST urban PM, a locally collected PM, and the soluble and insoluble components of these particles. NIST urban PM was found to be a potent inducer of histamine release in 4 out of 6 individuals tested. Fractionation studies revealed that soluble (aqueous) and insoluble fractions of NIST urban PM contain histamine-releasing activity. This was also demonstrated for the New Jersey PM10 sample for which the soluble fraction exhibited the most activity. Complementary studies with inhibitors of IgE-mediated histamine release conducted on one test subject suggest that PM-induced histamine release was partially mediated by IgE. A new hypothesis has been formed, suggesting that particle toxicity is related to PM-induced histamine release. Due to the bioactive nature of histamine and its association with many cardiopulmonary responses, the PM- mediated release of histamine should be investigated further.

  7. Effect of Very Low Dose Fast Neutrons on the DNA of Rats' Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Sherif S; Saeed, Abdu; Shaheen, Salem A; El Assouli, Sufian M; El Assouli, M-Zaki; Raouf, Gehan A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of very low dose fast neutrons on the chromatin and DNA of rats' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and leukocytes has been studied in the present work using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Fourteen female Wistar rats were used; seven were irradiated with neutrons of 0.9 cGy (Am-Be, 0.02 cGy h(-1)), and seven others were used as control. Second derivative and curve fitting were used to analyze the FTIR spectra. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify the group spectra. Meanwhile, the tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as indicators to sense the breaking and the level of damage in DNA. The analysis of FTIR spectra of the PBMC of the irradiated group revealed a marked increase in the area of phosphodiesters of nucleic acids and the area ratios of RNA/DNA and phosphodiesters/carbohydrates. A sharp significant increase and decrease in the areas of RNA and DNA ribose were recorded, respectively. In the irradiated group, leukocytes with different tail lengths were observed. The distributions of tail moments and the percentage of DNA in the tail of irradiated groups were heterogeneous. The mean value of the percentages of DNA in the tail at 0.5 h post-irradiation represented low-level damage in the DNA. Therefore, one can conclude that very low dose fast neutrons might cause changes in the DNA of PBMC at the submolecular level. It could cause low-level damage, double-strand break, and chromatin fragmentation of DNA of leukocytes. PMID:26606065

  8. Neisseria meningitidis and Escherichia coli are protected from leukocyte phagocytosis by binding to erythrocyte complement receptor 1 in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Brekke, Ole-Lars; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Christiansen, Dorte; Fure, Hilde; Castellheim, Albert; Nielsen, Erik Waage; Pharo, Anne; Lindstad, Julie Katrine; Bergseth, Grethe; Leslie, Graham; Lambris, John D.; Brandtzaeg, Petter; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-01-01

    The initial interaction of Gram-negative bacteria with erythrocytes and its implications on leukocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst in human whole blood were examined. Alexa-labeled Escherichia coli, wild-type H44/76 Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) and the H44/76lpxA lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-deficient mutant were incubated with whole blood using lepirudin as anticoagulant which has no adverse effects on complement. Bacteria free in plasma, bound to erythrocytes or phagocytized by granulocytes and monocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The effects of the C3 inhibitor compstatin, a C5a receptor antagonist (C5aRa) and a complement receptor 1 (CR1)-blocking antibody (3D9) were examined. Most bacteria (80%) immediately bound to erythrocytes. The binding gradually declined over time, with a parallel increase in phagocytosis. Complement inhibition with compstatin reduced erythrocyte binding and bacterial C3 opsonization. In contrast, the C5aRa efficiently reduced phagocytosis, but did not affect the binding of bacteria to erythrocytes. The anti-CR1 blocking mAb dose-dependently reduced bacterial binding to erythrocytes to nil, with subsequent increased phagocytosis and oxidative burst. LPS had no effect on these processes since similar results were obtained using an LPS-deficient N. meningitidis mutant. In vivo experiments in a pig model of sepsis showed limited binding of bacteria to erythrocytes, consistent with the facts that erythrocyte CR1 receptors are absent in non-primates and that the bacteria were mainly found in the lungs. In conclusion, complement-dependent binding of Gram-negative bacteria to erythrocyte CR1 decreases phagocytosis and oxidative burst by leukocytes in human whole blood. PMID:21839519

  9. Effects of immunoglobulin binding on signal transduction in bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulins are major molecules that mediate humoral immune responses. Their functional effects on leukocytes are mediated by the cell surface receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulins (FcR). Ligation of FcR on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is capable of triggering a wide rang...

  10. Camel lactoferrin markedly inhibits hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection of human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Redwan, El-Rashdy M; Tabll, Ashraf

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a serious worldwide health risk and, to date, no effective treatments to prevent progression to chronic infection have been discovered. To combat the disease, Egyptian patients often use traditional medicines, for instance, camel milk, which contains lactoferrin. Currently, lactoferrin is one of the primary biopharmaceutical drug candidates against HCV infection. Camel lactoferrin (cLf) purification and biochemical and immunological characterization have shown its similarity to human and bovine lactoferrin, and crossreacts with the anti-human lactoferrin antibody. Incubation of human leukocytes with cLf then infected with HCV did not prevent the HCV entry into the cells, while the direct interaction between the HCV and cLf leads to a complete virus entry inhibition after seven days incubation. Our results suggest that the cLf may be one of the camel milk components having antiviral activity. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the potential for cLf to inhibit HCV entry into human leukocytes with more efficiency than human or bovine lactoferrin. PMID:17613672

  11. The effects of oil exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes and splenic melano-macrophage centers of Gulf of Mexico fishes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad Omar; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Ford, Lorelei; Dail, Mary Beth; Pruett, Stephen; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2014-02-15

    In August and November 2010 we collected and examined peripheral blood and tissues from three species of Gulf of Mexico fish. Findings were compared to non-exposed control fish. The leukocyte counts of exposed alligator gar were not significantly different from controls, while exposed Gulf killifish and sea trout had significantly decreased lymphocyte counts. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) values from sea trout were significantly greater than control sea trout EROD values, suggesting poly aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Splenic melano-macrophage centers (MMCs) from exposed sea trout and Gulf killifish showed a significant increase in number compared to non-exposed fish. Sea trout splenic MMCs were also significantly greater in size. These findings suggest that Gulf fish sampled were exposed to crude oil from the Macondo well and were in a lymphopenic or immuno-compromised state. PMID:24405733

  12. Quantitative analysis of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sedeño-Monge, Virginia; Arcega-Revilla, Raúl; Rojas-Morales, Emmanuel; Santos-López, Gerardo; Perez-García, Juan Carlos; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Solis-Morales, Casandra Lucrecia; Aguilar-Rosas, Salvador; Reyes-Leyva, Julio

    2014-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a triad of inflammation, demyelination and gliosis. Because the suppressors of cytokine signaling (Socs) regulate the immune response, we quantified SOCS1 and SOCS3 transcription in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with MS. SOCS1 transcription decreased significantly in MS patients compared with neurologically healthy persons (0.08±0.02 vs. 1.02±0.23; p=0.0001); while SOCS3 transcription increased in MS patients compared with controls (2.76±0.66 vs. 1.03±0.27; p=0.0008). Our results showed an imbalance of SOCS1 and SOCS3 transcription in MS patients, and a moderated negative correlation between them (Spearman's r=-0.57; p=0.0003). PMID:24951315

  13. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Hypertensive Children Is Associated with the Severity of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gackowska, Lidia; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Trojanek, Joanna; Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Niemirska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Michalkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether peripheral blood leukocyte adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) protein expression patterns (flow cytometry) differ between the primary hypertension children (n = 57) and healthy controls (n = 19) and if their expression levels are related to selected clinical parameters. The group of 26 patients [AdipoR(−)] showed lower and the group of 31 patients [AdipoR(+)] showed higher AdipoRs protein expression than the control and each other (P < 0.01 for neutrophils, P < 0.05 for monocytes). The AdipoR(+) leukocytes expressed higher AdipoR1 mRNA levels (RT-PCR) than AdipoR(−) ones and controls (P = 0.022 and P = 0.007, resp.). Despite greater BMI, the AdipoR(−) patients had unchanged serum adiponectin levels. In contrast, AdipoR(+) patients had lower serum adiponectin concentrations than the AdipoR(−) ones and controls (P < 0.001). The AdipoR(+) patients had higher blood pressure (P = 0.042) and greater carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.017) than the AdipoR(−) ones. The stage of hypertension was associated with increased neutrophil but not monocyte AdipoR1 density (AdipoR1 MFI) (P < 0.05). Severe ambulatory hypertension was presented more often in AdipoR(+) patients than in AdipoR(−) ones (51.6% versus 26.9%, resp.; P < 0.01). In conclusion, neutrophil AdipoRs upregulation was associated with early stages of vascular injury, hypertension severity, and low serum levels of adiponectin. PMID:26146630

  14. PrPSc Is Not Detected in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Scrapie-Infected Sheep: Determining the Limit of Sensitivity by Immunohistochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from scrapie-infected sheep were evaluated for the presence of PrPSc using dissociated retropharyngeal lymph node cells (DRLN) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrPSc positive cells were detected in 2.05% with a variance of .28% of 3,000,000DRLN cells but were not de...

  15. IL-6 blockade reverses the abnormal STAT activation of peripheral blood leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M A; Diaz-Torné, C; Hernández, M V; Reina, D; de la Fuente, D; Castellví, I; Moya, P; Ruiz, J M; Corominas, H; Zamora, C; Cantó, E; Sanmartí, R; Juarez, C; Vidal, S

    2015-06-01

    Considering the interplay of multiple STATs in response to cytokines, we investigated how IL-6 and its blocking affect STAT signaling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Leukocytes obtained from RA patients before and after tocilizumab treatment and healthy donors (HDs) were cytokine-stimulated and STAT phosphorylation was analyzed by cytometry. RA patients had significantly fewer pSTAT1+, pSTAT3+, and pSTAT6+ monocytes and pSTAT5+ lymphocytes than HDs. After 24weeks of treatment, percentages of IFNγ-induced pSTAT1+ and IL-10-induced pSTAT3+ monocytes in RA patients increased, reaching levels comparable to HDs. pSTAT1+ and pSTAT3+ cells correlated inversely with RA disease activity index and levels of pSTAT+ cells at baseline were higher in patients with good EULAR response to tocilizumab. IFNγ-induced pSTAT1+ cells correlated inversely with memory T cells and anti-CCP levels. IL-10-induced pSTAT3+ cells correlated with Treg/Teff ratio. Our findings suggest that IL-6 blocking reduces the inflammatory mechanisms through the correction of STAT1 and STAT3 activation status. PMID:25847223

  16. Increased soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in peripheral blood from climbers on Mount Everest.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Michel; Yaghi, Layale; Flajollet, Sébastien; Radanne-Krawice, Irène; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Lugrin, Didier; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Carosella, Edgardo D; Moreau, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is involved in maternal-fetal tolerance, transplant acceptance, and tumor escape from immunosurveillance, operating by inhibiting activity of T, antigen presenting cells (APC), and natural killer (NK) cells. HLA-G gene expression is modulated in vitro after hypoxic conditions, a situation evidenced during pregnancy and tumor progression. In extreme altitude, mountaineers are in hypoxic conditions that generate physiologic adaptative responses, some of them giving rise to pathologic signs. We performed measurements of plasma soluble HLA-G in six climbers before departure of the expedition and during their ascent to and descent from summit of Mount Everest, and in 3 Sherpas at 5300-6400 m. We found that HLA-G levels are upregulated during the ascent with a unique pattern in comparison with angiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that HLA-G has to be taken into account in the mechanisms participating in adaptation to high altitudes and reinforce hypoxia as an important factor in the regulation of HLA-G expression. PMID:20732367

  17. Degeneration and atrophy of the thymus of lethally irradiated dogs, rescued by transfusion of cryopreserved autologous blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.W.; Huegl, E.B.; Boedey, B.

    1987-12-01

    Dogs exposed to a fatal radiation dose of 12 Gy were rescued by transfusion of autologous blood leukocytes. A severe acute and long-lasting damage to the thymus was observed. The acute damage, as observed on the tenth day, consisted of a marked reduction in the number of lymphocytes, degeneration of Hassall's bodies, and hemorrhage. Long-term effects, observed several months after irradiation, were partial to total atrophy of the thymus. Regeneration, when it occurred, was limited to a few small isolated areas in which lymphopoiesis was supported by epithelial reticular cells. In contrast, the lymph nodes of all dogs had abundant cortical lymphopoiesis. The abundant hemopoiesis present in the marrow from the tenth day after irradiation until the end of the observation period should have provided sufficient circulating precursor cells to seed the thymus and regenerate the organ to the same extent as that observed in the other blood-forming organs. The impairment of lymphopoietic regeneration in the thymus seems to be due, therefore, to damage caused by irradiation on the specific stroma of the organ, which is not able to support such activity.

  18. Cervical leukocytes and spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Patricia J.; Sheikh, Sairah; David, Anna L.; Peebles, Donald M.; Klein, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to characterise cervical leukocyte populations and inflammatory mediators associated with term and recurrent spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) in pregnant women with a history of SPTB. A prospective observational study was undertaken on 120 women with a history of SPTB. A cytobrush was used to sample cells from the cervix at 12–25 weeks’ gestation. Cells were enumerated and characterised by flow cytometry. Cytokines and chemokines were also measured. Participants were then grouped according to delivery at term (>36 + 6 weeks), late SPTB (34–36 + 6 weeks) or early SPTB (<34 weeks). Differences in leukocyte sub-populations, cytokine and chemokine levels were compared with outcome. Cervical leukocytes comprised up to 60% of the host-derived cells. Most of these (90–100%) were polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). Most of the remaining cells were mucosal macrophages expressing CD68 and CD103 in addition to markers shared with blood-borne monocytes. Failure to detect cervical macrophages in at least 250,000 cervical epithelial cells was a feature of women who experienced early SPTB (6 out of 6 cases, 95% CI 61–100%) compared with 34% (30 out of 88 cases, 95% CI 25–43%, P < 0.001) of women delivering after 34 weeks. CCL2 (MCP-1) was also low in SPTB before 34 weeks and levels above 75 ng/g and/or the presence of macrophages increased the specificity for birth after 34 weeks from 66% to 82% (55 out of 67 cases, 95% CI 73–91%). Absence of cervical macrophages and low CCL2 may be features of pregnancies at risk of early SPTB. PMID:26637953

  19. Changes in some blood micronutrients, leukocytes and neutrophil expression of adhesion molecules in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Meglia, G E; Johannisson, A; Petersson, L; Waller, K P

    2001-01-01

    Dairy cows are highly susceptible to infectious diseases, like mastitis, during the period around calving. Although factors contributing to increased susceptibility to infection have not been fully elucidated, impaired neutrophil recruitment to the site of infection and changes in the concentrations of some micronutrients related with the function of the immune defence has been implicated. Most of the current information is based on studies outside the Nordic countries where the conditions for dairy cows are different. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate changes in blood concentrations of the vitamins A and E, the minerals calcium (Ca), phosphorous (P), and magnesium (Mg), the electrolytes potassium (K) and sodium (Na) and the trace elements selenium (Se), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as well as changes in total and differential white blood cell counts (WBC) and expression of the adhesion molecules CD62L and CD18 on blood neutrophils in Swedish dairy cows during the period around calving. Blood samples were taken from 10 cows one month before expected calving, at calving and one month after calving. The results were mainly in line with reports from other countries. The concentrations of vitamins A and E, and of Zn, Ca and P decreased significantly at calving, while Se, Cu, and Na increased. Leukocytosis was detected at calving, mainly explained by neutrophilia, but also by monocytosis. The numbers of lymphocytes tended to decrease at the same time. The mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) of CD62L and CD18 molecules on blood neutrophils remained constant over time. The proportion of CD62L+ neutrophils decreased significantly at calving. The animals were fed according to, or above, their requirements. Therefore, changes in blood levels of vitamins, minerals and trace elements were mainly in response to colostrum formation, changes in dry matter intake, and ruminal metabolism around calving. Decreased levels of vitamins A and E, and of Zn at calving might have negative implications for the functions of the immune defence. The lower proportion of CD62L+ neutrophils at calving may result in less migration of blood neutrophils into the tissues, and might contribute to the increased susceptibility to infections at this time. PMID:11455894

  20. Leukocyte Activation in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Minervino, Daniele; Gumiero, Daniela; Nicolazzi, Maria Anna; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Fuorlo, Mariella; Guidone, Caterina; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Fattorossi, Andrea; Mingrone, Geltrude; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The rising prevalence of obesity is a major global health problem. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery (BS) allows to obtain a significant weight loss and comorbidities improvement, among them one of the factors is the thrombotic risk. In this observational study, we measured indices of leukocyte activation in severely obese patients as markers of increased thrombotic risk in relation with serum markers of inflammation before and after BS. Frequency of polymorphonuclear neutrophil-platelet (PLT) and monocyte (MONO)-PLT aggregates as well as of tissue factor (TF) expressing MONOs was measured in the peripheral blood of 58 consecutive obese patients and 30 healthy controls. In 31 of the 58 obese patients, data obtained at the enrollment were compared with those obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months after BS. Compared with healthy controls, obese patients showed a higher frequency of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)-PLT aggregates (7.47 ± 2.45 [6.82–8.11]% vs 5.85 ± 1.89 [5.14–6.55]%, P = 0.001), MONO-PLT aggregates (12.31 ± 7.33 [10.38–14.24]% vs 8.14 ± 2.22 [7.31–8.97]%, P < 0.001), and TF expressing MONOs (4.01 ± 2.11 [3.45–4.56]% vs 2.64 ± 1.65 [2.02–3.25]%, P = 0.002). PMNL-PLT and MONO-PLT aggregate frequency was positively correlated with TF expressing MONOs (R2 = 0.260, P = 0.049 and R2 = 0.318, P = 0.015, respectively). BS was performed in 31 patients and induced a significant reduction of the body mass index, and waist and hip circumferences. These effects were associated with a significant decrease of PMNL-PLT aggregates at 12 months (7.58 ± 2.27 [6.75–8.42]% vs 4.47 ± 1.11 [3.93–5.01]%, P < 0.001), and a reduction of TF expressing MONOs at 6 (3.82 ± 2.04 [3.07–4.57]% vs 1.60 ± 1.69 [0.30–2.90]%, P = 0.008) and 12 months (3.82 ± 2.04 [3.07–4.57]% vs 1.71 ± 0.54 [1.45–1.97]%, P = 0.001) after BS. These data suggest that leukocyte-PLT aggregate formation and MONO activation represent an important mechanism underlying the increased thrombotic risk of obese patients. We also show that BS is effective in normalizing these inflammatory indices. PMID:26447995

  1. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, S. J.; Antaki, J. F.

    2009-10-01

    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, Ψ, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

  2. Fecal Leukocytes in Children Infected with Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, Erik H.; Ochoa, Theresa J.; Ecker, Lucie; Cabello, Martin; Durand, David; Barletta, Francesca; Molina, Margarita; Gil, Ana I.; Huicho, Luis; Lanata, Claudio F.; Cleary, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and quantity of fecal leukocytes in children infected with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli and to compare these levels between diarrhea and control cases. We analyzed 1,474 stool samples from 935 diarrhea episodes and 539 from healthy controls of a cohort study of children younger than 2 years of age in Lima, Peru. Stools were analyzed for common enteric pathogens, and diarrheagenic E. coli isolates were studied by a multiplex real-time PCR. Stool smears were stained with methylene blue and read by a blinded observer to determine the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per high-power field (L/hpf). Fecal leukocytes at >10 L/hpf were present in 11.8% (110/935) of all diarrheal episodes versus 1.1% (6/539) in controls (P < 0.001). Among stool samples with diarrheagenic E. coli as the only pathogen isolated (excluding coinfection), fecal leukocytes at >10 L/hpf were present in 8.5% (18/212) of diarrhea versus 1.3% (2/157) of control samples (P < 0.01). Ninety-five percent of 99 diarrheagenic E. coli diarrhea samples were positive for fecal lactoferrin. Adjusting for the presence of blood in stools, age, sex, undernutrition, and breastfeeding, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) isolation as a single pathogen, excluding coinfections, was highly associated with the presence of fecal leukocytes (>10 L/hpf) with an odds ratio (OR) of 4.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 15.51; P < 0.05). Although diarrheagenic E. coli was isolated with similar frequencies in diarrhea and control samples, clearly it was associated with a more inflammatory response during symptomatic infection; however, in general, these pathogens elicited a mild inflammatory response. PMID:21325554

  3. Increased chromium uptake in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from burned patients

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.M.; Illner, H.; Dineen, P.

    1984-12-01

    Following thermal injury neutrophil function is severely impaired and thought to be hypometabolic; however, the host is considered to be hypermetabolic. To further investigate the metabolism and the function of neutrophils following thermal injury, neutrophil migration and chromium uptake were studied using radio-labelled neutrophils. Random and directed migration were found to be significantly reduced compared to control values. Neutrophil lysozyme content was also reduced in these burn cells while serum lysozyme from the same patients was significantly elevated over control values. These data suggest lysozyme is released by the neutrophil into the circulatory system. The influx of chromium in cells from burned patients was much greater than the influx in normal cells used in studies for chemotaxis. Influx of chromium over time and over varying concentrations of chromium was linear in cells from burned patients and normals. Cells from burned patients, however, took up more chromium than normals. Influx velocity of chromium was also determined and found to be greater in burn cells than normal cells. Since it has been shown that chromium influx is an energy-dependent reaction it is suggested that cellular energy stores are being depleted by the influx of chromium. Whether this is a response to an intracellular deficit or uncoupling of metabolic pathways is not known at this time.

  4. CYTOKINE SECRETION BY BOVINE POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL LEUKOCYTES (PMN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid recruitment and bacterial phagocytosis and killing by PMN are the most effective defenses against establishment of infection. In addition, PMN may play a key supportive role through secretion of cytokines during the inflammatory response. We sought to determine whether bovine PMN secrete cyt...

  5. Modulating effect of interleukin 2 therapy on interferon production by blood leukocytes of patients with minimal residual hematological disease.

    PubMed

    Kandefer-Szerszeń, M; Legieć, W; Dmoszyńska, A; Szuster-Ciesielska, A

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of 1.8 x 10(6) U/day interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapy on interferon (IFN) production. Patients enrolled in the study suffered from multiple myeloma (MM), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). All of them were in remission after chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Results indicated that IL-2 given subcutaneously at a dose of 1.8 x 10(6) U/day for 3 weeks induced IFN-gamma in serum of patients and caused a prolonged effect on the ability of blood leukocytes to produce IFN-gamma after stimulation in vitro by mitogen phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Such enhancement of IFN-gamma production may be beneficial for antitumor immune response. Low-dose IL-2 therapy was well tolerated by all patients and side effects not exceeding II grade of toxicity according to WHO scale were observed. Five patients with MM have relapsed 3-10 months after cesation of IL-2 therapy but 15 patients 18 months after therapy were in complete remission. PMID:9597084

  6. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Topalović, Dijana Žukovec; Živković, Lada; Čabarkapa, Andrea; Djelić, Ninoslav; Bajić, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  7. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Topalović DŽ; Živković L; Čabarkapa A; Djelić N; Bajić V; Dekanski D; Spremo-Potparević B

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger.

  8. Dry Olive Leaf Extract Counteracts L-Thyroxine-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Žukovec Topalović, Dijana; Živković, Lada; Čabarkapa, Andrea; Djelić, Ninoslav; Bajić, Vladan; Spremo-Potparević, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  9. Underweight Full-Term Indian Neonates Show Differences in Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocyte Phenotype: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Deepak K.; Nair, Deepa; Raza, Saimah; Saini, Savita; Singh, Reeta; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Reva; Ramji, Siddarth; Batra, Aruna; Aggarwal, Kailash C.; Chellani, Harish K.; Arya, Sugandha; Bhatla, Neerja; Paul, Vinod K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh; Agarwal, Nidhi; Mehta, Umesh; Sopory, Shailaja; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bal, Vineeta; Rath, Satyajit; Wadhwa, Nitya

    2015-01-01

    Background While infections are a major cause of neonatal mortality in India even in full-term neonates, this is an especial problem in the large proportion (~20%) of neonates born underweight (or small-for-gestational-age; SGA). One potential contributory factor for this susceptibility is the possibility that immune system maturation may be affected along with intrauterine growth retardation. Methods In order to examine the possibility that differences in immune status may underlie the susceptibility of SGA neonates to infections, we enumerated the frequencies and concentrations of 22 leukocyte subset populations as well as IgM and IgA levels in umbilical cord blood from full-term SGA neonates and compared them with values from normal-weight (or appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) full-term neonates. We eliminated most SGA-associated risk factors in the exclusion criteria so as to ensure that AGA-SGA differences, if any, would be more likely to be associated with the underweight status itself. Results An analysis of 502 such samples, including 50 from SGA neonates, showed that SGA neonates have significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a higher myeloid DC (mDC) to pDC ratio, more natural killer (NK) cells, and higher IgM levels in cord blood in comparison with AGA neonates. Other differences were also observed such as tendencies to lower CD4:CD8 ratios and greater prominence of inflammatory monocytes, mDCs and neutrophils, but while some of them had substantial differences, they did not quite reach the standard level of statistical significance. Conclusions These differences in cellular lineages of the immune system possibly reflect stress responses in utero associated with growth restriction. Increased susceptibility to infections may thus be linked to complex immune system dysregulation rather than simply retarded immune system maturation. PMID:25898362

  10. Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

    1982-02-01

    The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

  11. Selective Activation of Cannabinoid Receptor 2 in Leukocytes Suppresses Their Engagement of the Brain Endothelium and Protects the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Rom, Slava; Zuluaga-Ramirez, Viviana; Dykstra, Holly; Reichenbach, Nancy L.; Pacher, Pal; Persidsky, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) is highly expressed in immune cells and stimulation decreases inflammatory responses. We tested the idea that selective CB2 activation in human monocytes suppresses their ability to engage the brain endothelium and migrate across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), preventing consequent injury. Intravital videomicroscopy was used to quantify adhesion of leukocytes to cortical vessels in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation, after injection of ex vivo CB2–activated leukocytes into mice; CB2 agonists markedly decreased adhesion of ex vivo labeled cells in vivo. In an in vitro BBB model, CB2 activation in monocytes largely attenuated adhesion to and migration across monolayers of primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells and diminished BBB damage. CB2 stimulation in monocytes down-regulated active forms of integrins, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), and very late antigen 4 (VLA-4). Cells treated with CB2 agonists exhibited increased phosphorylation levels of inhibitory sites of the actin-binding proteins cofilin and VASP, which are upstream regulators of conformational integrin changes. Up-regulated by relevant stimuli, Rac1 and RhoA were suppressed by CB2 agonists in monocytes. CB2 stimulation decreased formation of lamellipodia, which play a key role in monocyte migration. These results indicate that selective CB2 activation in leukocytes decreases key steps in monocyte–BBB engagement, thus suppressing inflammatory leukocyte responses and preventing neuroinflammation. PMID:24055259

  12. Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid.

    PubMed

    Levin, Milton; Joshi, Dhanashree; Draghi, Andrew; Gulland, Frances M; Jessup, David; De Guise, Sylvain

    2010-04-01

    During red tide bloom events, the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produces the toxin domoic acid (DA), which has been associated with stranding and mortality events involving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). In addition to these well-documented DA-induced neurotoxic events, there is increasing concern that DA may exert chronic effects, such as immunomodulation, which may potentially increase an individual's susceptibility to a number of opportunistic infections following nonlethal exposure. We investigated the effects of DA on innate (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and adaptive (mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation) immune functions with the use of peripheral blood leukocytes collected from healthy California sea lions and southern sea otters upon in vitro exposure to 0 (unexposed control), 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 microM DA. Domoic acid did not significantly modulate phagocytosis or respiratory burst in either species. For California sea lions, DA significantly increased ConA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation upon exposure to DA concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 10 microM, resulting in a nonlinear dose-response curve. There was no effect on lymphocyte proliferation at the highest concentration of DA tested. No effects on lymphocyte proliferation were observed in southern sea otters. Importantly, the in vitro DA concentrations affecting T-cell proliferation were within or below the range of DA in serum measured in free-ranging California sea lions following natural exposure, suggesting a risk for immunomodulation in free-ranging animals. Understanding the risk for immunomodulation upon DA exposure will contribute in the health assessment and management of California sea lions and southern sea otters, as well as guide veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators in caring for and treating afflicted animals. PMID:20688647

  13. Carrageenan Primes Leukocytes To Enhance Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Masanori; Matsui, Takashi; Kita, Toshiro; Shigematsu, Akio

    1999-01-01

    We have previously reported that pretreatment with carrageenan (CAR) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production in and lethality for mice. Whole blood cultured in vitro was used to show that CAR pretreatment results in about a 200-fold increase in LPS-induced TNF-α production. CAR by itself did not induce TNF-α production. However, CAR-treated cultured medium sensitized whole blood to make more LPS-induced TNF than did saline-treated cultured medium in vitro. It was also demonstrated that CAR pretreatment increases TNF-α mRNA levels of both blood cells and peritoneal exudate cells, but not of bone marrow cells. Immunoelectron microscopic analysis revealed that polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages are TNF-α-producing cells in CAR-treated mice. In CAR-treated mice, TNF-α was seen early after LPS injection in leukocytes in hepatic sinusoids and on the surfaces of endothelial cells. TNF-α was also detected late after LPS injection in hepatocytes which become edematous. These results suggest that CAR primes leukocytes to produce TNF-α in response to LPS and that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver injury. PMID:10377102

  14. Influence of SkQ1 on Expression of Nrf2 Transcription Factor Gene, ARE-Controlled Genes of Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Activity in Rat Blood Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Vnukov, V V; Gutsenko, O I; Milutina, N P; Ananyan, A A; Danilenko, A O; Panina, S B; Kornienko, I V

    2015-05-01

    This study demonstrated that pretreatment of rats with mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 (50 nmol/kg during 5 days) significantly increased the mRNA levels of Nrf2 transcription factor and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes SOD1, SOD2, CAT, and GPx4 in rat peripheral blood leukocytes. The increase in expression of these genes with SkQ1 addition was accompanied by increased activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase in leukocytes. These results indicate that antioxidant properties of SkQ1 might be realized via induction of expression of the genes regulating activity of antioxidant system elements. PMID:26071777

  15. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes and the risk of clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melkonian, Stephanie C.; Wang, Xin; Gu, Jian; Matin, Surena F.; Tannir, Nizar M.; Wood, Christopher G.; Wu, Xifeng

    2015-01-01

    Variation of mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risk of various cancers, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We assessed the association between mtDNAcn and clear cell RCC (ccRCC) risk in 608 cases and 629 controls frequency-matched on age and gender. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking status, history of hypertension, total energy intake and physical activity. Our results suggest an association between low mtDNAcn and ccRCC risk (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.97–1.68, P = 0.09). Lower mtDNAcn was associated with increased ccRCC risk in younger individuals (age <60, OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 1.13–2.49, P = 0.01), women (OR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.03–2.73, P = 0.04), individuals without history of hypertension (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.09–2.41, P = 0.02) and individuals with low physical activity levels (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.02–2.37, P = 0.05). We observed significant and marginally significant interactions between both age and history of hypertension and mtDNAcn in elevating ccRCC risk (P for interaction = 0.04 and 0.07, respectively). Additionally, low mtDNAcn was associated with ccRCC risk in younger individuals with low levels of physical activity [ORs and 95% CI for medium and low physical activity levels, respectively, 2.31 (1.18–4.52) and 2.09 (1.17–3.75), P interaction = 0.04]. To our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate the role of mtDNAcn in the ccRCC subtype and the first to suggest that this association may be modified by risk factors including age, gender, history of hypertension and physical activity. PMID:25524925

  16. Analysis of T helper and antigen-presenting cell functions in cord blood and peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy children of different ages.

    PubMed

    Clerici, M; DePalma, L; Roilides, E; Baker, R; Shearer, G M

    1993-06-01

    The development of antigen-specific functional T lymphocyte immunity in infants and children is an area of immunology that needs elucidation. Leukocytes from cord blood (CBL) and from PBL of children of different ages who were in the hospital for minor surgical procedures were compared with PBL from healthy adults for their ability to generate T helper cell (Th) responses assessed by in vitro proliferation and IL-2 production after stimulation with: influenza A virus (FLU); tetanus toxoid (TET); adult allogeneic PBL that were either undepleted (ALLO) or depleted of adherent antigen presenting cells (ALLONW); and PHA. CBL generated Th responses to ALLONW, ALLO, and PHA, but not to FLU or TET. PBL from infants between 6 and 13 mo of age responded to ALLO and PHA; none responded to FLU or ALLONW, and two of four responded weakly to TET. PBL from children between 13 and 26 mo of age responded to all stimuli except FLU, to which only one child responded marginally. PBL from children older than 36 mo responded to all stimuli at levels comparable to those of PBL from adults. The use of undepleted and adherent cell-depleted CBL and PBL from children of different ages as allogeneic stimulators of responses generated by PBL from adults indicated that the antigen presenting function of CBL and PBL from children 13 mo or older are sufficiently developed to present alloantigen, whereas PBL from children younger than 13 mo are not. Therefore, our results indicate that age-dependent differences exist in both T helper and antigen-presenting functions of CBL and PBL from children of different ages. Surprisingly, CBL appear to be more efficient in antigen-presenting function than PBL from children younger than 13 mo. These findings are important for establishing developmental parameters of T helper cell immunity relevant for pediatric infection and transplantation in infants and children. PMID:8514891

  17. The effect of injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum superoxide dismutase activity of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Lima, S F; Bicalho, M L S; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Felippe, M J; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous supplementation of 300 mg of zinc, 50 mg of manganese, 25 mg of selenium, and 75 mg of copper on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at 10 ± 2 days in milk (DIM), and on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during the transition period and subsequent lactation of multiparous Holstein cows. A total of 250 multiparous cows were randomly allocated into one of two treatments groups, namely, trace mineral supplemented (TMS) or control. Cows in the TMS group were injected at 230 and 260 days of gestation, and 35 days postpartum. Serum SOD activity was measured at enrollment, and 10, 60 and 100 DIM. Serum BHBA concentration and leukocyte function were assessed at 10 DIM. Overall serum SOD activity for TMS and control was 16.01 and 12.71 U/mL, respectively. The interaction between treatment and time of serum collection was significant. Additionally, overall serum SOD activity was 12.85 and 14.78 U/mL for cows diagnosed with mastitis and unaffected cows, respectively. Treatment did not affect leukocyte function. For parity >2, TMS cows had lower serum BHBA concentrations than control cows; BHBA concentrations were 0.41 and 0.27 mmol/L for control and TMS cows, respectively. In conclusion, cows diagnosed with mastitis had decreased serum SOD activity, and trace mineral supplementation increased serum SOD activity although leukocyte function was not affected by supplementation. PMID:24685102

  18. Effect of irradiation, cyclophosphamide, and etoposide (VP-16) on number of peripheral blood and peritoneal leukocytes in mice under normal conditions and during acute inflammatory reaction

    SciTech Connect

    van't Wout, J.W.; Linde, I.; Leijh, P.C.; van Furth, R.

    1989-02-01

    In order to develop a suitable model for studying the role of granulocytes and monocytes in resistance against pathogenic microorganisms, we investigated the effect of irradiation and cytostatic treatment (cyclophosphamide and VP-16) on the number of both peripheral blood and peritoneal leukocytes in male Swiss mice. Irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment severely decreased the number of both granulocytes and monocytes in peripheral blood, whereas VP-16 only lowered the number of blood monocytes to a significant degree and had little effect on the number of blood granulocytes or lymphocytes. When normal mice were injected intraperitoneally with newborn calf serum (NBCS) the number of peritoneal granulocytes rose about 100-fold within 6 h. In irradiated and cyclophosphamide-treated mice, this influx of granulocytes into the peritoneal cavity was virtually eliminated, as was the concomitant increase in the number of blood granulocytes; in VP-16-treated mice, on the other hand, the number of peripheral blood and peritoneal granulocytes increased to the same degree as in normal mice. An increase in the number of peripheral blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages occurred 24-48 h after injection of NBCS in normal mice. This increase was significantly impaired by irradiation as well as by treatment with cyclophosphamide or VP-16.

  19. Hesperidin Displays Relevant Role in the Nutrigenomic Effect of Orange Juice on Blood Leukocytes in Human Volunteers: A Randomized Controlled Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Milenkovic, Dragan; Deval, Christiane; Dubray, Claude; Mazur, Andrzej; Morand, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Background We previously showed, in healthy, middle-aged, moderately overweight men, that orange juice decreases diastolic blood pressure and significantly improves postprandial microvascular endothelial reactivity and that hesperidin could be causally linked to the observed beneficial effect of orange juice. The objective was to determine the effect of chronic consumption of orange juice on the gene expression profile of leukocytes in healthy volunteers and to assess to what extent hesperidin is involved in the effect of orange juice. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were included in a randomized, controlled, crossover study. Throughout three 4-week periods, volunteers consumed daily: 500 ml orange juice, 500 ml control drink plus hesperidin or 500 ml control drink and placebo. Blood samplings were performed on 10 overnight-fasted subjects after the 4-week treatment period. Global gene expression profiles were determined using human whole genome cDNA microarrays. Both orange juice and hesperidin consumption significantly affected leukocyte gene expression. Orange juice consumption induced changes in expression of, 3,422 genes, while hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1,819 genes. Between the orange juice and hesperidin consumption groups, 1,582 regulated genes were in common. Many of these genes are implicated in chemotaxis, adhesion, infiltration and lipid transport, which is suggestive of lower recruitment and infiltration of circulating cells to vascular wall and lower lipid accumulation. Conclusions This study shows that regular consumption of orange juice for 4 weeks alters leukocyte gene expression to an anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic profile, and hesperidin displays a relevant role in the genomic effect of this beverage. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT 00983086 PMID:22110589

  20. Inhibition of antigen-induced and interleukin-2-induced proliferation of bovine peripheral blood leukocytes by inactivated bovine herpes virus 1.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, D L; Campos, M; Qualtiere, L; Babiuk, L A

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism by which bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) predisposes cattle to bacterial pneumonia was investigated by using an in vitro system to demonstrate immunosuppression. At a multiplicity of infection of 0.001, live or inactivated BHV-1 induced a 50% inhibition of the proliferative response of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes to antigen (vaccinia virus in vaccinia virus-immunized cattle which were BHV-1 negative) or interleukin-2. At this same multiplicity of infection, the mitogen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes was unaffected. This inhibition of antigen and interleukin-2-induced proliferative responses could not be reversed by the addition of excess amounts of interleukin-2 and could not be prevented by the addition of indomethacin to block prostaglandin production. Antibodies to BHV-1, especially those specific for glycoproteins gI and gIV, were able to block the inhibitory effect of BHV-1 in these in vitro assays. These results showed that antibody to BHV-1 blocks the immunosuppressive effect of the virus in vitro and suggested that an appropriate antibody response to BHV-1 could protect cattle from virus-induced immunosuppression leading to secondary bacterial pneumonia. PMID:2166810

  1. Biphasic control of polymorphonuclear cell migration by Kupffer cells. Effect of exposure to metabolic products of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Fainsilber, Z.; Feinman, L.; Shaw, S.; Lieber, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the Kupffer cells in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis, rat liver Kupffer cells were cultured and exposed to products of ethanol metabolism. The resultant supernatants were tested to study their ability to stimulate or inhibit polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis. Kupffer cells produced increased chemokinetic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; when incubated with soluble products of microsomal peroxidation, the Kupffer cells engendered more chemokinetic activity than that produced by untreated Kupffer cells. When Kupffer cells were incubated with acetaldehyde, the chemokinetic activity that appeared in the supernatant did not differ from control. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear cells was not observed when the Kupffer cell supernatants were tested by checkerboard analysis.

  2. Density-Gradient Mediated Band Extraction of Leukocytes from Whole Blood Using Centrifugo-Pneumatic Siphon Valving on Centrifugal Microfluidic Discs

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Sinéad M.; Kilcawley, Niamh A.; Early, Philip L.; Glynn, Macdara T.; Ducrée, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Here we present retrieval of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by density-gradient medium based centrifugation for subsequent analysis of the leukocytes on an integrated microfluidic “Lab-on-a-Disc” cartridge. Isolation of white blood cells constitutes a critical sample preparation step for many bioassays. Centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves are particularly suited for blood processing as they function without need of surface treatment and are ‘low-pass’, i.e., holding at high centrifugation speeds and opening upon reduction of the spin rate. Both ‘hydrostatically’ and ‘hydrodynamically’ triggered centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valving schemes are presented. Firstly, the geometry of the pneumatic chamber of hydrostatically primed centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves is optimised to enable smooth and uniform layering of blood on top of the density-gradient medium; this feature proves to be key for efficient Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell extraction. A theoretical analysis of hydrostatically primed valves is also presented which determines the optimum priming pressure for the individual valves. Next, ‘dual siphon’ configurations for both hydrostatically and hydrodynamically primed centrifugo-pneumatic siphon valves are introduced; here plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells are extracted through a distinct siphon valve. This work represents a first step towards enabling on disc multi-parameter analysis. Finally, the efficiency of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells extraction in these structures is characterised using a simplified design. A microfluidic mechanism, which we termed phase switching, is identified which affects the efficiency of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell extraction. PMID:27167376

  3. Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

  4. Anandamide inhibits Theiler's virus induced VCAM-1 in brain endothelial cells and reduces leukocyte transmigration in a model of blood brain barrier by activation of CB1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background VCAM-1 represents one of the most important adhesion molecule involved in the transmigration of blood leukocytes across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that is an essential step in the pathogenesis of MS. Several evidences have suggested the potential therapeutic value of cannabinoids (CBs) in the treatment of MS and their experimental models. However, the effects of endocannabinoids on VCAM-1 regulation are poorly understood. In the present study we investigated the effects of anandamide (AEA) in the regulation of VCAM-1 expression induced by Theiler's virus (TMEV) infection of brain endothelial cells using in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methods i) in vitro: VCAM-1 was measured by ELISA in supernatants of brain endothelial cells infected with TMEV and subjected to AEA and/or cannabinoid receptors antagonist treatment. To evaluate the functional effect of VCAM-1 modulation we developed a blood brain barrier model based on a system of astrocytes and brain endothelial cells co-culture. ii) in vivo: CB1 receptor deficient mice (Cnr1-/-) infected with TMEV were treated with the AEA uptake inhibitor UCM-707 for three days. VCAM-1 expression and microglial reactivity were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Anandamide-induced inhibition of VCAM-1 expression in brain endothelial cell cultures was mediated by activation of CB1 receptors. The study of leukocyte transmigration confirmed the functional relevance of VCAM-1 inhibition by AEA. In vivo approaches also showed that the inhibition of AEA uptake reduced the expression of brain VCAM-1 in response to TMEV infection. Although a decreased expression of VCAM-1 by UCM-707 was observed in both, wild type and CB1 receptor deficient mice (Cnr1-/-), the magnitude of VCAM-1 inhibition was significantly higher in the wild type mice. Interestingly, Cnr1-/- mice showed enhanced microglial reactivity and VCAM-1 expression following TMEV infection, indicating that the lack of CB1 receptor exacerbated neuroinflammation. Conclusions Our results suggest that CB1 receptor dependent VCAM-1 inhibition is a novel mechanism for AEA-reduced leukocyte transmigration and contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of endocannabinoid system in the Theiler's virus model of MS. PMID:21851608

  5. Blood leukocyte microarrays to diagnose systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis and follow the response to IL-1 blockade

    PubMed Central

    Allantaz, Florence; Chaussabel, Damien; Stichweh, Dorothee; Bennett, Lynda; Allman, Windy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Chung, Wendy; Wise, Carol; Palucka, Karolina; Ramilo, Octavio; Punaro, Marilynn; Banchereau, Jacques; Pascual, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    Systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SoJIA) represents up to 20% of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. We recently reported that interleukin (IL) 1 is an important mediator of this disease and that IL-1 blockade induces clinical remission. However, lack of specificity of the initial systemic manifestations leads to delays in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. To develop a specific diagnostic test, we analyzed leukocyte gene expression profiles of 44 pediatric SoJIA patients, 94 pediatric patients with acute viral and bacterial infections, 38 pediatric patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 6 patients with PAPA syndrome, and 39 healthy children. Statistical group comparison and class prediction identified genes differentially expressed in SoJIA patients compared with healthy children. These genes, however, were also changed in patients with acute infections and SLE. An analysis of significance across all diagnostic groups identified 88 SoJIA-specific genes, 12 of which accurately classified an independent set of SoJIA patients with systemic disease. Transcripts that changed significantly in patients undergoing IL-1 blockade were also identified. Thus, leukocyte transcriptional signatures can be used to distinguish SoJIA from other febrile illnesses and to assess response to therapy. Availability of early diagnostic markers may allow prompt initiation of therapy and prevention of disabilities. PMID:17724127

  6. The in vitro effects of vincristine on peripheral blood leukocyte progenitor cells (CFU-C) in patients in blast crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia: correlation with clinical response.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J; Zamkoff, K W; Nelson, D A; Davey, F R; Gottlieb, A J

    1983-04-01

    The in vitro sensitivity of circulating progenitor cells (CFU-C) of 20 patients in blast crisis of chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) to vincristine was correlated with the clinical response to vincristine in vivo. Eleven patients who achieved either a good or partial clinical response displayed a reduction in the number of colonies or clusters formed by their peripheral blood leukocytes in a double layer agar culture assay following incubation with vincristine. The CFU-C of five of six patients who failed to respond clinically to vincristine and prednisone were not suppressed following incubation with up to 12 microM vincristine. Three additional patients were not evaluable due to early post-treatment deaths. In vitro assay of the effects of vincristine on CFU-C appears to have predictive value for in vivo response in blast crisis of CGL. PMID:6573127

  7. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in End-Stage Heart Failure Patients Following Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: Differences in Plasma Redox Status and Leukocyte Activation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan K; Sorensen, Erik N; Pham, Si M; Koenig, Steven C; Griffith, Bartley P; Slaughter, Mark S; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2016-05-01

    The role of oxidative stress and leukocyte activation has not been elucidated in developing systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in heart failure (HF) patients after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation. The objective of this study was to investigate the change of plasma redox status and leukocyte activation in CF-LVAD implanted HF patients with or without SIRS. We recruited 31 CF-LVAD implanted HF patients (16 SIRS and 15 non-SIRS) and 11 healthy volunteers as the control. Pre- and postimplant blood samples were collected from the HF patients. Plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocyte, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and polymorphonuclear elastase (PMN-elastase) were measured. The HF patients had a preexisting condition of oxidative stress than healthy controls as evident from the higher oxLDL and MDA levels as well as depleted SOD and TAC. Leukocyte activation in terms of higher plasma MPO and PMN-elastase was also prominent in HF patients than controls. Persistent oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were found to be more belligerent in HF patients with SIRS after the implantation of CF-LVAD when compared with non-SIRS patients. Similar to oxidative stress, the activation of blood leukocyte was significantly highlighted in SIRS patients after implantation compared with non-SIRS. We identified that the plasma redox status and leukocyte activation became more prominent in CF-LVAD implanted HF patients who developed SIRS. Our findings suggest that plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress and leukocyte activation may be associated with the development of SIRS after CF-LVAD implant surgery. PMID:26416627

  8. Modification of radiation-induced DNA double strand break repair pathways by chemicals extracted from Podophyllum hexandrum: an in vitro study in human blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nitya N; Shukla, Sandeep K; Yashavarddhan, M H; Devi, Memita; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Gupta, Manju L

    2014-06-01

    Radiation exposure is a serious threat to biomolecules, particularly DNA, proteins and lipids. Various exogenous substances have been reported to protect these biomolecules. In this study we explored the effect of pre-treatment with G-002M, a mixture of three active derivatives isolated from the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum, on DNA damage response in irradiated human blood leukocytes. Blood was collected from healthy male volunteers, preincubated with G-002M and then irradiated with various doses of radiation. Samples were analyzed using flow cytometry to quantify DNA double strand break (DSB) biomarkers including γ-H2AX, P53BP1 and levels of ligase IV. Blood samples were irradiated in vitro and processed to determine time and dose-dependent kinetics. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed at various time points to measure gene expression of DNA-PKcs, Ku80, ATM, and 53BP1; each of these genes is involved in DNA repair signaling. Pre-treatment of blood with G-002M resulted in reduction of γ-H2AX and P53BP1 biomarkers levels and elevated ligase IV levels relative to non-G-002M-treated irradiated cells. These results confirm suppression in radiation-induced DNA DSBs. Samples pre-treated with G-002M and then irradiated also showed significant up-regulation of DNA-PKcs and Ku80 and downregulation of ATM and 53BP1 gene expressions, suggesting that G-002M plays a protective role against DNA damage. The protective effect of G-002M may be due to its ability to scavange radiation-induced free radicals or assist in DNA repair. Further studies are needed to decipher the role of G-002M on signaling molecules involved in radiation-induced DNA damage repair pathways. PMID:24500925

  9. Evaluation of propolis, honey, and royal jelly in amelioration of peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model.

    PubMed

    El-Aidy, Waleed K; Ebeid, Ahmad A; Sallam, Abd El-Raouf M; Muhammad, Ibrahim E; Abbas, Ayman T; Kamal, M A; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2015-11-01

    Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model. The mice in group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice in group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies. The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells. PMID:26587007

  10. Evaluation of propolis, honey, and royal jelly in amelioration of peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model

    PubMed Central

    El-Aidy, Waleed K.; Ebeid, Ahmad A.; Sallam, Abd El-Raouf M.; Muhammad, Ibrahim E.; Abbas, Ayman T.; Kamal, M.A.; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2014-01-01

    Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model. The mice in group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice in group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies. The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells. PMID:26587007

  11. Modulatory effects of dietary beta-carotene on blood and mammary leukocyte function in periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Michal, J J; Heirman, L R; Wong, T S; Chew, B P; Frigg, M; Volker, L

    1994-05-01

    Beginning 4 wk prior to predicted calving, 14 Holstein cows per treatment were fed diets 1) unsupplemented (control) or supplemented daily with 2) 300 mg of beta-carotene, 3) 600 mg of beta-carotene, or 4) 120,000 IU of vitamin A. Blood was collected around calving on wk -4, -2, -1, 0 (within 24 h postcalving), 1, 2, and 4 for isolation of lymphocytes and neutrophils and for the analysis of plasma vitamins. Lacteal secretions were collected on wk 0, 1, 2, and 4 for the isolation of phagocytes. Cows supplemented with 600 mg of beta-carotene had higher concentrations of plasma beta-carotene and retinol than did unsupplemented cows. Supplemental vitamin A increased plasma retinol on wk 4 and decreased plasma beta-carotene on wk -1 and 0. Treatment did not affect concentrations of plasma alpha-tocopherol. Blood lymphocyte proliferation in response to concanavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweed mitogen during the peripartum period was higher in cows supplemented with beta-carotene than in unsupplemented controls. Phagocytic activity of blood neutrophils was enhanced on wk 1 in cows fed 300 mg of beta-carotene. Intracellular killing by blood neutrophils was enhanced in cows supplemented with beta-carotene (wk 0) and vitamin A (wk 0 and 1). Iodine uptake and nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by blood neutrophils was stimulated in cows supplemented with beta-carotene. Phagocytic activity, iodine uptake, and nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by mammary phagocytes from all cows generally were lower postpartum than on the day of calving. The incidence of retained placenta and metritis was higher for unsupplemented cows than for cows supplemented with beta-carotene. Therefore, dietary beta-carotene can elevate peripartum concentrations of blood beta-carotene, enhance host defense mechanisms by potentiating lymphocyte and phagocyte function, and decrease the incidence of certain reproductive disorders. PMID:8046080

  12. Detection of CFTR protein in human leukocytes by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Jan; Vezzalini, Marzia; Verzè, Genny; Caldrer, Sara; Bolognin, Silvia; Buffelli, Mario; Bellisola, Giuseppe; Tridello, Gloria; Assael, Baroukh Maurice; Melotti, Paola; Sorio, Claudio

    2014-07-01

    Leukocytes have previously been shown to express detectable levels of the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This study aims to evaluate the application of flow cytometric (FC) analysis to detect CFTR expression, and changes thereof, in these cells. Aliquots (200 μL) of peripheral whole blood from 12 healthy control volunteers (CTRLs), 12 carriers of a CFTR mutation (CFC), and 40 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) carrying various combinations of CFTR mutations were incubated with specific fluorescent probes recognizing CFTR protein expressed on the plasma membrane of leukocytes. FC was applied to analyze CFTR expression in monocytes, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. CFTR protein was detected in monocytes and lymphocytes, whereas inconclusive results were obtained from the analysis of PMN cells. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ratio value and %CFTR-positive cells above a selected threshold were the two parameters selected to quantify CFTR expression in cells. Lowest variability and the highest reproducibility were obtained when analyzing monocytes. ANOVA results indicated that both parameters were able to discriminate monocytes of healthy controls and CF individuals according to CFTR mutation classes with high accuracy. Significantly increased MFI ratio values were recorded in CFTR-defective cells that were also able to improve CFTR function after ex vivo treatment with PTC124 (Ataluren), an investigative drug designed to permit the ribosome to read through nonsense CFTR mutations. The method described is minimally invasive and may be used in the monitoring of responses to drugs whose efficacy can depend on increased CFTR protein expression levels. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:24623386

  13. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxic effects of gamma radiation on the peripheral blood leukocytes of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kadam, Samit B; Shyama, Soorambail K; Almeida, Valentine G

    2013-04-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on non-target cells of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) patients exposed to various cumulative doses of gamma rays during radiotherapy. The ten patients (P1-P10) were treated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation (External Beam Radiotherapy) for a period of five to six weeks with a daily fraction of 2Gy for 5 days each week. The genotoxic effects of radiation (single strand breaks - SSBs) in these patients were analyzed using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique, with the Olive Tail Moment (OTM) as the critical parameter. A sample of each patient's peripheral blood before starting with radiotherapy (pre-therapy) served as the control, and blood collected at weekly time intervals during the course of the radiotherapy served as treated (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60Gy) samples. In vivo radiosensitivity of these patients, as indicated by SSB's after the cumulative radiation doses at the various times, was assessed using Student's t-test. Significant DNA damage relative to the individual patient's pre-therapy baseline data was observed in all patients. Inter-individual variation of the genotoxic effects was analyzed using two-way ANOVA. The correlation between doses for the means of smoker and non-smoker patients was calculated using the Pearson test. The results of this study may indicate the need to reduce the daily radiotherapy dose further to prevent genotoxic effects on non-target cells, thus improving safety. Furthermore, these results may indicate that the estimation of DNA damage following exposure to a gamma radiation, as measured by the comet assay in whole blood leukocytes, can be used to screen human populations for radiation-induced genetic damage at the molecular level. PMID:23370449

  14. Purification of myeloperoxidase from equine polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Mathy-Hartert, M; Bourgeois, E; Grülke, S; Deby-Dupont, G; Caudron, I; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

    1998-04-01

    Increases of plasma concentrations of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be used as markers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) activation in pathological situations (sepsis, acute lung injury, acute inflammation). To develop an assay for measurement of plasma MPO in horses during the above-mentioned infectious and inflammatory conditions, MPO was purified from equine PMN isolated from blood anticoagulated with citrate. PMN were extracted in a saline milieu (0.2 M Na acetate, 1 M NaCl, pH 4.7) to eliminate most of cellular proteins. Pellets were then extracted in the same buffer containing cationic detergent (1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide). The supernatant was further purified by ion exchange chromatography (Hiload S Sepharose HP column 0.5 x 26 cm, equilibrated with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7) with a NaCl gradient (until 1 M). Most of the peroxidase activity of MPO (spectrophotometrically measured by the oxidation of orthodianisidine by hydrogen peroxide) was eluted at 0.65 M NaCl. MPO was further purified by gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S 200 column 2.6 x 42 cm with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7). MPO (specific activity: 74.3 U/mg) was obtained with a yield of 30% from the detergent extraction supernatant. Electrophoresis (non-reducing conditions) showed 3 bands identified, by comparison with human MPO, (i) the mature tetrameric enzyme (150 kDa) with 2 light and 2 heavy subunits, (ii) the precursor form (88 kDa) and (iii) a form of the heavy subunit without the prosthetic heme group (40 kDa). The mature enzyme and its precursor were glycosylated and possessed peroxidase activity. Equine MPO showed strong similarities with human and bovine MPO, with an absorption peak at 430 nm (Soret peak) characteristic of ferrimyeloperoxidase. Enzymatic activity was pH dependent (optimal value at pH 5.5). PMID:9553712

  15. The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

  16. Pharmacological effects of a specific leukotriene B(4) receptor antagonist (VML 295) on blood leukocytes, cutaneous inflammation and epidermal proliferation.

    PubMed

    Seegers, B A; Andriessen, M P; van Hooijdonk, C A; de Bakker, E S; van Vlijmen-Willems, I M; Parker, G L; van Erp, P E; van de Kerkhof, P C

    2000-01-01

    VML 295 (LY 293111) is a potent and specific leukotriene(4) receptor antagonist. It has previously been shown in human volunteers that VML 295 at a dosage of 48 mg twice daily inhibits the ex vivo leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4))-induced upregulation of CD11b on peripheral blood neutrophils. A clear dose-response relatinship was shown. In addition, VML 295 inhibits various inflammatory aspects resulting from LTB(4) challenge of the skin, again showing a dose-response relationship. In view of the large variation in the elimination half-life of VML 295 (25-88.5 h) in individual human subjects, the present pharmacological study was designed to provide information on the pharmacodynamics of the drug by the assessment of VML 295 plasma concentrations, ex vivo LTB(4)-induced CD11b upregulation of neutrophils, neutrophil accumulation in the skin following epicutaneous application of LTB(4) and epidermal regeneration following standardized surface trauma. A group of 36 healthy volunteers were treated in a double-blind study with VML 295 at 200 mg twice daily, VML 295 at 200 mg once daily or placebo for 7 days. Before treatment, at the end of treatment and following discontinuation of treatment, VML 295 plasma concentrations and CD11b upregulation of blood neutrophils were assessed. In 18 subjects, the effects of the three treatments on LTB(4)-induced inflammatory were assessed before and at the end of treatment, and in the remaining 18 subjects the effects of these treatments on epidermal regeneration were assessed similarly. VML 295 at 200 mg either twice or once daily has a profound inhibitory effect on ex vivo LTB(4)-induced CD11b upregulation of blood neutrophils, LTB(4)-induced neutrophil accumulation in the skin, trauma-induced hyperproliferation of the epidermis and regenerative keratinization. The twice daily dose schedule was significantly more effective than the once daily regimen in reducing ex vivo CD11b stimulation of neutrophils, in blood samples collected 24 h after discontinuation of VML 295 treatment. The twice daily schedule tended to be more efficient in skin biopsies, although this difference was not statistically significant in the number of subjects investigated. A plasma concentration of 100 ng/ml proved to be the threshold for these effects. The profound biological effects, both systemically and cutaneously, as well as the safety profile, make VML 295 a promising drug for skin disorders characterized by epidermal proliferation and neutrophil accumulation. PMID:10754455

  17. [The morphofunctional characteristics of the mononuclear phagocytes in the concentrated venous blood leukocytes of patients with histiocytosis].

    PubMed

    Lugovskaia, S A; Lukina, E A; Tsvetaeva, N V

    1994-01-01

    Morphological and cytochemical examinations of mononuclear phagocytes (MP) from venous blood leukoconcentrate were carried out in 25 patients with chronic monocytic leukemia, 7 patients with malignant histiocytosis, 3 patients with Langerhans' cell histiocytosis and 26 patients with reactive proliferations of the cells belonging to MP system associated with autoaggressive, infectious diseases or tumors. Morphofunctional features of MP from the patients with tumor and reactive histiocytosis may serve additional criteria in differential diagnosis of the diseases in which pathological process runs with participation of MP system cells. PMID:7985129

  18. Pathogenic Triad in Bacterial Meningitis: Pathogen Invasion, NF-κB Activation, and Leukocyte Transmigration that Occur at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifu; Peng, Liang; Gai, Zhongtao; Zhang, Lehai; Jong, Ambrose; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains the leading cause of disabilities worldwide. This life-threatening disease has a high mortality rate despite the availability of antibiotics and improved critical care. The interactions between bacterial surface components and host defense systems that initiate bacterial meningitis have been studied in molecular and cellular detail over the past several decades. Bacterial meningitis commonly exhibits triad hallmark features (THFs): pathogen penetration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in coordination with type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists mainly of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). This review outlines the progression of these early inter-correlated events contributing to the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and injury during the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. A better understanding of these issues is not only imperative to elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of bacterial meningitis, but may also provide the in-depth insight into the development of novel therapeutic interventions against this disease. PMID:26925035

  19. Cloning and expression of recombinant equine interleukin-3 and its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jozef; Lehmann, Melissa; Luttmann, Werner; Marti, Eliane

    2015-02-15

    Interleukin-3 is a growth and differentiation factor for various hematopoietic cells. IL-3 also enhances stimulus-dependent release of mediators and cytokine production by mature basophils. Function of IL-3 has not been studied in horses because of lack of horse-specific reagents. Our aim was to produce recombinant equine IL-3 and test its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Equine IL-3 was cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. PBL of 19 healthy and 20 insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH)-affected horses were stimulated with Culicoides nubeculosus extract with or without IL-3. Sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) production was measured in supernatants by ELISA and mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-13 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) assessed in cell lysate by quantitative real-time PCR. Recombinant equine IL-3 (req-IL-3) had a dose dependent effect on sLT production by stimulated equine PBL and significantly increased IL-4, IL-13 and TSLP expression compared to non-primed cells. IL-3 priming significantly increased Culicoides-induced sLT production in IBH-affected but not in non-affected horses and was particularly effective in young IBH-affected horses (≤ 3 years). A functionally active recombinant equine IL-3 has been produced which will be useful for future immunological studies in horses. It will also allow improving the sensitivity of cellular in vitro tests for allergy diagnosis in horses. PMID:25530476

  20. Pathogenic Triad in Bacterial Meningitis: Pathogen Invasion, NF-κB Activation, and Leukocyte Transmigration that Occur at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shifu; Peng, Liang; Gai, Zhongtao; Zhang, Lehai; Jong, Ambrose; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains the leading cause of disabilities worldwide. This life-threatening disease has a high mortality rate despite the availability of antibiotics and improved critical care. The interactions between bacterial surface components and host defense systems that initiate bacterial meningitis have been studied in molecular and cellular detail over the past several decades. Bacterial meningitis commonly exhibits triad hallmark features (THFs): pathogen penetration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in coordination with type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists mainly of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). This review outlines the progression of these early inter-correlated events contributing to the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and injury during the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. A better understanding of these issues is not only imperative to elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of bacterial meningitis, but may also provide the in-depth insight into the development of novel therapeutic interventions against this disease. PMID:26925035

  1. Impact on outcomes of human leukocyte antigen matching by allele-level typing in adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Jaime; Jaramillo, Francisco J; Planelles, Dolores; Montesinos, Pau; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Moscardó, Federico; Martin, Guillermo; López, Francisca; Martínez, Jesús; Jarque, Isidro; de la Rubia, Javier; Larrea, Luis; Sanz, Miguel A; Sanz, Guillermo F

    2014-01-01

    This retrospective study analyzed the impact of directional donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparity using allele-level typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in 79 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received single-unit umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant at a single institution. With extended high-resolution HLA typing, the donor-recipient compatibility ranged from 2/8 to 8/8. HLA disparity showed no negative impact on nonrelapse mortality (NRM), graft-versus-host (GVH) disease or engraftment. Considering disparities in the GVH direction, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 44% and 22% for patients receiving an UCB unit matched ≥ 6/8 and < 6/8, respectively (P = .04). In multivariable analysis, a higher HLA disparity in the GVH direction using extended high-resolution typing (Risk ratio [RR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.1; P = .0009) and first complete remission at time of transplantation (RR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.8; P = .01) were the only variables significantly associated with an improved disease-free survival. In conclusion, we found that in adults with AML undergoing single-unit UCBT, an increased number of HLA disparities at allele-level typing improved disease-free survival by decreasing the relapse rate without a negative effect on NRM. PMID:24516896

  2. Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cell and Minocycline-Loaded Hydrogels Inhibit the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus that Evades Immunomodulation of Blood-Derived Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Alberto Daniel; Cantu, David Antonio; Vecchi, Joseph T; Rose, Warren E; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2015-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated favorable wound healing properties in addition to their differentiation capacity. MSCs encapsulated in biomaterials such as gelatin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite hydrogels have displayed an immunophenotype change that leads to the release of cytokines and growth factors to accelerate wound healing. However, therapeutic potential of implanted MSC-loaded hydrogels may be limited by non-specific protein adsorption that facilitates adhesion of bacterial pathogens such as planktonic Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to the surface with subsequent biofilm formation resistant to immune cell recognition and antibiotic activity. In this study, we demonstrate that blood-derived primary leukocytes and bone marrow-derived MSCs cannot inhibit colony-forming abilities of planktonic or biofilm-associated SA. However, we show that hydrogels loaded with MSCs and minocycline significantly inhibit colony-forming abilities of planktonic SA while maintaining MSC viability and multipotency. Our results suggest that minocycline and MSC-loaded hydrogels may decrease the bioburden of SA at implant sites in wounds, and may improve the wound healing capabilities of MSC-loaded hydrogels. PMID:25716147

  3. West Nile Virus-Induced Cell Adhesion Molecules on Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Regulate Leukocyte Adhesion and Modulate Permeability of the In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Saguna

    2014-01-01

    Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE). Infection with WNV (NY99 strain) significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1) did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101) strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via ‘Trojan horse’ route, and improve WNV disease outcome. PMID:25036379

  4. The expression of GPR109A, NF-kB and IL-1β in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fengxiu; Fu, Yucai; Wei, Chiju; Chen, Yongru; Ma, Shuhua; Xu, Wencan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the association between the G protein-coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A) expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to discuss the regulation of inflammatory factors by GPR109A signaling. GPR109A signaling has been confirmed to be associated with homeostasis of glucose/lipid metabolism, but the role of signaling in T2DM is still poorly understood. Peripheral blood samples and biochemical data were collected from healthy individuals (normal controls) and T2DM patients. Immunocytochemical staining was used to detect the expression of GPR109A in PBLs. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure mRNA levels of GPR109A, NF-κB, and IL-1β in PBLs. Immunocytochemical staining showed that the GPR109A protein is localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. RT-PCR showed that mRNA levels of GPR109A, NF-κB, and IL-1β were higher in the T2DM group than in the control group (P<0.05). Correlation analysis showed a positive correlation both between GPR109A/NF-κB (r=0.376, P<0.05), and GPR109A/IL-1β (r=501, P<0.05) and between GPR109A and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (r=0.179, P<0.05) and NF-κB /FPG (r=0.358, p<0.05). Our results suggest that GPR109A signaling is associated with T2DM, playing a role in regulation of the inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25361930

  5. Assessment of DNA sensitivity in peripheral blood leukocytes after occupational exposure to microwave radiation: the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay.

    PubMed

    Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Orescanin, Visnja

    2009-02-01

    DNA sensitivity in peripheral blood leukocytes of radar-facility workers daily exposed to microwave radiation and an unexposed control subjects was investigated. The study was carried out on clinically healthy male workers employed on radar equipment and antenna system service within a microwave field of 10 muW/cm(2)-20 mW/cm(2) with frequency range of 1,250-1,350 MHz. The control group consisted of subjects of similar age. The evaluation of DNA damage and sensitivity was performed using alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay (bleomycin-sensitivity assay). The levels of DNA damage in exposed subjects determined by alkaline comet assay were increased compared to control group and showed inter-individual variations. After short exposure of cultured lymphocytes to bleomycin cells of subjects occupationally exposed to microwave (MW) radiation responded with high numbers of chromatid breaks. Almost three times higher number of bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined in comparison with control group. The difference in break per cell (b/c) values recorded between smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant in the exposed group. Regression analyses showed significant positive correlation between the results obtained with two different methods. Considering the correlation coefficients, the number of metaphase with breaks was a better predictor of the comet assay parameters compared to b/c ratio. The best correlation was found between tail moment and number of chromatid with breaks. Our results indicate that MW radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard using the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive biomarkers of individual cancer susceptibility. PMID:18214694

  6. Assessing Immune Function by Profiling Cytokine Release from Stimulated Blood Leukocytes and the Risk of Infection in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Megan L.; Davis, John M.; Knutson, Keith L.; Strausbach, Michael A.; Crowson, Cynthia S.; Therneau, Terry M.; Wettstein, Peter J.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gabriel, Sherine E.

    2011-01-01

    Persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) suffer a high burden of infections, but currently no biomarkers are available to identify individuals at greatest risk. A prospective longitudinal study was therefore conducted to determine the association between the responsiveness of ex vivo cytokine production and 6-month risk of infections. Infections were identified by billing codes and validated by medical record review. At baseline, the release of 17 cytokines by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation, or media alone, was measured using multiplexed cytokine analysis. Production of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and GM-CSF, induced by various conditions, was significantly associated with the occurrence of infections. A multivariable prediction model based on these data provided new information on the risk of infection beyond standard assessments of disease activity, severity, and treatment. Future studies could utilize this information to devise new biomarkers for the prediction of infection in patients with RA. PMID:21703930

  7. A melanoma helper peptide vaccine increases Th1 cytokine production by leukocytes in peripheral blood and immunized lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancers produce soluble and cell-associated molecules that can suppress or alter antitumor immunity. Preclinical studies suggest the disease burden may alter the cytokine profile of helper T cell responses to cancer antigens. We studied cytokine production by helper T cells responding to vaccination with 6 melanoma helper peptides (6MHP) in blood and lymph nodes. Methods Twenty-three patients with stage IIIB-IV melanoma received a 6MHP vaccine. Antigen-reactive T cells from blood and draining lymph nodes were cultured, exposed to antigen, and then supernatants (days 2 and 5) were assayed for Th1 and Th2 cytokines. Results from 4 time points were compared to pre-vaccine levels. Results Cytokine responses to vaccinating peptides were observed in 83% of patients. Th1 favoring responses were most common (17 of 19 responders). The most abundant cytokines produced were IFN-γ and IL-5 in the PBMC’s. IL-2 responses predominated in cells obtained from draining lymph nodes in 2-day culture but not in 5-day cultures. Patients with clinically measurable disease produced similar levels of total cytokine and similar degree of Th1 polarization as patients with no evidence of disease (NED). Conclusions The MHC class II-associated peptides used in this study induced helper T cells with a Th1-biased cytokine response in both PBMC and sentinel immunized nodes. Most patients can mount a Th1 dominant response to these peptides. Future studies are needed to test newer vaccine adjuvants in combination with these peptides. Trial registration CDR0000378171, Clinicaltrials: NCT00089219. PMID:25126421

  8. Gene-diet interactions in exposure to heterocyclic aromatic amines and bulky DNA adduct levels in blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ho, Vikki; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Chen, Jian; King, Will D

    2015-08-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs), carcinogens produced in meat when cooked at high temperatures, are an emerging biologic explanation for the meat-colorectal cancer relationship. HAAs form DNA adducts; left unrepaired, adducts can induce mutations, which may initiate/promote carcinogenesis. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between dietary HAAs, genetic susceptibility and bulky DNA adduct levels. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between dietary HAA exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels in blood measured using (32)P-postlabeling among 99 healthy volunteers. Gene-diet interactions between dietary HAAs and genetic factors relevant to the biotransformation of HAAs and DNA repair were also examined. No main effects of dietary HAAs on bulky DNA adduct levels was found. However, those with the putative NAT1 rapid acetylator phenotype had lower adduct levels than those with the slow acetylator phenotype (P = 0.02). Furthermore, having five or more 'at-risk' genotypes was associated with higher bulky DNA adduct levels (P = 0.03). Gene-diet interactions were observed between NAT1 polymorphisms and dietary HAAs (P < 0.05); among the slow acetylator phenotype, higher intakes of HAAs were associated with an increase in DNA adduct levels compared to lower intakes. This study provides evidence of a biologic relationship between dietary HAAs, genetic susceptibility and bulky DNA adduct formation. However, the lack of a strong main effect of HAAs suggests that dietary HAAs are not a large contributor to bulky DNA adducts in this population; future studies should consider relevant gene-diet interactions to clarify the role of HAAs in carcinogenesis. PMID:26010176

  9. Hyperreactivity of Blood Leukocytes in Patients with NAFLD to Ex Vivo Lipopolysaccharide Treatment Is Modulated by Metformin and Phosphatidylcholine but Not by Alpha Ketoglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Daniluk, Jadwiga; Słabczyńska, Olga; Kandefer-Szerszeń, Martyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Toll-like receptor 4 and proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We investigated IL-1, IL-6 and TNFα production and toll-like receptor 4 in both—obese and lean patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who met different sets of metabolic syndrome criteria and linked the results with the disease burden. Materials and Methods 95 subjects were divided into four groups depending on the following criteria: presence or absence of metabolic syndrome and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, glucose tolerance (prediabetes or normoglycemia) and BMI value (obese or lean). We determined the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and monocyte toll-like receptor 4 expression in fresh blood as well as in blood cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide with or without metformin, alphaketoglutarate or phosphatidylcholine supplementation. Results The blood leukocytes of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide treatment and produce elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to ex vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, they overexpress toll-like receptor-4. Hyperreactivity was typical mainly for obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease together with metabolic syndrome and decreased with the severity of disease. Metformin was the most effective in attenuation of hyperreactivity in all groups of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but in obese patients the effectiveness of metformin was weaker than in lean. The reduction of cytokine level by metformin was accompanied by the decrease in toll-like receptor-4 expression. phosphatidylcholine also attenuated hyperreactivity to lipopolysaccharide but mainly in obese patients. Alpha ketoglutarate did not modulate cytokines’ level and toll-like receptor 4 expression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients. Conclusions Metformin and phosphatidylcholine attenuated lipopolysaccharide induced toll-like receptor 4 overexpression and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, their efficacy depended on combined presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:26629827

  10. Secretory virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus isolates obtained from mastitic bovine milk--effect on bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Fijalkowski, Karol; Czernomysy-Furowicz, Danuta; Irwin, Jane A; Nawrotek, Pawel; Pobucewicz, Anna

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the research was to test whether exogenic virulence factors secreted by Staphylococcus aureus isolates are involved in mechanisms that allow the bacteria to modulate and evade phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The research was based on the comparison of the effects of supernatants, prepared from cultures of 30 S. aureus isolates, on the functional properties of bovine neutrophils in vitro. S. aureus isolates were collected from milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis. Supernatants, which were used to treat leukocytes, were prepared from 18 h S. aureus cultures. Exogenic virulence factors secreted by S. aureus isolates significantly influenced the phagocytosis parameters evaluated. Depending on their leukotoxic or superantigenic properties, supernatants could affect the ingestion process, and also showed an influence on the digestion efficiency and phagocytosis carried out by bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils in vitro. PMID:21944833

  11. Leukocyte Dysfunction in the Bovine Homologue of the Chediak-Higashi Syndrome of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Renshaw, Harland W.; Davis, William C.; Fudenberg, H. Hugh; Padgett, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The increased susceptibility to pyogenic infections noted in cattle with the Chediak-Higashi syndrome trait has been related to an impairment of leukocyte function at the cellular level. Investigations of the relationship of abnormal granule formation to increased susceptibility to infection, conducted with cell suspensions containing high concentrations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, revealed a bactericidal defect that was associated with abnormal intracellular killing and not due to defective particle ingestion. The in vitro bactericidal defect was associated with a metabolic anomaly in the hexose monophosphate shunt, but not with an alteration in the capacity to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium dye. Ultrastructural histochemical studies of phagocytosis and phagolysosome formation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes suggest that the impairment in bactericidal capacity is correlated also with either a delay or failure of primary granules to degranulate. Images PMID:4426711

  12. The role of G-CSF and IL-6 in the granulopoiesis-stimulating activity of murine blood serum induced by perorally administered ultrafiltered pig leukocyte extract, IMUNOR.

    PubMed

    Vacek, Antonín; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Weiterová, Lenka; Streitová, Denisa; Svoboda, Jaroslav

    2007-05-01

    IMUNOR, a low-molecular weight (< 12 kD) ultrafiltered pig leukocyte extract, has been previously found to have significant stimulatory effects on murine hematopoiesis supressed by ionizing radiation or cytotoxic drugs. This communication shows data on the mechanisms of these effects. Using ELISA assay, significantly increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed. On the contrary, no detectable levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CFC) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) have been found in blood serum of IMUNOR-treated mice. Incubation of the serum from IMUNOR-treated mice with antibodies against G-CSF caused abrogation of the ability of the sera to stimulate in vitro growth of colonies originating from granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC). In contrast, incubation of the serum with antibodies against IL-6 did not change its colony-stimulating activity. It may be inferred from these findings that G-CSF is probably the main cytokine responsible for the granulopoiesis-stimulating effects of IMUNOR. When the serum from IMUNOR-treated mice with G-CSF inactivated by anti-G-CSF antibodies (but with elevated IL-6) was added to cultures of bone marrow cells together with a suboptimum concentration of IL-3, a significant increase in the numbers of GM-CFC colonies was found. Moreover, conjoint inactivation of G-CSF and IL-6 significantly decreased the numbers of GM-CFC colonies in comparison with those observed when only G-CSF was inactivated. This observation strongly suggests that though IMUNOR-induced IL-6 is not able to induce the growth of GM-CFC colonies alone, it is able to potentiate the hematopoiesis-stimulating effect of IL-3. These findings represent a new knowledge concerning the hematopoiesis-stimulating action of IMUNOR, a promising immunomodulatory agent. PMID:17386413

  13. Separation of uncompromised whole blood mixtures for single source STR profiling using fluorescently-labeled human leukocyte antigen (HLA) probes and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

    PubMed

    Dean, Lee; Kwon, Ye Jin; Philpott, M Katherine; Stanciu, Cristina E; Seashols-Williams, Sarah J; Dawson Cruz, Tracey; Sturgill, Jamie; Ehrhardt, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of biological mixtures is a significant problem for forensic laboratories, particularly when the mixture contains only one cell type. Contributions from multiple individuals to biologic evidence can complicate DNA profile interpretation and often lead to a reduction in the probative value of DNA evidence or worse, its total loss. To address this, we have utilized an analytical technique that exploits the intrinsic immunological variation among individuals to physically separate cells from different sources in a mixture prior to DNA profiling. Specifically, we applied a fluorescently labeled antibody probe to selectively bind to one contributor in a mixture through allele-specific interactions with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins that are expressed on the surfaces of most nucleated cells. Once the contributor's cells were bound to the probe, they were isolated from the mixture using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)-a high throughput technique for separating cell populations based on their optical properties-and then subjected to STR analysis. We tested this approach on two-person and four-person whole blood mixtures where one contributor possessed an HLA allele (A*02) that was not shared by other contributors to the mixture. Results showed that hybridization of the mixture with a fluorescently-labeled antibody probe complimentary to the A*02 allele's protein product created a cell population with a distinct optical profile that could be easily differentiated from other cells in the mixture. After sorting the cells with FACS, genetic analysis showed that the STR profile of this cell population was consistent with that of the contributor who possessed the A*02 allele. Minor peaks from the A*02 negative contributor(s) were observed but could be easily distinguished from the profile generated from A*02 positive cells. Overall, this indicates that HLA antibody probes coupled to FACS may be an effective approach for generating STR profiles of individual contributors from forensic mixtures. PMID:25796046

  14. Phenotyping of Leukocytes and Leukocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Pugholm, Lotte Hatting; Bæk, Rikke; Søndergaard, Evo Kristina Lindersson; Revenfeld, Anne Louise Schacht; Jørgensen, Malene Møller; Varming, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a demonstrated involvement in modulating the immune system. It has been proposed that EVs could be used as biomarkers for detection of inflammatory and immunological disorders. Consequently, it is of great interest to investigate EVs in more detail with focus on immunological markers. In this study, five major leukocyte subpopulations and the corresponding leukocyte-derived EVs were phenotyped with focus on selected immunological lineage-specific markers and selected vesicle-related markers. The leukocyte-derived EVs displayed phenotypic differences in the 34 markers investigated. The majority of the lineage-specific markers used for identification of the parent cell types could not be detected on EVs released from monocultures of the associated cell types. In contrast, the vesicular presentation of CD9, CD63, and CD81 correlated to the cell surface expression of these markers, however, with few exceptions. Furthermore, the cellular expression of CD9, CD63, and CD81 varied between leukocytes present in whole blood and cultured leukocytes. In summary, these data demonstrate that the cellular and vesicular presentation of selected lineage-specific and vesicle-related markers may differ, supporting the accumulating observations that sorting of molecular cargo into EVs is tightly controlled. PMID:27195303

  15. Elemental composition of leukocyte subfractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Admans, L. L.; Spyrou, N. M.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary investigation was to determine the elemental concentration of various subfractions of leukocytes in a normal subject. Little work has been published on the elemental composition of these subfractions. First, a reliable technique for separation of these subfractions had to be established so that it could be applied to the determination of elemental concentrations in leukocyte subfractions from patients undergoing heart bypass surgery. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) utilising short irradiation and counting was the technique employed. Various washing media were examined during the separation of the leukocyte subfractions, for contamination of these small samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclearcytes (PMN). Early results showed Mg and Se were present in these subfractions. Possibilities for further work are also discussed.

  16. Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.

    PubMed

    Minasyan, Hayk A

    2014-01-01

    Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation. PMID:25259410

  17. Leukocyte chemoattraction by 1,2-diacylglycerol.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, T M; Hoffman, R D; Nishijima, J; Jakoi, L; Snyderman, R; Shin, H S

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated the hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in response to chemoattractants and in lymphocytes in response to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin. We investigated the role of 1,2-diacylglycerol, one of the products of receptor-linked phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, in mediating the migratory response of leukocytes. In an under-agarose migration system, we found 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol to be a strong chemoattractant for human PMN, 6C3HED (a mouse thymic lymphoma), and Jurkat (a human T-cell leukemia). By using a modified Boyden chamber assay, the migratory response of PMN to 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol was determined to be primarily chemotactic. Analysis of structural analogs indicated that both the position and number of acyl chains are important in determining chemoattractant activity. These studies demonstrate that exogenous 1,2-diacylglycerol can stimulate the directed migration of leukocytes. They further suggest that the formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol following receptor-mediated stimulation may represent a common step in the migratory responses of myeloid and lymphoid cells. Images PMID:3162313

  18. Expression Profile of Cytokines and Enzymes mRNA in Blood Leukocytes of Dogs with Leptospirosis and Its Associated Pulmonary Hemorrhage Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Maissen-Villiger, Carla A.; Schweighauser, Ariane; van Dorland, H. Anette; Morel, Claudine; Bruckmaier, Rupert M.; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Francey, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Background Dogs with leptospirosis show similar organ manifestations and disease course as human patients, including acute kidney injury and pulmonary hemorrhage, making this naturally-occurring infection a good animal model for human leptospirosis. Expression patterns of cytokines and enzymes have been correlated with disease manifestations and clinical outcome in humans and animals. The aim of this study was to describe mRNA expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in canine leptospirosis and to compare it with other renal diseases to identify patterns characterizing the disease and especially its pulmonary form. Methodology and Principal Findings The mRNA abundance of cytokines (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β) and enzymes (5-LO, iNOS) was measured prospectively in blood leukocytes from 34 dogs with severe leptospirosis and acute kidney injury, including 22 dogs with leptospirosis-associated pulmonary hemorrhages. Dogs with leptospirosis were compared to 14 dogs with acute kidney injury of other origin than leptospirosis, 8 dogs with chronic kidney disease, and 10 healthy control dogs. Canine leptospirosis was characterized by high 5-LO and low TNF-α expression compared to other causes of acute kidney injury, although the decreased TNF-α expression was also seen in chronic kidney disease. Leptospirosis-associated pulmonary hemorrhage was not characterized by a specific pattern, with only mild changes noted, including increased IL-10 and decreased 5-LO expression on some days in affected dogs. Fatal outcome from pulmonary hemorrhages was associated with low TNF-α, high IL-1β, and high iNOS expression, a pattern possibly expressed also in dogs with other forms of acute kidney injury. Conclusion The patterns of cytokine and enzyme expression observed in the present study indicate a complex pro- and anti-inflammatory response to the infection with leptospires. The recognition of these signatures may be of diagnostic and prognostic relevance for affected individuals and they may indicate options for newer therapies targeting the identified pathways. PMID:26824356

  19. Influence of SkQ1 on Expression of Nrf2 Gene, ARE-Controlled Genes of Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Activity in Rat Blood Leukocytes under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Vnukov, V V; Gutsenko, O I; Milutina, N P; Kornienko, I V; Ananyan, A A; Danilenko, A O; Panina, S B; Plotnikov, A A; Makarenko, M S

    2015-12-01

    The study demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by hyperoxia (0.5 MPa for 90 min) resulted in reduction of mRNA levels of transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, CAT, GPx4) in peripheral blood leukocytes of rats. The changes in gene expression profiles under hyperoxia were accompanied by disbalance of activity of antioxidant enzymes in the leukocytes, namely activation of superoxide dismutase and inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. Pretreatment of rats with SkQ1 (50nmol/kg for five days) significantly increased mRNA levels of transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes SOD2 and GPx4 and normalized the transcriptional activity of the SOD1 and CAT genes in the leukocytes in hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress. At the same time, the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase was increased, and the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase returned to the control level. It is hypothesized that protective effect of SkQ1 in hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress can be realized via a direct antioxidant property and the stimulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 redox-sensitive signaling system. PMID:26638685

  20. Substitution of Aspartate for glycine 1018 in the Type III procollagen (COL3AI) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: The mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother

    SciTech Connect

    Kontusaari, S.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Prockop, D.J. ); Stolle, C. ); Pope, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an [alpha] chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the [alpha]1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro[alpha](III) chain by adding 167.). Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Surface modification of polymeric materials and its effect on blood compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Archuleta, T.; Barthell, B.L.; Kossowsky, R.; London, J.E.; Lehnert, B.E.; Duchane, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    The surfaces of commercially available polymeric materials have been modified through the chemical infusion process and physical vapor deposition. The surfaces of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been modified through a chemical infusion process by treatment of the sample with a solution containing varying amounts of titanium(IV)isopropoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The surfaces of silicone rubber samples have been coated with a thin coating of titanium dioxide with an ion beam sputtering technique. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and neutron activation analysis. The infused samples were evaluated for blood compatibility using two biological assays: an adherence assay in which the adherence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the samples was determined, and a hemolysis assay using rat blood erythrocytes to determine the hemolytic activity of the samples. Based on the results of these assays, the PMMA samples treated with PVP alone resulted in an improvement in reactivity with the blood cells. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation) method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate), ER (Overall Error Rate), and RDE (Relative Distance Error). The presented LC (Lobe Counting) method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight), and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector). PMID:21073711

  3. Interleukin-15 Activates Proinflammatory and Antimicrobial Functions in Polymorphonuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Musso, Tiziana; Calosso, Liliana; Zucca, Mario; Millesimo, Maura; Puliti, Manuela; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia; Merlino, Chiara; Savoia, Dianella; Cavallo, Rossana; Ponzi, Alessandro Negro; Badolato, Raffaele

    1998-01-01

    Interleukin-15 (IL-15) is a recently discovered cytokine produced by a wide range of different cell types including fibroblasts, keratinocytes, endothelial cells, and macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide or microbial infection. This suggests that IL-15 may play a crucial role in the activation of phagocytic cells against pathogens. We studied polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) activation by IL-15, evaluated as enhancement of PMN anti-Candida activity as well as IL-8 production, following stimulation with the cytokine. The PMN response to IL-15 depends on binding to the IL-15 receptor. Our experiments show that binding of a biotinylated human IL-15–immunoglobulin G2b IgG2b fusion protein was competed by the addition of human recombinant IL-15 (rIL-15) or of human rIL-2, suggesting that IL-15 binding to PMN might involve the IL-2Rβ and IL-2Rγ chains, which have been shown to be constitutively expressed by PMN. In addition, we show by reverse transcription-PCR and by flow cytometry with a specific anti-IL-15Rα chain monoclonal antibody that PMN express the IL-15Rα chain at the mRNA and protein levels. Incubation with IL-15 activated PMN to secrete the chemotactic factor IL-8, and the amount secreted was increased by costimulation with heat-inactivated Candida albicans. In addition, IL-15 primed the metabolic burst of PMN in response to formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine but was not sufficient to trigger the respiratory burst or to increase the production of superoxide in PMN exposed to C. albicans. IL-15 also increased the ability of PMN to phagocytose heat-killed C. albicans organisms in a dose-dependent manner, without opsonization by antibodies or complement-derived products. In the same concentration range, IL-15 was as effective as gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and IL-2 in increasing the C. albicans growth-inhibitory activity of PMN. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-15 is a potent stimulant of both proinflammatory and antifungal activities of PMN, activating several antimicrobial functions of PMN involved in the cellular response against C. albicans. PMID:9596728

  4. Replication and persistence of measles virus in defined subpopulations of human leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, B S; Lampert, P W; Oldstone, M B

    1975-01-01

    Replication of Edmonston strain measles virus was studied in several human lymphoblast lines, as well as in defined subpopulations of circulating human leukocytes. It was found that measles virus can productively infect T cells, B cells, and monocytes from human blood. These conclusions were derived from infectious center studies on segregated cell populations, as well as from ultrastructural analyses on cells labeled with specific markers. In contrast, mature polymorphonuclear cells failed to synthesize measles virus nucleocapsids even after infection at a relatively high multiplicity of infection. Measles virus replicated more efficiently in lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens than in unstimulated cells. However, both phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen had a negligible stimulatory effect on viral synthesis in purified populations of monocytes. In all instances the efficiency of measles virus replication by monocytes was appreciably less than that of mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes or of continuously culture lymphoblasts. Under standard conditions of infection, all of the surveyed lymphoblast lines produced equivalent amounts of measles virus regardless of the major histocompatibility (HL-A) haplotype. Hence, no evidence was found that the HL-A3,7 haplotype conferred either an advantage or disadvantage with respect to measles virus synthesis in an immunologically neutral environment. A persistent infection with measles virus could be established in both T and B lymphoblasts. The release of infectious virus from such persistently infected cells was stable over a period of several weeks and was approximately 100-fold less than peak viral titers obtained in each respective line after acute infection. Images PMID:1081602

  5. Human polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation with arachidonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R. J.; Sam, L. M.; Justen, J. M.; Leach, K. L.; Epps, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The capacity of arachidonic acid (AA) to stimulate granule exocytosis from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was investigated. AA induced the selected extracellular release of azurophil (myeloperoxidase, lysozyme) and specific (lysozyme, vitamin B12 binding protein) granule constituents from human PMNs in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Cytochalasin B (CB) enhanced but was not required for PMN activation with AA. Although extracellular calcium had no effect on granule exocytosis, AA did stimulate the mobilization of intracellular sequestered Ca2+ which resulted in an increase in cytosolic-free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) as reflected by increased fluorescence of Fura-2-treated cells. AA stimulated Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent protein kinase C (PK-C) activity in PMNs. 4,4'-Diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulphonic acid stilbene (DIDS), an anion channel blocker, caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of granule enzyme release. Activation of PMNs with AA was unaffected by the lipoxygenase/cycle-oxygenase inhibitors, 5,8,11, 14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA) and benoxaprofen, a lipoxygenase inhibitor, 6, 9, deepoxy-6,9-(phenylimino) delta 6,8-prostaglandin 1(1) (piriprost potassium) or a pure cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, flurbiprofen. These data define the properties of AA as a secretory stimulus for human PMNs. PMID:3111576

  6. Hydrogen peroxide utilization in myeloperoxidase-deficient leukocytes: a possible microbicidal control mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Klebanoff, Seymour J.; Pincus, Stephanie H.

    1971-01-01

    Phagocytosis-induced formate and glucose C-1 oxidation by the polymorphonuclear leukocytes of a patient with hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency was considerably greater than normal. The addition of catalase to the leukocyte suspension was required for optimum formate oxidation. Azide and cyanide increased glucose C-1 oxidation by normal leukocytes but had little or no effect on myeloperoxidase-deficient leukocytes suggesting that these agents normally stimulate glucose C-1 oxidation, in part, by inhibition of myeloperoxidase. It is suggested that the inhibition or absence of myeloperoxidase results in an increased utilization of H2O2 in nonmyeloperoxidase-mediated H2O2-dependent reactions such as formate oxidation and hexose monophosphate pathway activation. The possibility of a microbicidal control mechanism in which a decrease in the microbicidal activity of myeloperoxidase is offset, in part, by an increase in the nonenzymatic microbicidal activity of H2O2 is considered. PMID:5116211

  7. Polymorphonuclear cell apoptosis in exudates generated by polymers.

    PubMed

    Fabre, T; Belloc, F; Dupuy, B; Schappacher, M; Soum, A; Bertrand-Barat, J; Baquey, C; Durandeau, A

    1999-03-15

    Flow cytometry was used to quantify apoptotic and necrotic polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in an exudate generated by biomaterials, and the results were compared with determinations of spontaneous apoptosis and necrosis in PMN cells from the bloodstream. The exudate formed inside cylindrical tubes subcutaneously implanted in the dorsal region of rats was collected over a 1-week period. A rapid and simple staining procedure based on the spectral properties of the bisbenzemide Hoechst 33342 was used to identify apoptotic PMN cells. Quantification of permeabilized PMN cells stained by propidium iodide was possible in the same unfixed specimens. The percentages of apoptotic and permeabilized PMN cells in peripheral rat blood were low (1.8 +/-0 0.5% and 1.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively), similar to results found in humans. In exudates generated by polyvinyl chloride (PVC), the percentages of apoptotic and permeabilized PMN cells were higher than in the blood. The percentage of PMN cells undergoing apoptosis progressively increased with time and reached a maximum at day 2 (27% +/- 6%). The percentage of permeabilized cells progressively increased with time and was much higher than the percentage of apoptotic cells on days 4 and 8. Apoptosis and necrosis of PMN cells at day 2 were inhibited when tubes were filled with 10% serum. Selective inhibition of apoptosis with a caspase inhibitor in vivo indicated that apoptosis and necrosis are two separate pathways leading to the death of PMN cells in the exudate. At day 2, polyurethane (PU) was associated with a lower rate of apoptosis than PVC or a random copolymer of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and epsiloncaprolactone (ECL). Apoptosis was interpreted as an organized cell removal process that limits inflammation. Apoptosis was the natural route of PMN cell death at the early stage of inflammation. PMID:10397947

  8. Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Apoptosis Is Accelerated by Sulfatides or Sulfatides-Treated Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Grishina, Zoryana V.; Viryasova, Galina M.; Romanova, Yulia M.; Sud'ina, Galina F.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophils die by apoptosis following activation and uptake of microbes or enter apoptosis spontaneously at the end of their lifespan if they do not encounter a pathogen. Here we report that sulfatides or sulfatides-treated Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria accelerated human neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophil apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. Sulfatides caused prominent increase in percentage of apoptotic cells after 2.5?hrs of incubation. Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria by themselves did not affect the basal level of apoptosis in neutrophil population. When neutrophils were added to S. Typhimurium opsonized by sulfatides, apoptotic index significantly increased, whereas the number of phagocyting cells was not influenced. Sulfatides' proapoptotic effect was strongly dependent on the activity of ?-galactosidase; inhibition of this enzyme impaired its potency to accelerate apoptosis. These data support the mechanism of neutrophil apoptosis triggering based on sulfatides' ability to accumulate in intracellular compartments and mediate successive increase in ceramide content resulting from ?-galactosidase activity. PMID:25883957

  9. Phosphatidic acid as a second messenger in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Effects on activation of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Agwu, D E; McPhail, L C; Sozzani, S; Bass, D A; McCall, C E

    1991-01-01

    Receptor-mediated agonists, such as FMLP, induce an early, phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated accumulation of phosphatidic acid (PA) which may play a role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN. We have determined the effect of changes in PA production on O2 consumption in intact PMN and the level of NADPH oxidase activity measured in a cell-free assay. Pretreatment of cells with various concentrations of propranolol enhanced (less than or equal to 200 microM) or inhibited (greater than 300 microM) PLD-induced production of PA (mass and radiolabel) in a manner that correlated with enhancement or inhibition of O2 consumption in PMN stimulated with 1 microM FMLP in the absence of cytochalasin B. The concentration-dependent effects of propranolol on FMLP-induced NADPH oxidase activation was confirmed by direct assay of the enzyme in subcellular fractions. In PA extracted from cells pretreated with 200 microM propranolol before stimulation with 1 microM FMLP, phospholipase A1 (PLA1)-digestion for 90 min, followed by quantitation of residual PA, showed that a minimum of 44% of PA in control (undigested) sample was diacyl-PA; alkylacyl-PA remained undigested by PLA1. Propranolol was also observed to have a concentration-dependent enhancement of mass of 1,2-DG formed in PMN stimulated with FMLP. DG levels reached a maximum at 300 microM propranolol and remained unchanged up to 500 microM propranolol. However, in contrast to PA levels, the level of DG produced did not correlate with NADPH oxidase activation. Exogenously added didecanoyl-PA activated NADPH oxidase in a concentration-dependent manner (1-300 microM) in a reconstitution assay using membrane and cytosolic fractions from unstimulated PMN. In addition, PA synergized with SDS for oxidase activation. Taken together, these results indicate that PA plays a second messenger role in the activation of NADPH oxidase in human PMN and that regulation of phospholipase D is a key step in the activation pathway. Images PMID:1864964

  10. Serum opsonin, bacteria, and polymorphonuclear leukocyte interactions in subacute bacterial endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Ronald P.; Laxdal, Throstur; Quie, Paul G.; Williams, Ralph C.

    1968-01-01

    The effect of anti-?-globulin factors on 7S ?-globulin opsonins from patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis has been examined with a quantitative in vitro phagocytosis system. Human anti-?-globulin factors from patients with subacute bacterial endocarditis and rheumatoid arthritis inhibited the opsonic action of 7S ?-globulin specifically bound to bacteria. A similar antiopsonic effect was obtained with rabbit antiserum to human ?G globulin. The antiopsonic effect of anti-?-globulin factors did not correlate with their ability to potentiate agglutination of bacteria by 7S antibody. Competition was demonstrated between the antiopsonic effect of anti-?-globulin factors and the phagocytosis-promoting action of heat-labile serum factors containing hemolytically active complement. PMID:5645856

  11. SERUM INHIBITION OF THE OXIDATIVE BURST IN HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. (R826781)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. SERUM INHIBITION OF THE OXIDATIVE BURST IN HUMAN POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. (R827354C003)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Altered expression of Fc gammaRIII (CD16) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils from individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 disease and pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Meddows-Taylor, S; Martin, D J; Tiemessen, C T

    1997-01-01

    Fc gammaRIII (CD16) expression on the surfaces of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was significantly reduced in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis compared to that in individuals with either disease alone or in healthy blood donors. This downregulation of Fc gammaRIII may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility of coinfected individuals to opportunistic infections. PMID:9384310

  14. Analysis of blood leukocytes in a naturally occurring immunodeficiency of pigs shows the defect is localized to B and T cells.

    PubMed

    Ewen, C L; Cino-Ozuna, A G; He, H; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K; Rowland, R R R; Wyatt, C R

    2014-12-15

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the result of a set of inherited genetic defects which render components of the immune response nonfunctional. In Arabian horses, Jack Russell terriers, and mice, the disorder is a consequence of the absence of T and B lymphocytes, while natural killer (NK) cell and other leukocyte populations remain intact. Preliminary analysis of a naturally acquired form of inherited SCID in a line of pigs showed several defects in the architecture and composition of secondary lymphoid organs. In this study, a quantitative assessment of lymphocyte populations in affected and normal littermates showed depleted T or B lymphocyte populations in affected pigs; however, NK cells and neutrophils were present in numbers comparable to unaffected littermates. The results indicate that the immune defect in pigs shares the same features as other SCID-affected species. PMID:25454085

  15. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil in brain parenchyma after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiurong; Sun, Guanghua; Zhang, Han; Ting, Shun-Ming; Song, Shen; Gonzales, Nicole; Aronowski, Jaroslaw

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) infiltration into brain parenchyma after cerebrovascular accidents is viewed as a key component of secondary brain injury. Interestingly, a recent study of ischemic stroke suggests that after ischemic stroke, PMNs do not enter brain parenchyma and as such may cause no harm to the brain. Thus, the present study was designed to determine PMNs' behavior after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using the autologous blood injection model of ICH in rats and immunohistochemistry for PMNs and vascular components, we evaluated the temporal and spatial PMNs distribution in the ICH-affected brain. We found that, similar to ischemia, there is a robust increase in presence of PMNs in the ICH-injured tissue that lasts for at least 1 to 2 weeks. However, in contrast to what was suggested for ischemia, besides PMNs that stay in association with the vasculature, after ICH, we found abundance of intraparenchymal PMNs (with no obvious association with vessels) in the ICH core and hematoma border, especially between 1 and 7 days after the ictus. Interestingly, the increased presence of intraparenchymal PMNs after ICH coincided with the massive loss of microvascular integrity, suggesting vascular disruption as a potential cause of PMNs presence in the brain parenchyma. Our study indicates that in contrast to ischemic stroke, after ICH, PMNs target not only vascular compartment but also brain parenchyma in the affected brain. As such, it is possible that the pathogenic role and therapeutic implications of targeting PMNs after ICH could be different from these after ischemic stroke. Our work suggests the needs for more studies addressing the role of PMNs in ICH. PMID:24696130

  16. Coupled Flow-Structure-Biochemistry Simulations of Dynamic Systems of Blood Cells Using an Adaptive Surface Tracking Method

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, M.H.; Kunz, R.F.; Bistline, J.E.; Dong, C.

    2009-01-01

    A method for the computation of low Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of freedom motion control and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mechanics is presented. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by presenting several three-dimensional cell system simulations, including the collision/interaction between a cancer cell and an endothelium adherent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell in a shear flow. PMID:20160939

  17. Genetics Home Reference: leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... wall. Signaling through the β2 integrins triggers the transport of the attached leukocyte across the blood vessel ... of various health conditions: Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Surgery and Rehabilitation Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Related Information ...

  18. Direct measurement of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes during hemodialysis therapy

    PubMed Central

    Okano, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Kazuo; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Tsuchiya, Ken; Akiba, Takashi; Nitta, Kosaku

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Both chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis (HD) are reported to elevate oxidative stress. Available evidence for oxidative stress is indirect measurement of oxidative stress as accumulation of byproducts by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We aimed to examine the effect of CKD and HD on ROS levels in circulating leukocytes and to compare those with conventional oxidative stress marker, F2-isoprostane, in HD patients. Methods: Using flowcytometry techniques, ROS levels in circulating leukocytes can be directly measured in 16 HD patients and 12 healthy volunteers. We also measured circulating F2-isoprostanes levels in both groups. Results: HD patients demonstrated a significant increase in serum levels of F2-isoprostanes. The direct measurement of ROS levels in leukocytes showed increase in HD patients compared to the control; 1.91-fold in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), 1.06-fold in lymphocytes, and 1.35-fold in monocytes. Significant difference between the two groups could be observed only in PMN. The ROS levels in all three fractions of leukocytes showed negative correlations with serum F2-isoprostane levels but the ROS levels only in PMN showed significant correlation (r2 = 0.774, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Our results indicate that direct measurement of the ROS levels in circulating leukocytes by flowcytometry is a useful method to examine oxidative stress during HD procedure. The ROS levels in circulating leukocytes showed negative correlation with serum F2-isoprostane levels. PMID:26885025

  19. Leukocyte relaxation properties.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, K L; Dong, C; Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Chien, S; Skalak, R

    1988-01-01

    Study of the mechanical properties of leukocytes is useful to understand their passage through narrow capillaries and interaction with other cells. Leukocytes are known to be viscoelastic and their properties have been established by micropipette aspiration techniques. Here, the recovery of leukocytes to their normal spherical form is studied after prolonged deformation in a pipette which is large enough to permit complete entry of the leukocyte. The recovery history is characterized by the time history of the major diameter (d1) and minor diameter (d2). When the cell is removed from the pipette, it shows initially a small rapid recoil followed by a slower asymptotic recovery to the spherical shape. In the presence of cell activation and formation of pseudopods, the time history for recovery is prolonged compared with passive cell recovery. If a protopod pre-existed during the holding period, the recovery only begins when the protopod starts to retract. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:3207829

  20. Decreased expression of ectonucleotidase E-NPP1 in leukocytes from subjects with severe asthma exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Montaño, L M; Vargas, M H; Díaz-Hernández, V; De Ita, M; Kazakova, R; Barajas-López, C

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest that ATP and related nucleotides play a role in the pathophysiology of asthma. However, the functionality of ectonucleotidases in this disease has been scantly investigated. We studied total ectonucleotidase activity in leukocytes from patients suffering from asthma exacerbation and explored the expression of E-NTPDase 1, 2, 3, and 8, and E-NPP1, 2, and 3, in their polymorphonuclear cells by immunofluorescence and qPCR. Leukocytes from patients with mild or moderate asthma exacerbation had similar ectonucleotidase activity than leukocytes from healthy subjects, while in patients with severe asthma exacerbation, this activity was lower. Of the ectonucleotidases studied, only E-NPP1 displayed diminished immunofluorescence and a significant decrease in its mRNA expression, both in patients with severe asthma exacerbation. This reduced E-NPP1 expression could be responsible for increased amounts of ATP or other nucleotides, capable of worsening asthma exacerbation, and warranting further investigation. PMID:26405014

  1. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

  2. Effects of the Tumor-Leukocyte Microenvironment on Melanoma–Neutrophil Adhesion to the Endothelium in a Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Shile; Hoskins, Meghan; Khanna, Payal; Kunz, Robert F.; Dong, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The primary cause of cancer mortality is not attributed to primary tumor formation, but rather to the growth of metastases at distant organ sites. Tumor cell adhesion to blood vessel endothelium (EC) and subsequent transendothelial migration within the circulation are critical components of the metastasis cascade. Previous studies have shown polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) may facilitate melanoma cell adhesion to the EC and subsequent extravasation under flow conditions. The melanoma cell–PMN interactions are found to be mediated by the binding between intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on melanoma cells and β2 integrin on PMNs and by endogenously secreted interleukin 8 (IL-8) within the tumor-leukocyte microenvironment. In this study, the effects of fluid convection on the IL-8-mediated activation of PMNs and the binding kinetics between PMNs and melanoma cells were investigated. Results indicate that the shear rate dependence of PMN–melanoma cell adhesion and melanoma cell extravasation is due, at least partly, to the convection of tumor-secreted proinflammatory cytokine IL-8. PMID:19865613

  3. THE BOVINE NEUTROPHIL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN BLOOD AND MILK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) form the first line of cellular defense against invading pathogens. The PMN is characterized by a polymorphic segmented nucleus, numerous cytoplasmic granules that provide constituents for killing bacteria, large stores of glycogen for energy and a high...

  4. Lung injury induced by leukocytic proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Janoff, A.; White, R.; Carp, H.; Harel, S.; Dearing, R.; Lee, D.

    1979-01-01

    Human polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) contain large amounts of neutral proteases that can degrade elastin, collagen, proteoglycan, and basement membrane. The instillation of one of the purified enzymes (elastase) into dog lungs in vivo causes degradation of elastic fibers and other alveolar septal components and results in anatomic changes similar to those of human pulmonary emphysema. Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor associated with pulmonary emphysema in man. One mechanism for this association may be interference with the regulation of PMN elastase activity by alveolar antiproteases. This possibility is supported by the observation that the oxidizing activity of tobacco smoke inactivates alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor in vitro. Macrophages also secrete an elastolytic protease, albeit at low levels. The short-term exposure of cultured mouse macrophages to cigarette smoke augments the rate of elastase secretion by these cells. Mouse macrophage elastase is not inhibited by alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or alpha 2-macroglobulin. This unusual property of macrophage elastase may facilitate its attack upon elastin over prolonged intervals despite very low levels of macrophage elastase production. A unified hypothesis of lung injury in pulmonary emphysema is presented, involving both PMN and macrophage elastases and the actions of cigarette smoke. (Am J Pathol 97:111--136, 1979). Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:495691

  5. Omics for prediction of environmental health effects: Blood leukocyte-based cross-omic profiling reliably predicts diseases associated with tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Hebels, Dennie G; Valavanis, Ioannis; Liampa, Irene; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Johansson, Anders; Palli, Domenico; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Jennen, Danyel G J; Krauskopf, Julian; Jetten, Marlon J; Kleinjans, Jos C S; Vineis, Paolo; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A

    2016-01-01

    The utility of blood-based omic profiles for linking environmental exposures to their potential health effects was evaluated in 649 individuals, drawn from the general population, in relation to tobacco smoking, an exposure with well-characterised health effects. Using disease connectivity analysis, we found that the combination of smoking-modified, genome-wide gene (including miRNA) expression and DNA methylation profiles predicts with remarkable reliability most diseases and conditions independently known to be causally associated with smoking (indicative estimates of sensitivity and positive predictive value 94% and 84%, respectively). Bioinformatics analysis reveals the importance of a small number of smoking-modified, master-regulatory genes and suggest a central role for altered ubiquitination. The smoking-induced gene expression profiles overlap significantly with profiles present in blood cells of patients with lung cancer or coronary heart disease, diseases strongly associated with tobacco smoking. These results provide proof-of-principle support to the suggestion that omic profiling in peripheral blood has the potential of identifying early, disease-related perturbations caused by toxic exposures and may be a useful tool in hazard and risk assessment. PMID:26837704

  6. Omics for prediction of environmental health effects: Blood leukocyte-based cross-omic profiling reliably predicts diseases associated with tobacco smoking

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Hebels, Dennie G.; Valavanis, Ioannis; Liampa, Irene; Bergdahl, Ingvar A.; Johansson, Anders; Palli, Domenico; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Jennen, Danyel G. J.; Krauskopf, Julian; Jetten, Marlon J.; Kleinjans, Jos C. S.; Vineis, Paolo; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A.; Gottschalk, Ralph; van Leeuwen, Danitsja; Timmermans, Leen; de Kok, Theo M.C.M.; Botsivali, Maria; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Kelly, Rachel; Vermeulen, Roel; Portengen, Lutzen; Saberi-Hosnijeh, Fatemeh; Melin, Beatrice; Hallmans, Göran; Lenner, Per; Keun, Hector C.; Siskos, Alexandros; Athersuch, Toby J.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Stephanou, Euripides G.; Myridakis, Antonis; Fazzo, Lucia; De Santis, Marco; Comba, Pietro; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Airaksinen, Riikka; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Gilthorpe, Mark; Fleming, Sarah; Fleming, Thomas; Tu, Yu-Kang; Jonsson, Bo; Lundh, Thomas; Chen, Wei J.; Lee, Wen-Chung; Kate Hsiao, Chuhsing; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Hung, Hung; Liao, Shu-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The utility of blood-based omic profiles for linking environmental exposures to their potential health effects was evaluated in 649 individuals, drawn from the general population, in relation to tobacco smoking, an exposure with well-characterised health effects. Using disease connectivity analysis, we found that the combination of smoking-modified, genome-wide gene (including miRNA) expression and DNA methylation profiles predicts with remarkable reliability most diseases and conditions independently known to be causally associated with smoking (indicative estimates of sensitivity and positive predictive value 94% and 84%, respectively). Bioinformatics analysis reveals the importance of a small number of smoking-modified, master-regulatory genes and suggest a central role for altered ubiquitination. The smoking-induced gene expression profiles overlap significantly with profiles present in blood cells of patients with lung cancer or coronary heart disease, diseases strongly associated with tobacco smoking. These results provide proof-of-principle support to the suggestion that omic profiling in peripheral blood has the potential of identifying early, disease-related perturbations caused by toxic exposures and may be a useful tool in hazard and risk assessment. PMID:26837704

  7. Role of superoxide dismutase and catalase as determinants of pathogenicity of Nocardia asteroides: importance in resistance to microbicidal activities of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Beaman, B L; Black, C M; Doughty, F; Beaman, L

    1985-01-01

    The roles of nocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in the resistance of Nocardia asteroides to the microbicidal properties of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were determined in vitro. The neutrophils killed ca. 80% of the cells of the less virulent N. asteroides 10905 and ca. 50% of the log phase of the more virulent N. asteroides GUH-2 after 180 min of incubation. These phagocytes were not able to kill early-stationary-phase cells of strain GUH-2 that contained 10 times more intracytoplasmic catalase than log-phase cells of the same culture. However, the polymorphonuclear leukocytes were able to kill more than 50% of the cells of early-stationary-phase strain GUH-2 after treatment with purified antibody specific for surface-associated SOD. No killing was observed when the bacteria were treated with normal rabbit immunoglobulin G or with serum obtained from rabbits immunized against whole nocardial cells (containing little or no activity against SOD). These phagocytes killed more than 99% of Listeria monocytogenes used as a control. Chlorpromazine-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes killed L. monocytogenes (70%) but they were not able to kill antibody-treated cells of N. asteroides GUH-2. Exogenously added SOD partially protected strain 10905, which lacked surface-associated enzyme, but it had no effect on the killing of strain GUH-2, which already possessed significant amounts of surface-bound SOD. In contrast, catalase added to the nocardiae provided almost complete protection to the log-phase cells of strain GUH-2, but strain 10905 was only partially protected. SOD combined with catalase had additive activity which completely protected the cells of strain 10905. A mutant of N. asteroides GUH-2 (SCII-C) is more virulent during the log phase than is the parental strain. This mutant contained at least 7 times more catalase at this stage of growth than did the parent. No other differences between these two strains were observed during the log phase. In sharp contrast to those of the parent, log-phase cells of this high-catalase mutant were not killed by polymorphonuclear phagocytes. These data indicate a role for both SOD and catalase in the resistance of Nocardia spp. to human neutrophils, and they represent at least two factors associated with virulence. PMID:3880721

  8. Expression of CD44 variant isoforms in peripheral blood leukocytes in malignant lymphoma and leukemia: inverse correlation between expression and tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Khaldoyanidi, S; Achtnich, M; Hehlmann, R; Zöller, M

    1996-10-01

    In a variety of human tumors, including high grade Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (hgNHL), a linkage between expression of CD44 variant isoforms (CD44v) and tumor progression has been described. In search of an easily accessible diagnostic parameter, expression of CD44 standard (CD44s) and CD44 variant isoforms (exons v5, v6, v7 and v10) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of patients with hematological malignancies was evaluated by fluorescence activated cell scanning. The analysis of 30 blood samples of healthy donors and patients with non-malignant diseases and of 183 blood samples of patients with malignant hematological disorders revealed that only in patients with malignant disorders did a measurable proportion of PBLs express CD44 variant isoforms, mostly exons v5, v6, v7 and, less frequently, exon v10. Elevated levels of CD44v expression were noted in PBLs of patients with acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML: 16%, CML: 25%), Hodgkin's disease (HD: 17%), multiple myeloma (MM: 22%), polycythemia vera (PV: 33%), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL: 23%) and, most frequently, in PBLs of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL:54%). CD44v expression was not restricted to the malignant phenotype, but instead was also noted in T cells, B cells and monocytes, preferentially in a subpopulation of large cells. Furthermore, expression of CD44v in PBLs was not linked to the histological grading or clinical staging. There was, however, an inverse correlation with tumor progression, whereas response to therapy was frequently accompanied by upregulation of CD44v. Thus, expression of CD44v in the PBLs of patients with NHL mainly reflected immune responsiveness. Since NHL manifests itself primarily in lymphoid organs, its progression is difficult to follow. Monitoring of CD44v in PBLs could be used as an additional and convenient parameter for surveying the course of disease. PMID:8960109

  9. Expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF in peripheral blood leukocytes of rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Trzeciak-Ryczek, Alicja; Tokarz-Deptuła, Beata; Deptuła, Wiesław

    2016-04-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly morbid and mortal viral infection of European rabbits. This disease is one of the main causes of death in wild rabbits, and results in large economic losses in farms of rabbits worldwide. Although the first outbreak of this disease was noted in 1984, the pathogenesis of RHD and mechanisms of RHDV (rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus) pathogenecity have still not been fully elucidated. Recent studies indicate a role of the immune response, especially peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), in the pathogenesis of this disease. Thus, in the present study we investigated the expression of IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF genes in PBL of RHDV-infected rabbits. We also compared the expression of genes encoding these cytokines in rabbits with different course of RHDV infection (in animals that died 36h postinfection or survived until 60th h after infection). The study revealed that three (IL-10, TNF-β and GM-CSF) out of five investigated genes encoding cytokines showed increased expression in PBL of RHDV-infected rabbits, and the level of expression depended on the course of RHD. The results indicate the potential role of these cytokines in RHDV infection and their influence on the survival time of infected rabbits. PMID:27016760

  10. Influence of Hydration Status on Changes in Plasma Cortisol, Leukocytes, and Antigen-Stimulated Cytokine Production by Whole Blood Culture following Prolonged Exercise.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Ida S; Killer, Sophie C; Gleeson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Elevated antigen-stimulated anti-inflammatory cytokine production appears to be a risk factor for upper respiratory tract illness in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged exercise and hydration on antigen-stimulated cytokine production. Twelve healthy males cycled for 120 min at 60% [Formula: see text] on two occasions, either euhydrated or moderately hypohydrated (induced by fluid restriction for 24 h). Blood samples were collected before and after exercise and following 2 h recovery for determination of cell counts, plasma cortisol, and in vitro antigen-stimulated cytokine production by whole blood culture. Fluid restriction resulted in mean body mass loss of 1.3% and 3.9% before and after exercise, respectively. Exercise elicited a significant leukocytosis and elevated plasma cortisol, with no differences between trials. IL-6 production was significantly reduced 2 h postexercise (P < 0.05), while IL-10 production was elevated postexercise (P < 0.05). IFN- γ and IL-2 production tended to decrease postexercise. No significant effect of hydration status was observed for the measured variables. Prolonged exercise appears to result in augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine release in response to antigen challenge, possibly coupled with acute suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production, corresponding with studies using mitogen or endotoxin as stimulant. Moderate hypohydration does not appear to influence these changes. PMID:24967270

  11. The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P.; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-α production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-γ production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

  12. The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-α production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-γ production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

  13. Decreased polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotactic response to leukotriene B4 in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, R H; Sorrelli, T C

    1992-01-01

    Evidence that leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a significant inflammatory mediator in chronic pseudomonal respiratory disease was sought in adolescents and young adults with cystic fibrosis. Specific chemotaxis of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) was used as an indirect measure of remote in vivo exposure to LTB4. PMN from 17 patients showed a significant decrease in chemotaxis to 10(-7)-10(-9) M LTB4, but normal responses to 10(-8) M n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and 4 mg/ml casein, when compared with 17 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. This result is consistent with chronic production of LTB4, and specific deactivation of circulating PMN receptors for LTB4 in patients with cystic fibrosis. Pharmacologic inhibition of LTB4 production in vivo may help elucidate its role in the pathogenesis of lung damage in cystic fibrosis. PMID:1322257

  14. Leukocyte adhesion and polarization: Role of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Dion D; Fernandez-Borja, Mar

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Leukocyte traffic out of the blood stream is crucial for an adequate immune response. Leukocyte extravasation is critically dependent on the binding of leukocyte integrins to their endothelial counterreceptors. This interaction enables the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the luminal side of the vascular wall and allows for leukocyte polarization, crawling and diapedesis. Leukocyte adhesion, polarization and migration requires the orchestrated regulation of integrin adhesion/de-adhesion dynamics and actin cytoskeleton rearrangements. Adhesion strength depends on conformational changes of integrin molecules (affinity) as well as the number of integrin molecules engaged at adhesion sites (valency). These two processes can be independently regulated and several molecules modulate either one or both processes. Cholesterol-rich membrane domains (lipid rafts) participate in integrin regulation and play an important role in leukocyte adhesion, polarization and motility. In particular, lipid raft-resident glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) have been reported to regulate leukocyte adhesion, polarization and motility in both integrin-dependent and independent manners. Here, we present our recent discovery concerning the novel role of the GPI-AP prion protein (PrP) in the regulation of β1 integrin-mediated monocyte adhesion, migration and shape polarization in the context of existing literature on GPI-AP-dependent regulation of integrins. PMID:26744925

  15. Biomechanics of leukocyte rolling.

    PubMed

    Sundd, Prithu; Pospieszalska, Maria K; Cheung, Luthur Siu-Lun; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Ley, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Leukocyte rolling on endothelial cells and other P-selectin substrates is mediated by P-selectin binding to P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 expressed on the tips of leukocyte microvilli. Leukocyte rolling is a result of rapid, yet balanced formation and dissociation of selectin-ligand bonds in the presence of hydrodynamic shear forces. The hydrodynamic forces acting on the bonds may either increase (catch bonds) or decrease (slip bonds) their lifetimes. The force-dependent 'catch-slip' bond kinetics are explained using the 'two pathway model' for bond dissociation. Both the 'sliding-rebinding' and the 'allosteric' mechanisms attribute 'catch-slip' bond behavior to the force-induced conformational changes in the lectin-EGF domain hinge of selectins. Below a threshold shear stress, selectins cannot mediate rolling. This 'shear-threshold' phenomenon is a consequence of shear-enhanced tethering and catch bond-enhanced rolling. Quantitative dynamic footprinting microscopy has revealed that leukocytes rolling at venular shear stresses (>0.6 Pa) undergo cellular deformation (large footprint) and form long tethers. The hydrodynamic shear force and torque acting on the rolling cell are thought to be synergistically balanced by the forces acting on tethers and stressed microvilli, however, their relative contribution remains to be determined. Thus, improvement beyond the current understanding requires in silico models that can predict both cellular and microvillus deformation and experiments that allow measurement of forces acting on individual microvilli and tethers. PMID:21515934

  16. Bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and an immunoglobulin G2 protease produced by Porphyromonas levii.

    PubMed Central

    Lobb, D A; Loeman, H J; Sparrow, D G; Morck, D W

    1999-01-01

    Acute interdigital phlegmon (AIP) is a commonly occurring anaerobic bacterial infection in cattle. This study examined in vitro the interaction of bovine polymorphonuclear granulocytic neutrophils (PMN) from blood with bacterial species involved in AIP. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils were purified from whole bovine blood, exposed to one of the three putative etiologic agents of AIP and comparatively assessed for phagocytosis using light microscopy. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia were effectively phagocytosed by PMN, but Porphyromonas levii was phagocytosed significantly less effectively by PMN. The effect of high titre anti-P. levii bovine serum on antibody-mediated phagocytosis by PMN was also evaluated. High titre serum increased the efficiency of phagocytosis of P. levii by bovine PMN. This was independent of heat labile complement factors. Antibodies specific for P. levii were assessed for protease activity capable of cleaving bovine immunoglobulins (IgG, IgG1, IgG2, and IgM). Partially purified supernatant from broth cultures of P. levii were incubated with biotinylated immunoglobulins (Igs). Samples were taken from times 0 to 72 h and examined using SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot analysis. Streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase and NBT-BCIP were used to visualize the Igs for heavy and light chains as well as lower molecular weight fragments of these glycoproteins. Porphyromonas levii produced an immunoglobulin protease which readily cleaved bovine IgG into fragments, but did not act against IgM. Specifically, the enzyme may be a significant virulence factor as it may act to neutralize the antibodies demonstrated necessary for effective PMN-mediated phagocytosis. Images Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:10369568

  17. Reduced prostaglandin F2 alpha release from blood mononuclear leukocytes after oral supplementation of omega3 fatty acids: the OmegAD study.

    PubMed

    Vedin, Inger; Cederholm, Tommy; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Basun, Hans; Hjorth, Erik; Irving, Gerd Faxn; Eriksdotter-Jnhagen, Maria; Schultzberg, Marianne; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Palmblad, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, e.g., dokosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eikosapentaenoic acid (EPA), ameliorate inflammatory reactions by various mechanisms, but the role of prostaglandins remains unclear. Our aim was to determine if dietary supplementation with a DHA-rich fish oil influenced the release of PGF(2alpha) from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the OmegAD study, 174 Alzheimer disease patients received either 1.7 g DHA plus 0.6 g EPA or a placebo daily for six months. PBMCs from the 21 (9 on fish oil and 12 on placebo) first-randomized patients were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) before and after 6 months. Our results showed that plasma concentrations of DHA and EPA increased significantly at 6 months in the omega-3 group. PGF(2alpha) release from LPS- (but not from PHA-) stimulated PBMC was significantly diminished in this group; no change was noted in the placebo group. PGF(2alpha) changes correlated inversely with changes in plasma DHA and EPA. Decreased IL-6 and IL-1(beta) levels correlated with decreased PGF(2alpha) levels. The stimulus-specific PGF(2alpha) release from PBMC after 6 months of oral supplementation with the DHA-rich fish oil might be one event related to reduced inflammatory reactions associated with omega-3 fatty acid intake. PMID:19965584

  18. Reduced prostaglandin F2? release from blood mononuclear leukocytes after oral supplementation of ?3 fatty acids: the OmegAD study

    PubMed Central

    Vedin, Inger; Cederholm, Tommy; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Basun, Hans; Hjorth, Erik; Irving, Gerd Faxn; Eriksdotter-Jnhagen, Maria; Schultzberg, Marianne; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Palmblad, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, e.g., dokosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eikosapentaenoic acid (EPA), ameliorate inflammatory reactions by various mechanisms, but the role of prostaglandins remains unclear. Our aim was to determine if dietary supplementation with a DHA-rich fish oil influenced the release of PGF2? from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In the OmegAD study, 174 Alzheimer disease patients received either 1.7 g DHA plus 0.6 g EPA or a placebo daily for six months. PBMCs from the 21 (9 on fish oil and 12 on placebo) first-randomized patients were stimulated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) before and after 6 months. Our results showed that plasma concentrations of DHA and EPA increased significantly at 6 months in the omega-3 group. PGF2? release from LPS- (but not from PHA-) stimulated PBMC was significantly diminished in this group; no change was noted in the placebo group. PGF2? changes correlated inversely with changes in plasma DHA and EPA. Decreased IL-6 and IL-1? levels correlated with decreased PGF2? levels. The stimulus-specific PGF2? release from PBMC after 6 months of oral supplementation with the DHA-rich fish oil might be one event related to reduced inflammatory reactions associated with omega-3 fatty acid intake. PMID:19965584

  19. Phosphorylation of a cytosolic 65-kDa protein induced by interleukin 1 in glucocorticoid pretreated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushima, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Copeland, T.D.; Akahoshi, T.; Oppenheim, J.J.

    1987-11-15

    The authors have previously observed that glucocorticoids dramatically increase the number of interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptors on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) without significant change in the binding affinity. They, therefore, used such a receptor-enriched glucocorticoid-pretreated PBMC to investigate whether IL-1 induces/increases the phosphorylation of any cell-associated proteins, including possible autophosphorylation of IL-1 receptors. Extraction of /sup 125/I-labeled IL-1..cap alpha.. cross-linked to IL-1 receptor on steroid-treated PBMC yielded two bands estimated to be 60 and 70 kDa in molecular mass. No molecules were significantly cross-linked with /sup 125/I-labeled IL-1..gamma.. on untreated PBMC. Fractionation of extracts of IL-1-stimulated prednisolone-pretreated PMBC by ultracentrifugation showed that pp65 is located in the cytosol, suggesting that pp65 is not the IL-1 receptor itself. Protein kinase inhibitors, HA1004 and W-7, but not H07, significantly inhibited the induction of the phosphorylation of 65-kDa protein by IL-1. These data indicate that the glucocorticoid-induced IL-1 receptor is functional and either contains or is closely associated with a serine kinase that is distinct from protein kinase C.

  20. Synergistic Interactions between Cytokines and AVP at the Blood-CSF Barrier Result in Increased Chemokine Production and Augmented Influx of Leukocytes after Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Szmydynger-Chodobska, Joanna; Gandy, Jessica R.; Varone, Andrew; Shan, Rongzi; Chodobski, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), which primarily resides in the choroid plexus (CP), plays a significant pathophysiological role not only in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, but also in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here we investigated how arginine vasopressin (AVP) regulates function of the BCSFB in the context of post-traumatic neuroinflammation. It has previously been shown that AVP exacerbates various forms of brain injury, but the mechanisms underlying this AVP action are poorly understood. Type 1A AVP receptor is highly expressed on the CP epithelium and the CP synthesizes AVP. Using the controlled cortical impact model of TBI, we demonstrated decreased post-traumatic production of proinflammatory mediators by the CP and reduced influx of inflammatory cells across the BCSFB in AVP-deficient Brattleboro rats when compared with Long-Evans rats, a parental strain for Brattleboro rats. Arginine vasopressin was also found to play an important role in post-traumatic activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the CP. In the CP epithelial cell cultures, AVP augmented the tumor necrosis factor-α– and interleukin-1β–dependent increase in synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, including neutrophil chemoattractants, an action largely dependent on the JNK signaling pathway. Under in vivo conditions, a selective JNK inhibitor decreased the post-traumatic production of neutrophil chemoattractants by the CP and reduced the influx of neutrophils across the BCSFB. These results provide evidence for the synergistic interactions between proinflammatory cytokines and AVP, a ligand for G protein-coupled receptors, and support a pathophysiological role of AVP in post-traumatic neuroinflammation. PMID:24223928

  1. Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David

    2013-01-01

    In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

  2. [Behavior of leukocyte chemotaxis in various clinico-immunological situations].

    PubMed

    Suárez Saro, J M; Laguna Martínez, R; Callol Sánchez, L; Caro de Miguel, C; Gómez de Terrenos Sánchez, F J

    1985-01-01

    Chemotaxis is a property common to all free cells or unicellular microorganisms. It is not a simple spontaneous cellular migration but one which is directed towards the source or nucleus, producer of the chemotactic substance. One of the first phenomenon which is established as a defense mechanism of the organism is the attraction of polymorphonuclears. In 1955 Rebuck and Crowley described a method, "skin window" for the study of in vivo leukocyte chemotaxis. The aim of this work was to go deeper into the study of this test and to establish its clinical use. Two hundred and seventy patients from both sexes were studied and divided into five groups: Group I - 60 healthy subjects as control. Group II - 60 patients with pathologic leukocyte response: 10 cirrhotics, 15 Hodgkin's disease, 15 chronic renal insufficiency, 2 drepanocytosis and 3 sarcoidosis. Group III - 60 patients with no theoretical alterations in the leukocyte chemotaxis: 22 bronchial asthma, 23 nonlymphoid neoplasm, 13 iritis and 2 histiocytosis X. Group IV - 40 active tuberculosis patients. Group V - 30 patients with bacterial pneumonia non-tuberculosis. The Rebuck test was carried out on all patients. As lymphocyte markers, E rosettes, superficial immunoglobulins and the lymphoblast transformation test against PHA were performed on all the groups of patients. As to the results obtained, the positive responses for Groups I, II, III, IV and V were 87%, 28%, 83.3%, 45% and 63.3%, respectively. These results were evaluated in relation to the Mantoux reaction. The modified Rebuck test is useful for leukocyte chemotactic study. This was found to be altered in 13% of the healthy population.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3898789

  3. Labeling autologous leukocytes with indium-111 oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Beightol, R.W.; Baker, W.J.

    1980-06-01

    A method is described for labeling autologous leukocytes with indium-111 oxine, which is used for localizing inflammatory processes. To an aqueous solution of indium-111 chloride was added sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and then a freshly prepared solution of oxine (8-hydroxyquinoline) in ethanol. After 3-5 minutes of incubation at room temperature, the chelated indium-111 oxine was extracted with chloroform, evaporated to dryness, redissolved in ethanol, and diluted with 0.9% saline. Leukocytes were isolated from venous blood by centrifugation at 300-350 g and resuspended in 0.9% saline. The cells were labeled by adding the indium-111 oxine solution to the leukocyte suspension. Clinical results have shown indium-111-labeled leukocytes to be highly specific for abscess localization. Indium-111 is useful for imaging because its gamma emissions are suitable for external detection and its half-life of 67 hours allows studies to be performed over several days without presenting an excessive radiation dose to the patient.

  4. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet-leukocyte interactions via suppression of P-selectin expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotland, Ramona S.; Cohen, Marc; Foster, Paul; Lovell, Matthew; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2005-10-01

    The multifaceted process of immune cell recruitment to sites of tissue injury is key to the development of an inflammatory response and involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disorders. We recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an important endothelium-derived mediator that regulates vascular tone and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigated whether CNP inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation and thereby exerts a potential antiinflammatory influence on the blood vessel wall. We assessed the effects of CNP on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo in animals with high basal leukocyte activation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, eNOS-/-) or under acute inflammatory conditions (induced by interleukin-1 or histamine). CNP suppressed basal leukocyte rolling in eNOS-/- mice in a rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CNP were mimicked by the selective natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist cANF4-23. CNP also suppressed leukocyte rolling induced by IL-1 or histamine, inhibited platelet-leukocyte interactions, and prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of human blood. Furthermore, analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets revealed that CNP selectively attenuates expression of P-selectin. Thus, CNP is a modulator of acute inflammation in the blood vessel wall characterized by leukocyte and platelet activation. These antiinflammatory effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of P-selectin expression. These observations suggest that endothelial CNP might maintain an anti-atherogenic influence on the blood vessel wall and represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. endothelium | natriuretic peptide receptor type C | atherosclerosis | thrombosis

  5. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which measure the number, size, and shape of cells and platelets in the blood. Problems with your blood may include bleeding disorders, excessive clotting and platelet disorders. If you lose too much blood, you may need a transfusion.

  6. Short communication: Amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Juengst, L; Qu, Y; Bequette, B J; Moyes, K M

    2016-05-01

    Glutamine is the preferred AA used by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) during the inflammatory response. However, the effect of other AA on bovine PMN response during inflammation and how this is altered by stage of lactation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of additional AA supplementation (pool of AA excluding Gln) on AA profiles, gene expression, and inflammatory function of PMN from dairy cows in early and mid lactation in vitro. We used 18 Holstein cows for this study. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated. Working solutions of AA (0 or 4 mM) and LPS (0 or 50μg/mL) were added to cell populations suspended in RPMI and incubated for 2h at 37°C. We used a subset of samples for gene and protein expression. Concentrations of AA in medium were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with norleucine as an internal standard. Apparent AA and glucose utilization were calculated by subtracting the concentration after from that of before incubation. Data were analyzed as a randomized block design. Challenge with LPS increased the expression of proinflammatory genes and AA supplementation decreased both the expression of some proinflammatory genes and the media concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α. Neither stage of lactation, LPS challenge, nor AA supplementation altered the chemotactic or phagocytic abilities of PMN in vitro. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes supplemented with AA had greater concentrations and apparent utilization of most of the supplemented AA, whereas the unsupplemented group had greater apparent utilization of glucose. Alanine was not provided in the media but was present in spent media, and Ile, Gly, and Pro were greater in spent media than in media before incubation indicating synthesis of these AA. Regarding expression of genes involved in nutrient metabolism, the expression of G6PD, coding for the enzyme glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was increased and that of PDHA1, coding for the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase α 1, tended to increase with AA supplementation. Due to the lower concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α in media coupled with a downregulation of several proinflammatory genes, we concluded that AA, rather than Gln, alter the inflammatory response of bovine blood PMN. Independent from Gln, blood PMN from cows in early lactation may use certain AA as their primary carbon source for energy than cows in later lactation. Evaluating cows during the early postpartum period will provide additional information on the effect of stage of lactation and nutrient supplementation on PMN function. PMID:26971158

  7. Hydrogen peroxide signals E. coli phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear cells; up-stream and down-stream pathway

    PubMed Central

    Petropoulos, Michalis; Karamolegkou, Georgia; Rosmaraki, Eleftheria; Tsakas, Sotiris

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (Η2Ο2) is produced during a variety of cellular procedures. In this paper, the regulatory role of Η2Ο2, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the human polymorphonuclears, was investigated. White blood cells were incubated with dihydrorhodamine (DHR) in order to study H2O2 synthesis and E. coli-FITC to study phagocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed increased synthesis of H2O2 in polymorphonuclears which incorporated E. coli-FITC. The blocking of H2O2 synthesis by specific inhibitors, N-ethylmaleimide (ΝΕΜ) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased E. coli phagocytosis, as well. Immunoblot analysis of white blood cell protein extracts revealed that the blocking of NADPH oxidase and SOD decreased ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, while it had no effect on JNK and p38. Confocal microscopy showed that phosphorylation of MAPKs and phagocytosis solely occur in the polymorphonuclear and not in mononuclear cells. The use of specific MAPKs inhibitors showed that all of them are necessary for phagocytosis, but only phospho-p38 affects H2O2 synthesis. The blocking of JNK phosphorylation, in the presence of E. coli, evoked a further decrease of cytoplasmic p47 thus increasing its translocation onto the plasma membrane for the assembly of NADPH oxidase. It appears that newly synthesised H2O2 invigorates the phosphorylation and action of ERK-1/2 in E. coli phagocytosis, while phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 appear to regulate H2O2 production. PMID:26204503

  8. Hydrogen peroxide signals E. coli phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear cells; up-stream and down-stream pathway.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Michalis; Karamolegkou, Georgia; Rosmaraki, Eleftheria; Tsakas, Sotiris

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (Η2Ο2) is produced during a variety of cellular procedures. In this paper, the regulatory role of Η2Ο2, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the human polymorphonuclears, was investigated. White blood cells were incubated with dihydrorhodamine (DHR) in order to study H2O2 synthesis and E. coli-FITC to study phagocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed increased synthesis of H2O2 in polymorphonuclears which incorporated E. coli-FITC. The blocking of H2O2 synthesis by specific inhibitors, N-ethylmaleimide (ΝΕΜ) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased E. coli phagocytosis, as well. Immunoblot analysis of white blood cell protein extracts revealed that the blocking of NADPH oxidase and SOD decreased ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, while it had no effect on JNK and p38. Confocal microscopy showed that phosphorylation of MAPKs and phagocytosis solely occur in the polymorphonuclear and not in mononuclear cells. The use of specific MAPKs inhibitors showed that all of them are necessary for phagocytosis, but only phospho-p38 affects H2O2 synthesis. The blocking of JNK phosphorylation, in the presence of E. coli, evoked a further decrease of cytoplasmic p47 thus increasing its translocation onto the plasma membrane for the assembly of NADPH oxidase. It appears that newly synthesised H2O2 invigorates the phosphorylation and action of ERK-1/2 in E. coli phagocytosis, while phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 appear to regulate H2O2 production. PMID:26204503

  9. Human uterine leukocytes and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Trundley, A; Moffett, A

    2004-01-01

    In human pregnancy, the embryo implants into the specialized mucosal wall of the uterus (decidua) and the placenta starts to form. Cells from the placenta (trophoblasts) invade into the uterine mucosa in order to open up maternal uterine arteries to ensure an adequate supply of blood to the developing fetus. The trophoblasts have a unique immunological phenotype compared to most cells especially with regard to their expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. On the other side of the interaction, the uterine mucosa (endometrium) differentiates in preparation for implantation. One of the changes that takes place is the appearance in the endometrium of a large number of maternal leukocytes in the final part of the menstrual cycle. If pregnancy ensues, these leukocytes continue to increase in number and are found in close contact with trophoblasts. The composition of this population of maternal immune cells is unusual compared to that seen at other mucosal sites. A lot of research has focused on whether maternal T-cell responses are suppressed or modified during pregnancy. Research has also concentrated on the specialized uterine natural killer (NK) cells, which are found in the decidua in large numbers during early pregnancy. These uterine NK cells have been shown to express receptors for trophoblast MHC antigens, but their role in pregnancy is still mysterious. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of what is known about the immunology at the implantation site and also to provide an update of some of the most recent findings in this field. PMID:14651517

  10. Expression of selected proteins of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis in human leukocytes exposed to N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Iwaniuk, A; Jabłońska, E; Jabłoński, J; Ratajczak-Wrona, W; Garley, M

    2015-06-01

    N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a xenobiotic widespread in human environment capable of regulating the lifespan of immune cells. In this study, we examined the roles of the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)/death receptor 5 (DR5) complex and the Fas molecule in the induction of the extrinsic apoptosis pathway in human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to NDMA. Also we assessed these proteins ability to trigger the intrinsic apoptosis pathway in those cells. For this purpose, we examined the expression of Fas-associated protein with death domain, truncated Bid (tBid) proteins, and apoptogenic factors such as apoptosis-inducing factor, Smac/Diablo, Omi/HtrA2, and caspase-3 as an indication of accomplished apoptosis phenomenon. PMNs and PBMCs were isolated from whole blood by density gradient centrifugation using Polymorphrep. Apoptotic cells were assessed with flow cytometry using a ready-made kit. The expression of proapoptotic molecules was investigated by Western blot analysis of PMNs and PBMCs treated with NDMA and/or rhTRAIL. The obtained results confirm the proapoptotic effects of NDMA on the examined human leukocytes and indicate an active participation of the TRAIL/DR5 complex and Fas protein in the process of apoptosis. Moreover, the research revealed distinct mechanisms of intrinsic apoptosis pathway activation between PMNs and PBMCs exposed to NDMA, as confirmed by the different levels of tBid, Smac/Diablo, Omi/HtrA2, and caspase-3 expression in those cells. PMID:25304970

  11. Culture models to study leukocyte trafficking across the choroid plexus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A critical point during the course of central nervous system infection is the influx of leukocytes from the blood into the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). However, experimental in vitro models to investigate leukocyte transmigration across cultured choroid plexus epithelial cells have been lacking so far. Methods We have developed a porcine and human “inverted” culture insert system that enables leukocyte transmigration specifically from the physiologically relevant basolateral side. The models use primary porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells (PCPEC) and human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP). As a prerequisite for a functional barrier, we optimized culture conditions in which cells are maintained in serum-containing medium until high barrier function is reached. Leukocyte transmigration through the plexus epithelial cells is analysed by three-dimensional Apotome®-imaging and electron microscopy, and the route of transmigration through the plexus epithelial cells, i.e. transcellular as well as paracellular, can be determined. Discussion As a functionally relevant porcine and human BCSFB model, PCPEC and HIBCPP respectively, offer a wide range of options for analysis of disease-related mechanisms at the choroid plexus epithelium, especially involving human pathogens. Moreover, our in vitro models facilitate the investigation of leukocyte entry into the CNS via the blood-CSF barrier. PMID:23305147

  12. The origin of amniotic polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the mare.

    PubMed

    Hemberg, E; Einarsson, S; Jones, B; Mikko, S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and origin of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) in the amniotic fluid of mares giving birth to healthy foals. Material from 25 mares was included. Amniotic fluid was collected during parturition before breakage of the amniotic vesicle. Manual microscopic cytologic evaluation was made on cytospin preparations after staining. PMNLs were found in all amniotic samples examined. The genomic DNA was extracted from 12 of the amniotic fluid samples and was genotyped. The results indicate that the PMNLs originate from the foetus. PMID:24102984

  13. Effects of Himatanthus lancifolius on human leukocyte chemotaxis and their adhesion to integrins.

    PubMed

    Nardin, Jeanine Marie; de Souza, Wesley Maurcio; Lopes, Juliano Ferreira; Floro, Angela; de Moraes Santos, Cid Aimbir; Weffort-Santos, Almeriane Maria

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities of the uleine-rich fraction extracted from the barks of Himatanthus lancifolius (Muell. Arg.) Woodson (Apocynaceae). To achieve this, we focused on its in vitro effects on some steps of the inflammatory response using peripheral human leukocytes. The results presented herein show that the uleine-rich fraction significantly inhibits the migration of casein-induced granulocytes and their adhesion to fibronectin and vitronectin, along with mononuclear cells, by down-regulating the expression of alpha 4beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins. The data suggest that H. LANCIFOLIUS has the potential of interferring with leukocyte trafficking through its uleine-rich fraction, emphasizing its usefulness in inflammatory conditions. DEXA:dexamethasone disodium phosphate FN:fibronectin PMN:polymorphonuclear URF:uleine-rich fraction VN:vitronectin. PMID:18604779

  14. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil response in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the use of natural products to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic use is growing.Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play a vital role with regard to the innate immune response that affects severity and or duration of mastitis. To our knowledge, effect of c...

  15. Factors affecting leukocyte count in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Carel, R S; Eviatar, J

    1985-09-01

    The relationships between white blood cell (WBC) count, smoking, and other health variables were determined among 35,000 apparently healthy men and women. The effect of smoking on the WBC count was greater than that of all other variables. The leukocyte level and the variance in WBC count values increased with increased smoking intensity. The relationship between smoking intensity and leukocyte level is expressed quantitatively by the following regression equation: WBC (10(3)/mm3) = 7.1 + 0.05(SM), where SM has seven values according to the smoking level. Multiple regression analysis with additional variables other than smoking did not much improve the predictive value of the equation. The effect of smoking on WBC count could be only partially explained by an inflammatory process, e.g., chronic bronchitis. Relationships of statistical significance (but mostly with r values of less than 0.10) were found between WBC count and the following variables: hemoglobin, heart rate, weight (or Quetelet index), cholesterol, uric acid, creatinine, sex, ethnic origin, systolic blood pressure, height, blood sugar, and diastolic blood pressure. The normal WBC count range for smokers differs from that of nonsmokers and is shifted to the right according to the smoking level. This may have both a diagnostic and prognostic significance in different clinical settings. PMID:4070192

  16. Temporal Expression of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Biomarkers in a Macaca fascicularis Infection Model of Tuberculosis; Comparison with Human Datasets and Analysis with Parametric/Non-parametric Tools for Improved Diagnostic Biomarker Identification.

    PubMed

    Javed, Sajid; Marsay, Leanne; Wareham, Alice; Lewandowski, Kuiama S; Williams, Ann; Dennis, Michael J; Sharpe, Sally; Vipond, Richard; Silman, Nigel; Ball, Graham; Kempsell, Karen E

    2016-01-01

    A temporal study of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) from a Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary, pulmonary challenge model Macaca fascicularis has been conducted. PBL samples were taken prior to challenge and at one, two, four and six weeks post-challenge and labelled, purified RNAs hybridised to Operon Human Genome AROS V4.0 slides. Data analyses revealed a large number of differentially regulated gene entities, which exhibited temporal profiles of expression across the time course study. Further data refinements identified groups of key markers showing group-specific expression patterns, with a substantial reprogramming event evident at the four to six week interval. Selected statistically-significant gene entities from this study and other immune and apoptotic markers were validated using qPCR, which confirmed many of the results obtained using microarray hybridisation. These showed evidence of a step-change in gene expression from an 'early' FOS-associated response, to a 'late' predominantly type I interferon-driven response, with coincident reduction of expression of other markers. Loss of T-cell-associate marker expression was observed in responsive animals, with concordant elevation of markers which may be associated with a myeloid suppressor cell phenotype e.g. CD163. The animals in the study were of different lineages and these Chinese and Mauritian cynomolgous macaque lines showed clear evidence of differing susceptibilities to Tuberculosis challenge. We determined a number of key differences in response profiles between the groups, particularly in expression of T-cell and apoptotic makers, amongst others. These have provided interesting insights into innate susceptibility related to different host `phenotypes. Using a combination of parametric and non-parametric artificial neural network analyses we have identified key genes and regulatory pathways which may be important in early and adaptive responses to TB. Using comparisons between data outputs of each analytical pipeline and comparisons with previously published Human TB datasets, we have delineated a subset of gene entities which may be of use for biomarker diagnostic test development. PMID:27228113

  17. Leukocyte filtration in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurusz, Mark; Roach, John D; Vertrees, Roger A; Girouard, Mark K; Lick, Scott D

    2002-05-01

    Controlled reperfusion of the transplanted lung has been used in nine consecutive patients to decrease manifestations of lung reperfusion injury. An extracorporeal circuit containing a roller pump, heat exchanger and leukodepleting filter is primed with substrate-enhanced reperfusion solution mixed with approximately 2000 ml of the patient's blood. This solution is slowly recirculated to remove leukocytes prior to reperfusion. When the pulmonary anastomoses are completed, the pulmonary artery is cannulated through the untied anastomosis using a catheter containing a pressure lumen for measurement of infusion pressure. An atrial clamp is left in place on the patient's native atrial cuff to decrease the risk of systemic air embolism during the brief period of reperfusion from the extracorporeal reservoir. During reperfusion, the water bath to the heat exchanger is kept at 35 degrees C and the flow rate for reperfusion solution is between 150 and 200 m/min, keeping the pulmonary artery pressure <14 mmHg. Eight of nine patients were ventilated on 40% inspired oxygen within a few hours of operation and 7/9 were extubated on or before postoperative day 1. Six of nine patients are long-term survivors. PMID:12009087

  18. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 and human cytomegalovirus in blood and saliva from patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nefzi, Faten; Ben Salem, Nabil Abid; Khelif, Abderrahim; Feki, Salma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-03-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNAs were quantified by real-time PCR assays in blood and saliva obtained from 50 patients with acute leukemia at the time of diagnosis (50 of each matrix), aplasia (65 of each matrix), remission (55 of each matrix), and relapse (20 of each matrix) to evaluate which biological matrix was more suitable to identify a viral reactivation, search for a possible link between HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations, and evaluate the relations between viral loads and count of different leukocyte types in blood. The median HHV-6 loads were 136; 219; 226, and 75 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 193 and 317 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis and remission. In the saliva samples, the HHV-6 loads were 22,165; 15,238; 30,214, and 17,454 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 8,991; 1,461; 2,980, and 4,283 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HHV-6 load in the blood was correlated to the counts of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (R(2)  = 0.5; P < 0.0001) and lymphocytes (R(2)  = 0.4; P = 0.001) and was not correlated to the monocyte counts (R(2)  = 0.07; P = 0.7). Saliva appears to be a more sensitive biological matrix than whole blood in the detection of HHV-6 or HCMV reactivations. The HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations were linked only in saliva. PMID:25163462

  19. Transmigration of polymorphnuclear neutrophils and monocytes through the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after bacterial infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial invasion through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) during bacterial meningitis causes secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines followed by the recruitment of leukocytes into the CNS. In this study, we analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte transepithelial transmigration (TM) across the BCSFB after bacterial infection. Methods Using an inverted transwell filter system of human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), we studied leukocyte TM rates, the migration route by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, the secretion of cytokines/chemokines by cytokine bead array and posttranslational modification of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α via western blot. Results PMNs showed a significantly increased TM across HIBCPP after infection with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis (MC58). In contrast, a significantly decreased monocyte transmigration rate after bacterial infection of HIBCPP could be observed. Interestingly, in co-culture experiments with PMNs and monocytes, TM of monocytes was significantly enhanced. Analysis of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance confirmed an intact barrier function during leukocyte TM. With the help of the different imaging techniques we could provide evidence for para- as well as for transcellular migrating leukocytes. Further analysis of secreted cytokines/chemokines showed a distinct pattern after stimulation and transmigration of PMNs and monocytes. Moreover, the transmembrane glycoprotein SIRPα was deglycosylated in monocytes, but not in PMNs, after bacterial infection. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that PMNs and monoctyes differentially migrate in a human BCSFB model after bacterial infection. Cytokines and chemokines as well as transmembrane proteins such as SIRPα may be involved in this process. PMID:23448224

  20. Effects of lysosomotropic amines on human polymorphonuclear leucocyte function.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M; Thijssen, R M; Marcelis, J H; Sharma, S D; Verhoef, J

    1984-01-01

    Lysosomotropic agents interfere with lysosome function. We studied the effects of the lysosomotropic amines: lidocaine, diphenylamine and dansylcadaverine on several functions of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN): enzyme release, phagosome-lysosome fusion, superoxide anion generation upon stimulation with opsonized bacteria, and phagocytosis and killing of opsonized Staphylococcus aureus. Lidocaine depressed all cellular functions tested. Diphenylamine reduced enzyme release and phagosome-lysosome fusion in phagocytosing PMN. This was accompanied by an increase in superoxide anion generation. Dansylcadaverine enhanced enzyme release and phagosome-lysosome fusion, and reduced superoxide anion generation. Neither of these two agents influenced bacterial uptake; bacterial killing was impaired only in dansylcadaverine treated cells. Cadaverine, an analogue that does not penetrate cells, had no effect on any of the functions tested. PMID:6319273

  1. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  2. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils in periodontitis and their possible modulation as a therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Nicu, Elena A; Loos, Bruno G

    2016-06-01

    The main focus of this review is polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils play a pivotal role in normal host resistance to subgingival dental-plaque biofilm. Both hyper- and hypo-responsiveness of the immune system toward the microbial challenge in periodontitis have been described. We review polymorphonuclear neutrophil physiology with emphasis on the role of neutrophil functions and dysfunctions in periodontitis. Text boxes are given at the end of each subsection, which present the current knowledge on neutrophil-modulating agents as a potential therapeutic approach in periodontitis. PMID:27045435

  3. Lithium dosage and leukocyte counts in psychiatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Oyewumi, L K; McKnight, M; Cernovsky, Z Z

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in leukocyte counts among patients treated with either lithium alone, antipsychotic medications alone, or a combination of both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Long-stay psychiatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between 1990 and 1993, and treated with lithium for at least 1 week and/or with antipsychotic medication for at least 2 weeks. Excluded from the study were those patients for whom complete blood counts at baseline and during therapy were not available, and those patients whose blood picture could primarily be accounted for by extraneous factors. Included in the study were 38 patients treated with lithium alone, 207 patients receiving antipsychotic medications alone, and 71 patients receiving both. OUTCOME MEASURES: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. RESULTS: Patients treated with lithium alone had significantly higher mean leukocyte and granulocyte counts than those treated with antipsychotic medication alone (analysis of variance, p < 0.05). None of the patients receiving lithium alone showed leukopenia. The dosage of lithium was significantly correlated with leukocyte count (r = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.35, p < 0.001,) and granulocyte count (r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p < 0.001), but not with lymphocyte count (r = 0.06, p = 0.286, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium therapy is associated with higher leukocyte and granulocyte levels in psychiatric patients. This leukocytotic effect of lithium may be dose dependent. PMID:10354655

  4. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age), very preterm (28–31 wk), and moderately preterm (32–36 wk), as well as term (37–41 wk) infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2–5), transitional (d8–12) and mature milk (d26–30) samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  5. Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

    1985-05-01

    Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis.

  6. Biomaterials differentially regulate Src kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-γ in polymorphonuclear leukocyte primary and tertiary granule release.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Hannah Caitlin; Frost, Dustin C; Lieberthal, Tyler Jacob; Li, Lingjun; Kao, W John

    2015-05-01

    In the foreign body response, infiltrating PMNs exocytose granule subsets to influence subsequent downstream inflammatory and wound healing events. In previous studies, we found that PMNs cultured on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing hydrogels (i.e., PEG and gelatin + PEG hydrogels) had enhanced primary granule release, yet similar tertiary granule release compared with PMNs cultured on polydimethylsiloxane or tissue culture polystyrene. PMN primary granules contain microbicidal proteins and proteases, which can potentially injure bystander cells, degrade the extracellular matrix, and promote inflammation. Here, we sought to understand the mechanism of the enhanced primary granule release from PMNs on PEG hydrogels. We found that primary granule release from PMNs on PEG hydrogels was adhesion mediated and involved Src family kinases and PI3K-γ. The addition of gelatin to PEG hydrogels did not further enhance PMN primary granule release. Using stable-isotope dimethyl labeling-based shotgun proteomics, we identified many serum proteins - including Ig gamma constant chain region proteins and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 - that were absorbed/adsorbed in higher quantities on PEG hydrogels than on TCPS, and may be involved in mediating PMN primary granule release. Ultimately, this mechanistic knowledge can be used to direct inflammation and wound healing following biomaterial implantation to promote a more favorable healing response. PMID:25736495

  7. Characterization of f-Met-Leu-Phe-stimulated fluid pinocytosis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Davis, B H; McCabe, E; Langweiler, M

    1986-05-01

    N-formylated chemotactic peptide stimulation of human neutrophils initiates a number of cellular processes, such as lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion production, that are indicative of the events of neutrophil activation during the acute inflammatory response in disease. This study characterizes a newly recognized neutrophil activation event, N-formylated chemotactic peptide-stimulated fluid pinocytosis in human neutrophils, using a novel flow cytometric assay for this activity. Fluid pinocytosis was found to be inhibited by acidic pH and low temperature but could be enhanced by cytochalasin B treatment or surface adherence by neutrophils. The activity measured by this new assay of fluid pinocytosis appears to be separate and distinct from lysosomal enzyme release and receptor-mediated adsorptive endocytosis in neutrophils. The physiologic significance of N-formylated chemotactic peptide-stimulated fluid pinocytosis is not known, but a possible relationship to neutrophil locomotion is discussed. PMID:2423307

  8. Leukocyte cells identification and quantitative morphometry based on molecular hyperspectral imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingli; Wang, Yiting; Liu, Hongying; He, Xiaofu; Xu, Dongrong; Wang, Jianbiao; Guo, Fangmin

    2014-04-01

    Leukocyte cells identification is one of the most frequently performed blood tests and plays an important role in the diagnosis of diseases. The quantitative observation of leukocyte cells is often complemented by morphological analysis in both research and clinical condition. Different from the traditional leukocyte cells morphometry methods, a molecular hyperspectral imaging system based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) was developed and used to observe the blood smears. A combined spatial and spectral algorithm is proposed to identify the cytoplasm and the nucleus of leukocyte cells by integrating the fuzzy C-means (FCM) with the spatial K-means algorithm. Then the morphological parameters such as the cytoplasm area, the nuclear area, the perimeter, the nuclear ratio, the form factor, and the solidity were calculated and evaluated. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance than the spectral based algorithm as the new algorithm can jointly use the spatial and spectral information of leukocyte cells. PMID:24388381

  9. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m, has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 M Bq) of /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n=4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  10. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 MBq) of /sup 99m/TcO-4. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n . 4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  11. The degradation of serum amyloid A protein by activated polymorphonuclear leucocytes: participation of granulocytic elastase

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, S. L.; Cathcart, E. S.; Skinner, Martha; Cohen, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    To determine the role of inflammation in amyloidogenesis, we have studied the degradation of human serum amyloid A (SAA) protein by purified preparations of human blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and monocytes. When both PMN and monocytes were incubated in SAA-containing medium, the concentration of SAA as measured by a competitive anti-AA radioimmunoassay decreased over time. The rate of decrease of SAA was similar for both monocytes and PMN and there were no differences between four patients with amyloidosis and three normal controls. Resting PMN from normal volunteers were able to degrade SAA to smaller acid-soluble peptides within 16 hr while zymosan-activated PMN produced significant degradation within 1 hr (31%–50%). The supernatants from zymosan-treated PMN also caused marked SAA degradation within 1 hr. The following enzyme inhibitors were able to prevent degradation of SAA by PMN supernatants; phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, a serine esterase inhibitor; α1 anti-trypsin and soybean trypsin inhibitor; and acetyl-ala-ala-pro-val-chloromethyl ketone, an elastase inhibitor. The ability of a neutral lysosomal enzyme to degrade SAA was further confirmed by showing that purified PMN elastase significantly degraded 125I-SAA. We conclude that PMN contain one or more lysosomal enzymes capable of degrading SAA, an apoprotein of HDL3 serum lipoproteins. Alteration in SAA proteolysis by activated PMN may contribute to the deposition of amyloid fibrils in the tissues of patients with chronic inflammatory disease. PMID:6921153

  12. Detection of deep venous thrombosis by indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.; Alavi, A.

    1986-05-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte ((/sup 111/In)WBC) scintigraphy has been used successfully for detection of inflammation. Occasionally, noninflammatory collections of white blood cells such as hematomas or hemorrhage have been localized. We report a case in which unsuspected femoral deep venous thrombosis was diagnosed on an (/sup 111/In)WBC leukocyte scan performed for detection of osteomyelitis. Readers are advised to avoid interpreting all vascular (/sup 111/In)WBC localization as necessarily infectious. This may be of particular significance in patients with vascular grafts.

  13. Leukocyte behavior in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Swirski, Filip K.; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases claim more lives worldwide than any other. Etiologically, the dominant trajectory involves atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory process of lipid-rich lesion growth in the vascular wall that can cause life-threatening myocardial infarction (MI). Those who survive MI can develop congestive heart failure, a chronic condition of inadequate pump activity that is frequently fatal. Leukocytes – white blood cells – are important participants at the various stages of cardiovascular disease progression and complication. This review will discuss leukocyte function in atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. PMID:23307733

  14. Comparison of two leukocyte extraction methods for cytomegalovirus antigenemia assay.

    PubMed Central

    García, A; Niubò, J; Benítez, M A; Viqueira, M; Pérez, J L

    1996-01-01

    We carried out a prospective, parallel, and blind study on 113 blood samples from immunocompromised patients in order to compare two leukocyte extraction methods (6% dextran sedimentation and Polymorphprep separation) for cytomegalovirus (CMV) antigenemia assay. CMV was detected in 38 samples by antigenemia assay (34 by dextran sedimentation and 35 by Polymorphprep separation). No differences either in the number of positive specimens (P = 1) or in the mean CMV-positive cell counts (P = 0.41) were observed between the two leukocyte extraction methods. In conclusion, the two methods performed equally well for this assay. PMID:8748299

  15. A possible role for polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the defence against recrudescent herpes simplex virus infection in man.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, A S; Miller, C

    1978-01-01

    We have used a 51Cr release assay to demonstrate that human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) can damage herpes simplex infected target cells sensitized with antiviral antibody. Effective sensitizing antibodies were found in both serum and saliva of all those persons tested who were subject to recurrent cold sores. PMNL were much less effective as killer cells than peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but as they are the predominant inflammatory cell with the HSV1 lesion they may be, quantitatively, more important. The cytotoxic effects of both PMNL and mononuclear cells were significantly reduced by prostaglandin E1 as well as by several drugs that were tested. It is suggested that antibody dependent PMNL-mediated cytotoxicity may play a role in the human host defences against recrudescent herpes simplex infection. PMID:640713

  16. Determining beta2-integrin and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 binding kinetics in tumor cell adhesion to leukocytes and endothelial cells by a gas-driven micropipette assay.

    PubMed

    Fu, Changliang; Tong, Chunfang; Wang, Manliu; Gao, Yuxin; Zhang, Yan; Lü, Shouqin; Liang, Shile; Dong, Cheng; Long, Mian

    2011-10-01

    Interactions between polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and tumor cells have been reported to facilitate the adhesion and subsequent extravasation of tumor cells through the endothelium under blood flow, both of which are mediated by binding β(2)-integrin to intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). Here the adhesions between human WM9 metastatic melanoma cells, PMNs, and human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs) were quantified by a gas-driven micropipette aspiration technique (GDMAT). Our data indicated that the cellular binding affinity of PMN-WM9 pair was 3.9-fold higher than that of the PMN-HPMEC pair. However, the effective binding affinities per molecular pair were comparable between the two cell pairs no matter whether WM9 cells or HPMECs were quiescent or cytokine-activated, indicating that the stronger adhesion between PMN-WM9 pair is mainly attributed to the high expression of ICAM-1 on WM9 cells. These results proposed an alternative mechanism, where WM9 melanoma cells adhere first with PMNs near vessel-wall regions and then bind to endothelial cells via PMNs under blood flow. In contrast, the adhesions between human MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast carcinoma cells and PMNs showed a comparable cellular binding affinity to PMN-HPMEC pair because the ICAM-1 expressions on MDA-MB-231 cells and HPMECs are similar. Furthermore, differences were observed in the intrinsic forward and reverse rates of the β(2)-integrin-ICAM-1 bond between PMN-TC and PMN-EC pairs. This GDMAT assay enables us to quantify the binding kinetics of cell adhesion molecules physiologically expressed on nucleated cells. The findings also further the understanding of leukocyte-facilitated tumor cell adhesion from the viewpoint of molecular binding kinetics. PMID:21840991

  17. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn’s disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn’s disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn’s disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn’s disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn’s disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-α mRNA in active Crohn’s disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn’s disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn’s disease patients in remission. PMID:26140540

  18. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins Stimulate Crosstalk between Leukocytes and Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Glorieux, Griet; Schepers, Eva; Cohen, Gerald; Gondouin, Bertrand; Van Landschoot, Maria; Eloot, Sunny; Rops, Angelique; Van de Voorde, Johan; De Vriese, An; van der Vlag, Johan; Brunet, Philippe; Van Biesen, Wim; Vanholder, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte activation and endothelial damage both contribute to cardiovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CKD. Experimental in vitro data link several protein-bound uremic retention solutes to the modulation of inflammatory stimuli, including endothelium and leukocyte responses and cardiovascular damage, corroborating observational in vivo data. However, the impact of these uremic toxins on the crosstalk between endothelium and leukocytes has not been assessed. This study evaluated the effects of acute and continuous exposure to uremic levels of indoxylsulfate (IS), p-cresylsulfate (pCS), and p-cresylglucuronide (pCG) on the recruitment of circulating leukocytes in the rat peritoneal vascular bed using intravital microscopy. Superfusion with IS induced strong leukocyte adhesion, enhanced extravasation, and interrupted blood flow, whereas pCS caused a rapid increase in leukocyte rolling. Superfusion with pCS and pCG combined caused impaired blood flow and vascular leakage but did not further enhance leukocyte rolling over pCS alone. Intravenous infusion with IS confirmed the superfusion results and caused shedding of heparan sulfate, pointing to disruption of the glycocalyx as the mechanism likely mediating IS-induced flow stagnation. These results provide the first clear in vivo evidence that IS, pCS, and pCG exert proinflammatory effects that contribute to vascular damage by stimulating crosstalk between leukocytes and vessels. PMID:24009240

  19. Protein-bound uremic toxins stimulate crosstalk between leukocytes and vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Pletinck, Anneleen; Glorieux, Griet; Schepers, Eva; Cohen, Gerald; Gondouin, Bertrand; Van Landschoot, Maria; Eloot, Sunny; Rops, Angelique; Van de Voorde, Johan; De Vriese, An; van der Vlag, Johan; Brunet, Philippe; Van Biesen, Wim; Vanholder, Raymond

    2013-12-01

    Leukocyte activation and endothelial damage both contribute to cardiovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality in CKD. Experimental in vitro data link several protein-bound uremic retention solutes to the modulation of inflammatory stimuli, including endothelium and leukocyte responses and cardiovascular damage, corroborating observational in vivo data. However, the impact of these uremic toxins on the crosstalk between endothelium and leukocytes has not been assessed. This study evaluated the effects of acute and continuous exposure to uremic levels of indoxylsulfate (IS), p-cresylsulfate (pCS), and p-cresylglucuronide (pCG) on the recruitment of circulating leukocytes in the rat peritoneal vascular bed using intravital microscopy. Superfusion with IS induced strong leukocyte adhesion, enhanced extravasation, and interrupted blood flow, whereas pCS caused a rapid increase in leukocyte rolling. Superfusion with pCS and pCG combined caused impaired blood flow and vascular leakage but did not further enhance leukocyte rolling over pCS alone. Intravenous infusion with IS confirmed the superfusion results and caused shedding of heparan sulfate, pointing to disruption of the glycocalyx as the mechanism likely mediating IS-induced flow stagnation. These results provide the first clear in vivo evidence that IS, pCS, and pCG exert proinflammatory effects that contribute to vascular damage by stimulating crosstalk between leukocytes and vessels. PMID:24009240

  20. Suppression of interferon response of bovine leukocytes during clinical and subclinical ketosis in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Kandefer-Szerszen, M; Filar, J; Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Rzeski, W

    1992-11-01

    The influence of spontaneous ketosis on interferon alpha and gamma production in blood leucocytes and on PHA induced lymphocyte blastogenic response was investigated. Twenty three cows 4.13 +/- 2.8 weeks after calving were divided into three experimental groups on the basis of blood ketone bodies, glucose and free fatty acids concentrations. The leukocytes of cows with clinical symptoms and the highest concentration of ketones and free fatty acids in blood responded with the lowest levels of interferons alpha and gamma to three interferon inducers: Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA). Depression in interferon PHA stimulated synthesis correlated with a very low mitogenic response of blood lymphocytes. Blood leukocytes of cows with subclinical ketosis, characterized by mild clinical symptoms and a lower concentration of ketones in blood in comparison to cows with clinical ketosis, responded better to interferon and mitogenic stimulation; however, the interferon titer and blastogenesis were still lower than in leukocytes of healthy cows. Correlation between the stage of ketosis and the level of interferon production in milk leukocytes was also observed. A possible relationship between the suppression of interferon production in blood leukocytes and the increased concentration of ketone bodies in blood is discussed. PMID:1281068

  1. Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

  2. Recent insights into endothelial control of leukocyte extravasation.

    PubMed

    Hordijk, Peter L

    2016-04-01

    In the process of leukocyte migration from the circulation across the vascular wall, the crosstalk with endothelial cells that line the blood vessels is essential. It is now firmly established that in endothelial cells important signaling events are initiated upon leukocyte adhesion that impinge on the regulation of cell-cell contact and control the efficiency of transendothelial migration. In addition, several external factors such as shear force and vascular stiffness were recently identified as important regulators of endothelial signaling and, consequently, leukocyte transmigration. Here, I review recent insights into endothelial signaling events that are linked to leukocyte migration across the vessel wall. In this field, protein phosphorylation and Rho-mediated cytoskeletal dynamics are still widely studied using increasingly sophisticated mouse models. In addition, activation of tyrosine phosphatases, changes in endothelial cell stiffness as well as different vascular beds have all been established as important factors in endothelial signaling and leukocyte transmigration. Finally, I address less-well-studied but interesting components in the endothelium that also control transendothelial migration, such as the ephrins and their Eph receptors, that provide novel insights in the complexity associated with this process. PMID:26794844

  3. Extravasation of leukocytes in comparison to tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Strell, Carina; Entschladen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The multi-step process of the emigration of cells from the blood stream through the vascular endothelium into the tissue has been termed extravasation. The extravasation of leukocytes is fairly well characterized down to the molecular level, and has been reviewed in several aspects. Comparatively little is known about the extravasation of tumor cells, which is part of the hematogenic metastasis formation. Although the steps of the process are basically the same in leukocytes and tumor cells, i.e. rolling, adhesion, transmigration (diapedesis), the molecules that are involved are different. A further important difference is that leukocyte interaction with the endothelium changes the endothelial integrity only temporarily, whereas tumor cell interaction leads to an irreversible damage of the endothelial architecture. Moreover, tumor cells utilize leukocytes for their extravasation as linkers to the endothelium. Thus, metastasis formation is indirectly susceptible to localization signals that are literally specific for the immune system. We herein compare the extravasation of leukocytes and tumor cells with regard to the involved receptors and the localization signals that direct the cells to certain organs and sites of the body. PMID:19055814

  4. Platelets Guide Leukocytes to Their Sites of Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Puhr-Westerheide, Daniel; Pörnbacher, Michaela; Lauber, Kirsten; Krombach, Fritz; Reichel, Christoph Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Effective immune responses require the directed migration of leukocytes from the vasculature to the site of injury or infection. How immune cells “find” their site of extravasation remains largely obscure. Here, we identified a previously unrecognized role of platelets as pathfinders guiding leukocytes to their exit points in the microvasculature: upon onset of inflammation, circulating platelets were found to immediately adhere at distinct sites in venular microvessels enabling these cellular blood components to capture neutrophils and, in turn, inflammatory monocytes via CD40-CD40L-dependent interactions. In this cellular crosstalk, ligation of PSGL-1 by P-selectin leads to ERK1/2 MAPK-dependent conformational changes of leukocyte integrins, which promote the successive extravasation of neutrophils and monocytes to the perivascular tissue. Conversely, blockade of this cellular partnership resulted in misguided, inefficient leukocyte responses. Our experimental data uncover a platelet-directed, spatiotemporally organized, multicellular crosstalk that is essential for effective trafficking of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. PMID:27152726

  5. Value of examination for fecal leukocytes in the early diagnosis of shigellosis.

    PubMed

    Korzeniowski, O M; Barada, F A; Rouse, J D; Guerrant, R L

    1979-11-01

    Fecal specimens from 101 patients with diarrhea were cultured and also examined with methylene blue for leukocytes. Thirty-six patients had leukocytes in their stools and 29 had culture-proven shigellosis. The sensitivity of fecal leukocytes in shigellosis was 95% (19/20) when cup specimens were obtained, and 44% (4/9) when swab or diaper specimens were examined. Only 45% of the patients with shigellosis who provided cup specimens had grossly bloody dysentery. Twelve other patients had fecal leukocytes but no demonstrable invasive bacterial pathogens. Methylene blue examination was useful in identifying motile trophozoites of Giardia lamblia and eggs or larvae of other heavy intestinal paraistic infections. Among patients with naturally-acquired acute diarrhea, methylene blue examination of stools for leukocytes is much more sensitive than examination for blood in predicting a positive culture for Shigella spp. It is also of value in detecting parasites. PMID:507279

  6. Equine CRISP3 modulates interaction between spermatozoa and polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Doty, A; Buhi, W C; Benson, S; Scoggin, K E; Pozor, M; Macpherson, M; Mutz, M; Troedsson, M H T

    2011-07-01

    Equine spermatozoa induce a uterine inflammatory response characterized by a rapid, transient influx of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Seminal plasma proteins have been shown to modulate the interaction between spermatozoa and PMNs, but a specific protein responsible for this function has not been identified. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify a protein in equine seminal plasma that suppresses binding between spermatozoa and PMNs. Seminal plasma was pooled from five stallions, and proteins were precipitated in 60% (w/v) ammonium sulfate and dialyzed (3500 MW cutoff). Proteins were submitted to a Sephacryl S200 column, and fractions were pooled based on the fraction pattern. Each pool was analyzed for protein concentration and tested for its suppressive effect on PMN/sperm binding. Protein pools with biological activity were submitted to ion-exchange chromatography (diethylaminoethyl [DEAE] Sephadex column) with equilibration buffers containing 0.1-0.5M NaCl. Eluants were pooled, analyzed for protein concentration, and tested for suppressive effects on PMN/sperm binding. Protein distribution and purity were determined by one- and two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, and the purified protein was submitted for sequence analysis and identification. This protein was identified as equine CRISP3 and was confirmed by Western blotting. Suppression of PMN/sperm binding by CRISP3 and seminal plasma was confirmed by flow cytometry (22.08% ± 3.05% vs. 2.06% ± 2.02% vs. 63.09% ± 8.67 for equine seminal plasma, CRISP3, and media, respectively; P < 0.0001). It was concluded that CRISP3 in seminal plasma suppresses PMNs/sperm binding, suggesting that CRISP3 regulates sperm elimination from the female reproductive tract. PMID:21389342

  7. An evaluation of the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of experimentally induced corneal vascularization.

    PubMed Central

    Fromer, C. H.; Klintworth, G. K.

    1975-01-01

    Studies of corneal explants in the hamster cheek pouch chamber have demonstrated that blood vessels invade the cornea only if the tissue is first infiltrated by leukocytes. In view of this observation, a comparative study of the events that precede and accompany corneal vascularization was undertaken in various experimental models. A variety of established methods were used to induce corneal vascularization, including exposure of the cornea to noxious agents, intracorneal injection of antigens into sensitized animals, as well as maintaining animals on diets deficient in vitamin A or riboflavin. In all models studied, the corneal vascularization was a manifestation of the reparative phase of the inflammatory response. A conspicuous leukocytic infiltrate of the cornea preceded and accompanied the corneal vascularization in all of the models. Although the lesions varied in several respects in the different models, all models displayed three phases with regard to vascularization: an early prevascular phase of leukocytic infiltration, a second phase where blood vessels persisted in the cornea in the absence of leukocytes. The latent period that preceded vascularization was directly related to the time of the initial leukocytic infiltration. The models in which a delay occurred in the leukocytic invasion displayed a subsequent delay in the vascular ingrowth. Conversely, in experiments where there was a rapid and extensive leukocytic invasion, there was also an early and enhanced corneal vasoproliferative response. In the various modesl investigated, the sites of the leukocytic infiltration and subsequent vascular ingrowth into the cornea paralleled each other. The data further support the hypotheses that leukocytes are a prerequisite to corneal vascularization and that leukocytes produce one or more factors which stimulate directional vascular growth. Images Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 PMID:1137003

  8. Is Chronic Asthma Associated with Shorter Leukocyte Telomere Length at Midlife?

    PubMed Central

    Shalev, Idan; Sears, Malcolm R.; Hancox, Robert J.; Lee Harrington, Hona; Houts, Renate; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is prospectively associated with age-related chronic diseases and mortality, suggesting the hypothesis that asthma may relate to a general, multisystem phenotype of accelerated aging. Objectives: To test whether chronic asthma is associated with a proposed biomarker of accelerated aging, leukocyte telomere length. Methods: Asthma was ascertained prospectively in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study cohort (n = 1,037) at nine in-person assessments spanning ages 938 years. Leukocyte telomere length was measured at ages 26 and 38 years. Asthma was classified as life-course-persistent, childhood-onset not meeting criteria for persistence, and adolescent/adult-onset. We tested associations between asthma and leukocyte telomere length using regression models. We tested for confounding of asthma-leukocyte telomere length associations using covariate adjustment. We tested serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts as potential mediators of asthma-leukocyte telomere length associations. Measurements and Main Results: Study members with life-course-persistent asthma had shorter leukocyte telomere length as compared with sex- and age-matched peers with no reported asthma. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length in study members with childhood-onset and adolescent/adult-onset asthma was not different from leukocyte telomere length in peers with no reported asthma. Adjustment for life histories of obesity and smoking did not change results. Study members with life-course-persistent asthma had elevated blood eosinophil counts. Blood eosinophil count mediated 29% of the life-course-persistent asthma-leukocyte telomere length association. Conclusions: Life-course-persistent asthma is related to a proposed biomarker of accelerated aging, possibly via systemic eosinophilic inflammation. Life histories of asthma can inform studies of aging. PMID:24956257

  9. A Complement-Optimized EGFR Antibody Improves Cytotoxic Functions of Polymorphonuclear Cells against Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Derer, Stefanie; Cossham, Michael; Rösner, Thies; Kellner, Christian; Beurskens, Frank J; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Lohse, Stefan; Sina, Christian; Peipp, Matthias; Valerius, Thomas

    2015-11-15

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) has been suggested to be an important mechanism of action of tumor-targeting Abs. However, single unmodified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting IgG1 Abs fail to trigger efficient CDC. For the current study, we generated a CDC-optimized variant of the EGFR Ab matuzumab (H425 wt) by introducing amino acid substitutions K326A/E333A (H425 mt). This Ab was then used to elucidate the impact of complement activation on the capacity of effector cells such as mononuclear cells (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) to exert Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). H425 mt, but not H425 wt, significantly induced complement deposition, release of anaphylatoxins, and CDC against distinct tumor cell lines, whereas no differences in ADCC by MNC or PMN were detected. Notably, stronger cytotoxicity was induced by H425 mt than by H425 wt in whole blood assays and in experiments in which MNC or PMN were combined with serum. Although MNC-ADCC was not affected by C5 cleavage, the cytotoxic activity of PMN in the presence of serum strongly depended on C5 cleavage, pointing to a direct interaction between complement and PMN. Strong cell surface expression of C5a receptors was detected on PMN, whereas NK cells completely lacked expression. Stimulation of PMN with C5a led to upregulation of activated complement receptor 3, resulting in enhanced complement receptor 3-dependent PMN-ADCC against tumor cells. In conclusion, complement-optimized EGFR Abs may constitute a promising strategy to improve tumor cell killing by enhancing the interaction between humoral and cellular effector functions in Ab-based tumor therapy. PMID:26475927

  10. Propofol scavenges reactive oxygen species and inhibits the protein nitration induced by activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Thiry JC; Hans P; Deby-Dupont G; Mouythis-Mickalad A; Bonhomme V; Lamy M

    2004-09-19

    Activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils may damage tissues through the release of biochemical mediators. Among them, peroxynitrite is responsible for hydroxylation reactions and nitration of proteins, or is metabolised into nitrate. We investigated the effect of propofol on the production of reactive oxygen species, the nitration of proteins and the formation of nitrate by activated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Propofol dose-dependently inhibited chemiluminescence, nitration of proteins and nitrate production in a concentration range from 10(-3) to 10(-6) mM. A significant correlation was observed between the logarithm of propofol concentration and the intensity of chemiluminescence (r2=0.90), the nitration of proteins (r2=0.67) and the production of nitrate (r2=0.79). Those results are consistent with the scavenging effect of propofol on peroxynitrite and could confer a protective property to propofol in pathological situations involving polymorphonuclear neutrophils activation.

  11. Propofol scavenges reactive oxygen species and inhibits the protein nitration induced by activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Jean-Christophe; Hans, Pol; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Mouythis-Mickalad, Ange; Bonhomme, Vincent; Lamy, Maurice

    2004-09-19

    Activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils may damage tissues through the release of biochemical mediators. Among them, peroxynitrite is responsible for hydroxylation reactions and nitration of proteins, or is metabolised into nitrate. We investigated the effect of propofol on the production of reactive oxygen species, the nitration of proteins and the formation of nitrate by activated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Propofol dose-dependently inhibited chemiluminescence, nitration of proteins and nitrate production in a concentration range from 10(-3) to 10(-6) mM. A significant correlation was observed between the logarithm of propofol concentration and the intensity of chemiluminescence (r2=0.90), the nitration of proteins (r2=0.67) and the production of nitrate (r2=0.79). Those results are consistent with the scavenging effect of propofol on peroxynitrite and could confer a protective property to propofol in pathological situations involving polymorphonuclear neutrophils activation. PMID:15363948

  12. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  13. Decreased levels of peripheral leukocytes following sodium selenite treatment in female mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, G.R.

    1986-08-01

    Selenium is known to be an essential micronutrient to a number of animal species (Schwarz 1961). Above its trace levels, however, selenium accumulation has long been known to induce deleterious conditions in domestic animals and in humans. Selenium has been reported to induce a hemolytic anemia, alter the configuration of plasma protein, reduce the synthesis of hemoglobin, depress packed red blood cell volume, and accumulate in renal and hepatic tissues. There are substantial data in regard to selenium effects on the erythrocyte component of peripheral blood, but there is an obvious deficiency in such information concerning the effects of selenium on the leukocyte component of blood. The major purpose of this investigation is to focus upon the effects of selenium on formed elements of the blood, and specifically, the leukocytes. Following three separate treatments of selenium, the number and class of peripheral leukocytes were determined as a function of time following administration of the selenium salt.

  14. Leukocyte behaviour in chronic uraemic patients undergoing regular dialysis.

    PubMed

    Canavese, C; Stratta, P; Camussi, G; Segoloni, G; Mattalia, E; Infelise, M; Paola, M; Paolino, W; Vercellone, A

    1979-01-01

    A review of the literature is followed by the presentation of data obtained during a study of white blood cell kinetics in patients undergoing regular dialysis treatment. It was found that contact between white blood cells and the dialyzer results in a very prompt 'neutropenia-neutrophilia' stage and the deposition of billions of white blood cells on the membranes at the end of each treatment. A comparison of intradialytic leukocyte behaviour and the mean baseline white blood cell values was made in a total of 49 patients subdivided in four groups: 1. patients using coil and parallel flow dialyzers; 2. patients using dialyzers of different surface area; 3. patients of different dialytic age; 4. patients employing monoused or re-usable filters. No differences were noted in groups 1 and 4. In contrast, employing large dialyzers and the increasing dialytic age led to a variety of white blood cell patterns. Contrary to the information in the literature on leukocyte adhesion, it was observed that the cell deposits on the membranes and on the bubble trap filters, while predominantly composed of neutrophils, also contained monocytes and lymphocytes in proportions similar to those of the normal differential blood count. PMID:504899

  15. A Model of Canine Leukocyte Telomere Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Benetos, Athanase; Kimura, Masayuki; Labat, Carlos; Buchoff, Gerald M.; Huber, Shell; Labat, Laura; Lu, Xiaobin; Aviv, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent studies have found associations of leukocyte telomere length (TL) with diseases of aging and with longevity. However, it is unknown whether birth leukocyte TL or its age-dependent attrition— the two factors that determine leukocyte TL dynamics— explains these associations, since acquiring this information entails monitoring individuals over their entire life course. We tested in dogs a model of leukocyte TL dynamics, based on the following premises: (i) TL is synchronized among somatic tissues; (ii) TL in skeletal muscle, which is largely post-mitotic, is a measure of TL in early development; (iii) the difference between TL in leukocytes and muscle (ΔLMTL) is the extent of leukocyte TL shortening since early development. Using this model, we observed in 83 dogs (ages 4–42 months) no significant change with age in TLs of skeletal muscle and a shorter TL in leukocytes than in skeletal muscle (P<0.0001). Age explained 43% of the variation in ΔLMTL (P<0.00001) but only 6% of the variation in leukocyte TL (P=0.035) among dogs. Accordingly, muscle TL and ΔLMTL provide the two essential factors of leukocyte TL dynamics in the individual dog. When applied to humans, the partition of the contribution of leukocyte TL during early development versus telomere shortening afterward might provide information about whether the individual’s longevity is calibrated to either one or both factors that define leukocyte TL dynamics. PMID:21917112

  16. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil function and gene expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Biswas, D; Moyes, K M

    2015-02-01

    Research on the use of natural products to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic use is growing. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play a vital role with regard to the innate immune response that affects severity or duration of mastitis. To our knowledge, effect of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (TCO) on bovine PMNL function has not been elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of TCO on bovine blood PMNL chemotaxis and phagocytosis capabilities and the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response in vitro. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from jugular blood of 12 Holstein cows in mid-lactation and were incubated with 0.0 or 0.01% TCO for 120min at 37°C and 5% CO2, and phagocytosis (2×10(6) PMNL) and chemotaxis (6×10(6) PMNL) assays were then performed in vitro. For gene expression, RNA was extracted from incubated PMNL (6×10(6) PMNL), and gene expression was analyzed using quantitative PCR. The supernatant was stored at -80°C for analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α. Data were analyzed using a general linear mixed model with cow and treatment (i.e., control or TCO) in the model statement. In vitro supplementation of 0.01% of TCO increased the chemotactic ability to IL-8 by 47%; however, migration of PMNL to complement 5a was not altered. Treatment did not affect the production of tumor necrosis factor-α by PMNL. Expression of proinflammatory genes (i.e., SELL, TLR4, IRAK1, TRAF6, and LYZ) coding for proteins was not altered by incubation of PMNL with TCO. However, downregulation of TLR2 [fold change (FC=treatment/control)=-2.14], NFKBIA (FC=1.82), IL1B (FC=-2.16), TNFA (FC=-9.43), and SOD2 (FC=-1.57) was observed for PMNL incubated with TCO when compared with controls. Interestingly, expression of IL10, a well-known antiinflammatory cytokine, was also downregulated (FC=-3.78), whereas expression of IL8 (FC=1.93), a gene coding for the cytokine IL-8 known for its chemotactic function, tended to be upregulated in PMNL incubated with TCO. Incubation of PMNL with TCO enhanced PMNL chemotaxis in vitro. The expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response was primarily downregulated. Results showed that 0.01% TCO did not impair the function of PMNL in vitro. Future studies investigating the use of TCO as an alternative therapy for treatment of mastitis, including dose and duration, for cows during lactation are warranted. PMID:25434342

  17. Local Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Increases in the Microcirculation during Leukocytes-Endothelial Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Saptarshi; Kavdia, Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and leukocyte activation are important factors for vascular diseases including nephropathy, retinopathy and angiopathy. In addition, endothelial cell dysfunction is reported in vascular disease condition. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by increased superoxide (O2•−) production from endothelium and reduction in NO bioavailability. Experimental studies have suggested a possible role for leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the vessel NO and peroxynitrite levels and their role in vascular disorders in the arterial side of microcirculation. However, anti-adhesion therapies for preventing leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction related vascular disorders showed limited success. The endothelial dysfunction related changes in vessel NO and peroxynitrite levels, leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction and leukocyte activation are not completely understood in vascular disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of endothelial dysfunction extent, leukocyte-endothelial interaction, leukocyte activation and superoxide dismutase therapy on the transport and interactions of NO, O2•− and peroxynitrite in the microcirculation. We developed a biotransport model of NO, O2•− and peroxynitrite in the arteriolar microcirculation and incorporated leukocytes-endothelial cell interactions. The concentration profiles of NO, O2•− and peroxynitrite within blood vessel and leukocytes are presented at multiple levels of endothelial oxidative stress with leukocyte activation and increased superoxide dismutase accounted for in certain cases. The results showed that the maximum concentrations of NO decreased ∼0.6 fold, O2•− increased ∼27 fold and peroxynitrite increased ∼30 fold in the endothelial and smooth muscle region in severe oxidative stress condition as compared to that of normal physiologic conditions. The results show that the onset of endothelial oxidative stress can cause an increase in O2•− and peroxynitrite concentration in the lumen. The increased O2•− and peroxynitrite can cause leukocytes priming through peroxynitrite and leukocytes activation through secondary stimuli of O2•− in bloodstream without endothelial interaction. This finding supports that leukocyte rolling/adhesion and activation are independent events. PMID:22719984

  18. Visualization of a prosthetic vascular graft due to platelet contamination during /sup 111/Indium-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.

    1988-09-01

    A prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft was visualized during /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a patient referred for possible abdominal abscess. The presence of significant cardiac blood-pool activity raised the possibility that this uptake was due to deposition of contaminating labeled platelets rather than labeled leukocytes. An analysis of a small sample of the patient's blood confirmed that the circulating activity was due to labeled platelets. Increased activity along prosthetic vascular grafts in patients undergoing /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy may be due to adherent platelet, and not indicative of infection.

  19. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ERα and ERβ2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ERα and ERβ2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ERβ2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17β-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ERα. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  20. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-α-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids. PMID:26076445

  1. Highlighting the problematic reliance on CD18 for diagnosing leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1.

    PubMed

    Levy-Mendelovich, Sarina; Rechavi, Erez; Abuzaitoun, Omar; Vernitsky, Helly; Simon, Amos J; Lev, Atar; Somech, Raz

    2016-04-01

    Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-1) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency, hallmarked by defective polymorphonuclear transmigration. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding CD18, which interfere with the CD18/CD11 heterodimerization and expression on leukocyte cell surface. LAD-1 diagnosis rests primarily on the measurement of CD18 expression. However, CD18 measurement entails its pitfalls. Here we present a cohort of ten LAD patients and a review of the relevant literature illustrating the difficulties in sole reliance on CD18 measurement for initial diagnosis. These include normal range expression in some mutations, great variability between patients with the same mutation and subjective interpretation of results. We think there is a need for additional markers as part of the initial LAD diagnostic algorithm. We suggest CD11a expression, which was near absent in all patients in our cohort. The dual use of CD18 and CD11a can increase testing sensitivity and prevent delayed diagnosis of LAD-1. PMID:26434744

  2. Induction of leukocyte activation by meshes surgically implanted in the peritoneal cavity.

    PubMed

    Devereux, D F; O'Connell, S M; Liesch, J B; Weinstein, M; Robertson, F M

    1991-09-01

    The search for surgical prosthetics that do not act to promote infection has been frustrating. However, recent experience with the implantation of polyglycolic acid mesh (PGA) used as an intestinal sling has been associated with a lack of pelvic infections. To examine the basis for these observations, 1 x 1-cm pieces of biomaterials were sewn onto the peritoneal cavity of rats. The biomaterials examined included PGA mesh, a composite mesh composed of a permanent nonabsorbable Novafil inner layer coated with a PGA outer layer, polyvinyl alcohol sponge, and silicon elastomer. Biomaterials were removed at postoperative days 1, 2, 8, and 14, and examined for bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity by standard techniques. Mesh adherent leukocytes were evaluated for their ability to oxidize dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), which is fluorescent in the presence of intracellular hydrogen peroxide produced by both polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes. PGA and the composite mesh had no intrinsic bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity. However, adherent leukocytes were induced to oxidize DCFH at levels 10-fold and 5-fold, respectively, by postoperative day 14, compared with earlier time points and other biomaterials. The ability of these PGA meshes to stimulate respiratory bursts by peritoneal cells may partly be responsible for the lack of infections associated with their use. PMID:1656806

  3. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.

  4. Locking endothelial junctions blocks leukocyte extravasation, but not in all tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kppers, Verena; Vestweber, Dietmar; Schulte, Drte

    2013-01-01

    The passage of leukocytes across the blood vessel wall is a fundamental event in the inflammatory response. During the last decades, there has been significant progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in leukocyte transmigration. However, it is still a matter of debate whether leukocytes migrate paracellularly or transcellularly through an endothelial cell layer. We could recently show that a VE-cadherin-?-catenin fusion protein locks endothelial junctions in the skin and strongly reduces leukocyte diapedesis in lung, skin and cremaster, establishing the paracellular route as the major transmigration pathway in these tissues. However, the homing of nave lymphocytes into lymph nodes and extravasation of neutrophils in the inflamed peritoneum were not affected by VE-cadherin-?-catenin. This unexpected heterogeneity of the diapedesis process in different tissues as well as the complexity and dynamics of the cadherin-catenin complex in regulating endothelial junctions will be discussed. PMID:24665379

  5. The potential of the novel leukocyte removal filter in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is indispensable for cardiac surgery but leads to systemic inflammatory responses and leukocyte activation, possibly due to blood contact with the surface of the CPB unit, surgical, ischemic reperfusion injury, etc. Systemic inflammatory responses during CPB result in increased morbidity and mortality. Activation of leukocytes is an important part of this process and directly contributes to coagulopathy and hemorrhage. This inflammatory response may contribute to the development of postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, respiratory failure, renal and neurologic dysfunction, altered liver function and ultimately, multiple organ failure. Various pharmacologic and mechanical strategies have been developed to minimize the systemic inflammatory response during CPB. For example, leukocyte removal filters were developed in the 1990s for incorporation into the CPB circuit. However, studies of this approach have yielded conflicting findings. The purpose of this was to review the studies of a novel leukocyte removal filter in patients undergoing CPB. PMID:26613267

  6. The leukocyte response to fluid stress

    PubMed Central

    Moazzam, Fariborz; DeLano, Frank A.; Zweifach, Benjamin W.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    1997-01-01

    Leukocyte migration from a hemopoietic pool across marrow endothelium requires active pseudopod formation and adhesion. Leukocytes rarely show pseudopod formation while in circulation. At question then is the mechanism that serves to minimize leukocyte pseudopod formation in the circulation. We tested the hypothesis that fluid shear stress acts to prevent pseudopod formation. When individual human leukocytes (neutrophils, monocytes) spreading on glass surfaces in vitro were subjected to fluid shear stress (≈1 dyn/cm2), an instantaneous retraction of pseudopods was observed. Removal of the fluid shear stress in turn led to the return of pseudopod projection and cell spreading. When steady shear stress was prolonged over several minutes, leukocyte swelling occurs together with an enhanced random motion of cytoplasmic granules and a reduction of cytoplasmic stiffness. The response to shear stress could be suppressed by K+ channel blockers and chelation of external Ca2+. In rat mesentery microvessels after occlusion, circulating leukocytes project pseudopods in free suspension or when attached to the endothelium, even though immediately after occlusion only few pseudopods were present. When flow was restored, pseudopods on adhering leukocytes were retracted and then the cells began to roll and detach from the endothelium. In conclusion, plasma shear stress in the circulation serves to reduce pseudopod projection and adhesion of circulating leukocytes and vice versa reduction of shear stress leads to pseudopod projection and spreading of leukocytes on the endothelium. PMID:9144238

  7. Oxaceprol, an atypical inhibitor of inflammation, reduces leukocyte adherence in mouse antigen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Veihelmann, A; Hofbauer, A; Refior, H J; Messmer, K

    2001-06-01

    Oxaceprol (N-acetyl-L-hydroxyproline), an atypical inhibitor of inflammation, is an established drug forjoint disease without serious side-effects. Recent studies have emphasized that oxaceprol has an effect on the microcirculation. Since the exact mechanism of action remains unclear, the aim of our study was to investigate the leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in oxaceprol-treated mice with antigen-induced arthritis (AiA) using intravital microscopy. In our study, Balb/c mice were allocated to 4 groups (n 7, 8, 8, 8): 2 control groups with saline or oxaceprol and 2 groups of arthritic animals which received saline or oxaceprol (100 mg/kg twice a day intraperitoneally). The severity of arthritis was quantified by the transverse knee joint diameter. For the intravital fluorescence microscopy measurements on day 10 after inducing arthritis, the patella tendon was partily resected to visualize the intraarticular synovial tissue of the knee joint. The number of rolling and adherent leukocytes as well as RBC velocity and functional capillary density (FCD) were quantified in synovial microvessels. Furthermore, leukocyte infiltration was determined in the histological sections with an established score. No significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure or functional capillary density were found in any of the groups. However, the leukocyte rolling fraction and number of leukocytes adherent to the endothelium were increased in postcapillary venules of the synovium in arthritic animals (0.16 to 0.31, 78 cells/mm2 to 220 cells/mm2). In animals with AiA treated with oxaceprol, leukocyte adherence and swelling were significantly reduced in comparison to the arthritic animals treated with saline. Furthermore, the histological score showed less leukocyte infiltration in the oxaceprol treated arthritic animals. Thus, oxaceprol reduces leukocyte adherence in vivo and leukocyte infiltration in mouse AiA, indicating an effect on synovial microcirculation. PMID:11480608

  8. Effect of acetaminophen on the leukocyte-labeling efficiency of indium oxine In 111

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, S.C.; Schmelter, R.F.; Nelson, K.L.; Petersen, R.J.; Qualfe, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on the labeling efficiency of leukocytes with indium oxine In 111 was studied. A blood sample was obtained from eight healthy men before and after they received acetaminophen 650 mg every four hours for 24 hours. After dividing the plasma from each sample into three portions, leukocytes were separated and labeled with indium oxine In 111. In an in vitro study, 200 ml of blood was obtained from one of the men, and the plasma was separated into four portions. Acetaminophen in 95% ethanol was added to three of the plasma fractions to produce acetaminophen concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 micrograms/ml; ethanol was added to the fourth fraction as a control. Each plasma fraction was then subdivided into three aliquots, and leukocytes were labeled as in the in vivo study. Mean leukocyte labeling efficiencies in both studies were calculated from the ratios of leukocyte radioactivity to initial radioactivity in the samples, expressed as percentages. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies before acetaminophen administration ranged from 79 to 85%; after administration, labeling efficiencies ranged from 70 to 87%. No significant differences in mean labeling efficiency before and after acetaminophen administration were noted in any of the subjects. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies in all in vitro plasma fractions were reduced, ranging from 54 to 63%, but no significant differences in labeling efficiency between any of the plasma fractions were found. Using the labeling procedures in this study, exposure of leukocytes from healthy men to acetaminophen in vivo or in vitro does not affect labeling efficiency with indium oxine In 111.

  9. The role of platelets in the recruitment of leukocytes during vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ed Rainger, G.; Chimen, Myriam; Harrison, Matthew J.; Yates, Clara M.; Harrison, Paul; Watson, Stephen P.; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Nash, Gerard B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Besides their role in the formation of thrombus during haemostasis, it is becoming clear that platelets contribute to a number of other processes within the vasculature. Indeed, the integrated function of the thrombotic and inflammatory systems, which results in platelet-mediated recruitment of leukocytes, is now considered to be of great importance in the propagation, progression and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease of the arteries. There are three scenarios by which platelets can interact with leukocytes: (1) during haemostasis, when platelets adhere to and are activated on sub-endothelial matrix proteins exposed by vascular damage and then recruit leukocytes to a growing thrombus. (2) Platelets adhere to and are activated on stimulated endothelial cells and then bridge blood borne leukocytes to the vessel wall and. (3) Adhesion between platelets and leukocytes occurs in the blood leading to formation of heterotypic aggregates prior to contact with endothelial cells. In the following review we will not discuss leukocyte recruitment during haemostasis, as this represents a physiological response to tissue trauma that can progress, at least in its early stages, in the absence of inflammation. Rather we will deal with scenarios 2 and 3, as these pathways of platelet–leukocyte interactions are important during inflammation and in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Indeed, these interactions mean that leukocytes possess means of adhesion to the vessel wall under conditions that may not normally be permissive of leukocyte–endothelial cell adhesion, meaning that the disease process may be able to bypass the regulatory pathways which would ordinarily moderate the inflammatory response. PMID:26196409

  10. Leukocyte migration in synovial tissue. Leukocyte distribution, orientation, and migratory pattern after immune complex deposition in rabbit knee joints.

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, P.; Ericson, L. E.

    1989-01-01

    Complement-activating bovine serum albumin (BSA)-anti-BSA immune complexes (ICs) were injected into rabbit knee joint cavities; the contralateral control joint was injected with BSA together with normal rabbit serum. The migration of leukocytes from the synovial venules into the joint cavity was analyzed with light microscopy (LM), scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy. EM autoradiography was used to study the endocytosis of ICs by leukocytes. The shape, orientation, and distribution of migrating polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNGs) were analyzed by LM morphometry. PMNGs accumulated in the joints injected with ICs. The peak of the number of PMNGs in the synovial tissue was reached after 4 hours, in the joint cavity after 6 hours. PMNGs in the synovial tissue were concentrated in the intimal layer. Migrating PMNGs were polarized, as judged by the ratio between the long (D max) and short (D min) axes of the cells. There was a close association between the migrating PMNGs and the collagen fibers. The morphometric data showed that the nonflattened, cylindrically-shaped PMNGs were oriented along the collagen bundles, running parallel to the synovial surface, and did not migrate in the straight direction of a theoretic leukotactic gradient originating in the joint cavity after IC deposition. SEM and TEM showed that the PMNGs were aligned along the collagen fibers and interacted activity with the collagen by pseudopods and cytoplasmic projections. EM autoradiography showed that the PMNGs in the joint cavity had ingested 125I-labeled ICs and were degranulated. In contrast, the PMNGs within the synovial membrane did not show any signs of IC endocytosis or any apparent degranulation. Synovial type A cells were found to contain ICs. This study indicates that the response of PMNGs in IC-induced synovitis consists of two distinct phases: an initial, mainly migratory phase in the synovial membrane where the PMNGs appear to use the collagen fibres as a climbing framework, and a second phase, in the joint cavity, characterized by PMNG metabolic activation, endocytosis of ICs, and degranulation. The apparent inability of PMNGs in the synovial membrane to ingest ICs and become degranulated might be due to not only concentration differences of ICs and leukotactic factors between the joint cavity and the synovial tissue but also might be related to the apparently active interaction with collagen. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:2757115

  11. Telomere length assessment in leukocytes presents potential diagnostic value in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    BARCZAK, WOJCIECH; ROZWADOWSKA, NATALIA; ROMANIUK, ALEKSANDRA; LIPIŃSKA, NATALIA; LISIAK, NATALIA; GRODECKA-GAZDECKA, SYLWIA; KSIĄŻEK, KRZYSZTOF; RUBIŚ, BŁAŻEJ

    2016-01-01

    Telomere shortening is associated with cancer development, primarily through the induction of genomic instability. The majority of studies have indicated that individuals with shorter blood telomeres may be at a higher risk of developing various types of cancer. There is increasing evidence that the study of the alterations in telomere length may improve cancer prognosis. The aim of the present study was to verify the use of telomere length parameters in the diagnostics of breast cancer stage. Telomere length was analyzed in the blood leukocytes of 52 patients with breast cancer relative to 47 control subjects using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The effects of stage, grade, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status were assessed. The current study demonstrated that the average telomeric sequence length was significantly shorter in leukocytes from individuals diagnosed with a more severe stage of breast cancer (T2N1M0) than in leukocytes in the early stages of the disease (T1N0M0) (P=0.0207). Furthermore, the data indicated that telomeres in leukocytes derived from patients with HER2+ breast cancer were significantly longer compared with those with the HER2− type (P=0.0347). These results suggest that the assessment of telomeres in blood leukocytes may, at least partially, correspond with breast cancer staging and HER2 receptor status. PMID:26998167

  12. Exercise-induced leukocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Karsten; Mooren, Frank C

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise is well known to affect leukocyte numbers and function. While regular exercise training has been shown to enhance specific immune functions, acute bouts of intensive exercise often lead to a pro-inflammatory response accompanied by a transient lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia. It can be assumed, that lymphocytopenia can be attributed at least partially to an enhanced lymphocyte apoptosis. In contrast, regulation of neutrophil apoptosis after exercise remains controversial since studies demonstrated both an up-regulation as well as a down-regulation of cell death. However, these discrepancies may be due to differences in exercise protocols, subjects' fitness levels, and to different methodological approaches. Two major signalling pathways of exercise induced apoptosis have been identified. First the external receptor mediated pathway using death receptors, and second the internal, oxidative-mediated pathway which encompasses the mitochondria. Potential apoptosis modulating mediators are reactive oxygen species (ROS), glucocorticoids and cytokines which are part of the systemic inflammatory response evoked after acute intensive exercise. Finally, the physiological impact and clinical relevance of leukocyte apoptosis will be discussed. On the one hand, exercise-induced apoptosis might be a mechanism to remove activated and potentially autoreactive immune cells. On the other hand, apoptosis might be a regulatory mechanism which is necessary for tissue reorganization and adaptational training processes. PMID:24974724

  13. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. )

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of a /sup 99m/Tc-SnF2 colloid kit for leukocyte labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, J.I.; Tatum, J.L.; Fratkin, M.J.; Apostolides, D.L.; Quint, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    Stannous fluoride colloid (SFC) kits for instant radiolabeling with 99mTc were prepared and evaluated for suitability as a leukocyte radiolabeling agent. Technetium-99m labeling for kits stored at -15/degree/C for up to 3 mo was greater than 95% as determined by instant thin layer chromatography while colloid particles of 1-3 microns were measured by electron microscope for these preparations. Canine leukocyte preparations labeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)SFC and characterized by triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma demonstrated an 83% leukocyte association. Analysis of labeled cell preparation for up to 3 hr demonstrated label stability. Labeled leukocytes, when readministered in normal dogs, demonstrated bi-exponential blood clearance with uptake and subsequent clearance from lung. There was increasing uptake of labeled leukocytes by the liver until steady state was achieved. Furthermore, when whole blood samples were analyzed by the triple density gradient method, an increasing monocyte-to-granulocyte ratio was observed to occur with time. By 3 hr 95% of the whole blood activity was associated with the leukocyte fraction. Dogs in which a 24-hr sterile abscess was created demonstrated elevated blood-pool activity as compared to control with localization of the labeled cells at inflammatory sites within 3 hr following cell readministration.

  15. Leukocyte-dependent antibody in sheep immunized with murine mastocytoma cells.

    PubMed

    Grant, C K; Adams, E; Miller, H R

    1975-05-01

    Sheep serum removed after hyperimmunization with murine P-815 mastocytoma cells was fractionated and two types of cytotoxic antibody were isolated. Complement-dependent antibody (CDA) was detected in the IgM and IgG1 fractions whereas "leukocyte" -dependent antibody (LDA) was found in the IgG1 and IgG2 fractions. Effector cells that mediated LDA cytotoxicity were isolated from sheep blood but not from sheep lymph, showing that recirculating lymphocytes do not have LDA effector function. Removal of adherent cells from blood leukocyte suspensions reduced antibody-mediated cytotoxicity, suggesting that LDA effector leukocytes may be a heterogenous population containing both adherent and nonadherent cells. PMID:824135

  16. Non-specific cytotoxic activity of teleost leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Moody, C E; Serreze, D V; Reno, P W

    1985-01-01

    The existence of lymphoid cells with "natural" killer activity in mammals and birds has been known for some time. Several previous reports have demonstrated similar activity in carp and catfish kidney leukocytes. However, the activity previously reported was directed towards established mammalian cell lines. In this report we confirm the existence of spontaneous killer activity in other species of teleosts, including salmonids. This spontaneous cytotoxic activity is directed towards several established teleost, as well as mammalian, cell lines. Cytotoxic activity appears to be optimal at 20 degrees C in an 8 hour 51Cr release assay. The RTG-2, AS, GS and EPC cell lines of teleost origin are susceptible to lysis by kidney, spleen, and blood leukocytes of Salmo salar, Salmo gairdneri, and Notemigonus crysoleucas. Furthermore, the susceptibility of the RTG-2 and AS teleost cell lines to killing by kidney leukocytes of both S. salar and S. gairdneri was significantly enhanced by preinfection of the target cells with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. PMID:3996708

  17. Tenocytes, pro-inflammatory cytokines and leukocytes: a relationship?

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadi, Onays; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Kohl, Benjamin; Lohan, Anke; Lemke, Marion; Ertel, Wolfgang; John, Thilo

    2011-01-01

    Summary Leukocyte derived pro-inflammatory mediators could be involved in tendon healing and scar formation. Hence, the effect of autologous leukocytes (PBMCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils) on primary rabbit Achilles tenocytes gene expression was tested in insert assisted co-cultures. Subsequently, tenocytes gene expression of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) components (type I collagen, decorin, fibronectin), the cell-ECM receptor β1-integrin, the angiogenic factor myodulin, ECM degrading matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumour necrosis factor [TNFα] and IL-6) was analysed. The only significant effect of leukocytes on tenocytes ECM genes expression was a suppression of type I collagen by neutrophils combined with TNFα stimulation. The same effect could be observed analysing the β1-integrin and myodulin gene expression. However, PBMCs up-regulated significantly cytokine and MMP1 gene expression in tenocytes. These in vitro results suggest that mononuclear cells could present an exogenic stimulus for the induction of pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators in tendon. PMID:23738251

  18. CCR2 inhibition sequesters multiple subsets of leukocytes in the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Fujimura, Naoki; Xu, Baohui; Dalman, Jackson; Deng, Hongping; Aoyama, Kohji; Dalman, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates monocyte mobilization from the bone marrow (BM) and subsequent migration into target tissues. The degree to which CCR2 is differentially expressed in leukocyte subsets, and the contribution of CCR2 to these leukocyte mobilization from the BM are poorly understood. Using red fluorescence protein CCR2 reporter mice, we found heterogeneity in CCR2 expression among leukocyte subsets in varying tissues. CCR2 was highly expressed by inflammatory monocytes, dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and NK cells in all tissues. Unexpectedly, more than 60% of neutrophils expressed CCR2, albeit at low levels. CCR2 expression in T cells, B cells and NK T cells was greatest in the BM compared to other tissues. Genetic CCR2 deficiency markedly sequestered all leukocyte subsets in the BM, with reciprocal reduction noted in the peripheral blood and spleen. CCR2 inhibition via treatment with CCR2 signaling inhibitor propagermanium produced similar effects. Propagermanium also mitigated lipopolysaccharide-induced BM leukocyte egress. Consistent with its functional significance, CCR2 antibody staining revealed surface CCR2 expression within a subset of BM neutrophils. These results demonstrate the central role CCR2 plays in mediating leukocyte mobilization from the BM, and suggest a role for CCR2 inhibition in managing monocytes/macrophages-mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:26206182

  19. CCR2 inhibition sequesters multiple subsets of leukocytes in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, Naoki; Xu, Baohui; Dalman, Jackson; Deng, Hongping; Aoyama, Kohji; Dalman, Ronald L

    2015-01-01

    Chemokine receptor CCR2 mediates monocyte mobilization from the bone marrow (BM) and subsequent migration into target tissues. The degree to which CCR2 is differentially expressed in leukocyte subsets, and the contribution of CCR2 to these leukocyte mobilization from the BM are poorly understood. Using red fluorescence protein CCR2 reporter mice, we found heterogeneity in CCR2 expression among leukocyte subsets in varying tissues. CCR2 was highly expressed by inflammatory monocytes, dendritic cells, plasmacytoid dendritic cells and NK cells in all tissues. Unexpectedly, more than 60% of neutrophils expressed CCR2, albeit at low levels. CCR2 expression in T cells, B cells and NK T cells was greatest in the BM compared to other tissues. Genetic CCR2 deficiency markedly sequestered all leukocyte subsets in the BM, with reciprocal reduction noted in the peripheral blood and spleen. CCR2 inhibition via treatment with CCR2 signaling inhibitor propagermanium produced similar effects. Propagermanium also mitigated lipopolysaccharide-induced BM leukocyte egress. Consistent with its functional significance, CCR2 antibody staining revealed surface CCR2 expression within a subset of BM neutrophils. These results demonstrate the central role CCR2 plays in mediating leukocyte mobilization from the BM, and suggest a role for CCR2 inhibition in managing monocytes/macrophages-mediated chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:26206182

  20. Nanowire array chips for molecular typing of rare trafficking leukocytes with application to neurodegenerative pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Minsuk; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Mi-Ri; Wu, Yu; Han, Lin; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2014-05-01

    Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective hematological analysis of the CSF from patients.Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective hematological analysis of the CSF from patients. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional data are available in the supplementary tables and supplementary figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06465d

  1. Kinetics of leukocyte sequestration in the lungs of acutely septic primates: A study using sup 111 In-labeled autologous leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Hangen, D.H.; Segall, G.M.; Harney, E.W.; Stevens, J.H.; McDougall, I.R.; Raffin, T.A. )

    1990-03-01

    To further clarify the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of ARDS, we studied the localization and kinetics of leukocyte migration using 111In-labeled autologous white cell scans ({sup 111}In wbc scans) in four primates made acutely septic with infusions of Escherichia coli. Whole body images were obtained with a gamma camera and were acquired on computer every 15 min beginning immediately after the E. coli infusion. Simultaneous measurements of C5a and peripheral blood leukocyte count were also obtained. Within 5 min of initiating sepsis, three major events occurred: complement activation as measured by the production of C5a, a profound fall in peripheral leukocyte count, and a significant increase in the sequestration of leukocytes in the lungs. The pulmonary sequestration reached a peak at 15 min with a mean of 152% of baseline activity. This sequestration consisted of a population that was predominantly neutrophils. Damage to the pulmonary capillary endothelium was demonstrated by an increase in extravascular lung water. The results support a role for neutrophils and complement as mediators in the pathogenesis of ARDS.

  2. Microfluidics for in vitro biomimetic shear stress-dependent leukocyte adhesion assays.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Elena; Molteni, Raffaella; Pardi, Ruggero; Dubini, Gabriele

    2013-01-18

    Recruitment of leukocytes from blood to tissues is a multi-step process playing a major role in the activation of inflammatory responses. Tethering and rolling of leukocytes along the vessel wall, followed by arrest and transmigration through the endothelium result from chemoattractant-dependent signals, inducing adhesive and migratory events. Shear forces exerted by the blood flow on leukocytes induce rolling via selectin-mediated interactions with endothelial cells and increase the probability of leukocytes to engage their chemokine receptors, facilitating integrin activation and consequent arrest. Flow-derived shear forces generate mechanical stimuli concurring with biochemical signals in the modulation of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In the last few years, a host of in vitro studies have clarified the biochemical adhesion cascade and the role of shear stress in leukocyte extravasation. The limitation of the static environment in Boyden devices has been overcome both by the use of parallel-plate flow chambers and by custom models mimicking the in vivo conditions, along with widespread microfluidic approaches to in vitro modeling. These devices create an in vitro biomimetic environment where the multi-step transmigration process can be imaged and quantified under mechanical and biochemical controlled conditions, including fluid dynamic settings, channel design, materials and surface coatings. This paper reviews the technological solutions recently proposed to model, observe and quantify leukocyte adhesion behavior under shear flow, with a final survey of high-throughput solutions featuring multiple parallel assays as well as thorough and time-saving statistical interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:23200903

  3. The evaluation of leukocytes in response to the in vitro testing of ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chris H H; Hilton, Andrew; Foster, Graham; Hawkins, Karl M; Badiei, Nafiseh; Thornton, Catherine A

    2013-09-01

    Infection is a clinically relevant adverse event in patients with ventricular assist device (VAD) support. The risk of infection could be linked to a reduced immune response resulting from damage to leukocytes during VAD support. The purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of leukocyte responses during the in vitro testing of VADs by analyzing the changes to their morphology and biochemistry. The VentrAssist implantable rotary blood pump (IRBP) and RotaFlow centrifugal pump (CP) were tested in vitro under constant hemodynamic conditions. Automated hematology analysis of samples collected regularly over 25-h tests was undertaken. A new flow cytometric assay was employed to measure biochemical alteration, necrosis (7-AAD) and morphological alteration (CD45 expression) of the circulating leukocytes during the pumping process. The results of hematology analysis show the total leukocyte number and subset counts decreased over the period of in vitro tests dependent on different blood pumps. The percentage of leukocytes damaged during 6-h tests was 40.8 ± 5.7% for the VentrAssist IRBP, 17.6 ± 5.4% for the RotaFlow CP, and 2.7 ± 1.8% for the static control (all n=5). Flow cytometric monitoring of CD45 expression and forward/side scatter characteristics revealed leukocytes that were fragmented into smaller pieces (microparticles). Scanning electron microscopy and imaging flow cytometry were used to confirm this. Device developers could use these robust cellular assays to gain a better understanding of leukocyte-specific VAD performance. PMID:23981196

  4. Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on indium-111 leukocyte scans: potential diagnostic pitfall

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, J.L.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Carretta, R.

    1986-04-01

    The appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on an (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scan is reported. Recognition of the potential for normal accumulation of 111In-labeled white blood cells within this common process involving the skull is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis.

  5. Dynamic changes in circulating leukocytes during the induction of equine laminitis with black walnut extract.

    PubMed

    Hurley, David J; Parks, Robert J; Reber, Adrian J; Donovan, Douglas C; Okinaga, Tatsuyuki; Vandenplas, Michel L; Peroni, John F; Moore, James N

    2006-04-15

    Administration of black walnut heartwood extract (BWHE) via nasogastric tube induces acute laminitis in horses. However, the processes responsible for the development of laminitis, including laminitis induced with BWHE, remain unclear. The results of recent studies indicate that administration of BWHE initiates an inflammatory response in the laminar tissues and that this response may be due to extravasation of activated leukocytes from the circulation. This study examines the effects of BWHE administration on the dynamics of circulating neutrophils and monocytes, and the capacity of blood leukocytes to produce radical oxygen species (ROS) over the time period from administration of BWHE to the development of lameness consistent with Obel grade I laminitis. Individual horses, free of pre-existing musculoskeletal disease, were administered either 6l of BWHE or an equal volume of water at time 0 (T=0). Blood samples were collected prior to dosing and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h after dosing, or until the onset of Obel grade I laminitis. For each sample, total leukocyte counts were determined followed by collection of buffy coats and removal of erythrocytes by hypotonic lysis. Leukocytes were either fixed for flow cytometric assessment of differential counts or maintained in culture to measure endogenous and phorbol ester-induced production of ROS. At each sample time, the number of cells recovered and the flow cytometric differential counts were compared with corresponding total leukocyte counts determined by the Clinical Pathology laboratory. Horses administered BWHE had a significant reduction in circulating leukocytes at 3-4 h relative to values for horses administered the same volume of water. Horses that developed Obel grade I laminitis had a significant reduction in circulating leukocytes when compared to values for horses administered BWHE that did not become lame. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a consistent decrease in the total number of monocytes obtained from horses that developed laminitis. In these same horses, the endogenous level of ROS production was significantly higher at T=0 than for horses that did not become lame. Furthermore, production of ROS by leukocytes from horses that developed laminitis increased significantly and coincided with the decrease in circulating leukocytes. Collectively, these findings support a role for systemic activation of leukocytes and induction of inflammation by BWHE as a factor in the early pathogenesis of acute laminitis. Because laminitis often develops as a sequel to diseases characterized by systemic inflammatory events, activation and emigration of neutrophils and monocytes may be important factors in the early pathogenesis of laminitis in clinical cases. PMID:16290066

  6. Preparation of surface-modified poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwovens and their application as leukocyte removal filters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jin; Yeo, Gwu-Dong; Pai, Chaul-Min; Kang, Inn-Kyu

    2009-08-01

    Blood transfusion-related adverse reactions have been reported to be caused by leukocytes in blood products. It is now generally accepted that it would be highly desirable to reduce leukocytes level as low as possible. In this study, melt-blown poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven (PBT-NW) was treated with a hydroxyapatite (HA) surface-modification method for removal of leukocytes from blood components. Acrylic acid was graft-polymerized onto the surface of the PBT-NW after oxygen plasma glow discharge treatment. The PBT-NW surface was covered with a thin layer of HA produced by immersing the polymer surface in an aqueous solution containing high concentrations of PO(4) (3-) and Ca(2+) after graft-polymerization of acrylic acid, which provided the nucleus for HA crystallization. The surface was characterized using water contact angles, attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FT-IR), and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. When filtration was performed with a unit of red blood cell concentrates, HA-deposited PBT-NW (PBT-HA) removed 98.5% of the leukocytes and recovered 99.5% of the erythrocytes, suggesting that HA-deposited PBT-NW is a very promising blood filter for selective removal of leukocytes. PMID:19353568

  7. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:25056125

  8. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions.

  9. Optimizing Viable Leukocyte Sampling from the Female Genital Tract for Clinical Trials: An International Multi-Site Study

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, Stephen C.; Martinson, Jeffrey A.; Plants, Jill; Brady, Kirsten E.; Gumbi, Pamela P.; Adams, Devin J.; Vojtech, Lucia; Galloway, Christine G.; Fialkow, Michael; Lentz, Gretchen; Gao, Dayong; Shu, Zhiquan; Nyanga, Billy; Izulla, Preston; Kimani, Joshua; Kimwaki, Steve; Bere, Alfred; Moodie, Zoe; Landay, Alan L.; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Kaul, Rupert; Novak, Richard M.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Hladik, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Background Functional analysis of mononuclear leukocytes in the female genital mucosa is essential for understanding the immunologic effects of HIV vaccines and microbicides at the site of HIV exposure. However, the best female genital tract sampling technique is unclear. Methods and Findings We enrolled women from four sites in Africa and the US to compare three genital leukocyte sampling methods: cervicovaginal lavages (CVL), endocervical cytobrushes, and ectocervical biopsies. Absolute yields of mononuclear leukocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometric bead-based cell counting. Of the non-invasive sampling types, two combined sequential cytobrushes yielded significantly more viable mononuclear leukocytes than a CVL (p<0.0001). In a subsequent comparison, two cytobrushes yielded as many leukocytes (∼10,000) as one biopsy, with macrophages/monocytes being more prominent in cytobrushes and T lymphocytes in biopsies. Sample yields were consistent between sites. In a subgroup analysis, we observed significant reproducibility between replicate same-day biopsies (r = 0.89, p = 0.0123). Visible red blood cells in cytobrushes increased leukocyte yields more than three-fold (p = 0.0078), but did not change their subpopulation profile, indicating that these leukocytes were still largely derived from the mucosa and not peripheral blood. We also confirmed that many CD4+ T cells in the female genital tract express the α4β7 integrin, an HIV envelope-binding mucosal homing receptor. Conclusions CVL sampling recovered the lowest number of viable mononuclear leukocytes. Two cervical cytobrushes yielded comparable total numbers of viable leukocytes to one biopsy, but cytobrushes and biopsies were biased toward macrophages and T lymphocytes, respectively. Our study also established the feasibility of obtaining consistent flow cytometric analyses of isolated genital cells from four study sites in the US and Africa. These data represent an important step towards implementing mucosal cell sampling in international clinical trials of HIV prevention. PMID:24454917

  10. Cardiopulmonary Bypass during Cardiac Surgery Modulates Systemic Inflammation by Affecting Different Steps of the Leukocyte Recruitment Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Rossaint, Jan; Berger, Christian; Van Aken, Hugo; Scheld, Hans H.; Zahn, Peter K.; Rukosujew, Andreas; Zarbock, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background It is known that the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery leads to leukocyte activation and may, among other causes, induce organ dysfunction due to increased leukocyte recruitment into different organs. Leukocyte extravasation occurs in a cascade-like fashion, including capturing, rolling, adhesion, and transmigration. However, the molecular mechanisms of increased leukocyte recruitment caused by CPB are not known. This clinical study was undertaken in order to investigate which steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade are affected by the systemic inflammation during CPB. Methods We investigated the effects of CPB on the different steps of the leukocyte recruitment cascade in whole blood from healthy volunteers (n = 9) and patients undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 7) or in off-pump coronary artery bypass-technique (OPCAB, n = 9) by using flow chamber experiments, transmigration assays, and biochemical analysis. Results CPB abrogated selectin-induced slow leukocyte rolling on E-selectin/ICAM-1 and P-selectin/ICAM-1. In contrast, chemokine-induced arrest and transmigration was significantly increased by CPB. Mechanistically, the abolishment of slow leukocyte rolling was due to disturbances in intracellular signaling with reduced phosphorylation of phospholipase C (PLC) γ2, Akt, and p38 MAP kinase. Furthermore, CPB induced an elevated transmigration which was caused by upregulation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. Conclusion These data suggest that CPB abrogates selectin-mediated slow leukocyte rolling by disturbing intracellular signaling, but that the clinically observed increased leukocyte recruitment caused by CPB is due to increased chemokine-induced arrest and transmigration. A better understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms causing systemic inflammation after CPB may aid in the development of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:23029213

  11. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660... Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to identify the enzyme leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in neutrophilic granulocytes...

  12. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers, and peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Richeson, J T; Kegley, E B; Powell, J G; Beck, P A; Ley, B L Vander; Ridpath, J F

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation of cohorts that may have health and growth consequences; however, effects may differ in low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare health and performance of PC or AM management systems with (PI) or without (CON) presence of a PI-BVDV pen mate using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four shipment blocks of crossbred PC steers (n = 236) from 3 ranch-origins were weaned, dewormed, vaccinated, tested for PI-BVDV, and kept on the ranch for ≥42 d. Subsequently, PC steers were transported to a stocker receiving unit (RU), weighed (251 ± 2 kg), blood sampled, stratified by d -1 BW, and assigned randomly to treatment (PCPI or PCCON) with no additional processing. Simultaneously, 4 blocks of crossbred AM calves (n = 292) were assembled from regional auction markets and transported to the RU ± 36 h from PC arrival. The AM calves were weighed (245 ± 1.3 kg), stratified by gender and d -1 BW, processed under the same regimen used for PC steers at their origin ranch except bull calves were castrated, and then assigned randomly to treatment (AMPI or AMCON). Treatment pens (0.45 ha) were arranged spatially such that PI did not have fence-line or water source contact with CON. Calves were fed identically and followed the same antibiotic treatment protocol. Daily BW gain for the entire 42-d receiving trial was greater (P < 0.001) for PC (1.2 kg) compared with AM (0.85 kg). There was an exposure effect (P = 0.002) on ADG from d 28 to 42; CON gained 1.12 kg vs. 0.90 kg BW for PI cohort. Morbidity was markedly greater (P < 0.001) in AM (70%) vs. PC (7%), resulting in (P < 0.001) an antibiotic treatment cost of $20.52 and $2.48/animal, respectively. Treatment with a third antibiotic occurred more often (P = 0.04) for PI cohort, and the percentage of chronically ill cattle was greatest (P = 0.06) for AMPI. Upon arrival, BVDV type 1a, 1b, and 2a titers were greater for PC (treatment × day, P < 0.001), and the percentage seropositive to BVDV type 1a on d 0 was 100% for PC vs. 23% in AM. Platelets increased transiently (P < 0.001) with greater platelets observed in AM (P < 0.001). Results indicate that PC calves gain faster and require fewer antibiotic treatments during the receiving period. Exposure to PI reduced BW gain from d 28 to 42, increased the number of calves treated thrice, and increased chronically ill cattle for AM. PMID:22648754

  13. Indium-111 autologous leukocyte imaging in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.R.; Spence, R.A.; Laird, J.D.; Ferguson, W.R.; Kennedy, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Thirty-nine patients with acute pancreatitis have been assessed using a prognostic factor grading system, abdominal ultrasound, and autologous leukocyte imaging. Both prognostic factor grading and leukocyte imaging can accurately assess the severity of the disease early in its course. All patients with a negative indium-labeled leukocyte image recovered without sequelae, whereas five of the 12 patients with a positive image developed complications, including two deaths. Abdominal ultrasound is of no value in assessing severity, but is a useful method of detecting those patients with gallstone-associated disease. In patients with suspected abscess formation following acute pancreatitis, indium leukocyte imaging does not differentiate between fat necrosis and abscess formation. In this situation, computerized tomography should be carried out before laparotomy is undertaken.

  14. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  15. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    PubMed Central

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  16. Insulin Resistance in PCOS Patients Enhances Oxidative Stress and Leukocyte Adhesion: Role of Myeloperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Victor M.; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Martinez de Marañon, Arantxa; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Alvarez, Angeles; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance (IR). We have evaluated the relationship between myeloperoxidase (MPO) and leukocyte activation in PCOS patients according to homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), and have explored a possible correlation between these factors and endocrine and inflammatory parameters. This was a prospective controlled study conducted in an academic medical center. The study population consisted of 101 PCOS subjects and 105 control subjects. We divided PCOS subjects into PCOS non-IR (HOMA-IR<2.5) and PCOS IR (HOMA-IR>2.5). Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, MPO levels, interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells and leukocytes, adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were evaluated. Oxidative stress was observed in PCOS patients, in whom there was an increase in total and mitochondrial ROS production and MPO levels. Enhanced rolling flux and adhesion, and a decrease in polymorphonuclear cell rolling velocity were also detected in PCOS subjects. Increases in IL-6 and TNF-α and adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were also observed, particularly in the PCOS IR group, providing evidence that inflammation and oxidative stress are related in PCOS patients. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with hsCRP (p<0.001, r = 0.304), ROS production (p<0.01, r = 0.593), leukocyte rolling flux (p<0.05, r = 0.446), E-selectin (p<0.01, r = 0.436) and IL-6 (p<0.001, r = 0.443). The results show an increase in the rate of ROS and MPO levels in PCOS patients in general, and particularly in those with IR. Inflammation in PCOS induces leukocyte-endothelium interactions and a simultaneous increase in IL-6, TNF-α, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. These conditions are aggravated by the presence of IR. PMID:27007571

  17. Insulin Resistance in PCOS Patients Enhances Oxidative Stress and Leukocyte Adhesion: Role of Myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Victor, Victor M; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Diaz-Morales, Noelia; Martinez de Marañon, Arantxa; Rios-Navarro, Cesar; Alvarez, Angeles; Gomez, Marcelino; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases and oxidative stress are related to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and insulin resistance (IR). We have evaluated the relationship between myeloperoxidase (MPO) and leukocyte activation in PCOS patients according to homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), and have explored a possible correlation between these factors and endocrine and inflammatory parameters. This was a prospective controlled study conducted in an academic medical center. The study population consisted of 101 PCOS subjects and 105 control subjects. We divided PCOS subjects into PCOS non-IR (HOMA-IR<2.5) and PCOS IR (HOMA-IR>2.5). Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, total and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, MPO levels, interactions between human umbilical vein endothelial cells and leukocytes, adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) were evaluated. Oxidative stress was observed in PCOS patients, in whom there was an increase in total and mitochondrial ROS production and MPO levels. Enhanced rolling flux and adhesion, and a decrease in polymorphonuclear cell rolling velocity were also detected in PCOS subjects. Increases in IL-6 and TNF-α and adhesion molecules (E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were also observed, particularly in the PCOS IR group, providing evidence that inflammation and oxidative stress are related in PCOS patients. HOMA-IR was positively correlated with hsCRP (p<0.001, r = 0.304), ROS production (p<0.01, r = 0.593), leukocyte rolling flux (p<0.05, r = 0.446), E-selectin (p<0.01, r = 0.436) and IL-6 (p<0.001, r = 0.443). The results show an increase in the rate of ROS and MPO levels in PCOS patients in general, and particularly in those with IR. Inflammation in PCOS induces leukocyte-endothelium interactions and a simultaneous increase in IL-6, TNF-α, E-selectin, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. These conditions are aggravated by the presence of IR. PMID:27007571

  18. COMPARISON OF TOTAL LEUKOCYTE QUANTIFICATION METHODS IN FREE-LIVING GALAPAGOS TORTOISES (CHELONOIDIS SPP.).

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Julie D; Stacy, Nicole I; Blake, Stephen; Cabrera, Fredy; Deem, Sharon L

    2016-03-01

    Reptile hematologic data provide important health information for conservation efforts of vulnerable wildlife species such as the Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis spp.). Given the reported discrepancies between manual leukocyte counts for nonmammalian species, two manual leukocyte quantification methods, the Natt and Herrick's (NH) and the Eopette (EO), were compared to white blood cell (WBC) estimates from blood films of 42 free-living, clinically healthy, adult female Galapagos tortoises. To investigate the effects of delay in sample processing, estimated WBC counts and leukocyte differentials were compared for blood films prepared at time of collection under field conditions (T0) to blood films prepared from samples that were stored for 18-23 hr at 4°C in the laboratory (T1). Passing-Bablok regression analysis revealed no constant or proportional error between the NH and WBC estimates (T0 and T1) with slopes of 1.1 and 0.9, respectively. However both constant and proportional errors were present between EO and WBC estimates (T0 and T1) with slopes of 3.1 and 2.7, respectively. Bland Altman plots also showed agreement between the NH and WBC estimates where the points fell within the confidence-interval limit lines and were evenly distributed about the mean. In contrast, the EO and WBC estimate comparisons showed numerous points above the upper limit line, especially at higher concentrations. WBC estimates obtained from T0 and T1 films were in agreement, whereas heterophil and monocyte percentages based on differentials were not. Cell morphology and preservation were superior in T0 blood films because thrombocytes exhibited swelling after storage, becoming difficult to differentiate from lymphocytes. In this study, the highest quality and most reliable hematologic data in Galapagos tortoises were obtained by combining immediate blood film preparation with the NH leukocyte quantification method and a confirmatory WBC estimate from the blood film. PMID:27010280

  19. A mechanism for erythrocyte-mediated elevation of apparent viscosity by leukocytes in vivo without adhesion to the endothelium.

    PubMed

    Helmke, B P; Sugihara-Seki, M; Skalak, R; Schmid-Schnbein, G W

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the relatively small number of leukocytes in the circulation, they have a significant influence on the perfusion of such organs as skeletal muscle or kidney. However, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the current study a combined in vivo and computational approach is presented in which the interaction of individual freely flowing leukocytes with erythrocytes and its effect on apparent blood viscosity are explored. The skeletal muscle microcirculation was perfused with different cell suspensions with and without leukocytes or erythrocytes. We examined a three-dimensional numerical model of low Reynolds number flow in a capillary with a train of erythrocytes (small spheres) in off-axis positions and single larger leukocytes in axisymmetric positions. The results indicate that in order to match the slower axial velocity of leukocytes in capillaries, erythrocytes need to position themselves into an off-axis position in the capillary. In such off-axis positions at constant mean capillary velocity, erythrocyte axial velocity matches on average the axial velocity of the leukocytes, but the apparent viscosity is elevated, in agreement with the whole organ perfusion observations. Thus, leukocytes influence the whole organ resistance in skeletal muscle to a significant degree only in the presence of erythrocytes. PMID:10656051

  20. LAIR-1, a novel inhibitory receptor expressed on human mononuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Meyaard, L; Adema, G J; Chang, C; Woollatt, E; Sutherland, G R; Lanier, L L; Phillips, J H

    1997-08-01

    In the present study, we describe a novel inhibitory receptor, leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor-1 (LAIR-1), that is constitutively expressed on the majority of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. LAIR-1 is a 32 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein with a single immunoglobulin-like domain and a cytoplasmic tail containing two immune receptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs. LAIR-1 recruits SHP-1 and SHP-2 phosphatases upon activation, and cross-linking of the LAIR-1 antigen on natural killer (NK) cells results in strong inhibition of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although it is structurally related to human killer cell inhibitory receptors, LAIR-1 does not appear to recognize human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and thus represents a novel HLA class I-independent mechanism of NK cell regulation. PMID:9285412

  1. The Role of Physical Stabilization in Whole Blood Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Keith H. K.; Sandlin, Rebecca D.; Carey, Thomas R.; Miller, Kathleen L.; Shank, Aaron T.; Oklu, Rahmi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    The rapid degradation of blood ex vivo imposes logistical limitations on the utilization of blood-borne cells in medical diagnostics and scientific investigations. A fundamental but overlooked aspect in the storage of this fluid tissue is blood settling, which induces physical stress and compaction, aggregates blood cells, and causes collateral damage due to leukocyte activation. Here we show that the polymer Ficoll 70 kDa stabilized blood samples and prevented blood settling over the course of 72 hours, primarily by inhibiting depletion-mediated red blood cell aggregation. Physical stabilization decreased echinocyte formation, improved leukocyte viability, and inhibited the release of neutrophil elastase—a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In addition, Ficoll-stabilized blood was compatible with common leukocyte enrichment techniques including red blood cell lysis and immunomagnetic purification. This study showed for the first time that blood settling can be prevented using polymers and has implications in diagnostics.

  2. The Role of Physical Stabilization in Whole Blood Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Keith H. K.; Sandlin, Rebecca D.; Carey, Thomas R.; Miller, Kathleen L.; Shank, Aaron T.; Oklu, Rahmi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L.; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The rapid degradation of blood ex vivo imposes logistical limitations on the utilization of blood-borne cells in medical diagnostics and scientific investigations. A fundamental but overlooked aspect in the storage of this fluid tissue is blood settling, which induces physical stress and compaction, aggregates blood cells, and causes collateral damage due to leukocyte activation. Here we show that the polymer Ficoll 70 kDa stabilized blood samples and prevented blood settling over the course of 72 hours, primarily by inhibiting depletion-mediated red blood cell aggregation. Physical stabilization decreased echinocyte formation, improved leukocyte viability, and inhibited the release of neutrophil elastase—a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In addition, Ficoll-stabilized blood was compatible with common leukocyte enrichment techniques including red blood cell lysis and immunomagnetic purification. This study showed for the first time that blood settling can be prevented using polymers and has implications in diagnostics. PMID:26876805

  3. The Role of Physical Stabilization in Whole Blood Preservation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Keith H K; Sandlin, Rebecca D; Carey, Thomas R; Miller, Kathleen L; Shank, Aaron T; Oklu, Rahmi; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A; Irimia, Daniel; Stott, Shannon L; Toner, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The rapid degradation of blood ex vivo imposes logistical limitations on the utilization of blood-borne cells in medical diagnostics and scientific investigations. A fundamental but overlooked aspect in the storage of this fluid tissue is blood settling, which induces physical stress and compaction, aggregates blood cells, and causes collateral damage due to leukocyte activation. Here we show that the polymer Ficoll 70 kDa stabilized blood samples and prevented blood settling over the course of 72 hours, primarily by inhibiting depletion-mediated red blood cell aggregation. Physical stabilization decreased echinocyte formation, improved leukocyte viability, and inhibited the release of neutrophil elastase-a marker of neutrophil extracellular trap formation. In addition, Ficoll-stabilized blood was compatible with common leukocyte enrichment techniques including red blood cell lysis and immunomagnetic purification. This study showed for the first time that blood settling can be prevented using polymers and has implications in diagnostics. PMID:26876805

  4. Human leukocyte elastase, cathepsin G, and lactoferrin: family of neutrophil granule glycoproteins that bind to an alveolar macrophage receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, E J

    1982-01-01

    Interactions between polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear phagocytes are potentially of great importance in a variety of inflammatory processes. As part of a continuing effort to elucidate the physiologic importance of human alveolar macrophage receptor-mediated binding of neutrophil (leukocyte) elastase, I have studied the binding of leukocyte elastase and two other neutrophil granule glycoproteins, cathepsin G and lactoferrin, to human alveolar macrophages. Saturable binding of all three ligands at 0 degrees C was observed, with equilibrium dissociation constants of 4.0 x 10(-7), 2.0 x 10(-7), and 1.7 x 10(-6) M, respectively. All bound to a similar number (54-73 x 10(6)) of sites per cell. Binding of all three ligands was inhibited by the polysaccharide fucoidin, and extensive cross-inhibition of their binding to macrophages was observed. The results indicate that alveolar macrophages possess a relatively low-affinity, high-volume receptor for a family of neutrophil granule glycoproteins, which would be ideally suited for clearing released neutrophil granule contents from the extracellular space in inflamed tissues. PMID:6960357

  5. Neutrophil and Monocyte Leukocyte recruitment by PECAM, CD99 and other molecules via the LBRC

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David P.; Muller, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The recruitment of specific leukocyte subtypes to the site of tissue injury is the cornerstone of inflammation and disease progression. This process has become an intense area of research because it presents several possible steps against which disease-specific therapies could be targeted. Leukocytes are recruited out of the blood stream by a series of events that includes their capture, rolling, activation, and migration along the endothelium. In the last step, the leukocytes squeeze between adjacent endothelial cells to gain access to the inflamed tissue through a process referred to as transendothelial migration (TEM). Although many of the molecules, such as PECAM and CD99, that regulate these sequential steps have been identified, much less is understood regarding how they work together to coordinate the complex intercellular communications and dramatic shape changes that take place between the endothelial cells and leukocytes. Several of the endothelial cell proteins that function in TEM are localized to the Lateral Border Recycling Compartment (LBRC), an interconnected reticulum of membrane that recycles selectively to the endothelial borders. The recruitment of the LBRC to surround the migrating leukocyte is required for efficient TEM. This review will focus on the proteins and mechanisms that mediate TEM and specifically how the LBRC functions in the context of these molecular interactions and membrane movements. PMID:24337626

  6. In vitro and in vivo interferon production by bovine colostral leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Kandefer-Szerszeń, M; Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Zdzisińska, B; Kamińska, T; Kondracki, M

    1995-05-01

    Sixteen healthy pregnant cows were divided into two groups. Group I (8 cows) received immediately after calving two injections of Vaccina L containing the LaSota strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (total dose 10(9) TCID50/cow) into udder lymph nodes. The second group of 8 cows served as control. Newborn calves of both groups of cows were allowed to suckle the colostrum. Interferon activity was detected 24 h after injection in whey obtained from colostrum of Vaccina L-treated dams and in supernatants of cultures of colostral leukocytes. Interferon was also present in sera of Vaccina L treated dams 48 h after injection. No IFN activity was detected in sera of calves. Cultures of leukocytes obtained from colostrum of dams 48 h after Vaccina L-treatment exhibited hyporeactivity to the second induction in vitro and produced low IFN levels in response to NDV. In contrast to hyporeactivity observed in colostral leukocytes, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of calves suckling colostrum from dams treated with Vaccina L produced higher IFN levels after induction in vitro with NDV than leukocytes of control calves. PMID:8593770

  7. Exposure to sodium fluoride produces signs of apoptosis in rat leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Morales-González, José A; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna Y; Suástegui-Domínguez, Sigrit; Valadez-Vega, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is naturally present in the earth's crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF) as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm) NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT) oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm) for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks. PMID:20957113

  8. Exposure to Sodium Fluoride Produces Signs of Apoptosis in Rat Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Morales-González, José A.; Madrigal-Santillán, Eduardo; Esquivel-Soto, Jaime; Esquivel-Chirino, César; González-Rubio, Manuel García-Luna y; Suástegui-Domínguez, Sigrit; Valadez-Vega, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is naturally present in the earth’s crust and can be found in rocks, coal, and clay; thus, it can be found in small quantities in water, air, plants, and animals. Therefore, humans are exposed to fluoride through food, drinking water, and in the air they breathe. Flouride is essential to maintain bone strength and to protect against dental decay, but if it is absorbed too frequently, it can cause tooth decay, osteoporosis, and damage to kidneys, bones, nerves, and muscles. Therefore, the present work was aimed at determining the effect of intake of sodium fluoride (NaF) as an apoptosis inducer in leukocytes of rats treated for eight weeks with 1 or 50 parts per million (ppm) NaF. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspade-3 were used as apoptotic and general metabolism indicators of leukocyte-like indicators of the (INT) oxidation system. Male rats were exposed to NaF (1 and 500 ppm) for eight weeks, and then sacrificed weekly to obtain blood samples. Expression of p53, bcl-2, and caspase-3 were determined in leukocytes by Western blot, and general metabolism of leukocytes was analyzed with a commercial kit. We found changes in the expression of the proteins described, especially when the animals received 50 ppm of NaF. These results indicate that NaF intoxication can be an apoptosis inducer in rat leukocytes treated with the compound for eight weeks. PMID:20957113

  9. Monoclonal antibody blockade of L-selectin inhibits mononuclear leukocyte recruitment to inflammatory sites in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Pizcueta, P.; Luscinskas, F. W.

    1994-01-01

    L-selectin interacting with inducible endothelial counterreceptors mediates in part the initial adhesive interactions, termed rolling, between circulating blood leukocytes and vascular endothelium. While blockade of L-selectin function in in vivo models of inflammation reduces both neutrophil and lymphocyte influx at early times, little is known concerning the role of L-selectin in leukocyte recruitment at later times (> 24 hours). Using an in vivo murine model of experimentally induced inflammation of the peritoneum, the role of L-selectin in recruitment of mononuclear leukocytes to chronic sites of inflammation (48 hours) was investigated. Saturating levels of function blocking anti-L-selectin monoclonal antibody (MEL-14) or control rat IgG were maintained for 48 hours using surgically implanted mini-osmotic pumps; this treatment did not alter the circulating leukocyte cell count or differential. In animals receiving MEL-14 monoclonal antibody (MAb), macrophage and lymphocyte accumulation in response to thioglycollate was reduced by 60% (P < or = 0.0002) and > 90% (P < 0.001), respectively, at 48 hours as compared with animals implanted with pumps containing saline. Similarly, MEL-14 MAb dramatically inhibited granulocyte influx by 80% (P < 0.03) at 6 hours; recruitment at 24 and 48 hours was reduced by 50%. In contrast, the effects of purified rat IgG was not significantly different from saline. Our results suggest L-selectin, interacting with its inducible endothelial counterreceptor(s), plays an important role in circulating mononuclear leukocyte extravasation at sites of inflammation. PMID:7519828

  10. ADAM9 is a Novel Product of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils: Regulation of Expression and Contributions to Extracellular Matrix Protein Degradation During Acute Lung Injury#

    PubMed Central

    Roychaudhuri, Robin; Hergrueter, Anja H.; Polverino, Francesca; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E.; Gupta, Kushagra; Borregaard, Niels; Owen, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A disintegrin and a metalloproteinase domain 9 (ADAM9**) is known to be expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Herein, we report that ADAM9 is also a product of human and murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). ADAM9 is not synthesized de novo by circulating PMNs. Rather, ADAM9 protein is stored in the gelatinase and specific granules and the secretory vesicles of human PMNs. Unstimulated PMNs express minimal quantities of surface ADAM9, but activation of PMNs with degranulating agonists rapidly (within 15 min) increases PMN surface ADAM9 levels. Human PMNs produce small quantities of soluble forms of ADAM9 (sADAM9). Surprisingly, ADAM9 degrades several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including fibronectin, entactin, laminin, and insoluble elastin as potently as MMP-9. However, ADAM9 does not degrade types I, III, or IV collagen, or denatured collagens in vitro. To determine whether Adam9 regulates PMN recruitment or ECM protein turnover during inflammatory responses, we compared wild type (WT) and Adam9?/? mice in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury (ALI). Adam9 lung levels increase 10-fold during LPS-mediated ALI in WT mice (due to increases in leukocyte-derived Adam9), but Adam9 does not regulate lung PMN (or macrophage) counts during ALI. Adam9 increases mortality, promotes lung injury, reduces lung compliance, and increases degradation of lung elastin during LPS- and/or bleomycin-mediated ALI. Adam9 does not regulate collagen accumulation in the bleomycin-treated lung. Thus, ADAM9 is expressed in an inducible fashion on PMN surfaces where it degrades some ECM proteins, and promotes alveolar-capillary barrier injury during ALI in mice. PMID:25063875

  11. The inhibitory effects of antirheumatic drugs on the activity of human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G.

    PubMed

    Steinmeyer, J; Kalbhen, D A

    1996-07-01

    The serine proteinases elastase and cathepsin G from polymorphonuclear granulocytes play a critical role in articular cartilage degradation, not only as proteolytic enzymes able to degrade the extracellular matrix but also by additionally modulating the level of active matrix metalloproteinases, key enzymes of the proteolytic destruction of cartilage during rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of our study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory drugs and selected compounds inhibited elastase and cathepsin G, and also to determine whether it is necessary to use a highly purified elastase preparation to screen drugs for their ability to block the activity of this enzyme. Eglin C and the glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex DAK-16, at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-4) M, dose-dependently inhibited elastase and cathepsin G while the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone, sulfinpyrazone and diclofenac-Na required high concentrations to demonstrate some inhibitory effects on the activity of both enzymes. None of the other anti-inflammatory drugs tested at a concentration of 10(-4) M such as acetylsalicylic acid, dexamethasone, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, oxaceprol, pirprofen and tiaprofenic acid demonstrated any marked inhibitory activity on either of these proteinases. Only a few drugs, when dosed therapeutically, achieved synovial fluid concentrations sufficient to inhibit the activities of both proteinases. The antirheumatic drugs demonstrated similar inhibition profiles in purified or partially purified elastase preparations. Thus the leukocyte extract containing the partially purified elastase and cathepsin G which can be rapidly and easily prepared at low costs appears to be an efficient mean of screening potentially new therapeutic agents for their ability to inhibit leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. PMID:8841833

  12. Leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) induces formation of inositol-phosphates (IP's) in rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's)

    SciTech Connect

    Chi-Rosso, G.; Crooke, S.T.; Mong, S.

    1986-05-01

    LTB/sub 4/ induced rapid breakdown of prelabeled inositol-phospholipids (PI) in rat PMN. Formation of (/sup 3/H)-inositol-trisphosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/) was rapid, with a peak of 250-300% of the control level, after 5-15 sec of stimulation with LTB/sub 4/. Accumulation of (/sup 3/H)-inositol-bisphosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 2/) was rapid, peaking after 30 sec of stimulation. (/sup 3/H)-inositol-monophosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 1/) accumulated gradually in the presence of LiCl. The kinetics of (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/, (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 2/ and (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 1/ accumulation suggested that LTB/sub 4/ may interact with receptors in PMNs, activate phospholipase C which, in turn, induces hydrolysis of PI. The agonist activities of several LTB/sub 4/ analogs were employed to investigate the structure activity relationship of LTB/sub 4/ receptor mediated activation of PI hydrolysis. Increases in (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation were dependent upon the concentration of LTB/sub 4/ and the agonist analogs. The rank order potency of these analogs were equivalent to that of the pharmacological activity of LTB/sub 4/ agonists in the chemotaxis assay. Furthermore, the Islet activation protein (IAP) inhibited LTB/sub 4/ induced (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation. The tumor promoting phorbomyristate ester also inhibited LTB/sub 4/ induced (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation. These results suggest LTB/sub 4/ may interact with receptors in rat PMNs, activate G/sub i/ protein regulated phospholipase C and induce (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation.

  13. Leukocyte trafficking and pain behavioral responses to a hydrogen sulfide donor in acute monoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Andruski, Benjamin; McCafferty, Donna-Marie; Ignacy, Teegan; Millen, Brandie; McDougall, Jason J

    2008-09-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenous gaseous mediator with the ability to modulate tissue inflammation and pain. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an H(2)S donor (Na(2)S) on leukocyte-endothelium interactions, blood flow, and pain sensation in acutely inflamed knee joints. Acute arthritis was induced in urethane anesthetized C57bl/6 mice by intra-articular injection of kaolin/carrageenan (24-h recovery), and the effect of local administration of Na(2)S on leukocyte trafficking was measured by intravital microscopy. Synovial blood flow was measured in inflamed knees by laser Doppler perfusion imaging. Finally, the effect of an intra-articular injection of Na(2)S on joint pain in control and inflamed rats was determined by hindlimb incapacitance and von Frey hair algesiometry. Local administration of an H(2)S donor to inflamed knees caused a dose-dependent reduction in leukocyte adherence and an increase in leukocyte velocity. These effects could be inhibited by coadministration of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel blocker glibenclamide. Local administration of Na(2)S to inflamed joints caused a pronounced vasoconstrictor response; however, there was no observable effect of Na(2)S on joint pain. These findings establish H(2)S as a novel signaling molecule in rodent knee joints. H(2)S exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties, but with no detectable effect on joint pain. PMID:18667709

  14. Modulatory Role of Surface Coating of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms in Complement Opsonization and Leukocyte Uptake.

    PubMed

    Inturi, Swetha; Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K; Holers, V Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2015-11-24

    Notwithstanding rapid advances of nanotechnology in diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, the engineered nanocarriers still exhibit substantial lack of hemocompatibility. Thus, when injected systemically, nanoparticles are avidly recognized by blood leukocytes and platelets, but the mechanisms of immune recognition are not well understood and strategies to mitigate these phenomena remain underexplored. Using superparamagnetic dextran iron oxide (SPIO) nanoworms (NWs) we demonstrate an efficient and predominantly complement-dependent uptake by mouse lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes from normal and tumor bearing mice in vitro. Following intravenous injection into wild type mice, blood leukocytes as well as platelets became magnetically labeled, while the labeling was decreased by 95% in complement C3-deficient mice. Using blood cells from healthy and cancer patient donors, we demonstrated that neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils took up SPIO NWs, and the uptake was prevented by EDTA (a general complement inhibitor) and by antiproperdin antibody (an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of the complement system). Cross-linking and hydrogelation of SPIO NWs surface by epichlorohydrin decreased C3 opsonization in mouse serum, and consequently reduced the uptake by mouse leukocytes by more than 70% in vivo. Remarkably, the cross-linked particles did not show a decrease in C3 opsonization in human serum, but showed a significant decrease (over 60%) of the uptake by human leukocytes. The residual uptake of cross-linked nanoparticles was completely blocked by EDTA. These findings demonstrate species differences in complement-mediated nanoparticle recognition and uptake by leukocytes, and further show that human hemocompatibility could be improved by inhibitors of complement alternative pathway and by nanoparticle surface coating. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of hemocompatibility of nanomedicines. PMID:26488074

  15. Osteomyelitis: diagnosis with In-111-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.

    1989-04-01

    In a retrospective review, 485 patients with suspected osteomyelitis were studied. Of these, 453 patients were studied with both bone and indium-111 leukocyte scanning (173 sequentially and 280 simultaneously). The ability to determine that the infection was in bone rather than in adjacent soft tissue was greater with simultaneous bone scan and In-111 leukocyte studies than with sequential studies. The locations of suspected osteomyelitis were divided into central (containing active bone marrow), peripheral (hands and feet), and middle (between central and peripheral). Specificity remained high (about 90%) regardless of the location. Overall sensitivity was significantly lower in the central location than in the peripheral or middle location. Determination of whether the In-111 leukocyte activity was in bone or adjacent soft tissue was also more difficult when the infection was in the central location. For acute osteomyelitis, sensitivity was high regardless of the location. For chronic osteomyelitis, sensitivity was lower in the central location.

  16. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Women

    PubMed Central

    Du, Mengmeng; Prescott, Jennifer; Kraft, Peter; Han, Jiali; Giovannucci, Edward; Hankinson, Susan E.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a potential indicator of cellular aging; however, its relation to physical activity and sedentary behavior is unclear. The authors examined cross-sectionally associations among activity, sedentary behavior, and LTL among 7,813 women aged 43–70 years in the Nurses’ Health Study. Participants self-reported activity by questionnaire in 1988 and 1992 and sedentary behavior in 1992. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes, collected in 1989–1990, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The least-squares mean telomere length (z-score) was calculated after adjustment for age and other potential confounders. For total activity, moderately or highly active women had a 0.07-standard deviation (SD) increase in LTL (2-sided Ptrend = 0.02) compared with those least active. Greater moderate- or vigorous-intensity activity was also associated with increased LTL (SD = 0.11 for 2–4 vs. <1 hour/week and 0.04 for ≥7 vs. <1 hour/week; 2-sided Ptrend = 0.02). Specifically, calisthenics or aerobics was associated with increased LTL (SD = 0.10 for ≥2.5 vs. 0 hours/week; 2-sided Ptrend = 0.04). Associations remained after adjustment for body mass index. Other specific activities and sitting were unassociated with LTL. Although associations were modest, these findings suggest that even moderate amounts of activity may be associated with longer telomeres, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies. PMID:22302075

  17. Analysis of physiologic E-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling on microvascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Georg; Barthel, Steven R; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2009-01-01

    E-selectin is a type-1 membrane protein on microvascular endothelial cells that helps initiate recruitment of circulating leukocytes to cutaneous, bone and inflamed tissues. E-selectin expression is constitutive on dermal and bone microvessels and is inducible by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1alpha/ and TNF-alpha, on microvessels in inflamed tissues. This lectin receptor mediates weak binding interactions with carbohydrate counter-receptor ligands on circulating leukocytes, which results in a characteristic rolling behavior. Because these interactions precede more stable adhesive events and diapedesis activity, characterization of leukocyte rolling activity and identification of leukocyte E-selectin ligands have been major goals in studies of leukocyte trafficking and inflammation and in the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics (1-5). The intent of this report is to provide a visual, comprehensive description of the most widely-used technology for studying E-selectin E-selectin ligand interactions under physiologic blood flow conditions. Our laboratory in conjunction with the Harvard Skin Disease Research Center uses a state-of-the-art parallel-plate flow chamber apparatus accompanied by digital visualization and new recording software, NIS-Elements. This technology allows us to analyze adhesion events in real time for onscreen visualization as well as record rolling activity in a video format. Cell adhesion parameters, such as rolling frequency, shear resistance and binding/tethering efficiency, are calculated with NIS-Elements software, exported to an Excel spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis. In the demonstration presented here, we employed the parallel-plate flow chamber to investigate E-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling activity on live human bone marrow endothelial cells (hBMEC). Human hematopoietic progenitor KG1a cells, which express a high level of E-selectin ligand, were used as our leukocyte model, while an immortalized hBMEC cell line, HBMEC-60 cells, was used as our endothelial cell model (6). To induce and simulate native E-selectin expression in the flow chamber, HBMEC-60 cells were first activated with IL-1 . Our video presentation showed that parallel-plate flow analysis is a suitable method for studying physiologic E-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling activities and that functional characterization of leukocyte E-selectin ligand(s) in the flow chamber can be ascertained by implementing protease or glycosidase digestions. PMID:19229187

  18. Passive mechanical properties of human leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Schmid-Schönbein, G W; Sung, K L; Tözeren, H; Skalak, R; Chien, S

    1981-01-01

    Micropipette experiments are used to determine the rheological properties of human leukocytes. Individual cells in EDTA are subjected to a known aspiration pressure via a micropipette, and their surface deformation from the undeformed spherical shape is recorded on a television monitor. The cells are mathematically modeled as homogeneous spheres, and a standard solid viscoelastic model is found to describe accurately the deformation of the cell for small strains. These experimental and theoretical studies provide the basis for further investigations of leukocyte rheology in health and disease. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:6793106

  19. Modeling leukocyte-leukocyte non-contact interactions in a lymph node.

    PubMed

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (~25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions. PMID:24204669

  20. Modeling Leukocyte-Leukocyte Non-Contact Interactions in a Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (≅25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions. PMID:24204669

  1. Halo sign on indium-111 leukocyte scan in gangrenous cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Bauman, J.M.; Boykin, M.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Cawthon, M.A.; Landry, A.J.

    1986-02-01

    A 56-year-old man with a long history of Crohn's disease was evaluated by In-111 labeled leukocyte scanning. A halo of leukocyte activity was seen around the gallbladder fossa. A gangrenous gallbladder was removed at surgery.

  2. Characterization of Leukocyte-platelet Rich Fibrin, A Novel Biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Madurantakam, Parthasarathy; Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Hasan, Fadi K

    2015-01-01

    Autologous platelet concentrates represent promising innovative tools in the field of regenerative medicine and have been extensively used in oral surgery. Unlike platelet rich plasma (PRP) that is a gel or a suspension, Leukocyte-Platelet Rich Fibrin (L-PRF) is a solid 3D fibrin membrane generated chair-side from whole blood containing no anti-coagulant. The membrane has a dense three dimensional fibrin matrix with enriched platelets and abundant growth factors. L-PRF is a popular adjunct in surgeries because of its superior handling characteristics as well as its suturability to the wound bed. The goal of the study is to demonstrate generation as well as provide detailed characterization of relevant properties of L-PRF that underlie its clinical success. PMID:26485642

  3. Flow cytofluorometric monitoring of leukocyte apoptosis in experimental cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsmanova, Ekaterina Y.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Livanova, Ludmila F.; Kobkova, Irina M.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.; Shchukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Smirnova, Nina I.; Kutyrev, Vladimir V.

    2003-10-01

    Flow cytofluorometric DNA analysis was applied to determine of the relative contents of proliferative (more then 2C DNA per cell) and apoptotic (less then 2C DNA per cell) leukocytes in blood of adult rabbits, challenged with 10,000 times the 50 % effective dose of Vibrio cholerae virulent strain by the RITARD technique. It has been shown that irreversible increase the percentage of cells carrying DNA in the degradation stage brings to disbalance between the genetically controlled cell proliferation and apoptosis that leads to animal death from the cholera infection. Such fatal changes were not observed in challenging of immunized animals that were not died. Thus received data show that the flow cytofluorometric measurements may be used for detection of transgressions in homeostasis during acute infection diseases, for outlet prognosis of the cholera infection.

  4. Triggering of leukocytes by phase contrast in imaging cytometry with scanning fluorescence microscope (SFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Marecka, Monika; Malkusch, Wolf; Tárnok, Attila

    2009-02-01

    Slide-based cytometry (SBC) leads to breakthrough in cytometry of cells in tissues, culture and suspension. Carl Zeiss Imaging Solutions' new automated SFM combines imaging with cytometry. A critical step in image analysis is selection of appropriate triggering signal to detect all objects. Without correct target cell definition analysis is hampered. DNA-staining is among the most common triggering signals. However, the majority of DNA-dyes yield massive spillover into other fluorescence channels limiting their application. By microscopy objects of >5μm diameter can be easily detected by phase-contrast signal (PCS) without any staining. Aim was to establish PCS - triggering for cell identification. Axio Imager.Z1 motorized SFM was used (high-resolution digital camera, AxioCam MRm; AxioVision software: automatic multi-channel scanning, analysis). Leukocytes were stained with FITC (CD4, CD8) and APC (CD3) labelled antibodies in combinations using whole blood method. Samples were scanned in three channels (PCS/FITC/APC). Exposition-times for PCS were set as low as possible; the detection efficiency was verified by fluorescence. CD45-stained leukocytes were counted and compared to the number of PCS detected events. Leukocyte subtyping was compared with other cytometers. In focus the PCS of cells showed ring-form that was not optimal for cell definition. Out of focus PCS allows more effective qualitative and quantitative cell analyses. PCS was an accurate triggering signal for leukocytes enabling cell counting and discrimination of leukocytes from platelets. Leukocyte subpopulation frequencies were comparable to those obtained by other cytometers. In conclusion PCS is a suitable trigger-signal not interfering with fluorescence detection.

  5. A Leukocyte Score to Improve Clinical Outcome Predictions in Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Blot, Mathieu; Croisier, Delphine; Pchinot, Andr; Vagner, Ameline; Putot, Alain; Fillion, Aurlie; Baudouin, Nicolas; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bonniaud, Philippe; Chavanet, Pascal; Piroth, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Background ?Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is associated with high and early mortality. A simple procedure to predict mortality is crucial. Methods ?All adult patients with BPP admitted from 2005 through 2013 to the University Hospital of Dijon, France, were enrolled to study 30-day mortality and associated factors, particularly leukocyte counts. A simple leukocyte score was created by adding 1 point each for neutropenia (<1500 cells/mm3), lymphopenia (<400), and monocytopenia (<200). Results ?One hundred and ninety-two adult patients (mean age, 69 years; standard deviation [SD], 19 years) who had developed and were hospitalized for BPP (58% community-acquired) were included. The 30-day crude mortality rate was 21%. The mean Pneumonia Severity Index score was high at 127.3 (SD = 41.3). Among the 182 patients who had a white blood cell count, 34 (19%) had a high leukocyte score (?2). Multivariate analysis revealed that mortality was significantly associated with a high leukocyte score (odds ratio, 6.28; 95% confidence interval, 2.3516.78), a high respiratory rate, a low serum bicarbonate level, and an altered mental status (all P < .05). The leukocyte score was not significantly dependent on the previous state of immunosuppression, alcoholism, or viral coinfection, but it did correlate with an acute respiratory distress syndrome and a low serum bicarbonate level. Conclusions ?This new leukocyte score, in combination with the well known predictive factors, seems of interest in predicting the risk of death in BPP. A high score correlated with organ dysfunction and probably reflects the level of immunoparalysis. Its predictive value has to be confirmed in other cohorts. PMID:25734145

  6. Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased leukocyte peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression

    PubMed Central

    Mac-Marcjanek, Katarzyna; Nadel, Iwona; Wo?niak, Lucyna; Cypryk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammation; thereby it participates in metabolic diseases including diabetes. Although PPAR? expression has been observed in different tissues of diabetic patients, its level in leukocytes from subjects affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate leukocyte PPARG expression in GDM patients at 2433 weeks of gestation and, in turn, to correlate these alterations with anthropometric and metabolic parameters of patients. Material and methods Leukocytes were isolated from the blood of normal glucose tolerant (NGT; n = 34) and GDM (n = 77) pregnant women between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. Leukocyte PPARG mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Univariate correlation analysis was performed to investigate associations between PPARG expression and clinical characteristics of patients. Results Leukocyte PPARG mRNA level was significantly higher in GDM than NGT women (p < 0.05). In the whole study group, PPARG expression positively correlated with plasma glucose concentrations at 1 h (r = 0.222, p = 0.049) and 2 h (r = 0.315, p = 0.020) of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and negatively correlated with plasma HDL cholesterol concentration (r = -0.351, p = 0.010). Conclusions The correlation between leukocyte PPARG overexpression and hyperglycaemia suggests that PPARG mRNA expression in these cells might be up-regulated in high-glucose conditions in GDM patients at 2433 weeks of gestation. PMID:26322090

  7. Flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes: A new method for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Ramesh B.; Gupta, Amit; Chaphalkar, Sushama R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In India, dairy industries are important for the livelihood of small scale farmers and dairy owners. Tropical theileriosis, mostly affecting dairy cattle and buffaloes is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Tropical theileriosis is caused by Theileria annulata, a hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by Ixodid ticks of Hyalomma spp. In the present study, we examined the clinical signs, hematological parameters and flow cytometric profile of whole blood in 30 theileriosis affected crossbred cattle. The aim of our study is to analyze, in comparison with clinical and hematological diagnosis, whether flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes could be used as better, quick and alternative method for diagnosis and screening of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle. Materials and Methods: In this study, we screened parasites in 30 peripheral blood samples from clinical cases of theileriosis by Giemsa’s staining technique in crossbred cattle. Hematological analysis was done to estimate hemoglobin (Hb) content, total red blood cell (RBC) count, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. Further, flow cytometric analysis of whole blood was carried out to study leukocytes profile in affected cattle. Results: Microscopic examination of stained blood films revealed the presence of piroplasms in erythrocytes and schizonts in lymphocytes. Hematological examination revealed significant (p<0.05) decrease of Hb percent (Hb %), reduced total RBC and total leukocytes, lymphocytosis, eosinopenia, and neutropenia compared to that of apparently healthy cattle. Flow cytometric profiling of leukocytes revealed the severe effect on shape, size, and granularity of leukocytes, marked decrease in granulocytes and 3-5 fold increase in lymphocytes count compared to clinically healthy cattle. Thus, in both methods, namely conventional and flow cytometric analysis, marked lymphocytosis and decrease in other blood cell counts were observed compared to clinically healthy cattle. Conclusions: From results, it can be concluded that though conventional staining techniques and hematology are efficient in diagnosis of theileriosis, leukocytes profiling based on flow cytometry combined with clinical examination could be a quick, novel and alternative method for diagnosis and screening of clinical tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle. Thus, there is potential to offer a flow cytometry based diagnostic service for tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle. PMID:27047047

  8. MICROWAVES, HYPERTHERMIA, AND HUMAN LEUKOCYTE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to microwaves (2450 MHz) affects the function of human leukocytes in the resting state and during antigenic or mitogenic challenge. This publication is a summary report of the construction and calibration of a waveguide...

  9. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil iodination response as an estimate of defective yeast opsonization.

    PubMed Central

    Roberton, D M; Dhanjal, N K; Levinsky, R J; Mowbray, J F; Turner, M W

    1981-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil iodide uptake can be used as a measure of yeast opsonization and optimal assay conditions are described for the identification of sera defective in this function. The use of standard normal and defective sera permits correction of inter-assay variations resulting from the use of different cell donors. The iodination assay correlated well (r = 0.74, P less than 0.001) with a direct assay of yeast opsonization when both were used to measure this function in a panel of 72 sera. Differences in results between the two assay systems for some sera may be explained by a requirement for two different surface-associated opsonic molecules in the initiation of neutrophil metabolic activity. PMID:7018758

  10. Depression of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte function by anti-malarial drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrante, A; Rowan-Kelly, B; Seow, W K; Thong, Y H

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the anti-malarial drugs quinine, chloroquine, pyrimethamine, mefloquine and quinacrine on human polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function was examined in vitro. In general, all drugs had their greatest effect on PMN iodination reaction and locomotion, intermediate effects on PMN hexose-monophosphate shunt activity, and least effect on PMN adherence. The most potent of these were pyrimethamine and mefloquine. The PMN iodination reaction and locomotion were inhibited between 0.5-1 microgram/ml (congruent to 2-4 X 10(-6) M) pyrimethamine and 1-4 micrograms/ml (congruent to 0.25-1 X 10(-5) M) mefloquine. The study demonstrates that anti-malarial drugs depress PMN functions associated with antimicrobial activity of the cell. PMID:2423436

  11. Differential contribution of various adhesion molecules to leukocyte kinetics in pulmonary microvessels of hyperoxia-exposed rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Nishio, K; Suzuki, Y; Aoki, T; Suzuki, K; Miyata, A; Sato, N; Naoki, K; Kudo, H; Tsumura, H; Serizawa, H; Morooka, S; Ishimura, Y; Suematsu, M; Yamaguchi, K

    1998-02-01

    To elucidate the differential role of various adhesion molecules in distorting leukocyte behavior in the microvasculature of hyperoxia-exposed rat lungs, we investigated fluorescein-labeled leukocyte and erythrocyte kinetics in isolated lungs taken from the animals exposed to 90% O2 for 48 h under conditions in which endothelial intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and P-selectin were inhibited by appropriate monoclonal antibodies (1A29 for ICAM-1 and ARP2-4 for P-selectin), while leukocyte L-selectin was restrained with fucoidin. Measurements of blood cell kinetics were made by a confocal laser luminescence microscope coupled with a high-speed video camera. In addition, we histologically examined leukocyte accumulation within the alveolar septa and ICAM-1 as well as P-selectin expressions in the lung. We found that P-selectin expression was sparsely enhanced only in arterioles, whereas ICAM-1 was significantly induced in both venules and capillaries. Firm adhesion of leukocytes was not identified in arterioles and venules, whereas leukocyte rolling was evident in both the vessels. Arteriolar rolling was regulated via a P-selectin- and ICAM-1-independent but L-selectin-dependent mechanism, whereas venular rolling was mediated via a P-selectin-independent but ICAM-1- and L-selectin-dependent pathway. Leukocyte sequestration within capillaries was augmented by an ICAM-1-related mechanism. These findings may suggest that, in hyperoxia-exposed lungs, induction of adhesion molecules and their obstacles to leukocyte behavior are qualitatively different among arterioles, venules, and capillaries. PMID:9476879

  12. The protective effect of adenosine triphosphate-MgCl2 on ischemia-reperfusion lung injury is leukocyte dependent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Teing; Huang, Wen-Hsin; Wang, David; Yu, Fu-Chiu; Chi, Ying-Chih; Wu, Jen-Chine; Wu, Kerry; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Wu, Chin-Pyng; Yan, Horng-Chin

    2003-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-MgCl(2) attenuates ischemia-reperfusion (I-R)-induced lung injury in rats. A previous study indirectly suggests that Mg(2+)-dependent ecto-ATPases on the surface of leukocytes are responsible for the hydrolysis of ATP-MgCl(2) to adenosine, which then contributes to the protective effect of ATP-MgCl(2). This study investigated the role of leukocytes in I-R injury and the protective effect of ATP-MgCl(2) in our buffer-perfused isolated rat lung model. After isolating the lung blood flow of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, the lungs were perfused through the pulmonary artery cannula with a physiologic salt solution containing human serum albumin. The protective effect of ATP-MgCl(2) pretreatment with or without leukocytes was investigated. Capillary permeability (K(fc)), lung weight gain (LWG), lung wet weight/body weight ratio (LW/BW), lung lavage protein concentration (LPC) and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) were measured. I-R produced a significant increase in K(fc), LWG, LW/BW, LPC, and PAP. The increases in these indices were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with ATP-MgCl(2) (1 x 10(-6)M) together with leukocytes (2.9 x 10(6)/ml in the perfusate) but not with ATP-MgCl(2) alone. Our data suggest that I-R-induced acute lung injury is not dependent on circulating leukocytes. Pretreatment with ATP-MgCl(2) plus leukocytes but not ATP-MgCl(2) alone had protective effects against I-R lung injury. Whether these findings occur in vivo could not be determined in this study. In our isolated lung red blood cell-free perfusate system, the protective effect of ATP-MgCl(2) requires the presence of leukocytes. PMID:14631111

  13. Oxidative stress and reduced responsiveness of challenged circulating leukocytes following pulmonary instillation of metal-rich particulate matter in rats.

    PubMed

    Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M; Young, Shih-Houng; Kashon, Michael L; Gu, Ja K; Hulderman, Tracy; Salmen, Rebecca; Meighan, Terence; Roberts, Jenny R; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C

    2014-01-01

    Welding fume is an exposure that consists of a mixture of metal-rich particulate matter with gases (ozone, carbon monoxide) and/or vapors (VOCs). Data suggests that welders are immune compromised. Given the inability of pulmonary leukocytes to properly respond to a secondary infection in animal models, the question arose whether the dysfunction persisted systemically. Our aim was to evaluate the circulating leukocyte population in terms of cellular activation, presence of oxidative stress, and functionality after a secondary challenge, following welding fume exposure. Rats were intratracheally instilled (ITI) with PBS or 2 mg of welding fume collected from a stainless steel weld. Rats were sacrificed 4 and 24 h post-exposure and whole blood was collected. Whole blood was used for cellular differential counts, RNA isolation with subsequent microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and secondary stimulation with LPS utilizing TruCulture technology. In addition, mononuclear cells were isolated 24 h post-exposure to measure oxidative stress by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Welding fume exposure had rapid effects on the circulating leukocyte population as identified by relative mRNA expression changes. Instillation of welding fume reduced inflammatory protein production of circulating leukocytes when challenged with the secondary stimulus LPS. The effects were not related to transcription, but were observed in conjunction with oxidative stress. These findings support previous studies of an inadequate pulmonary immune response following a metal-rich exposure and extend those findings showing leukocyte dysfunction occurs systemically. PMID:25123171

  14. Oxidative stress and reduced responsiveness of challenged circulating leukocytes following pulmonary instillation of metal-rich particulate matter in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Welding fume is an exposure that consists of a mixture of metal-rich particulate matter with gases (ozone, carbon monoxide) and/or vapors (VOCs). Data suggests that welders are immune compromised. Given the inability of pulmonary leukocytes to properly respond to a secondary infection in animal models, the question arose whether the dysfunction persisted systemically. Our aim was to evaluate the circulating leukocyte population in terms of cellular activation, presence of oxidative stress, and functionality after a secondary challenge, following welding fume exposure. Rats were intratracheally instilled (ITI) with PBS or 2 mg of welding fume collected from a stainless steel weld. Rats were sacrificed 4 and 24 h post-exposure and whole blood was collected. Whole blood was used for cellular differential counts, RNA isolation with subsequent microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and secondary stimulation with LPS utilizing TruCulture technology. In addition, mononuclear cells were isolated 24 h post-exposure to measure oxidative stress by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Welding fume exposure had rapid effects on the circulating leukocyte population as identified by relative mRNA expression changes. Instillation of welding fume reduced inflammatory protein production of circulating leukocytes when challenged with the secondary stimulus LPS. The effects were not related to transcription, but were observed in conjunction with oxidative stress. These findings support previous studies of an inadequate pulmonary immune response following a metal-rich exposure and extend those findings showing leukocyte dysfunction occurs systemically. PMID:25123171

  15. Effects of cold treatment and ketosis induced by starvation on interferon production in leukocytes of lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Filar, J; Kandefer-Szerszeń, M; Szuster-Ciesielska, A; Rzeski, W

    1992-05-01

    The production of interferons in blood and milk leukocytes of three groups of cows was measured to determine the effect of 6-days cold treatment (-2 degrees to -8 degrees C) and/or starving. The first group (cold) was treated with low ambient temperature (-2 degrees C to -8 degrees C) 11 hours every day for 6 days, the second (cold and starved) was treated with low temperature and starved for 6 days. The third group (controls) was fed normally and kept in a barn at room temperature (18 degrees to 20 degrees C). The leukocytes of the control and the cold treated cows responded normally to interferon induction with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) and mitogens: phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA). The cows treated with low temperature and starved for 6 days developed biochemical blood changes of ketosis. Leukocytes of these cows with ketosis produced less interferon (p less than 0.05) than before starvation and less than leukocytes of the control cows and the cold treated cows. It can be assumed that ketosis caused by starving decreases the ability of a cow's leukocytes to produce interferons. PMID:1379141

  16. Inhibition of Rho-kinase attenuates endothelial–leukocyte interaction during ischemia–reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing Mei; Stalker, Timothy J; Gong, Yulan; Rikitake, Yoshiyuki; Scalia, Rosario; Liao, James K

    2013-01-01

    Resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock induces endothelial dysfunction and activates inflammatory cascades leading to organ damage. Following restoration of blood flow to ischemic vascular beds, leukocyte–endothelium interactions leading to leukocyte infiltration into the vascular wall occur very early due, in part, to the loss of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). The mechanism by which ischemia–reperfusion injury impairs endothelium-derived NO is not completely understood. We hypothesized that inhibition of Rho-kinase could exert beneficial effects following hemorrhagic shock by preserving endothelial function and attenuating leukocyte trafficking in the microcirculation. Using intravital microscopy, we found that resuscitation from hemorrhage acutely increased the number of rolling and adherent leukocytes in the mouse splanchnic microcirculation. Treatment of mice with the Rho-kinase inhibitor fasudil, markedly attenuated leukocyte–endothelium interaction in response to hemorrhage/reinfusion. The beneficial effect of fasudil was not observed in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)−/− mice. In conclusion, inhibition of Rho-kinase prevents inflammatory leukocyte trafficking in the microcirculation via an eNOS-dependent mechanism. Our data support a role for Rho-kinase inhibitors in the treatment of ischemia–reperfusion injury. PMID:23015643

  17. Endothelial cell regulation of leukocyte infiltration in inflammatory tissues

    PubMed Central

    Mantovani, A.; Introna, M.; Dejana, E.

    1995-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important, active role in the onset and regulation of inflammatory and immune reactions. Through the production of chemokines they attract leukocytes and activate their adhesive receptors. This leads to the anchorage of leukocytes to the adhesive molecules expressed on the endothelial surface. Leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is frequently followed by their extravasation. The mechanisms which regulate the passage of leukocytes through endothelial clefts remain to be clarified. Many indirect data suggest that leukocytes might transfer signals to endothelial cells both through the release of active agents and adhesion to the endothelial cell surface. Adhesive molecules (such as PECAM) on the endothelial cell surface might also ‘direct’ leukocytes through the intercellular junction by haptotaxis. The information available on the molecular structure and functional properties of endothelial chemokines, adhesive molecules or junction organization is still fragmentary. Further work is needed to clarify how they interplay in regulating leukocyte infiltration into tissues. PMID:18475659

  18. Modulation of chemokine gradients by apheresis redirects leukocyte trafficking to different compartments during sepsis, studies in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prior work suggests that leukocyte trafficking is determined by local chemokine gradients between the nidus of infection and the plasma. We recently demonstrated that therapeutic apheresis can alter immune mediator concentrations in the plasma, protect against organ injury, and improve survival. Here we aimed to determine whether the removal of chemokines from the plasma by apheresis in experimental peritonitis changes chemokine gradients and subsequently enhances leukocyte localization into the infected compartment, and away from healthy tissues. Methods In total, 76 male adult Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 400 g to 600 g were included in this study. Eighteen hours after inducing sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture, we randomized these rats to apheresis or sham treatment for 4 hours. Cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte counts from blood, peritoneal cavity, and lung were measured. In a separate experiment, we labeled neutrophils from septic donor animals and injected them into either apheresis or sham-treated animals. All numeric data with normal distributions were compared with one-way analysis of variance, and numeric data not normally distributed were compared with the Mann–Whitney U test. Results Apheresis significantly removed plasma cytokines and chemokines, increased peritoneal fluid-to-blood chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1, ligand 2, and C-C motif ligand 2) ratios, and decreased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid-to-blood chemokine ratios, resulting in enhanced leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and improved bacterial clearance, but decreased recruitment into the lung. Apheresis also reduced myeloperoxidase activity and histologic injury in the lung, liver, and kidney. These Labeled donor neutrophils exhibited decreased localization in the lung when infused into apheresis-treated animals. Conclusions Our results support the concept of chemokine gradient control of leukocyte trafficking and demonstrate the efficacy of apheresis to target this mechanism and reduce leukocyte infiltration into the lung. PMID:24992991

  19. High Intracellular Concentrations of Posaconazole Do Not Impact on Functional Capacities of Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Farowski, Fedja; Cornely, Oliver A; Hartmann, Pia

    2016-06-01

    Posaconazole is a commonly used antifungal for the prophylaxis and treatment of invasive fungal infections. We previously demonstrated that the intracellular concentration of posaconazole in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was greatly increased compared to the plasma concentration. As these professional phagocytes are crucial to combat fungal infections, we set out to investigate if and how, beneficial or deleterious, this high loading of intracellular posaconazole impacts the functional capacities of these cells. Here, we show that high intracellular concentrations of posaconazole do not significantly impact PMN and monocyte-derived macrophage function in vitro In particular, killing capacity and cytoskeletal features of PMN, such as migration, are not affected, indicating that these cells serve as vehicles for posaconazole to the site of infection. Moreover, since posaconazole as such slowed the germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia, infected neutrophils released less reactive oxygen species (ROS). Based on these findings, we propose that the delivery of posaconazole by neutrophils to the site of Aspergillus species infection warrants control of the pathogen and preservation of tissue integrity at the same time. PMID:27021317

  20. Heifer and quarter characteristics associated with periparturient blood and milk neutrophil apoptosis in healthy heifers and in heifers with subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Piepers, S; Opsomer, G; Meyer, E; Demeyere, K; Barkema, H W; de Kruif, A; De Vliegher, S

    2009-09-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL) play an important role in the first line cell-mediated immune defense of the body in general and of the mammary gland against mastitis pathogens in particular. Reduced viability of PMNL close to parturition may explain the high incidence of infectious diseases and the high prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) in periparturient dairy heifers. Apoptosis of blood PMNL 1 wk before the expected calving date and of blood and milk PMNL at 1 to 4 d in milk was determined using flow cytometry. Information on heifer and gland characteristics was collected before calving and in early lactation. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel regression analysis. Supplementation of a commercial mineral/vitamin mix before calving was associated with less blood (14.4 +/- 2.9 vs. 22.4 +/- 2.1%) and milk PMNL apoptosis (19.0 +/- 1.1 vs. 26.4 +/- 0.9%) near calving, presumably related to higher blood selenium concentrations. Both blood and milk PMNL apoptosis showed seasonal variation with the highest proportion of apoptotic cells between January and March (32.0 +/- 6.1 and 34.6 +/- 2.7%, respectively) and April and June (31.3 +/- 5.7 and 37.8 +/- 2.3%, respectively). Heifers losing 0.25 points or more of their body condition in the periparturient period had higher proportions of apoptotic blood PMNL in early lactation compared with heifers losing less than 0.25 points (24.0 +/- 2.8 vs. 16.6 +/- 1.7%). Milk PMNL apoptosis was less pronounced in quarters having teat orifices colonized with non-aureus staphylococci before calving (18.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 29.4 +/- 1.0%). The variation in blood PMNL apoptosis before and after calving mainly resided at the heifer level (71.4 and 98.4% of the total variation, respectively), whereas the variation in milk PMNL apoptosis mainly resided at the heifer (45.7% of the total variation) and quarter levels (45.5% of the total variation). These data imply that the impaired blood and milk PMNL viability in periparturient heifers can be reduced by optimization of certain heifer management practices such as supplementation of minerals/vitamins, and pasture and feeding strategies. PMID:19700692

  1. Indium-111 leukocyte scanning and fracture healing

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, L.P.; Scott, A.C.; Bondurant, F.J.; Browner, B.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the specificity of indium-111 leukocyte scans for osteomyelitis when fractures are present. Midshaft tibial osteotomies were performed in 14 New Zealand white rabbits, seven of which were infected postoperatively with Staphylococcus aureus per Norden's protocol. All 14 rabbits were scanned following injection with 75 microCi of indium 111 at 72 h after osteotomy and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Before the rabbits were killed, the fracture sites were cultured to document the presence or absence of infection. The results of all infected osteotomy sites were positive, whereas no positive scans were found in the noninfected osteotomies. We concluded from this study that uncomplicated fracture healing does not result in a positive indium-111 leukocyte scan.

  2. Thoracic epidural anesthesia reverses sepsis-induced hepatic hyperperfusion and reduces leukocyte adhesion in septic rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Liver dysfunction is a common feature of severe sepsis and is associated with a poor outcome. Both liver perfusion and hepatic inflammatory response in sepsis might be affected by sympathetic nerve activity. However, the effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA), which is associated with regional sympathetic block, on septic liver injury are unknown. Therefore, we investigated hepatic microcirculation and inflammatory response during TEA in septic rats. Methods Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley-rats were instrumented with thoracic epidural catheters and randomized to receive a sham procedure (Sham), cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) without epidural anesthesia (Sepsis) and CLP with epidural infusion of 15 ul/h bupivacaine 0.5% (Sepsis + TEA). All animals received 2 ml/100 g/h NaCl 0.9%. In 24 (n = 8 in each group) rats, sinusoidal diameter, loss of sinusoidal perfusion and sinusoidal blood flow as well as temporary and permanent leukocyte adhesion to sinusoidal and venolar endothelium were recorded by intravital microscopy after 24 hours. In 21 (n = 7 in each group) separate rats, cardiac output was measured by thermodilution. Blood pressure, heart rate, serum transaminase activity, serum TNF-alpha concentration and histologic signs of tissue injury were recorded. Results Whereas cardiac output remained constant in all groups, sinusoidal blood flow increased in the Sepsis group and was normalized in rats subjected to sepsis and TEA. Sepsis-induced sinusoidal vasoconstriction was not ameliorated by TEA. In the Sepsis + TEA group, the increase in temporary venolar leukocyte adherence was blunted. In contrast to this, sinusoidal leukocyte adherence was not ameliorated in the Sepsis + TEA group. Sepsis-related release of TNF-alpha and liver tissue injury were not affected by Sepsis + TEA. Conclusions This study demonstrates that TEA reverses sepsis-induced alterations in hepatic perfusion and ameliorates hepatic leukocyte recruitment in sepsis. PMID:19594914

  3. Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

  4. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions in environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, N C; Wood, J G

    2001-01-01

    Hypoxia induced by reducing inspired PO2 (PIO2) to 70 Torr, promotes a rapid microvascular response characterized by increased leukocyte rolling and adherence to the venular endothelium, leukocyte emigration to the perivascular space and increased vascular permeability. This appears to be a generalized response since it is observed in venules of the mesentery, cremaster muscle and pial microcirculations. After three weeks of acclimatization to hypoxia (barometric pressure 380 Torr, PIO2 70 Torr), the initial microvascular response resolves and exposure to even lower PIO2 (50 Torr) fails to elicit a microvascular response. The initial response is accompanied by a reversible increase in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is blocked by antioxidants and by interventions that increase the tissue levels of nitric oxide (NO). In contrast to ischemia/reperfusion, ROS levels increase during hypoxia and return towards pre-hypoxic values after return to normoxia. Acclimatization involves upregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS): inhibition of iNOS using two different antagonists results in increased leukocyte-endothelial interactions and increased ROS generation. The results suggest that hypoxia initially leads to an alteration of the ROS/NO balance which is eventually restored during the acclimatization process. This phenomenon may have relevance to the microcirculatory alterations associated with hypoxic exposure, including acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary and cerebral edema. PMID:11950152

  5. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and leukocyte telomere length in women.

    PubMed

    Du, Mengmeng; Prescott, Jennifer; Kraft, Peter; Han, Jiali; Giovannucci, Edward; Hankinson, Susan E; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2012-03-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a potential indicator of cellular aging; however, its relation to physical activity and sedentary behavior is unclear. The authors examined cross-sectionally associations among activity, sedentary behavior, and LTL among 7,813 women aged 43-70 years in the Nurses' Health Study. Participants self-reported activity by questionnaire in 1988 and 1992 and sedentary behavior in 1992. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes, collected in 1989-1990, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The least-squares mean telomere length (z-score) was calculated after adjustment for age and other potential confounders. For total activity, moderately or highly active women had a 0.07-standard deviation (SD) increase in LTL (2-sided P(trend) = 0.02) compared with those least active. Greater moderate- or vigorous-intensity activity was also associated with increased LTL (SD = 0.11 for 2-4 vs. <1 hour/week and 0.04 for ≥7 vs. <1 hour/week; 2-sided P(trend) = 0.02). Specifically, calisthenics or aerobics was associated with increased LTL (SD = 0.10 for ≥2.5 vs. 0 hours/week; 2-sided P(trend) = 0.04). Associations remained after adjustment for body mass index. Other specific activities and sitting were unassociated with LTL. Although associations were modest, these findings suggest that even moderate amounts of activity may be associated with longer telomeres, warranting further investigation in large prospective studies. PMID:22302075

  6. Metabolomics profiling reveals novel markers for leukocyte telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Zierer, Jonas; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Suhre, Karsten; Gieger, Christian; Codd, Veryan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Bell, Jordana; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Schulz, Holger; Weidinger, Stephan; Mohney, Robert P.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Spector, Tim; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered one of the most predictive markers of biological aging. The aim of this study was to identify novel pathways regulating LTL using a metabolomics approach. To this end, we tested associations between 280 blood metabolites and LTL in 3511 females from TwinsUK and replicated our results in the KORA cohort. We furthermore tested significant metabolites for associations with several aging-related phenotypes, gene expression markers and epigenetic markers to investigate potential underlying pathways. Five metabolites were associated with LTL: Two lysolipids, 1-stearoylglycerophosphoinositol (P=1.6×10−5) and 1-palmitoylglycerophosphoinositol (P=1.6×10−5), were found to be negatively associated with LTL and positively associated with phospholipase A2 expression levels suggesting an involvement of fatty acid metabolism and particularly membrane composition in biological aging. Moreover, two gamma-glutamyl amino acids, gamma-glutamyltyrosine (P=2.5×10−6) and gamma-glutamylphenylalanine (P=1.7×10−5), were negatively correlated with LTL. Both are products of the glutathione cycle and markers for increased oxidative stress. Metabolites were also correlated with functional measures of aging, i.e. higher blood pressure and HDL cholesterol levels and poorer lung, liver and kidney function. Our results suggest an involvement of altered fatty acid metabolism and increased oxidative stress in human biological aging, reflected by LTL and age-related phenotypes of vital organ systems. PMID:26797767

  7. Metabolomics profiling reveals novel markers for leukocyte telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zierer, Jonas; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Suhre, Karsten; Gieger, Christian; Codd, Veryan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Bell, Jordana; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Schulz, Holger; Weidinger, Stephan; Mohney, Robert P; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Tim; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered one of the most predictive markers of biological aging. The aim of this study was to identify novel pathways regulating LTL using a metabolomics approach. To this end, we tested associations between 280 blood metabolites and LTL in 3511 females from TwinsUK and replicated our results in the KORA cohort. We furthermore tested significant metabolites for associations with several aging-related phenotypes, gene expression markers and epigenetic markers to investigate potential underlying pathways. Five metabolites were associated with LTL: Two lysolipids, 1-stearoylglycerophosphoinositol (P=1.6×10(-5)) and 1-palmitoylglycerophosphoinositol (P=1.6×10(-5)), were found to be negatively associated with LTL and positively associated with phospholipase A2 expression levels suggesting an involvement of fatty acid metabolism and particularly membrane composition in biological aging. Moreover, two gamma-glutamyl amino acids, gamma-glutamyltyrosine (P=2.5×10(-6)) and gamma-glutamylphenylalanine (P=1.7×10(-5)), were negatively correlated with LTL. Both are products of the glutathione cycle and markers for increased oxidative stress. Metabolites were also correlated with functional measures of aging, i.e. higher blood pressure and HDL cholesterol levels and poorer lung, liver and kidney function. Our results suggest an involvement of altered fatty acid metabolism and increased oxidative stress in human biological aging, reflected by LTL and age-related phenotypes of vital organ systems. PMID:26797767

  8. Intravital Microscopy of Leukocyte-endothelial and Platelet-leukocyte Interactions in Mesenterial Veins in Mice.

    PubMed

    Herr, Nadine; Mauler, Maximilian; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a method that can be used to investigate different processes in different regions and vessels in living animals. In this protocol, we describe intravital microscopy of mesentery veins. This can be performed in a short period of time with reproducible results showing leukocyte-endothelial interactions in vivo. We describe an inflammatory setting after LPS challenge of the endothelium. But in this model one can apply many different types of inflammatory conditions, like bacterial, chemical or biological and investigate the administration of drugs and their direct effects on the living animal and its impact on leukocyte recruitment. This protocol has been applied successfully to a number of different treatments of mice and their effects on inflammatory response in vessels. Herein, we describe the visualization of leukocytes and platelets by fluorescently labeling these with rhodamine 6G. Additionally, any specific imaging can be performed using targeted fluorescently labeled molecules. PMID:26325284

  9. Prospective analysis of human leukocyte functional tests reveals metal sensitivity in patients with hip implant

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the reactivity of peripheral human leukocytes to various metal ions prior and following hip replacement in order to investigate implant-induced metal sensitivity. Methods Three patient groups were set up: (1) individuals without implants and no history of metal allergy (7 cases), (2) individuals without implants and known history of metal allergy (7 cases), and (3) patients undergoing cementless hip replacement (40 cases). Blood samples were taken in groups 1 and 2 at three different occasions; in group 3, prior and 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery. Peripheral leukocytes were separated and left either untreated or challenged with Ti, NiCl2, CoCl2, CrCl3, and phytohemagglutinin. Cell proliferation, cytokine release, and leukocyte migration inhibition assays were performed. Metal-induced reactivity was considered when all three assays showed significant change. Skin patch tests were also carried out. Results Both skin patch tests and leukocyte functional tests were negative in group 1, and both were positive in group 2. In group 3, after 6 months, 12% of the patients showed reactivity to the tested metals except for NiCl2. Following the 36-month period, 18% of group three became sensitive to metals (including all the earlier 12%). In contrast, patch tests were negative at each time point in group 3. Conclusions Orthopedic implant material may induce metal reactivity after implantation in a manner where susceptibility is yet to be elucidated. Leukocyte triple assay technique might be a useful tool to test implant material-related sensitivity. PMID:23680415

  10. ATP11C Facilitates Phospholipid Translocation across the Plasma Membrane of All Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yabas, Mehmet; Jing, Weidong; Shafik, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Organization of the plasma membrane into specialized substructures in different blood lineages facilitates important biological functions including proper localization of receptors at the plasma membrane as well as the initiation of crucial intracellular signaling cascades. The eukaryotic plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer that consists of asymmetrically distributed phospholipids. This asymmetry is actively maintained by membrane-embedded lipid transporters, but there is only limited data available about the molecular identity of the predominantly active transporters and their substrate specificity in different leukocyte subsets. We demonstrate here that the P4-type ATPase ATP11C mediates significant flippase activity in all murine leukocyte subsets. Loss of ATP11C resulted in a defective internalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) in comparison to control cells. The diminished flippase activity caused increased PS exposure on 7-aminoactinomycin D− (7-AAD−) viable pro-B cells freshly isolated from the bone marrow of ATP11C-deficient mice, which was corrected upon a 2-hour resting period in vitro. Despite the impaired flippase activity in all immune cell subsets, the only other blood cell type with an accumulation of PS on the surface were viable 7-AAD− developing T cells but this did not result in any discernable effect on their development in the thymus. These findings show that all leukocyte lineages exhibit flippase activity, and identify ATP11C as an aminophospholipid translocase in immune cells. PMID:26799398

  11. Phosphorylation of the beta-subunit of CD11/CD18 integrins by protein kinase C correlates with leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Valmu, L; Autero, M; Siljander, P; Patarroyo, M; Gahmberg, C G

    1991-11-01

    Adhesion of activated leukocytes to cells is of critical functional importance. The adhesion is known to be mediated mainly by the CD11/CD18 integrins, also known as leukocytic cell adhesion molecules, or Leu-CAM. We have now studied the phosphorylation of Leu-CAM by protein kinase C and the correlation of phosphorylation with the generation of the adhesive phenotype among human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes during cell activation. We here show that a good correlation exists between the phosphorylation of the beta subunit of Leu-CAM (CD18), and the extent of cell-to-cell adhesion. The phosphorylated CD18 subunit was associated with both CD11a and CD11b. Purified protein kinase C was able to phosphorylate the beta subunit of isolated Leu-CAM in vitro. The phosphorylation occurred mainly on serine residues. PMID:1682156

  12. [Effects of hyperoxia on the behavior of leukocytes in rat pulmonary microcirculation assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y; Aoki, T; Suzuki, K; Miyata, A; Nishio, K; Tsumura, K; Takasugi, T; Mori, M; Suematsu, M; Yamaguchi, K

    1997-02-01

    To study the dynamic interaction between blood cells and endothelial cells in the pulmonary microcirculation, we developed a method for observing leukocytes and erythrocytes in the microcirculation of perfused rat lungs by confocal laser scanning microscopy. We examined the behavior of leukocytes in the microcirculation of rat lungs exposed to hyperoxia, because oxygen toxicity is known to be associated with leukocyte infiltration and endothelial cell damage. Rats were divided into two groups: control (21% O2) and hyperoxia (90% O2 for 48 hours). Lungs were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution equilibrated with 21% O2 and 5% CO2 through an artificial lung. Leukocytes stained with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester and erythrocytes stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate were added to the perfusate, and images of the cells were observed and recorded with a confocal laser scanning microscope and a high-speed video camera. The mean velocities of erythrocytes (Vr) in arterioles, capillaries, and venules of the control group were 1.52, 0.50 and 1.61 mm/sec, respectively. Also in the control group, the velocities of the leukocytes were divided by the mean velocities of the erythrocytes in the same arterioles, capillaries and venules (Vw/Vr) and the results were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.98, respectively. The Vw/Vr values for arterioles in the hyperoxia group were not significantly different from those in the control group, but the Vw/Vr values for capillaries and venules were 27% and 37% lower than their respective control values. Leukocyte sequestration was seen mainly in capillaries in the hyperoxic group. These results suggest that an increase in adhesion in capillaries and venules, such as that caused by adhesion molecules, might play a key role in the behavior of leukocytes in the pulmonary microcirculation during hyperoxia. PMID:9103849

  13. Increased expression of immune-related genes in leukocytes of patients with diagnosed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Marzena; Zieleniak, Andrzej; Zurawska-Klis, Monika; Cypryk, Katarzyna; Wozniak, Lucyna Alicja

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence indicates that the immune system is linked to metabolism in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but factors participating in these processes still are awaiting identification. Inducible nitric oxide synthase, encoded by the NOS2 gene, and surfactant protein D, encoded by the SFTPD gene, have been implicated in diabetes. We investigated NOS2 and SFTPD mRNA levels in leukocytes obtained from 125 pregnant women with (n = 87) or without (control group; n = 38) GDM, and, in turn, correlated their expression with clinical parameters of subjects. Leukocytes were isolated from the blood of pregnant women and NOS2 and SFTPD expression in these cells was determined by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Univariate correlation analyses were performed to assess an association between leukocyte NOS2 and SFTPD expression and clinical characteristics of patients. qRT-PCR experiments disclosed significantly increased leukocyte NOS2 and SFTPD mRNA levels in hyperglycemic GDM patients (P < 0.05). In the entire study group, there were significant positive associations of leukocyte NOS2 and SFTPD mRNAs with C-reactive protein. Additionally, transcript level of SFTPD also correlated positively with fasting glycemia and insulin resistance. This study demonstrates that an impaired glucose metabolism in GDM may be predominant predictor of leukocyte NOS2 and SFTPD overexpression in diabetic patients. Furthermore, alterations in the expression of these genes are associated with glucose metabolism dysfunction and/or inflammation during pregnancy. In addition, these findings support the utilization of leukocytes as good experimental model to study a relationship between immune-related genes and metabolic changes in women with GDM, as well as to assess the potential mechanisms underlying these alterations. PMID:26568332

  14. Leukocyte selenium, zinc, and copper concentrations in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, K; Williams, M A; Woelk, G B; Mudzamiri, S; Madzime, S; King, I B; Bankson, D D

    2000-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. The etiology of this relatively common medical complication of pregnancy, however, remains unknown. We studied the relationship between maternal leukocyte selenium, zinc, and copper concentrations and the risk of preeclampsia in a large hospital-based case-control study. One hundred seventy-one women with proteinuric pregnancy-induced hypertension (with or without seizures) comprised the case group. Controls were 184 normotensive pregnant women. Leukocytes were separated from blood samples collected during the patients' postpartum labor and delivery admission. Leukocyte concentrations for the three cations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations for each cation were reported as micrograms per gram of total protein. Women with preeclampsia had significantly higher median leukocyte selenium concentrations than normotensive controls (3.23 vs 2.80 microg/g total protein, p < 0.0001). Median leukocyte zinc concentrations were 31% higher in preeclamptics as compared with controls (179.15 vs 136.44 microg/g total protein, p < 0.0001). Although median leukocyte copper concentrations were slightly higher for cases than controls, this difference did not reach statistical significance (17.72 vs 17.00 microg/g total protein, p = 0.468). There was evidence of a linear increase in risk of preeclampsia with increasing concentrations of selenium and zinc. The relative risk for preeclampsia was 3.38 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.53-7.54) among women in the highest quartile of the control selenium distribution compared with women in the lowest quartile. The corresponding relative risk and 95% CI for preeclampsia was 5.30 (2.45-11.44) for women in the highest quartile of the control zinc distribution compared with women in the lowest quartile. There was no clear pattern of a linear trend in risk with increasing concentration of leukocyte copper concentrations (adjusted for linear trend in risk = 0.299). Our results are consistent with some previous reports. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether observed alterations in selenium and zinc concentrations precede preeclampsia or whether the differences may be attributed to preeclampsia-related alterations in maternal and fetal-placental trace metal metabolism. PMID:11051601

  15. Effect of complement and of the carbohydrate components of sputum on phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Brogan, T. D.

    1964-01-01

    The phagocytic activity of human polymorphonuclear leucocyte preparations, which were free from plasma, has been estimated by direct determination under phase contrast of the number of living cells containing test particles. Spores of Aspergillus fumigatus were phagocytosed in the absence of added serum but phagocytosis of paraffin wax particles occurred only in the presence of serum containing the heat-labile and C′4 components of complement. In view of the unreactive nature of the paraffin hydrocarbons, it was considered unlikely that natural antibody played any part in the phenomenon. Although no phagocytosis of wax particles occurred in the absence of serum, almost 100 per cent of cells were phagocytic in preparations containing adequate concentrations of serum. It was therefore possible to determine the serum concentration necessary for 50 per cent of the polymorphs to phagocytose wax particles. By this means it was demonstrated that the addition of the carbohydrate components of sputum had a small but significant inhibitory effect on phagocytosis and that dextran had no such effect. The sputum mucoprotein depressed the complement titre of serum and this might have accounted for the reduction in the ability of a serum to promote phagocytosis when this complex was added. The sputum mucopolysaccharide had no such effect on the complement titre of serum and must have exerted its inhibitory action in some other way. ImagesFIG. 2 PMID:14239838

  16. Low-Level Laser Therapy Attenuates LPS-Induced Rats Mastitis by Inhibiting Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Yueqiang; HE, Xianjing; HAO, Dandan; YU, Debin; LIANG, Jianbin; QU, Yanpeng; SUN, Dongbo; YANG, Bin; YANG, Keli; WU, Rui; WANG, Jianfa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The rat model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. The results showed that LPS-induced secretion of IL-1β and IL-8 significantly decreased after LLLT (650 nm, 2.5 mW, 30 mW/cm2). LLLT also inhibited intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and attenuated the LPS-induced decrease of the expression of CD62L and increase of the expression of CD11b. Moreover, LLLT also suppressed LPS-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) entering the alveoli of the mammary gland. The number of PMNs in the mammary alveolus and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were decreased after LLLT. These results suggested that LLLT therapy is beneficial in decreasing the somatic cell count and improving milk nutritional quality in cows with an intramammary infection. PMID:25452258

  17. Phagocytosis and killing of staphylococci by human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Verbrugh, H A; Peters, R; Peterson, P K; Verhoef, J

    1978-01-01

    The phagocytosis and killing of 3H-thymidine-labelled Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) and monocytes (MNs) obtained from 50 health donors were evaluated. In addition, extracellular factors that might influence phagocytosis and killing were studied. The method described gave highly reproducible results. No significant difference was observed in the phagocytic and killing functions of a single donor's PMNs and MNs when studied several times in one day and longitudinally over a period of 1-12 weeks for six donors tested. Likewise, no signigicant difference in uptake and killing was observed when bacteria were opsonised with sera from 11 different normal donors. When Staph. aureus opsonised with normal serum was added to the leucocytes in a ratio of 10 bacteria: 1 leucocyte, the uptake by PMNs and MNs from 50 donors after 20 minutes' incubation was 85% +/- 7 standard deviation (SD) (range 75-98%) and 69% +/- 11 SD (range 54-90%), respectively. The rate of uptake by MNs in the first three minutes of the assay period was only 60% of that by PMNs. PMID:670409

  18. Analysis of Autofluorescence in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils: A New Tool for Early Infection Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Monsel, Antoine; Lcart, Sandrine; Roquilly, Antoine; Broquet, Alexis; Jacqueline, Cdric; Mirault, Tristan; Troude, Thibaut; Fontaine-Aupart, Marie-Pierre; Asehnoune, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosing bacterial infection (BI) remains a challenge for the attending physician. An ex vivo infection model based on human fixed polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) gives an autofluorescence signal that differs significantly between stimulated and unstimulated cells. We took advantage of this property for use in an in vivo pneumonia mouse model and in patients hospitalized with bacterial pneumonia. A 2-fold decrease was observed in autofluorescence intensity for cytospined PMNs from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) in the pneumonia mouse model and a 2.7-fold decrease was observed in patients with pneumonia when compared with control mice or patients without pneumonia, respectively. This optical method provided an autofluorescence mean intensity cut-off, allowing for easy diagnosis of BI. Originally set up on a confocal microscope, the assay was also effective using a standard epifluorescence microscope. Assessing the autofluorescence of PMNs provides a fast, simple, cheap and reliable method optimizing the efficiency and the time needed for early diagnosis of severe infections. Rationalized therapeutic decisions supported by the results from this method can improve the outcome of patients suspected of having an infection. PMID:24658436

  19. Polymorphonuclear Cell Functional Impairment in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    Allizond, Valeria; Scutera, Sara; Rossi, Silvia; Musso, Tiziana; Crocillà, Cristina; Cavalla, Paola; Trebini, Claudia; Marra, Elisa Simona; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Banche, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis patients run an increased risk of microbial infections, which leads to high rates of hospitalization and infection-related mortality. Although immunotherapy may increase infection risk in some cases, data as to the relationship among microbial factors, immunotherapy and alterations in the innate immunity of these patients are still scanty. On these grounds, this interdisciplinary study aims at investigating the role the functional activity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis at different stages. The in vitro ability of PMNs from patients, either untreated or treated with immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory drugs to kill Klebsiella pneumonia or Candida albicans, were investigated and compared to PMNs from healthy subjects. The release of various cytokines was also assessed, as was the production of reactive oxygen species and their ability to regulate apoptosis after microbial stimulation. Our results indicate that although patients have a normal number of PMNs, they have a statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction in intracellular killing activity. Although variations are strongly related to the therapeutic management of patients, they are independent from their disease stage. As no statistically significant differences were observed between patients and controls in cytokine release values, reactive oxygen species production or apoptosis, we came to the conclusion that other factors may be involved. Supportive validation of these results from further studies might well help in identifying a subset of patients at high risk of infection who could benefit from a closer follow-up and/or antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:26121651

  20. Generation and secretion of eosinophilotactic activity from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by various mechanisms of cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    König, W; Frickhofen, N; Tesch, H

    1979-01-01

    An eosinophil chemotactic factor(s) (ECF) can be generated from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils by the calcium ionophore, phagocytosis, arachidonic acid and hypotonic lysis. In kinetic studies it is observed that peak ECF activity is released prior to the maximum of lysosomal enzyme release with the calcium ionophore, phagocytosis and arachidonic acid, while under conditions of hypotonic exposure ECF activity appears after the maximum of enzyme release. The ECF obtained by hypotonic exposure shows a fluctuating pattern with sharp peaks and steep fall-offs in activity. The ECF-release for each stimulus is temperature dependent; extracellular calcium is required when the ionophore or phagocytosis are used as stimuli, while with arachidonic acid and hypotonic exposure no extracellular calcium is necessary for ECF-release. On Sephadex G-25 each preparation of ECF eluted in the low molecular weight range at approximately 500 daltons. Eosinophils can be deactivated and cross-deactivated with the various ECF-preparations indicating either a molecular identity or a common mode of action on eosinophils. PMID:437847

  1. Polymorphonuclear Cell Functional Impairment in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Silvia; Musso, Tiziana; Crocillà, Cristina; Cavalla, Paola; Trebini, Claudia; Marra, Elisa Simona; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Banche, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis patients run an increased risk of microbial infections, which leads to high rates of hospitalization and infection-related mortality. Although immunotherapy may increase infection risk in some cases, data as to the relationship among microbial factors, immunotherapy and alterations in the innate immunity of these patients are still scanty. On these grounds, this interdisciplinary study aims at investigating the role the functional activity of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) play in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis at different stages. The in vitro ability of PMNs from patients, either untreated or treated with immunosuppressant or immunomodulatory drugs to kill Klebsiella pneumonia or Candida albicans, were investigated and compared to PMNs from healthy subjects. The release of various cytokines was also assessed, as was the production of reactive oxygen species and their ability to regulate apoptosis after microbial stimulation. Our results indicate that although patients have a normal number of PMNs, they have a statistically significant (p<0.05) reduction in intracellular killing activity. Although variations are strongly related to the therapeutic management of patients, they are independent from their disease stage. As no statistically significant differences were observed between patients and controls in cytokine release values, reactive oxygen species production or apoptosis, we came to the conclusion that other factors may be involved. Supportive validation of these results from further studies might well help in identifying a subset of patients at high risk of infection who could benefit from a closer follow-up and/or antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:26121651

  2. Role of ions and extracellular protein in leukocyte motility and membrane ruffling.

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, C.; Lynn, W. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ruffling and motility, either directed or random, of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were shown to require a monovalent cation (MC). Na+ and Li+ are most effective. These MC-dependent activities are modulated by nonspecific proteins and peptides and are inhibited by cytochalasin B and by alkylating agents such as TPCK (L-[tosylamide-2-phenyl]ethylchloromethyl ketone) but not by ouabain or colchicine. The modulation by protein, but not the inhibition by TPCK or cytochalasin, is competitively inhibited by hydrophobic chemotactic peptides such as f.met-phe and f.phe-met. These hydrophobic peptides, which activate MC influx, promote motility at low concentrations of Na+ (0.1 mM); however, at higher concentrations of Na+ (1.0 mM) the same concentrations of peptides inhibit motility. This inhibition is the result of excessive Na+ and water influx with resultant cellular swelling. The chemotactic peptides, when present as a concentration gradient, function in chemotaxis by competing with the protein at the leading edge of the cell, with resultant local ion influx and swelling. Hydrolysis of the peptide is not required since protease inhibitors have no specific effect on peptide directed migration, although they do inhibit migration. Since local influx of MC and H2O with resultant hydrolysis of ATP is absolutely required for all motility in these cells, it is likely that local swelling and depolymerization of the actin cytoskeletal system are the primary reversible events in PMNL motility. This local swelling or ruffling apparently results in the pushing of cellular contents into the relaxed swollen submembrane areas of the cell by continued contraction of unswollen areas of the cell. PMID:717536

  3. Effects of aging on antagonist and agonist interactions with. beta. -adrenergic receptors on human leukocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Zahniser, N.R.; Parker, D.C.; Bier-Laning, C.M.; Miller, J.A.; Gerber, J.G.; Nies, A.S.

    1986-03-01

    Alterations in properties and/or coupling of ..beta..-adrenergic receptors might explain the diminished responsiveness to ..beta..-receptor agonists observed in aged humans. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear (MN) leukocytes were isolated on Percoll gradients from young or old healthy volunteers (25-34 and 60-76 yrs). Saturation isotherms of /sup 125/I-pindolol binding to PMN and MN membranes were generated. The affinities did not differ between the two age groups or cell types (52-61 pM). The number of receptors differed only on MN membranes (PMN young: 37 +/- 5.7, old: 44 +/- 6.7; MN young: 55 +/- 7.1, old: 122 +/- 23 fmol/mg protein; N = 6-8); however, this apparent increase became a decrease if the data were expressed in fmol/million cells (MN young: 0.82 +/- 0.12; old: 0.57 +/- 0.10) suggesting alterations in protein content or cell types rather than receptors in aged MN's. Agonist affinities, determined from isoproterenol competition curves in the absence and presence of GTP, were not different between the two age groups or cell types. In agreement with most previous reports, no change with aging in the properties of antagonist binding to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on MN's was detected. However, in contrast with an earlier report, no changes in agonist binding or coupling of the receptor in MN's from the elderly were found. These observations were extended to PMN's and suggest that changes in ..beta..-adrenergic receptors may not underlie age-related decreases in isoproterenol responsiveness.

  4. Competitive evaluation of data mining algorithms for use in classification of leukocyte subtypes with Raman microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maguire, A; Vega-Carrascal, I; Bryant, J; White, L; Howe, O; Lyng, F M; Meade, A D

    2015-04-01

    Raman microspectroscopy has been investigated for some time for use in label-free cell sorting devices. These approaches require coupling of the Raman spectrometer to complex data mining algorithms for identification of cellular subtypes such as the leukocyte subpopulations of lymphocytes and monocytes. In this study, three distinct multivariate classification approaches, (PCA-LDA, SVMs and Random Forests) are developed and tested on their ability to classify the cellular subtype in extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (T-cell lymphocytes from myeloid cells), and are evaluated in terms of their respective classification performance. A strategy for optimisation of each of the classification algorithm is presented with emphasis on reduction of model complexity in each of the algorithms. The relative classification performance and performance characteristics are highlighted, overall suggesting the radial basis function SVM as a robust option for classification of leukocytes with Raman microspectroscopy. PMID:25584436

  5. Synthetic nanoparticles functionalized with biomimetic leukocyte membranes possess cell-like functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parodi, Alessandro; Quattrocchi, Nicoletta; van de Ven, Anne L.; Chiappini, Ciro; Evangelopoulos, Michael; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Brown, Brandon S.; Khaled, Sm Z.; Yazdi, Iman K.; Enzo, Maria Vittoria; Isenhart, Lucas; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of systemic drug-delivery vehicles depends on their ability to evade the immune system, cross the biological barriers of the body and localize at target tissues. White blood cells of the immune system--known as leukocytes--possess all of these properties and exert their targeting ability through cellular membrane interactions. Here, we show that nanoporous silicon particles can successfully perform all these actions when they are coated with cellular membranes purified from leukocytes. These hybrid particles, called leukolike vectors, can avoid being cleared by the immune system. Furthermore, they can communicate with endothelial cells through receptor-ligand interactions, and transport and release a payload across an inflamed reconstructed endothelium. Moreover, leukolike vectors retained their functions when injected in vivo, showing enhanced circulation time and improved accumulation in a tumour.

  6. Characterization of the human trophoblast-leukocyte antigenic molecules defined by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Stern, P L; Beresford, N; Thompson, S; Johnson, P M; Webb, P D; Hole, N

    1986-09-01

    The murine monoclonal antibody H316 recognizes cell surface glycoproteins shared in expression by human trophoblast and peripheral blood leukocytes. It is also strongly expressed by many human tumor cell types, including choriocarcinoma and teratocarcinoma. The H316 antigenic determinant from these different cell types is carried on two wheat germ agglutinin-reactive glycoproteins of approximately 65,000 and 55,000 m.w. The antigenicity is not dependent on N-linked glycosylation. Biochemical fractionation procedures suggest that the molecules are related to each other, are not associated through intermolecular disulfide bonds, but do exhibit intramolecular disulfide interactions. These glycoproteins demonstrate m.w. heterogeneity between different cell lines and individual trophoblast membrane preparations. Such properties suggest that H316 molecules may be representative of TLX antigens (trophoblast-leukocyte common antigens), which have been suggested to influence maternofetal immunogenetic interactions. PMID:2427575

  7. Intracytoplasmic inclusions in circulating leukocytes from an eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) with iridoviral infection.

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Fry, Michael M; Irizarry, Armando R; Craig, Linden; Johnson, April J; Jones, Michael

    2006-07-01

    A free-ranging adult female eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) was presented to the University of Tennessee in October 2003 because of suspected trauma and blindness. Physical examination revealed lethargy, clear ocular and nasal discharges, and white oral and laryngeal plaques. Intracytoplasmic inclusions within heterophils and large mononuclear leukocytes were observed on routine blood smear examination. Postmortem findings included necrosis of epithelial and parenchymal cells with intracytoplasmic inclusions. Ultrastructurally, the leukocyte inclusions consisted of variably electron-dense granular material and viral particles consistent with the Iridoviridae family of viruses. The virus shared 100% sequence identity to a 420-base pair sequence of frog virus 3 (family Iridoviridae, genus Ranavirus) as determined by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing targeting a portion of the Ranavirus major capsid protein gene. PMID:17092902

  8. Synthetic nanoparticles functionalized with biomimetic leukocyte membranes possess cell-like functions.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Alessandro; Quattrocchi, Nicoletta; van de Ven, Anne L; Chiappini, Ciro; Evangelopoulos, Michael; Martinez, Jonathan O; Brown, Brandon S; Khaled, Sm Z; Yazdi, Iman K; Enzo, Maria Vittoria; Isenhart, Lucas; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of systemic drug-delivery vehicles depends on their ability to evade the immune system, cross the biological barriers of the body and localize at target tissues. White blood cells of the immune system--known as leukocytes--possess all of these properties and exert their targeting ability through cellular membrane interactions. Here, we show that nanoporous silicon particles can successfully perform all these actions when they are coated with cellular membranes purified from leukocytes. These hybrid particles, called leukolike vectors, can avoid being cleared by the immune system. Furthermore, they can communicate with endothelial cells through receptor-ligand interactions, and transport and release a payload across an inflamed reconstructed endothelium. Moreover, leukolike vectors retained their functions when injected in vivo, showing enhanced circulation time and improved accumulation in a tumour. PMID:23241654

  9. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, K.; Matsui, N.; Nohira, K.; Suguro, T.; Kitakata, Y.; Uchiyama, G.; Miyoshi, T.; Uematsu, S.; Inoue, S.; Arimizu, N.

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of labeled leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 patients, the incidence of pain and swelling in 66 wrist joints and 66 knee joints was compared with the accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes. No accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes was seen in any of the patients' wrists (0/12) or knee joints (0/14) when both pain and swelling were absent. In contrast, 93% (25/27) of wrist joints and 80% (24/30) of knee joints with both pain and swelling were positive by (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scintigraphy. There was little correlation between the stage of the disease, as determined by radiography, and (/sup 111/In)leukocyte accumulation. This study suggests that (/sup 111/In)leukocyte imaging may be a reliable procedure for monitoring the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, especially for confirming the lack of an ongoing inflammatory response.

  10. Variable opacity (Opa) outer membrane proteins account for the cell tropisms displayed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae for human leukocytes and epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kupsch, E M; Knepper, B; Kuroki, T; Heuer, I; Meyer, T F

    1993-01-01

    Opacity proteins (Opa) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a family of variant outer membrane proteins implicated in pathogenesis, are subject to phase variation. In strain MS11, 11 different opa gene alleles have been identified, the expression of which can be turned on and off independently. Using a reverse genetic approach, we demonstrate that a single Opa protein variant of strain MS11, Opa50, enables gonococci to invade epithelial cells. The remaining variant Opa proteins show no, or very little, specificity for epithelial cells but instead confer interaction with human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). Thus, depending on the opa allele expressed, gonococci are capable of invading epithelial cells or of interacting with human leukocytes. The respective properties of Opa proteins are maintained independent of the gonococcal strain; thus, the specificity for epithelial cells or leukocytes is intrinsic to Opa proteins. Significant homology exists in the surface exposed variable regions of two invasion supporting Opa proteins from independent strains. Efficient epithelial cell invasion is favoured by high level Opa production, however, a 10-fold reduction still allows significant invasion by gonococci. In contrast, recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Opa proteins adhered or invaded poorly under similar experimental conditions, thus indicating that additional factors besides Opa are required in the Opa-mediated interaction with human cells. Images PMID:8440254

  11. Involvement of VAMP-2 in exocytosis of IL-1{beta} in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) leukocytes after Vibrio anguillarum infection

    SciTech Connect

    Chai Yingmei; Huang Xiaohang . E-mail: xiaohanghuang@yahoo.ca; Cong Bailin; Liu Shenghao; Chen Kui; Li Guangyou; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2006-04-07

    Vibrio anguillarum is a major pathogen threatening the fish aquaculture in China. Infection of cultivated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with V. anguillarum induced rapid synthesis and secretion of IL-1{beta}, which initiates the innate immune response. SNARE proteins are known to regulate vesicular trafficking and fusion in all eukaryotes. Here, we determined whether SNARE proteins, specifically vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), are involved in regulated exocytosis of IL-1{beta} of leukocytes in marine fish. We show that VAMP-2 is present in turbot blood leukocytes, with nucleotide sequence identity of 88.2% and 93.0% to those of zebra fish and sea bass, respectively. After Vibrio infection, turbot leukocyte VAMP-2 was increased at the levels of transcription and translation in a temporal pattern coinciding with leukocyte IL-1{beta} secretion. Confocal microscopy localized VAMP-2 to vesicle structures in leukocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that VAMP-2 is involved in regulated exocytosis of cytokines in immunocytes in fish.

  12. An alternative pathway for fibrinolysis. I. The cleavage of fibrinogen by leukocyte proteases at physiologic pH.

    PubMed Central

    Plow, E F; Edgington, T S

    1975-01-01

    An alternative fibrinolytic system, active at physiological pH, is present in peripheral blood leukocytes. The fibrinolytic proteases localized predominantly in the leukocyte granules are capable of degrading both fibrinogen and fibrin, and plasmin activity does not contribute significantly to this proteolytic event. The specificity of the alternative fibrinolytic proteases for fibrinogen and the characteristics of the derivative cleavage fragments are clearly distinguishable from the classical plasmin system. The high molecular weight derivatives of fibrinogen, generated by the alternative system, under physiological conditions, are larger than the plasmin-generated X fragment, exhibit immunoelectrophoretic mobility comparable to native fibrinogen, and are not coagulable by thrombin. Analysis of the constituent polypeptide chains of the fragments reveals cleavage of the Aalpha, Bbeta, and gamma chains of fibrinogen. The lower molecular weight derivatives of fibrinogen, generated by the alternative system, are structurally distinct from previously described fibrinogen degradation products and exhibit potent anticoagulant activity. This anticoagulant activity can be attributed to interference with normal fibrin polymerization. The proteases of the alternative fibrinolytic systems are actively secreted by leukocytes when stimulated to undergo a nonlytic release reaction. These results provide direct evidence for a fibrinolytic system resident in leukocyte granules that is associated with the leukocyte release reaction and is capable of generating unique fibrinogen cleavage fragments. Images PMID:237938