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The mechanism of specific inhibition of stimulated chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear blood leukocytes in allergic processes.  


In the first part of our work (1) it was found that the cultivation of blood of sensitized people and animals with specific allergen (AI) caused the phenomenon of specific inhibition stimulated luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of leukocytes (PhSISCL). In the current study the mechanism of this inhibition was investigated. It was revealed that PhSISCL resulted from the direct influence of AI on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). The activity of NADPH-dependent oxidase was established by the Wymann M. et al. method (2). It was determined that the values of chemiluminescence (CL) for the cultivation of sensitized rabbit blood with specific AI did not differ from the control. This demonstrated that the activity of NADPH-oxidase was not inhibited. On these grounds it is possible to assume that PhSISCL is connected to either the inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity or to a release of this ferment from PMNL during cultivation. The latter was specifically investigated and was not confirmed. PMID:8959544

Pytsky, V I; Filatov, O Y



Superoxide production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes triggers a burst of oxidative metabolism resulting in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide production, and these active oxygen species function in the killing of microorganisms. A new cytochemical technique, based on a manganese dependent diaminobenzidine oxidation, has been developed to detect superoxide in these cells. It has been shown that superoxide generation is associated with the plasma

R. T. Briggs; J. M. Robinson; M. L. Karnovsky; M. J. Karnovsky



Migratory activity of blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes during juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, demonstrated with a new whole-blood membrane filter assay.  


Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration is measured in whole blood in a migration chamber consisting of a membrane filter (3-microns pores, 140 microns thick) with an integrated chemoattractant depot (FMLP in solid form) attached to a plastic container. Control chambers lack FMLP (blanks). One test unit requires 300 microliters blood. Numbers and distribution of the PMN immigrants into the filters are determined microscopically. Altogether 26 measurements of PMN migration in five juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) patients with varying disease activity were compared with the reactions of a healthy control group (N = 32). Correlations were calculated with conventional laboratory parameters (WBC, PLT, BSR, CRP, Hgb, serum Fe) and disease activity. In comparison with healthy controls, PMNs of JRA patients generally show a markedly increased penetration depth into the filters irrespective the presence of the chemoattractant or the disease activity. Increased migratory reactions to FMLP in comparison to blanks were found during high disease activity only. The PMN penetration depth correlates positively with the CRP, and reciprocally with the Hgb blood levels. The migration assay combines fast and simple processing with good preservation of the genuine PMN activation state. PMID:7982732

Egger, G; Klemt, C; Spendel, S; Kaulfersch, W; Kenzian, H



In vitro Effect of Asbestos Fibers on Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos fibers with normal human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) resulted in a significant stimulation of PMN metabolic activity and generation of toxic oxygen by-products as measured by chemiluminescence (CL). Although all asbestos fibers tested were cytotoxic to PMN, cytotoxicity and CL varied disproportionately with fiber type. Anthophyllite asbestos produced the greatest PMN cytotoxicity. It

James Doll; Richard P. Stankus; Susan Goldbach; John E. Salvaggio



Adhesion and motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from the blood of rats exposed to ozone: Potential biomarkers of toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Ozone (O3) exposure of rats results in airway epithelial injury and an infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into the lungs, suggesting alteration of PMN functions. To identify the altered PMN functions and their possible effects on epithelia, rats were exposed to air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 2 hr. PMNs were isolated from the blood and incubated with an epithelial cell line derived from rat lung (ARL-14) or primary alveolar type II cell cultures. The PMNs from the O3-exposed rats exhibited stimulated motility and spontaneous redistribution of actin filaments and adhered in a greater number to the epithelial cells when compared with the PMNs from the air-exposed rats. Actin caps usually formed at the sites of contact between the PMNs and epithelial cells, suggesting a cytoskeletal role in the inflammatory-epithelial cell interaction. By scanning electron microscopy, PMNs from air-exposed rats had features of non-motile cells. In a striking contrast to this, PMNs from O3-exposed rats revealed surface modifications, which were quite prominent at the sites of PMN-epithelial cell contacts. Despite these morphological changes, the PMNs from O3-exposed rats did not alter the epithelial resistance, a measure of paracellular permeability. In contrast to this, PMNs stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine not only exhibited greater adhesion to the epithelial cells, but also caused a reduction in epithelial resistance. The changes reflecting altered morphology, motility, and adhesion of PMNs from O3-exposed rats may represent important steps in the O3-induced inflammatory response that precedes barrier disruption in vivo, but they are not associated with increased epithelial permeability in an in vitro system. Besides their mechanistic relevance, the alterations of vascular PMNs may serve as important biomarkers for detecting O3 effects.

Bhalla, D.K.; Rasmussen, R.E.; Daniels, D.S. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))



Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ? Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ? 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). ? 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was paralleled by increased debris of cells. ? Oxidative DNA damage of PMNs is associated with arsenic-related skin lesions.

Pei, Qiuling, E-mail: [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan)] [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan); Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Mu, Jinjun [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Li, Yuanfei [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)



Cytoplasts Made from Human Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes with or without Heat: Preservation of Both Motile Function and Respiratory Burst Oxidase Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anucleate fragments (cytoplasts) from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are simplified systems that can be used to elucidate specific pathways by which cell function is altered. PMN cytoplasts in current use are defective either in activatable respiratory burst oxidase activity or in motile function. By centrifugation of PMN on discontinuous gradients of Ficoll without cytochalasin B, we have created granule-poor cytoplasts in

Stephen E. Malawista; Gretchen van Blaricom



Search for CEA-like molecules in polymorphonuclear leukocytes of non-human primates using monoclonal antibodies.  


The monoclonal anti-CEA antibody ZIK-A42-A/C1 which reacts with NCA of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was found to bind also to polymorphonuclear blood leukocytes of the following non-human primates tested: hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), stump-tailed monkey (Macaca arctoides), pig-tailed monkey (Macaca nemestrina), and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulata). No binding was observed to mononuclear blood leukocytes. It was concluded that non-human primates contain CEA-like substances in their polymorphonuclear leukocytes as humans do and that these substances carry some identical epitopes. PMID:3518651

Jantscheff, P; Indzhiia, L V; Micheel, B



Effect of Vitamin C on Tubulin Tyrosinolation in Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years, studies from several laboratories have indicated significant alternations in the cytoskeletal organization of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), coincident with its orientation or migration in response to chemotactic stimuli. The a...

J. Nath J. I. Gallin



Entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Factors involved in the phagocytosis and entry into polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were studied by electron microscopy. R. tsutsugamushi propagated in baby hamster kidney cell cultures was incubated with guinea pig peritoneal PMNs in vitro at 35 degrees C. Structurally intact and degenerating rickettsiae were found in phagosomes, but only intact rickettsiae escaped phagosomes and specifically entered the glycogen-rich cytoplasm. The extraphagosomal cytoplasmic rickettsiae were found within 30 min after incubation; continued incubation for 4 h increased the rickettsial entry about fourfold as seen in ultrathin sections. Most rickettsiae in phagosomes were degenerating after 4 h of incubation. When incubated at 25 degrees C, no entry and very few phagocytized rickettsiae were observed. At 40 degrees C, rickettsial entry was greatly reduced, but more rickettsiae were found in phagosomes than at 35 degrees C. Preincubation of rickettsiae at 56 degrees C for 20 min with trypsin or with 2,4-dinitrophenol inhibited entry, but many rickettsiae were in phagosomes. Glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde fixation of rickettsiae and addition of 2-deoxyglucose, iodoacetamide, cytochalasin B, colchicine, or vinblastine inhibited all rickettsial uptake by PMNs. Acid phosphatase cytochemistry of infected PMNs revealed the enzyme activity only in phagosomes with degenerated rickettsiae and not in those with intact rickettsiae. These observations indicated that rickettsiae are passively phagocytized by PMNs, and only those that are intact actively escape from phagosomes, which selectively inhibits lysosomal fusion. Images

Rikihisa, Y; Ito, S



Standardization of the Human Cytomegalovirus Antigenemia Assay by Means of In Vitro-Generated pp65Positive Peripheral Blood Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We generated in vitro human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp65-positive polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) resembling those detected in vivo, following cocultivation of PMN from healthy donors and wild-type HCMV- infected endothelial cells or fibroblasts. After purification, PMN are suitable for preparation of cytospots which can be used for the antigenemia assay. Cytospin preparations containing a predetermined number of in vitro-generated pp65-positive PMN were




Effect of Pentoxifylline on the Flow of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Through a Model Capillary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative used to increase blood flow in peripheral atherosclerosis. Pentoxifylline is known to increase whole blood filtration rate, and recent evidence suggests that pentoxifylline increases the filtration rate of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The purpose of this study was to directly observe and quantitate the effect of pentoxifylline on the flow of individual PMNs into a model

Michael Armstrong; David Needham; Diane Lillian Hatchell; Rashmi Saxena Nunn



The effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocyte response experiment MA-032  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In a series of studies performed at intervals from 30 day before flight to 30 days after recovery, blood samples were obtained from the three astronauts of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and from eight control subjects. To determine the effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tests were performed on blood samples obtained as quickly as possible after splashdown and on the day following recovery. The astronauts' inhalation of propellant gases and the inception of corticosteroid therapy 1 day after recovery provided an additional opportunity to investigate the possible effects of these factors on leukocyte function. Data were obtained during each time period on the total leukocyte count, differential count, leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte migration and chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and histochemical staining for leukocyte acid and alkaline phosphatase. These observations present a variety of in vitro correlates to white blood cell function within the body. Taken together, they serve as a reasonable approximation of the effects of space flight on leukocyte function.

Martin, R. R.



Effects of Steroid Hormones on Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Lysosomes  

PubMed Central

Lysosomal membrane stabilization has been proposed as a mechanism for the anti-inflammatory action of corticosteroid hormones. This hypothesis was based on studies with liver organelles. We studied the action of steroids on intact lysosomes isolated from human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes. Both androstenedione and progesterone, 10-3-10-5 M, caused leakage of acid hydrolase markers from these organelles, thus resembling their effects on liver lysosomes. But none of the anti-inflammatory steroids tested protected organelle membranes from either detergent lysis (Triton X-100) or heat incubation (37°C, 90 min). Hydrocortisone (HC), HC sodium succinate, HC acetate, HC hemisuccinate, prednisone, and dexamethasone were without detectable stabilizing activity at concentrations of 10-3-5 × 10-8 M. Release of the lysosomal marker, ?-glucuronidase, was not retarded by any of the compounds studied. In addition, PMN leukocyte lysosomes isolated from human volunteers receiving prednisolone were not more stable than control organelles, nor did serum from steroid-treated humans protect intact lysosomes from detergent lysis. Variations in cholesterol and phospholipid contents of liver and PMN leukocyte lysosome membranes could possibly account for the different reactivity to corticosteroids observed. We believe that the anti-inflammatory activity of adrenal corticosteroids can best be explained by their inhibitory effects on cellular metabolism rather than by their direct interaction with lysosomal membranes.

Persellin, Robert H.; Ku, Leighton C.



Promoting Effect of Colostrum on the Phagocytic Activity of Bovine Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bovine colostrum contains a variety of essential nutrients, antibodies, cytokines, hormones, and growth factors that are important for nutrient supply, host defense, growth and for general neonatal adaptation. We have investigated the effect of bovine colostrum on the phagocytic activity for latex particles by normal peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes using flow cytometric analysis. The phagocytosis promoting effect was observed in

H. Sugisawa; T. Itou; T. Sakai



Polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation and hemostasis in patients with essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombohemorrhagic complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with essential thrombocythe- mia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). The pathogenesis of these complications is not completely clarified. Several studies have described abnormalities of red blood cells and platelets in these patients. How- ever, no studies are available on changes in the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), which can play

Anna Falanga; Marina Marchetti; Virgilio Evangelista; Alfonso Vignoli; Marina Licini; Mara Balicco; Stefano Manarini; Guido Finazzi; Chiara Cerletti; Tiziano Barbui



Isolation, In-111 labeling, and abscess detection efficiency of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from blood and peritoneal fluid  

SciTech Connect

In-111 labeled blood and peritoneal exudate PMN were compared for labeling efficiency and ability to migrate to sites of experimental abscesses using both direct sampling and visual imaging techniques. Blood PMN were prepared by combining heparinized blood with 6% Hetastarch for 1 hour and layering the plasma over a double density Ficoll-Hy-paque gradient (S.G. 1.076 over 1.141). The PMN layer (90-99% PMN) at the interface yielded 10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/ PMN from 80-120 ml of blood. Peritoneal PMN were obtained by infusion of 0.1% glycogen, followed by infusion of saline after 4 or 18 hours. The exudate yielded 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ PMN (80-99% PMN). PMN suspensions were labeled for 30 minutes by addition of 100 of In-111-oxine, then washed twice. Percent cell-associated radioactivity of the labeled blood, 4 hour, and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 89%, 88%, and 86%. The labeled PMN were injected intravenously into rabbits which had two of three abdominal capsules (table tennis balls drilled with 250 1.5 mm holes) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus 4 hours earlier. Peak venous recovery of circulating labeled PMN, for blood, 4 hour and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 60%, 43%, and 19%. Gamma camera images 24 hours after infusion into infected rabbits were superior with 4 hour peritoneal PMN. The peritoneal PMN harvested 4 hours after glycogen stimulation are simple to prepare, are obtainable in greater numbers than blood PMN, and result in better abscess visualization.

Bettin, K.M.; Elson, M.K.; Gerding, D.N.; Bamberger, D.M.; Forstrom, L.A.; Shafer, R.B.



The Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte – A New Target for Erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous study from our laboratory has shown that erythropoietin (EPO), beside its traditional role in erythropoiesis, acts as an alleviator of oxidative stress and inflammation in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients, conferred in part by activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). To substantiate this phenomenon, the existence of EPO receptors (EPO-Rs) on PMNL membrane was examined at the transcriptional and translational levels.

S. Sela; R. Shurtz-Swirski; R. Sharon; J. Manaster; J. Chezar; G. Shkolnik; G. Shapiro; S. M. Shasha; S. Merchav; B. Kristal



The Direction of Membrane Lipid Flow in Locomoting Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the direction of membrane lipid flow in locomoting cells. The plasma membrane of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was stained with a fluorescent lipid analog dihexadecanoyl indocarbocyanine. A line was photobleached on the cell surface perpendicular to the direction of cell motion. Low-light-level fluorescence microscopy and digital image-processing techniques were used to analyze a

Juliet Lee; Mikael Gustafsson; Karl-Eric Magnusson; Ken Jacobson



Effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

The effects of lead on the killing mechanisms of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were investigated, using male Long-Evans rats exposed to 1% lead acetate in the drinking water for varying periods of time to achieve blood lead levels ranging from 20-200 Studies of PMN bacterial and fungal killing activity, chemotaxis and phagocytosis demonstrated that: 1) bactericidal activity of PMN from rats exposed to lead was not altered; 2) chemotactic activity remained within normal limits; 3) the phagocytic ability of the PMN also remained unaltered. In addition to these normal findings, one major abnormality was demonstrated: a significant decrease in the ability of PMN from rats exposed to lead to kill Candida albicans. This defect was not related to age or to length of exposure. It could not be produced by addition of lead to the test system in vitro. Further investigation revealed significant decreases in PMN glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, catalase, and myeloperoxidase activities. These data support two possible mechanisms for the abnormal fungicidal activity of PMN from lead-exposed rats: decrease in ability to reduce oxygen to active metabolites, or reduction in myeloperoxidase activity due to diminshed synthesis of the heme moiety required for its function.

Silberstein, C.F.



High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs.  


Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent KM 1.1 vs. 6.3 ?M, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ?2.5 ?M, ?2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake Vmax. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). PMID:23603060

Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J G; Marceau, François



Calprotectin, an Abundant Cytosolic Protein from Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes, Inhibits the Growth of Borrelia burgdorferi  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously showed that numerous polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) granule components efficiently kill Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. In addition, motile, granule-poor cytoplasts (U-Cyt) from human blood PMN can exert anti-Borrelia activity against opsonized B. burgdorferi independently of oxidative mechanisms. Here we show that lysates of U-Cyt also possess anti-Borrelia activity, a portion of which comes from the abundant

Denise Lusitani; Stephen E. Malawista; Ruth R. Montgomery



Inhibition of some polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions by ethacrynic acid.  


Ethacrynic acid (10(-4) M) inhibits exocytosis, phagocytosis and superoxide release in rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's). Dihydroethacrynic acid is a much weaker inhibitor of these PMN functions. Though ethacrynic acid inhibits ATPase activity in the PMN, this occur at much higher concentrations than required for inhibition of exocytosis and superoxide release, thus a causal relationship seems unlikely. The same applies to inhibition of ATP generation by ethacrynic acid: the concentration required to decrease ATP level in PMN's is much higher than required for the inhibitory effect on exocytosis. Inhibition of exocytosis by ethacrynic acid can be prevented by dithiothreitol. It is concluded that vulnerable sulfhydryl groups are involved in the inhibition by ethacrynic acid. PMID:6280731

Elferink, J G; Hoogendijk, A M; Riemersma, J C



Enhanced superoxide radical production by stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes in a cat model of diabetes.  


This study examines the possibility that polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation, which can cause endothelial injury, may contribute to the capillary closure of diabetic retinopathy. To examine diabetes-related alterations in polymorphonuclear leukocyte activation, we compared the production of superoxide radical by these cells from normal and from diabetic cats that were maintained hyperglycemic. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from five diabetic and five normal cats were stimulated with 10 ng ml-1 phorbol myristate acetate, and the maximum rate of their superoxide radical production was measured spectrophotometrically. Stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes from diabetic cats generated more superoxide radical, at significantly higher rates, than did those from normals (3.32 +/- 0.33 and 2.50 +/- 0.41 nmol O2- min-1 10(-6) cells, respectively; P < 0.02). While addition of insulin or glucagon did not alter stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocyte radical production, glucose in high concentration did mildly impair its production in both groups. The exaggerated respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in diabetes could contribute to microvascular injury in the retina as well as in other tissues. PMID:1335885

Freedman, S F; Hatchell, D L



Neisseria gonorrhoeae suppresses the oxidative burst of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) results in a potent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-driven inflammatory response, but the mechanisms by which Gc withstands PMN attack are poorly defined. Here we report that Gc can suppress the PMN oxidative burst, a central component of the PMN antimicrobial arsenal. Primary human PMNs remained viable after exposure to liquid-grown, exponential-phase, opacity-associated protein (Opa)-negative Gc of strains FA1090 and MS11 but did not generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), even after bacterial opsonization. Liquid-grown FA1090 Gc expressing OpaB, an Opa protein previously correlated with PMN ROS production, elicited a minor PMN oxidative burst. PMN ROS production in response to Opa? and OpaB+ Gc was markedly enhanced if bacteria were agar-grown or if liquid-grown bacteria were heat killed. Liquid-grown Opa- Gc inhibited the PMN oxidative burst elicited by isogenic dead bacteria, formylated peptides or Staphylococcus aureus but did not inhibit PMN ROS production by OpaB+ Gc or phorbol esters. Suppression of the oxidative burst required Gc-PMN contact and bacterial protein synthesis but not phagocytosis. These results suggest that viable Gc directly inhibits PMN signaling pathways required for induction of the oxidative burst, which may contribute to gonococcal pathogenesis during inflammatory stages of gonorrheal disease.

Criss, Alison K.; Seifert, H. Steven



Role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

Silicosis is usually attributed to fibroblast stimulation by secretion of damaged alveolar macrophages (AMs), but the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and of continuing cell injury in the pathogenesis has not been fully studied. Mice given intratracheal injections of 2 mg of silica received 3H-thymidine 1 hour before death at intervals to 20 weeks. Cellular populations and lysosomal content of lavage fluids were correlated with morphology, DNA synthesis, and collagen content of the lung. The initial response involved rapid PMN and AM recruitment to the alveoli. Some free particles crossed Type 1 epithelial cells, and silica was found in interstitial macrophages. Focal Type 1 cell damage was rapidly repaired by Type 2 cell proliferation. Although PMN numbers dropped after a few days, they never reached control levels and rose again after 8 weeks; the number of AMs fell to control values from 2 to 8 weeks, then increased again. Glucosaminidase and glucuronidase levels in the lavage fluid were much higher than control levels throughout the study. Increased DNA synthesis by interstitial cells occurred from 2 days to 20 weeks; increased collagen synthesis was found from 4 weeks onward. The continuing inflammatory response of the lung to silica suggests may contribute to fibroblastic stimulation. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6

Adamson, I. Y.; Bowden, D. H.



Preliminary characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa peptide chemotactins for polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

In a previous report, we showed that supernatants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures exhibit chemotactic activity for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). In this study, P. aeruginosa chemotactins were isolated, purified, and partially characterized. The organisms were cultured in Vogel-Bonner defined medium, and cultures were stopped in late log phase. Chemotactins withstood heating, remained unaltered after acid or alkali treatment in a pH range from 4 to 10, and resisted digestion by trypsin or carboxypeptidase, but chemotactic activity was decreased by 73% after incubation with pronase. Only 2% of the total chemotactic activity of culture supernatants could be extracted with chloroform. Chemotactins with molecular sizes less than 3 kDa constituted the largest contribution to the chemotactic activity of culture supernatants. Pretreatment of PMNL with 10(-5) M formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) inhibited chemotaxis towards FMLP and P. aeruginosa culture supernatants but not towards complement component C5a. In conclusion, the total chemotactic activity for PMNL of P. aeruginosa culture supernatants was due, almost exclusively, to chemotactins that have properties similar, if not identical, to those exhibited by formylmethionyl peptides.

Fontan, P A; Amura, C R; Garcia, V E; Cerquetti, M C; Sordelli, D O



Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts  

SciTech Connect

Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L. (Veterans Administration Medical Center (Atlanta), Decatur, GA (USA))



Rapid deformation of "passive" polymorphonuclear leukocytes: the effects of pentoxifylline.  


Entry times for spherical (no pseudopods) polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) into a 4 microns micropipet have been measured as a function of pipet suction pressure (2,500-20,000 dyn/cm2) and concentration of the drug pentoxifylline (PTX, 0.1-10.0 mM). For control cells (0 mM PTX), entry rates (reciprocal entry times) increased almost linearly with increasing suction pressure, indicating a Newtonian-like behavior. With incubation in PTX solutions, entry rate vs. suction pressure became increasingly non-linear, suggesting a shear-thinning effect for the dissipative structure. At a given suction pressure the rate of entry showed a dose-dependent increase with increasing PTX concentration, the effect being most pronounced at high suction pressures (20,000 dyn/cm2). Also, with increasing PTX concentration two other effects were observed: i) there was a decreased incidence of cells that displayed pseudopodia, and ii) there was an increased incidence of cells forming hernias and an increased streaming of cell cytoplasm during aspiration. The first observation points to a down-regulation of the cell's functional ability to "activate" in response to surface/chemical stimuli, and the second indicates that both the cortical and cytoskeletal networks are weakened either by disruption and/or reduction in density of the protein polymers. These observations are in line with other recently published experiments which suggest that the rheological effects of pentoxifylline on PMNs may be associated with the state of actin. PMID:2777892

Needham, D; Armstrong, M; Hatchell, D L; Nunn, R S



Role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis  

SciTech Connect

Silicosis is usually attributed to fibroblast stimulation by secretion of damaged alveolar macrophages (AMs), but the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and of continuing cell injury in the pathogenesis has not been fully studied. Mice given intratracheal injections of 2 mg of silica received 3H-thymidine 1 hour before death at intervals to 20 weeks. Cellular populations and lysosomal content of lavage fluids were correlated with morphology, DNA synthesis, and collagen content of the lung. The initial response involved rapid PMN and AM recruitment to the alveoli. Some free particles crossed Type 1 epithelial cells, and silica was found in interstitial macrophages. Focal Type 1 cell damage was rapidly repaired by Type 2 cell proliferation. Although PMN numbers dropped after a few days, they never reached control levels and rose again after 8 weeks; the number of AMs fell to control values from 2 to 8 weeks, then increased again. Glucosaminidase and glucuronidase levels in the lavage fluid were much higher than control levels throughout the study. Increased DNA synthesis by interstitial cells occurred from 2 days to 20 weeks; increased collagen synthesis was found from 4 weeks onward. The continuing inflammatory response of the lung to silica suggests may contribute to fibroblastic stimulation.

Adamson, I.Y.; Bowden, D.H.



Pentoxifylline modulates deformability, F-actin content, and superoxide anion production of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from diabetic cats.  


Capillary occlusion is an early event in the development of diabetic retinopathy, and white blood cells have recently been shown to be involved. We have shown previously that pentoxifylline improves deformability and decreases F-actin content of unstimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes from normal human subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if pentoxifylline would improve three properties of unstimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes from diabetic cats. The measured parameters were mechanical (whole cell deformability), structural (F-actin content) and biochemical (rate of superoxide anion production). Chronic hyperglycemia was induced in three cats by partial pancreatectomy, and they were kept in poor glycemic control for at least 6 months prior to the study. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated and the entry time of individual passive cells was measured during aspiration into a 4-micron micropipette under constant suction pressure (-15 cmH2O). Deformability was defined as the inverse of the entry time. F-actin content of passive cells was measured by NBD-phallacidin labeling followed by flow cytometry. The rate of superoxide anion production was measured spectrophotometrically by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable cytochrome c reduction. Following incubation for 15 min with 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mM pentoxifylline, the average entry time of passive polymorphonuclear leukocytes was reduced from control by 11 +/- 5% (P = 0.045), 17 +/- 6% (P = 0.007), and 36 +/- 5% (P < 0.001), respectively. The F-actin content decreased by 0%, 4 +/- 0.6% (P < 0.001), and 10 +/- 3% (P < 0.001), respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1336731

Sonkin, P L; Freedman, S F; Needham, D; Rao, K M; Hatchell, D L



Kinetics of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in an experimental hypopyon model.  


Regarding the process of uveitis development, many past studies have used the experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) and other animal models to observe histologically the infiltration of inflammatory cells and the process of lesion progression. However, no detailed study of the process of clearance of infiltrated inflammatory cells from the eye has been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the process of clearance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) using an experimental hypopyon model. PMNs obtained from ascites of SD rat were injected into the anterior chamber of SD rats. The process of PMNs clearance was evaluated by serial photography and 3D optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT), and histological changes were observed simultaneously. The hypopyon heights regressed from 1.04±0.06 mm at 1h (day 0) to 0.45±0.07 mm at day 1, and 0 mm at day 3 after PMNs injection. When the hypopyon heights at the three time points were compared, significant differences were found between groups (P<0.05). The hypopyon volumes also decreased from 1.46±0.07 mm(3) at 1h to 1.16±0.09 mm(3) at 2h, and 0.83±0.04 mm(3) at 3h after PMN injection. When the hypopyon volumes at the three time points were compared, significant differences were found between groups (P<0.05). Light micrographs of inferior segment of the eyeball revealed dense PMNs in the chamber angle at 1h after PMNs injection and many PMNs in the iris stroma and vessels, as well as at the episcleral and subconjunctival tissues around limbus at 3h and day 1 after PMNs injection. Light micrographs of superior segment of the eyeball at 3h after injection revealed PMNs in the episcleral and subconjunctival vessels. Electron micrographs of inferior segment of the eyeball at 3h after PMNs injection revealed dense PMNs with slightly condensed nuclei in the anterior chamber, as well as in the iris stroma and vessels. In conclusion, in the experimental hypopyon model, PMNs injected into the anterior chamber were cleared from the eye mainly through the iris stroma and vessels, as well as the episcleral and subconjunctival tissues around limbus. PMID:20723542

Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Goto, Hiroshi; Yamakawa, Naoyuki; Mori, Hideki; Okada, Shinya; Fujita, Kouji; Ishikawa, Akio



L-triiodothyronine and L-reverse-triiodothyronine generation in the human polymorphonuclear leukocyte.  


Extrathyroidal monodeiodination of l-thyroxine (T(4)) is the principal source of l-triiodothyronine (T(3)) and l-reverse-triiodothyronine (rT(3)) production. To define some of the cellular factors involved, we examined T(3) and rT(3) generation from added nonradioactive T(4) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, using radioimmunoassays to quantify the T(3) and rT(3) generated. Under optimum incubation conditions which included a pH of 6.5 in sucrose-acetate buffer, the presence of dithiothreitol as a sulfhydryl-group protector, and incubation in an hypoxic atmosphere, significant net generation of T(3) and rT(3) was observed. Of the several subcellular fractions studied, the particulate fraction obtained by centrifugation at 27,000 g was found to possess the highest T(3)- and rT(3)-generating activities per unit quantity of protein. With respect to T(3) generation from substrate T(4), the K(m) was 5 muM and the V(max) was 7.2 pmol/min per mg protein. Propylthiouracil, methimazole, and prior induction of phagocytosis inhibited both T(3) and rT(3) generation, but T(3) generation was inhibited to a greater extent. rT(3), in a concentration equimolar to that of substrate T(4), did not alter T(3) generation, but inhibited T(3) generation when the molar ratio of rT(3) to T(4) approached 10:1. Under the incubation conditions employed, particulate fractions of leukocytes obtained from five cord blood samples displayed an essentially normal relationship between T(3)- and rT(3)-generating activities, despite the distinctly divergent serum T(3) and rT(3) concentrations in these samples. From our findings, we draw the following conclusions: (a) the human polymorphonuclear leukocyte possesses the ability to generate T(3) and rT(3) from substrate T(4); (b) the T(3)- and rT(3)-generating activities are associated principally with the 27,000 g particulate fraction and display enzymic characteristics with a sulfhydryl-group requirement; (c) T(3)-generating activity appears to be more susceptible to inhibitory influences than rT(3)-generating activity; and (d) in cord blood leukocytes, the putative enzymes catalyzing T(3) and rT(3) generation appear to be functionally intact under the experimental conditions employed. PMID:690186

Woeber, K A



Effect of human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes on chromosomal and plasmid DNA of Escherichia coli. Role of acid DNase.  

PubMed Central

Phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are important host resistance factors against invading microorganisms. Evidence showing that killing is rapidly followed by degradation of bacterial components is limited. Therefore, we studied the fate of Escherichia coli DNA following phagocytosis of E. coli by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. [3H]thymidine-labeled, unencapsulated E. coli PC2166 and E. coli 048K1 were incubated in serum, washed, and added to leukocytes. Uptake and killing of the bacteria and degradation of DNA were measured. Although phagocytosis and killing by mononuclear leukocytes was less efficient than that by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, only mononuclear leukocytes were able to degrade E. coli PC2166 DNA. Within 2 h, 60% of the radioactivity added to mononuclear leukocytes was released into the supernate, of which 40% was acid soluble. DNA of E. coli 048K1 was not degraded. To further analyze the capacity of mononuclear leukocytes to degrade E. coli DNA, chromosomal and plasmid DNA was isolated from ingested bacteria and subjected to agarose gel-electrophoresis. Only chromosomal DNA was degraded after phagocytosis. Plasmid DNA of E. coli carrying a gene coding for ampicillin resistance remained intact for a 2-h period after ingestion, and was still able to transform recipient E. coli cells after this period. Although we observed no DNA degradation during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lysates of both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes contained acid-DNase activity with a pH optimum of 4.9. However, the DNase activity of mononuclear leukocytes was 20 times higher than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No difference was observed between DNase activity from polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes from a chronic granulomatous disease patient with DNase activity from control polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. Images

Rozenberg-Arska, M; van Strijp, J A; Hoekstra, W P; Verhoef, J



Pseudomonas aeruginosa tolerance to tobramycin, hydrogen peroxide and polymorphonuclear leukocytes is quorum-sensing dependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant micro-organism of chronic lung infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. P. aeruginosa colonizes the CF lungs by forming biofilm structures in the alveoli. In the biofilm mode of growth the bacteria are highly tolerant to otherwise lethal doses of antibiotics and are protected from bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). P.

Thomas Bjarnsholt; Peter Østrup Jensen; Mette Burmølle; Morten Hentzer; Janus A. J. Haagensen; Hans Petter Hougen; Henrik Calum; Kit G. Madsen; Claus Moser; Søren Molin; Niels Høiby; Michael Givskov



Elastase from polymorphonuclear leukocyte in articular cartilage and synovial fluids of patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective was to study the significance and the mechanism of action of elastase from polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN elastase) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The experiments conducted consisted of two phases. Firstly, articular cartilage and synovia from 8 patients with RA undergoing total knee replacement were obtained, and the gelatinolytic enzyme activity was extracted with 2M guanidine hydrochloride. The gelatinolytic

S. Momohara; S. Kashiwazaki; K. Inoue; S. Saito; T. Nakagawa



Effect of pentoxifylline on the flow of polymorphonuclear leukocytes through a model capillary.  


Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative used to increase blood flow in peripheral atherosclerosis. Pentoxifylline is known to increase whole blood filtration rate, and recent evidence suggests that pentoxifylline increases the filtration rate of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The purpose of this study was to directly observe and quantitate the effect of pentoxifylline on the flow of individual PMNs into a model capillary. Short-term incubation of human PMNs with 10 mM pentoxifylline inhibited cell activation, as judged by a significant reduction in the number of neutrophils forming pseudopods. Furthermore, incubation of PMNs from 6 healthy men with 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mM pentoxifylline significantly decreased the time required for individual cells to be aspirated into a 4 microns pipet under constant pressure by 16 +/- 5%, 21 +/- 7%, and 41 +/- 8%, respectively (mean +/- SEM, p less than or equal to 0.05), compared with control. These experiments are the first direct demonstration of increased deformability in neutrophils treated with pentoxifylline. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the beneficial effect of pentoxifylline on microvascular perfusion is partly due to an inhibition of PMN stiffness and activation. PMID:2339824

Armstrong, M; Needham, D; Hatchell, D L; Nunn, R S



Hydrogen Peroxide Generation by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Exposed to Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of peritoneal dialysis effluent (PDE), human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) showed reduced production of hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid (H2O2and HOCl, respectively) when at rest and when stimulated with both soluble (formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and phorbol myristate acetate) and particulate (Staphylococcus epidermidis) agonists. This effect occurred in a concentration-dependent man- ner between 0 and 70% (vol\\/vol) dialysis effluent. The inhibition




Alkali-Degraded Cornea Generates a Low Molecular Weight Chemoattractant for Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The current study was designed to determine if a polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemoattractant is derived from alkali-degraded whole cornea and to establish a range for its molecular weight. Methods. We utilized a collagen gel-visual chemotactic assay to quantify the directional move- ment of PMN exposed to alkali-degraded corneas (30 min or 24 hi). In this experiment, the sample to

Roswell R. Pfister; Jeffrey L. Haddox; Charnell I. Sommers


Studies of the effects of spherulin from Coccidioides immitis on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


The effects of spherule lysate (spherulin) on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function was examined. PMN adherence to glass and capping was increased by spherulin, findings which may account for spherulin's interference with complement-mediated migration through cellulose ester filters. In contrast, PMN attachment to yeast, killing of bacteria, and effects on spherules were virtually unaffected by spherulin, suggesting that it does not directly inhibit PMN antimicrobial function. PMID:4010764

Galgiani, J N



Oxidative Inactivation of Leukotriene C4 by Stimulated Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukotriene C4 (LTC4) was metabolized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) into three sets of products. These products differed in mobility on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) from LTC4 and also from leukotriene D4 (LTD4) and leukotriene E4 (LTE4), the sequential products of peptide cleavage of LTC4. Products I, II, and III were eluted as

Chong W. Lee; Robert A. Lewis; E. J. Corey; Alan Barton; Hunseung Oh; Alfred I. Tauber; K. Frank Austen



Systematic Hypoxia Mediates Platelet-induced Hypoxia Inducible Factor1 Expression in Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platelet and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) co-localization to the damaged vessel is an essential component of a multi-step cascade in thrombosis and inflammation. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) regulates several important PMN functions relevant to innate immune and inflammation during hypoxia. Hydroxylation and ubiquitination regarding HIF-1?- von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (vHL) -ubiquitin interactions contribute to cellular HIF-1 stabilization and bioavailability. Therefore, this

Huang Chun; Liu Jong-Shyan Wang


Effect of the lipopolysaccharide antagonist Planktothrix sp. FP1 cyanobacterial extract on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


CyP is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like molecule extracted from the freshwater cyanobacterium Oscillatoria planktothrix FP1, which has been reported to be a potent competitive inhibitor of bacterial LPS. In the present study the ability of CyP to affect human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function was investigated. PMNs were isolated from venous blood by standard density-gradient centrifugation. Cell migration was measured by use of the Boyden chamber assay. Interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production was measured using a sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMN intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed by the use of a fluorescent probe coupled to spectrophotometry. CyP 10-100 ?g/ml was chemotactic for PMNs without affecting the chemotactic response to either E. coli LPS or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). CyP per se did not affect PMN production of either IL-8 or TNF-?, but concentration-dependently reduced LPS-induced production of both cytokines. On the contrary, CyP had no effect either on fMLP-induced production of IL-8 or on PMN oxidative burst (at rest and after stimulation with fMLP), a response which is known to be independent from LPS-operated pathways. In human PMNs CyP behaves as a selective and effective LPS antagonist. These findings support the therapeutic potential of CyP in endotoxin-dependent disease. PMID:21115122

Maio, Ramòna Consuèlo; Cosentino, Marco; Rossetti, Carlo; Molteni, Monica; Lecchini, Sergio; Marino, Franca



Endotoxin-induced selective dysfunction of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes in response to endogenous chemotactic factors.  

PubMed Central

To assess the mechanism and specificity of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) dysfunction induced by endotoxin, rabbits were injected intravenously with 100 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxin, and PMN function was studied 18 to 24 h later. Compared to PMN from normal rabbits, peripheral blood PMN from rabbits injected with endotoxin showed diminished chemotactic responsiveness to two endogenous peptides, C5a (complement) and platelet-derived growth factor, and to two endogenous lipids, leukotriene B4 and platelet-activating factor. The chemotactic response to the synthetic chemotactic peptide, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), was unimpaired. In contrast to migration, endotoxin injection resulted in inhibition of the secretory response to the two endogenous peptides but not to the lipids or to FMLP. At a 1:4 (vol/vol) dilution, the plasma either 1 or 24 h after the endotoxin injection inhibited normal PMN chemotactic responses to C5a but not to FMLP. Similarly, at a 1:10 dilution, this plasma inhibited normal PMN chemotactic responses to leukotriene B4. The factor responsible for inhibiting responses to leukotriene B4 was anionic, specific for leukotriene B4 responses, and greater than 12,000 daltons. These data may be relevant to understanding PMN dysfunction during gram-negative sepsis.

Hartiala, K T; Langlois, L; Goldstein, I M; Rosenbaum, J T




PubMed Central

Postnuclear supernates from homogenates of purified neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from human blood were fractionated by zonal sedimentation and isopycnic equilibration in sucrose gradients. The fractions were characterized biochemically by measuring protein content and the activities of eight enzymes. Selected fractions were further analyzed by electron microscopy. In both centrifugation systems, azurophil and specific granules could be resolved almost completely. Azurophil granules sediment three to four times faster than the specifics and have an average density of 1.23. They contain all the peroxidase of the cells, large portions of four lysosomal hydrolases, and about half of the total lysozyme, and therefore appear to be, in biochemical terms, very similar to the azurophil granules of rabbit PMNs. The specific granules, which have an average density of 1.19, contain the remaining half of the lysozyme but appear to be free of the other components of the azurophil granules, and of alkaline phosphatase. Isopycnic equilibration disclosed a minor lysosomal population, which strongly overlaps the specific granules, and made possible the identification of a membrane-fraction which is characterized by the presence of the thiol-sensitive acid 4-nitrophenyl phosphatase and of alkaline phosphatase.

Bretz, Ursula; Baggiolini, Marco



[Phagocytosis of bacteria by polymorphonuclear leukocytes suspended in liquid or adhering to a surface].  


Phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PNL) was studied in healthy men. PNL suspended in nutrient medium did not practically ingest bacteria. The intake of bacteria got considerably intensified if leukocytes and bacteria ran into each other by turning over the test tubes during incubation. A still greater rise of phagocytic activity was discovered under the conditions favouring the attachment of PNL to the surface and the possibility of chemotaxis. These conditions were created by introducing a gelatin-coated film into the test tube. PMID:6354298

Pal'tsyn, A A; Kolker, I I; Chervonskaia, N V; Pobedina, V G; Badikova, A K



Effect of antibody on entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasm.  

PubMed Central

The effects of rickettsial antibodies on the entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, Gilliam strain, into guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasm were studied by electron microscopy. Immunoglobulin G fractions were obtained from four rabbit antisera against: yolk sac-propagated rickettsiae; baby hamster kidney cell (BHK-21)-propagated rickettsiae; formaldehyde-fixed, BHK-21 cell-propagated rickettsiae; and glutaraldehyde-fixed, BHK-21 cell-propagated rickettsiae. A fuzzy coating was observed on the rickettsiae after reaction with each of the antibodies. All of the antibodies increased the uptake of rickettsiae by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The opsonization effect was higher with an antibody against BHK-21 cell-propagated rickettsiae than with an antibody against yolk sac-propagated rickettsiae, and an antibody to live rickettsiae had a higher opsonization effect than did antibodies to chemically fixed rickettsiae. Rickettsiae were released from phagosomes into the cytoplasm with the four antibodies. The highest number of rickettsiae were released into the cytoplasm with antibody against live rickettsiae propagated in BHK-21 cells. The four antibodies inhibited the translocation of the cytoplasmic rickettsiae from the filamentous area to glycogen-rich zones. Almost 100% inhibition of translocation was observed with antibodies against live rickettsiae. These results indicate that rabbit antibodies against rickettsiae, when used alone, were unable to completely prevent rickettsial entry into polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasm in vitro. Images

Rikihisa, Y; Ito, S



Cell transit analysis of ligand-induced stiffening of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

A mathematical treatment of the mechanical behavior of transiently bonded polymer networks is used to interpret measurements of the pressure-induced passage of plant cells through microporous membranes. Cell transit times are inferred to be proportional to the instantaneous shear modulus of the cell cortex, a parameters that we then relate to properties of the cortical F-actin matrix. These theoretical results are used to analyze published data on chemoattractant-induced changes of rigidity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. We thereby rationalize previously noted, peculiar, power-law logarithmic dependences of transit time on ligand concentration. As a consequence, we are able to deduce a linear relationship between the extent of F-actin polymerization and the logarithm of the chemoattractant concentration. The latter is examined with regard to the G-protein activation that is known to occur when chemoattractants bind to receptors on the surfaces of polymorphonuclear cells.

Nossal, R



Effects of crude oil and diesel exposures on biochemical activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in cattle.  


Cattle exposed to low doses of an Alberta crude oil, Pembina Cardium crude oil (PCCO), or a winter diesel oil no. 2 (WDO-2) were assessed for their biochemical activities in polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) cells (mainly neutrophils). The study used a randomized block design containing five treatment groups (8 animals/group). The animals were dosed per gavage with the test substance on study days 0, 14, 28, and 42. The dosages given (on per kg body weight) were: Group 1 (control), 10 mL/kg of potable water; Group 2, 5 mL/kg WDO-2; Group 3, 2.5 mL/kg PCCO; Group 4, 5 mL/kg PCCO; and Group 5, 10 mL/kg PCCO. Blood was collected at the specified intervals during the pre- and post-exposure periods, and the biochemical activities of isolated PMNL were analyzed. Cattle groups exposed to WDO-2 and PCCO showed moderate and statistically significant reductions (p < 0.01) in the activities of (1) phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated cellular respiration (respiratory burst), (2) NADPH-oxidase (PMA-stimulated production of superoxide anion), (3) myeloperoxidase, and (4) n-acetylglucosidase as compared to the control group. These biochemical parameters also showed statistically significant (p < 0.01) dose-related periodic (study day) trends. In general, these biochemical activities were decreased after each dosing; however, they subsequently recovered to near the pre-dosing levels. Such a biochemical response in PMNL provides a valuable biological tool to follow exposure effects in cattle accidentally exposed to low doses of petroleum hydrocarbons. PMID:16075357

Khan, A A; Embury, C; Schuler, M M; Hiltz, M N; Coppock, R W; Dziwenka, M



Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes by Candidate Biomaterials for an Implantable Glucose Sensor  

PubMed Central

Background Continuous monitoring of glucose by implantable microfabricated devices offers key advantages over current transcutaneous glucose sensors that limit usability due to their obtrusive nature and risk of infection. A successful sensory implant should be biocompatible and retain long-lasting function. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a key role in the inflammatory system by releasing enzymes, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, typically as a response to complement activation. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro analysis of PMN activation as a marker for biocompatibility of materials and to evaluate the role of complement in the activation of PMN. Methods Fifteen candidate materials of an implantable glucose sensor were incubated in lepirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. The cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b) expression on PMN was analyzed with flow cytometry and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in plasma was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complement activation was prevented by the C3 inhibitor compstatin or the C5 inhibitor eculizumab. Results Three of the biomaterials (cellulose ester, polyamide reverse osmosis membrane, and polyamide thin film membrane), all belonging to the membrane group, induced a substantial and significant increase in CD11b expression and MPO release. The changes were virtually identical for these two markers. Inhibition of complement with compstatin or eculizumab reduced the CD11b expression and MPO release dose dependently and in most cases back to baseline. The other 12 materials did not induce significant PMN activation. Conclusion Three of the 15 candidate materials triggered PMN activation in a complement-dependent manner and should therefore be avoided for implementation in implantable microsensors.

Sokolov, Andrey; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Lambris, John D; Johannessen, Erik A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik



In vitro effect of tobacco smoke components on the functions of normal human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


The function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has previously been shown to be impaired in smokers in comparison with healthy nonsmokers. Potent inhibition of PMN chemotaxis has been achieved with whole tobacco smoke, the gas phase of smoke, and a water-soluble extract of whole smoke. In the present work several aspects of PMN function were studied after exposure to water-soluble fraction of the particle phase of tobacco smoke collected on glass fiber filters. These tests included capillary tube random migration, chemotaxis under agarose, phagocytosis of yeasts, Nitro Blue Tetrazolium dye reduction, and whole-blood bactericidal activity. The water extract of the particle fraction of smoke had a high content of nicotine when compared with the levels achieved in plasma of smokers and a much lower concentration of aldehydes when compared with the gas phase of smoke. It had no cytotoxic effect and did not affect phagocytosis, oxygen consumption, or bactericidal activity. Nitro Blue Tetrazolium reduction of both resting and stimulated PMNs was significantly decreased only with the most concentrated solution. The tested solutions exerted a dose-related depressive effect on capillary tube random migration, whereas the random migration measured in the agarose chemotaxis test was normal. Nevertheless, the chemotactic response to a caseine solution was significantly decreased. The same tests were performed in the presence of several concentrations of a nicotine solution and the only test to be affected was the capillary tube random migration, and, that only at a very high concentration. The results of this study contribute to the more precise delineation of the extent of the dysfunction of PMNs exposed to tobacco smoke components and indicate that deleterious products are released from the particle phase of the smoke, which deposits all along the respiratory tree. PMID:7228386

Corberand, J; Laharrague, P; Nguyen, F; Dutau, G; Fontanilles, M; Gleizes, B; Gyrard, E



Chemiluminescence response of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced by purified, latex attached Klebsiella fimbriae.  


Type 1 fimbriae (T1F) and type 3 fimbriae (T3F) were isolated from Klebsiella species, purified, attached to latex beads and tested for their ability to stimulate human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) oxidative activity. The luminol dependent chemiluminescence assay was used to evaluate the response of phagocytes. Latex particles coated with type 3 fimbriae (1-T3F) induced a significantly higher chemiluminescence response than those with type 1 fimbriae (1-T1F). Opsonization of 1-T1F with pooled human serum induced chemiluminescence responses which were statistically significantly enhanced as compared to opsonized 1-T3F and both kinds of non-opsonized fimbriae. PMID:1684498

Przondo-Mordarska, A; Ko, H L; Beuth, J; Gamian, A; Pulverer, G



Proteolysis of fibrinogen deposits enables hydrogen peroxide-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes to spread in an acidified environment.  


Polymorphonuclear leukocytes might be expected to employ functional regulatory systems adapted to an acidified environment, such as found in the inflammatory sites where polymorphonuclear leukocytes act in host defense. We previously reported the unusual characteristics of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte spreading over immobilized fibrinogen at acidic pH, including extracellular Ca2+ requirement and independence of protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In the present study, we found that PMA-induced spreading was strongly inhibited at pH 6.0 by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride at pH 6.0 but was only mildly inhibited at pH 7.2 and not inhibited at pH 8.0; furthermore, PMA-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes markedly digested immobilized fibrinogen only at pH 6.0. In experiments without stimulation by PMA, we found that at pH 6.0 polymorphonuclear leukocytes were able to spread over fibrinogen surfaces pre-digested by neutrophil serine proteases; this process required extracellular Ca2+ and stimulation by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pharmacological studies demonstrated the involvement of Src family protein tyrosine kinases, but not PKC, in H2O2-induced spreading over pre-digested fibrinogen surfaces; this was also the case for PMA-induced spreading at pH 6.0 but not at pH 7.2 or 8.0. These results suggest that PMA-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte spreading depends on serine protease-mediated fibrinogenolysis in an acidic milieu, but that other mechanisms operate at neutral/alkaline pH. PMID:19285494

Suzuki, Kingo; Namiki, Hideo



Accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in reperfused ischemic canine myocardium: relation with tissue viability assessed by fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose uptake  

SciTech Connect

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes may participate in reperfusion injury. Whether leukocytes affect viable or only irreversibly injured tissue is not known. Therefore, we assessed the accumulation of 111In-labeled leukocytes in tissue samples characterized as either ischemic but viable or necrotic by metabolic, histochemical, and ultrastructural criteria. Six open-chest dogs received left anterior descending coronary occlusion for 2 hr followed by 4 hr reperfusion. Myocardial blood flow was determined by microspheres and autologous 111In-labeled leukocytes were injected intravenously. Fluorine-18-2-deoxyglucose, a tracer of exogenous glucose utilization, was injected 3 hr after reperfusion. The dogs were killed 4 hr after reperfusion. The risk and the necrotic regions were assessed following in vivo dye injection and postmortem tetrazolium staining. Myocardial samples were obtained in the ischemic but viable, necrotic and normal zones, and counted for 111In and 18F activity. Compared to normal, leukocytes were entrapped in necrotic regions (111In activity: 207 +/- 73%) where glucose uptake was decreased (26 +/- 15%). A persistent glucose uptake, marker of viability, was mainly seen in risk region (135 +/- 85%) where leukocytes accumulation was moderate in comparison to normal zone (146 +/- 44%). Thus, the glucose uptake observed in viable tissue is mainly related to myocytes metabolism and not to leukocytes metabolism.

Wijns, W.; Melin, J.A.; Leners, N.; Ferrant, A.; Keyeux, A.; Rahier, J.; Cogneau, M.; Michel, C.; Bol, A.; Robert, A.



Polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemiluminescence induced by formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and phorbol myristate acetate: Effects of catalase and superoxide dismutase  

Microsoft Academic Search

When polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) interact with the soluble stimuli FMLP or PMA, the cells increase their production of oxidative metabolites. This increased production can be measured as luminol amplified light emission or chemiluminescence (CL). The chemiluminescence of human PMNL has been investigated, and it was found that the chemoattractant FMLP induced a bimodal response with a sharp peak of activity

C. Dahlgren



Vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bacterial vaginosis as markers for histologic endometritis among women without symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study was performed to determine whether vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes can be used as predictors of histologic endometritis among women at risk for, but without symptoms of, acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Study design: Five hundred thirty-seven women with, or at risk for, pelvic infection underwent pelvic examinations, including endometrial biopsies. These women were assessed for the presence of vaginal

Mark H. Yudin; Sharon L. Hillier; Harold C. Wiesenfeld; Marijane A. Krohn; Antonio A. Amortegui; Richard L. Sweet



Synthesis and Surface Expression of ICAM-1 in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophilic Leukocytes in Normal Subiects and during Inflammatory Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

During bacterial peritonitis of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) leukocytes, particularly polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs), migrate into the peritoneal cavity. However, at the site of inflammation PMNs are not sufficiently able to protect the host against micro-organisms. Adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1 (CD54), are involved in the interaction between endothelial cells and PMNs leading to the accumulation of

Jörn Elsner; Meike Sach; Hans-Peter Knopf; Johannes Norgauer; Alexander Kapp; Peter Schollmeyer; Gustav J. Dobos



The fate of experimental cutaneous candidiasis in guinea pigs under the suppressed polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by colchicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental cutaneous Candida albicans infections in guinea pigs are histologically characterized by intense epidermal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation. To study the role of PMNs in vivo, we injected 250 µcolchicine\\/kg i.p., a strong inhibitor of PMN chemotaxis, and observed the influence of reduced PMN migration in experimental cutaneous candidiasis with special interest in the elimination course of the organisms.

Y. Miyachi; T. Horio; S. Imamura



The role of lysosomal elastase in the digestion of Escherichia coli proteins by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: experiments with living leukocytes.  


Human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) elastase has been implicated in various pathological conditions. However, its physiological role remains undefined. One possible function of this enzyme may be digestion of bacterial proteins after phagocytosis. To test this hypothesis, we prepared Escherichia coli labeled with [3H]arginine and treated these bacteria with a lipid-soluble, active-site-directed chloromethyl ketone inactivator of pancreatic and granulocyte elastases (carbobenzoxy-L-glycyl-L-leucyl-L-alanine chloromethyl ketone, dissolved in methanol). Control bacteria were treated with methanol alone. When E. coli pretreated with the inactivator were incubated with solutions of porcine pancreatic elastase or with PMN granule extract, release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity was significantly lower than in the control E. coli. Similar results were obtained when treated and control E. coli were fed to viable human PMN. In contrast, release of trichloroacetic acid-soluble radioactivity from E. coli containing [3H]thymidine was not affected by pretreatment of bacteria with elastase inactivator before feeding them to PMN, suggesting that phagocytosis of E. coli had not been inhibited by the chloromethyl ketone. When treated and control bacteria were fed to PMN, no significant difference was observed in the activity of lysosomal beta-glucuronidase recovered from post-granule supernatant fractions of homogenized leukocytes, suggesting that lysosomal degranulation had not been suppressed by the inactivator. However, elastase activity of the same fractions was depressed if the leukocytes had phagocytized chloromethyl ketone-treated E. coli, suggesting that inhibition of PMN elastase had occurred. We conclude that PMN elastase participates in digestion of E. coli proteins by human PMN. PMID:787011

Blondin, J; Janoff, A



Intracellular reactive oxygen species production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cows.  


The present study assesses the oxidative burst activity from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) from bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cows. Fifteen clinically healthy cows were divided into serologically positive cows without any hematological alteration, serologically positive animals with persistent lymphocytosis (PL) and healthy serologically negative cows. The oxidative burst activity from the PMNLs was evaluated by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a probe. PMNLs from each cow were incubated with heat-killed Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) to stimulate oxidative burst activity. The results of the present work showed no significant difference in the oxidative burst activity without any stimulus and elicited by S. aureus. Conversely, a decrease in the oxidative burst index induced by E. coli in PMNLs was observed in BLV-infected cows. PMID:21937857

Souza, Fernando Nogueira de; Blagitz, Maiara Garcia; Latorre, Andréia Oliveira; Ramos Sanchez, Eduardo Milton; Batista, Camila Freitas; Weigel, Rebeca Alves; Renno, Francisco Palma; Sucupira, Maria Claudia Araripe; Della Libera, Alice Maria Melville Paiva




PubMed Central

The interaction in vitro between group B meningococci and rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes has been described. Phagocytosis did not occur in the presence of normal rabbit serum. Antiserum collected 12–21 days following one subcutaneous inoculation of living log phase meningococci exhibited opsonic activity with type specificity; this opsonic action depended on both heat-labile and heat-stable factors. Following ingestion by granulocytes, meningococci were rapidly killed. These studies suggest that group B meningococcal strains contain specific antiphagocytic surface factors of an as yet unknown chemical nature. Antisera obtained 4 or more wk after immunization showed bactericidal activity with the same type specificity as opsonic activity. This bactericidal activity was also lost after heating and restored by the addition of normal serum. Further studies on opsonins and bactericidins for meningococci may shed light on virulence factors in these microorganisms, and may prove useful for a more precise classification of meningococci according to type rather than group specificity.

Roberts, Richard B.



Eicosanoids and inflammatory cells in frostbitten tissue: prostacyclin, thromboxane, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and mast cells.  


The pathophysiology of cold injury is still controversial. An inflammatory process has been implicated as the underlying mechanism and certain anti-inflammatory substances such as ibuprofen and acetylsalicylic acid have been used in the clinical treatment of frostbite injury. It has been postulated that the progressive ischemic necrosis is secondary to excessive thromboxane A2 production, which upsets the normal balance between prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2) and thromboxane A2. It was aimed to clarify the pathophysiology of cold injury in this study. Twenty-one New Zealand White rabbits, each weighing 1.2 to 2.9 kg, were divided into control (n = 10) and frostbitten (n = 11) groups the randomly. The rabbit ears in the frostbitten group were subjected to cold injury, and the levels of thromboxane A2 (as thromboxane B2) and of prostaglandin I2 (as 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha) and the number of inflammatory cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mast cells) were measured in normal and frostbitten skin of rabbit ears. The levels of 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha and thromboxane B2, the stable metabolites of prostaglandin I2 and thromboxane A2, respectively, were increased in a statistically significant way (p < 0.002) by frostbite injury; however, thromboxane B2 increased more than 6-keto prostaglandin F1alpha. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mast cells, absent in normal skin, were present in the frostbitten skin. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.01) correlation between the time a rabbit ear was maintained at below -10 degrees C and skin survival and between the weights of rabbits and skin survival (p < 0.024). All these findings suggest that inflammation is involved in frostbite injury; a decrease in prostaglandin I2/thromboxane A2 ratio could be one of the factors leading to necrosis; the bigger the animal, the better its ability to counter frostbite. PMID:9623831

Ozyazgan, I; Tercan, M; Melli, M; Bekerecio?lu, M; Ustün, H; Günay, G K



Leukocyte depletion for safe blood transfusion.  


Leukocytes have ability to distinguish between self cells (body own cells) and foreign (allogenic) cells on the basis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins that are present on the cell membrane and are effectively unique to a person. During allogenic blood transfusion a person receives large number of allogenic donor leukocytes and these are recognized as foreign cells by the recipient immune system which leads to several adverse reactions. To avoid such leukocyte-mediated adverse reactions leukodepleted blood transfusion is required. Leukocytes can be separated on the basis of size, dielectric properties, by affinity separation, freeze-thawing and centrifugation but all these methods are time consuming and costly. Filtration is another method for leukocyte depletion that is comparatively less expensive and more efficient as it gives more than 90% leukodepletion of blood along with minimal cell loss. However, present filtration procedures also have some limitations as they work efficiently with blood components but not with whole blood and show non-specific adhesion of large number of platelets and red blood cells along with leukocytes. All the currently available filters are costly, which has been a major reason for their limited application. Therefore, demand for a more efficient and cost-effective filter is high in medical community and scientists are attenpting to improve the efficiency of currently available filters. The present review gives an overview of the significance of leukodepleted blood transfusion and focuses on different methods for leukocyte depletion and challenges involved in all these technologies. PMID:19418471

Singh, Shikha; Kumar, Ashok



Influence of encapsulation on staphylococcal opsonization and phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

In previous studies, encapsulated Staphylococcus aureus strains have been shown to resist phagocytosis. In this investigation, the nature of the interference with phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes was examined by studying the opsonization of two pairs of unencapsulated (Smith compact and M variant) and encapsulated (Smith diffuse and M) S. aureus strains. The uptake of [3H]glycine-labeled bacteria by normal leukocytes was quantitatively measured after incubation of bacteria in pooled serum, C2-deficient serum, immunoglobulin-deficient serum, and serum from a rabbit immunized with S. aureus M. The presence of a capsule was found to interfere with opsonization by both the classical and alternative pathways of complement as well as by heat-stable opsonic factors in nonimmune human serum. This interference was significantly greater in the case of the S. aureus M strain than in the case of the Smith diffuse strain. The only effective opsonic source for S. aureus M was immune rabbit serum. It is proposed that encapsulation of S. aureus strains interferes with phagocytosis by preventing effective bacterial opsonization.

Peterson, P K; Wilkinson, B J; Kim, Y; Schmeling, D; Quie, P G



Different Modulating Effects of Adenosine on Neonatal and Adult Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are the major leukocytes in the circulation and play an important role in host defense. Intact PMN functions include adhesion, migration, phagocytosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) release. It has been known for a long time that adenosine can function as a modulator of adult PMN functions. Neonatal plasma has a higher adenosine level than that of adults; however, little is known about the modulating effects of adenosine on neonatal PMNs. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of adenosine on neonatal PMN functions. We found that neonatal PMNs had impaired adhesion, chemotaxis, and ROS production abilities, but not phagocytosis compared to adult PMNs. As with adult PMNs, adenosine could suppress the CD11b expressions of neonatal PMNs, but had no significant suppressive effect on phagocytosis. In contrast to adult PMNs, adenosine did not significantly suppress chemotaxis and ROS production of neonatal PMNs. This may be due to impaired phagocyte reactions and a poor neonatal PMN response to adenosine. Adenosine may not be a good strategy for the treatment of neonatal sepsis because of impaired phagocyte reactions and poor response.

Hou, Pei-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Wang, Lin; Lin, Li-Yan; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Hsu, Te-Yao; Ou, Chia-Yu; Jheng, Yi-Jyun; Yang, Kuender D.; Cheng, Wen-Hsin



Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Movement of Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes:Two Fundamentally Different Mechanisms of Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with an inherited deficiency of the adherence glycoproteins LFA-1, Mac-i, and p150,95 are unable to mobilize polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL5) to peripheral sites of inflammation. LFA-ilMac-i\\/pi5O,95-deficient PMNL exhibited profoundly impaired movement stimulated by chemotactic factors when the cells were required to move over two-dimensional surfaces. Less impairment of movement was demonstrated in three-dimensional move- ment through cellulose filters. A possible

Frank C. Schmalstieg; Helen E. Rudloff; Gilbert R. Hillman; Donald C. Anderson



Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of NO and O?2free radicals generated from PMA (phorbol myristate acetate)-stimulated PMN (polymorphonuclear leukocytes) was studied by a nitroxide spin trap, DMPO (5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide). It was found that addition of L-arginine to the system would significantly decrease the trapped O?2by DMPO and addition of NG-monomethyl-arginine (NGMA) would significantly increase the trapped O?2by DMPO. It was proved that the formation




Human Cytomegalovirus Replicates Abortively in Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes after Transfer from Infected Endothelial Cells via Transient Microfusion Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a recently developed model for in vitro generation of pp65-positive polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), we demonstrated that PMNLs from immunocompetent subjects may harbor both infectious hu- man cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and viral products (pp65, p72, DNA, and immediate-early (IE) and pp67 late mRNAs) as early as 60 min after coculture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or human embryonic lung




Measurement of methemoglobin formation from oxyhemoglobin a real-time, continuous assay of nitric oxide release by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have evaluated the spectrophotometric measurement (at 401 vs. 411 nm) of nitric oxide (NO)-dependent methemoglobin formation from oxygemoglobin in order to assess NO release from human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN). S-nitroso-d,l-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP, 25–200 ?M), a donor of NO, induced a dose-dependent methemoglobin formation. Furthermore, when PMN were activated with N-formyl-methionylleucyl-phenylalanine or phorbol myristate acetate in the presence of superoxide

Gerd Lärfars; Hans Gyllenhammar



Adenosine A2 A receptor modulates the oxidative stress response of primed polymorphonuclear leukocytes after parabolic flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space flight and gravitational stress can alter innate immune function. Parabolic flights (PFs) as a model for short-term gravitational changes prime the cytotoxic capability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In view of the emerging role of adenosine in the regulation of innate immune responses, we examined the potency of adenosine to control the release of cytotoxic H2O2 by primed PMNs via

Ines Kaufmann; Matthias Feuerecker; Alex Salam; Gustav Schelling; Manfred Thiel; Alexander Choukèr



Nigella sativa oil, nigellone and derived thymoquinone inhibit synthesis of 5-lipoxygenase products in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, Nigella sativa oil (NSO), nigellone (polythymoquinone) and derived thymoquinone were studied to evaluate their effect on the formation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL).NSO produced a concentration dependent inhibition of 5-LO products and 5-hydroxy-eicosa-tetra-enoic acid (5-HETE) production with half maximal effects (IC50) at 25±1 ?g\\/ml, respectively 24±1 ?g\\/ml. Nigellone caused a concentration-related inhibition of

M El-Dakhakhny; N. J Madi; N Lembert; H. P. T Ammon



Effects of alpha and theta toxins from Clostridium perfringens on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


Two toxins, alpha (phospholipase C) and theta (oxygen-labile hemolysin), were purified from Clostridium perfringens type A and assayed for toxic effects on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). Crude preparations containing both toxins totally inhibited chemotaxis and chemiluminescence responses of PMNLs and reduced PMNL viability. Purified alpha toxin did not alter PMNL viability, chemotactic responsiveness, or morphology but did enhance opsonized zymosan-induced PMNL chemiluminescence over a wide range of toxin concentrations. theta Toxin, at 12.5 hemolytic units (HU) per 10(5) PMNLs, reduced cell viability and induced marked PMNL morphological changes. Concentrations of theta toxin between 4 and 32 HU per 10(5) PMNLs inhibited PMNL chemiluminescence in a dose-dependent manner, whereas a lower concentration enhanced the PMNL chemiluminescent response to opsonized zymosan. Effects on chemotaxis were also dose dependent. Increased PMNL random migration was observed at a concentration of theta toxin of 0.06 HU per 2.5 X 10(5) PMNLs (P less than .05), whereas concentrations of greater than 0.08 HU per 2.5 X 10(5) PMNLs reduced both directed and random migration (P less than .05). PMID:2885383

Stevens, D L; Mitten, J; Henry, C



Saliva inhibits the chemiluminescence response, phagocytosis, and killing of Staphylococcus epidermidis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Saliva inhibited several functional properties of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from murine peritoneal exudate, namely, luminol-mediated chemiluminescence (CL) induced by either Staphylococcus epidermidis or formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), phagocytosis, and killing of bacteria in vitro. The concentration of saliva in the reaction mixture that caused a complete inhibition of the CL response of PMNs to both S. epidermidis and FMLP was 25%. However, there was no catalase or superoxide dismutase activity in saliva that could influence the CL response of PMNs. The production of superoxide by PMNs stimulated with S. epidermidis was assayed in the presence or absence of saliva by inhibition of the reduction of cytochrome c by superoxide dismutase. In the presence of 50% saliva, O2- generation by PMNs was only 7.3% of that observed in the absence of saliva. After gel filtration of salivary material through Sephadex G-25 or Sephacryl S-200, several fractions were obtained that inhibited the CL response of PMNs to either FMLP or S. epidermidis or to both. Two inhibitory fractions were analyzed. One contained immunoglobulin A, and the other contained a peptide which was composed of 14 different amino acids. The two fractions of high molecular weight included in the first protein peak of Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration were able to inhibit the CL response to S. epidermidis and to inhibit phagocytic activity, while fractions of low molecular weight (under 12,500 Mr) inhibited the CL response to FMLP and to S. epidermidis but did not inhibit phagocytic activity.

Saito, K; Kato, C; Teshigawara, H



The polymorphonuclear leukocyte: a cell tuned for transcellular biosynthesis of cys-leukotrienes.  


Sulfidopeptide leukotrienes (cysLT) are potent vasoactive mediators that can constrict coronary vessels and alter caliber of the microcirculation. They can be formed "in situ" via a peculiar type of cell communication termed "transcellular biosynthesis" whereby donor cells (polymorphonuclear leukocytes, PMNL) feed acceptor cells (endothelial cells, EC) the unstable epoxide intermediate leukotriene A4 for further metabolism to cysLT. We have investigated the relative amount of leukotriene A4 that is synthesized by PMNL and made available for transcellular biosynthesis. This has been accomplished by measuring the relative amounts of enzymatic vs non-enzymatic leukotriene A4-derived metabolites after challenge with the Ca(2+)-ionophore A23187, using PMNL suspensions at different concentrations. Non-enzymatic leukotriene A4-derived metabolites were used as a quantitative index of the amount of leukotriene A4 released into the extracellular milieu. In human, as well as in bovine PMNL, the relative amounts of non-enzymatic vs enzymatic leukotriene A4-derived metabolites increased with decreasing cell concentrations. By diminishing possible cell-cell interactions via increased dilution, it is calculated that approx. 60% of leukotriene A4 synthesized is released from the PMNL. These data provide evidence that, in PMNL, transfer of leukotriene A4 to neighbouring acceptor cells is taking place as a predominant mechanisms of cell communication. PMID:9444615

Sala, A; Buccellati, C; Zarini, S; Bolla, M; Bonazzi, A; Folco, G C



Interactions between Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms on Silicone Implants In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Chronic infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa persist because the bacterium forms biofilms that are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and the host immune response. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to visualize biofilm development in vivo following intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with bacteria growing on hollow silicone tubes, as well as to examine the interaction between these bacteria and the host innate immune response. Wild-type P. aeruginosa developed biofilms within 1 day that trapped and caused visible cavities in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In contrast, the number of cells of a P. aeruginosa rhlA mutant that cannot produce rhamnolipids was significantly reduced on the implants by day 1, and the bacteria were actively phagocytosed by infiltrating PMNs. In addition, we identified extracellular wire-like structures around the bacteria and PMNs, which we found to consist of DNA and other polymers. Here we present a novel method to study a pathogen-host interaction in detail. The data presented provide the first direct, high-resolution visualization of the failure of PMNs to protect against bacterial biofilms.

van Gennip, Maria; Christensen, Louise Dahl; Alhede, Morten; Qvortrup, Klaus; Jensen, Peter ?strup; H?iby, Niels; Givskov, Michael



Proteinase 3. A distinct human polymorphonuclear leukocyte proteinase that produces emphysema in hamsters.  

PubMed Central

Studies were designed to explore the possibility that human polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule constituents in addition to elastase (HLE) had the potential to cause emphysema. A two-step purification of three serine proteinases was developed. Granule extract proteins were initially separated by dye-ligand affinity chromatography. Fractions eluted were divided into four pools. Hamsters were given a single intratracheal instillation of saline +/- 0.1 mg protein of each pool. While pool 2 contained HLE and cathepsin G, the most dramatic bullous emphysema developed in animals treated with pool 4. The esterase from pool 4, designated proteinase 3 (PR-3) was purified, characterized in vitro, and tested for its ability to cause emphysema. PR-3 is a neutral serine proteinase with isoenzyme forms. Its ability to degrade elastin at pH 6.5 is slightly greater than that of HLE, but it is less active than HLE at pH 7.4 or 8.9. PR-3 has weak activity against azocasein. Its ability to degrade hemoglobin is intermediate to that of HLE and cathepsin G at pH 7.4. PR-3 has no activity against chromogenic substrates specific for HLE or cathepsin G. Its pI is substantially less than HLE or cathepsin G. It is also immunologically distinct from HLE. It induces emphysema in hamsters commensurate with that of HLE. We conclude that PR-3 may be important in the pathogenesis of human emphysema. Images

Kao, R C; Wehner, N G; Skubitz, K M; Gray, B H; Hoidal, J R



Role of YopK in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Resistance against Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Defense  

PubMed Central

The enteropathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis can survive in the harsh environment of lymphoid compartments that abounds in immune cells. This capacity is dependent on the plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer proteins (Yops) that are delivered into the host cell via a mechanism involving the Yersinia type III secretion system. We show that the virulence protein YopK has a role in the mechanism by which Y. pseudotuberculosis avoids the polymorphonuclear leukocyte or neutrophil (PMN) defense. A yopK mutant, which is attenuated in the mouse infection model, where it fails to cause systemic infection, was found to colonize Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes more rapidly than the wild-type strain. Further, in mice lacking PMNs, the yopK mutant caused full disease with systemic spread and typical symptoms. Analyses of effects on PMNs revealed that both the wild-type strain and the yopK mutant inhibited internalization and reactive oxygen species production, as well as neutrophil extracellular trap formation by PMNs. However, the wild-type strain effectively avoided induction of PMN death, whereas the mutant caused a necrosis-like PMN death. Taken together, our results indicate that YopK is required for the ability of Yersinia to resist the PMN defense, which is critical for the virulence of the pathogen. We suggest a mechanism whereby YopK functions to prevent unintended Yop delivery and thereby PMN disruption, resulting in necrosis-like cell death, which would enhance the inflammatory response favoring the host.

Thorslund, Sara E.; Ermert, David; Fahlgren, Anna; Erttmann, Saskia F.; Nilsson, Kristina; Hosseinzadeh, Ava; Urban, Constantin F.



Reduced bioenergetics and toll-like receptor 1 function in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in aging  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with a progressive decline in immune function (immunosenescence) resulting in an increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial infections. Here we show reduced expression of Toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and an underlying age-dependent deficiency in PMN bioenergetics. In older (>65 years) adults, stimulation through TLR1 led to lower activation of integrins (CD11b and CD18), lower production of the chemokine IL-8, and lower levels of the phosphorylated signaling intermediate p38 MAP kinase than in PMN from younger donors (21-30 years). In addition, loss of CD62L, a marker of PMN activation, was reduced in PMN of older adults stimulated through multiple pathways. Rescue of PMN from apoptosis by stimulation with TLR1 was reduced in PMN from older adults. In seeking an explanation for effects of aging across multiple pathways, we examined PMN energy utilization and found that glucose uptake after stimulation through TLR1 was dramatically lower in PMN of older adults. Our results demonstrate a reduction in TLR1 expression and TLR1-mediated responses in PMN with aging, and reduced efficiency of bioenergetics in PMN. These changes likely contribute to reduced PMN efficiency in aging through multiple aspects of PMN function and suggest potential therapeutic opportunities.

Qian, Feng; Guo, Xiuyang; Wang, Xiaomei; Yuan, Xiaoling; Chen, Shu; Malawista, Stephen E.; Bockenstedt, Linda K.; Allore, Heather G.; Montgomery, Ruth R.



Synergistic effect of heparin and chemotactic factor on polymorphonuclear leukocyte aggregation and degranulation.  

PubMed Central

The in vitro effects of therapeutic amounts of polyanionic heparin on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) aggregation and on the release of cationic lactoferrin from PMN-specific granules were investigated. Incubation of 1 X 10(7) human PMNs with 0.3 unit/ml of heparin followed by stimulation with the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) 2 X 10(-7) M significantly increased PMN aggregation, compared with controls. Cytochalasin B potentiated aggregation, which was further increased by incubation of the PMNs with heparin. Similarly, heparin also increased PMN degranulation and lactoferrin release following stimulation with FMLP with or without cytochalasin B, compared with controls. In addition, human lactoferrin complexed with heparin on a sucrose density gradient and caused a significant shift in the migration of 3H-heparin. Finally, rabbits pretreated with intravenous heparin resulting in prolongation of their activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) to 1.5 to 2.5 times baseline had more profound reduction in PMN counts following a challenge with the secretagogue phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). These studies demonstrate that heparin can interact synergistically with chemotactic stimuli known to evoke lactoferrin release, which in turn leads to enhancement of PMN aggregation. Our data further suggest that heparin may be contraindicated in the treatment of syndromes with increased PMN aggregation such as endotoxin-induced Schwartzman-type reactions.

Cairo, M. S.; Allen, J.; Higgins, C.; Baehner, R. L.; Boxer, L. A.



Effects of adenosine on the functions of circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes during hyperdynamic endotoxemia.  


Endotoxin-activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) adhere to the vascular endothelium and cause damage by the release of toxic superoxide anions (O2-). Because adenosine is a potent inhibitor of PMNL in vitro, the present study investigates the effects of this nucleoside on the functions of circulating PMNL in a standardized porcine model of hyperdynamic endotoxemia. Ten anesthesized pigs received an intravenous (i.v.) 330-min infusion of endotoxin (5 microg/kg of body weight per h). Another 10 pigs were also infused with endotoxin plus adenosine (150 microg/kg/min [i.v.]); this treatment was begun 30 min prior to the beginning of endotoxin treatment. Control groups (five animals per group) received either adenosine or physiological saline. Infusion of endotoxin caused severe neutropenia, shedding of L-selectin, upregulation of beta2-integrins, increased binding of C3-coated zymosan particles, and subsequent phagocytosis by PMNL. While phagocytosis-induced production of oxygen radicals appeared to decrease, extracellular release of superoxide anions was strongly enhanced. Infusion of adenosine during endotoxemia had no effect on neutropenia, expression of adhesion molecules, C3-induced adhesion, phagocytosis, or intracellular production of oxygen radicals, whereas extracellular release of O2- was strongly inhibited. Thus, i.v. infusion of adenosine during endotoxemia could be useful in protecting from O2(-)-mediated tissue injury without compromising the bactericidal mechanisms of PMNL. PMID:9169743

Thiel, M; Holzer, K; Kreimeier, U; Moritz, S; Peter, K; Messmer, K



Distribution of Lysosomal Enzymes, Cationic Proteins, and Bactericidal Substances in Subcellular Fractions of Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Separation of homogenates of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) into different fractions by sedimentation in centrifugal fields that ranged from 126 × g to 50,000 × g resulted in a differential distribution of the lysosomal enzymes. Peroxidase, lysozyme, beta-glucuronidase, and acid phosphatase activity were separated from each other. This demonstrates that the lysosomes of human PMN comprise at least three and possibly four physically and chemically different cytoplasmic particles. Proteins which are more cationic than lysozyme and which may be analogous to cationic lysosomal protein of rabbit PMN were associated with lysozyme and beta-glucuronidase rich granules. Antibacterial activity was present in four of the five cell fractions which this work produced. These results are significant because they differ from those obtained with rabbits and because they directly influence future experimental design and interpretation, in attempts to analyze antibacterial, scavenging, and inflammatory capacities of human PMN. Since lysosomes differ physically, biochemically, and morphologically, they may well differ with respect to their function in the PMN. Images

Welsh, I. R. H.; Spitznagel, J. K.



Chlamydiae and polymorphonuclear leukocytes: Unlikely allies in the spread of chlamydial infection  

PubMed Central

While much is known about the attachment of the chlamydiae to the host cell and intracellular events during the developmental cycle, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which elementary bodies exit the cell. In this report, we use the guinea pig conjunctival model of Chlamydia caviae infection to present in vivo ultrastructural evidence supporting two mechanisms for release of chlamydiae from the mucosal epithelia. Four days after infection, histopathologic observation shows an intense infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the conjunctival epithelium. By transmission electron microscopy, a gradient-directed PMN response to chlamydiae-infected epithelial cells was observed. As PMN infiltration intensifies, epithelial hemidesmosome/integrin/focal adhesion adherence with the basal lamina is disconnected and PMNs literally lift off and release infected superficial epithelia from the mucosa. Many of these infected cells appear to be healthy with intact microvilli, nuclei, and mitochondria. While lysis of some infected cells occurs with release of chlamydiae into the extracellular surface milieu, the majority of infected cells are pushed off the epithelium. We propose that PMNs play an active role in detaching infected cells from the epithelium and that these infected cells eventually die releasing organisms but, in the process move to new tissue sites via fluid dynamics.

Rank, Roger G.; Whittimore, Judy; Bowlin, Anne K; Dessus-Babus, Sophie; Wyrick, Priscilla B.



Restraint of spreading-dependent activation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte NADPH oxidase in an acidified environment.  


Elucidation of the mechanisms by which environmental pH affects or regulates the functions of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) is important because severe acidification of the microenvironment often prevails at sites of inflammation where they act in host defense. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an acidic environment on spreading-dependent activation of O2- -producing NADPH oxidase in PMNs. We found that PMNs underwent spreading spontaneously over type I collagen and plastic surfaces at both neutral and acidic pH, although spreading over fibrinogen surfaces, for which cellular stimulation with H2O2 is required, was inhibited by acidic pH. At acidic pH, however, PMNs were unable to undergo spreading-dependent production of O2-. Pharmacological experiments showed that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was involved in the signaling pathways mediating the spreading-dependent activation of NADPH oxidase, and that its spreading-dependent phosphorylation of Thr-180 and Tyr-182, a hallmark of activation, was impaired at acidic pH. Furthermore, the inhibition by acidic pH of O2- production as well as p38 MAPK phosphorylation subsequent to spreading induction was reversible; environmental neutralization and acidification after induction of spreading at acidic and neutral pH, respectively, up- and down-regulated the two phenomena. Acidic pH did not affect the O2- production activity of NADPH oxidase pre-activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). These results suggest that, in PMNs, the p38 MAPK-mediated signaling pathway functions as a pH-sensing regulator of spreading-dependent NADPH oxidase activation. PMID:22371970

Suzuki, Kingo; Namiki, Hideo



In Vivo Ultrastructural Analysis of the Intimate Relationship between Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and the Chlamydial Developmental Cycle ?  

PubMed Central

We utilized a recently developed model of intracervical infection with Chlamydia muridarum in the mouse to elicit a relatively synchronous infection during the initial developmental cycle in order to examine at the ultrastructural level the development of both the chlamydial inclusion and the onset of the inflammatory response. At 18 h after infection, only a few elementary bodies attached to cells were visible, as were an occasional intracellular intermediate body and reticulate body. By 24 h, inclusions had 2 to 5 reticulate bodies and were beginning to fuse. A few polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were already present in the epithelium in the vicinity of and directly adjacent to infected cells. By 30 h, the inclusions were larger and consisted solely of reticulate bodies, but by 36 to 42 h, they contained intermediate bodies and elementary bodies as well. Many PMNs were adjacent to or actually inside infected cells. Chlamydiae appeared to exit the cell either (i) through disintegration of the inclusion membrane and rupture of the cell, (ii) by dislodgement of the cell from the epithelium by PMNs, or (iii) by direct invasion of the infected cell by the PMNs. When PMNs were depleted, the number of released elementary bodies was significantly greater as determined both visually and by culture. Interestingly, depletion of PMNs revealed the presence of inclusions containing aberrant reticulate bodies, reminiscent of effects seen in vitro when chlamydiae are incubated with gamma interferon. In vivo evidence for the contact-dependent development hypothesis, a potential mechanism for triggering the conversion of reticulate bodies to elementary bodies, and for translocation of lipid droplets into the inclusion is also presented.

Rank, Roger G.; Whittimore, Judy; Bowlin, Anne K.; Wyrick, Priscilla B.



Stimulation of phosphorylcholine turnover and diacylglycerol production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Novel assay for phosphorylcholine.  

PubMed Central

Receptor-bypassing stimulants of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), such as ionomycin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), generate an increase in diacylglycerol (DAG) which is independent of a phospholipase C specific for phosphatidylinositol 4,5,-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of a phospholipase C specific for phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been implicated as a source of DAG in other cells by measuring the release of radiolabelled phosphorylcholine. However, since PMNLs could not be labelled sufficiently with [3H]choline, we developed an h.p.l.c. assay to quantify mass levels of phosphorylcholine after enzymic conversion to [32P]CDP-choline with CTP-phosphorylcholine (choline phosphate) cytidylyltransferase (EC This assay was linear to at least 20 nmol, and was sensitive to 10 pmol of phosphorylcholine. Baseline phosphorylcholine levels in unstimulated PMNLs were 2300 +/- 510 pmol/10(7) cells and were decreased by pretreatment with PMA (166 nM) or ionomycin (1 microM) for 10 min by 360 +/- 130 and 600 +/- 290 pmol/10(7) cells respectively (P less than 0.05). In contrast, baseline DAG levels were 147.6 +/- 11.7 pmol/10(7) cells in unstimulated PMNLs, and were increased by PMA or ionomycin by 1320 +/- 222 and 1891 +/- 264 pmol/10(7) cells respectively (P less than 0.05). Similarly, the chemoattractant fMet-Leu-Phe raised DAG levels by 731 +/- 111 pmol/10(7) cells and decreased phosphorylcholine levels by 180 +/- 60 pmol/10(7) cells. Activation of PMNLs by PMA, ionophore or fMet-Leu-Phe thus leads to the sustained production of DAG accompanied by the disappearance of phosphorylcholine. This suggests that these stimulants enhance PC turnover via a hydrolytic mechanism which is independent of phospholipase C, with activation of a PC-specific phospholipase D being a plausible mechanism.

Truett, A P; Snyderman, R; Murray, J J



Function of milk polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes in bovine mammary glands infected with Corynebacterium bovis.  


Corynebacterium bovis is one of the most commonly isolated bacteria from aseptically collected bovine milk samples. The objective of the current study was to characterize the bovine innate immune response by evaluating milk polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL) in mammary glands infected with C. bovis. Twenty quarters infected with C. bovis and 28 culture-negative quarters (with milk somatic cell count <1×10(5) cells/mL) were used. The percentages of milk PMNL and the PMNL expression of L-selectin (CD62L), ?2-integrin (CD11b), and one of the endothelial-selectin ligands (CD44), as well as the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus, were evaluated by flow cytometry. The apoptosis and necrosis rates of the PMNL were quantified using dual-color flow cytometry with fluorescein-labeled annexin and propidium iodide. The present study revealed a higher percentage of PMNL in the milk from C. bovis-infected quarters, although no significant differences were found in levels of CD44, CD62L, or CD11b expression among the PMNL. A lower percentage of apoptotic PMNL was observed in C. bovis-infected quarters, as well as higher percentages of viable PMNL and of PMNL that produced intracellular ROS. However, no alterations were observed in phagocytosis of Staph. aureus by the PMNL or in intensity of intracellular ROS production by PMNL. Thus, results from this investigation of the PMNL function support, at least in part, the fact that intramammary infections by C. bovis may offer protection against intramammary infections by other bacteria. PMID:23608489

Blagitz, M G; Souza, F N; Santos, B P; Batista, C F; Parra, A C; Azevedo, L F F; Melville, P A; Benites, N R; Della Libera, A M M P



Role of Yersinia pestis Toxin Complex Family Proteins in Resistance to Phagocytosis by Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Yersinia pestis carries homologues of the toxin complex (Tc) family proteins, which were first identified in other Gram-negative bacteria as having potent insecticidal activity. The Y. pestis Tc proteins are neither toxic to fleas nor essential for survival of the bacterium in the flea, even though tc gene expression is highly upregulated and much more of the Tc proteins YitA and YipA are produced in the flea than when Y. pestis is grown in vitro. We show that Tc+ and Tc? Y. pestis strains are transmitted equivalently from coinfected fleas, further demonstrating that the Tc proteins have no discernible role, either positive or negative, in transmission by the flea vector. Tc proteins did, however, confer Y. pestis with increased resistance to killing by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Resistance to killing was not the result of decreased PMN viability or increased intracellular survival but instead correlated with a Tc protein-dependent resistance to phagocytosis that was independent of the type III secretion system (T3SS). Correspondingly, we did not detect T3SS-dependent secretion of the native Tc proteins YitA and YipA or the translocation of YitA– or YipA–?-lactamase fusion proteins into CHO-K1 (CHO) cells or human PMNs. Thus, although highly produced by Y. pestis within the flea and related to insecticidal toxins, the Tc proteins do not affect interaction with the flea or transmission. Rather, the Y. pestis Tc proteins inhibit phagocytosis by mouse PMNs, independent of the T3SS, and may be important for subverting the mammalian innate immune response immediately following transmission from the flea.

Carmody, Aaron B.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph



Release of leukotriene A4 versus leukotriene B4 from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


The reactive intermediate formed by 5-lipoxygenase metabolism of arachidonic acid, leukotriene A4, is known to be released from cells and subsequently taken up by other cells for biochemical processing. The objective of this study was to determine the relative amount of leukotriene A4 synthesized by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) that is available for transcellular biosynthetic processes. This was accomplished by diluting cell suspensions and measuring the relative amounts of enzymatic versus nonenzymatic leukotriene A4-derived metabolites after challenge with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Nonenzymatic leukotriene A4-derived metabolites were used as a quantitative index of the amount of leukotriene A4 released into the extracellular milieu. The results obtained demonstrated that in human PMNL, the relative amounts of nonenzymatic versus enzymatic leukotriene A4-derived metabolites increased with decreasing cell concentrations. After a 20-fold dilution of PMNL in cell preparations, a doubling in the amount of nonenzymatic leukotriene A4-derived metabolites was observed following challenge (from 53.9 +/- 1.3 to 110.4 +/- 8.9 pmol/10(6) PMNL, p < 0.01). Reduction of possible cell-cell interactions by dilution suggested that over 50% of leukotriene A4 synthesized is released from the PMNL. These data provide evidence that, in human PMNL preparations, transfer of leukotriene A4 to neighboring PMNL is taking place, resulting in additional formation of leukotriene B4 and its omega-oxidized metabolites 20-hydroxy- and 20-carboxy-leukotriene B4. Neutrophil reuptake of extracellular leukotriene A4 leads to an underestimation of the fraction of leukotriene A4 that is in fact available for transcellular metabolism when tight cell-cell interactions occur, such as during PMNL adhesion to the microvascular endothelium and diapedesis. PMID:8663438

Sala, A; Bolla, M; Zarini, S; Müller-Peddinghaus, R; Folco, G



Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to Killing by Human Complement and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes?  

PubMed Central

Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis. 195:375-386, 2007). Here, we analyze their sensitivity to the innate immune system. Bacteria from the archetype strain Cc5 were highly resistant to killing by complement. There was little membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition in spite of C3b deposition. Cc5 bacteria were as resistant to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as Yersinia enterocolitica MRS40, endowed with an antiphagocytic type III secretion system. We isolated Y1C12, a transposon mutant that is hypersensitive to killing by complement via the antibody-dependent classical pathway. The mutation inactivated a putative glycosyltransferase gene, suggesting that the Y1C12 mutant was affected at the level of a capsular polysaccharide or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. Cc5 appeared to have several polysaccharidic structures, one being altered in Y1C12. The structure missing in Y1C12 could be purified by classical LPS purification procedures and labeled by tritiated palmitate, indicating that it is more likely to be an LPS structure than a capsule. Y1C12 bacteria were also more sensitive to phagocytosis by PMNs than wild-type bacteria. In conclusion, a polysaccharide structure, likely an LPS, protects C. canimorsus from deposition of the complement MAC and from efficient phagocytosis by PMNs.

Shin, Hwain; Mally, Manuela; Meyer, Salome; Fiechter, Chantal; Paroz, Cecile; Zaehringer, Ulrich; Cornelis, Guy R.



Specific binding, internalization, and degradation of human neutrophil activating factor by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of {sup 125}I-labeled recombinant human neutrophil activating factor (NAF) with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was studied by means of a radioreceptor assay. The binding was characterized by a rapid transition (t1/2 less than or equal to 1 min) from a pH 3-sensitive state at 4{degree}C to pH 3 resistance at 37{degree}C. This was not caused by internalization of NAF since pH 3-resistant bound iodinated NAF could still be exchanged by an excess of nonlabeled NAF, i.e. was dissociable. Internalized iodinated NAF was processed into trichloroacetic acid-soluble forms. Scatchard transformation of binding isotherms at 4 and 37{degree}C led to nonlinear curves, a finding which is consistent with the expression of two receptor populations, one with high (KD = 11-35 pM) and the other with lower affinity (KD = 640-830 pM) at 4 degrees C. Numbers of the low affinity binding sites were approximately 34,000, and those with high affinity were 5,200/PMN when estimated at 4 degrees C. Binding of iodinated NAF to PMN was specific since it could be competed by an excess of nonlabeled NAF but not by two other activators of PMN function, formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine or human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. In addition to human PMN, NAF also bound specifically to two human monocytic cell lines; however, only the low affinity binding site could be detected on these cells.

Besemer, J.; Hujber, A.; Kuhn, B. (Sandoz Forschungsinstitut, Vienna (Austria))



Electrochemical detection of nitric oxide production in human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes.  


The detection of nitric oxide (NO) release by human polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNs) presents several difficulties, mainly due to concomitant production of O2- and H2O2, which could interfere with the measurements. A Nafion and nickel porphyrin-coated microelectrode was used to measure NO production in PMNs in vitro. It allowed detection of 6.3 +/- 1.9 nM NO in a PMN-containing system and was unaffected by added chemicals. Addition of the chemotactic oligopeptide f-met-leu-phe (fMLP; 100 nM) induced a NO release which reached a value of 71 +/- 30 pmol NO/10(6) PMN x ml(-1) 5 min after stimulation in the presence of SOD (150 U/ml). If SOD was omitted, the corresponding value was 36 +/- 20 pmol NO/10(6) PMN x ml(-1). Presence or absence of catalase did not alter the amount of NO measured. Addition of the NO-synthase inhibitor N(G)-monomethyl-L-arginine (LNMMA; 1 mM) reduced the current by 82 +/- 20%. These results agree with the rate of NO production in human PMNs when measured spectrophotometrically using the NO-dependent oxidation of oxyhaemoglobin to methaemoglobin. The NO production in human PMN was dependent on fMLP concentrations, but independent of cell-concentrations of 0.5-3.5 x 10(6)/ml. This paper shows that a electrochemical method, e.g. Nafion and porphyrin-coated microelectrode, is suitable for studies of NO release from stimulated human PMNs. PMID:10533848

Lärfars, G; Lantoine, F; Devynck, M A; Gyllenhammar, H



Effect of piliation on interactions of Haemophilus influenzae type b with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Piliated, adherent (P+) and nonpiliated, nonadherent (P-) strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) were compared with respect to their ability to induce polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemiluminescence (CL) and superoxide (O2-) generation and their susceptibility to phagocytosis by PMNs. P+ strains opsonized in normal human serum (NHS) induced significantly greater CL than did P- strains (500 X 10(5) +/- 112 X 10(5) versus 242 X 10(5) +/- 65 X 10(5) total counts per 60 min; P less than 0.001) when reacted with normal PMNs. Contributions of immunoglobulin and complement to CL activity in these mixtures were shown by findings of lower overall levels of CL when hypogammaglobulinemic serum or heat-inactivated NHS was used to opsonize either P+ or P- organisms. Results obtained with mixtures of hypogammaglobulinemic plus adsorbed heat-inactivated NHS (with P+ or P- organisms) suggested a role for an antipilus antibody in the enhancement of CL by these strains. NHS-opsonized P+ strains also induced significantly greater (P less than 0.002) O2- generation than did P- strains (2.83 +/- 0.08 versus 1.94 +/- 0.14 nmol of ferricytochrome c reduced per 10 min/10(6) PMN). Comparable ingestion of P+ or P- strains opsonized in NHS by PMNs was demonstrated by a radiolabeled uptake technique and transmission electron microscopy, and primary granule release (beta-glucuronidase) was comparable during ingestion of P+ or P- strains. The basis for the observed enhanced capacity of P+ Hib to stimulate PMN oxidative metabolism as compared with P- organisms is uncertain. Possible clinical implications of these findings deserve further study. Images

Tosi, M F; Anderson, D C; Barrish, J; Mason, E O; Kaplan, S L



Bactericidal capacity of phorbol myristate acetate-treated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Thus far, the functional capacity of phorbol myristate acetate- (PMA)-treated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes has been undefined. PMA induced exocytosis of lactoferrin, the specific granule marker, but not of myeloperoxidase, the azurophil granule marker. This phenomenon was demonstrated both biochemically and with fluorescent antibody conjugates. PMA-treated neutrophils contained virtually no specific granules when viewed by electron microscopy. Separation of the granule classes by linear sucrose density gradient centrifugation revealed the loss, from PMA-treated neutrophils, of lactoferrin and the specific granule (D20(20) = 1.89) band usually resolved from normal neutrophils. Cells treated with PMA appeared to retain those functions normally associated with intraleukocytic microbicidal action. The hexose monophosphate shunt activated by phagocytic challenge was present in PMA-treated neutrophils. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the azurophil granules of these cells appeared intact, and they retained the capacity for degranulation with translocation of myeloperoxidase to the site of phagocytized Escherichia coli. The PMA-treated neutrophils also remained capable of degrading the ingested microorganisms. PMA-treated neutrophils exhibited a decrease in phagocytic ability at all levels of bacterial challenge. In the presence of a high multiplicity of bacteria they demonstrated an impairment in killing. These same cells were able to kill low multiplicities of E. coli as well as control cells. It thus appeared that the loss of the specific granules, plus other undefined PMA-induced alterations, impaired neither the viability of these neutrophils nor their killing ability in the presence of a modest phagocytic challenge. Images

Wang-Iverson, P; Pryzwansky, K B; Spitznagel, J K; Cooney, M H



An apoptosis-differentiation program in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes facilitates resolution of inflammation.  


Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are an essential part of innate immunity and contribute significantly to inflammation. Although much is understood about the inflammatory response, the molecular basis for termination of inflammation in humans is largely undefined. We used human oligonucleotide microarrays to identify genes differentially regulated during the onset of apoptosis occurring after PMN phagocytosis. Genes encoding proteins that regulate cell metabolism and vesicle trafficking comprised 198 (98 genes induced, 100 genes repressed) of 867 differentially expressed genes. We discovered that complex cellular pathways involving glutathione and thioredoxin detoxification systems, heme catabolism, ubiquitin-proteasome degradation, purine nucleotide metabolism, and nuclear import were regulated at the level of gene expression during the initial stages of PMN apoptosis. Eleven genes encoding key regulators of glycolysis, the hexose monophosphate shunt, the glycerol-phosphate shuttle, and oxidative phosphorylation were induced. Increased levels of cellular reduced glutathione and gamma-glutamyltransferase and glycolytic activity confirmed that several of these metabolic pathways were up-regulated. In contrast, seven genes encoding critical enzymes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation, which can generate toxic lipid peroxides, were down-regulated. Our results indicate that energy metabolism and oxidative stress-response pathways are gene-regulated during PMN apoptosis. We propose that changes in PMN gene expression leading to programmed cell death are part of an apoptosis-differentiation program, a final stage of transcriptionally regulated PMN maturation that is accelerated significantly by phagocytosis. These findings provide new insight into the molecular events that contribute to the resolution of inflammation in humans. PMID:12554809

Kobayashi, Scott D; Voyich, Jovanka M; Somerville, Greg A; Braughton, Kevin R; Malech, Harry L; Musser, James M; DeLeo, Frank R



Formylpeptide Receptor Single Nucleotide Polymorphism 348T>C and Its Relationship to Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Aggressive Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Background Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is associated with impaired polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis toward bacterial N-formylpeptides. Formylpeptide receptors (FPRs) play a major role in guiding PMNs to infection sites. Previous work revealed a significant association between FPR1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 348T>C and AgP in African Americans. We tested the hypothesis that 348T impairs PMN chemotaxis by decreasing FPR mRNA expression, thereby increasing susceptibility to AgP. Methods Blood samples were obtained from African American subjects (37 AgP cases and 38 controls). Chemotaxis to N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe by freshly isolated PMNs was assayed in a modified Boyden chamber. RNA was isolated from PMNs and FPR1 gene expression was quantified by real time PCR. To detect FPR1 5’ SNPs, genomic DNA was isolated and four fragments spanning the FPR1 5’ region were PCR-amplified and sequenced. Haplotype associations between SNP 348T>C and 5’ SNPs were analyzed. Results The homozygous 348T genotype was only found in AgP cases (P=0.017, odds ratio=18.9). Subjects with this genotype exhibited a significantly lower PMN chemotactic response relative to controls and to subjects with the 348C/C or 348T/C genotypes (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in PMN FPR1 expression between subjects with the 348C/C, 348C/T and 348 T/T genotypes. Eleven FPR1 5’ SNPs were detected, but none of the predicted haplotypes reflected associations with AgP or with 348T. Conclusions Although the 348T/T genotype is relatively rare, it is associated with significantly impaired PMN chemotaxis and an increased risk of developing AgP in African Americans. These associations do not appear to be related to significant reductions in FPR1 transcripts in subjects expressing 348T.

Maney, Pooja; Walters, John D.



Benidipine, an anti-hypertensive drug, inhibits reactive oxygen species production in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and oxidative stress in salt-loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.  


Oxidative stress is associated with exacerbation of renal injuries in hypertension. In clinical studies benidipine hydrochloride (benidipine), a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with antioxidant activity, reduced oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of suppression of oxidative stress remains to be fully characterized. Reactive oxygen species production by polymorphonuclear leukocyte plays important pathological roles in hypertension. Therefore, we examined the effects of benidipine both on reactive oxygen species production of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and oxidative stress of an animal model. Human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes or polymorphonuclear leukocyte-like differentiated HL-60 cells were used to examine effects of benidipine (0.1-30 microM) on formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced reactive oxygen species production, calcium mobilization, NADPH oxidase activation and phosphorylation of protein kinase C substrates. High-salt (8% NaCl) loaded stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with or without benidipine (1, 3, 10 mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a plasma oxidative stress marker, and renal expression of oxidative stress-induced genes were measured. Benidipine concentration-dependently suppressed formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-induced reactive oxygen species production in polymorphonuclear leukocytes more potently than other calcium channel blockers such as amlodipine, azelnidipine, nitrendipine and nifedipine. Benidipine partially inhibited all of intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, protein kinase C activation and NADPH oxidase activation. Salt loading in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats augmented plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels; renal dysfunction; and renal expression of transforming growth factor-beta, collagen I and collagen III mRNAs; which were attenuated by benidipine treatment. These results indicate that benidipine prevents the polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived reactive oxygen species production, which is due at least in part to its antioxidant action and inhibition of Ca(2+)/protein kinase C/NADPH oxidase signaling. The attenuation of reactive oxygen species production might contribute to the drug's reduction of oxidative stress and renal injuries in hypertension. PMID:18048030

Matsubara, Masahiro; Akizuki, Osamu; Ikeda, Jun-ichi; Saeki, Koji; Yao, Kozo; Sasaki, Katsutoshi



Stimulus specificity of prostaglandin inhibition of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysosomal enzyme release and superoxide anion production.  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandins (PGs) of the E series and PGI2 have been shown to inhibit acute inflammatory reactions in vivo and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), chemotaxis, lysosomal enzyme release, and superoxide anion (O-2) production in vitro. This inhibition of neutrophil stimulation by PGEs and PGI2 has been correlated with their ability to increase intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. However, the mechanism(s) by which PGEs and PGI2 alter the complex biochemical and biophysical events associated with stimulus-response coupling in the neutrophil are not clear. It is reported here that both PGEs and PGI2 in micromolar concentrations inhibit formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)- and zymosan-induced lysosomal enzyme secretion and superoxide anion production in a dose-dependent manner. No preincubation time of PMNs with the prostaglandins is required for inhibition. Addition of PGEs 10 seconds or later after FMLP stimulation does not alter the biologic response of the neutrophils to the stimulus, suggesting that the prostaglandin inhibition effects early events associated with stimulus-response coupling in the neutrophil. Prostaglandin inhibition of lysosomal enzyme release by the calcium ionophore A23187 was overcome by increasing the extracellular ionophore and/or calcium concentration, suggesting that PGs may modulate intracellular free calcium levels in a manner similar to that observed with platelets. Inhibition of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced neutrophil lysosomal enzyme secretion by PGEs and PGI2 was overcome by increasing concentrations of PMA. However, neither PGEs nor PGI2 altered O-2 production by PMA-treated neutrophils. These data indicate a dissociation between PMA-stimulated O-2 production and lysosomal enzyme release. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that inhibition of neutrophil stimulation by PGEs and PGI2 is a result of increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels and modulation of calcium-dependent events. In addition, the data indicate that there are at least two mechanisms by which PMNs can be stimulated to produce O-2, one inhibited by PGEs and PGI2 and a second independent of prostaglandin modulation.

Fantone, J. C.; Marasco, W. A.; Elgas, L. J.; Ward, P. A.



Acute Phase Protein Response and Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Cathepsin G Release After Slow Interleukin-1 Stimulation in the Rat  

PubMed Central

In this work we have studied the acute phase protein response and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vivo in the rat after a slow interleukin-1? stimulation. A total dose of 1 ?g, 2 ?g, 4 ?g and 0 ?g (controls with only vehicle) of interleukin-1? was released from osmotic minipumps over a period of 7 days. The pumps were implanted subcutaneously. A cystic formation was formed around the pumps that contained interleukin-1? whereas no tissue reaction was seen around pumps containing only vehicle. Besides flbroblasts the cyst wall contained numerous polymorphonuclear leukocytes which were positively stained for cathespin G. ?2-macroglobulin, ?1-inhtbitor-3, ?1-proteinase inhibitor, albumin and C3 were measured by electroimmunoassay and all showed plasma concentration patterns that were dose-dependent to the amount of interleuktn-1? released. Fibrinogen in plasma was elevated in the control group but showed decreased plasma values with higher doses of interleukin-1? released. All animals showed increased plasma levels of cathespin G but the lowest levels for cathespin G were seen for the highest interleukin-1? dose released. It was clearly seen that a slow continuous release of interleukin-1? in vivo caused an inflammatory reaction. Plasma levels for the proteins analysed all showed a similar pattern, namely an initial increase or decrease of plasma concentration followed by a tendency to normalization of plasma values. It was concluded that a long-term interleukin-1? release could not sustain the acute phase protein response elicited by the initial interleukin-1? release.

Gudmundsson, Thorarinn; Ohlsson, Kjell



A wild and an attenuated strain of Francisella tularensis differ in susceptibility to hypochlorous acid: a possible explanation of their different handling by polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported that a wild strain of Francisella tularensis is much less efficiently killed by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes than is an attenuated strain. In the present study, the killing of the attenuated strain was found to be strictly oxygen dependent. The wild and the attenuated strains both induced a respiratory burst in the leukocytes. The difference between the strains in susceptibility to agents produced at the burst could be explained by a difference in susceptibility to hypochlorous acid.

Lofgren, S; Tarnvik, A; Thore, M; Carlsson, J



In vitro selection of human cytomegalovirus variants unable to transfer virus and virus products from infected cells to polymorphonuclear leukocytes and to grow in endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) isolates from different clinical sources were extensively propagated in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF). Plaque isolates from each of the four virus strains were evaluated for their ability to be transferred to polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and to grow in endothelial cells (EC). While all four of the clinical strains were found to be both PMNL- and

M. Grazia Revello; Fausto Baldanti; Elena Percivalle; Antonella Sarasini; Luciana De-Giuli; Emilia Genini; Daniele Lilleri; Nazarena Labo; Giuseppe Gerna


Comparison of the antioxidant properties of wound dressing materials–carboxymethylcellulose, hyaluronan benzyl ester and hyaluronan, towards polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived reactive oxygen species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In chronic wounds, factors are released which perpetuate inflammatory processes, including polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radical (O2?) and hydroxyl radical (OH) species. The glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, has established antioxidant properties towards ROS, although the antioxidant potential of wound dressing biomaterials, such as 75% benzyl esterified hyaluronan (BEHA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMCH), are less characterised. This study

R. Moseley; M. Walker; R. J. Waddington; W. Y. J. Chen



Macrophages are stimulated by muramyl dipeptide to induce polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation in the peritoneal cavities of guinea pigs.  

PubMed Central

N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-D-isoglutamine (muramyl dipeptide [MDP]) injected intraperitoneally significantly increased the number of cells entering the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs primed with liquid paraffin or thioglycollate. There was a close relationship between peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation and the uptake of glucosamine by macrophages in guinea pigs treated with a variety of bacterial cell surface components such as cell wall peptidoglycan subunits and bacterial or synthetic lipid A. The PMN accumulation was also facilitated by the intraperitoneal transfer of the peritoneal macrophages that had been stimulated by MDP in vitro. Furthermore, cell-free lavage fluids taken from the peritoneum of MDP-treated guinea pigs also initiated the influx of PMNs when introduced into the peritoneal cavities of liquid paraffin-pretreated guinea pigs. These results suggest that a soluble factor which attracts neutrophils is produced by MDP-treated macrophages. Partial characterization of the factor is described.

Nagao, S; Nakanishi, M; Kutsukake, H; Yagawa, K; Kusumoto, S; Shiba, T; Tanaka, A; Kotani, S



Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))



The Effects of IB4, a Monoclonal Antibody to the CD18 Leukocyte Integrin on Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA)Induced Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte (PMN) Accumulation and Endothelial Injury in Rabbit Lungs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of acute lung injury induced by intravenous phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is described. The model is characterized by the accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and a hemorrhagic edema in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid when measured 6 h following the administration of PMA (60 µg\\/kg, i.v.). It was also determined that PMA induces acute leukopenia and neutropenia which were

R. D. Meurer; M. J. Forrest; D. E. Macintyre



Promotion of DNA strand breaks in cocultured mononuclear leukocytes by protein kinase C-dependent prooxidative interactions of benoxaprofen, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

At concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and greater the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug benoxaprofen caused dose-related activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Benoxaprofen-mediated activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence by PMNL was increased by UV radiation and was particularly sensitive to inhibition by the selective protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. To identify the molecular mechanism of the prooxidative activity of benoxaprofen, the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on the activity of purified protein kinase C in a cell-free system were investigated. Benoxaprofen caused a dose-related activation of protein kinase C by interaction with the binding site for the physiological activator phosphatidylserine, but could not replace diacylglycerol. When autologous mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were cocultured with PMNL and benoxaprofen in combination, but not individually, the frequency of DNA strand breaks in MNL was markedly increased. UV radiation significantly potentiated damage to DNA mediated by benoxaprofen and PMNL. Inclusion of superoxide dismutase, H-7, and, to a much lesser extent, catalase during exposure of MNL to benoxaprofen-activated PMNL prevented oxidant damage to DNA. These results clearly demonstrate that potentially carcinogenic prooxidative interactions, which are unlikely to be detected by conventional assays of mutagenicity, may occur between phagocytes, UV radiation, and certain pharmacological agents.

Schwalb, G.; Beyers, A.D.; Anderson, R.; Nel, A.E.



Nongenomic effect of thyroid hormone on free-radical production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years increasing evidence has suggested the nongenomic effects of thyroid hormone, such as the activation of the signal transduction pathways and the activation of nuclear factor-B by the induction of oxidat- ive stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of thyroid hormone on human polymorpho- nuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) which are known as import-

E Mezosi; J Szabo; E V Nagy; A Borbely; E Varga; G Paragh; Z Varga



Cytoplasmic pH-dependent spreading of polymorphonuclear leukocytes: Regulation by pH of PKC subcellular distribution and F-actin assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytoplasmic pH (pHi) plays an important role in the regulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) spreading, but the molecular mechanisms involved have long been obscure. In the present study, we investigated the pH-dependence of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced PMN spreading. A change in pHi alone did not induce spreading, but cytoplasmic alkalinization promoted the spreading induced by PMA, whereas acidification inhibited

Kingo Suzuki; Hideo Namiki



Calcium-dependent and -independent Tumoricidal Activities of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Induced by a Linear \\/?-1,3-o- Glucan and Phorbol Myristate Acetate in Mice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some antitumor immunomodulators, such as a linear \\/3-1,3-o- glucan from Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes IFO 13140 (TAK), induce potent tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In the present study we investigated the role of calcium on the tumoricidal activity of PMNs induced by im munomodulators, especially TAK. The calcium chelator ethylene glycol bisGS-aminoethylether)-\\/V,A\\/,A\\/',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) almost completely inhibited TAK-induced PMN

Kaoru Morikawa; Tomoe Noguchi; Masatoshi Yamazaki


Difference in Changes of Membrane Fluidity of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Stimulated With Phorbol Myristate Acetate and Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine: Role of Excited Oxygen Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl phenylalanmne (FMLP) to clarify the role of excited oxygen species in inducing changes of membrane fluidity. Membrane fluidity was as- sessed by the excimer-forming lipid technique using pyrenedecanoic acid and flow cy- tometry. Membrane fluidity of PMN decreased following stimulation with PMA, and the extent of decrease was

Midori Masuda; Yutaka Komiyama; Takashi Murakami; Kenjiro Murata; Masafumi Hasui; Yoichi Hirabayashi; Yohnosuke Kobayashi


Oxygen metabolites induced by phorbol myristate acetate increase lateral diffusion of wheat germ agglutinin-labeled glycoconjugates in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the general effects of protein kinase C (PKC) activation on cell membrane receptor mobility in human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), the lateral diffusion of fluoresceinated succinylated wheat germ agglutinin (S-WGA-FITC)-labeled membrane glycoconjugates was measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). Activation of PKC was achieved by incubating the PMNLs with different concentrations (5–100 nM) of phorbol myristate acetate

Birgitta Johansson; Karl-Eric Magnusson



Induction of Tumoricidal Activity of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes by a Linear 0-1,3-D-Glucan and Other Immunomodulators in Murine Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cytotoxic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) against tumor cells induced in vitro by antitumor immunomodu- lators was examined by a 51Crrelease cytotoxicity assay. Among 28 immunomodulators and other agents thus far tested, only ß- 1,3-glucan from Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes IFO 13140, Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, Propionibacterium acnes, zymosan A, and Nocardia cell wall skeleton were found to cause induction. The

Kaoru Morikawa; Reiko Takeda; Masatoshi Yamazaki


[Why remove leukocytes from labile blood products in 1995?].  


During the last 15 years, the techniques to prepare leukocyte-poor cellular blood components greatly improved, as well as our knowledge about the role of leukocytes in many adverse effects of transfusion. These two facts favor the extension of indication of leukocyte-poor blood components. Leukocytes in blood components may be detrimental to their storage, due to their metabolic needs and to their progressive lysis, leading to the release of cytokines. Leukocytes are the exclusive vector in blood of CMV and HTLV viruses. Leukocytes are a key element of the immune modifications induced by transfusion. HLA alloimmunization is favored by the transfusion of large quantities of leukocytes HLA different from the recipient whose immune functions are intact. Conversely, the risk of transfusion associated graft versus host disease is dependent of the transfusion of mature T lymphocytes sharing a partial identity with the recipient, and/or an immune deficient status of the recipient. Between these two extremes, many other effects related to the presence of leukocytes in cellular blood components, as are the transfusion effect observed in transplant recipients, the increased risk for bacterial infection after transfusion, the increased risk for tumor recurrence or the reactivation of virus infections, remain to be fully understood. Despite recent significant improvements, further studies, experimental as well as clinical, will be needed to expand the indications of leukocyte-poor blood components. PMID:8640315

Andreu, G; Belhocine, R; Klaren, J; Fretz, C; Lejus, C



Purification and partial sequence of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived lymphocyte proliferation potentiating factor resembling IL-1 beta.  


A rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)-derived lymphocyte proliferation-potentiating factor (PMN factor) was finally purified to homogeneity. PMN factor was released from early inflammatory peritoneal exudate cells (98% of PMN) stimulated with kaolin under roller bottle culture conditions. PMN factor was purified by large sequential scale steps, using membrane-type ion exchangers and gel filtration, followed in this order by HPLC steps with cationic ion exchangers and a hydroxylapatite column. Homogeneity was manifested based on the criteria of a single m.w. 18, 500 band on silver-stained polyacrylamide gel, a superimposable activity on a UV absorbance peak in analytic HPLC gel filtration, and detection of a single amino-terminal sequence. The homogeneous PMN factor had an isoelectric value of 7.2 and an activity of 1.9 x 10(7) U/mg in the thymocyte comitogenic assay. PMN factor stimulated one-half of the maximal response of thymocyte proliferation at 2.8 x 10(-12) M. Because of similarities in the physicochemical properties, specific activity, and amino-terminal sequence between rabbit PMN factor and human IL-1 beta, this PMN factor is therefore considered to be a rabbit IL-1 beta. PMID:3257771

Goto, F; Goto, K; Ohkawara, S; Kitamura, M; Mori, S; Takahashi, H; Sengoku, Y; Yoshinaga, M



Interferon- gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor augment the activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes against medically important zygomycetes.  


Zygomycetes cause serious invasive infections, predominantly in immunocompromised and diabetic patients with poor prognoses and limited therapeutic options. We compared the antifungal function of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) against hyphae of Rhizopus oryzae and R. microsporus, the most frequently isolated zygomycetes, with that against the less frequently isolated Absidia corymbifera. We then evaluated the effects of interferon (IFN)- gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), alone or combined, on PMNL antifungal function against these zygomycetes. Both PMNL oxidative burst in response to hyphae and PMNL-induced hyphal damage were significantly lower in response to Rhizopus species than in response to A. corymbifera. Incubation of PMNLs with IFN- gamma and GM-CSF alone or combined for 22 h increased the PMNL-induced hyphal damage of all 3 species. The treatment of PMNLs with the combination of IFN- gamma and GM-CSF significantly increased the release of tumor necrosis factor- alpha in response to R. microsporus and A. corymbifera hyphae. IFN- gamma significantly reduced interleukin-8 release in response to all zygomycetes. Although Rhizopus species demonstrate a decreased susceptibility to the antifungal activity of human PMNLs, in comparison with A. corymbifera, IFN- gamma and GM-CSF augment the hyphal damage of all 3 zygomycetes, suggesting a role for IFN- gamma and GM-CSF in the management of invasive zygomycosis. PMID:15747255

Gil-Lamaignere, Cristina; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Roilides, Emmanuel; Maloukou, Avgi; Winn, Richard M; Walsh, Thomas J



Purification of the active C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes as a receptor - G sub i complex  

SciTech Connect

The authors have isolated, in an active state, the C5a receptor from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The purification was achieved in a single step using a C5a affinity column in which the C5a molecule was coupled to the resin through its N terminus. The purified receptor, like the crude solubilized molecule, exhibited a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a K{sub d} of 30 pM. Further, the binding of C5a retained its sensitivity to guanine nucleotides, implying that the purified receptor contained a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). SDS/PAGE revealed the presence of three polypeptides with molecular masses of 42, 40, and 36 kDa, which were determined to be the C5a-binding subunit and the {alpha} and {beta} subunits of G{sub i}, respectively. The 36- and 40-kDa polypeptides were identified by immunoblotting and by the ability of pertussis toxin to ADP-ribosylate the 40-kDa molecule. These results confirm their earlier hypothesis that the receptor exists as a complex with a G protein in the presence or absence of C5a. The tight coupling between the receptor and G protein should make possible the identification of the G protein(s) involved in the transduction pathways used by C5a to produce its many biological effects.

Rollins, T.E.; Siciliano, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Cianciarulo, D.N.; Bonilla-Argudo, V.; Collier, K.; Springer, M.S. (Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Lab., Rahway, NJ (United States))



Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.  


Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections. PMID:23165961

An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae



Swift transformation and locomotion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and microglia as observed by VEC-DIC microscopy (video microscopy).  


The detailed assembly used by us for video-enhanced contrast-differential interference contrast (VEC-DIC) microscopy (video microscopy is first described. Employing such video microscopy, we then examined the morphological changes occurring during locomotion and activation processes of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) and microglia at an almost electron microscopic magnification. Upon contacting the substratum, PMNL transformed into a polarized ameboid shape and crawled extending pseudopodia, as has been well documented previously. The PMNL sometimes displayed a peculiar locomotion as if they were stepping on "tiny legs", or sliding on a treadmill of cell membrane. Cultured microglia were observed to exist in 4 forms; ramified, reactive, villous, and ameboid. Microglia in the reactive form pivoted, circled and crawled on the astroglial cell layer using their transparent lamellipodia with no morphological changes in their cell body. Unlike PMNL, reactive microglia exhibited no agitated movements of their intracellular organelles, including granules and cytosol, during locomotion. Lamellipodia on the undersurface of the cell body touching the cell layer adhesively, appeared to serve as the locomotive apparatus. When activated, both floating PMNL and microglia of villous form assumed an ameboid shape within a few seconds. Microglia occasionally swam in the medium waving their lamellipodia towards a target object (e.g. zymosan A particles), remodelling to an amorphous ameboid form and covering up the target. We attempt to discuss such swift morphological changes from the standpoint of thermodynamic potential of Gibbs free energy which is stored within the cells. PMID:8897764

Tomita, M; Fukuuchi, Y; Tanahashi, N; Kobari, M; Takeda, H; Yokoyama, M; Ito, D; Terakawa, S



IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function.

Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang



IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.  


The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function. PMID:20556207

Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang



Solubilization and functional reconstitution of polymorphonuclear leukocyte formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine receptors and guanine nucleotide binding proteins  

SciTech Connect

Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) binds to specific polymorphonuclear leukocyte plasma membrane receptors stimulating chemotaxis and bactericidal responses. One of the initial events of the ligand receptor interaction is a rise in inositol trisphosphate, which triggers intracellular calcium release. The generation of inositol trisphosphate is mediated by the fMLP-activated phospholipase C via a GTP-binding protein (G-protein). In analogy to the adrenergic stimulation of adenylate cyclase, the following signal transduction model has been proposed: The fMLP receptor activates a G-protein which then stimulates phospholipase C to hydrolyse phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate to inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. This work has focused on characterizing the structural and functional coupling fMLP receptor and G-proteins in native membranes, detergent micelles and reconstituted phospholipid vesicles. Tight coupling between the fMLP receptor and G-protein has been demonstrated in both native and solubilized membranes by assaying quanine nucleotide-induced inhibition of (/sup 3/H)fMLP binding and fMLP stimulated GTPase activity.

Williamson, K.C.



Inhibitory effects of bis(2-aminohexyl)disulfide and its analogues on polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions in vitro.  


Water soluble analogues of the anti-inflammatory compound, bis(2-aminopropyl)disulfide dihydrochloride (compd. I) with a butyl (II), phenyl (III), benzyl (IV) or pyrrolidinyl group (V) instead of the methyl group were synthesized, and their effects on the functions of cells related to inflammation were studied in vitro. Compounds II, III and IV showed much higher inhibitory activity than compd. I on formyl Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced O2(-)-generation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and platelet aggregation. Compound II showed the strongest activity among the compounds (IC50 values: 2.6 microM). The inhibition of O2(-)-generation of PMNs by compd. II was the most effective when FMLP was used as a stimulant rather than when phorbol myristate acetate, A-23187 and opsonized zymosan were used. However, compd. II was not an O2(-)-scavenger. Compounds II, III and IV significantly inhibited a series of activation processes in PMNs, chemotaxis, phagocytosis and lysosomal enzyme release at doses ranging from 10 to 100 microM. Under these doses, compds II, III and IV did not affect the histamine release from mast cells or the hemolysis of erythrocytes. These results strongly suggest that the anti-inflammatory action caused by compd. II and its analogues was at least partly due to inhibition of several functions of PMNs and platelets. PMID:1376641

Kohama, Y; Kayamori, Y; Katayama, Y; Teramoto, T; Murayama, N; Tsujikawa, K; Okabe, M; Ohtani, T; Matsukura, T; Mimura, T



Digestive vacuoles of Plasmodium falciparum are selectively phagocytosed by and impair killing function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


Sequestration of parasitized erythrocytes and dysregulation of the coagulation and complement system are hallmarks of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. A link between these events emerged through the discovery that the parasite digestive vacuole (DV), which is released together with infective merozoites into the bloodstream, dually activates the intrinsic clotting and alternative complement pathway. Complement attack occurs exclusively on the membrane of the DVs, and the question followed whether DVs might be marked for uptake by polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). We report that DVs are indeed rapidly phagocytosed by PMNs after schizont rupture in active human serum. Uptake of malaria pigment requires an intact DV membrane and does not occur when the pigment is extracted from the organelle. Merozoites are not opsonized and escape phagocytosis in nonimmune serum. Antimalarial Abs mediate some uptake of the parasites, but to an extent that is not sufficient to markedly reduce reinvasion rates. Phagocytosis of DVs induces a vigorous respiratory burst that drives the cells into a state of functional exhaustion, blunting the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal activity upon challenge with bacterial pathogens. Systemic overloading of PMNs with DVs may contribute to the enhanced susceptibility of patients with severe malaria toward invasive bacterial infections. PMID:21911835

Dasari, Prasad; Reiss, Karina; Lingelbach, Klaus; Baumeister, Stefan; Lucius, Ralph; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Bhakdi, Sebastian Chakrit; Bhakdi, Sucharit



Accelerated apoptosis of blood leukocytes and oxidative stress in blood of patients with major depression.  


Acceleration of blood leukocyte apoptosis in major depression has been described. The present studies have been undertaken to estimate the level of apoptosis of blood leukocytes in patients with depression and to examine the mechanisms leading to apoptosis. Blood was taken from 29 patients with depression (age 48.2+/-11.2, 14 males, 15 females) and 30 healthy controls (age 41.3+/-4.1, 15 males, 15 females), and apoptosis was estimated by the cytometric method by measurements of annexin V binding, mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi), bcl-2, bax, and Fas (CD95) expression in CD4+, CD8+ and CD14+ cells. The amounts of cytochrome c released from mitochondria to cytosol of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) were also measured. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released from PMNs were examined as was the serum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and total peroxidase (PER). Additionally, serum levels of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were estimated. Our experiments indicated accelerated apoptosis of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD14+ cells (mainly neutrophils) of depressed patients as well as a significant increase in the percent of Fas-expressing cells. Bcl-2 and bax expression was higher in cells of depressed patients than in control, however, bcl-2/bax ratio was significantly decreased in CD14+ cells of depressed patients. PMNs isolated from the blood of the patients produced more ROS spontaneously and after induction with phorbol ester (PMA) than PMNs of the healthy control. A significant increase in serum activity of SOD, CAT and PER was also detected. Overproduction of superoxide anion correlated positively with the level of PMNs apoptosis (measured by cytochrome c release), suggesting that superoxide anion might be an important factor inducing apoptotic death of blood cells. The result of our experiment indicated that apoptosis of immune cells may affect patient's susceptibility to different infections and application of antioxidants in medication of patients with depression will be beneficial for them. The increased level of IL-6 in sera of the depressed patients did not correlate with overproduction of ROS, suggesting that this cytokine is not involved in oxidative stress and apoptosis of leukocytes. PMID:18083280

Szuster-Ciesielska, Agnieszka; S?otwi?ska, Maria; Stachura, Anna; Marmurowska-Micha?owska, Halina; Dubas-Slemp, Halina; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Kandefer-Szersze?, Martyna




PubMed Central

In the previous paper we presented findings which indicated that enzyme heterogeneity exists among PMN leukocyte granules. From histochemical staining of bone marrow smears, we obtained evidence that azurophil and specific granules differ in their enzyme content. Moreover, a given enzyme appeared to be restricted to one of the two types. Clear results were obtained with alkaline phosphatase, but those with a number of other enzymes were suggestive rather than conclusive. Since the approach used previously was indirect, it was of interest to localize the enzymes directly in the granules. Toward this end, we carried out cytochemical procedures for five enzymes on normal rabbit bone marrow cells which had been fixed and incubated in suspension. The localization of reaction product in the granules was determined by electron microscopy. In accordance with the results obtained on smears, azurophil granules were found to contain peroxidase and three lysosomal enzymes: acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and 5'-nucleotidase; specific granules were found to contain alkaline phosphate. Specific granules also contained small amounts of phosphatasic activity at acid pH. Another finding was that enzyme activity could not be demonstrated in mature granules with metal salt methods (all except peroxidase); reaction product was seen only in immature granules. The findings confirm and extend those obtained previously, indicating that azurophil granules correspond to lysosomes whereas specific granules represent a different secretory product.

Bainton, Dorothy Ford; Farquhar, Marilyn G.



Comparison of the Histopaque-1119 method with the Plasmagel method for separation of blood leukocytes for cytomegalovirus isolation.  

PubMed Central

Histopaque-1119 (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.) and Plasmagel (Cellular Products, Inc., Buffalo, N.Y.) were compared as density gradient separation reagents for the separation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells from blood from the isolation of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Of 200 peripheral blood specimens examined, CMV was recovered from 51 by both methods. The time of detection of immunofluorescent sites or a cytopathic effect associated with CMV was similar by each method. The Histopaque-1119 method was less time-consuming than the Plasmagel method since it did not require a precentrifugation step for the settling of erythrocytes. The use of Histopaque-1119 will permit an effective alternative single-step method for the separation of blood leukocytes for the isolation of CMV.

Slifkin, M; Cumbie, R



Leukotriene B4 omega-hydroxylase in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Partial purification and identification as a cytochrome P-450.  

PubMed Central

Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) not only synthesize and respond to leukotriene B4 (LTB4), but also catabolize this mediator of inflammation rapidly and specifically by omega-oxidation. To characterize the enzyme(s) responsible for omega-oxidation of LTB4, human PMN were disrupted by sonication and subjected to differential centrifugation to yield membrane, granule, and cytosol fractions (identified by biochemical markers). LTB4 omega-hydroxylase activity was concentrated (together with NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity) only in the membrane fraction (specific activity increased 10-fold as compared to whole sonicates, 41% recovery). Negligible activity was detected in granule or cytosol fractions. LTB4 omega-hydroxylase activity in isolated PMN membranes was linear with respect to duration of incubation and protein concentration, was maximal at pH 7.4, had a Km for LTB4 of 0.6 microM, and was dependent on oxygen and on reduced pyridine nucleotides (apparent Km for NADPH = 0.5 microM; apparent Km for NADH = 223 microM). The LTB4 omega-hydroxylase was inhibited significantly by carbon monoxide, ferricytochrome c, SKF-525A, and Triton X-100, but was not affected by alpha-naphthoflavone, azide, cyanide, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. Finally, isolated PMN membranes exhibited a carbon monoxide difference spectrum with a peak at 452 nm. Thus, we have partially purified the LTB4 omega-hydroxylase in human PMN and identified the enzyme as a membrane-associated, NADPH-dependent cytochrome P-450.

Shak, S; Goldstein, I M



Phorbol myristate acetate modulates calcium ion-dependent superoxide anion generation induced by a monoclonal antibody raised against polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

We used a monoclonal antibody, YI 51, raised against human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) to induce superoxide anion (O2-) generation in cells. Although YI 51 alone played only a small part in inducing O2- generation in PMN, the amount of O2- generation induced in 5 X 10(5) PMN was 3.7 to 5.5 nmol/min when F(ab')2 fragments of rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin antibody were added as a cross-linking agent. This O2- -inducing activity was high compared with that of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), insoluble immunoglobulin G immune complexes (IC), or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The binding of YI 51 and soluble immunoglobulin G IC to PMN was not reciprocally inhibitory, indicating that YI 51 does not interfere with ligand binding to the Fc receptor-binding site. In the absence of calcium ion (Ca2+), O2- generation induced by YI 51 decreased to 10 to 20% of that in the presence of Ca2+. In contrast, O2- generation in response to WGA, IC, or PMA under Ca2+-free conditions was not affected. When PMN were pretreated with low concentrations of PMA (10(-10) to 10(-9) M), the amount of O2- generation by the cells in response to YI 51 in Ca2+-free buffer was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. It also equaled the O2- generated by the cells in buffer containing Ca2+. In cells pretreated with PMA, the amount of O2- induced by WGA was enhanced two- to threefold over that in untreated cells. In contrast, there was no augmentation over untreated cells with stimulation by IC. These results suggest that YI 51, IC, and WGA induce O2- generation in human PMN in different manners.

Ichinose, Y; Hara, N; Ohta, M; Motohiro, A; Kuda, T; Aso, H; Yagawa, K



Gene Expression Analysis of TREM1 and GRK2 in Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes as the Surrogate Biomarkers of Acute Bacterial Infections  

PubMed Central

Objective: In the acute stage of infectious diseases such as pneumonia and sepsis, sequelae hypercytokinemia and cytokine storm are often observed simultaneously. During bacterial infections, activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) cause inflammation and organ dysfunction in severely ill patients. Gene expression of the triggering receptor on myeloid cells (TREM)-1 and G-coupled-protein receptor kinase (GRK)-2 in PMNs isolated from patients was analysed to identify genes correlated with the severity of pathophysiological conditions. Methods: mRNA levels of TREM1 and GRK2 in the PMNs from 26 patients (13 with pneumonia, 5 with severe sepsis, and 8 with septic shock) were analysed by using quantitative real-time PCR. The synthesised soluble form (s)TREM-1 was incubated with normal PMNs to investigate its biological functions in vitro. Results: Copies of TREM1 transcript were 0.7- to 2.1-fold higher in patients with pneumonia compared to those of normal subjects; the average fold-change was 1.1-fold. The mRNA levels of patients suffering from severe sepsis and septic shock were 0.34- and 0.33-fold lower compared to those of healthy subjects, respectively. TREM1 mRNA levels in 5 of 26 patients in convalescent stages recovered to normal levels. The mRNA levels of GRK2 in the PMNs of patients were also downregulated. The synthesised sTREM-1 upregulated the mRNA levels of TREM1 in normal PMNs. Conclusions: TREM1 mRNA levels were inversely correlated with the severity of pathophysiological conditions in acute bacterial infections. The gene expression levels of TREM1 in PMNs isolated from patients with bacterial infections may be used as a surrogate biomarker for determining the severity.

Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Nakano, Ryuichi; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Ono, Yasuo



Functional role of mucoid exopolysaccharide (alginate) in antibiotic-induced and polymorphonuclear leukocyte-mediated killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed Central

We evaluated in vitro the functional role of mucoid exopolysaccharide (MEP) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in blocking antibiotic-induced and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-mediated pseudomonal killing. The serum-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates used were mucoid strain 144MR and its nonmucoid revertant, strain 144NM. By timed kill curves, early bacterial effects of amikacin against mucoid strain 144MR were substantially less than those observed with nonmucoid strain 144NM; this effect was reversible with enzymatic hydrolysis of MEP of strain 144MR by alginase. Also, early tobramycin uptake (15 to 30 min) by mucoid 144MR cells was less than that seen with nonmucoid strain 144NM; pretreatment of 144MR cells with alginase substantially enhanced early tobramycin uptake compared with untreated 144MR cells (P = 0.08). In strain 144NM (but not in strain 114MR) there was a notable postantibiotic leukocidal enhancement effect manifested by increased nonopsonic killing following brief exposure of these cells to supra-MIC amikacin; pretreatment of strain 144MR with alginase rendered these cells more susceptible to amikacin-induced postantibiotic leukocidal enhancement. Similarly, direct PMN-mediated nonopsonic killing of mucoid strain 144MR was significantly less than that observed with strain 144NM (P less than 0.05); pretreatment of 144MR cells with alginase rendered this strain equal to strain 144NM in susceptibility to nonopsonic killing. In addition, exogenous sodium alginate or extracted MEP of strain 144MR interfered with effective nonopsonic killing of strain 144NM by PMNs. Studies also indicated that mucoid strain 144MR was phagocytosed significantly less well than its nonmucoid mate (P less than 0.00001), an effect reversed by pretreatment of the mucoid cells with alginase. These data confirm that P. aeruginosa MEPs functionally decrease the uptake and early bactericidal effect of aminoglycosides in vitro and interfere with effective PMN-mediated nonopsonic phagocytosis and killing of mucoid strains.

Bayer, A S; Speert, D P; Park, S; Tu, J; Witt, M; Nast, C C; Norman, D C



Maneb and paraquat-induced modulation of toxicant responsive genes in the rat liver: comparison with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


Experimental studies have shown that toxicant responsive genes, cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a critical role in pesticide-induced toxicity. CYPs play pro-oxidant role and GSTs offer protection in maneb (MB) and paraquat (PQ)-induced brain and lung toxicities. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated exposures of MB and/or PQ on lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione content (GSH) and toxicant responsive genes, i.e., CYP1A1, 1A2, 2E1, GSTA4-4, GSTA1-1 and GSTA3-3 in the liver and to correlate the same with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). A significant augmentation in LPO and reduction in GSH content was observed in a time of exposure dependent manner in the liver and PMNs of MB and/or PQ treated animals. The expression and catalytic activity of CYP2E1 and GSTA4-4 were significantly increased following MB and/or PQ exposure both in the liver and PMNs. Although the expression of GSTA3-3 was increased, the expression of GSTA1-1 was unaltered after MB and/or PQ treatment in both the liver and PMNs. MB augmented the expression and catalytic activity of CYP1A1 in the liver, however, CYP1A2 was unaffected. PQ, on the other hand, significantly increased hepatic CYP1A2 expression and catalytic activity. MB and/or PQ did not produce any significant changes in CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in PMNs. The results of the study thus demonstrate that MB and PQ differentially regulate hepatic CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 while LPO, GSH, CYP2E1, GSTA4-4 and GSTA3-3 are modulated in the similar fashions both in the liver and PMNs. PMID:20888808

Ahmad, Israr; Shukla, Smriti; Kumar, Ashutosh; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Singh, Chetna



Decoration of Histophilus somni lipooligosaccharide with N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid enhances bacterial binding of complement factor H and resistance to killing by serum and polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


The incorporation of N-acetyl-5-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), or sialic acid, onto surface components of some bacterial species may enhance their virulence. We have previously shown that Neu5Ac can be incorporated onto the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) of the bovine pathogen Histophilus somni, resulting in diminished antibody binding and enhanced serum resistance (Inzana et al., 2002. Infect. Immun. 70, 4870). In the present study, we assessed the effect of sialylation of H. somni LOS on the interaction with bovine innate host defenses. Incubation of non-sialylated H. somni with pre-colostral calf serum (PCS) resulted in dose-dependent, complement-mediated killing of the bacteria by the alternative pathway. However, sialylated H. somni was significantly more resistant to killing at any of the concentrations of PCS used. Sialylated H. somni LOS activated and consumed less complement than non-sialylated LOS, as determined by reduction in hemolysis of opsonized red blood cells, and by Western blotting of C(3) activation products. Sialylated H. somni bound more factor H and iC(3)b and less C(3) than non-sialylated bacteria, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, supporting the deficiencies observed in complement activation and consumption by sialylated LOS. Sialylation of H. somni LOS inhibited both polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytosis of (3)H-thymidine-labeled bacteria and intracellular killing of the bacteria, compared to non-sialylated bacteria. Furthermore, sialylated H. somni bound less non-specific antibodies in normal bovine sera than non-sialylated bacteria. Therefore, sialylation of H. somni LOS had profound effects on resistance of the bacteria to innate bovine host defenses, which should be taken into consideration during in vitro studies of H. somni. PMID:22868182

Inzana, Thomas J; Balyan, Rajiv; Howard, Michael D



Systemic response of peripheral blood leukocytes and their phagocytic activity during acute myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To determine changes in leukocyte counts and phagocytic activity of peripheral blood mononuclear (MN) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells as potential cellular markers of systemic immunological events in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients with a first AMI and 30 healthy volunteers were examined. Immunological analyses were performed at admission and repeated at one and seven days after the acute event. MN and PMN cells were obtained from heparinized whole blood after centrifugation and separation on a density gradient, and incubated with a fixed number of heat-inactivated and labelled yeast particles. Total leukocyte counts, leukocyte populations and some parameters of phagocytic activity were determined: percentage phagocytosis, phagocytic index, absolute phagocytic index, count of phagocytes in a fixed volume of peripheral blood (CP) and phagocytic capacity. RESULTS: Patients with AMI had increased total leukocyte counts accompanied by increased PMN counts, while there were no significant differences in total MN count and MN populations. Except for the phagocytic index, all phagocytic parameters of MN and PMN cells were increased in patients with AMI at admission and on the first day of disease. On the seventh day after AMI only the CP of MN cells had increased significantly in patients with AMI, while percentage phagocytosis, CP and capacity of phagocytosis of PMN cells increased during the acute phase of AMI. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that AMI was followed with a strongly systemic inflammatory response to myocardial damage. Furthermore, activated MN and PMN cells may be a significant source of free radicals that may be involved in lipid peroxidation and produce tissue damage in the early postinfarction period.

Djurdjevic, Predrag M; Arsenijevic, Nebojsa N; Baskic, Dejan D; Djukic, Aleksandar L; Popovic, Suzana; Samardzic, Goran



Effect of etizolam (Depas) on production of superoxide anion by platelet-activating factor and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


Effect of etizolam on platelet activating factor (PAF) and N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion (O2-) production in guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) was investigated. Etizolam showed the inhibitory effect on PAF-induced O2- production concentration dependently, with an IC50 value of 4.7 microM, but it had no inhibitory effect on FMLP-induced O2- production at 100 microM. These results suggest that etizolam has a selectively strong inhibitory effect on PAF-induced O2- production in guinea pig PMNL. PMID:2848961

Aratani, H; Nishida, Y; Terasawa, M; Maruyama, Y



Effect of the level of maternal energy intake prepartum on immunometabolic markers, polymorphonuclear leukocyte function, and neutrophil gene network expression in neonatal Holstein heifer calves.  


A conventional approach in dairy cow nutrition programs during late gestation is to feed moderate-energy diets. The effects of the maternal plane of nutrition on immune function and metabolism in newborn calves are largely unknown. Holstein cows (n=20) were fed a controlled-energy (CON) diet (1.24 Mcal/kg) for the entire dry period (~50 d) or the CON diet during the first 29 d of the dry period followed by a moderate-energy (OVE) diet (1.47 Mcal/kg) during the last 21 d prepartum. All calves were weighed at birth before first colostrum intake. Calves chosen for this study (n=6 per maternal diet) had blood samples harvested before colostrum feeding (d 0) and at 2 and 7 d of age. Blood samples were used to determine metabolites, acute-phase proteins, oxidative stress markers, hormones, phagocytic capacity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and total RNA was isolated from PMN. Calves from OVE dams weighed, on average, 5kg less at birth (44.0 vs. 48.6kg) than calves from CON dams. Blood glucose concentration in OVE calves had a more pronounced increase between 0 and 2 d than CON, at which point phagocytosis by PMN averaged 85% in OVE and 62% in CON. Compared with CON, calves from OVE had greater expression of TLR4, but lower expression of PPARA and PPARD at birth. Expression of PPARG and RXRA decreased between 0 and 2 d in both groups. Concentrations of leptin, cholesterol, ceruloplasmin, reactive oxygen metabolites, myeloperoxidase, retinol, tocopherol, IgG, and total protein, as well as expression of SOD2 and SELL increased markedly by 2 d in both groups; whereas, cortisol, albumin, acid-soluble protein, NEFA, insulin, as well as expression of IL6, TLR4, IL1R2, LTC4S, and ALOX5 decreased by 2 d. By 7 d of age, the concentration of haptoglobin was greater than precolostrum and was lower for OVE than CON calves. Our data provide evidence for a carry-over effect of maternal energy overfeeding during the last 3 wk before calving on some measurements of metabolism in the calf at birth and the phagocytic capacity of blood neutrophils after colostrum feeding. It might be feasible to design nutrient supplements to fortify colostrum in a way that metabolic and immunologic capabilities of the calf are improved. PMID:23587395

Osorio, J S; Trevisi, E; Ballou, M A; Bertoni, G; Drackley, J K; Loor, J J



Sustained Hypoglycemia Affects Glucose Transporter Expression of Human Blood Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThe scarce data available on leukocyte glucose transporter expression are contradictory and nothing is known about its regulation by glycemic state. Therefore, cytospin preparations of blood leukocytes were searched immunocytochemically for the high-affinity glucose transporters GLUT1, 3, and 4. Hypoglycemia-associated quantitative changes in transporter expression were assessed by flow cytometry. Granulocytes and monocytes stained for GLUT1, 3, and 4. Granulocyte

E. T Korgun; R Demir; P Sedlmayr; G Desoye; G. M Arikan; P Puerstner; M Haeusler; G Dohr; G Skofitsch; T Hahn



Mechanisms of leukocyte migration across the blood-retina barrier  

PubMed Central

Immune-mediated inflammation in the retina is regulated by a combination of anatomical, physiological and immuno-regulatory mechanisms, referred to as the blood–retina barrier (BRB). The BRB is thought to be part of the specialised ocular microenvironment that confers protection or “immune privilege” by deviating or suppressing destructive inflammation. The barrier between the blood circulation and the retina is maintained at two separate anatomical sites. These are the endothelial cells of the inner retinal vasculature and the retinal pigment epithelial cells on Bruch’s membrane between the fenestrated choroidal vessels and the outer retina. The structure and regulation of the tight junctions forming the physical barrier are described. For leukocyte migration across the BRB to occur, changes are needed in both the leukocytes themselves and the cells forming the barrier. We review how the blood–retina barrier is compromised in various inflammatory diseases and discuss the mechanisms controlling leukocyte subset migration into the retina in uveoretinitis in more detail. In particular, we examine the relative roles of selectins and integrins in leukocyte interactions with the vascular endothelium and the pivotal role of chemokines in selective recruitment of leukocyte subsets, triggering adhesion, diapedesis and migration of inflammatory cells into the retinal tissue.

Crane, Isabel J.



Abnormal mobility of neonatal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Relationship to impaired redistribution of surface adhesion sites by chemotactic factor or colchicine.  

PubMed Central

To determine the mechanism(s) of diminished, stimulated, and directed migration of neonatal (N) polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), chemotactic factor (CF) sensory and PMN effector functions were studied in healthy N and adult or maternal controls (C). N PMN demonstrated high affinity binding for N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-[3H]phenylalanine (fMLP), which was saturable between 40 and 100 nM as observed with C PMN. The kinetics of binding and the characteristics of dissociation of binding by N PMN were equivalent to control PMN. Both "threshold" and "peak" concentrations (1 and 10 nM, respectively) of fMLP effected comparable PMN chemiluminescence among neonates and controls. An equivalent threshold concentration (0.05 nM) of fMLP effected N and C PMN shape change in suspension, and a maximally effective concentration (5 nM) induced comparable bipolar configuration, although uropod formation was only 38 +/- 8% of N PMN, compared with 73 +/- 11% of C PMN (P less than 0.01). Striking abnormalities of N PMN adherence were identified: mean +/- SD base-line (unstimulated) N adherence values (39 +/- 8%) were equal to C (38 +/- 9%), but diminished increments in response to single CF stimuli were noted among N (fMLP: 42 +/- 7% (N), 70 +/- 11% (C); C5a: 41 +/- 6% (N), 68 +/- 6% (C); BCF: 41 +/- 6% (N), 63 +/- 9% (C), P less than 0.01 for each CF). On sequential exposure to increasing concentrations of CF N PMN failed to demonstrate expected decreased adherence values; sequential stimuli with fMLP (0.1 nM, 10 nM) or C5a (8 microgram protein/ml, 32 microgram protein/ml) effected mean +/- 1 SD values of 51 +/- 9% (N), 30 +/- 9% (C), and 34 +/- 10 (N), 48 +/- 14% (C), respectively. As demonstrated with a latex bead-binding technique, N PMN failed to redistribute adhesion sites to the cell's tail under the same experimental conditions; in 21 N samples studied, restricted unipolar binding occurred in 33 +/- 8% (fMLP) or 37 +/- 7% (C5a) of PMN in contrast to C values of 70% (fMLP), or 71% (C5a), P less than 0.001. Similar findings were observed when PMN were preincubated with colchicine (25 microgram/ml); expected diminished adherence scores (compared with base-line values) were demonstrated with C PMN but not with N cells, P less than 0.01. Additionally colchicine-induced redistribution of adhesion sites as was observed with C samples (72 +/- 14% unipolar binding) was significantly (P less than 0.001) less among N PMN (31 +/- 11% unipolar binding). These investigations indicate that CF sensory mechanisms of N PMN are normal, compared with healthy adult or maternal controls. Diminished stimulated locomotion of the N PMN may be functionally related to reduced modulation of cell adhesiveness by chemotactic stimulation. Images

Anderson, D C; Hughes, B J; Smith, C W



Analysis of cytokines and chemokines produced by whole blood, peripheral mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells.  


Cytokines are immunomodulating proteins involved in cellular communication. The levels of different cytokines reflect the immune capabilities of a person. In literature both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are used, which might lead to different results. The choice between these different sources is not always explained. The goal of our experiments is to determine the cytokine response of whole blood, PBMCs and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We used a multiplex analysis to determine a difference in cytokine secretion patterns. In general, PBMCs demonstrated the highest cytokine production and PMNs have an overall low cytokine production. CCL11 and interleukin-23 (IL-23) (and IL-12p40) were exclusively expressed in whole blood. IL-20, VEGF and GM-CSF were expressed only by PBMCs. This difference in expression could be explained by the bioactive components in serum, presence and interaction with granulocytes or platelets in whole blood, the anticoagulant heparin in whole blood and others. The expression of cytokines by cells is dependent on the microenvironment. Different conditions lead to different results. We recommend a thorough examination of the conditions before performing experiments. PMID:23994257

van Dooren, Faas H; Duijvis, Nicolette W; te Velde, Anje A



Leukocyte transport by red blood cells in a microvessel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simulation model is used to study the transport of relatively large, spherical, and stiff white blood cells (leukocytes) by the relatively smaller and highly flexible red cell as they flow in the microcirculation. Their interaction dynamics are thought to be an important component of the inflammation response, in which leukocytes bind to the walls of blood vessels. The red cells are modeled in the simulations as highly deformable three-dimensional shells encasing a Newtonian fluid, and the viscous-flow equation is solved via a boundary integral formulation in which the cell shapes discretized by global spectral basis functions. For slow flow rates, it is found that the leukocyte is predominantly adjacent the vessel walls, whereas for faster flow rates this configuration appears to become unstable and the leukocyte traverses the whole vessel in a seemingly random fashion. For the straight round tubes simulated thus far, the stable leukocyte stand-off distance is always beyond the range of the binding molecules that capture it, which suggests that vessel inhomogeneities or interactions with other white cells are needed to create contact and thereby binding with the vessel walls.

Freund, Jonathan



Infusion of emulsified trieicosapentaenoyl-glycerol into rabbits--the effects on platelet aggregation, polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion, and fatty acid composition in plasma and platelet phospholipids.  


Using 90%-pure free eicosapentaenoic acid, we synthesized 1,2,3-trieicosapentaenoyl-glycerol (EPA-TG) and manufactured an emulsion of EPA-TG with purified phosphatidylcholine from krill as an emulsifier. After two intravenous injections of the EPA-TG emulsion into rabbits, the EPA content in plasma and platelet phospholipids increased markedly. ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion to glass beads were depressed significantly. No significant changes were observed in serum lipids and liver function. In control experiments which were performed in exactly the same manner except that soybean oil emulsion was used instead of the EPA-TG emulsion, there were almost no significant changes. Our results suggest that an EPA-TG emulsion is applicable to those patients who need both intravenous alimentation and preventive care of thrombosis, such as postoperative patients. PMID:3810567

Urakaze, M; Hamazaki, T; Soda, Y; Miyamoto, A; Ibuki, F; Yano, S; Kumagai, A



Oxidant-dependent metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by phorbol ester-stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes: possible link between inflammation and cancer  

SciTech Connect

Oxidants, such as those generated by metabolically activated phagocytes in inflammation, have been implicated in the metabolic activation of carcinogens, and in this study the authors demonstrate that the interaction of (+/-)-trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo(a)pyrene (BP 7,8-dihydrodiol) with phorbol ester-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in the generation of both a chemiluminescent intermediate and one that covalently binds to DNA. Concordant with the formation of a carcinogen-DNA adduct, the admixture of BP 7,8-dihydrodiol and phorbol ester-stimulated PMNs elicited mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA100. These results demonstrate that oxidants generated by metabolically stimulated PMNs can activate penultimate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to a genotoxic metabolite and further defines a role for inflammation in carcinogenesis.

Trush, M.A.; Seed, J.L.; Kensler, T.W.



Trilinolein potentiates the pro-aggregating effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trilinolein, a triacylglycerol with linoleic acid as the only type of fatty acid residue in all three of the glycerol esterified positions, was recently reported to have an antiplatelet effect, mediated through stimulating nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) formation. In our study, trilinolein induced aggregation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and, pretreatment with 0.1 nM trilinolein enhanced phorbol-12-myristate

Sien-Hung Yang; Chung-Yue Hong



Specific Inhibition of the Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Chemotactic Response to Hydroxy-Fatty Acid Metabolites of Arachidonic Acid by Methyl Ester Derivatives  

PubMed Central

The human polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte chemotactic activity of the hydroxy-fatty acid metabolites of arachidonic acid, 12-l-hydroxy-5,8,10-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) and 12-l-hydroxy-5,8,10,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), is eliminated by methylation. Both methyl esters are specific competitive inhibitors of the PMN leukotactic responses to the parent stimuli, and exert no effect on the responses to formyl-methionyl peptides or chemotactic fragments of the fifth component of complement. 50% inhibition of the in vitro chemotactic responses of PMN leukocytes to HETE and HHT was achieved by an equimolar concentration of the corresponding methyl esters, whereas reciprocal cross-inhibition was observed at molar ratios of HETE methyl ester to HHT and HHT methyl ester to HETE which reflected the three- to fivefold greater chemotactic potency of HETE relative to HHT. Methyl esters of structurally related, but nonchemotactic, fatty acids did not competitively inhibit the chemotaxis elicited by HETE or HHT. The intraperitoneal injection of HETE in guinea pigs evoked an eosinophil response at 30 min and a neutrophil response at 5 h, which were prevented by a one-to twofold molar ratio of HETE methyl ester. The competitive inhibition of the in vitro chemotactic activity and the in vivo leukotactic effect of the unsaturated hydroxy-fatty acids by homologous methyl ester derivatives suggests that the cellular component of natural inflammatory reactions may be susceptible to specific regulation by receptor-directed modulation of the activity of the predominant chemotactic principles.

Goetzl, Edward J.; Valone, Frank H.; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Gorman, Robert R.



Enhanced diacylglycerol production by phospholipase D activation is responsible for abnormal increase in concanavalin A cap formation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from Chediak-Higashi syndrome (beige) mice.  


We previously reported that enhanced ceramide production induces calpain-mediated proteolysis of protein kinase C (PKC) in leukocytes from Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS). In the present study, we demonstrated that phospholipase D (PLD) inhibitors ameliorated abnormal increases in concanavalin A (Con A) cap formation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from beige mouse, an animal model of CHS. PLD activity in PMNs from beige mice enhanced at 30 to 60s after Con A stimulation. In Con A-stimulated beige PMNs, both neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) and acidic sphingomyelinase (A-SMase) activities enhanced, and ceramide levels are also increased. We found that ceramide levels were reversed by the treatment of beige PMNs with propranolol which inhibits phosphatidic acid phosphohydrolase. In addition, we showed that diacylgycerol (DAG) analogs enhance both N-SMase and A-SMase activities in PMNs from normal mice. We subsequently examined the association of CHS1 with PLD, and showed that expression of a truncated mutant of CHS1 in 293T cells induced abnormally rapid activation of PLD after phorbol ester stimulation. Moreover, we showed that specific inhibitors of 14-3-3 proteins, which interact with CHS1/LYST and bind PKC, did not affect abnormal increases in Con A cap formation in beige PMNs. These results suggest that the enhanced DAG production via the PLD pathway is associated with abnormal increases in Con A cap formation in beige PMNs, and that CHS1 may be involved in the regulation of PLD activity. PMID:24830864

Kasai, Hirotake; Tanabe, Fuminori



Population Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Whole Blood, Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, and Polymorphonuclear Cells in Healthy Adults  

PubMed Central

Azithromycin's extensive distribution to proinflammatory cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), may be important to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The need to simultaneously predict azithromycin concentrations in whole blood (“blood”), PBMCs, and PMNs motivated this investigation. A single-dose study in 20 healthy adults was conducted, and nonlinear mixed effects modeling was used to simultaneously describe azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs (simultaneous PK model). Data were well described by a four-compartment mamillary model. Apparent central clearance and volume of distribution estimates were 67.3 l/hour and 336 l (interindividual variability of 114 and 122%, respectively). Bootstrapping and visual predictive checks showed adequate model performance. Azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs from external studies of healthy adults and cystic fibrosis patients were within the 5th and 95th percentiles of model simulations. This novel empirical model can be used to predict azithromycin concentrations in blood, PBMCs, and PMNs with different dosing regimens.

Sampson, M R; Dumitrescu, T P; Brouwer, K L R; Schmith, V D



Tracking flow of leukocytes in blood for drug analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern microscopy techniques allow imaging of circulating blood components under vascular flow conditions. The resulting video sequences provide unique insights into the behavior of blood cells within the vasculature and can be used as a method to monitor and quantitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells at sites of vascular injury/ inflammation and potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker, helping screen new therapies and individualize dose and combinations of drugs. However, manual analysis of these video sequences is intractable, requiring hours per 400 second video clip. In this paper, we present an automated technique to analyze the behavior and recruitment of human leukocytes in whole blood under physiological conditions of shear through a simple multi-channel fluorescence microscope in real-time. This technique detects and tracks the recruitment of leukocytes to a bioactive surface coated on a flow chamber. Rolling cells (cells which partially bind to the bioactive matrix) are detected counted, and have their velocity measured and graphed. The challenges here include: high cell density, appearance similarity, and low (1Hz) frame rate. Our approach performs frame differencing based motion segmentation, track initialization and online tracking of individual leukocytes.

Basharat, Arslan; Turner, Wesley; Stephens, Gillian; Badillo, Benjamin; Lumpkin, Rick; Andre, Patrick; Perera, Amitha



Effect of oestrous cycle on the oxidative burst activity of blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes in cows.  


Blood polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) oxidative burst activity, plasma cortisol levels, and the total and differential white blood cells counts (WBC) of six cycled dairy cows were evaluated for a period of 24 days, three times a week; on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. The PMN oxidative burst was indirectly evaluated by flow cytometry, measuring the intracellular oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to 2',7' dichlorofluorescein (DCF) by H2O2-production. Results are presented as the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of DCF. Cow's oestrous cycle was evaluated by following the plasma progesterone levels using a radioimmunoassay method. Levels of cortisol in the plasma were measured using a fluorimetric method. The oxidative burst activity of PMN, represented a maximum value (MFI=117.6+/-7.4) during the oestrous period. A fall was then observed, in which a steady state was observed during the lutheinic phase of the oestrous cycle, reaching the minimum value [MFI=73.2+/-11.2 (p

Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F



Effects of Montelukast on free radical production in whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in asthmatic children  

PubMed Central

Montelukast is a highly selective leukotriene-receptor antagonist (LTRA). It is widely used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, primarily as an adjunct to corticosteroids. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and oxidative stress contributing to the initiation and worsening of inflammatory respiratory disorders, such as asthma. Antioxidant drugs may have a role in minimizing or preventing damage in asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant effect of montelukast on the production of free radicals in the whole blood and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in asthmatic children. A group of 48 (38 males and 10 females), apparently healthy asthmatic children were recruited with ages ranging between 6 and 14 years. In asthmatic children, base line (premedication) and post medication free radicals activity in the whole blood and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was determined by measuring chemiluminescence (CL) response through chemiluminescence luminometer. Free radical productions were significantly decreased in the whole blood, when stimulated with Phorbol Myristate Acetate (p < 0.04) and Opsonised Zymosan (p < 0.05). The free radicals were also significantly decreased in isolated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) when stimulated with Opsonised Zymosan (p < 0.05) after the post medication treatment of montelukast in asthmatic children. Montelukast decreased the reactive oxygen species production, both in the whole blood as well as isolated PMNs in asthmatic children.

Al Saadi, Muslim M.; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Mustafa, Ali; Shafi, Ahmed; Tuwajri, Ali S. Al



Mononuclear and Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Dispositions of Clarithromycin and Azithromycin in AIDS Patients Requiring Mycobacterium avium Complex Prophylaxis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular dispositions of clarithromycin and azithromycin in AIDS patients requiring Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) prophylaxis were studied. The dispositions of both drugs in mononuclear and poly- morphonuclear leukocytes were markedly different. Our data support the proven efficacy of these agents for MAC prophylaxis since clarithromycin and azithromycin displayed sustained intracellular concentrations which exceeded their MICs for MAC throughout the




Scrapie-induced changes in the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in mouse peripheral blood.  


A decrease in the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in the peripheral blood of mice appeared 3 days after intracerebral (IC) inoculation with scrapie mouse brain homogenate. Mice inoculated IC with normal mouse brain had PMN percentages similar to those found for uninoculated mice. This difference between normal and scrapie-inoculated mice continued throughout the preclinical phase of the disease. In the clinical phase of the disease, the percentage of PMN was either higher or lower than that found in normals. The factor causing the decrease in PMN percentages was found in the filtrates from 220-, 100-, and 50-nm filters, but not in the filtrates from a 25-nm filter. Sodium periodate treatment of the scrapie brain samples eliminated their ability to cause the decrease in PMN percentages, whereas sodium iodate had no effect. In addition to two genetically different scrapie mouse brain isolates, homogenates of mouse spleen, sheep brain, and sheep spleen from scrapie-affected animals caused a decrease in percent PMN, whereas the corresponding normal tissue homogenates did not. PMID:4118048

Licursi, P C; Merz, P A; Merz, G S; Carp, R I



Stimulation of human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cell iodination by lignin-related substances.  


Lignin is a heterogenous natural product composed of phenylpropane units and is usually associated with hemicellulose in its native state. Until now little attention has been paid to the potential therapeutic utility of lignified products. Natural lignified products are demonstrated in the present study to stimulate iodination significantly (incorporation of radioactive iodine into an acid-insoluble fraction) of human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). This stimulation was significantly inhibited in the presence of myeloperoxidase inhibitors. These materials were almost completely deprived of their stimulation capacity by treatment with NaCIO2, but this capacity was not affected by severe treatment with H2SO4 or trifluoroacetic acid. Similar stimulating activity by chemically defined tannin-related polyphenolic compounds was observed. Degradation products or component units of lignin, and natural antitumor polysaccharides and their chemically modified derivatives (introduced with negatively or positively charged groups) and polysialoglycoproteins had little or no activity. The results indicate the importance of a polymerized phenolic structure for the stimulation of PMN iodination. Possible physiological relevance of the stimulation of iodination by lignified substances is discussed. PMID:1847715

Sakagami, H; Kawazoe, Y; Oh-hara, T; Kitajima, K; Inoue, Y; Tanuma, S; Ichikawa, S; Konno, K



Studies on the activities of tannins and related compounds, X. Effects of caffeetannins and related compounds on arachidonate metabolism in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


As part of a series of biological examinations of various tannins and related compounds, the present paper reports the effects of caffeetannins and related compounds isolated from medicinal plants on arachidonate metabolism in human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN-L). The formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induced by calcium ionophore A 23187 (A 23187) in human PMN-L was inhibited by 3,5-, 4,5-, and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, caffeoyltartric acid, rosmarinic acid, and caffeic acid. Rosmarinic acid strongly inhibited the formation of 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and LTB4 (5-lipoxygenase products) at concentrations of 10(-5)-10(-3) M. On the other hand, the formation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was enhanced in a concentration-dependent fashion by caffeic acid, caffeoylmalic acid, caffeoyltartaric acid, and 3,4-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid. On the basis of experimental results, it seems likely that caffeoyl derivatives could be developed as therapeutic drugs for treatment of allergic inflammation such as asthma. PMID:2822857

Kimura, Y; Okuda, H; Okuda, T; Hatano, T; Arichi, S



Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) Are Increased and Exert Immunosuppressive Activity Together with Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (PMNs) in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients  

PubMed Central

Tumor immune tolerance can derive from the recruitment of suppressor cell population, including myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), able to inhibit T cells activity. We identified a significantly expanded MDSCs population in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis that decreased to normal levels after imatinib therapy. In addition, expression of arginase 1 (Arg1) that depletes microenvironment of arginine, an essential aminoacid for T cell function, resulted in an increase in patients at diagnosis. Purified CML CD11b+CD33+CD14-HLADR- cells markedly suppressed normal donor T cell proliferation in vitro. Comparing CML Gr-MDSCs to autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) we observed a higher Arg1 expression and activity in PMNs, together with an inhibitory effect on T cells in vitro. Our data indicate that CML cells create an immuno-tolerant environment associated to MDSCs expansion with immunosuppressive capacity mediated by Arg1. In addition, we demonstrated for the first time also an immunosuppressive activity of CML PMNs, suggesting a strong potential immune escape mechanism created by CML cells, which control the anti-tumor reactive T cells. MDSCs should be monitored in imatinib discontinuation trials to understand their importance in relapsing patients.

Giallongo, Cesarina; Parrinello, Nunziatina; Tibullo, Daniele; La Cava, Piera; Romano, Alessandra; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Palumbo, Giuseppe A.; Stagno, Fabio; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco



The influence of different cultivating conditions on polymorphonuclear leukocyte apoptotic processes in vitro, I: the morphological characteristics of PMN spontaneous apoptosis.  


Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) populations incubated in vitro with normal human serum are save-regulated systems of spontaneous apoptosis. Light microscopy (LM), transmission (TEM), and scanning (SEM) electron microscopes were used for the evalution of PMN apoptopic alteration. Twelve-hour PMN populations were represented by optimal number of normal and different apoptotic forms. Their ultrastructural analysis showed that on this background, 3 apoptotic cell lines (code named "first," "second," and "third") were predominated. The following characteristics were featured: "first"--vacuolization of same organelles, release of their content outside, increase of general cytoplasmic density, nuclear filling with condensed chromatin, and formation of PMNs mainly into small, round, dense forms; "second"--involvement of micronuclei or nuclei in apoptosis, their displacement to the cytoplasmic membrane and separation from the cells, and cytoplasm had numerous intact granules almost until the completion of apoptosis; "third"--synchronous apoptotic process of the nuclei and cytoplasm, moderate electronic density of cytoplasm, and granular translocation to the cell surface. Secondary necrosis was completed mainly in the apoptotic process of the "second" and "third" lines. SEM surfaces confirmed the results of TEM. This research showed that neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis is a complicated process. The 3 apoptotic cell lines reflect different pathways characteristic for the studied systems under certain conditions of cultivation. PMID:12554533

Guejes, L; Zurgil, N; Deutsch, M; Gilburd, B; Shoenfeld, Y



Induction of adherence and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes: a new expression of the invasive phenotype of Shigella flexneri.  

PubMed Central

In the present study, the ability of Shigella flexneri to activate polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was examined. The invasive serotype 5 strain M90T induced strong PMN adherence, which was dependent on both the multiplicity of infection and the duration of incubation. When tested under the same experimental conditions, the noninvasive strain BS176 (cured of the 220-kb virulence plasmid) was less efficient. Indeed, incubation of PMN for 2 h with either M90T or BS176 (multiplicity of infection, 100) induced 51.8% +/- 10.5% and 15.2% +/- 4.2% adherence, respectively (n = 3; P < 0.05). Stronger PMN activation by M90T was confirmed by evaluating PMN degranulation induced by the two strains. Whereas M90T triggered significant PMN secretion, BS176 did not. M90T strains with mutations in ipa genes were then analyzed. When PMN were incubated with these mutants, their activation was of the same intensity as that obtained with BS176. These data provide the first evidence for PMN activation induced by S. flexneri, a process which appears to be mediated by Ipa invasins.

Renesto, P; Mounier, J; Sansonetti, P J



Angiotensin Type 1a Receptor Signaling Is Not Necessary for the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Background. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) has inflammatory effects, little is known about its role in polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMLs). To elucidate the role of Ang II in PMLs ROS production, we examined hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), one of the ROS, and NO production in AT1a receptor knockout (AT1KO) mice. Methods and Results. PMLs were analyzed from Ang II type 1a receptor knockout mice (AT1KO) and C57BL/6 wild type mice. Using flow cytometry, we studied hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production from PMLs after Staphylococcus aureus phagocytosis or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulation. Nitric oxide (NO) production in the AT1KO was low at basal and after phagocytosis. In the AT1KO, basal H2O2 production was low. After PMA or phagocytosis stimulation, however, H2O2 production was comparable to wild type mice. Next we studied the H2O2 production in C57BL/6 mice exposed to Ang II or saline. H2O2 production stimulated by PMA or phagocytosis did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions. AT1a pathway is not necessary for PMLs H2O2 production but for NO production. There was a compensatory pathway for H2O2 production other than the AT1a receptor.

Yamato, Fumiko; Tsuji, Shoji; Hasui, Masafumi; Kaneko, Kazunari



Is there a special mechanism behind the changes in somatic cell and polymorphonuclear leukocyte counts, and composition of milk after a single prolonged milking interval in cows?  

PubMed Central

Background A single prolonged milking interval (PMI) e.g. after a technical stop in an automated milking system is of concern for the producer since it is associated with a short-lasting increase in milk somatic cell count (SCC), which is a major quality criterion used at the dairy plants. The content of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and how the milk quality is influenced has not been much investigated. The SCC peak occurs without any obvious antigen challenge, possibly indicating a different leukocyte attraction mechanism after a PMI than we see during mastitis. Methods Composite cow milk samples were taken at the milkings twice daily during 7 days before and 5 days after a PMI of 24 h. Milk was analyzed for SCC, PMN, fat, protein and lactose, and at some occasions also casein and free fatty acids (FFA). Results During the PMI the proportion of milk PMN increased sharply in spite of marginally increased SCC. The peak SCC was not observed until the second milking after the PMI, in the afternoon day 1. However, the peak SCC value in morning milk did not occur until one day later, concomitantly with a decrease in the proportion of PMN. After declining, SCC still remained elevated while PMN proportion was decreased throughout the study as was also the milk yield, after the first accumulation of milk during the PMI. Milk composition was changed the day after the PMI, (increased fat and protein content; decreased lactose, whey protein and FFA content) but the changes in the following days were not consistent except for lactose that remained decreased the rest of the study. Conclusion The PMI resulted in increased SCC and proportion of PMN. Additionally, it gave rise to minor alterations in the milk composition in the following milkings but no adverse effect on milk quality was observed. The recruitment of PMN, which was further enhanced the first day after the PMI, appeared to be independent of milk volume or accumulation of milk per se. Hence, we suggest that there is a special immunophysiological/chemoattractant background to the increased migration of leukocytes into the milk compartment observed during and after the PMI.

Lakic, Branislav; Wredle, Ewa; Svennersten-Sjaunja, Kerstin; Ostensson, Karin



Effect of single oral dose of azithromycin, clarithromycin, and roxithromycin on polymorphonuclear leukocyte function assessed ex vivo by flow cytometry.  

PubMed Central

Azithromycin was given as a single oral dose (20 mg/kg of body weight) to 12 volunteers in a crossover study with roxithromycin (8 to 12 mg/kg) and clarithromycin (8 to 12 mg/kg). Flow cytometry was used to study the phagocytic functions and the release of reactive oxygen products following phagocytosis by neutrophil granulocytes prior to administration of the three drugs, 16 h after azithromycin administration, and 3 h after clarithromycin and roxithromycin administration. Phagocytic capacity was assessed by measuring the uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bacteria. Reactive oxygen generation after phagocytosis of unlabeled bacteria was estimated by the amount of dihydrorhodamine 123 converted to rhodamine 123 intracellularly. Azithromycin resulted in decreased capacities of the cells to phagocytize Escherichia coli (median [range], 62% [27 to 91%] of the control values; P < 0.01) and generate reactive oxygen products (75% [34 to 26%] of the control values; P < 0.01). Clarithromycin resulted in reduced phagocytosis (82% [75 to 98%] of control values; P < 0.01) but did not alter reactive oxygen production (84% [63 to 113%] of the control values; P > 0.05). Roxithromycin treatment did not affect granulocyte phagocytosis (92% [62 to 118%] of the control values; P > 0.05) or reactive oxygen production (94% [66 to 128%] of the control value; P > 0.05). No relation between intra- and/or extracellular concentrations of azithromycin and/or roxithromycin and the polymorphonuclear phagocyte function and/or reactive oxygen production existed (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). These results demonstrate that the accumulation of macrolides in neutrophils can suppress the response of phagocytic cells to bacterial pathogens after a therapeutic dose.

Wenisch, C; Parschalk, B; Zedtwitz-Liebenstein, K; Weihs, A; el Menyawi, I; Graninger, W



Abnormalities of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function associated with a heritable deficiency of high molecular weight surface glycoproteins (GP138): common relationship to diminished cell adherence.  


Investigations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function were performed in a 5-yr-old white female with delayed umbilical cord separation, impaired pus formation, and a severe defect of PMN chemotaxis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated an almost total deficiency of a high molecular weight glycoprotein(s) (GP138) in the granule and membrane fractions of the patient's cells, and NaB3H4-galactose oxidase labeling demonstrated the absence of a major glycoprotein complex on the surface of her PMNs. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were employed in flow cytometry experiments to demonstrate that two previously characterized glycoproteins (Mo1 and LFA1) were undetectable on the surface of the patient's PMNs and monocytes. Immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled patient cells with subunit specific MAbs confirmed that the alpha-subunits of Mo1 (155 kD) and LFA1 (177 kD) and their common beta-subunit (94 kD) were totally deficient. Functional analyses of patient PMNs demonstrated severe impairment of adherence- and adhesion-dependent cell functions including spreading, aggregation, orientation in chemotactic gradients, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and phagocytosis of particles (Oil-Red-0-paraffin, zymosan) selectively opsonized with C3-derived ligands. Patient PMNs demonstrated a normal capacity to rosette with IgG or C3b-coated sheep erythrocytes, but rosette formation with C3bi-coated erythrocytes was profoundly diminished. Adhesion-independent functions including shape change, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-3H-phenylalanine binding, and O-2 generation or secretion elicited by soluble stimuli were normal. Membrane fluidity, surface charge, and microtubule assembly were also normal. These findings provide new evidence that critical PMN surface glycoproteins are required to facilitate multiple adhesion-dependent cellular functions of the inflammatory response. PMID:6746906

Anderson, D C; Schmalstieg, F C; Arnaout, M A; Kohl, S; Tosi, M F; Dana, N; Buffone, G J; Hughes, B J; Brinkley, B R; Dickey, W D



Arachidonate metabolism by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe or complement component C5a is independent of phospholipase activation.  

PubMed Central

Release of arachidonic acid by the membrane phospholipase and metabolism by the 5-lipoxygenase pathway was examined in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The 5-lipoxygenase pathway is activated when PMNs are given arachidonic acid in ethanol and there is extensive metabolism to 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). This activation event was shown to be altered by the ethanol because resting PMNs given arachidonic acid with bovine serum albumin fail to metabolize arachidonic acid. However, cells activated by the inflammatory agents N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) or complement component C5a recruit the 5-lipoxygenase to metabolize exogenous arachidonic acid to 5-HETE and LTB4. When PMNs were incubated with arachidonic acid-bovine serum albumin and challenged with fMLF or C5a (des-Arg-C5a) they produced 49-75 pmol of LTB4 and 310-440 pmol of 5-HETE per 10(7) cells. PMNs stimulated by fMLF or C5a (des-Arg-C5a) do not induce membrane phospholipases to mobilize endogenous arachidonic acid and neither 5-HETE nor LTB4 is formed. In contrast, PMN stimulation by the ionophore A23187 activates both the membrane phospholipase and the 5-lipoxygenase to produce 5-HETE and LTB4 from endogenous arachidonic acid. Our results indicate that the lipoxygenase pathway is inoperative in resting PMNs but can be recruited by chemotactic factors to act on arachidonate from extracellular sources. It was previously believed that formation of 5-HETE and LTB4 by the PMN depends solely on phospholipase to mobilize endogenous arachidonic acid. The results reported here refute this concept and indicate that the role of phospholipase activation in PMN may be overestimated. Therefore, subsequent involvement of lipoxygenase products in mediating stimulation of PMN by inflammatory factors (e.g., as in aggregation and chemotaxis) remains in question unless an exogenous source of arachidonate can be identified.

Clancy, R M; Dahinden, C A; Hugli, T E



The alteration of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and NAD(P)H cytochrome c reductase in guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes and alveolar macrophages during hyperoxia.  

PubMed Central

Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and NAD(P)H cytochrome c reductase were quantitated in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from guinea pigs exposed up to 90 h to 85% oxygen. PMN and AM were sonicated and separated into a 16,000-g pellet, a 100,000-g pellet, and a 100,00-g supernate. Superoxide dismutase activity increased in both cells within 18 h, persisted for 66 h and decreased by 90 h. The highest rate of increase was in the 100,000-g pellet containing 3.4% of total enzyme activity in PMN but 28% in AM. The enzyme induction in PMN and AM was partially inhibited by daily intracardiac injections of 50 mg/kg actinomycin D. During oxygen exposure, catalase activity in PMN and AM decreased to 60% of its original activity, and gluthathione peroxidase was reduced in PMN to 60% and in AM to 20% of control values. Although NAD(P)H cytochrome c reductase decreased to 50% in PMN, no change was noted in AM. Upon exposure to superoxide anion, purified catalase, the glutathione peroxidase of the 100,000-g supernate, NADH, and NADPH cytochrome c reductases of the 16,000-g pellet decreased to 66+/-5%, 72+/-4%, 52+/-8%, and 40+/-9%, respectively, of their original activity. This inactivation was prevented by 0.1 mg superoxide dismutase. These in vitro observations could explain the decreased catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity demonstrated in vivo that may lead to an intracellular accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. Increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations have been found to inactivate superoxide dismutase thus impairing the first defense mechanism against superoxide anion.

Rister, M; Baehner, R L



Priming of human polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes by insulin-like growth factor I: increased phagocytic capacity, complement receptor expression, degranulation, and oxidative burst.  


Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a GH-dependent peptide regulating mammalian growth that seems to be of importance for the normal development and function of the immune system. Polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNLs) are terminally differentiated phagocytes essential for host defense, and in the present study, recombinant human IGF-I was shown to be a powerful primer of mature human PMNLs. IGF-I augmented the PMNL phagocytosis of both immunoglobulin G-opsonized Staphylococcus aureus and complement-opsonized Candida albicans. In addition, the growth factor increased PMNL complement receptor expression [complement receptors 1 (CD35) and 3 (CD11b)] and primed the cells to stronger f-met-leu-phe-induced degranulation of both specific and azurophilic granules [markers: CD11b, CD35 and CD67 (specific granules); CD63 (azurophilic granules)]. In contrast, IGF-I did not alter the PMNL surface expression of Fc gamma RI (CD64), Fc gamma RII (CDw32), or Fc gamma RIII (CD16). PMNLs exposed to IGF-I increased their f-met-leu-phe and phorbol myristate acetate-induced oxidative burst, as evaluated by hydrogen peroxide production, whereas IGF-I did not influence PMNL actin polymerization. The priming of PMNLs by IGF-I was dependent on time and concentration, and saturating amounts of a monoclonal antibody to the IGF-I receptor blocked the priming of PMNLs by this peptide. These experiments demonstrate that IGF-I can selectively stimulate mature PMNL functions, providing further evidence for the interaction between the immune and the endocrine systems. PMID:7775645

Bjerknes, R; Aarskog, D



Derivative of wheat germ agglutinin specifically inhibits formyl-peptide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by blocking re-expression (or recycling) of receptors  

SciTech Connect

The mechanism of action of a derivative of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-D) which specifically and irreversibly inhibits N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis was examined. At a concentration that completely inhibited PMN chemotaxis, WGA-D had no effect on either the uptake or release of (/sup 3/H)-FMLP by PMN. Similarly, WGA-D did not affect either the short-term binding to, or internalization by, PMN of a fluoresceinated FMLP analog. WGA-D did interfere, however, with the re-expression (or recycling) of FMLP receptors by PMN that had been preincubated with 1 FMLP for 10 min at 4/sup 0/C. This effect was specific for WGA-D, because it was not observed when concanavalin A was used. Scatchard plot analysis of FMLP binding to PMN after receptor re-expression demonstrated that WGA-D-treated PMN had a significant diminution in the number of high affinity receptors. WGA-D-mediated inhibition of FMLP receptor re-expression was associated with inhibition of FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis, but had no effect on either FMLP-induced PMN superoxide anion generation or degranulation. Studies using (/sup 12/%I)-WGA-D demonstrated that PMN did not internalize WGA-D spontaneously. The data indicate that WGA-D perhaps by binding to the FMLP receptor, inhibits FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis by blocking the re-expression (or recycling) of a population of receptors required for continuous migration.

Perez, H.D.; Elfman, F.; Lobo, E.; Sklar, L.; Chenoweth, D.; Hooper, C.



[A new rickettsiale (Ehrlichiae) in leukocytes of the blood of Gambia rats (Cricetomys gambianus) in Senegal : Cytoecetes kamtchoulii n. sp].  


Among 20 hemograms (peripheric blood smears) carried out upon some adults male and female Giant Rats, (Cricetomys gambianus) captured in the Dakar region, two (10 p. 100) are infected by one Rickettsiale of the Ehrlichiae tribe and of the Cytoecetes genus Tyzzer, 1938. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes and monocytes, more or less 1/25, and monocytes, more or less 1/40, of the systemic circulation are infected by "elementary bodies" (diameter : 0.1 to 0.3 mu) included in the cell protoplasma and bundled at one or two poles of the cell. They grow and become "initial bodies" (diameter : 1 to 1.5 mu). Sometimes dumbbell-shaped forms indicate an early particle division. They are included in a small but visible vacuole. The multiplication and the growth tend to the formation of an intravacuolar "morula" (diameter : 2.5 to 3.5 mu) that can deform the monocyte nucleus. Electron micrographs of thin sections of polynuclear neutrophil leukocytes infected by morula show that each element of the morula is surrounded by two membranes (internal and external). This prokaryotic element is carmine-coloured by staining technic of May-Grünwald and Giemsa. Hypochromia, anisochromia, anisocytosis, poikylocytosis, leukopenia (especially neutrophils), with hematopoiesis disorders (bone marrow lesions) and hematopedesis are observed. It is the first species of Cytoecetes infecting both monocytes and polynuclear neutrophil leukocytes of systemic circulation. The two Giant Rats, were also infected by some Grahamella and one massively by a spirochete of the genus Borrelia. Polyparasitism is probably the cause of the general and important blood disorders observed. This Cytoecetes is the second Ehrlichiae found in Senegal after Ehrlichia bovis. It is named Cytoecetes kamtchoulii n. sp., "Kamtchoouli" is the name of Cricetomys gambianus in Oualoff language of the Presqu'Ile du Cap Vert region. The ticks (Ixodidae) that live in the burrows of the rodent seem to be the vectors of this rickettsia. PMID:7346908

Gretillat, S; Mattei, X; Marchand, B



Characterization of a 64-kd protein phosphorylated during chemotactic activation with IL8 and fMLP of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. II. Purification and amino acid analysis of phosphorylated 64-kd protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung giant cell carcinoma-derived chemotac- tic protein (LUCT)\\/IL-8 and fMet-Leu-Phe stimulate phosphorylation of a 64-kd protein (p64) in 32P-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). The p64 was purified from cytosol of human PMNs (1.8 x i0? cells) by DEAE-Sepharose CL6B column chromatography, hydroxyapatite HPLC, and reverse-phase HPLC. By hydroxyapatite HPLC, p64s were separated and pro- duced two peaks containing both nonphosphorylated

Michio Shibata; Yoshio Yamakawa; Tadakazu Ohoka; Satoshi Mizuno; Kazuo Suzuki


Biomimetic Autoseparation of Leukocytes from Whole Blood in a Microfluidic Device  

PubMed Central

Leukocytes comprise less than 1% of all blood cells. Enrichment of their number, starting from a sample of whole blood, is the required first step of many clinical and basic research assays. We created a microfluidic device that takes advantage of the intrinsic features of blood flow in the microcirculation, such as plasma skimming and leukocyte margination, to separate leukocytes directly from whole blood. It consists of a simple network of rectangular microchannels designed to enhance lateral migration of leukocytes and their subsequent extraction from the erythrocyte-depleted region near the sidewalls. A single pass through the device produces a 34-fold enrichment of the leukocyte-to-erythrocyte ratio. It operates on microliter samples of whole blood, provides positive, continuous flow selection of leukocytes, and requires neither preliminary labeling of cells nor input of energy (except for a small pressure gradient to support the flow of blood). This effortless, efficient, and inexpensive technology can be used as a lab-on-a-chip component for initial whole blood sample preparation. Its integration into microanalytical devices that require leukocyte enrichment will enable accelerated transition of these devices into the field for point-of-care clinical testing.

Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.; Yoshida, Tatsuro; Munn, Lance L.; Bitensky, Mark W.



CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress regulates HO-1 and GST expression in maneb- and paraquat-treated rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione-S-transferase A4-4 (GSTA4-4), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are implicated in maneb- and paraquat-induced toxicity leading to various pathological conditions. The study aimed to investigate the role of CYP2E1 in maneb- and paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and its crosstalk with iNOS-mediated nitrosative stress and GSTA4-4-linked protective effect, if any and their consequent links with the nuclear factor erythoid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Rats were treated with/without maneb and/or paraquat for 1, 2, and 3 weeks along with vehicle controls. Subsets of rats were also treated with diallyl sulfide (DAS) or aminoguanidine (AG) along with the respective controls. Maneb and paraquat augmented the reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and 4-hydroxy nonenal (4-HNE) contents, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the PMNs. However, maneb and paraquat attenuated the reduced glutathione (GSH) level and the expression/activity of total GST and GST-pi. Maneb and paraquat increased the expression/activity of CYP2E1, GSTA4-4, iNOS, Nrf2 and HO-1, and nitrite content. CYP2E1 inhibitor, DAS noticeably alleviated maneb- and paraquat-induced ROS, LPO, 4-HNE, SOD, Nrf2 and HO-1, GST, GSH, and GST-pi while iNOS, nitrite content and GSTA4-4 levels were unchanged. Conversely, AG, an iNOS inhibitor, attenuated maneb- and paraquat-directed changes in nitrite, LPO, iNOS but it did not alter ROS, GSH, SOD, GST, GST-pi, Nrf2, HO-1, CYP2E1, and GSTA4-4. The results demonstrate that CYP2E1 induces iNOS-independent free radical generation and subsequently modulates the Nrf2-dependent HO-1 and 4-HNE-mediated GST expression in maneb- and paraquat-treated PMNs. PMID:24771067

Ahmad, Israr; Shukla, Smriti; Singh, Deepali; Chauhan, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Brajesh Kumar; Patel, Devendra Kumar; Pandey, Haushila Prasad; Singh, Chetna



Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 ?W cm-2 within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes.

Angeluts, A. A.; Gapeyev, A. B.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kosareva, O. G.; Matyunin, S. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Pashovkin, T. N.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.



Use of sparse-pore polycarbonate (Nuclepore) membrane for the measurement of chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Comparison of 'micro-Boyden' chambers and estimation of 'drop-off' of cells.  


Various modified Boyden chambers having upper and lower compartments of small volume ('micro-Boyden' chambers) were tested for their suitability for use with the recently described 'sparse-pore' polycarbonate (Nuclepore) membrane for the measurement of chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro towards N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. Previously reported 'open-well' and 'blind-well' chambers, as well as a new chamber having a lower compartment made from perspex and an upper compartment made from silicone rubber were tested. The most satisfactory results were provided by the new chamber, and this is attributed to the easy, accurate filling of the lower compartment, the lack of distortion of membrane, and the reliability of the seals around the edges of the membrane which can be achieved with this chamber. Full humidification during assembly was necessary for obtaining maximal response of the cells through the 'sparse-pore' membrane in all types of micro-Boyden chamber. 'Drop-off' of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the lower surface of the 'sparse-pore' membrane during incubation was also studied in these experiments and found to be slight. PMID:2926154

Bignold, L P



Leukocytes-depleting filters preferentially remove activated leukocytes and reduce the expression of surface adhesion molecules during the simulated extracorporeal circulation of human blood.  


The effect of leukocyte-depleting filters on the total and activated leukocyte counts and the expression of surface adhesion molecules CD11b, CD18, and CD62L during the in vitro extracorporeal circulation of human blood was studied. A 200 ml blood sample was taken from 10 patients undergoing CABG surgery. The blood was circulated for 60 minutes within an experimental extracorporeal circuit. A leukocyte-depleting filter was attached in five circuits (filtered group). In five other circuits, no filter was used (controls). Total leukocyte counts were determined manually. Activated leukocytes were identified using nitroblue tetrazolium staining. The expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L was measured with flow cytometry. At 60 minutes, total leukocyte counts were reduced by 49% from the baseline values in the filtered group and 10% in the control group (p < 0.0001). Activated leukocyte counts decreased by 86% in the filtered group and increased by 116% in the control group (p < 0.0001). In the filtered group, the expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD612L decreased by 60%, 21%, and 79%, respectively, and in the control group it increased by 24%, 6%, and 28% (p < 0.0001). Leukocyte-depleting filters preferentially remove activated leukocytes and reduce the expression of CD11b, CD18, and CD62L during the in vitro extracorporeal circulation of human blood. PMID:16883125

Alexiou, Christos; Sheppard, Stuart; Tang, Augustine; Rengarajan, Arvind; Smith, David; Haw, Marcus; Gibbs, Roz



Effect of glucose concentration, osmolality, and sterilization process of peritoneal dialysis fluids on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear cell functions in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to investigate the effects of high glucose concentration, osmolality, and heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis fluids on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) functions. Blood samples were obtained from eight healthy volunteers. PBMCs and PMNs were harvested by centrifugation with Ficoll-Hypaque (Sigma, St Louis, MO). PBMC were incubated with

M Cendoroglo; S Sundaram; BL Jaber; BJ Pereira



Granulocytes govern the transcriptional response, morphology and proliferation of Candida albicans in human blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival in blood and escape from blood vessels into tissues are essential steps for the yeast Candida albicans to cause systemic infections. To elucidate the influence of blood components on fungal growth, morphology and transcript profile during bloodstream infections, we exposed C. albicans to blood, blood fractions enriched in erythrocytes, polymorphonuclear or mononuclear leukocytes, blood depleted of neutrophils and plasma.

C. Fradin; Groot de P. W. J; D. Maccallum; M. Schaller; F. M. Klis; F. C. Odds; B. Hube



Partial dependence of human peripheral blood leukocyte binding to high molecular weight fucoidan on divalent cations.  


L-selectin (CD62L) is the principal leukocyte adhesion molecule for the high endothelial venules of peripheral lymph nodes. This adhesion has an absolute requirement for calcium ions. Nevertheless, some studies have shown carbohydrate adhesion receptor interactions on lymphocytes and neutrophils, including the L-selectin molecule, that are Ca-independent. In the present study fucoidan, a reportedly Ca2+ independent ligand of L-selectin, and Mabs to human CD62L were coupled to magnetic polystyrene beads (MPB), as a model of leukocyte-surface interactions, and the efficiency of human leukocyte separation was investigated. 30% of Ficoll-purified human mononuclear cells and 75% of dextran-purified human leukocytes (DPHL) were specifically bound by fucoidan-modified MPB in the presence of Ca2+; 55% of dextran-purified leukocytes were specifically bound in the absence of Ca2+. The specific binding was inhibited by an excess of free fucoidan. The data obtained show the presence of Ca-independent adhesion determinants, specific to fucoidan on human leukocytes. No significant specific binding of leukocytes to fucoidan-modified MPB was found after the incubation with fresh human Ca(2+)-depleted whole blood. More than 90% of DPHL were specifically bound to MPB modified with Mabs to human CD62L irrespective of Ca2+ presence. The same degree of separation was achieved after the incubation with fresh human Ca(2+)-depleted-whole blood with anti-CD62L modified beads. PMID:10820848

Penezina, O P; Fomovskaia, G N; Haddock, T F; Davenport, R D



Response of blood leukocytes to thrombin receptor peptides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thrombin has receptor-mediated effects on a variety of cell types. A recently cloned platelet thrombin receptor exerts its effects by a tethered-ligand mechanism. A similar receptor was shown in at least two nonplatelet cell types, fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Thrombin has biologically important effects on leukocytes, but the type of receptor mediating the effects is not known. Therefore, we examined


Chronic Iodine Toxicity in Dairy Cattle: Blood Chemistry, Leukocytes, and Milk Iodide1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary data from farm herds fed excessive dietary iodide and displaying signs of iodism indicated hyperglycemia, hypocholesterolemia, and a neutrophilic- lymphopenic shift in blood leukocytes. Subsequently blood, mitk, and urine were analyzed from 90 cows in 10 herds fed normal (average 16 mg\\/cow daily) or high (average 164 mg) iodide as ethylene- diamine dihydriodide for prophylactic purposes and from one

Donald Hillman; A. R. Curtis



Antitumor effect induced by a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris (CE): Resistance to meth-A tumor growth mediated by CE-induced polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris (CE) was injected into the peritoneal cavity of BALB\\/c mice inoculated with syngeneic Meth-A tumor cells, the survival times were strikingly prolonged. Furthermore, peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) rich in polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) obtained from normal mice 24 h after CE injection exhibited an antitumor effect in a Winn-type assay using normal recipients.

Fumiko Konishi; Kuniaki Tanaka; Kunisuke Himeno; Kazuto Taniguchi; Kikuo Nomoto



Age-related effects of interleukin-1 beta on polymorphonuclear neutrophil-dependent increases in blood-brain barrier permeability in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In adult rats, 50 000 units of recombinant interleukin-1 ? depletion by irradiation or polymorphonuclear neutrophil anti-serum pre-treatment eliminated the response in the (IL-1?) injected into the brain parenchyma produced an intense meningitis and disruption of the blood-CSF barrier juvenile animals and in the adults. Seventy-five thousand units of murine tumour necrosis factor- ? injected into the by 4

D. C. Anthony; S. J. Bolton; S. Fearn; V. H. Perry



Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis  

SciTech Connect

To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.

Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.



Influence of chronic caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus infection on the population of peripheral blood leukocytes.  


The influence of caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus infection on the population of peripheral blood leukocytes in goats was evaluated. For this purpose two groups of adult dairy female goats were formed. The experimental group consisted of 17 goats, which had been naturally infected for many years. The control group comprised 29 non-infected goats, which originated from CAE-free herd. All goats were clinically healthy. Whole blood was collected and tested in hematological analyzer and light microscope to assess the total number of leukocytes and the percentage of four leukocyte populations--neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Then, flow cytometry with monoclonal antibodies against several surface antigens (namely CD14, CD2, B-B2, CD4, CD8h, TCR-N6, WC1-N2 and WC1-N3) was performed to assess the proportion of lymphocyte subpopulations. Statistically significant differences (alpha < or = 0.01) were observed only in the subpopulations of T lymphocytes--percentage of all subpopulations were significantly higher in the group of seropositive goats. No statistically significant differences were revealed with respect to the total number of blood leukocytes, the average percentage of blood leukocyte populations and proportions of both T and B lymphocytes. PMID:22439329

Kaba, J; Winnicka, A; Zaleska, M; Nowicki, M; Bagnicka, E



Microrheology of filtered autotransfusion drain blood with and without leukocyte reduction.  


Autotransfusion of filtered knee drain blood (FKDB) is frequently practised in orthopaedic surgery, but questioned because it contains inflammatory cytokines, contaminants from lysed blood cells, debris and chemicals from the wound. We have studied the microrheology (5 microm pore filtration) of FKDB (n = 23) with versus without the addition of a leukocyte reducing filter (LRF) in line with the drain. As expected the whole blood clogging was reduced (p < 0.01) due to the lowered leukocyte number by the LRF. FKDB plasma contains clogging particles of unknown origin. With the LRF the increased plasma clogging was reduced (p approximately 0.05). With resuspended erythrocytes there was an increase in clogging rate in FKDB at 24 hours. This increase was abolished with the addition of the LRF, which may indicate that the erythrocyte trauma results from the incubation together with leukocytes in the drain container. There is a potential for further improvement of the filters in autotransfusion drains. PMID:10599595

Dalén, T; Engström, K G



Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi



Long Telomeres in Blood Leukocytes Are Associated with a High Risk of Ascending Aortic Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

Ascending aortic aneurysm is a connective tissue disorder. Even though multiple novel gene mutations have been identified, risk profiling and diagnosis before rupture still represent a challenge. There are studies demonstrating shorter telomere lengths in the blood leukocytes of abdominal aortic aneurysm patients. The aim of this study was to measure whether relative telomere lengths are changed in the blood leukocytes of ascending aortic aneurysm patients. We also studied the expression of telomerase in aortic tissue samples of ascending aortic aneurysms. Relative lengths of leukocyte telomeres were determined from blood samples of patients with ascending aortic aneurysms and compared with healthy controls. Telomerase expression, both at the level of mRNA and protein, was quantified from the aortic tissue samples. Mean relative telomere length was significantly longer in ascending aortic aneurysm blood samples compared with controls (T/S ratio 0.87 vs. 0.61, p<0.001). Expressions of telomerase mRNA and protein were elevated in the aortic aneurysm samples (p<0.05 and p<0.01). Our study reveals a significant difference in the mean length of blood leukocyte telomeres in ascending aortic aneurysm and controls. Furthermore, expression of telomerase, the main compensating factor for telomere loss, is elevated at both the mRNA and protein level in the samples of aneurysmal aorta. Further studies will be needed to confirm if this change in telomere length can serve as a tool for assessing the risk of ascending aortic aneurysm.

Huusko, Tuija J.; Santaniemi, Merja; Kakko, Sakari; Taskinen, Panu; Ukkola, Olavi; Kesaniemi, Y. Antero; Savolainen, Markku J.; Salonurmi, Tuire



Comparative glycomics of leukocyte glycosaminoglycans  

PubMed Central

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) vary widely in disaccharide and oligosaccharide content in a tissue-specific manner. Nonetheless, there are common structural features, such as the presence of highly sulfated non-reducing end domains on heparan sulfate (HS) chains. Less clear are the patterns of expression of GAGs on specific cell types. Leukocytes are known to express GAGs primarily of the chondroitin sulfate (CS) type. Little is known, however, regarding the properties and structures of the GAG chains, their ranges of variability among normal subjects, and changes in structure associated with disease conditions. We isolated peripheral blood leukocyte populations from four human donors and extracted GAGs. We determined the relative and absolute disaccharides abundances for HS and CS GAG classed using size exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry (SEC-MS). We found that all leukocytes express HS chains with level of sulfation more similar to heparin than to organ-derived HS. The levels of HS expression follows the trend T Cells, B cells>monocytes, NK cells>polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In addition, CS abundances were considerably higher than total HS but varied considerably in a leukocyte cell type specific manner. Levels of CS were higher for myeloid lineage cells (PMNs, monocytes) than for lymphoid cells (B, T, NK cells). This information establishes the ranges of GAG structures expressed on normal leukocytes and necessary for subsequent inquiry into disease conditions.

Shao, Chun; Shi, Xiaofeng; White, Mitchell; Huang, Yu; Hartshorn, Kevan; Zaia, Joseph



[Effect of 2-cyanoethylurea, thymus extract and lithium carbonate on the leukocyte count in peripheral blood following whole body irradiation].  


In our investigations the qualification of the substances 2-cyanoethyl urea, thymus extract and lithium carbonate was tested for a potential reducing or shortening of the leukocyte-depression in rats after whole-body irradiation. Intravenous applications of 2-cyanoethyl urea and intramuscular injections of thymus extract showed no effect in Wistar rats not only in increase of leukocyte number of peripheral blood, but also in variation of leukocyte portion in differential blood-count. Leukocytes depression appearing in consequence of whole-body irradiation was independent of cyanoethyl urea applications and of thymus extract, too. Lithium carbonate shows a significant increase of leukocytes in peripheral blood in dependence of dosage and frequency of applications. After whole-body irradiation with 7 Gy under lithium therapy, it was shown that on day 6 after irradiation leukocyte number was significantly higher than in controls. Radiogenic leukopenia phase was reduced significantly by lithium. PMID:3101018

Saul, G; Rose, H; Kehrberg, G



Segmentation of Leukocytes in Blood Smeare Images Using Color Processing Mechanism Inspired by the Visual System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Receptive fields of neurons play various roles in biological neural networks. Inspired by receptive fields of rod and cone neurons in the visual system, a neural network model is proposed to segment leukocytes form blood smear images. The network contains three types of cones and a type of rod. Three cones are in response to red, green and blue lights

Qingxiang Wu; Xi Huang; Jianyong Cai; Yi Wu; Meiyan Lin



Aromatase is differentially expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes from children, and adult female and male subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Aromatase, the key enzyme involved in estrogen synthesis, is expressed in a variety of cells and tissues including human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). The present study was designed to evaluate PBL aromatase gene expression in male and female subjects of different age groups. In addition, differences in gene expression during the follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

A Vottero; V Rochira; M Capelletti; I Viani; L Zirilli; T M Neri; C Carani; S Bernasconi; L Ghizzoni



Modulation of Adhesion Molecule Profiles on Alveolar Macrophages and Blood Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cell adhesion molecules are believed to be essential for blood cell recruitment to the lung and for the movement of alveolar macrophages (AM) within the lung. Objective: To investigate the expression pattern of L-selectin and ?2 integrins on blood leukocytes and AM, including AM of various maturity. Methods: Flow cytometry was used to study the expression of L-selectin (CD62L)

T. S. Haugen; O. H. Skjønsberg; B. Nakstad; T. Lyberg



Toward a spectroscopic hemogram: Raman spectroscopic differentiation of the two most abundant leukocytes from peripheral blood.  


The first response to infection in the blood is mediated by leukocytes. As a result crucial information can be gained from a hemogram. Conventional methods such as blood smears and automated sorting procedures are not capable of recording detailed biochemical information of the different leukocytes. In this study, Raman spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the differences between the leukocyte subtypes which have been obtained from healthy donors. Raman imaging was able to visualize the same morphological features as standard staining methods without the need of any label. Unsupervised statistical methods such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were able to separate Raman spectra of the two most abundant leukocytes, the neutrophils and lymphocytes (with a special focus on CD4(+) T-lymphocytes). For the same cells a classification model was built to allow an automated Raman-based differentiation of the cell type in the future. The classification model could achieve an accuracy of 94% in the validation step and could predict the identity of unknown cells from a completely different donor with an accuracy of 81% when using single spectra and with an accuracy of 97% when using the majority vote from all individual spectra of the cell. This marks a promising step toward automated Raman spectroscopic blood analysis which holds the potential not only to assign the numbers of the cells but also to yield important biochemical information. PMID:22721427

Ramoji, Anuradha; Neugebauer, Ute; Bocklitz, Thomas; Foerster, Martin; Kiehntopf, Michael; Bauer, Michael; Popp, Jürgen



Flow cytometric calcium flux assay: evaluation of cytoplasmic calcium kinetics in whole blood leukocytes.  


In leukocytes, as in many other cell types, cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) changes play a key role in a series of pathways leading to activation. Here we describe a flow cytometric method allowing the simultaneous kinetic analysis of changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in the three types of leukocytes, i.e. monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes. Heparinised whole blood was diluted in phosphate buffered saline with Ca(2+) and 1 mM sodium pyruvate and incubated with the Ca(2+) indicator fluo3-acetoxymethyl ester. Leukocytes were identified by labelling with the phycoerythrin-conjugated antibody against CD45, the leukocyte common antigen. Resuspension of the cells in PBS with or without Ca(2+) allowed us to detect the origin of Ca(2+) changes. During flow cytometric analysis only CD45-positive cells were counted and monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes were evaluated separately. Baseline fluorescence of the fluo3-Ca(2+)-complex was determined and changes in [Ca(2+)](i) after stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 or the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) were recorded over a time period of 150 s. Stimulation with A23187 resulted in a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in all three leukocyte subpopulations. This rise was sustained in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(ex)) but had a transient character in the absence of Ca(2+)(ex). For fMLP, [Ca(2+)](i) changes occurred only in monocytes and granulocytes and were transient irrespective of the presence or absence of Ca(2+)(ex). In conclusion, the present method is a simple, fast and easy tool to analyse in vitro [Ca(2+)](i) changes over time in leukocytes under physiologically relevant conditions, without the need for their isolation or the lysis of erythrocytes. The whole blood approach allows a continuous interaction between the different leukocyte subpopulations and other blood components and a minimum of preparative manipulations avoids artefactual activation of the cells. A distinction can be made between Ca(2+) release from the intracellular stores and the entry of Ca(2+) from outside the cell. The approach allows to evaluate the effect of various agonists on [Ca(2+)](i) changes in leukocytes, with physiological, patho-physiological or therapeutic purposes. PMID:19616551

Schepers, Eva; Glorieux, Griet; Dhondt, Annemieke; Leybaert, Luc; Vanholder, Raymond



Inhibition of migration of the blood leukocytes in guinea pigs with hypersensitivity of delayed type to foreign tissue antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of migration of the blood leukocytes was studied in guinea pigs sensitized with rabbit kidney tissue extract (dose 10 #g and 6.5 rag). Observations on leukocyte migration were made in Perfil'ev-Gabe rectangular capillaries. Immunologically, the phenomenon was distinctly specific in character. In the experimental model used the phenomenon of inhibition of leukocyte migration developed later than the positive allergic

A. G. Artemova



Characterization of LIC11207, a novel leptospiral protein that is recognized by human convalescent sera and prevents apoptosis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


We report the study of a predicted outer-membrane leptospiral protein encoded by the gene lic11207. This protein is conserved in several pathogenic leptospiral strains but is absent in the saprophyte Leptospira biflexa. This putative outer-membrane protein has a domain of unknown function (DUF) 1565 found in several phylogenetically diverse bacteria and in the archaeon Methanosarcina acetivorans. The gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (SI) strain using the expression vector pDEST17. The 34 kDa recombinant protein was tagged with N-terminal hexahistidine and purified by metal-charged chromatography. The purified protein was used to assess: reactivity with human convalescent sera; in vivo expression; ability to activate endothelial cells (EC); and ability to modulate the apoptosis of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). The LIC11207 coding sequence was identified in vivo in the hamster renal tubules during experimental infection with Leptospira interrogans. The rLIC11207 showed significant antigenicity against human convalescent sera when compared with sera from healthy donors. The recombinant protein did not alter the surface expression of E-selectin or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) in EC and failed to induce the release of von Willebrand factor (vWF). Interestingly, rLIC11207 delayed apoptosis of PMNs suggesting a possible role of this protein during the infection. PMID:23092690

Pretre, Gabriela; Lapponi, Maria Jose; Atzingen, Marina V; Schattner, Mirta; Nascimento, Ana L T O; Gómez, Ricardo M



Can Telomere Shortening in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Serve as a Disease Biomarker of Friedreich's Ataxia?  

PubMed Central

Abstract Enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation contribute to telomere erosion. Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a reduction in frataxin expression that results in mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage. Furthermore, frataxin deficiency induces a strong activation of inflammatory genes and neuronal death. We investigated telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood leukocytes of 37 patients with Friedreich's ataxia and 36 controls. We noted a significant telomere shortening in patients with Friedreich's ataxia compared to healthy controls (p=0.03). We also found a correlation between TL and disease duration (p=0.001). Our observations lead to the hypothesis that the TL of human peripheral blood leukocytes may serve as a biomarker of Friedreich's ataxia that could be used as an outcome measure in clinical trials. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1303–1306.

Vergara, Paola; Pinelli, Michele; Filla, Alessandro; De Michele, Giuseppe; Cocozza, Sergio; Monticelli, Antonella



Selection against mutant alleles in blood leukocytes is a consistent feature in Incontinentia Pigmenti type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incontinentia Pigmenti 2 (IP2) is an X-linked dominant disorder with male lethality. Affected females display a characteristic skin eruption that evolves through four classic stages, frequently accompanied by dental and retinal abnormalities. Non-random (skewed) X-inactivation in peripheral blood leukocytes and in fibroblasts has been observed in females with IP2; however, sample sizes have been small and methods of analysis varied.

Julia E. Parrish; Angela E. Scheuerle; Richard A. Lewis; Moise L. Levy; David L. Nelson



Levosimendan inhibits release of reactive oxygen species in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro and in patients with acute heart failure and septic shock: a prospective observational study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Levosimendan is an extensively investigated inodilator showing also cardioprotective and antiinflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to explore the influence of levosimendan on polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN), a main source of reactive oxygen species, in vitro and in patients with acute heart failure or septic myocardial depression. Methods PMN isolated from healthy volunteers were incubated with levosimendan in vitro. After stimulation with N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) respiratory burst was quantified using a fluorescent dye. Apoptosis and expression of cell adhesion molecules of PMN were measured by flow cytometry. For determination of in vivo effects patients with acute heart failure (n = 16) or septic cardiac failure (n = 9) receiving levosimendan treatment were enrolled consecutively. PMN were isolated to measure respiratory burst activity before treatment as well as one and two hours after initiation of levosimendan administration. Furthermore inflammatory, hemodynamic and renal function parameters were obtained. Results In vitro, levosimendan suppressed respiratory burst activity in fMLP or PMA stimulated PMN in a dose dependent manner by 30 ± 11% (P < 0.001) at 100 ng/mL and by 27 ± 17% (P < 0.001) at 1000 ng/mL respectively. Markers of apoptosis and PMN cell adhesion molecule expression remained unaffected by levosimendan treatment. In vivo, levosimendan treatment for two hours resulted in a significant reduction of PMA stimulated oxidative burst by 45% (P < 0.01) and fMLP stimulated oxidative burst by 49% (P < 0.05) in patients with acute heart failure. In patients suffering from septic shock levosimendan treatment decreased oxidative burst activity in unstimulated, fMLP and PMA stimulated PMN by 48% (P < 0.05), 46% (P < 0.01) and 43% (P < 0.01) respectively. Conclusions Levosimendan appears to exert distinct immunomodulatory effects by decreasing oxidative burst activity of PMN. This property might contribute to the previously described cardioprotective effects of the drug.



Activation of nitric oxide release and oxidative metabolism by leukotrienes B4, C4, and D4 in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  


Because arachidonate metabolites are potent mediators of inflammation, we have studied the effects of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and the cysteinyl leukotrienes C4 and D4 (LTC4 and LTD4) on the release of nitric oxide (NO), in vitro, by human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN). Two independent and highly sensitive real-time methods were used for these studies, ie, the NO-dependent oxidation of oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) to methemoglobin and a NO-sensitive microelectrode. When activated with LTB4, LTC4, or LTD4, but not with other lipoxygenase products such as 5S-HETE, 5-oxo-ETE or 5S, 12S-diHETE, PMN produced NO in a stimulus- and concentration-dependent manner. The rank order of potency was LTB4 = LTC4 > LTD4, corresponding to 232 +/- 50 pmol of NO/10(6) PMN for 100 nmol/L LTB4 after 30 minutes. The kinetic properties of the responses were similar for all three leukotrienes with a maximum response at 13 +/- 3 minutes. Cysteinyl leukotriene and LTB4 antagonists inhibited the agonist-induced NO production by 70%, and treatment with Bordetella pertussis toxin, or chelation of cytosolic Ca2+, [Ca2+]i, also efficiently inhibited this response. In contrast, treatment of PMN with cytochalasin B (5 microg/mL) enhanced the LTB4-induced NO formation by 86%. Thus, this is the first demonstration that the cysteinyl leukotrienes LTC4 and LTD4, as well as LTB4, activate NO release from human PMN by surface receptor, G-protein and [Ca2+]i-dependent mechanisms. This effect differs from activation of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, for which only LTB4 is an activator. PMID:9949184

Lärfars, G; Lantoine, F; Devynck, M A; Palmblad, J; Gyllenhammar, H



Effect of 28-day oral administration of silver nanocolloid on the peripheral blood leukocytes in mice.  


Silver nanoparticles, which have found a wide range of applications owing to their antimicrobial properties, are also recommended as dietary supplements in alternative medicine. Studies on rodents confirm that nanosilver is absorbed from the digestive tract into the bloodstream, which implies its possible interactions with leukocytes. The objective of the experiment discussed herein has been to determine the effect of 28-day oral administration of different doses (0.25, 2.5, 25 ppm) of commercial silver nanocolloid on hematological parameters, percentages of particular lymphocyte populations and activity of the peripheral blood leukocytes in mice. All the tested colloid doses decreased the counts of monocytes in the animals' blood and induced phenotypic modifications among lymphocytes: an increase in CD4+/CD8+ T cell distribution, a decrease in NK and NKT cell distribution (doses of 0.25 and 2.5 ppm) and an increased CD4+:CD8+ ratio (25 ppm). Silver nanocolloid also affected the activity of cells, depressing the proliferation of lymphocytes (0.25 ppm) and stimulating phagocytosis as well as the respiratory burst of granulocytes and monocytes (all doses). The results verify the influence of orally administered silver colloid on the peripheral blood leukocytes, at the same time implying the potential risk of developing an inappropriate immune response of an organism exposed to prolonged administration of this substance. PMID:24988852

Ma?aczewska, J



Effect of dietary supplementation on the antimicrobial activity of blood leukocytes isolated from Holstein heifers.  


The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of an immunostimulating feed supplement (OmniGen-AF®) on the antimicrobial properties of blood leukocytes in dairy heifers in an attempt to prevent mastitis. Blood leukocytes from supplemented and unsupplemented controls were used. Phagocytic activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were studied on d 0 (prior to feed supplementation) and on days 30 and 60 after supplementation. L-selectin and IL-8R mRNA expressions on blood leukocytes were evaluated on d 0 (prior to feed supplementation) and monthly thereafter for 15 mo. On d 30 after supplementation, neutrophils from treated heifers exhibited greater binding and internalization of Escherichia coli and greater ROS production compared with unsupplemented controls. L-selectin mRNA expression was increased in supplemented heifers vs. controls; however, IL-8R mRNA expression was not different. Results support the continued study of dietary supplementation as an additional management tool to enhance udder health in dairy heifers. PMID:24094469

Ryman, V E; Nickerson, S C; Kautz, F M; Hurley, D J; Ely, L O; Wang, Y Q; Forsberg, N E



Enumeration of major peripheral blood leukocyte populations for multicenter clinical trials using a whole blood phenotyping assay.  


Cryopreservation of peripheral blood leukocytes is widely used to preserve cells for immune response evaluations in clinical trials and offers many advantages for ease and standardization of immunological assessments, but detrimental effects of this process have been observed on some cell subsets, such as granulocytes, B cells, and dendritic cells. Assaying fresh leukocytes gives a more accurate picture of the in vivo state of the cells, but is often difficult to perform in the context of large clinical trials. Fresh cell assays are dependent upon volunteer commitments and timeframes and, if time-consuming, their application can be impractical due to the working hours required of laboratory personnel. In addition, when trials are conducted at multiple centers, laboratories with the resources and training necessary to perform the assays may not be located in sufficient proximity to clinical sites. To address these issues, we have developed an 11-color antibody staining panel that can be used with Trucount tubes (Becton Dickinson; San Jose, CA) to phenotype and enumerate the major leukocyte populations within the peripheral blood, yielding more robust cell-type specific information than assays such as a complete blood count (CBC) or assays with commercially-available panels designed for Trucount tubes that stain for only a few cell types. The staining procedure is simple, requires only 100 ?l of fresh whole blood, and takes approximately 45 minutes, making it feasible for standard blood-processing labs to perform. It is adapted from the BD Trucount tube technical data sheet (version 8/2010). The staining antibody cocktail can be prepared in advance in bulk at a central assay laboratory and shipped to the site processing labs. Stained tubes can be fixed and frozen for shipment to the central assay laboratory for multicolor flow cytometry analysis. The data generated from this staining panel can be used to track changes in leukocyte concentrations over time in relation to intervention and could easily be further developed to assess activation states of specific cell types of interest. In this report, we demonstrate the procedure used by blood-processing lab technicians to perform staining on fresh whole blood and the steps to analyze these stained samples at a central assay laboratory supporting a multicenter clinical trial. The video details the procedure as it is performed in the context of a clinical trial blood draw in the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN). PMID:23007739

Hensley, Tiffany R; Easter, Austin B; Gerdts, Sarah E; De Rosa, Stephen C; Heit, Antje; McElrath, M Juliana; Andersen-Nissen, Erica



Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA samples from a screening colonoscopy population to determine to what extent LINE-1 methylation levels (as a proxy for genome-wide methylation) in non-target tissue (e.g., blood, buccal cells) reflected methylation patterns of colon mucosal tissue directly at risk of developing CRC. The strongest Pearson correlation was observed between LINE-1 methylation levels in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA (r = 0.50; N = 67), with weaker correlations for comparisons between blood and colon tissue (r = 0.36; N = 280), and buccal and colon tissue (r = 0.27; N = 72). These findings of weak/moderate correlations have important implications for interpreting and planning future investigations of epigenetic markers and CRC risk.

Ashbury, Janet E; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D



Biomarkers measured in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA as proxies for colon tissue global methylation.  


There is increasing interest in clarifying the role of global DNA methylation levels in colorectal cancer (CRC) etiology. Most commonly, in epidemiologic studies, methylation is measured in DNA derived from blood leukocytes as a proxy measure of methylation changes in colon tissue. However, little is known about the correlations between global methylation levels in DNA derived from colon tissue and more accessible tissues such as blood or buccal cells. This cross-sectional study utilized DNA samples from a screening colonoscopy population to determine to what extent LINE-1 methylation levels (as a proxy for genome-wide methylation) in non-target tissue (e.g., blood, buccal cells) reflected methylation patterns of colon mucosal tissue directly at risk of developing CRC. The strongest Pearson correlation was observed between LINE-1 methylation levels in buccal and blood leukocyte DNA (r = 0.50; N = 67), with weaker correlations for comparisons between blood and colon tissue (r = 0.36; N = 280), and buccal and colon tissue (r = 0.27; N = 72). These findings of weak/moderate correlations have important implications for interpreting and planning future investigations of epigenetic markers and CRC risk. PMID:24959316

Ashbury, Janet E; Taylor, Sherryl A; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Louw, Jacob A; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D



Effect of prenatal arsenic exposure on DNA methylation and leukocyte subpopulations in cord blood.  


Prenatal arsenic exposure is associated with increased risk of disease in adulthood. This has led to considerable interest in arsenic's ability to disrupt fetal programming. Many studies report that arsenic exposure alters DNA methylation in whole blood but these studies did not adjust for cell mixture. In this study, we examined the relationship between arsenic in maternal drinking water collected ? 16 weeks gestational age and DNA methylation in cord blood (n = 44) adjusting for leukocyte-tagged differentially methylated regions. DNA methylation was quantified using the Infinium HumanMethylation 450 BeadChip array. Recursively partitioned mixture modeling examined the relationship between arsenic and methylation at 473,844 CpG sites. Median arsenic concentration in water was 12 µg/L (range<1- 510 µg/L). Log 10 arsenic was associated with altered DNA methylation across the epigenome (P = 0.002); however, adjusting for leukocyte distributions attenuated this association (P = 0.013). We also observed that arsenic had a strong effect on the distribution of leukocytes in cord blood. In adjusted models, every log 10 increase in maternal drinking water arsenic exposure was estimated to increase CD8+ T cells by 7.4% (P = 0.0004) and decrease in CD4+ T cells by 9.2% (P = 0.0002). These results show that prenatal exposure to arsenic had an exposure-dependent effect on specific T cell subpopulations in cord blood and altered DNA methylation in cord blood. Future research is needed to determine if these small changes in DNA methylation alter gene expression or are associated with adverse health effects. PMID:24525453

Kile, Molly L; Houseman, E Andres; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mostofa, Golam; Cardenas, Andres; Wright, Robert O; Christiani, David C



Persistence of HTLV-I in blood components after leukocyte depletion.  


The human T-cell leukemia virus HTLV-I is a transfusion-transmissible retrovirus targeting T lymphocytes for which screening is not currently undertaken in United Kingdom blood donors. The introduction of universal leukocyte depletion (LD) of the United Kingdom blood supply raises the question as to the degree of protection afforded by this procedure against HTLV-I transmission by blood components. HTLV-I viral DNA removal by leukocyte-depleting filters was assessed in units of whole blood and platelets by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by nested PCR for HTLV-I Tax DNA. We examined HTLV-I removal by LD filters using a model system of blood units containing exogenous spiked HTLV-I-positive MT-2 cells at a relevant concentration and whole blood donations from asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. T-lymphocyte removal was assessed in parallel by measurement of endogenous subset-specific CD3 mRNA. In the MT-2 model system we observed 3.5 log(10) to 4 log(10) removal of HTLV-I Tax DNA by filtration of whole blood and 2 log(10) to 3 log(10) removal across platelet filters with 13 of 16 whole blood and 8 of 8 platelet units still positive after filtration. Despite 3 log(10) to 4 log(10) viral removal, HTLV-I Tax DNA could be detected after whole blood filtration in asymptomatic carriers with viral loads above 10(8) proviral DNA copies/L. T-lymphocyte removal was also between 3.5 log(10) and 4.5 log(10). HTLV-I provirus removal was incomplete in the model system and in asymptomatic carriers with viral loads greater than 10(8) copies/L. These results suggest that LD alone may not provide complete protection from HTLV-I transmission by transfusion. PMID:12091364

Pennington, Joanne; Taylor, Graham P; Sutherland, Janet; Davis, Ricardo E; Seghatchian, Jerhard; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Williamson, Lorna M



A Three-Dimensional Atlas of Human Dermal Leukocytes, Lymphatics, and Blood Vessels  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (M?), and T cells are major components of the skin immune system, but their interstitial spatial organization is poorly characterized. Using four-channel whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of the human dermis, we demonstrated the three-dimensional distribution of CD31+ blood capillaries, LYVE-1+ lymphatics, discrete populations of CD11c+ myeloid DCs, FXIIIa+ M?, and lymphocytes. We showed phenotypic and morphological differences in situ between DCs and M?. DCs formed the first dermal cellular layer (0–20??m beneath the dermoepidermal junction), M? were located deeper (40–60??m), and CD3+ lymphocytes were observed throughout (0–60??m). Below this level, DCs, T cells, and the majority of M? formed stable perivascular sheaths. Whole-mount imaging revealed the true extent of dermal leukocytes previously underestimated from cross-section views. The total area of apical dermis (0–30??m) contained approximately 10-fold more myeloid DCs than the entire blood volume of an average individual. Surprisingly, <1% of dermal DCs occupied lymphatics in freshly isolated skin. Dermal DCs rapidly accumulated within lymphatics, but M? remained fixed in skin explants cultured ex vivo. The leukocyte architecture observed in normal skin was distorted in inflammation and disease. These studies illustrate the micro-anatomy of dermal leukocytes and provide further insights into their functional organization.

Wang, Xiao-Nong; McGovern, Naomi; Gunawan, Merry; Richardson, Connor; Windebank, Martin; Siah, Tee-Wei; Lim, Hwee-Ying; Fink, Katja; Li, Jackson L Yao; Ng, Lai G; Ginhoux, Florent; Angeli, Veronique; Collin, Matthew; Haniffa, Muzlifah



A three-dimensional atlas of human dermal leukocytes, lymphatics, and blood vessels.  


Dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (M?), and T cells are major components of the skin immune system, but their interstitial spatial organization is poorly characterized. Using four-channel whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of the human dermis, we demonstrated the three-dimensional distribution of CD31(+) blood capillaries, LYVE-1(+) lymphatics, discrete populations of CD11c(+) myeloid DCs, FXIIIa(+) M?, and lymphocytes. We showed phenotypic and morphological differences in situ between DCs and M?. DCs formed the first dermal cellular layer (0-20 ?m beneath the dermoepidermal junction), M? were located deeper (40-60 ?m), and CD3(+) lymphocytes were observed throughout (0-60 ?m). Below this level, DCs, T cells, and the majority of M? formed stable perivascular sheaths. Whole-mount imaging revealed the true extent of dermal leukocytes previously underestimated from cross-section views. The total area of apical dermis (0-30 ?m) contained approximately 10-fold more myeloid DCs than the entire blood volume of an average individual. Surprisingly, <1% of dermal DCs occupied lymphatics in freshly isolated skin. Dermal DCs rapidly accumulated within lymphatics, but M? remained fixed in skin explants cultured ex vivo. The leukocyte architecture observed in normal skin was distorted in inflammation and disease. These studies illustrate the micro-anatomy of dermal leukocytes and provide further insights into their functional organization. PMID:24352044

Wang, Xiao-Nong; McGovern, Naomi; Gunawan, Merry; Richardson, Connor; Windebank, Martin; Siah, Tee-Wei; Lim, Hwee-Ying; Fink, Katja; Li, Jackson L Yao; Ng, Lai G; Ginhoux, Florent; Angeli, Veronique; Collin, Matthew; Haniffa, Muzlifah



Biophysical Description of Multiple Events Contributing Blood Leukocyte Arrest on Endothelium  

PubMed Central

Blood leukocytes have a remarkable capacity to bind to and stop on specific blood vessel areas. Many studies have disclosed a key role of integrin structural changes following the interaction of rolling leukocytes with surface-bound chemoattractants. However, the functional significance of structural data and mechanisms of cell arrest are incompletely understood. Recent experiments revealed the unexpected complexity of several key steps of cell-surface interaction: (i) ligand-receptor binding requires a minimum amount of time to proceed and this is influenced by forces. (ii) Also, molecular interactions at interfaces are not fully accounted for by the interaction properties of soluble molecules. (iii) Cell arrest depends on nanoscale topography and mechanical properties of the cell membrane, and these properties are highly dynamic. Here, we summarize these results and we discuss their relevance to recent functional studies of integrin-receptor association in cells from a patient with type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency. It is concluded that an accurate understanding of all physical events listed in this review is needed to unravel the precise role of the multiple molecules and biochemical pathway involved in arrest triggering.

Robert, Philippe; Touchard, Dominique; Bongrand, Pierre; Pierres, Anne



Biogenic amines activate blood leukocytes via trace amine-associated receptors TAAR1 and TAAR2.  


Certain biogenic amines, such as 2-PEA, TYR, or T1AM, modulate blood pressure, cardiac function, brain monoaminergic systems, and olfaction-guided behavior by specifically interacting with members of a group of rhodopsin-like receptors, TAAR. A receptor that is absent from olfactory epithelia but had long been identified in the brain and a variety of peripheral tissues, TAAR1 has been found recently in blood B cells, suggesting a functional role of TAAR1 in these cells. With the present study, we have set out to clarify the expression and functional roles of TAAR in different isolated human blood leukocyte types. Here, we report the functional expression of TAAR1 and its closest relative TAAR2 in blood PMN and T and B cells. Both receptors are coexpressed in a subpopulation of PMN, where they are necessary for the chemosensory migration toward the TAAR1 ligands 2-PEA, TYR, and T1AM, with EC50 values of 0.43 ± 0.05 nM, 0.52 ± 0.05 nM, and 0.25 ± 0.04 nM, respectively. The same amines, with similar potencies, triggered cytokine or Ig secretion, in purified blood T or B cells, respectively. Notably, 2-PEA regulated mRNA expression of 28 T cell function-related genes, above all of the CCL5. In siRNA-guided experiments, TAAR1 and TAAR2 proved to be necessary for amine-induced blood leukocyte functions. In summary, our results demonstrate that biogenic amines potently regulate blood cell functions via TAAR1 and TAAR2 and open the perspective of their specific pharmacological modulation. PMID:23315425

Babusyte, Agne; Kotthoff, Matthias; Fiedler, Julia; Krautwurst, Dietmar



Cisplatin-DNA damage and repair in peripheral blood leukocytes in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed Central

We have extended our studies on the relationship between cisplatin/carboplatin-induced DNA damage in readily accessible tissue(s) and clinical response to therapy. Such an approach may assist in the study of cancer drug resistance and in establishing parameters for assessing human populations for sensitivity to DNA damaging agents in the environment. Platinum-DNA adduct levels were measured by atomic absorbance spectrometry. DNA repair capacity was assessed in human T-lymphocytes by the ability to repair cisplatin lesions in cellular DNA or in transfected plasmid DNA. In a "blinded" study of 21 patients receiving combination cisplatin/carboplatin drug therapy, there was a direct relationship between DNA damage in leukocytes and disease response (summary two-sided p = 0.00011). The cohort of patients had 15 different tumor types, suggesting that blood tissue and tumor tissue of an individual may process platinum-DNA damage similarly regardless of the tissue of origin of the tumor. In leukocytes in vivo, persistence and accumulation were prominent features of the cisplatin-DNA adduct profile. Functional DNA repair capacity has been studied in eight human leukocyte cell lines in vitro (three, T-cells; three, B-cells; one, monocytic; one, promyelocytic), using a host cell reactivation assay with cisplatin-damaged pRSVcat. In the three T cell lines studied, host cell reactivation efficiency was directly related to the cells' abilities to repair cisplatin-damaged cellular DNA (correlation coefficient = 0.993).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Dabholkar, M; Bradshaw, L; Parker, R J; Gill, I; Bostick-Bruton, F; Muggia, F M; Reed, E



Sildenafil prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats: role of leukocyte adherence and gastric blood flow.  


Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of gastric mucosal defense. Sildenafil (SILD), a cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, promotes an increase in cGMP concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. cGMP mediates many of the biological actions of NO. We tested the hypothesis that SILD could increase mucosal defense against indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats. SILD (1, 4 or 10 mg kg(-1), p.o.) pretreatment significantly reduced (P < 0.01) the gastric damage and the increase in gastric myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity elicited by indomethacin (20 mg kg(-1) p.o.), with the maximal effect at the dose of 10 mg kg(-1). L-NAME (3, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1), i.p.) dose dependently reversed the protective effects of SILD, an effect not seen when L-arginine (L-ARG) (200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was co-administered with L-NAME. Indomethacin-induced leukocyte adhesion, assessed by intravital microscopy, was decreased (P < 0.01) by SILD, and this effect was reversed by L-NAME cotreatment. Indomethacin elicited a decrease in gastric blood flow and in gastric PGE2 levels. SILD was able to prevent the decrease in gastric blood flow (P < 0.01), without diminishing the inhibitory effect of indomethacin on prostaglandin synthesis. These results indicate that SILD, acting via NO-dependent mechanisms, prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy, possibly through a reduction of leukocyte adhesion and maintenance of gastric blood flow. PMID:16113693

Santos, Camila L; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Gomes, Antoniella S; Lemos, Henrique P; Santos, Armênio A; Cunha, Fernando Q; Wallace, John L



Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it could be suggested that the visible light susceptible leukocyte reflect a pre-inflammatory state of their donors.

Belotsky, Sandro; Avtalion, Ramy R.; Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel



Rate of manual leukocyte differentials in dog, cat and horse blood samples using ADVIA 120 cytograms  

PubMed Central

Background Modern automated haematology instruments are capable of performing leukocyte differentials faster, cheaper and with a higher precision than the traditional 100-cell manual differential count. Thus, in human laboratories, criteria are defined for performing a manual review of the blood smear resulting in a marked reduction of manual differential counts. While common in human laboratories, this approach to reducing the number of manual differentials in veterinary laboratories is still not commonly performed. Thus, our aim was to determine the rate and causes of manual leukocyte differentials in a university clinical pathology laboratory using the automated laser-based haematology analyser ADVIA 120. Overall, 14,953 complete blood cell counts from dogs, cats and horses were reviewed. Manual leukocyte differentials were requested if abnormal ADVIA peroxidase and baso cytograms were detected (i.e. suspicion of left shift or atypical lymphocytes/blasts, inappropriate separation of cell populations). Results In 21% of canine, 32% of feline and 20% of equine samples, a manual differential was requested. Indistinct separation of the cell population was present in 10% to 15% of the cases. Depending on the species, atypical lymphocytes were suspected in 2% to 12%, left shift in 13% to 25% and suspicion of blasts was present in less than 0.4% of the cases. Conclusions The obtained results are comparable to those published for human medicine and the rate of manual differentiation could be markedly reduced in veterinary laboratories if microscopic examination was used as a validation procedure rather than as a reflexive substitute for automated differentiation.



Glucocorticoid receptor gene polymorphisms and glucocorticoid sensitivity of subdermal blood vessels and leukocytes.  


A considerable variability in the sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GCs) exists between individuals and these differences have been implicated in the etiology of psychiatric diseases such as depression. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene polymorphisms might account in part for variability in GC responsiveness. We assessed the association between four common GR gene (NR3C1) polymorphisms (ER22/23EK, N363S, BclI, 9beta) and markers of glucocorticoid sensitivity in two target tissues (subdermal blood vessels, peripheral leukocytes) in 206 healthy individuals. The BclI GG genotype group showed the least degree of skin blanching, reflecting a lower GC sensitivity of subdermal blood vessels (p=.01). No association between GR genotype and GC sensitivity of peripheral leukocytes was observed. In the same subjects we previously observed an association between GR genotype and GC sensitivity of the pituitary. Polymorphism of the GR gene might constitute a vulnerability or protection factor for stress related disorders and altered GC sensitivity. PMID:18502562

Kumsta, R; Entringer, S; Koper, J W; van Rossum, E F C; Hellhammer, D H; Wüst, S



Effects of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody infusion on blood leukocytes in cancer patients  

SciTech Connect

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a single infusion of radiolabelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) on peripheral blood leukocytes in cancer patients. Eleven patients with disseminated colon cancer, malignant melanoma, or lung adenocarcinoma were infused with 111In-labelled anti-ZCE 025, anti-p97 type 96.5c, or LA 20207 MAb, respectively. Blood samples were obtained before infusion, immediately after infusion (1 hr), and at 4 and 7 days postinfusion. Flow cytometry analysis of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD19+ lymphocytes showed increasing CD4:CD8 ratios in seven patients after infusion. This phenomenon was not restricted to antibody subclass or to type of cancer. Two of the remaining patients exhibited a marked post-infusion increase in CD8+ cells. In all three patients with malignant melanoma, decreasing levels of CD16+ lymphocytes were noted after infusion and natural killer cell cytotoxicity showed fluctuations which paralleled the changes in the CD16+ subpopulation. Oxygen radical production by phagocytic cells was markedly affected in three subjects. These results suggest that a single infusion of radiolabelled murine MAb may alter the balance of critical lymphocyte subpopulations and modulate other leukocyte responses in cancer patients.

Gridley, D.S.; Slater, J.M.; Stickney, D.R. (Loma Linda Univ./Independent Order of Foresters Cancer Research Laboratory, CA (USA))



Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas



Differences of superoxide production in blood leukocytes stimulated with thymol between human and non-human primates.  


Thymol induced superoxide production (O2-) by blood leukocytes was examined in various primates including man. Leukocytes of chimpanzee and hamadryas baboon cells showed only 35% of the maximal O2- production rate obtained in human cells, and those of the Japanese monkey and orang-utan failed to respond. In contrast, when cells were stimulated with 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate, no significant difference in the O2- production rate was observed between human and monkey cells except for chimpanzee. These results showed that human leukocytes are the most sensitive to thymol among the primates tested. The responsiveness of non-human primate leukocytes could be classified into two types, African-type(chimpanzee and baboon) and Asian-type(orang-utan and macaque). PMID:3041150

Suzuki, Y; Nakamura, S; Sugiyama, K; Furuta, H



Ischemic Stroke Is Associated With a Systemic Increase of Blood Mononuclear Cells Expressing Interleukin8 mRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Ischemic brain injury secondary to an arterial occlusion is characterized by acute local inflammation. Blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), primarily neutrophils, adhere to endothelial cells and rapidly invade the injured brain after the arterial occlusion. This neutrophilic invasion might correlate with the production of certain chemoattractants by blood mononuclear cells (MNC). We evaluated mRNA expression of the CXC chemokine

Nikolaos Kostulas; Pia Kivisakk; Yumin Huang; Darius Matusevicius; Vasilios Kostulas; Hans Link


Taurine Chloramine Inhibits Lymphocyte Proliferation and Decreases Cytokine Production in Activated Human Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we described the inhibition of proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and prostaglandin E2 by taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl) in activated rodent macrophages. We also demonstrated that Tau-Cl suppressed superoxide anion, IL-6, and IL-8 production in activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes separated from peripheral blood. In these studies, we report the effect of Tau-Cl on lymphocyte proliferation

Junhua Jia; Michael R. Quinn; Georgia Schuller-Levis



Sildenafil prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats: role of leukocyte adherence and gastric blood flow  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of gastric mucosal defense. Sildenafil (SILD), a cyclic GMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, promotes an increase in cGMP concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract. cGMP mediates many of the biological actions of NO.We tested the hypothesis that SILD could increase mucosal defense against indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats.SILD (1, 4 or 10?mg?kg?1, p.o.) pretreatment significantly reduced (P<0.01) the gastric damage and the increase in gastric myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity elicited by indomethacin (20?mg?kg?1 p.o.), with the maximal effect at the dose of 10?mg?kg?1.L-NAME (3, 10 or 20?mg?kg?1, i.p.) dose dependently reversed the protective effects of SILD, an effect not seen when L-arginine (L-ARG) (200?mg?kg?1, i.p.) was co-administered with L-NAME.Indomethacin-induced leukocyte adhesion, assessed by intravital microscopy, was decreased (P<0.01) by SILD, and this effect was reversed by L-NAME cotreatment.Indomethacin elicited a decrease in gastric blood flow and in gastric PGE2 levels. SILD was able to prevent the decrease in gastric blood flow (P<0.01), without diminishing the inhibitory effect of indomethacin on prostaglandin synthesis.These results indicate that SILD, acting via NO-dependent mechanisms, prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy, possibly through a reduction of leukocyte adhesion and maintenance of gastric blood flow.

Santos, Camila L; Souza, Marcellus H L P; Gomes, Antoniella S; Lemos, Henrique P; Santos, Armenio A; Cunha, Fernando Q; Wallace, John L



alpha-Defensins from blood leukocytes of the monkey Papio hamadryas.  


Three antimicrobial peptides named PHD1-3 (Papio hamadryas defensin) have been isolated from hamadryas baboon blood leukocytes using preparative electrophoresis and reverse-phase HPLC. The primary structures of these peptides have been determined by automated Edman degradation and mass-spectrometry. The results suggest that the peptides belong to the alpha-defensin family. Structural homology analysis reveals that among alpha-defensins from other animal species, PHD3 is the most closely related to RMAD5 (rhesus macaque alpha-defensin) (90% homology) from rhesus macaque leukocytes and also highly similar to human alpha-defensin HD5 (60% homology), which is produced by intestinal Paneth cells. The homology of PHD3 with human neutrophil alpha-defensin HNP1 (human natural peptide) was 30%. The primary structures of PHD1 and PHD2 are most similar to RED1 (rhesus enteral defensin), one of six enteral alpha-defensins of rhesus monkeys. PHD1-3 have been shown to be active against the Gram-positive bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli, and the fungus Candida albicans, similarly to the human HNP1 defensin. PMID:16978151

Tsvetkova, E V; Aleshina, G M; Shamova, O V; Leonova, L E; Lehrer, R I; Kokryakov, V N



Levels of DNA damage in blood leukocyte samples from non-diabetic and diabetic female rats and their fetuses exposed to air or cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage level in blood leukocytes from diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats exposed to air or to cigarette smoke, and to correlate the findings with levels of DNA damage detected in blood leukocyte samples from their fetuses. A total of 20 rats were distributed into four experimental groups: non-diabetic (control;

Paula Helena Ortiz Lima; Débora Cristina Damasceno; Yuri Karen Sinzato; Maricelma da Silva Soares de Souza; Daisy Maria Fávero Salvadori; Iracema de Mattos Paranhos Calderon; Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge



The Physical Ability of Japanese Female Elderly with Cerebrovascular Disease Correlates with the Telomere Length and Subtelomeric Methylation Status in Their Peripheral Blood Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The telomere length and subtelomeric methylated status of peripheral blood leukocytes have been reported to be correlated with many kinds of pathophysiological conditions. However, the correlation between the telomeric parameters and patients’ physical ability is not known. Objective: This study aims to study how telomeric parameters, including telomere length and the subtelomeric methylation status of peripheral blood leukocytes, are

Toyoki Maeda; Jun-ichi Oyama; Yoshihiro Higuchi; Yasuhiro Nishiyama; Yoshihiro Kudo; Tomoko Yamori; Takashi Nakazono; Takahiro Arima; Koshi Mimori; Naoki Makino



Effects of non-leukocyte-reduced and leukocyte-reduced packed red blood cell transfusions on oxygenation of rat spinotrapezius muscle.  


Leukoreduction of blood used for transfusion alleviates febrile transfusion reactions, graft versus host disease and alloimmunization to leukocyte antigen. However, the actual clinical benefit of leukoreduction in terms of microcirculatory tissue O2 delivery after packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion has not been investigated. As such, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of non-leukoreduced (NLR) and leukoreduced (LR) fresh pRBC transfusion on interstitial oxygenation in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interstitial fluid PO2 and arteriolar diameters in spinotrapezius muscle preparations were monitored before and after transfusion with NLR- or LR-pRBCs. The major findings were that (1) transfusion of NLR-pRBCs significantly decreased interstitial oxygenation whereas transfusion of LR-pRBCs did not, and (2) transfusion with LR-pRBCs elicited a substantially greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than did transfusion with NLR-pRBCs. These changes in PO2 and ABP were not associated with changes in the diameters of resistance arterioles in the spinotrapezius muscle. These data suggest that transfusion of fresh NLR-pRBCs may negatively affect tissue oxygenation via enhanced leukocyte influx and decreased O2 delivery. They also suggest that leukocytes diminish the capability of transfused pRBCs to increase cardiac output. As such, transfusion of LR-pRBCs may be less deleterious on tissue PO2 levels than NLR-pRBCs although a concomitantly greater increase in ABP may accompany transfusion of LR-pRBCs. PMID:24189119

Sundararajan, Sripriya; Dodhy, Sami C; Pittman, Roland N; Lewis, Stephen J



Leukocyte Trafficking in Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis: Breakdown of Blood?Retinal Barrier and Upregulation of Cellular Adhesion Molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To clarify the order of events occurring in the breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) and in particular to study the relationships between increased vascular permeability, upregu- lation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules, and leukocyte adhesion and infiltration during EAU. METHODS. B10.RIII mice were immunized with human inter- photoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP) peptide

Heping Xu; John V. Forrester; Janet Liversidge; Isabel J. Crane



Antibody and blood leukocyte response in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) tick-infested dogs and guinea pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dog is considered to be the natural host of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and is unable to develop appreciable resistance even after repeated feedings. The guinea pig develops strong resistance after one infestation with adult ticks. Antibody (IgG) titres against tick salivary gland antigens (SGAs) and blood leukocyte numbers in dogs and guinea pigs undergoing experimental R. sanguineus tick infestations were

Matias P. J. Szabó; Vanessa L. Aoki; Françoise P. S. Sanches; Lúcia P. T. C. T. Aquino; Marcos V. Garcia; Rosângela Z. Machado; Gervásio H. Bechara



Effects of spaceflight on rat peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The white blood cell (WBC) elements and the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cell populations were analyzed to ascertain adaptation to micro-gravity and subsequent readaptation to 1 G in rats flown on the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission. Bone marrow cells were harvested from one group of rats killed inflight (FD13) and blood was drawn from three other groups at various times. The WBC level was normal on FD14 with the exception of neutrophilia. On FD13, numbers of colony-forming units-granulocyte (CFU-G), CFU-GM, and CFU-M from flight animals were decreased compared with ground controls when incubated with recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) alone or in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo). On recovery (R + 0), flight rats had decreased numbers of total leukocytes and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes with elevated neutrophils compared with control rats. They had lower numbers of CD4, CD8, CD2, CD3, and B cells in the peripheral blood but no differences in spleen lymphocytes.

Ichiki, A. T.; Gibson, L. A.; Jago, T. L.; Strickland, K. M.; Johnson, D. L.; Lange, R. D.; Allebban, Z.



Effects of spaceflight on rat peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells.  


The white blood cell (WBC) elements and the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cell populations were analyzed to ascertain adaptation to micro-gravity and subsequent readaptation to 1 G in rats flown on the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission. Bone marrow cells were harvested from one group of rats killed inflight (FD13) and blood was drawn from three other groups at various times. The WBC level was normal on FD14 with the exception of neutrophilia. On FD13, numbers of colony-forming units-granulocyte (CFU-G), CFU-GM, and CFU-M from flight animals were decreased compared with ground controls when incubated with recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) alone or in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo). On recovery (R + 0), flight rats had decreased numbers of total leukocytes and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes with elevated neutrophils compared with control rats. They had lower numbers of CD4, CD8, CD2, CD3, and B cells in the peripheral blood but no differences in spleen lymphocytes. PMID:8699121

Ichiki, A T; Gibson, L A; Jago, T L; Strickland, K M; Johnson, D L; Lange, R D; Allebban, Z



Expressions of IL18 and its binding protein in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney tissues of lupus nephritis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the expressions of IL-18 and its binding protein (IL-18BP) in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney tissues\\u000a in patients with lupus nephritis (LN). SYBR-green-dye-I-based real-time quantitative PCR method was used to compare the gene\\u000a expression levels (indicated as 2???CT value) of IL-18 and IL-18BP in the peripheral blood leucocytes of LN patients and those in normal controls. Serum levels

Dawei Hu; Xiaoqian Liu; Shunle Chen; Chunde Bao



Forces on a Wall-Bound Leukocyte in a Small Vessel Due to Red Cells in the Blood Stream  

PubMed Central

As part of the inflammation response, white blood cells (leukocytes) are well known to bind nearly statically to the vessel walls, where they must resist the force exerted by the flowing blood. This force is particularly difficult to estimate due to the particulate character of blood, especially in small vessels where the red blood cells must substantially deform to pass an adhered leukocyte. An efficient simulation tool with realistically flexible red blood cells is used to estimate these forces. At these length scales, it is found that the red cells significantly augment the streamwise forces that must be resisted by the binding. However, interactions with the red cells are also found to cause an average wall-directed force, which can be anticipated to enhance binding. These forces increase significantly as hematocrit values approach 25% and decrease significantly as the leukocyte is made flatter on the wall. For a tube hematocrit of 25% and a spherical protrusion with a diameter three-quarters that of the vessel, the average forces are increased by ?40% and the local forces are more than double those estimated with an effective-viscosity-homogenized blood. Both the enhanced streamwise and wall-ward forces and their unsteady character are potentially important in regard to binding mechanisms.

Isfahani, Amir H.G.; Freund, Jonathan B.



Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 ?g /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila



Accurate segmentation of leukocyte in blood cell images using Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory.  


In this paper automatic leukocyte segmentation in pathological blood cell images is proposed using intuitionistic fuzzy and interval Type II fuzzy set theory. This is done to count different types of leukocytes for disease detection. Also, the segmentation should be accurate so that the shape of the leukocytes is preserved. So, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval Type II fuzzy set that consider either more number of uncertainties or a different type of uncertainty as compared to fuzzy set theory are used in this work. As the images are considered fuzzy due to imprecise gray levels, advanced fuzzy set theories may be expected to give better result. A modified Cauchy distribution is used to find the membership function. In intuitionistic fuzzy method, non-membership values are obtained using Yager's intuitionistic fuzzy generator. Optimal threshold is obtained by minimizing intuitionistic fuzzy divergence. In interval type II fuzzy set, a new membership function is generated that takes into account the two levels in Type II fuzzy set using probabilistic T co norm. Optimal threshold is selected by minimizing a proposed Type II fuzzy divergence. Though fuzzy techniques were applied earlier but these methods failed to threshold multiple leukocytes in images. Experimental results show that both interval Type II fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy methods perform better than the existing non-fuzzy/fuzzy methods but interval Type II fuzzy thresholding method performs little bit better than intuitionistic fuzzy method. Segmented leukocytes in the proposed interval Type II fuzzy method are observed to be distinct and clear. PMID:24792441

Chaira, Tamalika



Delayed Processing of Blood Samples Influences Time to Positivity of Blood Cultures and Results of Gram Stain-Acridine Orange Leukocyte Cytospin Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated in vitro whether storage of blood samples influences the time to positivity used for the calculation of the differential time to positivity (DTP) and the results of the Gram stain-acridine orange leukocyte Cytospin (AOLC) test. A 24-hour storage of blood samples at room temperature may lead to false-negative DTP and false-positive Gram stain-AOLC test results, whereas storage at

I. Schwetz; G. Hinrichs; E. C. Reisinger; G. J. Krejs; H. Olschewski; R. Krause



Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?  


Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood nerve barrier (BNB) preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf) allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) and perfluorocarbons enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage) infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients. PMID:23267343

Weise, Gesa; Stoll, Guido



The Activation Pattern of Blood Leukocytes in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Is Correlated to Survival  

PubMed Central

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is known to cause substantial immunosuppression. The present study was designed to characterize blood leukocyte activation in HNSCC and to investigate if the individual activation pattern could be related to tumor progress and survival. The leukocyte activation profile of HNSCC patients and healthy controls was assessed with flow cytometry. HNSCC patients displayed increased numbers of monocytes, neutrophils and total leukocytes as well as an enhanced neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. In addition, patients had a higher percentage of CD69+, CD71+ and CD98+ T cell subsets and NK cells, and a reduced expression of L-selectin in CD14highCD16+ monocytes and neutrophils, when compared to controls. These changes could be correlated to both tumor burden and spread to lymph nodes. Among the cancer patients an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, a low neutrophil and CD14high CD16+ monocyte activation state and an elevated CD4/CD8 ratio were related to poor survival. In contrast, a high percentage of CD98+ Th cells appeared to be associated with a better outcome. Taken together, the present data indicate that HNSCC causes activation of blood leukocytes and that the individual activation pattern can be linked to prognosis.

Millrud, Camilla Rydberg; Mansson Kvarnhammar, Anne; Uddman, Rolf; Bjornsson, Sven; Riesbeck, Kristian; Cardell, Lars Olaf



Characterization of interferons induced by bacteria and interferon-producing leukocytes in human peripheral blood.  

PubMed Central

All of 23 different preparations of formaldehyde-fixed and heat-killed bacteria induced the appearance of high levels of interferon (IFN) in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. Some bacteria induced peak IFN titers after 24 h of culture, whereas other bacteria showed maximal titers on culture days 2 to 3. The IFN displayed various properties. One type, which appeared early during the cultures, had characteristics of IFN-alpha, being resistant to pH 2 treatment but neutralized by antibodies to IFN-alpha. A second type, which appeared later, on culture days 2 to 3, resembled IFN-gamma in being sensitive to pH 2 treatment but resistant to anti-IFN-alpha antibodies. A third type, which appeared to be sensitive to both pH 2 and antibody treatment, was interpreted as atypical IFN-alpha. The application of cell fractionation procedures indicated that nonadherent, predominantly Fc receptor-bearing, non-T, non-B cells were producers of IFN-alpha as defined by its antigenic properties. They copurified approximately with cells carrying natural killer activity toward human erythroid leukemia K562 cells. Some bacteria apparently also stimulated T lymphocytes to produce material with properties of IFN-gamma.

Ronnblom, L; Forsgren, A; Alm, G V



Comparative quantitation of human cytomegalovirus DNA in blood leukocytes and plasma of transplant and AIDS patients.  

PubMed Central

A new method for the quantitation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA was used to determine the levels of viral DNA in parallel in 120 blood leukocyte (leukoDNAemia) and plasma (plasmaDNAemia) samples from 8 heart or heart-lung transplant patients and 17 AIDS patients with disseminated HCMV infection. PlasmaDNAemia was consistently associated with leukoDNAemia in both groups of patients. However, at least in the transplant patients, plasmaDNAemia was not necessarily associated with clinical symptoms, appearing later and disappearing earlier than leukoDNAemia during the course of infection. Quantitative mean levels of leukoDNAemia were mostly higher than those of plasmaDNAemia in both transplant and AIDS patients. However, in the absence of antiviral treatment, plasmaDNAemia levels were significantly higher in AIDS patients than in transplant recipients, whereas leukoDNAemia levels were not significantly different between the two groups of patients. A significant correlation was found between leukoDNAemia and plasmaDNAemia in AIDS patients, as well as in transplant recipients, although to a lesser degree. However, from a diagnostic standpoint, quantitative determination of plasmaDNAemia appears to represent a much less sensitive parameter than that of leukoDNAemia (or antigenemia) for monitoring HCMV infections and antiviral treatment. Images

Gerna, G; Furione, M; Baldanti, F; Sarasini, A



Reactions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of camels with monoclonal antibodies against ruminant leukocytes.  


The particular immune system of the camel has been but little investigated. In this work circulating camel peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied by flow cytometry. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against ruminant leukocytes were used for the detection of cell surface antigens. Monoclonals to T-cell markers, CD4 (CACT138A) and CD8 (CACT80C), exhibited no reactivity towards camel PBMC in contrast to their reactivity to PBMC of other ruminant species and those of cattle in particular. A relatively high percentage (29.1+/-8.9%) of camel PBMC reacted with a non-immunoglobulin cell surface marker, B-B2, comparable to the reactivity of bovine PBMC. The B-B7 cell marker revealed 22.4+/-10.0% of reactive camel PBMC while the CD45 leukocyte common antigen was identified only on 19.4+/-3.1% of camel PBMC as compared to 74.7+/-4.9% for bovine PBMC. IgM (PIg45A) was detected on 9.1+/-1.4% of camel PBMC and on 46.6+/-19.5% of the bovine PBMC. Double fluorescent labeling with two B-cell markers and an anti-ruminant lambda light-chain mAb revealed 7-9% of cells bearing both B and lambda L-chain markers. Light chain reactivity was also assessed using an anti-goat F(ab')(2) antiserum. The values obtained, 14.3+/-5.8% for the camel and 47.8+/-2.7% for the cattle, are close to the values observed for surface IgM. These data suggest that camels, like other ruminants, possess L-chain bearing cells of the B-cell lineage. However, in the camel, Igs are different in that in addition to regular four chain Igs, about 65% of them possess two heavy chain Igs devoid of light chains. Because different sets of V(H) gene segments are used by four and two chain Igs, it is possible that there might be two lineages of B-cells each secreting a different form of antibodies. PMID:12493494

Ungar-Waron, H; Yagil, R; Brenner, J; Paz, R; Partosh, N; Van Creveld, C; Lubashevsky, E; Trainin, Z



Association of hypomethylation of LINE-1 repetitive element in blood leukocyte DNA with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Global DNA hypomethylation has been associated with increased risk for cancers of the colorectum, bladder, breast, head and neck, and testicular germ cells. The aim of this study was to examine whether global hypomethylation in blood leukocyte DNA is associated with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A total of 315 HCC cases and 356 age-, sex- and HBsAg status-matched controls were included. Global methylation in blood leukocyte DNA was estimated by analyzing long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1) repeats using bisulfite-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and pyrosequencing. We observed that the median methylation level in HCC cases (percentage of 5-methylcytosine (5mC)=77.7%) was significantly lower than that in controls (79.5% 5mC) (P=0.004, Wilcoxon rank-sum test). The odds ratios (ORs) of HCC for individuals in the third, second, and first (lowest) quartiles of LINE-1 methylation were 1.1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7–1.8), 1.4 (95% CI 0.8–2.2), and 2.6 (95% CI 1.7–4.1) (P for trend <0.001), respectively, compared to individuals in the fourth (highest) quartile. A 1.9-fold (95% CI 1.4–2.6) increased risk of HCC was observed among individuals with LINE-1 methylation below the median compared to individuals with higher (>median) LINE-1 methylation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that individuals with global hypomethylation measured in LINE-1 repeats in blood leukocyte DNA have an increased risk for HCC. Our data provide the evidence that global hypomethylation detected in the easily obtainable DNA source of blood leukocytes may help identify individuals at risk of HCC.

Di, Jian-zhong; Han, Xiao-dong; Gu, Wen-ye; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Qi; Zhang, Pin; Wu, Hui-min; Zhu, Zhong-zheng



No Association between Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and the Risk of Non-melanoma Skin Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Recent reports have shown that telomere length was associated with the risk of various cancers, but the results have been inconsistent. Methods We prospectively evaluated the association of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with the risk of skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in 241 cases and 241 controls within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), and the risk of skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in 623 cases and 1943 controls within the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Results No significant association was observed between telomere length and risk of SCC (longest quartile vs. shortest quartile, odds ratio (OR) =1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.62–1.93, P trend=0.81). Null findings were also observed between telomere length and risk of BCC in two independent sets (OR=0.96, 95%CI, 0.49–1.87, P trend=0.83; and OR=0.91, 95%CI, 0.66–1.25, P trend=0.39). Conclusion We found no evidence that telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes was associated with risk of non-melanoma skin cancer. Impact Our prospective study suggests that telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is less likely to play a substantial role in non-melanoma skin cancer development.

Liang, Geyu; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Guo, Qun; De Vivo, Immaculata; Han, Jiali



Effect of gold nanoparticles on production of reactive oxygen species by human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan.  


We studied the effect of gold nanoparticles on ROS production by leukocytes. ROS production was detected by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) of human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan. Nanoparticle size was 5, 10 and 30 nm. Simultaneous addition of nanoparticles and opsonized zymosan showed that 5-nm nanoparticles inhibited LDCL intensity in comparison with the control, when LDCL recording was conducted in the presence of opsonized zymosan. Increasing nanoparticle size from 5 up to 30 nm enhanced LDCL intensity. Preincubation of gold nanoparticles with autologous blood plasma increased LDCL intensity. In the control (without gold nanoparticles), blood plasma produced no activating effect on LDCL. We found that the effect of gold nanoparticles on leukocyte LDCL depended on nanoparticle size: 10- and 30-nm nanoparticles inhibited LDCL intensity in comparison with the control (incubation in the absence of nanoparticles) irrespective of the duration of incubation, while 5-nm gold nanoparticles had no effect on LDCL intensity. Incubation of gold nanoparticles with autologous plasma increased LDCL intensity if nanoparticle size was 30 and 10 nm. PMID:24319701

Piryazev, A P; Azizova, O A; Aseichev, A V; Dudnik, L B; Sergienko, V I



Chemokines and leukocyte traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past ten years, numerous chemokines have been identified as attractants of different types of blood leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation. They are produced locally in the tissues and act on leukocytes through selective receptors. Chemokines are now known to also function as regulatory molecules in leukocyte maturation, traffic and homing of lymphocytes, and the development of

Marco Baggiolini



Age-Related Changes following In Vitro Stimulation with Rhodococcus equi of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes from Neonatal Foals  

PubMed Central

Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular bacterium primarily known as an equine pathogen that infects young foals causing a pyogranulomatuous pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms mediating the immune response of foals to R. equi are not fully elucidated. Hence, global genomic high-throughput tools like gene expression microarrays might identify age-related gene expression signatures and molecular pathways that contribute to the immune mechanisms underlying the inherent susceptibility of foals to disease caused by R. equi. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to compare the expression profiles at specific ages of blood leukocytes from foals stimulated with virulent R. equi with those of unstimulated leukocytes; and, 2) to characterize the age-related changes in the gene expression profile associated with blood leukocytes in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from 6 foals within 24 hours (h) of birth (day 1) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after birth. The samples were split, such that half were stimulated with live virulent R. equi, and the other half served as unstimulated control. RNA was extracted and the generated cDNA was labeled with fluorescent dyes for microarray hybridizations using an equine microarray. Our findings suggest that there is age-related differential expression of genes involved in host immune response and immunity. We found induction of genes critical for host immunity against pathogens (MHC class II) only at the later time-points (compared to birth). While it appears that foals up to 8-weeks of age are able to initiate a protective inflammatory response against the bacteria, relatively decreased expression of various other immune-related genes points toward inherent diminished immune responses closer to birth. These genes and pathways may contribute to disease susceptibility in foals if infected early in life, and might thus be targeted for developing preventative or therapeutic strategies.

Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Seabury, Ashley G.; Liu, Mei; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Cohen, Noah D.



Age-related changes following in vitro stimulation with Rhodococcus equi of peripheral blood leukocytes from neonatal foals.  


Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular bacterium primarily known as an equine pathogen that infects young foals causing a pyogranulomatuous pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms mediating the immune response of foals to R. equi are not fully elucidated. Hence, global genomic high-throughput tools like gene expression microarrays might identify age-related gene expression signatures and molecular pathways that contribute to the immune mechanisms underlying the inherent susceptibility of foals to disease caused by R. equi. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to compare the expression profiles at specific ages of blood leukocytes from foals stimulated with virulent R. equi with those of unstimulated leukocytes; and, 2) to characterize the age-related changes in the gene expression profile associated with blood leukocytes in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from 6 foals within 24 hours (h) of birth (day 1) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after birth. The samples were split, such that half were stimulated with live virulent R. equi, and the other half served as unstimulated control. RNA was extracted and the generated cDNA was labeled with fluorescent dyes for microarray hybridizations using an equine microarray. Our findings suggest that there is age-related differential expression of genes involved in host immune response and immunity. We found induction of genes critical for host immunity against pathogens (MHC class II) only at the later time-points (compared to birth). While it appears that foals up to 8-weeks of age are able to initiate a protective inflammatory response against the bacteria, relatively decreased expression of various other immune-related genes points toward inherent diminished immune responses closer to birth. These genes and pathways may contribute to disease susceptibility in foals if infected early in life, and might thus be targeted for developing preventative or therapeutic strategies. PMID:23690962

Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Seabury, Ashley G; Liu, Mei; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Cohen, Noah D



Differential Expression of Intracellular and Extracellular CB2 Cannabinoid Receptor Protein by Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

mRNA encoding for the CB2 cannabinoid receptor is expressed by many subsets of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), but little is known about the resulting protein expression and function. Employing clones from the A549 and 293T cell lines that were constructed to express both full-length human CB2 and GFP, we developed a flow cytometry assay for characterizing CB2 protein expression. A monoclonal antibody directed against human CB2 selectively stained the surface of transduced but not parental cell lines. When cells were fixed and permeabilized, imaging flow cytometry identified large stores of intracellular protein. Total cellular staining for CB2 corresponded closely with the level of GFP expression. When exposed to ?-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, CB2-expressing cells internalized cell surface CB2 receptors in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Applying these approaches to human PBL, CB2 protein was identified on the surface of human B cells but not on T cells or monocytes. In contrast, when PBL were fixed and permeabilized, intracellular CB2 expression was readily detected in all three subsets by both conventional and imaging flow cytometry. Similar to the protein expression pattern observed in fixed and permeabilized PBL, purified B cells, T cells, and monocytes expressed relatively equal levels of CB2 mRNA by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our findings confirm that human PBL express CB2 protein but that its distribution is predominantly intracellular with only B cells expressing CB2 protein at the extracellular membrane. The differential role of intracellular and extracellular CB2 receptors in mediating ligand signaling and immune function remains to be determined.

Castaneda, Julie T.; Harui, Airi; Kiertscher, Sylvia M.; Roth, Jeffrey D.; Roth, Michael D.



Generation of large numbers of human dendritic cells from whole blood passaged through leukocyte removal filters: an alternative to standard buffy coats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many blood banks now use whole blood inline filtration to produce leukocyte-depleted blood products. As a result, a common source of large numbers of human dendritic cells (DC) for research purposes, namely standard buffy coats, has been lost. Therefore, we have adapted our conventional method for growing DC from CD14+ precursors in order to make use of these filter units.

Susanne Ebner; Susanne Neyer; Susanne Hofer; Walter Nussbaumer; Nikolaus Romani; Christine Heufler



Leukocyte, red blood cell and morphological adaptation to moderate physical training in rats undernourished in the neonatal period  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the impact of moderate physical exercise on the total and differential leukocyte counts and red blood cell count of 36 sixty-day-old adult male Wistar rats subjected to early malnourishment. Methods The rats were divided in nourished (N - casein 17%) and malnourished groups (M - casein 8%) and thesegroups were then subdivided in trained (T) untrained (U) creating four groups NT, NU, MT and MU. The NT and MTgroups were submitted to moderate physical exercise using a treadmill (60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Onthe 1st day, before the training started T0 and 24 hours after the last training day of the week (T1 until T8), a 1 mLaliquot of blood was collected from the animals' tails for analysis. The total leukocyte count was evaluated in a cellcounter with an electronic microscope. The cyanmethemoglobin technique was used to measure the hemoglobin level. The hematocrit values were determined as a percentage using the micro-hematocrit technique with a microcapillaryreader and a cell counter was used to determine the red blood cell count. The t-test was used for statistical analysis and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Results There was a significant difference in the total leukocyte count between the NT (9.1 ± 0.1) and MT groups (8.0 ± 0.1) from T1 and in neutrophils between the NT (22.1 ± 0.6) and MT groups (24.6 ± 1.8) from T7 (p < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in the hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count from T1. Conclusions According to the results of this study, moderate physical exercise seems to have induced physiologic adaptation in adult rats from T1.

Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Perez, Manuella Cavalcanti; Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Gilberto de Freire; de Castro, Celia Maria Machado Barbosa



Specific Role of Each Human Leukocyte Type in Viral Infections I. Monocyte as Host Cell for Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Replication In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Each major leukocyte type of the peripheral blood of healthy donors was studied in vitro for its ability to support vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) replication. Purified cultures of each white blood cell type were prepared by the selective adsorption and elution of cells from silicone-treated glass beads. It was found that monocytes and macrophages (derived from the rapid transformation of monocytes in vitro) were the principal host cells for VSV replication. Interferon added to mixed leukocyte cultures, prior to virus inoculation, reduced virus yields and prevented destruction of macrophages. Cultures of small lymphocytes, containing no detectable monocytes or macrophages, produced amounts of virus equivalent to 1% of that produced in leukocyte cultures which contained 7% monocytes. Small lymphocytes did not undergo demonstrable cytopathic alterations in virus-infected cultures. VSV neither replicated nor produced cytopathic effects in polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Images

Edelman, Robert; Wheelock, E. Frederick



Correlation of MLH1 and MGMT methylation levels between peripheral blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue DNA samples in colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

CpG island methylation in the promoter regions of the DNA mismatch repair gene mutator L homologue 1 (MLH1) and DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes has been shown to occur in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissue. However, it is unclear whether the methylation levels in the blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue are correlated. The present study analyzed and compared the levels of MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissues obtained from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were examined using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis. A total of 44 patients with CRC were selected based on the MLH1 and MGMT gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood. Corresponding colorectal tumor and normal tissues were obtained from each patient and the DNA methylation levels were determined. The correlation coefficients were evaluated using Spearman’s rank test. Agreement was determined by generalized ?-statistics. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (r) for the methylation levels of the MGMT and MLH1 genes in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were 0.475 and 0.362, respectively (P=0.001 and 0.016, respectively). The agreement of the MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were graded as fair and poor (?=0.299 and 0.126, respectively). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were moderately and weakly correlated between the patient-matched leukocytes and the normal colorectal tissue, respectively. Blood-derived DNA methylation measurements may not always represent the levels of normal colorectal tissue methylation.




Subnormal Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Counts Are Related to the Lowest Prevalence and Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Few studies have assessed the relationship between a subnormal inflammatory status and metabolic syndrome (MS). We therefore designed a cross-sectional and 5-year cohort study to evaluate how a subnormal peripheral blood leukocyte count is related to MS. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 46,179) and a prospective assessment (n = 13,061) were performed. Participants without a history of MS were followed up for 5 years. Leukocyte counts and MS components were assessed at baseline and yearly during the follow-up. Adjusted logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess relationships between the categories of leukocyte counts and MS. The subnormal leukocyte counts group (1,100–3,900?cells/mm3) had the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The odds ratio and hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of the highest leukocyte counts were 1.98 (1.57–2.49) and 1.50 (1.22–1.84) (both P for trend <0.0001), respectively, when compared to the subnormal leukocyte counts group after adjusting for potential confounders. This study has shown that subnormal leukocyte counts are independently related to the lowest prevalence and incidence of MS. The findings suggest that it is necessary to restudy and discuss the clinical or preventive value of subnormal leukocyte counts.

Sun, Shaomei; Wu, Hongmei; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chongjin; Guo, Yinting; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Jia, Qiyu; Wang, Xing; Song, Kun



Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10?4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients.

zilinskas, Juozas; zekonis, Jonas; zekonis, Gediminas; Sadzeviciene, Renata; Sapragoniene, Marija; Navickaite, Justina; Barzdziukaite, Ingrida



Effect of glucose concentration, osmolality, and sterilization process of peritoneal dialysis fluids on cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and polymorphonuclear cell functions in vitro.  


We sought to investigate the effects of high glucose concentration, osmolality, and heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis fluids on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) functions. Blood samples were obtained from eight healthy volunteers. PBMCs and PMNs were harvested by centrifugation with Ficoll-Hypaque (Sigma, St Louis, MO). PBMC were incubated with an equal volume of test fluids and RPMI for 4 hours (pH equilibrated), followed by incubation for 20 hours in RPMI with or without endotoxin (10 ng/mL). Total TNF-alpha production was measured by radioimmunoassay. PMNs were incubated with pH-adjusted test fluids for 30 minutes. After incubation, phagocytosis was determined by the uptake of 14C-labeled Staphylococcus aureus, oxidative burst by reduction of ferricytochrome C to ferrouscytochrome C on stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate, and enzyme release by measurement of endotoxin-stimulated bactericidal/permeability increasing factor. To study the effects of increasing glucose concentration and osmolality on PBMC and PMN functions, we compared conventional 1.5% Dianeal (1.5%D), (Baxter Healthcare Corp, Deerfield, IL) 2.5% Dianeal (2.5%D), 4.25% Dianeal (4.25%D), and control (RPMI for PBMCs and Hank's balanced salt solution for PMNs). PMNs exposed to 4.25%D exhibited an inhibition of phagocytosis, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated oxidative burst, and bactericidal/permeability increasing factor release compared with control, 1.5%D, or 2.5%D. To study the effects of increased osmolality when controlled for glucose concentration, we compared 1.5%D with 1.5%D in which osmolality was increased to that of 4.25%D with the addition of either sodium chloride (1.5%D+NaCl) or mannitol (1.5%D+M). High osmolality induced higher TNF-alpha production by unstimulated PBMCs and decreased TNF-alpha production by endotoxin-stimulated PBMCs. PMN functions were also inhibited by high osmolality. To study the effects of increased glucose concentration when controlled for osmolality, we compared 4.25%D with 1.5%D+NaCl and 1.5%D+M. High glucose concentration induced an increase in TNF-alpha production by unstimulated PBMCs, a decrease in TNF-alpha production by endotoxin-stimulated PBMCs, and an inhibition of PMN functions. Finally, to investigate the effects of heat sterilization, we compared 4.25%D (heat sterilized) to a filter-sterilized 4.25%D (4.25%D-F). The filter-sterilized fluid induced less changes in PBMC and PMN functions compared with the heat-sterilized fluid. These data suggest that the high glucose concentration, high osmolality, and heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis fluids adversely affect PBMC and PMN functions. These effects could predispose continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients to peritonitis, compromise host defense during infection, and jeopardize long-term survival of the peritoneal membrane. PMID:9469498

Cendoroglo, M; Sundaram, S; Jaber, B L; Pereira, B J



Proficiency Testing of Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR and Human Leukocyte Antigen-DQ Genetic Risk Assessment for Type 1 Diabetes Using Dried Blood Spots  

PubMed Central

Background The plurality of genetic risk for developing type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) lies within the genes that code for the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). Many T1DM studies use HLA genetic risk assessment to identify higher risk individuals, and they often conduct these tests on dried blood spots (DBSs) like those used for newborn bloodspot screening. One such study is The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY), a long-term prospective study of environmental risk factors. To provide quality assurance for T1DM studies that employ HLA genetic risk assessment, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts both a voluntary quarterly proficiency testing (VQPT) program available to any laboratory and a mandatory annual proficiency testing (PT) challenge for TEDDY laboratories. Methods Whole blood and DBS samples with a wide range of validated HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genotypes were sent to the participating laboratories. Results were evaluated on the basis of both the reported haplotypes and the HLA genetic risk assessment. Results Of the reported results from 24 panels sent out over six years in the VQPT, 94.7% (857/905) were correctly identified with respect to the relevant HLA-DR or HLA-DQ alleles, and 96.4% (241/250) were correctly categorized for risk assessment. Significant improvement was seen over the duration of this program, usually reaching 100% correct categorization during the last three years. Of 1154 reported results in four TEDDY PT challenges, 1153 (99.9%) were correctly identified for TEDDY eligibility. Conclusions The different analytical methods used by T1DM research centers all provided accurate (>99%) results for genetic risk assessment. The two CDC PT programs documented the validity of the various approaches to screening and contributed to overall quality assurance.

Dantonio, Paul; Meredith-Molloy, Nancy; Hagopian, William A.; She, Jin Xiong; Akolkar, Beena; Cordovado, Suzanne K.; Hendrix, Miyono; Henderson, L. Omar; Hannon, W. Harry; Vogt, Robert F.



A longitudinal study of changes in blood leukocyte numbers in the tammar wallaby, Macropus eugenii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in leukocyte numbers were monitored over a 3-year period in a small group of captive tammar wallabies, Macropus eugenii, maintained in the animal research facilities at Macquarie University (NSW, Australia). The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio\\u000a (N\\/L), a commonly used parameter in the assessment of health status in wildlife populations, was not useful when applied between\\u000a animal populations but did

L. J. Young; E. M. Deane



TRA-418, a thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist and prostacyclin receptor agonist, inhibits platelet-leukocyte interaction in human whole blood.  


TRA-418, a compound with both thromboxane A2 receptor (TP receptor) antagonistic and prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) agonistic activities, was synthesised in our laboratory as a new antithrombotic agent. In this study, we examined the effects of TRA-418 on platelet-leukocyte interactions in human whole blood. Platelet-leukocyte interactions were induced by U-46619 in the presence of epinephrine (U-46619 + epinephrine) or with thrombin receptor agonist peptide 1-6 (TRAP). Platelet-leukocyte interactions were assessed by flow cytometry, with examination of both platelet-neutrophil and platelet-monocyte complexes. In a control experiment, the TP receptor antagonist SQ-29548 significantly inhibited the induction of platelet-leukocyte complexes by the combination of U-46619 and epinephrine, but not TRAP-induced formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes. Conversely, the IP receptor agonist beraprost sodium inhibited platelet-leukocyte complex formation induced by both methods, although the IC50 values of beraprost sodium for U-46619 + epinephrine were at least 10-fold greater than for TRAP. Under such conditions, TRA-418 inhibited both U-46619 + epinephrine-induced and TRAP-induced platelet-leukocyte complex formation in a concentration-dependent manner, in a similar range. These results suggest that TRA-418 exerts its inhibitory effects on platelet-leukocyte interactions by acting as a TP receptor antagonist as well as an IP receptor agonist in an additive or synergistic manner. These inhibitory effects of TRA-418 on formation of platelet-leukocyte complexes suggest the compound is beneficial effects as an antithrombotic agent. PMID:20664901

Miyamoto, Mitsuko; Ohno, Michihiro; Yamada, Naohiro; Ohtake, Atsushi; Matsushita, Teruo



Female reproductive status and circulating blood leukocyte expression of selected metabolic or signaling genes involved in sex steroid metabolism  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the blood leukocyte expression of 22 sex steroid metabolic/signaling genes according to female reproductive status. Methods Michigan Fisheaters’ Cohort participants underwent blood collection during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle or randomly in non-menstruating participants. Gene expression (GE) was measured using Taqman hydrolysis probes and quantitative RT-PCR. Repeatability of four genes was determined in a subgroup. Results Five premenstrual, 57 premenopausal (20 users of systemic hormonal contraception), and 43 postmenopausal females participated. After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons of median GE between groups, three findings remained significant: greater GE of AhR in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal non-users of systemic hormonal contraception; and greater GE of ESR2 and HSD17B7 in premenstrual girls compared to postmenopausal women. Modest intra-class correlations were identified for CYP 19, ESR1, and ESR2 GE measured both in 2007 and 2010, but no intra-class correlation over the same time period was found for CYP17. Conclusions There was little differential variation of blood leukocyte sex steroid GE between premenopausal women in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and postmenopausal women for most genes analyzed, but it will be necessary to make statistical adjustments in future epidemiologic studies in two circumstances: 1) when comparing AhR GE in premenopausal women non-users of systemic hormone contraception with postmenopausal women and 2) when comparing ESR2 and HSD17B7 GE in studies that include premenstrual girls. Developmental differences may explain the differential GE found in ESR2 and HSD17B7 in premenstrual girls compared with postmenopausal women.

Osuch, Janet R; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Todem, David; Landgraf, Jeffrey; Mikucki, Dorota; Haan, Pam S; Karmaus, Wilfried



Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin induces activation and apoptosis of bovine leukocytes.  


Fusobacterium necrophorum, a gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium, is a primary or secondary etiological agent in a variety of necrotic, purulent infections in humans and animals. Its major virulence factor is leukotoxin, a high-molecular-weight secreted protein, primarily toxic to ruminant leukocytes. In this study, bovine peripheral blood leukocytes were exposed to various concentrations of immunoaffinity-purified leukotoxin and the cytotoxicity was analyzed by flow cytometry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. At very low toxin concentrations, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) showed activation, as indicated by translocation of primary and secondary granules to the periphery of the cytoplasm. Furthermore, these cells showed changes characteristic of apoptosis, including decreased cell size, organelle condensation, cytoplasmic membrane blebbing (zeiosis), and chromatin condensation and margination, and decrease in cellular DNA content. At moderately high concentrations of leukotoxin, bovine mononuclear cells were also induced to undergo programmed cell death. At very high concentrations, leukotoxin caused necrotic cell death of bovine peripheral leukocytes. The ability of F. necrophorum leukotoxin to modulate the host immune system by its toxicity, including cellular activation of PMNs and apoptosis-mediated killing of phagocytes and immune effector cells, represents a potentially important mechanism of its pathogenesis. PMID:12117974

Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Stewart, George C; Chengappa, M M; Willard, Lloyd; Shuman, Wilma; Wilkerson, Melinda; Nagaraja, T G



Fusobacterium necrophorum Leukotoxin Induces Activation and Apoptosis of Bovine Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Fusobacterium necrophorum, a gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacterium, is a primary or secondary etiological agent in a variety of necrotic, purulent infections in humans and animals. Its major virulence factor is leukotoxin, a high-molecular-weight secreted protein, primarily toxic to ruminant leukocytes. In this study, bovine peripheral blood leukocytes were exposed to various concentrations of immunoaffinity-purified leukotoxin and the cytotoxicity was analyzed by flow cytometry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. At very low toxin concentrations, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) showed activation, as indicated by translocation of primary and secondary granules to the periphery of the cytoplasm. Furthermore, these cells showed changes characteristic of apoptosis, including decreased cell size, organelle condensation, cytoplasmic membrane blebbing (zeiosis), and chromatin condensation and margination, and decrease in cellular DNA content. At moderately high concentrations of leukotoxin, bovine mononuclear cells were also induced to undergo programmed cell death. At very high concentrations, leukotoxin caused necrotic cell death of bovine peripheral leukocytes. The ability of F. necrophorum leukotoxin to modulate the host immune system by its toxicity, including cellular activation of PMNs and apoptosis-mediated killing of phagocytes and immune effector cells, represents a potentially important mechanism of its pathogenesis.

Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Stewart, George C.; Chengappa, M. M.; Willard, Lloyd; Shuman, Wilma; Wilkerson, Melinda; Nagaraja, T. G.



Porcine leukocyte cellular subsets sensitive to African swine fever virus in vitro.  

PubMed Central

African swine fever virus infected most, if not all, of the macrophages (monocytes) and ca. 4% of the polymorphonuclear leukocytes from porcine peripheral blood. B and T lymphocytes, either resting or stimulated with phytohemagglutinin, lipopolysaccharide, or pokeweed mitogen, were not susceptible to the virus. All of the mitogens used inhibited African swine fever multiplication in susceptible cells. The number of virus passages in vitro and the virulence degree of the virus did not affect the susceptibility of porcine B or T lymphocytes to African swine fever virus. Images

Casal, I; Enjuanes, L; Vinuela, E



Assessment of removal of human cytomegalovirus from blood components by leukocyte depletion filters using real-time quantitative PCR.  


To assess removal of cytomegalovirus (CMV) by leukocyte depletion (LD) filters, we developed a spiking model of latent virus using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected by coculture with CMV-infected human fibroblasts. Infected PBMCs were purified by dual magnetic column selection and then spiked into whole blood units or buffy coat pools prior to LD by filtration. CMV load and fibroblast contamination were assessed using quantitative CMV DNA real-time PCR and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of mRNA encoding the fibroblast-specific splice variant of prolyl-4-hydroxylase, respectively. After correcting for fibroblast-associated CMV, the mean CMV load was reduced in whole blood by LD from 7.42 x 10(2) to 1.13 copies per microliter (2.81(10)log reduction) and from 3.8 x 10(2) to 4.77 copies per microliter (1.9(10)log reduction) in platelets. These results suggest that LD by filtration reduces viral burden but does not completely remove CMV from blood components. PMID:14525779

Visconti, Micaela Rios; Pennington, Joanne; Garner, Stephen F; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Williamson, Lorna M



Leukocyte Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Blood Is Not Associated with Major Depressive Disorder in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and has significant genetic predisposition. Mitochondria may have a role in MDD and so mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been suggested as a possible biomarker for this disease. We aimed to test whether the mtDNA copy number of peripheral blood leukocytes is related to MDD in young adults. Methods A case-control study was conducted with 210 MDD patients and 217 healthy controls (HC). The mtDNA copy number was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. Depression severity was assessed by the Hamilton-17 Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). Results We found no significant differences in mtDNA copy number between MDD patients and HC, though the power analysis showed that our sample size has enough power to detect the difference. There were also no significant correlations between mtDNA copy number and the clinical characteristics (such as age, age of onset, episodes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score and Global Assessment of Function Scale (GAF) score) in MDD patients. Conclusion Our study suggests that leukocyte mtDNA copy number is unlikely to contribute to MDD, but it doesn’t mean that we can exclude the possibility of involvement of mitochondria in the disease. Further studies are required to elucidate whether mtDNA can be a biomarker of MDD.

He, Ying; Tang, Jinsong; Li, Zongchang; Li, Hong; Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Yanqing; Tan, Liwen; Chen, Jindong; Xia, Kun; Chen, Xiaogang



Quantitative analysis of the suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with multiple sclerosis.  


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a triad of inflammation, demyelination and gliosis. Because the suppressors of cytokine signaling (Socs) regulate the immune response, we quantified SOCS1 and SOCS3 transcription in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with MS. SOCS1 transcription decreased significantly in MS patients compared with neurologically healthy persons (0.08±0.02 vs. 1.02±0.23; p=0.0001); while SOCS3 transcription increased in MS patients compared with controls (2.76±0.66 vs. 1.03±0.27; p=0.0008). Our results showed an imbalance of SOCS1 and SOCS3 transcription in MS patients, and a moderated negative correlation between them (Spearman's r=-0.57; p=0.0003). PMID:24951315

Sedeño-Monge, Virginia; Arcega-Revilla, Raúl; Rojas-Morales, Emmanuel; Santos-López, Gerardo; Perez-García, Juan Carlos; Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Vallejo-Ruiz, Verónica; Solis-Morales, Casandra Lucrecia; Aguilar-Rosas, Salvador; Reyes-Leyva, Julio



The effects of oil exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes and splenic melano-macrophage centers of Gulf of Mexico fishes.  


In August and November 2010 we collected and examined peripheral blood and tissues from three species of Gulf of Mexico fish. Findings were compared to non-exposed control fish. The leukocyte counts of exposed alligator gar were not significantly different from controls, while exposed Gulf killifish and sea trout had significantly decreased lymphocyte counts. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) values from sea trout were significantly greater than control sea trout EROD values, suggesting poly aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Splenic melano-macrophage centers (MMCs) from exposed sea trout and Gulf killifish showed a significant increase in number compared to non-exposed fish. Sea trout splenic MMCs were also significantly greater in size. These findings suggest that Gulf fish sampled were exposed to crude oil from the Macondo well and were in a lymphopenic or immuno-compromised state. PMID:24405733

Ali, Ahmad Omar; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Ford, Lorelei; Dail, Mary Beth; Pruett, Stephen; Petrie-Hanson, Lora



DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of physically active individuals as measured by the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay.  


DNA damage induced by physical activity and/or exercise has been reported under different conditions but not for individuals maintaining physical fitness by regular strenuous exercise. Therefore, we compared levels of DNA damage in blood leukocytes of 40 healthy individuals (35 males, 5 females) who regularly exercised in gymnasiums/health clubs and 15 healthy sedentary controls who had never exercised. The former group was selected (after informed consent) on the basis of how long they had been exercising on a regular basis as well as their exercise schedule and regimen. The length of time since starting a regular exercise regimen ranged from 2 months to 9 years, whereas the daily exercise duration ranged from 40 min to 3 hrs and warm-up sessions ranged from none to 90 min. The length of DNA migration (44.66 +/- 2.68 microm in males, 29.62 +/- 1.69 microm in females) and the percentage of cells with tails (79.86 +/-1.27% in males, 67.20 +/- 0.96% in females) in peripheral blood leukocytes of physically active individuals were increased significantly (P < 0.001) with respect to corresponding values in control males and females (18.85 +/- 1.79 microm, 23.37 +/- 3.94 microm; 24.50 +/- 1.98%, 33.00 +/- 4.44%, respectively). Highly significant differences for DNA damage were also observed between physically active males and females. These observations, in the absence of any other exposures, indicate a correlation between strenuous exercise to keep fit and increased levels of DNA damage. This finding may have relevance in terms of the ageing process, with diseases associated with aging, and with carcinogenesis. PMID:19177500

Gandhi, Gursatej; Chopra, Gunjan



Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor: A Macrophage Product Induced by and Antagonistic to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To explore regulation of potentially lethal responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we used differential display under LPS-free conditions to compare macrophage cell lines from two strains of mice congenic for a locus affecting LPS sensitivity. LPS- hyporesponsive cells, primary macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes transcribed secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), a known epithelial cell-derived inhibitor of leukocyte serine proteases. Transfection of

Fen-yu Jin; Carl Nathan; Danuta Radzioch; Aihao Ding



Effect of two-chambered bicarbonate lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on peripheral blood mononuclear cell and polymorphonuclear cell function in vitro.  


Low pH, high osmolality, increasing glucose concentration, and glucose degradation products (GDP) formed during heat sterilization of conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids have been shown to have a detrimental effect on cells involved in peritoneal host defense. The two-chambered PD fluid bag in which glucose at pH approximately 3 is separated from a bicarbonate (25 mmol/L)-lactate (15 mmol/L) buffer during heat sterilization permits PD fluids with lower GDP to be delivered to the patient at neutral pH. To establish the possible benefit of two-chambered bag PD fluids on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell function, we compared conventional 1.5% Dianeal (1.5%D) with 1.5% two-chambered bag bicarbonate-lactate (1.5%D-B), and conventional 4.25% Dianeal (4.25%D) with 4.25% two-chambered bag bicarbonate-lactate (4.25%D-B). Furthermore, to study the effect of the sterilization process on PBMC and PMN function, we compared filter-sterilized 4.25%D (4.25%D-F) with 4.25%D and 4.25%D-B. PBMC were harvested by Ficoll-Hypaque separation, and 2.5 x 10(6) cells in RPMI were incubated with an equal volume of the test fluids for 4 hours, pelleted, and resuspended in RPMI containing 10 ng endotoxin for a further 20 hours. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by endotoxin-stimulated PBMC was not significantly different (P = 0.10) between 1.5%D-B and 1.5%D, but was significantly higher (P = 0.01) with 4.25%D-B compared with 4.25%D. PBMC exposed to filter-sterilized fluid (4.25%D-F) showed significantly higher endotoxin-stimulated TNF-alpha production compared with 4.25%D (P = 0.02), but was not significantly different from 4.25%D-B (P = 0.40). PMN were harvested by Ficoll-Hypaque separation and 10 x 10(6) cells incubated with test fluids for 30 minutes. After incubation, phagocytosis (phagocytosis index) was determined by the uptake of 14C-labeled Staphylococcus aureus, oxidative burst by reduction of ferricytochrome C to ferrocytochrome C on stimulation with PMA, and enzyme release by measurement of endotoxin-stimulated bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI). Bicarbonate-lactate two-chambered fluids of similar osmolality and glucose concentration conferred a significant improvement in phagocytosis (P = 0.02 for 1.5%D-B and P < 0.001 for 4.25%D-B). Oxidative burst and BPI release were significantly higher in 4.25%D-B compared with 4.25%D (P < 0.001). Filter-sterilized 4.25%D-F conferred a significant improvement in phagocytosis and oxidative burst compared with 4.25%D (P < 0.001) or 4.25%D-B (P < 0.001). Furthermore, conventional 4.25%D was associated with significantly lower BPI release compared with 4.25%D-F (P = 0.01). GDP's acetaldehyde and 5-HMF were analyzed in 4.25%D-B, 4.25%D, and 4.25%D-F. Acetaldehyde was below the lower limit (0.79 ppm) of the standard curve in 4.25%D-B and 4.25%D-F fluids but was detected (3.76 to 5.12 ppm) in all of the 4.25%D fluids. Relative levels of 5-HMF in the 4.25%D-B (0.032 to 0.041 Abs @ 284 nm) and 4.25%D (0.031 to 0.036 Abs @ 284 nm) were similar. The lowest levels (0.001 Abs @ 284 nm) were observed in the filter-sterilized 4.25%D-F. The beneficial effects of two-chambered bicarbonate lactate-buffered PD fluids on PBMC and PMN function are probably related to reduction of GDP from heat sterilization of glucose in a separate chamber at a lower pH. This improvement in biocompatibility could have a beneficial affect on peritoneal defenses. PMID:9370184

Sundaram, S; Cendoroglo, M; Cooker, L A; Jaber, B L; Faict, D; Holmes, C J; Pereira, B J



Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. FINDINGS: The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed

Christine J Piek; Bas Brinkhof; Jan Rothuizen; Aldo Dekker; Louis C Penning



Seasonal variation in peripheral blood leukocyte subsets and in serum interleukin-6, and soluble interleukin-2 and-6 receptor concentrations in normal volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been carried out in order to investigate seasonal variation in peripheral blood immune cells, such as leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD3+ T, CD4+ T, CD8+ t, CD25+ T, CD20+ B, and serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) and sIL-2R levels in normal volunteers. Toward this end, 26 normal volunteers (13 men, 13 women) had monthly blood

M. Maes; W. Stevens; S. Scharpe; E. Bosmans; F. De Meyer; P. D'Hondt; D. Peeters; P. Thompson; P. Cosyns; L. De Clerck; C. Bridts; H. Neels; A. Wauters; W. Cooreman



Increased anticoagulant osmolality improves separation of leukocytes from red blood cells (RBC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The bottom-and-top (BAT) procedure separates the buffy coat (BC) from plasma and red blood cells (RBC). The contents of mononuclear cells (MNC) remaining in the RBC are about 1×106 cells\\/unit, whereas the granulocytes are removed less effectively, 500–800×106 or more remaining in the RBC unit. The aim was to improve the separation efficacy by collecting the blood in an

F Knutson; H Lööf; C. F Högman



Phenotyping of leukocytes and granulocyte and monocyte phagocytic activity in the peripheral blood and uterus of cows with endometritis.  


This study was a comparative evaluation of selected immunological parameters in peripheral blood and uterine wash samples from cows with a normal postpartum period compared with cows with endometritis. We aimed to determine the usefulness of these parameters in monitoring the puerperium. In total, 40 cows were included in the study: 20 had endometritis (experimental group), and 20 did not have uterine inflammation (control group). Animals were chosen on the basis of cytological and bacteriological test results. The tests were conducted 5, 22, and 40 days postpartum. In both groups, flow cytometric analysis of the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD21, CD25, and CD14 in the peripheral blood and uterine washings was performed. Granulocyte and monocyte phagocytic activity was determined using a commercial Phagotest kit that was adapted for flow cytometry. The percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes in both the peripheral blood and the uterine washings was significantly lower for cows in the experimental group compared with the control group (P < 0.01). A significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the percentage of CD4+, CD25+, CD14+, and CD4 + CD25(high) leukocyte subpopulations was also observed in the peripheral blood of cows with endometritis. A significant decrease (P < 0.01) in CD21+ lymphocytes and an increase in CD8+ lymphocytes was detected in uterine washings. The results of this work indicate that cell immunity dysfunction may be the main factor causing advanced inflammation of the uterus in endometritis. Knowledge of the immunological mechanisms observed in cows with endometritis might aid in choosing the correct immunomodulating agent-based adjuvant therapy. PMID:24857644

Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Lisiecka, U; Kurek, L; Marczuk, J



Microfluidic lysis of human blood for leukocyte analysis using single cell impedance cytometry.  


This paper demonstrates an integrated microfluidic system that performs a full blood count using impedance analysis. A microfluidic network design for red blood cell (RBC) lysis is presented, and the diffusive mixing processes are analyzed using experimental and simulated results. Healthy and clinical bloods analyzed with this system, and the data shows good correlation against data obtained from commercial hematology machines. The data from the microfluidic system was compared against hospital data for 18 clinical samples, giving R(2) (coefficient of determination) values of 0.99 for lymphocytes, 0.89 for monocytes, and 0.99 for granulocytes in terms of relative counts and 0.94 for lymphocytes, 0.91 for monocytes, and 0.95 for granulocytes in terms of absolute counts. This demonstrates the potential clinical utility of this new system for a point-of-care purpose. PMID:22148390

Han, Xiaojun; van Berkel, Cees; Gwyer, James; Capretto, Lorenzo; Morgan, Hywel



Living T9 glioma cells expressing membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor produce immediate tumor destruction by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and macrophages via a "paraptosis"-induced pathway that promotes systemic immunity against intracranial T9 gliomas.  


Cloned T9-C2 glioma cells transfected with membrane macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mM-CSF) never formed subcutaneous tumors when implanted into Fischer rats, whereas control T9 cells did. The T9-C2 cells were completely killed within 1 day through a mechanism that resembled paraptosis. Vacuolization of the T9-C2 cell's mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum started within 4 hours after implantation. By 24 hours, the dead tumor cells were swollen and terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive. Bcl2-transduced T9-C2 cells failed to form tumors in rats. Both T9 and T9-C2 cells produced cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant that recruited the granulocytes into the tumor injection sites, where they interacted with the tumor cells. Freshly isolated macrophages killed the T9-C2 cells in vitro by a mechanism independent of phagocytosis. Nude athymic rats treated with antiasialo GM1 antibody formed T9-C2 tumors, whereas rats treated with a natural killer cell (NK)-specific antibody failed to form tumors. When treated with antipolymorphonuclear leukocyte (anti-PMN) and antimacrophage antibodies, 80% of nude rats formed tumors, whereas only 40% of the rats developed a tumor when a single antibody was used. This suggests that both PMNs and macrophages are involved in the killing of T9-C2 tumor cells. Immunocompetent rats that rejected the living T9-C2 cells were immune to the intracranial rechallenge with T9 cells. No vaccinating effect occurred if the T9-C2 cells were freeze-thawed, x-irradiated, or treated with mitomycin-C prior to injection. Optimal tumor immunization using mM-CSF-transduced T9 cells requires viable tumor cells. In this study optimal tumor immunization occurred when a strong inflammatory response at the injection of the tumor cells was induced. PMID:12149220

Chen, Yijun; Douglass, Thomas; Jeffes, Edward W B; Xu, Qingcheng; Williams, Christopher C; Arpajirakul, Neary; Delgado, Christina; Kleinman, Michael; Sanchez, Ramon; Dan, Qinghong; Kim, Ronald C; Wepsic, H Terry; Jadus, Martin R



Syk expression in peripheral blood leukocytes, CD34 progenitors, and CD34-derived basophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In human basophils from different subjects, maximum IgE-mediated histamine release and the level of syk pro- tein expression correlate well. It is not clear when in the basophil's lifetime the set-point for syk expression is reached or how expression levels are determined for a given individual. An examination of syk expression in pe- ripheral blood eosinophils, neutrophils, monocytes, B and

Susan S. Ishmael; Donald W. MacGlashan Jr



An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

Hund, S. J.; Antaki, J. F.



An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection–diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

Hund, S J; Antaki, J F



Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and lung cancer risk: a large case-control study in Caucasians.  


Telomere dysfunction is a crucial event in malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with lung cancer risk, but the relationship has remained controversial. In this study, we investigated whether the association might be confounded by study of different histological subtypes of lung cancer. We measured relative telomere lengths in patients in a large case-control study of lung cancer and performed stratified analyses according to the two major histologic subtypes [adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)]. Notably, patients with adenocarcinoma had longer telomeres than controls, whereas patients with SCC had shorter telomeres compared with controls. Long telomeres were associated with increased risk of adenocarcinoma, with the highest risk associated with female sex, younger age (<60 years), and lighter smoking (<30 pack-years). In contrast, long telomeres were protective against SCC, particularly in male patients. Our results extend the concept that telomere length affects risk of lung cancer in a manner that differs with histologic subtype. Cancer Res; 74(9); 2476-86. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24618342

Sanchez-Espiridion, Beatriz; Chen, Meng; Chang, Joe Y; Lu, Charles; Chang, David W; Roth, Jack A; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian



Full blood count and haemozoin-containing leukocytes in children with malaria: diagnostic value and association with disease severity  

PubMed Central

Background Diligent and correct laboratory diagnosis and up-front identification of risk factors for progression to severe disease are the basis for optimal management of malaria. Methods Febrile children presenting to the Medical Research Unit at the Albert Schweitzer Hospital (HAS) in Lambaréné, Gabon, were assessed for malaria. Giemsa-stained thick films for qualitative and quantitative diagnosis and enumeration of malaria pigment, or haemozoin (Hz)-containing leukocytes (PCL) were performed, and full blood counts (FBC) were generated with a Cell Dyn 3000® instrument. Results Compared to standard light microscopy of Giemsa-stained thick films, diagnosis by platelet count only, by malaria pigment-containing monocytes (PCM) only, or by pigment-containing granulocytes (PCN) only yielded sensitivities/specificities of 92%/93%; 96%/96%; and 85%/96%, respectively. The platelet count was significantly lower in children with malaria compared to those without (p < 0.001), and values showed little overlap between groups. Compared to microscopy, scatter flow cytometry as applied in the Cell-Dyn 3000® instrument detected significantly more patients with PCL (p < 0.01). Both PCM and PCN numbers were higher in severe versus non-severe malaria yet reached statistical significance only for PCN (p < 0.0001; PCM: p = 0.14). Of note was the presence of another, so far ill-defined pigment-containing group of phagocytic cells, identified by laser-flow cytometry as lymphocyte-like gated events, and predominantly found in children with malaria-associated anaemia. Conclusion In the age group examined in the Lambaréné area, platelets are an excellent adjuvant tool to diagnose malaria. Pigment-containing leukocytes (PCL) are more readily detected by automated scatter flow cytometry than by microscopy. Automated Hz detection by an instrument as used here is a reliable diagnostic tool and correlates with disease severity. However, clinical usefulness as a prognostic tool is limited due to an overlap of PCL numbers recorded in severe versus non-severe malaria. However, this is possibly because of the instrument detection algorithm was not geared towards this task, and data lost during processing; and thus adjusting the instrument's algorithm may allow to establish a meaningful cut-off value.

Hanscheid, Thomas; Langin, Matthias; Lell, Bertrand; Potschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kremsner, Peter G; Grobusch, Martin P



In vitro study of interactions between silicon-containing nanoparticles and human peripheral blood leukocytes.  


The effects of silicon dioxide-based nanoparticles on the viability and proliferative activity of human peripheral blood cultured lymphocytes were studied. All nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 ?g/ml produced a significant cytotoxic effect, its intensity depending on particles' structure: SiO2 nanoparticles were least toxic, while Ce3(+)-intercaled montmorillonite nanoparticles were most toxic. The cells died mainly by apoptosis and postapoptotic necrosis. Incubation with nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 ?g/ml for 72 h caused death of all phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes, while in concentrations of 1 and 10 ?g/ml the nanoparticles had no effect of proliferative activity of cells. The results suggest that the effects of nanoparticles on cells are determined by the nanoparticle concentration and size, as well as by their structure. PMID:24137611

Andreeva, E R; Rudimov, E G; Gornostaeva, A N; Beklemyshev, V I; Makhonin, I I; Maugeri, U O G; Buravkova, L B



Flow cytometric assay for quantifying opsonophagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus by peripheral blood leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

We describe a novel flow cytometric method for quantifying opsonophagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus in cell-rich plasma obtained after dextran sedimentation of erythrocytes. To analyze opsonophagocytosis, phagocytes were labeled with a phycoerythrin-conjugated monoclonal antibody and were incubated with viable staphylococci containing carboxyfluorescein as a vital fluorescent dye. Phagocytosing cells assumed a dual, orange-green fluorescence. The relative numbers of bacteria associating with phagocytes could be determined by quantifying the decrease of free green fluorescent particles. A parallel incubation of fluorescent bacteria with unlabeled cell-rich plasma was performed to assess phagocytic killing. Blood cells were lysed with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethyl-ammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. This detergent spared viable bacteria, and residual green fluorescent particles were counted. The decrease in the number of these particles relative to the controls yielded the degree of killing. At bacteria-to-phagocyte ratios of 1:1 and 10:1, approximately 36 and 75% of the phagocytes participated in opsonophagocytosis, respectively. Over 90% of the staphylococci were phagocyte associated after 30 to 60 min. Killing rates were on the order of 66% +/- 12% and 80% +/- 7% after 1 and 2 h of incubation, respectively. These numbers, which were confirmed by colony countings, were significantly lower than those reported in the majority of past reports.

Martin, E; Bhakdi, S



The effect of injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum superoxide dismutase activity of lactating Holstein cows.  


The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous supplementation of 300?mg of zinc, 50?mg of manganese, 25?mg of selenium, and 75?mg of copper on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at 10?±?2 days in milk (DIM), and on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during the transition period and subsequent lactation of multiparous Holstein cows. A total of 250 multiparous cows were randomly allocated into one of two treatments groups, namely, trace mineral supplemented (TMS) or control. Cows in the TMS group were injected at 230 and 260 days of gestation, and 35 days postpartum. Serum SOD activity was measured at enrollment, and 10, 60 and 100 DIM. Serum BHBA concentration and leukocyte function were assessed at 10 DIM. Overall serum SOD activity for TMS and control was 16.01 and 12.71?U/mL, respectively. The interaction between treatment and time of serum collection was significant. Additionally, overall serum SOD activity was 12.85 and 14.78?U/mL for cows diagnosed with mastitis and unaffected cows, respectively. Treatment did not affect leukocyte function. For parity >2, TMS cows had lower serum BHBA concentrations than control cows; BHBA concentrations were 0.41 and 0.27?mmol/L for control and TMS cows, respectively. In conclusion, cows diagnosed with mastitis had decreased serum SOD activity, and trace mineral supplementation increased serum SOD activity although leukocyte function was not affected by supplementation. PMID:24685102

Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Lima, S F; Bicalho, M L S; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Felippe, M J; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C



Interactions between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and polymorphonuclear neutrophils.  


Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are the most abundant circulating leukocytes. They represent a first line of innate immunity against a large panel of microbial pathogens, pending development of specific immune responses. The role of PMN in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease has mainly been investigated from the point of view of the increased susceptibility of HIV-1-infected patients to bacterial and fungal infections. However, it is now clear that the relationship between PMN and HIV-1 is far more complex. This review examines both the beneficial and the detrimental effects of PMN during HIV infection. PMID:23867213

Casulli, Sarah; Elbim, Carole



Systemic suppression of human peripheral blood phagocytic leukocytes after whole-body UVB irradiation.  


We examined systemic effects of whole-body UVB irradiation on human peripheral blood phagocytes. We found that 24 h after a single erythemal dose of UVB radiation two phagocyte functions, adhesion and phagocytosis, were reduced by 50%. This functional suppression was accompanied by a significant decrease in the expression of complement receptors (CR1 and CR3) and IgG Fc receptors (FcRII and FcRIII). The greatest reduction (47%) was observed in CR3, which is important for both adhesion and phagocytosis. A kinetic analysis showed that both CR1 and CR3 levels started to decrease 15 min after the UVB exposure, reaching the lowest levels at 4.5- and 24-h time points, respectively. The down-modulation of CRs after whole-body UVB exposure was not due to a defective receptor synthesis or translocation from internal stores to plasma membrane because the maximal CR levels in stimulated cells were not affected by UVB. No change in the serum soluble ICAM-1 was detected after UVB, which rules out CD1 1b epitope masking by sICAM-1. UVB did not release low-receptor-density myeloid progenitor cells from storage pools into circulation. Interleukin 10, a mediator of UVB-induced immunosuppression, was unable to modulate CR expression in vitro. When seven suberythemal whole-body UVB exposures were given repeatedly within 2 weeks, a significant decrease in CR expression was seen, which was greatest after three irradiations. Our data suggest that an exposure to UVB has systemic effects in humans which, possibly due to the down-modulation of preexisting cell-surface receptors, suppress some important functions of circulating phagocytic cells. PMID:10331484

Leino, L; Saarinen, K; Kivistö, K; Koulu, L; Jansen, C T; Punnonen, K



Immunomodulatory effects upon in vitro exposure of California sea lion and southern sea otter peripheral blood leukocytes to domoic acid.  


During red tide bloom events, the marine diatom Pseudo-nitzschia produces the toxin domoic acid (DA), which has been associated with stranding and mortality events involving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris). In addition to these well-documented DA-induced neurotoxic events, there is increasing concern that DA may exert chronic effects, such as immunomodulation, which may potentially increase an individual's susceptibility to a number of opportunistic infections following nonlethal exposure. We investigated the effects of DA on innate (phagocytosis and respiratory burst) and adaptive (mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation) immune functions with the use of peripheral blood leukocytes collected from healthy California sea lions and southern sea otters upon in vitro exposure to 0 (unexposed control), 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 microM DA. Domoic acid did not significantly modulate phagocytosis or respiratory burst in either species. For California sea lions, DA significantly increased ConA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation upon exposure to DA concentrations ranging from 0.0001 to 10 microM, resulting in a nonlinear dose-response curve. There was no effect on lymphocyte proliferation at the highest concentration of DA tested. No effects on lymphocyte proliferation were observed in southern sea otters. Importantly, the in vitro DA concentrations affecting T-cell proliferation were within or below the range of DA in serum measured in free-ranging California sea lions following natural exposure, suggesting a risk for immunomodulation in free-ranging animals. Understanding the risk for immunomodulation upon DA exposure will contribute in the health assessment and management of California sea lions and southern sea otters, as well as guide veterinarians and wildlife rehabilitators in caring for and treating afflicted animals. PMID:20688647

Levin, Milton; Joshi, Dhanashree; Draghi, Andrew; Gulland, Frances M; Jessup, David; De Guise, Sylvain



The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.  


Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W



Global methylation levels in peripheral blood leukocyte DNA by LUMA and breast cancer: a case-control study in Japanese women.  


Background:Global hypomethylation has been suggested to cause genomic instability and lead to an increased risk of cancer. We examined the association between the global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA and breast cancer among Japanese women.Methods:We conducted a hospital-based case-control study of 384 patients aged 20-74 years with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed invasive breast cancer, and 384 matched controls from medical checkup examinees in Nagano, Japan. Global methylation levels in leukocyte DNA were measured by LUminometric Methylation Assay. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between global hypomethylation and breast cancer were estimated using a logistic regression model.Results:Compared with women in the highest tertile of global methylation level, ORs for the second and lowest tertiles were 1.87 (95% CI=1.20-2.91) and 2.86 (95% CI=1.85-4.44), respectively. Global methylation levels were significantly lower in cases than controls, regardless of the hormone receptor status of the cancer (all P values for trend <0.05).Interpretation:These findings suggest that the global methylation level of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA is low in patients with breast cancer and may be a potential biomarker for breast cancer risk. PMID:24786600

Kuchiba, A; Iwasaki, M; Ono, H; Kasuga, Y; Yokoyama, S; Onuma, H; Nishimura, H; Kusama, R; Tsugane, S; Yoshida, T



Superiority of total white blood cell count over other leukocyte differentials for predicting long-term outcomes in patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.  


Abstract Context: Leukocytes have been found to be the predictor of outcome following acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Objective: We sought to determine the relationship between leukocyte differentials and developing major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with non-ST elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). Materials and methods: A total of 490 consecutive patients were enrolled, and MACE incidence was evaluated at long-term follow-up period. Results: Total white blood cell (WBC) was higher in subjects occurring MACE. Moreover, elevated total WBC, ?7.5?×?10(3)/µL, independently predicted MACE. Discussion and conclusion: Elevated admission total WBC can predict long-term MACE in NSTE-ACS patients better than other differentials. PMID:24796431

Dehghani, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Yousef; Taghipour-Sani, Leila



Levels of DNA damage in blood leukocyte samples from non-diabetic and diabetic female rats and their fetuses exposed to air or cigarette smoke.  


The objective of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage level in blood leukocytes from diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats exposed to air or to cigarette smoke, and to correlate the findings with levels of DNA damage detected in blood leukocyte samples from their fetuses. A total of 20 rats were distributed into four experimental groups: non-diabetic (control; G1) and diabetic exposed to filtered air (G2); non-diabetic (G3) and diabetic (G4) exposed to cigarette smoke. Rats placed into whole-body exposure chambers were exposed for 30min to filtered air (control) or to tobacco smoke generated from 10 cigarettes, twice a day, for 2 months. Diabetes was induced by a pancreatic beta-cytotoxic agent, streptozotocin (40mg/kgb.w.). At day 21 of pregnancy, each rat was anesthetized and humanely killed to obtain maternal and fetal blood samples for genotoxicity analysis using the alkaline comet assay. G2, G3 and G4 dams presented higher DNA damage values in tail moment and tail length as compared to G1 group. There was a significant positive correlation between DNA damage levels in blood leukocyte samples from G2 and G3 groups (tail moment); G3 and G4 groups (tail length) and G3 group (tail intensity) and their fetuses. Thus, this study showed the association of severe diabetes and tobacco cigarette smoke exposure did not exacerbate levels of maternal and fetal DNA damages related with only diabetes or cigarette smoke exposure. Based on the results obtained and taking into account other published data, maternal diabetes requires rigid clinical control and public health and education campaigns should be increased to encourage individuals, especially pregnant women, to stop smoking. PMID:18455954

Lima, Paula Helena Ortiz; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Sinzato, Yuri Karen; de Souza, Maricelma da Silva Soares; Salvadori, Daisy Maria Fávero; Calderon, Iracema de Mattos Paranhos; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha



Cytoplasmic strains and strain rates in motile polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

A new method is presented to measure local cytoplasmic deformation and rate of deformation in motile active neutrophils. The deformation is expressed in terms of biomechanical strains and strain rates. For this purpose small phagocytosed latex microspheres were used as intracellular markers. Planar Lagrangian and Eulerian strains and the rate of strain were estimated from the positions of a triad of internalized markers. Principal strains, stretch ratios, and principal directions were computed. The intracellular strains were found to be large relative to the overall cell shape change. Principal cytoplasmic stretch ratios showed large extension in the direction of pseudopod formation and cell locomotion and contraction in perpendicular directions. Regional strain analysis showed contractile strains to predominate in the vicinity of the pseudopod or leading edge of motion. The transitional region between the pseudopod and the main cell body exhibited large shear strains. The posterior region, where the uropod is located, also revealed large extensions but small contractile strains. The rate of strains are relatively small, nonuniform in time, and largely independent of the strain. The method we propose to measure cytoplasmic strain can be applied to a variety of problems in cell mechanics. Images FIGURE 3

Simon, S I; Schmid-Schonbein, G W



Interactions between Shiga toxins and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human intestinal infections by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli cause hem- orrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which represents the main cause of acute renal failure in early childhood. In HUS, Stx re- leased in the gut enter the bloodstream and are targeted to renal endothelium. The mechanism of toxin delivery is still a matter of debate, although the

Maurizio Brigotti; Domenica Carnicelli; Elisa Ravanelli; Stefania Barbieri; Francesca Ricci; Andrea Bontadini; Alberto E. Tozzi; Gaia Scavia; Alfredo Caprioli; Pier Luigi Tazzari



Distinct kinetic and mechanical properties govern selectin-leukocyte interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocytes are recruited from the bloodstream to sites of inflammation by the selectin family of adhesion receptors. In vivo and in vitro studies reveal distinctive rolling velocities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes over E-, P- and L-selectin substrates. The kinetic and mechanical properties of the selectin-ligand bonds responsible for these differences at the single-molecule level are not well understood. Using single-molecule force

William D. Hanley; Denis Wirtz; Konstantinos Konstantopoulos



[The migration activity of blood leukocytes as an index of the immunologic status of a kidney allograft recipient].  


A total of 48 patients with chronic renal failure, 42 of them after allotransplantation of cadaveric kidney, were studied for leukocyte spontaneous migration and corresponding alterations in migration activity in the presence of renal antigens reflecting recipient sensitivity towards organospecific renal antigens. High levels of leukocyte spontaneous migrations and renal antigen sensitization were recorded in patients with acute course of renal transplant rejection versus those with no evidence of rejection or the persons with slowly progressing chronic rejection. It was stated that alterations in leukocyte migratory activity, both spontaneous and challenged by presence of renal antigen, could demonstrate the activity of immune processes in a recipient of renal transplant. The findings are of help in answering the question of how long the transplant could exist. Moreover, organospecific renal antigens are considered as possible participants, in line with transplantation antigens, in the mechanism of kidney rejection. PMID:2672530

Shabanova, L N; Artemova, A G; Sofronov, B N



Expression of tlr4, md2 and cd14 in equine blood leukocytes during endotoxin infusion and in intestinal tissues from healthy horses.  


The expression of tlr4, md2 and cd14 was studied in equine blood leukocytes and in intestinal samples using real time PCR. The stability of three commonly used reference genes, glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hypoxantine ribosyltransferase (HPRT) and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), was evaluated using qbase(PLUS). The equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (eqPBMC) examined were either stimulated in vitro with Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin or with the CpG oligodeoxynuclotide 2216 (CpG-ODN 2216) or obtained from horses before, during and after infusion of endotoxin. Intestinal tissue from healthy horses was sampled at ileum, right dorsal colon and rectum. Ranking of the three reference genes used for normalisation identified the combination HPRT/SDHA as most suitable both when determined ex vivo in leukocytes obtained from experimentally induced endotoxaemia and in eqPBMC activated in vitro while HPRT/GAPDH were most appropriate for the intestinal samples. The relative amounts of mRNA for TLR4 and MD-2 increased threefold during in vitro activation of the cells with CpG-ODN 2216 but was decreased in cultures stimulated with PMA/ionomycin. A transient elevation in the transcription of tlr4 and md2 was also evident for equine blood leukocytes following endotoxaemia. The levels of mRNA for CD14 on the other hand remained unaffected both during the induction of endotoxaemia and in the in vitro stimulated PBMCs. A low steady expression of TLR4, MD-2 and CD14 mRNA was demonstrated for the intestinal samples with no variation between the intestinal segments analysed. Thus, the foundation for real time PCR based levels of analysis of mRNA for all three components in the equine LPS receptor complex in different intestinal segments was set, making it possible to carry out future expression studies on clinical material. PMID:23036528

Fossum, C; Hjertner, B; Olofsson, K M; Lindberg, R; Ahooghalandari, P; Camargo, M M; Bröjer, J; Edner, A; Nostell, K



Long-term results for living donor liver transplant recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma using intraoperative blood salvage with leukocyte depletion filter.  


Massive intraoperative bleeding during liver transplantation often requires large amounts of blood products. The goal of this study was to investigate long-term outcomes of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) recipients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent intraoperative use of intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) and leukocyte depletion filter (LDF). In this study, we included 230 LDLT recipients with HCC from two transplantation centers, between February 2002 and December 2007. Group 1 patients (n = 121) underwent intraoperative IBS with LDF and group 2 patients (n = 109) did not. The amount of autotransfused, filtered red blood cells (RBCs) in group 1 was 1590.2 ± 1486.8 ml, which corresponded to 5.9 units of allogenic leukocyte-depleted RBCs saved. The incidences of renal dysfunction, postoperative bleeding, and urinary tract infection in group 2 were higher than in group 1 (P < 0.05). Recurrence-free survival rates for 1, 3, and 5 years were 91.3%, 83.3%, and 83.3%, respectively, in group 1, and 84.6%, 79.0%, and 77.4%, respectively, in group 2 (P = 0.314). IBS using LDF does not increase the risk of cancer recurrence during LDLT for recipients with HCC. Therefore, the use of IBS with LDF appears to be safe for LDLT recipients with HCC. PMID:23194351

Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Gaab Soo; Joh, Jae-Won; Suh, Kyung-Suk; Park, Jae Berm; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Kwon, Choon Hyuck David; Yi, Nam-Joon; Gwak, Mi Sook; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Kim, Sung Joo; Lee, Suk-Koo



Cannabinoid-receptor expression in human leukocytes.  


Marijuana and many of its constituent cannabinoids influence the central nervous system (CNS), probably through the cannabinoid receptor, which has recently been cloned in rat and human. While numerous reports have also described effects of cannabinoids on the immune system, the observation of both mRNA and cannabinoid receptor has hitherto been exclusively confined to the brain, a reported detection in the testis being the sole example of its presence at the periphery. Here we report the expression of the cannabinoid receptor on human immune tissues using a highly sensitive polymerase-chain-reaction-based method for mRNA quantification. We show that, although present in a much lower abundance than in brain, cannabinoid receptor transcripts are found in human spleen, tonsils and peripheral blood leukocytes. The distribution pattern displays important variations of the mRNA level for the cannabinoid receptor among the main human blood cell subpopulations. The rank order of mRNA levels in these cells is B cells > natural killer cells > or = polymorphonuclear neutrophils > or = T8 cells > monocytes > T4 cells. Cannabinoid-receptor mRNA, which is also found in monocytic, as well as T and B leukemia cell lines but not in Jurkat cells, presents a great diversity of expression on these cells as well, B-cell lines expressing a much higher level than T-cell lines. The cannabinoid receptor PCR products from leukocytes and brain are identical both in size and sequence suggesting a strong similarity between central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors. The expression of this receptor was demonstrated on membranes of the myelomonocytic U937 cells using the synthetic cannabinoid [3H]CP-55940 as ligand. The Kd determined from Scatchard analysis was 0.1 nM and the Bmax for membranes was 525 fmol/mg protein. The demonstration of cannabinoid-receptor expression at both mRNA and protein levels on human leukocytes provides a molecular basis for cannabinoid action on these cells. PMID:8508790

Bouaboula, M; Rinaldi, M; Carayon, P; Carillon, C; Delpech, B; Shire, D; Le Fur, G; Casellas, P



The alpha 4-integrin supports leukocyte rolling and adhesion in chronically inflamed postcapillary venules in vivo  

PubMed Central

A role for the alpha 4-integrin (alpha 4 beta 1 or alpha 4 beta 7), has been implicated in the recruitment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to sites of inflammation. However, the adhesive interactions (i.e., tethering, rolling, and adhesion) mediated by the alpha 4-integrin have not been characterized in vivo. The objective of this study was to establish a model wherein postcapillary venules were chronically inflamed, and then use intravital microscopy to identify the adhesive interactions mediated by the alpha 4-integrin in vivo. Between 4 and 20 d after immunization with Mycobacterium butyricum, animals developed a systemic vasculitis characterized by large increases in the numbers of rolling and adhering leukocytes within mesenteric venules. The selectins could only account for approximately 50% of the leukocyte rolling whereas the remaining cells rolled exclusively via the alpha 4-integrin. Anti-alpha 4 therapy also eliminated the increase in leukocyte adhesion observed in this model, whereas selectin therapies and an anti-CD18 (beta 2-integrin) monoclonal antibody (mAb) did not reduce adhesion. A serum against polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was used to confirm that a significant proportion of rolling cells, and most of the adhering cells were PBMCs. Sequential treatment with anti-PMN serum and the anti-alpha 4 mAb demonstrated that alpha 4-dependent rolling was distinct from PMN rolling populations. Initial leukocyte tethering via the alpha 4- integrin could not be demonstrated in this model, whereas L-selectin did support leukocyte tethering. These data suggest that the alpha 4- integrin can mediate both rolling and adhesion in the multistep recruitment of PMBCs in vivo, and these interactions occur independently of the selectins and beta 2-integrins.



Leukocyte esterase urine test  


Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs associated with infection. ... A clean-catch urine sample is preferred. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting ...


Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases proinflammatory signaling in peripheral blood human leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.  


Sour cherry seed extract (SCE) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-treated human peripheral blood T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the chemokine interleukin-8. Both proteins are diagnostic biomarkers for inflammatory pathologies. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 11 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 8 healthy control subjects were co-cultured for 24h in lipopolysaccharide and the extract, then evaluated by flow cytometry for T cell activation and by enzyme-linked immunoassay for lymphocyte-associated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. There was a dose-dependent decrease in expression of the immunophenotypes: CD3+TNF-?+, and CD3+IL8+ in cultures from RA patients to a greater extent than in cells from healthy participants. These results suggest that the extract may have a modulatory roll in RA and other inflammatory disorders via the induction of HO-1, thus abating oxidative stress and strengthening regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:24631368

Mahmoud, Fadia; Haines, David; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Dashti, Ali A; Al-Awadhi, Adel; Ibrahim, Basel; Al-Zayer, Bashayer; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad



Force as a Facilitator of Integrin Conformational Changes during Leukocyte Arrest on Blood Vessels and Antigen-Presenting Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrins comprise a large family of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion receptors that rapidly modulate their adhesiveness. The arrest of leukocyte integrins on target vascular beds involves instantaneous conformational switches generating shear-resistant adhesions. Structural data suggest that these integrins are maintained in low-affinity conformations and must rapidly undergo conformational switches transduced via cytoplasmic changes (''inside-out'' signaling) and simultaneous ligand- induced rearrangements

Ronen Alon; Michael L. Dustin



Leukocyte hydrogen peroxide production in a surgical wound in mice. The effects of an amide local anaesthetic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxygen metabolism of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) is of importance in local tissue repair processes. Amide local anaesthetics are commonly used to relieve surgical wound pain. The cellular effects of local anaesthetics in vivo is poorly described in the literature. However, interactions between amide local anaesthetics and the oxygen metabolism of leukocytes have been reported. To extend that knowledge, this

Anders S. Eriksson; Robert Sinclair



Enhanced Chemotactic and Phagocytic Activities of Leukocytes in Psoriasis Vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocytes derived from the peripheral blood of peripheral patients demonstrated an enhanced chemotactic response compared with leukocytes from healthy subjects. No significant difference was detected between the chemotactic response of leukocytes from patients with minimal or no skin involvement and those from patients with extensive lesions. Psoriatic leukocytes also had a significantly higher capacity to engulf 125I labeled Shigella flexneri

A. Wahba; H. A. Cohen; M. Bar-Eli; R. Gallily



Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.



Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Gene Expression Patterns and Metabolic Parameters in Habitually Snoring and Non-Snoring Children with Normal Polysomnographic Findings  

PubMed Central

Background: Children who snore but do not have gas exchange abnormalities or alterations of sleep architecture have primary snoring (PS). Since increasing evidence suggest that PS may be associated with morbidity, we hypothesized that assessing genome-wide gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) will identify a distinct signature in PS children. Methods: Children (aged 4–9 years) with and without habitual snoring and a normal PSG were designated as either PS or controls. Whole genome expression profiles of PBL and metabolic parameters in 30 children with PS and 30 age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and BMI-matched controls were compared. Pathway-focused gene network analysis of the PBL transcriptome was performed. Metabolic parameters were measured in an independent follow-up cohort of 98 children (64 PS and 34 controls) to evaluate the computationally derived findings. Results: PS was not associated with a distinct transcriptional signature in PBL. Exploratory functional network analysis of enriched gene sets identified a number of putative pathways—including those mapping to insulin signaling, adipocyte differentiation, and obesity—with significant alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity emerging in the follow-up cohort of children with PS, but no differences in lipid profiles. Conclusions: PS children do not exhibit global perturbations in their PBL transcriptional response, suggesting that current normative PSG criteria are overall valid. However, subtle differences in functionally coherent pathways involved in glycemic homeostasis were detected and confirmed in a larger independent pediatric cohort indicating that PS may carry increased risk for end-organ morbidity in susceptible children. Citation: Khalyfa A; Gharib SA; Kim J; Capdevila OS; Kheirandish-Gozal L; Bhattacharjee R; Hegazi M; Gozal D. Peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression patterns and metabolic parameters in habitually snoring and non-snoring children with normal polysomnographic findings. SLEEP 2011;34(2):153-160.

Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gharib, Sina A.; Kim, Jinkwan; Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Hegazi, Mohamed; Gozal, David



Peripheral blood leukocyte counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in tularemia caused by the type B strain of francisella tularensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The behavior of leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in tularemia caused by Type B ofFrancisella tularensis was analyzed in different clinical forms and severities of disease in 101 adult tularemia patients. The mean leukocyte count was 8.3×109\\/l and the leukocyte differential count was also usually normal. The behavior of leukocytes was similar in different clinical

H. Syrjälä



Effect of infection with BHV-1 on peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in calves with subclinical BVD.  


Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) are important cattle pathogens that induce a broad immunosuppression on cell-mediated immune response on its own participating in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). The aim of our study was to evaluate the quantitative changes in immunocompetent cells in healthy calves and calves with subclinical bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), both inoculated with BHV-1. Total leukocyte counts exhibited changes mainly in neutrophils and lymphocytes that can contribute to the BVDV immunosuppression, thus accounting for some of the intergroup differences. Monocytes did not display numerical changes in either group. Regarding lymphocyte subpopulations, even though CD4+ T lymphocytes and B cells were depleted around 4 dpi in both infected groups, the main difference observed between both groups was in CD8+ T cells which displayed an earlier depletion in BVDV inoculated calves that can promote a greater BHV-1 dissemination, thus aggravating the course of the disease. PMID:23541923

Molina, V; Risalde, M A; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Pedrera, M; Romero-Palomo, F; Luzzago, C; Gómez-Villamandos, J C



Leukocyte/endothelium activation and interactions during femoral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.  


Recent data suggest that leukocyte-endothelium activation/interactions are important for restenosis after percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Ten patients with superficial femoral artery occlusive disease (stage Fontaine IIb) were examined after a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) versus a preceding aortoangiography (AAG). Blood samples from corresponding femoral arteries and veins were obtained before, immediately after, and 4 hours after each procedure. The authors examined the ex vivo respiratory burst and leukocytic expression of adhesion molecules flowcytometrically, adhesion molecule plasma concentrations, and inflammatory mediators concentrations in plasma and in endotoxin-stimulated whole blood cultures by ELISA, and the leukocyte counts. After PTA, venous plasma concentrations of soluble (s)L-selectin (148.2 +/-14.7%, p<0.05 vs 100% baseline +/- sem), sP-selectin (130.7 +/-6.9%, p<0.01; sE-selectin (117.5 +/-8.3%, p<0.05 vs arterial), sLFA-3 (130.7 +/-15.8%, p<0.05) were increased. Expressions of L-selectin (93.0 +/-5.7%, p<0.05 vs arterial), CD11a (98.8 +/-3.8%, p=0.06), CD18 (96.9 +/-4.0%, p<0.05 vs arterial), and ICAM-1 (89.1 +/-7.7%, p<0.05) on polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), and arteriovenous leukocyte counts (arterial: 103.5 +/-5.4%, venous: 91.1 +/-3.3%, p<0.05) decreased. Venous ex vivo secretions of oxygen radicals (141.4 +/-28.1%, p<0.05 vs AAG), PMN-elastase (173.7 +/-35.7%, p<0.05 vs AAG), and interleukin (IL)-8 (226.5 +/-56.4%, p<0.001; p<0.0001 vs AAG), as well as PMN-elastase (173.7 +/-35.7%, p<0.05 vs AAG) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha plasma concentrations (124.1 +/-11.9%, p=0.06) rose. Four hours after PTA, a leukocytosis and exhausted TNF-alpha (69.8 +/-10.4%, p<0.05) and IL-8 secretions (72.4 +/-4.6%, p<0.01) occurred. PTA induced local leukocyte-endothelium activations (stronger ex vivo mediator productions) and interactions (decreased venous leukocyte counts, increased plasma concentrations, and decreased leukocytic expression of adhesion molecules) with the release of inflammatory mediators (higher plasma concentrations and exhaustions after 4 hours). PMID:11586455

Lüdemann, J; Schulte, K L; Hader, O; Brehme, S; Volk, H D; Döcke, W D



Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxic effects of gamma radiation on the peripheral blood leukocytes of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.  


The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on non-target cells of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) patients exposed to various cumulative doses of gamma rays during radiotherapy. The ten patients (P1-P10) were treated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation (External Beam Radiotherapy) for a period of five to six weeks with a daily fraction of 2Gy for 5 days each week. The genotoxic effects of radiation (single strand breaks - SSBs) in these patients were analyzed using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique, with the Olive Tail Moment (OTM) as the critical parameter. A sample of each patient's peripheral blood before starting with radiotherapy (pre-therapy) served as the control, and blood collected at weekly time intervals during the course of the radiotherapy served as treated (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60Gy) samples. In vivo radiosensitivity of these patients, as indicated by SSB's after the cumulative radiation doses at the various times, was assessed using Student's t-test. Significant DNA damage relative to the individual patient's pre-therapy baseline data was observed in all patients. Inter-individual variation of the genotoxic effects was analyzed using two-way ANOVA. The correlation between doses for the means of smoker and non-smoker patients was calculated using the Pearson test. The results of this study may indicate the need to reduce the daily radiotherapy dose further to prevent genotoxic effects on non-target cells, thus improving safety. Furthermore, these results may indicate that the estimation of DNA damage following exposure to a gamma radiation, as measured by the comet assay in whole blood leukocytes, can be used to screen human populations for radiation-induced genetic damage at the molecular level. PMID:23370449

Kadam, Samit B; Shyama, Soorambail K; Almeida, Valentine G



Correlation of VEGF Expression by Leukocytes with the Growth and Regression of Blood Vessels in the Rat Cornea  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. TO determine the temporal and spatial relationships between neovascularization and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein expression in the rat cornea after cautery with silver nitrate. METHODS. In female Sprague-Dawley rats, a silver nitrate applicator was placed on the central cornea to elicit circumferential angiogenesis, and blood vessel growth was quantified

Jeffrey L Edelman; Marisol R. Castro; Yi Wen



Biosynthesis of eoxin C4 by porcine leukocytes.  


Human 15-lipoxygenase-1 (LO) possesses mainly 15-lipoxygenase activity whereas the animal ortholog 12/15-LO possesses mainly 12-lipoxygenase activity. These findings have raised the question if studies on animals can predict the function of 15-LO-1 in human. In this study we have characterized the arachidonic acid metabolites formed by porcine 12/15-LO. Mini pigs were infected with a parasite to increase the number of blood eosinophils, which highly express 12/15-LO. Isolated porcine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) were incubated with arachidonic acid and the produced metabolites were analysed with HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS). The cells were found to produce 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE) and 12-HETE at a ratio of 1:5. Furthermore 8,15-dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (DiHETEs) and 14,15-DiHETE were formed. Based on HPLC, UV-spectroscopy and MS analysis it was found that porcine PMNL also produced eoxin (EX) C4. These results demonstrate that although porcine 12/15-LO possesses primarily 12-lipoxygenase activity, the enzyme can catalyse the formation of EXC(4). PMID:22921794

Brunnström, Åsa; Backman, Linda; Tryselius, Ylva; Claesson, Hans-Erik



Tracking Leukocytes In Vivo with Shape and Size Constrained Active Contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory disease is initiated by leukocytes (white blood cells) rolling along the inner surface lining of small blood vessels called postcapillary venules. Studying the number and velocity of rolling leukocytes is essential to understanding and successfully treating inflammatory diseases. Potential inhibitors of leukocyte recruitment can be screened by leukocyte rolling assays and successful inhibitors validated by intravital microscopy. In this

Nilanjan Ray; Scott T. Acton; Klaus Ley



Detection of CFTR protein in human leukocytes by flow cytometry.  


Leukocytes have previously been shown to express detectable levels of the protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). This study aims to evaluate the application of flow cytometric (FC) analysis to detect CFTR expression, and changes thereof, in these cells. Aliquots (200 ?L) of peripheral whole blood from 12 healthy control volunteers (CTRLs), 12 carriers of a CFTR mutation (CFC), and 40 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) carrying various combinations of CFTR mutations were incubated with specific fluorescent probes recognizing CFTR protein expressed on the plasma membrane of leukocytes. FC was applied to analyze CFTR expression in monocytes, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells. CFTR protein was detected in monocytes and lymphocytes, whereas inconclusive results were obtained from the analysis of PMN cells. Mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) ratio value and %CFTR-positive cells above a selected threshold were the two parameters selected to quantify CFTR expression in cells. Lowest variability and the highest reproducibility were obtained when analyzing monocytes. ANOVA results indicated that both parameters were able to discriminate monocytes of healthy controls and CF individuals according to CFTR mutation classes with high accuracy. Significantly increased MFI ratio values were recorded in CFTR-defective cells that were also able to improve CFTR function after ex vivo treatment with PTC124 (Ataluren), an investigative drug designed to permit the ribosome to read through nonsense CFTR mutations. The method described is minimally invasive and may be used in the monitoring of responses to drugs whose efficacy can depend on increased CFTR protein expression levels. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:24623386

Johansson, Jan; Vezzalini, Marzia; Verzè, Genny; Caldrer, Sara; Bolognin, Silvia; Buffelli, Mario; Bellisola, Giuseppe; Tridello, Gloria; Assael, Baroukh Maurice; Melotti, Paola; Sorio, Claudio



Improved chemotactic ability of neonatal polymorphonuclear cells induced by mild membrane rigidification.  


Membrane lipid fluidity of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) of 24 newborn infants, 2-4 days after birth, was determined by steady-state fluorescence polarization with 1,6-diphenyl 1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) as a probe and compared with that of PMNs from 23 adults. Measurements with intact cells, which correspond to all cellular lipid domains, did not display any statistically significant difference between PMNs of the two groups. However, application of bixinoyl glucosamine, a membrane-impermeable fluorescence quencher, revealed that the PMN plasma membrane of the newborn is about 23% more fluid than that of the adult. Total cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratio of newborn PMNs was found to be lower by about 10% than that of the adult, which could account for the difference in their plasma membrane fluidity. The possible implication of this finding for the deficit in chemotactic ability of leukocytes from newborns was tested with neonatal PMNs that have incorporated cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS), an efficient plasma membrane rigidifier. In all neonatal PMNs tested a mild incorporation of CHS (0.5-1 min incubation in 50 micrograms/ml dispersion) caused a significant improvement in their net chemotaxis, from an average value of 28 +/- 7 to 43 +/- 11. Longer incubations with CHS caused a gradual decrease in chemotactic ability that approached the basal level after about 5 min incubation. The net chemotaxis in adult PMNs was significantly higher than that of neonatal PMNs (72 +/- 13) and was gradually inhibited by incorporation of CHS without any initial augmentation. Based on these results it was estimated that about 27% of the chemotactic deficit of neonatal PMNs is mediated by their immature fluid membrane. PMID:1564397

Wolach, B; Ben Dor, M; Chomsky, O; Gavrieli, R; Shinitzky, M



Genetic Characterization of Hepatitis B Virus in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes: Evidence for Selection and Compartmentalization of Viral Variants with the Immune Escape G145R Mutation? †  

PubMed Central

The compartmentalization of viral variants in distinct host tissues is a frequent event in many viral infections. Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) classically is considered hepatotropic, it has strong lymphotropic properties as well. However, unlike other viruses, molecular evolutionary studies to characterize HBV variants in compartments other than hepatocytes or sera have not been performed. The present work attempted to characterize HBV sequences from the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of a large set of subjects, using advanced molecular biology and computational methods. The results of this study revealed the exclusive compartmentalization of HBV subgenotype Ae/A2-specific sequences with a potent immune escape G145R mutation in the PBL of the majority of the subjects. Interestingly, entirely different HBV genotypes/subgenotypes (C, D, or Aa/A1) were found to predominate in the sera of the same study populations. These results suggest that subgenotype Ae/A2 is selectively archived in the PBL, and the high prevalence of G145R indicates high immune pressure and high evolutionary rates of HBV DNA in the PBL. The results are analogous to available literature on the compartmentalization of other viruses. The present work thus provides evidence in favor of the compartment-specific abundance, evolution, and emergence of the potent immune escape mutant. These findings have important implications in the field of HBV molecular epidemiology, transmission, transfusion medicine, organ transplantation, and vaccination strategies.

Datta, Sibnarayan; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Biswas, Avik; Chandra, Partha K.; Banerjee, Arup; Mahapatra, Pradip K.; Panda, Chinmoy K.; Chakrabarti, Shekhar; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Biswas, Kuntal; Chakravarty, Runu



The Cell Tropism of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Determines the Kinetics of Plasma Viremia in SCID Mice Reconstituted with Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Most individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initially harbor macrophage-tropic, non-syncytium-inducing (M-tropic, NSI) viruses that may evolve into T-cell-tropic, syncytium-inducing viruses (T-tropic, SI) after several years. The reasons for the more efficient transmission of M-tropic, NSI viruses and the slow evolution of T-tropic, SI viruses remain unclear, although they may be linked to expression of appropriate chemokine coreceptors for virus entry. We have examined plasma viral RNA levels and the extent of CD4+ T-cell depletion in SCID mice reconstituted with human peripheral blood leukocytes following infection with M-tropic, dual-tropic, or T-tropic HIV-1 isolates. The cell tropism was found to determine the course of viremia, with M-tropic viruses producing sustained high viral RNA levels and sparing some CD4+ T cells, dual-tropic viruses producing a transient and lower viral RNA spike and extremely rapid depletion of CD4+ T cells, and T-tropic viruses causing similarly lower viral RNA levels and rapid-intermediate rates of CD4+ T-cell depletion. A single amino acid change in the V3 region of gp120 was sufficient to cause one isolate to switch from M-tropic to dual-tropic and acquire the ability to rapidly deplete all CD4+ T cells.

Picchio, Gaston R.; Gulizia, Richard J.; Wehrly, Kathy; Chesebro, Bruce; Mosier, Donald E.



Human herpesvirus 6A DNA Is detected frequently in plasma but rarely in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients after bone marrow transplantation.  


A real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was devised to determine the load of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6A and -6B DNA in paired samples of plasma and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of 25 bone marrow transplant patients. The assay detects HHV-6 DNA variants A and B in a linear range of 10(7)-10(1) genome equivalents per assay. Viral DNA was measured in 336 paired DNA PBL samples and in corresponding plasma samples. HHV-6A and/or -6B DNA was detected in PBL of 23 of 25 patients and in plasma of 24 of 25 patients. HHV-6B was the predominant variant found in PBL and also was detected in the corresponding plasma. Surprisingly, only 1 of 25 patients had detectable HHV-6A DNA in PBL, although 23 of 25 patients were positive for HHV-6A DNA in plasma. HHV-6 DNA load in plasma was significantly higher for HHV-6A than for HHV-6B (P=.0066). PMID:11076708

Nitsche, A; Müller, C W; Radonic, A; Landt, O; Ellerbrok, H; Pauli, G; Siegert, W



West Nile Virus-Induced Cell Adhesion Molecules on Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Regulate Leukocyte Adhesion and Modulate Permeability of the In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model  

PubMed Central

Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE). Infection with WNV (NY99 strain) significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1) did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101) strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via ‘Trojan horse’ route, and improve WNV disease outcome.

Verma, Saguna



The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.



Superoxide production by phagocytic leukocytes: the scientific legacy of Bernard Babior  

PubMed Central

It was 32 years ago that Bernard Babior, Ruby Kipnes, and I submitted a paper to the JCI reporting that polymorphonuclear leukocytes produce superoxide (O2–) during phagocytosis and that this highly reactive oxygen radical might function as a microbicidal agent. The story of how our lab came to this discovery is one of a special relationship between a student and his brilliant mentor.

Curnutte, John T.



Technetium-99m-labeled white blood cells: a new method to define the local and systemic role of leukocytes in acute experimental pancreatitis.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: We developed a new method to quantitate leukocyte accumulation in tissues and used it to examine the time course and severity of acute experimental pancreatitis. BACKGROUND: Leukocyte activation and infiltration are believed to be critical steps in the progression from mild to severe pancreatitis and responsible for many of its systemic complications. METHODS: Pancreatitis of graded severity was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with a combination of caerulein and controlled intraductal infusion. Technetium-99m (99mTc)-labeled leukocytes were quantified in pancreas, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney and compared with myeloperoxidase activity. The severity of pancreatitis was ascertained by wet/dry weight ratio, plasma amylase, and trypsinogen activation peptide in the pancreas. The time course of leukocyte accumulation was determined over 24 hours. RESULTS: Pancreatic leukocyte infiltration correlated well with tissue myeloperoxidase concentrations. In mild pancreatitis, leukocytes accumulated only in the pancreas. Moderate and severe pancreatitis were characterized by much greater leukocyte infiltration in the pancreas than in mild disease (p < 0.01), and increased 99mTc radioactivity was detectable in the lung as early as 3 hours. 99mTc radioactivity correlated directly with the three levels of pancreatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Mild pancreatitis is characterized by low-level leukocyte activation and accumulation in the pancreas without recruitment of other organs; marked leukocyte accumulation was found in the pancreas and in the lung in more severe grades of pancreatitis. These findings provide a basis for the pathophysiologic production of cytokines and oxygen free radicals, which potentiate organ injury in severe pancreatitis. This study validates a new tool to study local and systemic effects of leukocytes in pancreatitis as well as new therapeutic hypotheses.

Werner, J; Dragotakes, S C; Fernandez-del Castillo, C; Rivera, J A; Ou, J; Rattner, D W; Fischman, A J; Warshaw, A L



Survival after transplantation of unrelated donor umbilical cord blood is comparable to that of human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated donor bone marrow: results of a matched-pair analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is being in- creasingly used for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and has been associ- ated with a reduced incidence of severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). To fur- ther investigate the relative merits of unre- lated donor UCB versus bone marrow (BM), a matched-pair analysis comparing the outcomes of recipients of 0 to 3 human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mis-

Juliet N. Barker; Stella M. Davies; Todd DeFor; Norma K. C. Ramsay; Daniel J. Weisdorf; John E. Wagner



Leukocyte antimicrobial function in patients with leprosy.  

PubMed Central

Patients with lepromatous leprosy are unresponsive to lepromin skin-test material and possess defective lymphocyte function in vitro, including impaired mitogenesis in response to antigens of Mycobacterium leprae. It has been claimed that their macrophages cannot digest M. leprae in vitro; such a defect could explain both lepromin nonreactivity and impaired lymphocyte function on the basis of failure of the afferent limb of the immune response (i.e., defective macrophage "processing" of M. leprae). The present studies indicate that macrophages from patients with lepromatous and tuberculoid leprosy and from normal donors do not differ in their ability to digest heat-killed M. leprae in vitro, or in their ability to sustain the viability of M. leprae in tissue culture; that monocytes, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes of leprosy patients and controls possess equivalent microbicidal activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans; and that polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with lepromatous leprosy iodinate ingested bacteria normally. Whether the basic immune defect leading to the development of lepromatous leprosy resides in the lymphocyte or in the macrophage remains to be determined. However, the present study shows that phagocytic cells from patients with either principal form of leprosy function normally in a variety of sophisticated tests of antimicrobial function.

Drutz, D J; Cline, M J; Levy, L



Cytotoxic Activity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes, Activated by Interleukin-2/?-Cyclodextrin Nanocomposition against Androgen Receptor-Negative Prostate Cancers  

PubMed Central

Nanocomposition comprised of interleukin-2 in suboptimal noneffective concentration and ?-cyclodextrin was studied in vitro. This preparation as well as interleukin-2 in optimal concentration was shown to increase natural killer activity to K-562 cells and cytotoxicity of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) against PC-3 and DU 145 cells. At the same time ?-cyclodextrin or interleukin-2 in equimolar concentrations did not influence the spontaneous killer activity of PBMC. This combination of cyclodextrin + interleukin-2 led to the decrease of interleukin-2 effective concentration by an order. This phenomenon could be explained by cyclodextrins ability to promote the formation of nanoparticles with drugs, which results in enhancing their water solubility and bioavailability. Besides, interleukine-2/?-cyclodextrin nanocomposition as opposed to interleukin-2 alone led to increasing the number of not only lymphocytes, but also macrophages contained in activated PBMC population. Application of low concentration of interleukin-2 allowing for good clinical efficiency may significantly mitigate the side effects of the drug and enable to develop adoption of immunotherapy for patients with androgen-resistant prostate cancer.

Anisimova, Natalia Yu.; Sosnov, Andrey V.; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E.; Baronzio, Gianfranco; Kiselevsky, Mikhail V.



Cytotoxic Activity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes, Activated by Interleukin-2/?-Cyclodextrin Nanocomposition against Androgen Receptor-Negative Prostate Cancers.  


Nanocomposition comprised of interleukin-2 in suboptimal noneffective concentration and ?-cyclodextrin was studied in vitro. This preparation as well as interleukin-2 in optimal concentration was shown to increase natural killer activity to K-562 cells and cytotoxicity of activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) against PC-3 and DU 145 cells. At the same time ?-cyclodextrin or interleukin-2 in equimolar concentrations did not influence the spontaneous killer activity of PBMC. This combination of cyclodextrin + interleukin-2 led to the decrease of interleukin-2 effective concentration by an order. This phenomenon could be explained by cyclodextrins ability to promote the formation of nanoparticles with drugs, which results in enhancing their water solubility and bioavailability. Besides, interleukine-2/?-cyclodextrin nanocomposition as opposed to interleukin-2 alone led to increasing the number of not only lymphocytes, but also macrophages contained in activated PBMC population. Application of low concentration of interleukin-2 allowing for good clinical efficiency may significantly mitigate the side effects of the drug and enable to develop adoption of immunotherapy for patients with androgen-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:22084730

Anisimova, Natalia Yu; Sosnov, Andrey V; Ustyuzhanina, Nadezhda E; Baronzio, Gianfranco; Kiselevsky, Mikhail V



Cardiac myocytes release leukocyte-stimulating factors.  


The production of cytokines directly from cardiac myocytes has not been previously demonstrated and could represent an important mechanism and site of intervention in ischemia and reperfusion injuries. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP) are chemotactic cytokines (chemokines) that stimulate polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes, respectively. Endothelium has been implicated as being a major cellular source of leukocyte-activating factors. We hypothesized that the myocardial cells may also play an important role in producing chemokines independently of endothelium. Primary cultures of adult rat ventricular myocytes were prepared. Cultured myocytes were stimulated with either interleukin 1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MIP-2 and MCP mRNA were expressed in adult rat myocytes following stimulation. Our studies indicate that ventricular myocytes expressed chemokine mRNA and protein in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion. MIP-2 and MCP release, determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was biologically active, accounting for approximately 40% of the PMN and monocyte chemotactic activity produced by these cells. These results suggest that cardiac myocytes may directly recruit activated leukocytes into areas of injury. Such a recruiting process could underlie the migration of leukocytes into areas of oxidant stress and play a role in development of reperfusion injury of myocardium. PMID:7573543

Massey, K D; Strieter, R M; Kunkel, S L; Danforth, J M; Standiford, T J



CsCXCe1: A novel Cynoglossus semilaevis CXC chemokine that functions as a chemoattractant and an immunomodulator for peripheral blood leukocytes.  


Chemokines are small cytokines that, based on their structural differences, are classified into four groups, one of which is called CXC chemokines. In this study, we identified a CXC chemokine, CsCXCe1, from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) and analyzed its function. The deduced amino acid sequence of CsCXCe1 contains 115 residues and is phylogenetically distinct from known CXC chemokines. CsCXCe1 possesses the conserved RCXC motif in the form of RCWC but lacks the ELR sequence that is found in some CXC chemokines. Expression of CsCXCe1 as determined by quantitative real time RT-PCR occurred abundantly in immune organs and was upregulated by bacterial and viral infection in time dependent manners. Purified recombinant CsCXCe1 (rCsCXCe1) exhibited comparable chemotactic activities against tongue sole and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Microscopic analysis identified lymphocytes as the major cellular population in PBL that responds to rCsCXCe1. Mutational study showed that when the two cysteine residues in the RCWC motif of CsCXCe1 were substituted by serine, the chemoattractive activity of CsCXCe1 was completely lost. Further study showed that treatment of PBL with rCsCXCe1 (i) stimulated cellular proliferation and respiratory burst activity, (ii) upregulated the expression of a wide spectrum of immune relevant genes, and (iii) enhanced cellular resistance against bacterial infection. Taken together, these results indicate that CsCXCe1 is likely a new type of CXC chemokine that exerts chemotactic and immunostimulatory effects on PBL. PMID:22210524

Li, Yong-xin; Hu, Yong-hua; Sun, Jin-sheng; Sun, Li



Human Neonatal Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Demonstrate Pathogen-Specific Coordinate Expression of TLR2, TLR4/MD2 and MyD88 During Bacterial Infection In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play important roles in infection. We have previously reported TLR2 is up-regulated in neonatal Gram-positive (G+) bacteremia whereas TLR4 is up-regulated in neonatal Gram-negative (G?) bacteremia. For functional signaling, TLR4 requires MD-2 and both TLR2 and TLR4 signal need MyD88. However, it is unknown whether newborns can enhance expression of MD-2 and MyD88 with bacterial infection in coordination with TLR expression. We characterized neonatal peripheral blood leukocyte expression of MD-2 and MyD88 in relation to TLR2/4 in newborns. TLR2 mRNA expression by PBMCs and TLR2 protein expression by monocytes/granulocytes were significantly increased in the G+ bacteremia group. TLR4 mRNA on PMBCs and protein expression on monocytes/granulocytes were significantly increased in the G? bacterial group. Remarkably, whereas MyD88 mRNA was increased in all patients with documented bacterial infection and correlated with both TLR2 and TLR4, MD-2 mRNA was selectively increased in G? bacterial group wherein it correlated with TLR4, but not TLR2 mRNA. Our findings demonstrate that during bacterial infection in vivo, newborns selectively and coordinately amplify the TLR2-MyD88 pathway in G+ bacterial infection and the TLR4/MD2/MyD88 pathway in G? bacterial infection, suggesting key roles for innate immune pathway in neonatal responses to bacterial infection.

Zhang, Jin-Ping; Yang, Yi; Levy, Ofer; Chen, Chao



Increased IL-1 beta gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with increased pain and predicts risk for progression of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined gene expression profiles in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) in comparison with non-OA controls to evaluate whether gene expression profiles could serve as biomarkers of symptomatic knee OA. We also determined whether candidate genomic biomarkers (PBL expression of inflammatory genes) predict increased risk of disease progression in subjects with symptomatic radiographic knee OA Methods Three independent cohorts of patients with knee OA and non-OA controls were studied: two cohorts (“learning cohort” and “validation cohort”) recruited at New York University Hospital for Joint Diseases (NYUHJD) and one (“validation cohort”) at Duke University Medical Center. PBL gene expression was assessed using Affymetrix microarray and confirmed by QPCR. Radiographic progression at 2 years was assessed in 86 patients Results We identified 173 genes significantly up- or down-regulated (?1.5-fold change) in OA PBL, at a False Discovery Rate (FDR) of 5%. Cluster analysis revealed two distinct subclasses among these OA patients: those with increased expression (?2-fold) of IL-1? compared to controls, and those with expression comparable to controls. Overexpression of IL-1? in OA subclasses was validated using QPCR (p<0.0001) in all three cohorts. Patients with the inflammatory “IL-1? signature” had higher pain scores, decreased function and were at higher risk for radiographic progression. Conclusion PBLs from patients with symptomatic knee OA display a characteristic transcriptome profile. Moreover, increased expression of IL-1? identifies a subset of OA patients with increased pain who are at higher risk for radiographic progression.

Attur, Mukundan; Belitskaya-Levy, Ilana; Oh, Cheongeun; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Samuels, Jonathan; Smiles, Stephen; Lee, Sicy; Patel, Jyoti; Al-Mussawir, Hayf; McDaniel, Gary; Kraus, Virginia Byers; Abramson, Steven B.



The role of G-CSF and IL-6 in the granulopoiesis-stimulating activity of murine blood serum induced by perorally administered ultrafiltered pig leukocyte extract, IMUNOR.  


IMUNOR, a low-molecular weight (< 12 kD) ultrafiltered pig leukocyte extract, has been previously found to have significant stimulatory effects on murine hematopoiesis supressed by ionizing radiation or cytotoxic drugs. This communication shows data on the mechanisms of these effects. Using ELISA assay, significantly increased levels of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were observed. On the contrary, no detectable levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CFC) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) have been found in blood serum of IMUNOR-treated mice. Incubation of the serum from IMUNOR-treated mice with antibodies against G-CSF caused abrogation of the ability of the sera to stimulate in vitro growth of colonies originating from granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (GM-CFC). In contrast, incubation of the serum with antibodies against IL-6 did not change its colony-stimulating activity. It may be inferred from these findings that G-CSF is probably the main cytokine responsible for the granulopoiesis-stimulating effects of IMUNOR. When the serum from IMUNOR-treated mice with G-CSF inactivated by anti-G-CSF antibodies (but with elevated IL-6) was added to cultures of bone marrow cells together with a suboptimum concentration of IL-3, a significant increase in the numbers of GM-CFC colonies was found. Moreover, conjoint inactivation of G-CSF and IL-6 significantly decreased the numbers of GM-CFC colonies in comparison with those observed when only G-CSF was inactivated. This observation strongly suggests that though IMUNOR-induced IL-6 is not able to induce the growth of GM-CFC colonies alone, it is able to potentiate the hematopoiesis-stimulating effect of IL-3. These findings represent a new knowledge concerning the hematopoiesis-stimulating action of IMUNOR, a promising immunomodulatory agent. PMID:17386413

Vacek, Antonín; Hofer, Michal; Holá, Jirina; Weiterová, Lenka; Streitová, Denisa; Svoboda, Jaroslav



Advanced technology for storage and transport of purified DNA from umbilical cord blood prior to use in human leukocyte antigens typing and whole-genome microarray analysis.  


Two technologies for dry-state, ambient temperature transport of biospecimens were evaluated in this study. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples from 4 individuals were transported at ambient temperature using GenPlates, and the DNA recovered was compared with DNA purified directly from granulocytes of the same UCB samples. GenTegra™ DNA tubes were then used to transport the DNA from California to North Carolina and New Zealand, either immediately after drying or following 30 days of storage at 25°C and 76°C. The integrity of the recovered DNA was thoroughly tested using 2 human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-typing techniques (bead array and sequencing), as well as microarray-based whole-genome scanning. HLA-typing results were the same for all samples whether the DNA had been stored for 3 days during transport or 30 days at either 25°C or 76°C. There were no differences in the HLA-typing results of DNA recovered from UCB samples stored in GenPlates compared with DNA extracted directly from granulocytes. Moreover, the microarray analysis revealed call rates of >99.5% for every sample, regardless of storage method, with a statistical concordance of 99.99% between the UCB samples stored in GenPlates compared with DNA extracted directly from granulocytes. These results indicate that both GenPlates and GenTegra are viable methods of storing and transporting UCB (stem cell) biospecimens in a dry state. The quality and quantity of DNA recovered using both technologies are sufficient for complex genotyping using a number of different methods. PMID:24836481

Morgan, Jennifer; Bullough, Jeremy; Hammond, Laura; Martinez, Heather M; Mojica Henshaw, Mariluz P; Hogan, Michael; Dunn, Paul P J; Kelley, Linda L



Genome-wide transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes from cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis reveals suppression of host immune genes  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (BTB), a pathological infection with significant economic impact. Recent studies have highlighted the role of functional genomics to better understand the molecular mechanisms governing the host immune response to M. bovis infection. Furthermore, these studies may enable the identification of novel transcriptional markers of BTB that can augment current diagnostic tests and surveillance programmes. In the present study, we have analysed the transcriptome of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from eight M. bovis-infected and eight control non-infected age-matched and sex-matched Holstein-Friesian cattle using the Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array with 24,072 gene probe sets representing more than 23,000 gene transcripts. Results Control and infected animals had similar mean white blood cell counts. However, the mean number of lymphocytes was significantly increased in the infected group relative to the control group (P = 0.001), while the mean number of monocytes was significantly decreased in the BTB group (P = 0.002). Hierarchical clustering analysis using gene expression data from all 5,388 detectable mRNA transcripts unambiguously partitioned the animals according to their disease status. In total, 2,960 gene transcripts were differentially expressed (DE) between the infected and control animal groups (adjusted P-value threshold ? 0.05); with the number of gene transcripts showing decreased relative expression (1,563) exceeding those displaying increased relative expression (1,397). Systems analysis using the Ingenuity® Systems Pathway Analysis (IPA) Knowledge Base revealed an over-representation of DE genes involved in the immune response functional category. More specifically, 64.5% of genes in the affects immune response subcategory displayed decreased relative expression levels in the infected animals compared to the control group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that genome-wide transcriptional profiling of PBL can distinguish active M. bovis-infected animals from control non-infected animals. Furthermore, the results obtained support previous investigations demonstrating that mycobacterial infection is associated with host transcriptional suppression. These data support the use of transcriptomic technologies to enable the identification of robust, reliable transcriptional markers of active M. bovis infection.



The production of cytokines by polymorphonuclear neutrophils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cytokines orchestrate the complex network of cellullar interactions that regulate effector cell functions of natural and immune resistance. Although T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and monocytes\\/macrophages are the main producers of cytokines, a number of reports in the last few years have demonstrated that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) also have the ability to synthesize and release immunoregulatory cytokines. Here, Marco

Marco A. Cassatella



Validation of a technique to measure leukocyte adhesion to arterial segments: effects of drug treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes into arterial walls occurs after vascular injury and may play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and restenosis. This protocol presents a simple, rapid method for quantifying leukocyte adhesion to artery segments ex vivo. The procedure involves isolating leukocytes from rabbit whole blood and labelling with the gamma-emitting isotope 51Cr. Labelled leukocytes are added

Simon Kennedy; Ashley M Miller; Roger M Wadsworth; Allan R McPhaden; Cherry L Wainwright



Respiratory syncytial virus infection of human cord and adult blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages.  


We studied the permissiveness of human leukocytes, blood monocytes, alveolar macrophages, and cord blood monocytes to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Specific immunofluorescence was used to determine the percentage of infected leukocytes. The results indicated that monocytes were the most susceptible human leukocyte to in vitro infection with RSV. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes demonstrated no specific fluorescent staining after 24 h of exposure to RSV, whereas peripheral blood nonadherent mononuclear cells demonstrated a low percentage of positive cells, with a mean of 6 +/- 1% SE. In contrast, 37 +/- 5% of monocytes expressed RSV antigen after viral exposure. Exposure of monocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 1 h prior to RSV increased the percentage of infected cells to 48 +/- 6% and stimulated their secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and alpha tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Intrinsic mononuclear phagocytic factors influencing the permissiveness to RSV were studied by determining infection of adult and cord blood and alveolar mononuclear phagocytes (MP). Alveolar and blood MP simultaneously isolated from adult donors were similarly infected by RSV, which varied with the viral dose. Cord blood MP were more susceptible to RSV infection than were adult MP, 58 +/- 9% infected versus 37 +/- 5%, respectively (p less than 0.05). Treatment with LPS for 1 h prior to RSV exposure did not increase infection of cord blood MP as seen with adult blood MP. However, LPS can induce human monocytes to secrete cytokines with antiviral activity, and our results indicate that both gamma interferon and TNF, independently or in combination, prevented infection of monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:2476959

Midulla, F; Huang, Y T; Gilbert, I A; Cirino, N M; McFadden, E R; Panuska, J R



Surface modification of polymeric materials and its effect on blood compatibility  

SciTech Connect

The surfaces of commercially available polymeric materials have been modified through the chemical infusion process and physical vapor deposition. The surfaces of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been modified through a chemical infusion process by treatment of the sample with a solution containing varying amounts of titanium(IV)isopropoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The surfaces of silicone rubber samples have been coated with a thin coating of titanium dioxide with an ion beam sputtering technique. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and neutron activation analysis. The infused samples were evaluated for blood compatibility using two biological assays: an adherence assay in which the adherence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the samples was determined, and a hemolysis assay using rat blood erythrocytes to determine the hemolytic activity of the samples. Based on the results of these assays, the PMMA samples treated with PVP alone resulted in an improvement in reactivity with the blood cells. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Archuleta, T.; Barthell, B.L.; Kossowsky, R.; London, J.E.; Lehnert, B.E.; Duchane, D.V.



Human polymorphonuclear neutrophils express a B7-1-like molecule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) are part of the innate immune system and are first-line effector cells in acute inflammatory re- sponses. On activation PMNs secrete cytokines and oxygen metabolites that might be involved in the regulation of the acquired immune response. We show here that peripheral blood PMNs constitu- tively express a B7-1-like molecule as detected by immunostaining with several B7-1

Anja Windhagen; Susanna Maniak; Andreas Gebert; Isabel Ferger; Ulrich Wurster; Fedor Heidenreich


The Effect of Hypertonic Saline on mRNA of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Polymorphonuclear Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertonic saline is often used to resuscitate patients experiencing shock. In such conditions, polymorphonuclear cells and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an essential part of early induced innate immunity. Objective To investigate the immunomodulatory effect of hypertonic saline on polymorphonuclear cells by evaluating the changes in TLR-4 receptors and proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from whole blood using Polymorphprep (Axis-Shield, Oslo, Norway). The isolated polymorphonuclear cells were plated at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL in 6-well flat-bottomed culture plates and were stimulated with 1 ?g/mL lipopolysaccharide or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The stimulated polymorphonuclear cells were cultured in hypertonic saline at 10, 20, or 40 mmol/L above isotonicity. After that, the changes in TLR-4 and cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Results The level of TLR-4 mRNA expression decreased after stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, but hypertonic saline did not affect the TLR-4 mRNA expression. TLR-4 mRNA expression was clearly induced upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, and the addition of hypertonic saline restored TLR-4 mRNA expression in polymorphonuclear cells. The interleukin-1? mRNA expression was decreased in the hypertonic environment. On the other hand, the tumor necrosis factor-? value was not influenced by the addition of hypertonic saline. Conclusions Hypertonic saline has an immunomodulatory effect on polymorphonuclear cells through the TLR-4 pathway, and the interleukin–1?-associated pathway is influenced more by hypertonic saline than is the tumor necrosis factor–?-associated pathway.

Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Youn; Moon, Sung-Woo; Cho, Young-Duck; Yeom, Ji-Won



Effect of piracetam on polyphosphoinositide metabolism, cytosolic calcium release, and oxidative burst in human polymorphonuclear cells: interaction with fMLP-induced stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the action of piracetam on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) responsiveness in vitro. We first studied phosphoinositide metabolism and calcium release with and without fMLP (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine) stimulation. Piracetam at concentrations from 10?4 to 10?2 M induced a slight increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) release and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) breakdown. At concentrations above 10?3 M, piracetam sensitized PMNs to subsequent

Michèle Tissot; Gilles Sarfati; Monique Roch-Arveiller; Jean-Paul Giroud



[Leukocyte filtration].  


The adverse clinical potential of leucozytes in red cell and platelet transfusion became more widely recognized. Therefore, it is preferable to remove as many white cells as possible to avoid all these risks. The new filtration methods offer improved removal efficiency and leave a quantity of leucocytes that is below the threshold for induction of a febrile reaction in most sensitized patients and close to the threshold to avoidance of alloimmunization. A selective white cell removal from platelet concentrates using new filters, in which fibers were coated with a particular polymer, increases the efficiency of trapping white cells and also prevents platelet adhesion. These filters are capable of remove more than 95% of the leucocytes with minimal platelet loss, normal morphology and in vitro function. These filters can be used in bag-to-bag as well as in bedside filtration and greatly reduce the side effects caused by white cells in blood products. PMID:2481544

Müller, N



RT-PCR amplification of various canine cytokines and so-called house-keeping genes in a species-specific macrophage cell line (DH82) and canine peripheral blood leukocytes.  


Total ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolated from a continuous canine macrophage cell line (DH82) was used in reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) for the detection of transcripts of interleukin (IL)-8, -12, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Three different methods of RNA isolation (standard guanidinium-thiocyanate method with and without application of RNA matrix, and boiling) were used and compared in regard to RT-PCR results. The most suitable method was used to establish RT-PCR amplification of mRNA transcripts of IL-2, -10, and interferon-gamma (IFN) in RNA isolated from canine peripheral blood leukocytes. Integrity of RNA isolates was ensured by amplification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) or beta-actin, IL-8, -12, and TNF were amplified from RNA isolated by various methods. Use of guanidinium-thiocyanate with and without RNA matrix gave the most consistent results. Boiling as a mean of RNA isolation was quick and easy, but the RT-PCR results were extremely variable and multiple smaller bands were observed in the agarose gel in some preparations. IL-2, -10 and IFN transcripts were amplified from RNA isolated with guanidinium-thiocyanate from leukocytes stimulated with concanavalin A. DNase-treatment of RNA isolates was necessary to assure the destruction of genomic DNA and to avoid amplification of genomic sequences. This was especially a problem when using primers for GAPDH, beta-actin, IL-12, and TNF. Lack of DNase-treatment may lead to false positive results. This may be especially a problem when amplification of so-called house-keeping genes is used as internal control for RNA integrity. These findings demonstrated that isolation of total RNA with guanidinium-thiocyanate followed by DNase-treatment gave reliable and consistent results for detection of cytokine transcripts by RT-PCR in a canine macrophage cell line and canine peripheral blood leukocytes. PMID:10416364

Gröne, A; Fonfara, S; Markus, S; Baumgärtner, W



Premature infants respond to early-onset and late-onset sepsis with leukocyte activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Leukocyte differentiation antigens are expressed on the cell membrane during activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate leukocyte activation in premature neonates with sepsis. Paired blood samples from the same individual while sick and while convalescent were examined to quantify the expression of leukocyte antigens in these clinical states. Methods: Mononuclear blood cells from 21 premature infants

Nancy P. Weinschenk; Antonio Farina; Diana W. Bianchi



The association of leukocytes with secondary brain injury.  


Shock increases mortality from brain injuries, but the mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that brain injury followed by shock and resuscitation leads to a secondary reperfusion injury mediated in part by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). To validate this hypothesis, we studied cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral blood flow (CBF), cortical water content (CWC), and hemodynamic variables in a porcine model of focal cryogenic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock. Cerebral PMN accumulation (CPMN) in the injured and uninjured hemispheres was determined histologically from the total PMNs in five high-power fields (400x). Twenty-nine mature swine were randomized to four groups. Group 1, the control group, was instrumented only. Group 2 animals had a brain injury alone and were studied for 24 hours. Group 3 animals had a brain injury and hemorrhagic shock. Group 4 animals had hemorrhagic shock alone. Brain injury followed by shock caused a significantly greater ICP and a significantly lower CBF than brain injury or shock alone. There was no significant difference in CPP between groups after resuscitation. The CWC of the lesioned area was similar in both brain-injured groups but was significantly increased when compared with the controls and the shock-only group. The CWC of the nonlesioned hemisphere was higher in group 3 than in group 2. The CPMN in both hemispheres in group 3 was significantly greater than in either group 2 or group 4. There was a significant positive correlation between CPMN and both ICP and CWC, and a significant negative correlation between CPMN and CBF. These data suggest an association between CPMN accumulation and secondary brain injury. PMID:8371301

Zhuang, J; Shackford, S R; Schmoker, J D; Anderson, M L



Defective polymorphonuclear chemotaxis in patients with Turner's syndrome (45,X).  


Polymorphonuclear leucocytes from patients with full Turner's syndrome (45,X) revealed a significantly weaker chemotactic response towards zymosan-activated serum than normal female and male controls. Random mobility and chemokinetic responses of polymorphonuclear leucocytes were normal, and so were all locomotive responses of mononuclear phagocytes in patients with Turner's syndrome. A subclinical polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotactic defect is suggested by these results, and a possible regulatory effect by a gene(s) in chromosome X (and Y) that must be present in a full double dose to preserve this function can be proposed. Control of polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis may represent yet another exception to the general rule of X-inactivation. PMID:3180503

López-Osuna, M; Vega-Avila, E; Salamanca, F; Kretschmer, R R



Kinetics of Reversible-Sequestration of Leukocytes by the Isolated Perfused Rat Lung.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolate...

B. Goliaei



Polymorphonuclear function in Beh?et's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Three aspects of polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) function were studied in 19 patients with Behçet's syndrome (BS). By 2 different techniques directed motility was found to be increased. This increase was largely due to the subgroup of patients with ocular involvement. Counts of absolute numbers of cells migrating highlighted this finding. No difference was found in the phagocytic or adherent properties of PMN in Behçet's syndrome. Increased PMN motility in Behçet's syndrome may contribute to the expression of the syndrome. It remains to be tested whether altered PMN motility in this syndrome is genetically linked.

Fordham, J N; Davies, P G; Kirk, A; Currey, H L



Journal of Leukocyte Biology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Society for Leukocyte Biology, in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press, has placed online most issues of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Devoted to "the exploration of the cellular and molecular biology of leukocytes," the journal is currently free "for a limited time" to all users (registration required). Full online text [.pdf] is available for all issues of 2000 and 2001; abstracts are available from 1984 onwards.



Junctional adhesion molecule-A-deficient polymorphonuclear cells show reduced diapedesis in peritonitis and heart ischemia-reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

Junctional Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A) is a transmembrane adhesive protein expressed at endothelial junctions and in leukocytes. Here we report that JAM-A is required for the correct infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) into an inflamed peritoneum or in the heart upon ischemia-reperfusion injury. The defect was not observed in mice with an endothelium-restricted deficiency of the protein but was still detectable in mice transplanted with bone marrow from JAM-A-/- donors. Microscopic examination of mesenteric and heart microvasculature of JAM-A-/- mice showed high numbers of PMN adherent on the endothelium or entrapped between endothelial cells and the basement membrane. In vitro, in the absence of JAM-A, PMN adhered more efficiently to endothelial cells and basement membrane proteins, and their polarized movement was strongly reduced. This paper describes a nonredundant role of JAM-A in controlling PMN diapedesis through the vessel wall.

Corada, Monica; Chimenti, Stefano; Cera, Maria Rosaria; Vinci, Maria; Salio, Monica; Fiordaliso, Fabio; De Angelis, Noeleen; Villa, Antonello; Bossi, Mario; Staszewsky, Lidia I.; Vecchi, Annunciata; Parazzoli, Dario; Motoike, Toshiyuki; Latini, Roberto; Dejana, Elisabetta



Leukocyte trafficking in experimental autoimmune uveitis in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte trafficking from blood into tissue is a fundamental process in immune surveil- lance and the immune response to stimuli. Experi- mental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an animal model for posterior uveitis and is mediated by T lymphocytes and macrophages that infiltrate the posterior segment of the eye. To analyze leukocyte migration into retinal tissue during the course of EAU,

Adrian Parnaby-Price; Miles R. Stanford; John Biggerstaff; Lucy Howe; Roy A. Whiston; John Marshall; Graham R. Wallace



Differential leukocyte count method for bovine low somatic cell count milk.  


Whereas many differential leukocyte count methods for high somatic cell count (SCC) milk from mastitic cows are available, only a few have been developed for low SCC milk. We have developed a flow cytometric differential leukocyte count method for low SCC milk. The procedure consists of 1) 1.5 ml of diluted milk sample (30%, vol/vol dilution with PBS), 2) centrifugation, 3) leukocyte labeling with SYTO 13 and 4) flow cytometric analysis. Four major leukocyte populations can be clearly identified in the green fluorescence-side scatter dot plot: lymphocytes and monocytes (LM), polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), mature macrophages (Mphi), and cells with apoptotic features based on chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. The optimal processing temperature was 20 degrees C. Significant differences among samples with similar differential leukocyte counts were found. Storage of milk samples during 2 d at 7 degrees C had no effect on differential leukocyte count. Using the new method, differential leukocyte count was performed in low SCC milk samples from cows in early, mid, and late lactation. In accordance with previous studies, PMN and Mphi percentages were lower and LM percentages were higher in early lactation than in the other stages of lactation. The percentage of cells with apoptotic features was higher in early lactation than in mid and late lactation. In conclusion, a rapid, simple, accurate, and reproducible standard procedure was developed to determine the differential leukocyte count (Mphi, PMN, LM, and cells with apoptotic features) of bovine low SCC milk. PMID:12703619

Dosogne, H; Vangroenweghe, F; Mehrzad, J; Massart-Leën, A M; Burvenich, C



Tumor cell lysis by activated human neutrophils: Analysis of neutrophil-delivered oxidative attack and role of leukocyte function-associated antigen 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lysis of tumor cells, and other nucleated mammalian cells, by neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) triggered by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) represents a widely used model system to dissect the PMN cytolytic armamentarium, potentially responsible for the cell damage at tissue sites of PMN activation. Although oxidants are generally considered to be instrumental in the target lysis by PMNs, the

Franco Dallegri; Luciano Ottonello; Alberto Ballestrero; Patrizia Dapino; Fabio Ferrando; Franco Patrone; Carlo Sacchetti



Interactions of cis-fatty acids and their anilides with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, phorbol myristate acetate and dioctanoyl- s, n-glycerol in human leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aniline-denaturated rape-seed food oils that contained anilides of linoleic and oleic acids caused a poisoning epidemic, known as Toxic Oil Syndrome, in Spain in 1981. Toxic Oil Syndrome affected mainly the lungs and the immune system of exposed individuals. Linoleic and oleic acids, and linoleic and oleic acid anilides increased the production of reactive oxygen metabolites in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

Kaisa Heiskanen; Marjo Ruotsalainen; Kai Savolainen



The anti-inflammatory pharmacology of Pycnogenol ® in humans involves COX2 and 5LOX mRNA expression in leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of Pycnogenol® supplementation on the arachidonic acid pathway in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in response to an inflammatory stimulus. Pycnogenol is a standardised extract of French maritime pine bark consisting of procyanidins and polyphenolic monomers. Healthy volunteers aged 35 to 50 years were supplemented with 150 mg Pycnogenol a day for five days. Before and after the final

Raffaella Canali; Raffaella Comitato; Frank Schonlau; Fabio Virgili



Coupled Flow-Structure-Biochemistry Simulations of Dynamic Systems of Blood Cells Using an Adaptive Surface Tracking Method  

PubMed Central

A method for the computation of low Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of freedom motion control and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mechanics is presented. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by presenting several three-dimensional cell system simulations, including the collision/interaction between a cancer cell and an endothelium adherent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell in a shear flow.

Hoskins, M.H.; Kunz, R.F.; Bistline, J.E.; Dong, C.





... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...


[Oxidative stress in blood leukocytes, pro/antioxidant status and fatty acids composition of pancreas lipids at experimental acute pancreatitis in rats].  


In an experimental model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats no alteration in leukocyte's viability was found by flow cytometry as compared to control. After 1 day of AP production of reactive oxygen forms in granulocytes was increased more than 5 times, but after 3 days their level was decreased. Alterations of pro/antioxidant status and specific changes in the fatty acid composition in the pancreas were established. With the development of AP, the processes of lipids peroxidation were intensified while antioxidant system was altered, that was evidenced by inflammation in the pancreas. In these conditions, the increase of phospholipase A2 activity was accompanied by significant changes of fatty acid composition of the total lipids in the pancreas. This increased relative total content of saturated fatty acids, in particular myristic, palmitic and stearic acid increased, while the total content of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids omega-3 (linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, dokozapentayenoic, docosahexaenoic) decreased. The preparation containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids partially normalized the lipid and fatty acids composition as well as prooxidant-antioxidant system. PMID:24479330

Pryvrots'ka, I B; Kuchmerovs'ka, T M



Increased TNF ?, IL-6 and ErbB2 mRNA expression in peripheral blood leukocytes from breast cancer patients.  


Obesity has been associated with increased incidence and mortality of breast cancer. The precise relation between obesity and breast cancer is yet to be determined, with few studies linking them with altered serum levels adipokines and inflammatory cytokines. The relevance of the expression of genes encoding for adipokines and inflammatory cytokines in the peripheral blood and their contribution to obesity and breast cancer has not been fully investigated. We aim to identify potential transcriptional biomarkers in blood samples that may assist to underpin the link between obesity and breast cancer. Therefore, have investigated whether or not the expression levels, of selected genes [tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), tumor protein 53 (TP53) and erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene 2 (ErbB2)] were altered in blood samples of lean, overweight/obese and breast cancer subjects. Blood samples were obtained from 37 lean, 19 overweight/obese and 12 breast cancer patients. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect TNF?, IL-6, adiponectin, leptin, CRP, PTH, TP53 and ErbB2 gene transcripts. Transcript levels of TNF? were significantly higher by 1.4-fold and 2.1-fold in blood cells of overweight/obese and breast cancer patients, respectively, compared with lean control subjects. Transcript levels of IL-6 were significantly higher by 2.3-fold in blood cells from breast cancer patients compared with lean control subjects with normal body mass index, and no significant difference was found in the expression level of IL-6 transcripts between overweight/obese and lean control subjects. The ErbB2 transcript levels were significantly higher by 4.72-fold compared to lean control subjects and were also significantly higher compared to overweight/obese subjects. Breast cancer and obesity are associated with altered mRNA levels of cytokines and tumor marker in peripheral blood. PMID:24961464

Alokail, Majed S; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Mohammed, Abdul Khader; Vanhoutte, Paul; Alenad, Amal



Changing patterns of plasma membrane-associated filaments during the initial phases of polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence  

PubMed Central

By utilizing a combination of several ultrastructural techniques, we have been able to demonstrate differences in filament organization on the adherent plasma membranes of spreading and mobile PMN as well as within the extending lamellipodia. To follow the subplasmalemmal filaments of this small amoeboid cell during these kinetic events, we sheared off the upper portions of cells onto glass and carbon surfaces for 30 s--5 min. The exposed adherent membranes were immediately fixed and processed for high-resolution SEM or TEM. Whole cells were also examined by phase contrast microscopy, SEM, and oriented thin sections. Observed by SEM, the inner surface of nonadherent PMN membranes is free of filaments, but within 30 s of attachment to the substrate a three- dimensional, interlocking network of globular projections and radiating microfilaments--i.e., a subplasmalemmal filament complex--is consistently demonstrable (with or without postfixation in OsO4). Seen by TEM, extending lamellipodia contain a felt of filamentous and finely granular material, distinct from the golbule/filament complex of the adjacent adherent membrane. In the spread cell, this golbule-filament complex covers the entire lower membrane and increases in filament- density over the next 2--3 min. By 3--5 min after plating, as the PMN rounds up before the initiation of amoeboid movements, another pattern emerges--circumferential bands of anastomosing filament bundles in which thick, short filaments resembling myosin are found. This work provides structural evidence on the organization of polymerized contractile elements associated with the plasma membrane during cellular adherence.



Technical Note: Validation of Internal Control Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Bovine Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of gene expression is becoming more im- portant in all areas of biological research to evaluate gene expression during physiological and pathological conditions (e.g., mastitis), not the least in the field of animal research. Presently, real-time gene expression analysis is considered to be the method of choice for accurate and sensitive quantification of mRNA tran- scripts. Because comparison of

A. De Ketelaere; K. Goossens; L. Peelman; C. Burvenich



Preliminary Characterization of a Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Stimulant Isolated From Alkali-Treated Collagen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the preliminary characterization of a stimulant released from alkali-treated colla- gen which activates the respiratory burst of PMNs. The supernatant fraction from alkali-treated collagen (SATC) was precipitated with ammonium sulfate, resuspended, and centrifuged through a sucrose gradient (10-30%, W\\/V). Proteins were detected throughout the gradient but PMN stimula- tory activity was found mainly in fractions 1 and

Roswell R. Pfister; Jeffrey L. Haddox; Kwok-Wai Lam; Kimberly M. Lank



Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to Killing by Human Complement and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis.

Hwain Shin; Manuela Mally; Salome Meyer; Chantal Fiechter; C. Paroz; U. Zaehringer; G. R. Cornelis



Polymorphonuclear leukocyte transmigration promotes invasion of colonic epithelial monolayer by Shigella flexneri.  

PubMed Central

In vivo and in vitro, Shigella flexneri, an invasive pathogen of the human colon, cannot invade epithelial cells through their apical pole. To identify ways by which it may reach the cellular basolateral domain in order to invade, we have established an assay using the human colonic T-84 cell line grown on permeable filters. Human PMN were added to the basal pole of the cells, and invasive shigellae to their apical pole. Apical addition of bacteria induced strong transmigration of PMN, reaching a maximum after 1 h of incubation. Transmigration depended on a receptor-specific interaction since it was inhibited by an anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody that antagonizes binding of MAC1 on its putative epithelial cell receptor. After 1 h of PMN transmigration, shigellae started to invade the monolayer in areas of intense PMN infiltration. Invasion was clearly dependant on PMN transmigration since it was also inhibited by addition of an anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody. This in vitro assay is consistent with in vivo observations showing early PMN efflux within colonic crypts in the course of shigellosis. PMN transmigration may therefore allow invasion in the colon by opening the paracellular pathway to invasive microorganisms. Images

Perdomo, J J; Gounon, P; Sansonetti, P J



Succinic acid, a metabolic by-product of Bacteroides species, inhibits polymorphonuclear leukocyte function.  

PubMed Central

Anaerobes, in particular Bacteroides spp., are the predominant bacteria present in mixed intra-abdominal infections, yet their critical importance in the pathogenicity of these infections is not clearly defined. Succinic acid, a major fatty acid by-product of Bacteroides metabolism, was tested for its effect on neutrophil function to determine whether it might play a role in enhancing the virulence of Bacteroides-containing infections. At pH 5.5 but not pH 7.0, succinic acid at concentrations commonly found in clinical abscesses profoundly inhibits in vitro neutrophil function. It virtually obliterates phagocytic killing of Escherichia coli and reduces neutrophil random migration and chemotactic response to formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and C5a. These effects occur in conjunction with a reduced chemiluminescent peak and delayed time to the peak. The effect on neutrophils is only partially reversible by multiple washings. These findings suggest that succinic acid may be an important Bacteroides virulence factor when present in the microenvironment of a mixed intra-abdominal infection in which concentrations are high and the pH of the medium is reduced.

Rotstein, O D; Pruett, T L; Fiegel, V D; Nelson, R D; Simmons, R L



Bactericidal activity of a superoxide anion-generating system. A model for the polymorphonuclear leukocyte  

PubMed Central

The acetaldehyde-xanthine oxidase system in the presence and absence of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and chloride has been employed as a model of the oxygen-dependent antimicrobial systems of the PMN. The unsupplemented xanthine oxidase system was bactericidal at relatively high acetaldehyde concentrations. The bactericidal activity was inhibited by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, the hydroxyl radical (OH.) scavengers, mannitol and benzoate, the singlet oxygen (1O2) quenchers, azide, histidine, and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO) and by the purines, xanthine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid. The latter effect may account for the relatively weak bactericidal activity of the xanthine oxidase system when purines are employed as substrate. A white, carotenoid-negative mutant strain of Sarcina lutea was more susceptible to the acetaldehyde-xanthine oxidase system than was the yellow, carotenoid-positive parent strain. Carotenoid pigments are potent 1O2 quenchers. The xanthine oxidase system catalyzes the conversion of 2,5- diphenylfuran to cis-dibenzoylethylene, a reaction which can occur by a 1O2 mechanism. This conversion is inhibited by SOD, catalase, azide, histidine, DABCO, xanthine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid but is only slightly inhibited by mannitol and benzoate. The addition of MPO and chloride to the acetaldehyde-xanthine oxidase system greatly increases bactericidal activity; the minimal effective acetaldehyde concentration is decreased 100-fold and the rate and extent of bacterial killing is increased. The bactericidal activity of the MPO-supplemented system is inhibited by catalase, benzoate, azide, DABCO, and histidine but not by SOD or mannitol. Thus, the acetaldehyde-xanthine oxidase system which like phagocytosing PMNs generates superoxide (O.2-) and hydrogen peroxide, is bactericidal both in the presence and absence of MPO and chloride. The MPO-supplemented system is considerably more potent; however, when MPO is absent, bactericidal activity is observed which may be mediated by the interaction of H2O2 and O.2- to form OH. and 1O2.



Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte responsiveness by copper (II) 2 (niflumate) 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiinflammatory activities and modulations of PMNL responses produced by treatment with tetrakis-µ-2-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl] aminonicotinatodicopper (II) [Cu(II)2(niflumate)4] and niflumic acid were studied in isologous serum-induced rat pleurisy. Doses of 10 or 30 mg\\/kg (35 or 106 µmol\\/kg) of niflumic acid or Cu(II)2 (niflumate)4 (8 or 23 µmol\\/kg) caused significant (p 2(niflumate)4 produced significant dose-related reductions in both parameters, only the higher dose

M. Roch-Arveiller; L. Maman; D. P. Huy; J. Fontagne; J.-P. Giroud; J. R. J. Sorenson



C5a binding to human polymorphonuclear leukocyte plasma membrane (PMNLM) receptors  

SciTech Connect

Previous investigations of the C5a receptor have been performed using intact human PMNL. To circumvent some of the potential problems with such whole cell assays (e.g. internalization or metabolism of radioligand) the authors have developed a PMNLM binding assay. Human PMNLM were prepared by nitrogen cavitation and Percoll gradient centrifugation. Specific binding of (/sup 125/I)C5a to PMNLM was: high affinity, K/sub D/ = 0.6 nM; saturable, B/sub max/ = 8.7 pmol/mg protein; and reversible. Kinetic measurements agree with the K/sub D/ value obtained by Scatchard analysis. Furthermore, the binding activity of C5a correlates with biological activity as measured by myeloperoxidase release from human PMNL. Human serum C5a and recombinant C5a bind with similar affinities when measured by competition or direct binding and label the same number of sites in human PMNLM. The nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, GppNHp, induces a low affinity state of the C5a receptor (4-6 fold shift in K/sub D/) with little effect on B/sub max/. In summary, the criteria have been satisfied for identification of a biologically relevant C5a binding site in human PMNLM. Regulation of the C5a receptor and its membrane transduction mechanism(s) appears to involve guanyl nucleotides, as has been found for other chemoattractant receptors.

Conway, R.G.; Mollison, K.W.; Carter, G.W.; Lane, B.



Acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine stimulates leukotriene B4 synthesis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Acetyl glyceryl ether phosphorylcholine (AGEPC) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) induce concentration-dependent neutrophil aggregation. On a molar basis, LTB4 is approximately 10 to 100 times more potent than AGEPC. AGEPC-induced aggregation is attenuated by two inhibitors of arachidonate lipoxygenation, eicosatetraynoic acid and nordihydroguaiaretic acid, and to a lesser extent by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. LTB4-induced aggregation is not readily reduced by the above inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism. Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, coupled with selective ion gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, shows that AGEPC stimulates neutrophils to synthesize sufficient LTB4 to account for the AGEPC response. In addition, the rate of LTB4 biosynthesis in response to AGEPC correlates well with the rate of AGEPC- and/or LTB4-induced neutrophils aggregation, and desensitization experiments indicate that AGEPC and LTB4 cross-desensitize. These data suggest that AGEPC-induced neutrophil aggregation may be mediated by LTB4.

Lin, A H; Morton, D R; Gorman, R R



Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to non-oxidative killing by adherent human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Summary Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) is characterized by abundant neutrophil (PMN) influx, but PMNs cannot clear initial infection, indicating Gc possess defenses against PMN challenge. In this study, survival of liquid-grown Gc was monitored after synchronous infection of adherent, interleukin 8-treated human PMNs. 40% to 70% of FA1090 Gc survived 1 h of PMN exposure, after which bacterial numbers increased. Assays with bacterial viability dyes along with soybean lectin to detect extracellular Gc revealed that a subset of both intracellular and extracellular PMN-associated Gc were viable. Gc survival was unaffected in PMNs chemically or genetically deficient for producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). This result held true even for OpaB+ Gc, which stimulate neutrophil ROS production. Catalase- and RecA-deficient Gc, which are more sensitive to ROS in vitro, had no PMN survival defect. recN and ngo1686 mutant Gc also exhibit increased sensitivity to ROS and PMNs, but survival of these mutants was not rescued in ROS-deficient cells. The ngo1686 mutant showed increased sensitivity to extracellular but not intracellular PMN killing. We conclude that Gc are remarkably resistant to PMN killing, killing occurs independently of neutrophil ROS production, and Ngo1686 and RecN defend Gc from non-oxidative PMN antimicrobial factors.

Criss, Alison K.; Katz, Ben Z.; Seifert, H. Steven



Effects of nitric oxide on bovine polymorphonuclear functions.  


The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the functionality of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in bovine milk or blood were investigated. In 2 experiments, mastitis was induced by infusing both hind quarters with saline containing Escherichia coli endotoxins. In addition, the left hind quarter was infused with aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS). At various times after infusion, somatic cells were isolated from milk samples, and superoxide (O2-) production induced by phorbol myristate acetate was evaluated. In both experiments, the addition of aminoguanidine had no inhibitory effect on the number of milk somatic cells or on their O2- production. The effect of NO and iNOS inhibitors on the functionality of bovine PMNs isolated from blood was investigated in vitro. The neutrophils did not produce NO. A neutrophil:monocyte co-culture system was used to study the effect of NO derived from monocytes on O2- production by bovine neutrophils. Neither NO derived from activated monocytes nor the iNOS inhibitors aminoguanidine and L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine had an effect on the ability of bovine neutrophils to release O2-. Moreover, aminoguanidine did not affect the ability of bovine neutrophils to phagocytose bacteria. These results suggest that inhibition of NO release during inflammation does not interfere with the migration of immune cells to the site of infection or the ability of these cells to destroy pathogens. Thus, NO does not appear to play a major role in the control of the functions of bovine neutrophils. PMID:17193882

Boulanger, Véronique; Zhao, Xin; Lauzon, Karoline; Lacasse, Pierre



Effects of nitric oxide on bovine polymorphonuclear functions  

PubMed Central

The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the functionality of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in bovine milk or blood were investigated. In 2 experiments, mastitis was induced by infusing both hind quarters with saline containing Escherichia coli endotoxins. In addition, the left hind quarter was infused with aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of the inducible form of NO synthase (iNOS). At various times after infusion, somatic cells were isolated from milk samples, and superoxide (O2?) production induced by phorbol myristate acetate was evaluated. In both experiments, the addition of aminoguanidine had no inhibitory production. The effect of NO and iNOS inhibitors on the functionality effect on the number of milk somatic cells or on their O2?of bovine PMNs isolated from blood was investigated in vitro. The neutrophils did not produce NO. A neutrophil:monocyte co-culture system was used to study the effect of NO derived from monocytes on O2?production by bovine neutrophils. Neither NO derived from activated monocytes nor the iNOS inhibitors aminoguanidine and l-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine had an effect on the ability of bovine neutrophils to release O2?. Moreover, aminoguanidine did not affect the ability of bovine neutrophils to phagocytose bacteria. These results suggest that inhibition of NO release during inflammation does not interfere with the migration of immune cells to the site of infection or the ability of these cells to destroy pathogens. Thus, NO does not appear to play a major role in the control of the functions of bovine neutrophils.

Boulanger, Veronique; Zhao, Xin; Lauzon, Karoline; Lacasse, Pierre



A role for leukocyte-endothelial adhesion mechanisms in epilepsy  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy, a chronic neurological disorder that affects approximately 1 percent of the world population, are not well understood1–3. Using a mouse model of epilepsy, we show that seizures induce elevated expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules and enhanced leukocyte rolling and arrest in brain vessels mediated by the leukocyte mucin P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and leukocyte integrins ?4?1 and ?L?2. Inhibition of leukocyte-vascular interactions either with blocking antibodies, or in mice genetically deficient in functional PSGL-1, dramatically reduced seizures. Treatment with blocking antibodies following acute seizures prevented the development of epilepsy. Neutrophil depletion also inhibited acute seizure induction and chronic spontaneous recurrent seizures. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage, which is known to enhance neuronal excitability, was induced by acute seizure activity but was prevented by blockade of leukocyte-vascular adhesion, suggesting a pathogenetic link between leukocyte-vascular interactions, BBB damage and seizure generation. Consistent with potential leukocyte involvement in the human, leukocytes were more abundant in brains of epileptics than of controls. Our results suggest leukocyte-endothelial interaction as a potential target for the prevention and treatment of epilepsy.

Fabene, Paolo F.; Mora, Graciela Navarro; Martinello, Marianna; Rossi, Barbara; Merigo, Flavia; Ottoboni, Linda; Bach, Simona; Angiari, Stefano; Benati, Donatella; Chakir, Asmaa; Zanetti, Lara; Schio, Federica; Osculati, Antonio; Marzola, Pasquina; Nicolato, Elena; Homeister, Jonathon W.; Xia, Lijun; Lowe, John B.; McEver, Rodger P.; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Butcher, Eugene C.; Constantin, Gabriela



Leukocyte function after aortic valve replacement.  


Leukocyte function was studied in patients with prosthetic heart valves by oxygen consumption measurements during phagocytosis of polystyrene latex particles. The consumption reflects the phagocytotic capacity of the cells. In 38 patients with Starr-Edwards aortic ball valves the mean oxygen consumption was 3.95 nanoatoms per minute per 10(6) leukocytes, as compared to 4.15 in 50 healthy subjects, the difference not being statistically significant. The number of leukocytes per ml. of blood and the distribution of cell types was quite similar in the two groups, although slightly more younger cells were found in the patients. It is concluded that the capacity for phagocytosis is not significantly reduced after aortic ball valve implantation. PMID:263395

Kvarstein, B; Dale, J



Acridine orange leukocyte fluorography in mice.  


Simultaneous non-invasive visualization of blood vessels and nerves in patients can be obtained in the eye. The retinal vasculature is a target of many retinopathies. Inflammation, readily manifest by leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial lining, is a key pathophysiological mechanism of many retinopathies, making it a valuable and ubiquitous target for disease research. Leukocyte fluorography has been extensively used in the past twenty years; however, fluorescent markers, visualization techniques, and recording methods have differed between studies. The lack of detailed protocol papers regarding leukocyte fluorography, coupled with lack of uniformity between studies, has led to a paucity of standards for leukocyte transit (velocity, adherence, extravasation) in the retina. Here, we give a detailed description of a convenient method using acridine orange (AO) and a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO, HRA-OCT Spectralis) to view leukocyte behavior in the mouse retina. Normal mice are compared to mice with acute and chronic inflammation. This method can be readily adopted in many research labs. PMID:24333760

Cahoon, Judd M; Olson, Paul R; Nielson, Spencer; Miya, Tadashi R; Bankhead, Peter; McGeown, J Graham; Curtis, Timothy M; Ambati, Balamurali K




PubMed Central

The phagocytosis and intracellular destruction of bacteria by rabbit polymorphonuclear leucocytes has been studied in vitro under defined conditions. The efficient and continuing ingestion of bacteria was dependent upon (a) opsonic factors present in fresh rabbit serum as well as upon, (b) the availability of an adequate supply of glucose in the medium. The effects of selected enzymatic inhibitors on the metabolic and functional activities of the leucocytes was investigated. Cyanide which inhibited oxygen consumption had no effect on the ingestion or inactivation of bacteria, Iodoacetate and arsenite which blocked glycolysis produced a marked inhibition in particle ingestion. 2,4-Dinitrophenol which stimulated both oxygen consumption and glycolysis, depressed phagocytosis after a 1 hour latent period. It was concluded that phagocytosis was an energy-requiring process in which glycolysis served as the most important source of energy. Leucocytes which were ingesting heat-killed bacteria exhibited increases in oxygen consumption, glucose utilization, and lactic acid synthesis. The effect of particle ingestion on glycogen metabolism was characterized by an initial period of glycogenolysis followed by an enhanced rate of glycogen synthesis. Leucocytes which had previously ingested heat-killed bacteria also demonstrated increased rates of phagocytosis.

Cohn, Zanvil A.; Morse, Stephen I.



Regulation of polymorphonuclear cell activation by thrombopoietin.  

PubMed Central

Thrombopoietin (TPO) regulates early and late stages of platelet formation as well as platelet activation. TPO exerts its effects by binding to the receptor, encoded by the protooncogene c-mpl, that is expressed in a large number of cells of hematopoietic origin. In this study, we evaluated the expression of c-Mpl and the effects of TPO on human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN). We demonstrate that PMN express the TPO receptor c-Mpl and that TPO induces STAT1 tyrosine phosphorylation and the formation of a serum inducible element complex containing STAT1. The analysis of biological effects of TPO on PMN demonstrated that TPO, at concentrations of 1-10 ng/ml, primes the response of PMN to n-formyl-met-leu-phe (FMLP) by inducing an early oxidative burst. TPO-induced priming on FMLP-stimulated PMN was also detected on the tyrosine phosphorylation of a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 28 kD. Moreover, we demonstrated that TPO by itself was able to stimulate, at doses ranging from 0.05 to 10 ng/ml, early release and delayed synthesis of interleukin 8 (IL-8). Thus, our data indicate that, in addition to sustaining megakaryocytopoiesis, TPO may have an important role in regulating PMN activation.

Brizzi, M F; Battaglia, E; Rosso, A; Strippoli, P; Montrucchio, G; Camussi, G; Pegoraro, L



[Leukocyte adhesion on a fibrinogen-coated surface under static conditions: experimentation and creation of a model].  


The adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) on the vascular endothelium is a complex process that occurs during different biological and pathological events and involves numerous molecules. The adhesion cascade is induced after PMN stimulation by various molecular or cellular signals. Fibrinogen is one of the substrates for CD11b/CD18 B2-integrins expressed at the PMN surface; fibrinogen-neutrophil binding is induced by inflammatory reactions. In order to understand this process, we have carried out studies on the basis of preliminary experiments on red blood cells and synthetic particles. The modelization of quiescent PMNs adhesion on a fibrinogen substrate was investigated with a sedimentation cell chamber. Two different physiological conditions were tested: the activated state of PMN by a synthetic pro-inflammatory activator (FMLP). The activated state of PMNs was both quantified by flow cytometry and controlled by fluorescence microscopy. The results suggest that quiescent neutrophils deposit in accordance with the ballistic deposition model. This random adsorption model differs from random sequential adsorption (RSA) in that the cells arriving at the surface are able to roll along cells previously adsorbed introducing the notion of gravitational attraction of cells. The preliminary results obtained with stimulated PMN do not allow to choose between one of this two deposition models. Nevertheless, the qualitative and quantitative effects of FMLP on neutrophils were demonstrated by modifications of adhesion molecules expression. PMID:10705135

Labrador, V; Legrand, S; Muller, S; Carl, P; Senger, B; Voegel, J C; Latger-Cannard, V; Riha, P; Stoltz, J F



CpG dinucleotide methylation patterns in the human androgen receptor gene and X-chromosome inactivation in peripheral blood leukocytes of phenotypically normal women  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate methylation patterns in CpG dinucleotides (CpGs) of the human androgen receptor gene ( HUMARA) and X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) status in phenotypically normal women in a general population, bisulfite genomic sequencing and methylation-specific PCR of genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples of 124 phenotypically normal women were examined. CpGs methylation patterns were based on bisulfite genomic sequencing of

Kazuyo Sato; Masaki Hashiyada; Shigeki Uehara; Masayuki Nata; Kunihiro Okamura



Hypomethylation of the IL17RC promoter in peripheral blood leukocytes is not a hallmark of age-related macular degeneration.  


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide. Aberrant DNA methylation within the promoter of IL17RC in peripheral blood mononuclear cells has recently been reported in AMD. To validate this association, we examined DNA methylation of the IL17RC promoter in peripheral blood. First, we used Illumina Human Methylation450 Bead Arrays, a widely accepted platform for measuring global DNA methylation. Second, methylation status at multiple sites within the IL17RC promoter was determined by bisulfite pyrosequencing in two cohorts. Third, a methylation-sensitive quantitative PCR-based assay was performed on a subset of samples. In contrast to previous findings, we did not find evidence of differential methylation between AMD cases and age-matched controls. We conclude that hypomethylation within the IL17RC gene promoter in peripheral blood is not suitable for use as a clinical biomarker of AMD. This study highlights the need for considerable replication of epigenetic association studies prior to clinical application. PMID:24373284

Oliver, Verity F; Franchina, Maria; Jaffe, Andrew E; Branham, Kari E; Othman, Mohammad; Heckenlively, John R; Swaroop, Anand; Campochiaro, Betsy; Vote, Brendan J; Craig, Jamie E; Saffery, Richard; Mackey, David A; Qian, Jiang; Zack, Donald J; Hewitt, Alex W; Merbs, Shannath L



Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency: in vitro assessment of neutrophil function and leukocyte integrin expression.  

PubMed Central

Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) was identified in a two-month-old Holstein heifer calf using DNA-polymerase chain reaction analysis of the affected calf and other clinical parameters. Neutrophil integrin expression (CD18, CD11a, CD11c), aggregation, and transendothelial migration were studied in vitro. Neutrophils were isolated from the affected calf and from normal, healthy, age-matched control Holstein calves. Neutrophils isolated from the affected BLAD calf had decreased expression of leukocyte integrins on their cell surface, decreased ability to aggregate in response to chemotactic stimuli, and decreased ability to migrate across bovine endothelial cell monolayers in vitro. Transendothelial migration of neutrophils from normal calves was reduced to levels comparable to the BLAD neutrophils by treatment with an anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody (MAb 60.3). Peripheral-blood lymphocytes from the BLAD calf also expressed negligible levels of leukocyte integrins, similar to their neutrophil counterparts. Our experimental findings in vitro correlate well with the clinical observations of decreased leukocyte trafficking and diminished host defense in leukocyte adhesion-deficient animals. The syndrome of BLAD may be a suitable model for one of the human leukocyte adhesion deficiency disorders. Images Fig. 4.

Olchowy, T W; Bochsler, P N; Neilsen, N R; Welborn, M G; Slauson, D O



[Leukocyte depletion by in-line-filtration].  


Leukocyte depletion was tested in 30 red cell concentrates (RCC) using a new 450-ml triple U blood-bag system (Optipac, Baxter) with an integrated polyester filter (Sepacell R 2000). Centrifugation at 3,600 rpm was well tolerated by all filters. RCC were filtered 48 h after preparation (mean time 25-30 min). Filtration loss of red blood cells was about 7%. Prefiltration leukocyte concentration averaged 3 x 10(9) leukocytes/l (Coulter). After filtration 6 x 10(5) leukocytes/l (median) were counted in the Nageotte chamber (NC). 1.5 x 10(5)/RCC leukozytes (WBC) per filtered RCC were calculated (median). 29/30 (97%) RCC contained less than 5 x 10(6) WBC, in 4 cases no WBC were detectable in the NC, but 6.62 x 10(6) WBC remained in 1 RCC. The rate of hemolysis (8/30) averaged 0.4% on day 42. Handling was easy, allowing routine use. Quality controls are necessary. PMID:9480158

Krandick, E; Vornwald, A; Gossrau, E



Effects of DHA- Rich n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Gene Expression in Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes: The OmegAD Study  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary fish oil, rich in n-3 fatty acids (n-3 FAs), e.g. docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), regulate inflammatory reactions by various mechanisms, e.g. gene activation. However, the effects of long-term treatment with DHA and EPA in humans, using genome wide techniques, are poorly described. Hence, our aim was to determine the effects of 6 mo of dietary supplementation with an n-3 FA preparation rich in DHA on global gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Methods and Findings In the present study, blood samples were obtained from a subgroup of 16 patients originating from the randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled OmegAD study, where 174 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients received daily either 1.7 g of DHA and 0.6 g EPA or placebo for 6 months. In blood samples obtained from 11 patients receiving n-3 FA and five placebo, expressions of approximately 8000 genes were assessed by gene array. Significant changes were confirmed by real-time PCR. At 6 months, the n-3 FAs group displayed significant rises of DHA and EPA plasma concentrations, as well as up- and down-regulation of nine and ten genes, respectively, was noticed. Many of these genes are involved in inflammation regulation and neurodegeneration, e.g. CD63, MAN2A1, CASP4, LOC399491, NAIP, and SORL1 and in ubiqutination processes, e.g. ANAPC5 and UBE2V1. Down-regulations of ANAPC5 and RHOB correlated to increases of plasma DHA and EPA levels. Conclusions We suggest that 6 months of dietary n-3 FA supplementation affected expression of genes that might influence inflammatory processes and could be of significance for AD. Trial Registration NCT00211159

Vedin, Inger; Cederholm, Tommy; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Basun, Hans; Garlind, Anita; Irving, Gerd Faxen; Eriksdotter-Jonhagen, Maria; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Dahlman, Ingrid; Palmblad, Jan



Association of CYP3A4 genotype with detection of Vgamma/Jbeta trans-rearrangements in the peripheral blood leukocytes of pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy for ALL.  


Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are exposed to high doses of cytotoxic and genotoxic drugs which, in some cases, can lead to treatment related leukemia. Since this only occurs in a minority of patients, however, it is possible some individuals are predisposed due to genetic polymorphisms in genes for enzymes that mediate drug metabolism. To address this possibility we measured the genotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents in patients receiving treatment for ALL by the frequency of the Vgamma/Jbeta trans-rearrangement in their peripheral blood leukocytes and compared this with CYP3A4 genotype. CYP3A4 is the most abundant of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme in the liver and intestine which contains a common -392A>G substitution in the promoter region (CYP3A4*1B allele). We found a significant increase in the frequency of rearrangements during chemotherapy only in patients homozygous for the wild type CYP3A4*1A allele. This provides a direct link between CYP3A4 genotype and susceptibility to drug genotoxicity thus strengthening the possibility that predisposition to treatment related leukemia may be measurable by simple genetic testing. PMID:15475069

Lopes, Luiz Fernando; Piccoli, Fábio De Simone; Paixão, Valéria A; Latorre, Maria do Rosário D O; Camargo, Beatriz de; Simpson, Andrew J G; Caballero, Otávia L



Influence of Hydration Status on Changes in Plasma Cortisol, Leukocytes, and Antigen-Stimulated Cytokine Production by Whole Blood Culture following Prolonged Exercise  

PubMed Central

Elevated antigen-stimulated anti-inflammatory cytokine production appears to be a risk factor for upper respiratory tract illness in athletes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prolonged exercise and hydration on antigen-stimulated cytokine production. Twelve healthy males cycled for 120?min at 60% V?O2max? on two occasions, either euhydrated or moderately hypohydrated (induced by fluid restriction for 24?h). Blood samples were collected before and after exercise and following 2?h recovery for determination of cell counts, plasma cortisol, and in vitro antigen-stimulated cytokine production by whole blood culture. Fluid restriction resulted in mean body mass loss of 1.3% and 3.9% before and after exercise, respectively. Exercise elicited a significant leukocytosis and elevated plasma cortisol, with no differences between trials. IL-6 production was significantly reduced 2?h postexercise (P < 0.05), while IL-10 production was elevated postexercise (P < 0.05). IFN-? and IL-2 production tended to decrease postexercise. No significant effect of hydration status was observed for the measured variables. Prolonged exercise appears to result in augmented anti-inflammatory cytokine release in response to antigen challenge, possibly coupled with acute suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production, corresponding with studies using mitogen or endotoxin as stimulant. Moderate hypohydration does not appear to influence these changes.

Svendsen, Ida S.; Killer, Sophie C.



Leukocyte integrin activation mediates transient neutropenia after G-CSF administration  

PubMed Central

After administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), there is a marked, albeit transient, drop in circulating neutrophils. To determine the role of leukocyte integrins in this disappearance, a dog having canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (CLAD) or CLAD dogs who had undergone gene correction either by matched littermate allogeneic transplant or autologous gene therapy were evaluated. Shortly after G-CSF administration, a dramatic, yet transient, neutropenia was observed in the control littermates. This neutropenia was not as marked in the CLAD dogs. In all instances, it was CD18+ neutrophils that preferentially egressed from the circulation. The association of CD18 with this rapid loss suggested leukocyte integrin activation after G-CSF administration. To determine the activation status of the integrin, a monoclonal antibody recognizing the activated ?-subunit cation binding domain (mAb24) was used to evaluate human leukocytes after G-CSF administration. Mirroring the dramatic decrease in circulating neutrophil numbers, there was a dramatic and specific increase in the activation of the ?-subunit after G-CSF expression on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This activation, like the drop in neutrophil count, was transient. These results demonstrate that the leukocyte integrin on circulating neutrophils is transiently activated after G-CSF administration and mediates the transient neutropenia observed after G-CSF administration.

Tuschong, Laura; Bauer, Thomas R.; Yau, Yu Ying; Leitman, Susan F.; Hickstein, Dennis D.



The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance.

Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P.; Lo, Hui-Chen