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Sample records for blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  1. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  2. Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Qiuling; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping; Mu, Jinjun; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ? Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ? 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). ? 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was paralleled by increased debris of cells. ? Oxidative DNA damage of PMNs is associated with arsenic-related skin lesions.

  3. High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François

    2013-07-15

    Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 ?M, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ? 2.5 ?M, ? 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion trapping. • Human peripheral blood leukocytes capture and concentrate quinacrine. • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes do so with higher apparent affinity. • Polymorphonuclear are also more competent than lymphocytes for pinocytosis.

  4. The effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocyte response experiment MA-032

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    In a series of studies performed at intervals from 30 day before flight to 30 days after recovery, blood samples were obtained from the three astronauts of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project and from eight control subjects. To determine the effects of space flight on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, tests were performed on blood samples obtained as quickly as possible after splashdown and on the day following recovery. The astronauts' inhalation of propellant gases and the inception of corticosteroid therapy 1 day after recovery provided an additional opportunity to investigate the possible effects of these factors on leukocyte function. Data were obtained during each time period on the total leukocyte count, differential count, leukocyte adhesion, leukocyte migration and chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and histochemical staining for leukocyte acid and alkaline phosphatase. These observations present a variety of in vitro correlates to white blood cell function within the body. Taken together, they serve as a reasonable approximation of the effects of space flight on leukocyte function.

  5. Labeling of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes with indium-111: a new method for the quantitation of in-vivo accumulation of PMNLs in rabbit skin

    SciTech Connect

    Wahba, A.V.; Barnes, B.; Lazarus, G.S.

    1984-02-01

    A precise method for quantitation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) accumulation in skin in vivo, has been developed so that the proinflammatory effects of various agents can be compared. This method can also be used to evaluate the effect of therapeutic agents on PMNL accumulation in vivo. Rabbit PMNLs were purified from heparinized blood by dextran sedimentation, hypotonic lysis, and separation on Ficoll-Hypaque. The PMNLs were labeled with 3-5 microCi per 10(6) cells of /sup 111/In oxine and reinfused coincidentally with different concentrations of different chemotactic and proinflammatory materials injected intradermally into the back. In some experiments, varying concentrations of acetic acid were applied topically. Four to 18 hours later, the rabbits were sacrificed. Eight-millimeter punch biopsies were obtained from the injection sites and counted in a gamma counter. The number of PMNLs infiltrating the dermis was also quantitated in histologic sections. A significant correlation was found between the percent increase in radioactivity and the percent increase in PMNL accumulation morphologically. Dose-response curves were generated using such proinflammatory materials as formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, lipopolysaccharide, activated serum, trypsin, glycogen, and acetic acid. These curves were highly reproducible from animal to animal. Using this assay, we found that as little as 1 microgram of trypsin induced detectable PMNL accumulation. This is 2-3 logs more sensitive than injecting mice intraperitoneally with trypsin. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate-inactivation of trypsin inhibited PMNL accumulation. This sensitive and quantitative bioassay of PMNL accumulation permits evaluation of multiple agents in the same animal, which decreases animal to animal variation.

  6. Isolation, In-111 labeling, and abscess detection efficiency of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from blood and peritoneal fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Bettin, K.M.; Elson, M.K.; Gerding, D.N.; Bamberger, D.M.; Forstrom, L.A.; Shafer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    In-111 labeled blood and peritoneal exudate PMN were compared for labeling efficiency and ability to migrate to sites of experimental abscesses using both direct sampling and visual imaging techniques. Blood PMN were prepared by combining heparinized blood with 6% Hetastarch for 1 hour and layering the plasma over a double density Ficoll-Hy-paque gradient (S.G. 1.076 over 1.141). The PMN layer (90-99% PMN) at the interface yielded 10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/ PMN from 80-120 ml of blood. Peritoneal PMN were obtained by infusion of 0.1% glycogen, followed by infusion of saline after 4 or 18 hours. The exudate yielded 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ PMN (80-99% PMN). PMN suspensions were labeled for 30 minutes by addition of 100 ..mu..Ci of In-111-oxine, then washed twice. Percent cell-associated radioactivity of the labeled blood, 4 hour, and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 89%, 88%, and 86%. The labeled PMN were injected intravenously into rabbits which had two of three abdominal capsules (table tennis balls drilled with 250 1.5 mm holes) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus 4 hours earlier. Peak venous recovery of circulating labeled PMN, for blood, 4 hour and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 60%, 43%, and 19%. Gamma camera images 24 hours after infusion into infected rabbits were superior with 4 hour peritoneal PMN. The peritoneal PMN harvested 4 hours after glycogen stimulation are simple to prepare, are obtainable in greater numbers than blood PMN, and result in better abscess visualization.

  7. Technetium-99m labeling of polymorphonuclear leukocytes: preparation with two different stannous agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kelbaek, H.; Fogh, J.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for in vitro labeling of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes with Tc-99m is described. Titration of stannous fluoride and stannous pyrophosphate concentrations for pretinning was performed, and optimal amounts of the stannous agents were added to polymorphonuclear leukocytes efficiency isolated from 100 ml of blood. Labeling with 10-15 mCi Tc-99m resulted, after three washings of cell suspensions, in yield of 1.6-4.8 mCi, corresponding to 20.5-33.5% of added tracer. Cell-bound activity in the final cell suspensions was 92.3% +/- 1.9 of the added dose. Cell function was not impaired by the labeling technique. Sterility and exclusion of bacterial endotoxins in the final cell suspensions were demonstrated. The method may prove of diagnostic value in the isolation, labeling, and reinjection of autologous leukocytes for scintigraphic imaging of acute inflammatory lesions.

  8. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by oxygenated sterol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, L.I.; Bass, J.; Yachnin, S.

    1980-07-01

    When preincubated with certain oxygenated sterol compounds in lipoprotein-depleted serum (20% (vol/vol)), human polymorphonuclear leukocytes show inhibition of chemotaxis toward the synthetic dipeptide N-formylmethionylphenylalinine without alteration of random movement or loss of cell viability. These effects can occur at sterol concentrations as low as 6.25 ..mu..M and after as little as 5 min of preincubation, but they are increased at higher concentrations and longer preincubation times. The inhibition can be almost completely reversed by preincubation in lipoprotein-replete serum (human AB serum, 20% (vol/vol)) and may be partially corrected by addition of free cholesterol (0.125 mM) to the medium. These effects are unlikely to be due to inhibition of cellular sterol synthesis, competition for chemotaxin membrane binding sites, or deactivation of the leukocytes but they may be a consequence of insertion of the sterol molecule into the leukocyte plasma membranes.

  9. Isozyme analysis of human normal polymorphonuclear leukocyte phosphofructokinase.

    PubMed

    Durante, P; Raleigh, X; Gómez, M E; Campos, G; Ryder, E

    1995-11-22

    Phosphofructokinase (PFK) from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) was characterized by immunological titration with subunit specific antibodies, column chromatography on QAE-Sephadex and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Two different isozymes, M-type and L-type, were found. The M(r) values of the M and L subunits were 79,500 +/- 1,914 and 74,250 +/- 1,258, respectively. The two isozymes presented different kinetic and regulatory properties. The results suggest that PFK from human normal PMN is a mixture of M-type and L-type homotetramers, mainly, with possible minor heterotetrameric forms. PMID:7488210

  10. Influence of light sources on the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Beard, Richard B.; Dai, Xiaoyan

    1995-05-01

    In the process of inflammation, leukocytes must travel from the intraluminal space of the capillary to the interstitial space in order to reach the site of the inflammation. The two major populations of mature human leukocytes based on the morphology are the polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and mononuclear leukocytes (MNL). Previous research on PMNs and MNLs at the Biomedical Engineering and Science Institute of Drexel University have shown that their migration can be markedly enhanced by excitation with electric and magnetic fields. This presentation demonstrates that the migration of PMNs under excitation of photons is enhanced in the red light region of (lambda) equals 660 nm and inhibited in the green light region of (lambda) equals 565 nm. There is an intensity threshold at which red light enhances migration and an intensity threshold at which green light inhibits migration. In these experiments the Boyden technique was used with the distance of the cell migration through a cellulose filter measured in terms of the leading edge. The comparison of the relative value of the distance to cell migration under a light to cell migration without a light stimulus was recorded as a cytokinetic index, K.I.. K.I. is a measure of the cytokinesis which is the progress of the cell movement in which the migration is enhanced by substances in the cell environment irrespective of a concentration gradient. The cytotactic index is a measure of cytotaxis which is the directional movement along a chemical gradient formed by a chemotactic factor. A Russian pulsed commercial laser biostimulator in the near infrared wavelength above an intensity threshold enhances PMN migration. Intermittent green and red stimulators below the intensity threshold markedly influence the cytokinetic index of PMNs while above the intensity threshold, this influence is deminished.

  11. Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L. , Decatur, GA )

    1990-06-01

    Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

  12. Effect of human polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes on chromosomal and plasmid DNA of Escherichia coli. Role of acid DNase

    SciTech Connect

    Rozenberg-Arska, M.; van Strijp, J.A.; Hoekstra, W.P.; Verhoef, J.

    1984-05-01

    Phagocytosis and killing by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are important host resistance factors against invading microorganisms. Evidence showing that killing is rapidly followed by degradation of bacterial components is limited. Therefore, we studied the fate of Escherichia coli DNA following phagocytosis of E. coli by polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes. (/sup 3/H)Thymidine-labeled, unencapsulated E. coli PC2166 and E. coli 048K1 were incubated in serum, washed, and added to leukocytes. Uptake and killing of the bacteria and degradation of DNA were measured. Although phagocytosis and killing by mononuclear leukocytes was less efficient than that by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, only mononuclear leukocytes were able to degrade E. coli PC2166 DNA. Within 2 h, 60% of the radioactivity added to mononuclear leukocytes was released into the supernate, of which 40% was acid soluble. DNA of E. coli 048K1 was not degraded. To further analyze the capacity of mononuclear leukocytes to degrade E. coli DNA, chromosomal and plasmid DNA was isolated from ingested bacteria and subjected to agarose gel-electrophoresis. Only chromosomal DNA was degraded after phagocytosis. Plasmid DNA of E. coli carrying a gene coding for ampicillin resistance remained intact for a 2-h period after ingestion, and was still able to transform recipient E. coli cells after this period. Although we observed no DNA degradation during phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lysates of both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes contained acid-DNase activity with a pH optimum of 4.9. However, the DNase activity of mononuclear leukocytes was 20 times higher than that of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. No difference was observed between DNase activity from polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes from a chronic granulomatous disease patient with DNase activity from control polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes.

  13. Activation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes by Candidate Biomaterials for an Implantable Glucose Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Andrey; Hellerud, Bernt Christian; Lambris, John D; Johannessen, Erik A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik

    2011-01-01

    Background Continuous monitoring of glucose by implantable microfabricated devices offers key advantages over current transcutaneous glucose sensors that limit usability due to their obtrusive nature and risk of infection. A successful sensory implant should be biocompatible and retain long-lasting function. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a key role in the inflammatory system by releasing enzymes, cytokines, and reactive oxygen species, typically as a response to complement activation. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro analysis of PMN activation as a marker for biocompatibility of materials and to evaluate the role of complement in the activation of PMN. Methods Fifteen candidate materials of an implantable glucose sensor were incubated in lepirudin-anticoagulated whole blood. The cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b) expression on PMN was analyzed with flow cytometry and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration in plasma was analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Complement activation was prevented by the C3 inhibitor compstatin or the C5 inhibitor eculizumab. Results Three of the biomaterials (cellulose ester, polyamide reverse osmosis membrane, and polyamide thin film membrane), all belonging to the membrane group, induced a substantial and significant increase in CD11b expression and MPO release. The changes were virtually identical for these two markers. Inhibition of complement with compstatin or eculizumab reduced the CD11b expression and MPO release dose dependently and in most cases back to baseline. The other 12 materials did not induce significant PMN activation. Conclusion Three of the 15 candidate materials triggered PMN activation in a complement-dependent manner and should therefore be avoided for implementation in implantable microsensors. PMID:22226271

  14. Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

    1984-04-01

    A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

  15. [Chemiluminescence in a stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes--luminol system: suppression by thiols].

    PubMed

    Murina, M A; Roshchupkin, D I; Belakina, N S; Filippov, S V

    2005-01-01

    The effect of some scavengers of thiol nature, which eliminate all reactive oxygen species and oxidants with reactive chlorine, on the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was studied. The use of two scavengers of this type (penetrating and not penetrating into the cell) made it possible to separate the luminescence of cell structures from the luminescence generated by oxidants in the surrounding medium. It was found that about a half of luminol luminescence is due to its oxidation in the medium surrounding the cell, and it is completely inhibited by the nonpenetrating reduced glutathione. The cell itself is a source of a considerable portion of luminescence, and this luminescence is quenched by penetrating sulfhydryl compounds such as dithiothreitol and N-acethyl cysteine. Reduced glutathione, which penetrates into cells and whose action is due only to the sulfhydryl group, is recommended as a candidate for the selective neutralization of extracellular oxidants. PMID:16358790

  16. Phorbol esters cause sequential activation and deactivation of complement receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, S.D.; Meyer, B.C.

    1986-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) exerts a biphasic effect on receptors for C3b and C3bi of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The addition of PMA for 10 min enhances the capacity of these receptors to promote binding and phagocytosis of C3b- and C3bi-coated erythrocytes. Upon additional incubation for 60 min, the capacity of these receptors to bind and ingest ligand-coated erythrocytes decreases the levels below those of resting cells. Although PMA does cause increased expression of cell surface C3b and C3bi receptors, the sequential rise and fall of receptor activity cannot be accounted for the alterations in the number of surface receptors. It appears, rather, that PMA causes qualitative changes in these receptors, first an increase in receptor activity (activation) and then a decrease in receptor activity. To explore the role of phosphorylation in the sequential activation and deactivation of phagocytosis-promoting receptors, the authors loaded PMN with thiophosphate (thioP). This compound is incorporated into cellular nucleotides and proteins, and the resultant (thio)phosphorylated proteins are resistant to phosphatases. thioP-loaded cells show enhanced receptor activity, suggesting that activation of receptors is mediated by a phosphorylation event. Cells loaded with thioP and treated with PMA for 70 min do not deactivate C3 or Fc reactors, suggesting that the deactivation is the result of a dephosphorylation event.

  17. Gene expression analysis in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated by LPSs from nosocomial opportunistic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Kamoshida, Go; Ono, Yasuo

    2015-11-01

    Innate immunity coordinates LPS detection via TLR4 on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to elicit responses to many Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, we describe the effects of five subtypes of LPS [isolated from Escherichia coli B4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRP), Acinetobacter baumannii and multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDRA)] on gene expression in PMNs. LPS isolated from B4, PAO1, and A. baumannii did not significantly alter TLR2 expression. However, LPS from MDRP and MDRA caused a 0.6-fold decrease and 2.7-fold increase, respectively, in TLR2 expression. Similarly, TLR4 expression was not significantly altered by LPS isolated from B4, PAO1 and A. baumannii but was down-regulated by LPS isolated from MDRP and MDRA by 0.1- and 0.6-fold, respectively. All LPS subtypes, excluding PAO1, down-regulated CD14 expression in PMNs. However, all five LPS subtypes up-regulated TNFA, IL1B, IL6, IL10 and TREM1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner, with the most substantial responses observed following exposure to LPS from MDRP and MDRA. These different effects on the gene expression in PMNs may depend on variation in LPS structural modifications related to acquired drug resistance, such as acylation and/or glycosylation. PMID:26376669

  18. The essential oil of bergamot stimulates reactive oxygen species production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Marco; Luini, Alessandra; Bombelli, Raffaella; Corasaniti, Maria T; Bagetta, Giacinto; Marino, Franca

    2014-08-01

    Bergamot (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. bergamia) essential oil (BEO) is used in folk medicine as an antiseptic and anthelminthic and to facilitate wound healing. Evidence indicates that BEO has substantial antimicrobial activity; however its effects on immunity have never been examined. We studied the effects of BEO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and the role of Ca(2+) in the functional responses evoked by BEO in these cells. Results show that BEO increased intracellular ROS production in human PMN, an effect that required the contribution of extracellular (and, to a lesser extent, of intracellular) Ca(2+) . Bergamot essential oil also significantly increased ROS production induced by the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe and reduced the response to the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate. In conclusion, this is the first report showing the ability of BEO to increase ROS production in human PMN. This effect could both contribute to the activity of BEO in infections and in tissue healing as well as underlie an intrinsic proinflammatory potential. The relevance of these findings for the clinical uses of BEO needs careful consideration. PMID:24458921

  19. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogels modulate ?-defensin release from polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocyte recruitment.

    PubMed

    Lieberthal, Tyler Jacob; Cohen, Hannah Caitlin; Kao, W John

    2015-12-01

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) release granule proteins as the first line of defense against bacteria and set up chemotactic gradients that result in monocyte infiltration to the site of injury. Although well established, the role of biomaterials in regulating adherent PMN degranulation and subsequent PMN-monocyte paracrine interactions is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine how biomaterials affect the degranulation of selected biomarkers and downstream monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing hydrogels (PEG and an interpenetrating network of PEG and gelatin) promote the release of the ?-defensins human neutrophil peptides 1-3, but not azurocidin or monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Although human neutrophil peptides 1-3 are monocyte chemoattractants, no subsequent effects on monocyte transmigration are observed in static conditions. Under flow conditions, monocyte adhesion on human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-? is elevated in the presence of granule proteins from PMNs adherent on polydimethylsiloxane, but not from PMNs cultured on PEG hydrogels. These results suggest that PEG promotes PMN antimicrobial capacity without enhanced monocyte recruitment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 3772-3780, 2015. PMID:26053326

  20. Interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Kharazmi, A; Döring, G; Høiby, N; Valerius, N H

    1984-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa extracellular products and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The present study was designed to examine the effect of alkaline protease and elastase purified from P. aeruginosa on human neutrophil function. Neutrophil chemotaxis, oxygen consumption, glucose oxidation, superoxide production, and nitro blue tetrazolium reduction were studied. It was found that alkaline protease and elastase at fairly low concentrations (0.05 and 0.0025 micrograms/ml, respectively) inhibited chemotaxis. The inhibitory effect of both enzymes was increased at higher concentrations. The chemotaxis of preincubated and washed cells was also inhibited. Alkaline protease but not elastase inhibited opsonized zymosan-stimulated neutrophil oxygen consumption, whereas neither of the enzymes had any effect on glucose oxidation and nitro blue tetrazolium-reducing activity of stimulated neutrophils. The data on superoxide production ability of the cells indicated that the cells preincubated with enzyme and washed were capable of producing superoxide equal to the amount produced by untreated cells when they were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or zymosan. However, when elastase was present in the reaction mixture, the reduction of cytochrome c as a measure of superoxide production was inhibited. Inhibition of neutrophil function, particularly chemotaxis, will have important bearing on the escape of the microorganism from the phagocytic defense system of the host. The role of these products in localized infections and avascular areas such as skin burns, cornea, and, at least initially, in chronic lung colonization in cystic fibrosis patients becomes important. PMID:6317565

  1. Stimulatory effects of sulfur and nitrogen oxides on carcinogen activation in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Constantin, D; Mehrotra, K; Rahimtula, A; Moldéus, P; Jernström, B

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence of inflammatory processes and of cancer in the human respiratory tract is intimately associated. One of the major factors in this is probably the recruitment of and stimulated activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PML) in conjunction with the ability of these cells to convert various carcinogens to their ultimate active metabolites. In this study, we demonstrate that nitrite and sulfite, the major dissolution products of the environmental pollutants nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in water enhance the metabolic activation of trans-7,8-dihydroxy-7,8-dihydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BP-7,8-dihydrodiol), the proximal carcinogen of benzo[a]pyrene, to trans-7,8-dihydroxy-9,10-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) and tetraols, the corresponding hydrolysis products, in human PML prestimulated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. Nitrite was more efficient than sulfite in stimulating the formation of reactive intermediates of BP-7,8-dihydrodiol in PML that covalently bind to extracellular DNA and, in particular, to intracellular proteins. The mechanism by which sulfite stimulates the metabolism of BP-7,8-dihydrodiol most probably involves the intermediate formation of a sulfur trioxide radical anion (SO3.-) the subsequent formation of the corresponding sulfur peroxyl radical anion (.OOSO3-) in the presence of oxygen. The mechanism underlying the stimulatory action of nitrite is less clear but the major pathway seems to involve myeloperoxidase. These results offer an explanation for the increased incidence of lung cancer in cigarette smokers living in urban areas. The major glutathione transferase (GST) isoenzyme in human PML is GST P1-1, a Pi-class form. The GST activity of PML was found to be inversely correlated with the extent of binding of BP-7,8-dihydrodiol products to exogenous DNA. These results suggest that individuals exhibiting high GST-activity in the PML may be better protected against the type of carcinogenic dealt with in this study. PMID:7821291

  2. Altered polymorphonuclear leukocyte Fc gamma R expression contributes to decreased candicidal activity during intraabdominal sepsis

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, H.H.; D'Amico, R.; Monfils, P.; Burchard, K.W. )

    1991-03-01

    We investigated the effects of untreated intraabdominal sepsis on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) candicidal activity. Two groups of swine were studied. Group I (n=6) underwent sham laparotomy, group II (n=7) underwent cecal ligation and incision. Untreated intraabdominal sepsis resulted in a progressive decrease in PMN candicidal activity. Concomitant rosetting and phagocytosis assays demonstrated a decrease in both the attachment and phagocytosis of Candida albicans opsonized with both normal and septic swine serum by PMNs in group II. Iodine 125-labeled swine immunoglobulin G (IgG) and fluorescein isothioalanate (FITC)-labeled swine IgG were used to investigate Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions. Scatchard analyses demonstrated a progressive decline in both the binding affinity constant and number of IgG molecules bound per PMN. Stimulation of the oxidative burst markedly reduced 125I-labeled IgG binding in both group I and group II, with a greater decrement being seen in animals with intraabdominal sepsis. Further, in group II, PMN recycling of the Fc gamma receptor to the cell surface after generation of the oxidative burst was reduced by postoperative day 4. Binding of monoclonal antibodies to Fc gamma receptor II, but not Fc gamma receptor I/III markedly reduced intracellular candicidal activity. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a homogeneous pattern of FITC-IgG uptake by nearly all group I PMNs, whereas by postoperative day 8 a substantial number of PMNs from group II failed to internalize the FITC-IgG. These studies suggest that untreated intraabdominal sepsis reduces PMN candicidal activity and that this is due, in part, to altered PMN Fc gamma receptor ligand interactions.

  3. Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Restrict Growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the Lungs of Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kragh, Kasper N.; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Ø.; Moser, Claus; Scheike, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Seier Poulsen, Steen; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert; Trøstrup, Hannah; Christoffersen, Lars; Hougen, Hans-Petter; Rickelt, Lars F.; Kühl, Michael; Høiby, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have increased susceptibility to chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the ecophysiology within the CF lung during infections is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo growth physiology of P. aeruginosa within lungs of chronically infected CF patients. A novel, quantitative peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)-based method was used to estimate the in vivo growth rates of P. aeruginosa directly in lung tissue samples from CF patients and the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also observed in vitro, where this limitation was alleviated in the presence of the alternative electron acceptor nitrate. The finding that P. aeruginosa growth patterns correlate with the number of surrounding PMNs points to a bacteriostatic effect by PMNs via their strong O2 consumption, which slows the growth of P. aeruginosa in infected CF lungs. In support of this, the growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly higher in the respiratory airways than in the conducting airways of mice. These results indicate a complex host-pathogen interaction in chronic P. aeruginosa infection of the CF lung whereby PMNs slow the growth of the bacteria and render them less susceptible to antibiotic treatment while enabling them to persist by anaerobic respiration. PMID:25114118

  4. Antipseudomonal Agents Exhibit Differential Pharmacodynamic Interactions with Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes against Established Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen infecting the lower respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, where it forms tracheobronchial biofilms. Pseudomonas biofilms are refractory to antibacterials and to phagocytic cells with innate immunity, leading to refractory infection. Little is known about the interaction between antipseudomonal agents and phagocytic cells in eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Herein, we investigated the capacity of three antipseudomonal agents, amikacin (AMK), ceftazidime (CAZ), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), to interact with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) against biofilms and planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from sputa of CF patients. Three of the isolates were resistant and three were susceptible to each of these antibiotics. The concentrations studied (2, 8, and 32 mg/liter) were subinhibitory for biofilms of resistant isolates, whereas for biofilms of susceptible isolates, they ranged between sub-MIC and 2 × MIC values. The activity of each antibiotic alone or in combination with human PMNs against 48-h mature biofilms or planktonic cells was determined by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. All combinations of AMK with PMNs resulted in synergistic or additive effects against planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates compared to each component alone. More than 75% of CAZ combinations exhibited additive interactions against biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates, whereas CIP had mostly antagonistic interaction or no interaction with PMNs against biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Our findings demonstrate a greater positive interaction between AMK with PMNs than that observed for CAZ and especially CIP against isolates of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract of CF patients. PMID:25645829

  5. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes restrict growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Kragh, Kasper N; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Ø; Moser, Claus; Scheike, Thomas; Jacobsen, Carsten S; Seier Poulsen, Steen; Eickhardt-Sørensen, Steffen Robert; Trøstrup, Hannah; Christoffersen, Lars; Hougen, Hans-Petter; Rickelt, Lars F; Kühl, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have increased susceptibility to chronic lung infections by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, but the ecophysiology within the CF lung during infections is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to elucidate the in vivo growth physiology of P. aeruginosa within lungs of chronically infected CF patients. A novel, quantitative peptide nucleic acid (PNA) fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH)-based method was used to estimate the in vivo growth rates of P. aeruginosa directly in lung tissue samples from CF patients and the growth rates of P. aeruginosa in infected lungs in a mouse model. The growth rate of P. aeruginosa within CF lungs did not correlate with the dimensions of bacterial aggregates but showed an inverse correlation to the concentration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) surrounding the bacteria. A growth-limiting effect on P. aeruginosa by PMNs was also observed in vitro, where this limitation was alleviated in the presence of the alternative electron acceptor nitrate. The finding that P. aeruginosa growth patterns correlate with the number of surrounding PMNs points to a bacteriostatic effect by PMNs via their strong O2 consumption, which slows the growth of P. aeruginosa in infected CF lungs. In support of this, the growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly higher in the respiratory airways than in the conducting airways of mice. These results indicate a complex host-pathogen interaction in chronic P. aeruginosa infection of the CF lung whereby PMNs slow the growth of the bacteria and render them less susceptible to antibiotic treatment while enabling them to persist by anaerobic respiration. PMID:25114118

  6. Stimulation of phosphorylcholine turnover and diacylglycerol production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Novel assay for phosphorylcholine.

    PubMed Central

    Truett, A P; Snyderman, R; Murray, J J

    1989-01-01

    Receptor-bypassing stimulants of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), such as ionomycin or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), generate an increase in diacylglycerol (DAG) which is independent of a phospholipase C specific for phosphatidylinositol 4,5,-bisphosphate (PIP2). Activation of a phospholipase C specific for phosphatidylcholine (PC) has been implicated as a source of DAG in other cells by measuring the release of radiolabelled phosphorylcholine. However, since PMNLs could not be labelled sufficiently with [3H]choline, we developed an h.p.l.c. assay to quantify mass levels of phosphorylcholine after enzymic conversion to [32P]CDP-choline with CTP-phosphorylcholine (choline phosphate) cytidylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.15). This assay was linear to at least 20 nmol, and was sensitive to 10 pmol of phosphorylcholine. Baseline phosphorylcholine levels in unstimulated PMNLs were 2300 +/- 510 pmol/10(7) cells and were decreased by pretreatment with PMA (166 nM) or ionomycin (1 microM) for 10 min by 360 +/- 130 and 600 +/- 290 pmol/10(7) cells respectively (P less than 0.05). In contrast, baseline DAG levels were 147.6 +/- 11.7 pmol/10(7) cells in unstimulated PMNLs, and were increased by PMA or ionomycin by 1320 +/- 222 and 1891 +/- 264 pmol/10(7) cells respectively (P less than 0.05). Similarly, the chemoattractant fMet-Leu-Phe raised DAG levels by 731 +/- 111 pmol/10(7) cells and decreased phosphorylcholine levels by 180 +/- 60 pmol/10(7) cells. Activation of PMNLs by PMA, ionophore or fMet-Leu-Phe thus leads to the sustained production of DAG accompanied by the disappearance of phosphorylcholine. This suggests that these stimulants enhance PC turnover via a hydrolytic mechanism which is independent of phospholipase C, with activation of a PC-specific phospholipase D being a plausible mechanism. PMID:2764912

  7. Increased activity of 5-lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from asthmatic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mita, H.; Yui, Y.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasueda, H.; Shida, T.

    1985-09-09

    The formation of 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE, was determined in 100,000 x g supernatant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with extrinsic asthma and 15 patients with intrinsic asthma. After the supernatant was incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in the presence of calcium and indomethacin, the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were separated by thin layer chromatography. The results were expressed as the percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into the product per 10/sup 7/ cells. The formation of 5,12-diHETE, but not of the 5-HETE, was significantly increased in the cells from the group of patients with extrinsic asthma (4.38 +/- 0.78%, mean +/- S.E.; p < 0.01) and intrinsic asthma (6.09 +/- 1.11%; p < 0.01), when compared to normal subjects (1.74 +/- 0.30%). Both extrinsic and intrinsic asthmatics had significantly enhanced 5-lipoxygenase activity, which was expressed as the sum of percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE. The percentage conversion in normal subjects was 4.19 +/- 0.39%, 6.24 +/- 0.84% for 17 patients with extrinsic asthma (p < 0.05), and 8.59 +/- 1.29% for 15 patients with intrinsic asthma (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between these asthmatic groups. These results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activity is increased in patients with bronchial asthma. 22 references, 3 figures.

  8. Chemical, biochemical, pharmacokinetic, and biological properties of L-680,833: a potent, orally active monocyclic beta-lactam inhibitor of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, J B; Shah, S K; Finke, P E; Dorn, C P; Hagmann, W K; Hale, J J; Kissinger, A L; Thompson, K R; Brause, K; Chandler, G O

    1993-01-01

    A series of potent and highly selective time-dependent monocyclic beta-lactam inhibitors of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase (PMNE, EC 3.4.21.37) is described. The intrinsic potency of these compounds, as exemplified by L-680,833 (k(inactivation)/K(i) of 622,000 M-1.s-1), is reflected at the cellular level where it inhibits generation of the specific N-terminal cleavage product A alpha-(1-21) from the A alpha chain of fibrinogen by enzyme released from isolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes stimulated with fMet-Leu-Phe with an IC50 of 0.06 microM. The inhibitory activity of L-680,833 is also apparent in whole blood stimulated with A23187, where it inhibits formation of A alpha-(1-21) and PMNE-alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complex formation with IC50 values of 9 microM. Pharmacokinetic studies indicate that after oral dosing L-680,833 is bioavailable in rats and rhesus monkeys. This oral bioavailability is reflected by the inhibition (i) of tissue damage elicited in hamster lungs by intratracheal instillation of human PMNE and (ii) enzyme released from human PMN stimulated after their transfer into the pleural cavity of mice. The properties of L-680,833 allow it to effectively supplement the activity of natural inhibitors of PMNE in vivo, suggesting that this type of low-molecular-weight synthetic inhibitor could have therapeutic value in diseases where PMNE damages tissue. PMID:8378355

  9. Influence of He-Ne laser radiation on biogenic amines content and cytochemical parameters of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in short-term stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Dobrovolsky, Gennady A.; Romanova, Tatyana P.; Porozova, Svetlana G.; Brill, Alexander G.

    1997-06-01

    In experiments on white male rats short-term immobilization- sound stress was modelled. Decrease of glycogen content and myeloperoxidase activity, increase of lysosomal cationic proteins level and NBT-test parameters as well as fall of adrenaline, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine amount in polymorphonuclear leukocytes were observed. Preliminary transcutaneous He-Ne laser irradiation modified metabolic reaction of leukocytes to stress and prevented stress- induced decrease of biogenic amines content in cells.

  10. Naringenin suppresses K562 human leukemia cell proliferation and ameliorates Adriamycin-induced oxidative damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    LI, RUI-FANG; FENG, YING-QIAN; CHEN, JUN-HUI; GE, LIN-TONG; XIAO, SHU-YUAN; ZUO, XUE-LAN

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for leukemia remain unsatisfactory. Conventional chemotherapy agents that aim to kill tumor cells may also damage normal cells and thus result in severe side-effects. Naringenin, a natural polyphenolic compound with antioxidant effects, has been revealed to have significant antitumor effects with low toxicity in preliminary studies. Thus, it is considered as one of the most promising flavonoids in the treatment of leukemia. In the present study, the effects of naringenin on the K562 human leukemia cell line and the underlying mechanisms were explored in vitro. In addition, human peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) were used as a normal control in order to evaluate the effects of naringenin on normal granulocytes and in the mediation of Adriamycin (ADM)-induced oxidative damage. The results revealed that K562 proliferation was significantly inhibited by naringenin in a time- and concentration-dependent manner; however, minimal cytotoxic effects were observed in PMNs when naringenin was used at concentrations <400 ?mol/l. Morphological changes indicative of apoptosis were observed in naringenin-treated K562 cells. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the K562 cells were arrested in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a significantly upregulated rate of apoptosis. Furthermore, in the naringenin-treated K562 cells, the labeling index of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was observed to be increased by immunochemical staining, the mRNA and protein expression levels of p21/WAF1 were strongly upregulated in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses, whereas p53 gene expression was not significantly changed. In PMNs to which naringenin (50~80 ?mol/l) was added 1 h subsequent to ADM, the cell damage induced by ADM was significantly reduced, coincident with reductions in the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) and increases in the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. However, the cytotoxic effect of ADM in K562 cells was not significantly altered by naringenin, and the oxidative stress indices in K562 cells remained stable. In conclusion, the present study revealed the promising value of naringenin in leukemia treatment. Naringenin demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the growth of K562 cells but not on normal PMNs. Furthermore, naringenin protected PMNs from ADM-induced oxidative damage at low concentrations. Cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing effects, achieved through p53-independent p21/WAF1 upregulation, are likely to be the mechanism of the antileukemic effects of naringenin, and the protective effect against ADM chemotherapy-induced damage in PMNs may be due to the antioxidant capability of this agent at low concentrations. PMID:25667616

  11. Promotion of DNA strand breaks in cocultured mononuclear leukocytes by protein kinase C-dependent prooxidative interactions of benoxaprofen, human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, G.; Beyers, A.D.; Anderson, R.; Nel, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    At concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and greater the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug benoxaprofen caused dose-related activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Benoxaprofen-mediated activation of lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence by PMNL was increased by UV radiation and was particularly sensitive to inhibition by the selective protein kinase C inhibitor H-7. To identify the molecular mechanism of the prooxidative activity of benoxaprofen, the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug on the activity of purified protein kinase C in a cell-free system were investigated. Benoxaprofen caused a dose-related activation of protein kinase C by interaction with the binding site for the physiological activator phosphatidylserine, but could not replace diacylglycerol. When autologous mononuclear leukocytes (MNL) were cocultured with PMNL and benoxaprofen in combination, but not individually, the frequency of DNA strand breaks in MNL was markedly increased. UV radiation significantly potentiated damage to DNA mediated by benoxaprofen and PMNL. Inclusion of superoxide dismutase, H-7, and, to a much lesser extent, catalase during exposure of MNL to benoxaprofen-activated PMNL prevented oxidant damage to DNA. These results clearly demonstrate that potentially carcinogenic prooxidative interactions, which are unlikely to be detected by conventional assays of mutagenicity, may occur between phagocytes, UV radiation, and certain pharmacological agents.

  12. Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. )

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

  13. Fragmentation of gelatin-bound fibronectin (Fn) by inflammatory polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL): A role for leukocyte elastase

    SciTech Connect

    Daudi, I.; Gudewicz, P.W.; Saba, T.M.; Cho, E.; Lewis, M. )

    1990-02-26

    Fragmentation of lung matrix Fn by proteases released from activated leukocytes sequestered in the lung has been implicated in lung vascular injury. The authors determined if Fn bound to a denatured collagen (gelatin) surface was susceptible to degradation by inflammatory PMNLs. Tissue culture wells coated with 1.5% denatured collagen (2 ml/well) prior to the addition of rat peritonal exudate cells, harvested 16 hours after i.p. sterile casein. Inflammatory PMNLs (1 {times} 10{sup 6}) stimulated with zymosan (1 mg) released 3 times more {sup 125}I-Fn into the culture media (DMEM) during a 4 hour incubation as compared to unstimulated PMNLs (2885{plus minus}95 cpm vs 1027{plus minus}82 cpm/100 ul). {sup 125}I-Fn released by stimulated PMNLs was markedly blocked by addition of a leukocyte elastase inhibitor (AAPVCK), moderately blocked by a trypsin inhibitor (TLCK), and not blocked by a thrombin inhibitor (Hirudin). Western blot analysis demonstrated fragmentation of released Fn. Thus, Fn complexed with denatured collagen is susceptible to proteolysis by stimulated inflammatory PMNLs. This may contribute to lung vascular injury with sepsis and intravascular coagulation which elicit sequestration of activated PMNLs in the lung.

  14. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte migration across model intestinal epithelia enhances Salmonella typhimurium killing via the epithelial derived cytokine, IL-6.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, William J; Pistole, Thomas G; McCormick, Beth A

    2002-11-01

    The host response to Salmonella typhimurium involves movement of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) across the epithelium and into the intestinal lumen. Following their arrival in the lumen, the PMN attempt to combat bacterial infection by activating antimicrobial defenses such as granule release, oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cell signaling. We sought to examine PMN-S. typhimurium interaction following PMN arrival in the lumenal compartment. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate that PMN that have transmigrated across model intestinal epithelia have an enhanced ability to kill S. typhimurium. Our data provide evidence to indicate that the extracellular release of the primary and secondary granules of PMN, myeloperoxidase and lactoferrin, respectively, is correlated with enhanced bacterial killing. Furthermore, epithelial cells, during PMN transmigration, release the cytokine IL-6. IL-6 is known to increase intracellular stores of Ca(2+), and we have determined that this epithelial released cytokine is not only responsible for priming the PMN to release their granules, but also stimulating the PMN to kill S. typhimurium. These results substantiate the pathway in which PMN transmigration activates the epithelial release of IL-6, which in turn increases intracellular Ca(2+) storage. Our results, herein, extend this pathway to include an enhanced PMN granule release and an enhanced killing of S. typhimurium. PMID:12475628

  15. A Novel Murine Anti-Lactoferrin Monoclonal Antibody Activates Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes through Membrane-Bound Lactoferrin and TLR4

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Xu, Yan-Rui; Yan, Ru; Sun, Shu-Liang; Dong, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jun; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Soluble lactoferrin (LTF) is a versatile molecule that not only regulates the iron homeostasis, but also harbors direct microbicidal and immunomodulating abilities in mammalian body fluids. In contrast, little is known about the function of membrane-bound LTF (mbLTF), although its expression on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (huPMNs) has been reported for decades. Given that LTF/anti-LTF antibodies represent a potential diagnostic/prognostic biomarker and a therapeutic target in patients with immune disorders, we wished, in the present study, to generate a novel human LTF- (huLTF-) specific mAb suitable for detailed analyses on the expression and function of mbLTF as well as for deciphering the underlying mechanisms. By using the traditional hybridoma cell fusion technology, we obtained a murine IgG1 (kappa) mAb, M-860, against huLTF. M-860 recognizes a conformational epitope of huLTF as it binds to natural, but not denatured, huLTF in ELISA. Moreover, M-860 detects mbLTF by FACS and captures endogenous huLTF in total cell lysates of huPMNs. Functionally, M-860 induces the activation of huPMNs partially through TLR4 but independently of phagocytosis. M-860 is thus a powerful tool to analyze the expression and function of human mbLTF, which will further our understanding of the roles of LTF in health and disease. PMID:26649297

  16. beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. )

    1989-01-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

  17. Harvesting the noncirculating pool of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in rats by hetastarch exchange transfusion (HET): yield and functional assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.H. Jr.; Moser, K.M.; Ulich, T.; Cairo, M.S.

    1987-11-01

    Isolation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) provides an opportunity to study PMN activity in vitro and to label PMN for study of in vivo kinetics. However, simple phlebotomy (SP) of a small animal frequently yields too few PMN for in vitro handling, while PMN harvested from an induced-peritonitis may not accurately reflect PMN in a less stimulated state. We report a novel method of harvesting PMN from the circulation of rats, using hetastarch exchange transfusion (HET), which is both time and animal sparing. HET harvested 8-fold more PMN than SP. In vitro cell function was examined with assays of adherence, chemotaxis, bacterial killing, and superoxide generation. No significant (p less than 0.05) difference was found between PMN obtained by HET and pooled-PMN obtained by SP. In vivo function was examined following labeling with indium 111-oxine. The kinetics pattern described suggested normal migratory activity when compared to previous reports. The data demonstrate that rats possess a relatively large, noncirculating pool of PMN which is readily accessible by HET.

  18. Interleukin-8 production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with chronic infected leg ulcers treated with Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Peral, M C; Rachid, M M; Gobbato, N M; Huaman Martinez, M A; Valdez, J C

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial infection impairs the healing process, promoting the chronicity of inflammation and wounds. Because antibiotics fail to eradicate bacteria, especially in biofilm form, new therapeutic modalities may be required. In the present study, the effectiveness of bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus plantarum on infected chronic venous ulcers was investigated and its effects on interleukin (IL)-8 production by cells from the ulcer bed and neutrophils isolated from peripheral blood that were previously challenged in vitro with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and L. plantarum were studied. Topical application of L. plantarum culture to lesions (25-60 cm(2)) of 14 diabetic and 20 non-diabetic patients induced debridement, granulation tissue formation and total healing after 30 days in 43% diabetics and in 50% non-diabetics. No significant differences between the groups were observed. The cells from ulcer beds collected after treatment with L. plantarum for 10 days showed a decrease in the percentage of polymorphonuclear, apoptotic and necrotic cells and an enhancement of IL-8 production. IL-8 production by isolated neutrophils from these patients was compared with that in diabetics without ulcers, as well as normal subjects under basal conditions, and after infection of polymorphonuclear cells with P. aeruginosa preincubated either with or without L. plantarum. The basal values in diabetic and ulcer patients were higher than normal (p <0.001) and were increased by P. aeruginosa infection in normal, diabetics (p <0.001) and non-diabetics with ulcers (p <0.01). Preincubation with L. plantarum decreased IL-8 production in patients with ulcers non-diabetic and diabetic (p <0.001). Lactobacillus plantarum treatment reduced wound bacterial load, neutrophils, apoptotic and necrotic cells, modified IL-8 production and induced wound healing. PMID:19519855

  19. VARIATION AMONG GOATS IN THE ABILITY OF THEIR POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL LEUKOCYTES AND MAMMARY SECRETIONS TO SUPPORT PHAGOCYTOSIS: INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF MILK FAT GLOBULES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine if fat globules and casein in goat milk were inhibitory to phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from blood, and to determine if variation existed among goats in the ability of PMN to phagocytose and in the ability of milk whey ...

  20. Proteinases in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Purification and characterization of an enzyme which cleaves denatured collagen and a synthetic peptide with a Gly-Ile sequence.

    PubMed

    Rantala-Ryhänen, S; Ryhänen, L; Nowak, F V; Uitto, J

    1983-07-15

    Polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been shown to contain proteolytic enzymes which are capable of degrading connective tissue proteins such as native collagen. In this study, proteolytic enzymes were extracted from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and a neutral proteinase was extensively purified and characterized. The activity of this enzyme was monitored by degradation of denatured [ 3H ]proline-labeled type I collagen or by cleavage of a synthetic dinitrophenylated peptide with a Gly-Ile sequence. The enzyme was readily separated from leukocyte collagenase by concanavalin-A--Sepharose affinity chromatography and further purified by QAE-Sephadex ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200. The purified enzyme had a molecular weight of approximately 105000, its pH optimum was about 7.8, and it was inhibited by Na2EDTA and dithiothreitol, but not by fetal calf serum. The enzyme degraded genetically distinct type I, II, III, IV and V collagens, when in a non-helical form, but not when in native triple-helical conformation. Dansyl-monitored end-group analyses, combined with digestion by carboxypeptidase A, indicated that the enzyme cleaved denaturated type I collagen at Gly-Xaa sequences, in which Xaa can be leucine, isoleucine, valine, phenylalanine, lysine, or methionine. Thus, the purified enzyme referred to here as Gly-Xaa proteinase, is a neutral proteinase, which may be of importance in inflammatory disease processes by degrading further collagen peptides which have been rendered non-helical as a result of collagenase cleavage. PMID:6345159

  1. Activity-guided isolation and identification of Azadirachta indica bark extract constituents which specifically inhibit chemiluminescence production by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    van der Nat, J M; van der Sluis, W G; 't Hart, L A; Van Dijk, H; de Silva, K T; Labadie, R P

    1991-02-01

    The A. indica crude aqueous bark extract inhibits the generation of chemiluminescence by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Guided by this activity the responsible compounds were purified by extraction with different organic solvents and HPLC. Gallic acid, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (as a 2:1 mixture) (+)-catechin and epigallocatechin were isolated and identified by means of HPLC, TLC, MS, 1H-NMR, UV, and CD data. Commercial samples of gallic acid, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin showed the same effects. To our knowledge the identified catechins have never been described as constituents of A. indica. PMID:2062961

  2. Release of cytokines and proteases from human peripheral blood mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells following phagocytosis and LPS stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, K; Linder, C; Lundberg, E; Axelsson, L

    1996-08-01

    Release and cellular contents of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, neutrophilic elastase and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in peripheral blood mono- and polymorphonuclear cells stimulated with preopsonized yeast cells or lipopolysaccharide. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) was also measured with a bioassay. TNF alpha production and soluble TNF alpha receptor I (sTNF RI) were demonstrated in the environment of both cell populations. The bioassay indicated levels of TNF alpha far below those detected by ELISA. The overall secretion of cytokines and their inhibitors was found to favour an anti-inflammatory balance in the environment of the stimulated cells. The interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-ra), compared with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), dominated the secretions from both cell types with a 100- to 1000-fold excess respectively. Most of the translated IL-1 beta was not secreted but found associated with the cellular compartments. In contrast to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, preopsonized yeast cells stimulated a massive release of elastase from neutrophil cells. PMID:8869669

  3. Variation in sister chromatid exchange frequencies between human and pig whole blood, plasma leukocyte, and mononuclear leukocyte cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Larramendy, M.L.; Reigosa, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction by ultraviolet (UV) light was studied in both human and pig whole blood cultures (WBC) and plasma leukocyte cultures (PLC). No variation in SCE frequency was observed between pig WBC and PLC in control as well as in treated cells. Conversely, SCE frequencies of human PLC were consistently higher than those of WBC in control and UV-exposed cells. Thus, red blood cells (RBCs) do not influence the sensitivity of lymphocytes to UV LIGHT exposure, and there must be some different culture condition(s) in the inducation of SCEs between human WBC and PLC but not in swine lymphocyte cultures. Since the BrdUrd/lymphocyte ratio of WBC was halved in PLC, the effect of BrdUrd concentration in inducing the SCE baseline frequency of PLC may be ruled out. Neither the cell separation technique nor polymorphonuclear leukocytes had a significant role in the elevated SCE frequency of human PLC or MLC. Experiments where human RBCs were titrated into human PLC showed that the induction of an elevated SCE frequency of PLC was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by the presence of RBCs in the culture medium. Since the incorporation of pig or human RBCs into human PLC as well as into MLC reduced the SCE frequency to that of WBC, a common component and/or function existing in these cells is suggested. Analysis of different RBC components showed that RBCs, specifically RBC ghosts, release a diffusible but not dialyzable corrective factor into culture medium that is able to reduce the SCE frequencies of PLC.

  4. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ...Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion; Availability AGENCY...Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion''...

  5. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ...Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion; Availability AGENCY...Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion''...

  6. Adhesomes: specific granules containing receptors for laminin, C3bi/fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have localized several major extracellular matrix protein receptors in the specific granules of human polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocytic leukocytes using double label immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) with ultrathin frozen sections and colloidal-gold conjugates. Rabbit antibodies to 67-kD human laminin receptor (LNR) were located on the inner surface of the specific granule membrane and within its internal matrix. LNR antigens co-distributed with lactoferrin, a marker of specific granules, but did not co-localize with elastase in azurophilic granules of PMNs. Further, CD11b/CD18 (leukocyte receptor for C3bi, fibrinogen, endothelial cells, and endotoxin), mammalian fibronectin receptor (FNR), and vitronectin receptor (VNR) antigens were also co- localized with LNR in PMN specific granules. A similar type of granule was found in monocytes which stained for LNR, FNR, VNR, CD18, and lysozyme. Activation of PMNs with either PMA, f-met-leu-phe (fMLP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or monocytic leukocytes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induced fusion of specific granules with the cell membrane and expression of both LNR and CD18 antigens on the outer cell surface. Further, stimulation led to augmented PMN adhesion on LN substrata, and six- to eightfold increases in specific binding of soluble LN that was inhibited by LNR antibody. These results indicate that four types of extracellular matrix receptors are located in leukocyte specific granules, and suggest that up-regulation of these receptors during inflammation may mediate leukocyte adhesion and extravasation. We have thus termed leukocyte specific granules adhesomes. PMID:2480353

  7. TRANSLATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY Whole blood and leukocyte RNA isolation for gene expression analyses

    E-print Network

    Richardson, David

    proprietary blood collection system or from isolated leukocytes. Biotin-labeled cRNA was hybridizedTRANSLATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY Whole blood and leukocyte RNA isolation for gene expression analyses; and the Inflammation and Host Response to Injury, Large-Scale Collaborative Research Program. Whole blood and leukocyte

  8. Separation and purification of a potent bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and a closely associated phospholipase A2 from rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Observations on their relationship.

    PubMed

    Elsbach, P; Weiss, J; Franson, R C; Beckerdite-Quagliata, S; Schneider, A; Harris, L

    1979-11-10

    Two antibacterial proteins from rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes, a potent bactericidal cationic protein that increases the envelope permeability of susceptible gram-negative bacteria and a phospholipase A2, have been purified to near homogeneity by ion exchange, gel filtration, and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The apparently noncatalytic bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein has an approximate molecular weight of 50,000 and is isoelectric at pH 9.5 to 10.0. The molecular properties, including amino acid composition, and the antibacterial potency and specificity of this rabbit leukocyte protein and of the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein from human granulocytes that we have recently purified (J. Biol. Chem. 253, 2664-2672, 1978) are closely similar. Both proteins kill several strains of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Rough strains are more sensitive than smooth strains. All gram-positive bacterial species tested are insensitive to high concentrations of either rabbit or human protein. The phospholipase A2, purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on phenyl-Sepharose, ran as a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular weight of 14,000 and had a specific enzymatic activity comparable to that of purified phospholipases A2 from other sources. Separation of the phospholipase A2 from the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein has no noticeable effect on the bactericidal and permeability-increasing activities of the purified bactericidal protein, but removes the ability of the phospholipase A2 to hydrolyze the phospholipids of intact Escherichia coli. Upon recombination of the phospholipase A2 with the bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, the phospholipase A2 regains its activity toward the phospholipids of intact E. coli suggesting that these two antibacterial leukocyte proteins act in concert. PMID:500619

  9. Dielectric Characterization of Leukocytes from Human Blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal-Alvarado, Jesús; Gutiérrez, Gilberto; Sánchez, Antonio; Sosa, Modesto; Hernández, Francisco; Guerrero, Carlos; Villagómez, Julio C.; Palomares, Pascual; Contreras, Ana L.

    2006-09-01

    The impedance spectroscopy technique was used to perform a comparative study on blood samples from leukemia and from healthy people. An electric circuit model was used to determine the numerical parameters of each sample. The capacitive properties, reflected in the constant phase element of a Cole model, show the capability to analyze the dielectric and spectral behavior of blood cells, in particular, with cells from leukemia. The spectra and the capacitive parameters are shown, as well as de model fitted to the experimental data.

  10. 76 FR 5386 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion'' dated January 2011. The draft guidance document provides blood establishments with recommendations for pre- storage leukocyte reduction of Whole Blood and blood components......

  11. Simultaneous measurement of phagocytosis and respiratory burst of leukocytes in whole blood from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) utilizing flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Keogh, M J; Spoon, T; Ridgway, S H; Jensen, E; Van Bonn, W; Romano, T A

    2011-12-15

    Phagocytic and respiratory burst activity was simultaneously measured by flow cytometry in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes in whole blood from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Blood was collected from 16 adult dolphins, 12 males (6-34 years of age) and 4 females (11-30 years) and subsequently incubated with a bacteria-to-leukocyte ratio of 25:1 and 10 ?l of 500 ?M 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate for 70 min at 37°C. PMN (44.5 ± 3.2%) and monocytes (33.5 ± 3.0%) were positive for propidium iodide-labeled Staphylococcus aureus, indicating phagocytosis. Respiratory burst activity after 70 min as measured by the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) was 68.0 ± 14.4 in PMN and 47.0 ± 10.3 in monocytes. There were no significant differences in MFI or percentage of phagocytizing PMN (p > 0.094) or monocytes (p > 0.275) after storage at 4°C for 24h when compared to activity measured in fresh blood. Nor was there an effect of storage on respiratory burst activity (MFI or percentage) in PMN (p > 0.420) or monocytes (p > 0.301). This assay may be particularly useful to assess the ability of dolphins to effectively combat bacterial pathogen challenges with minimal amounts of blood. PMID:21930305

  12. Tracking flow of leukocytes in blood for drug analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basharat, Arslan; Turner, Wesley; Stephens, Gillian; Badillo, Benjamin; Lumpkin, Rick; Andre, Patrick; Perera, Amitha

    2011-03-01

    Modern microscopy techniques allow imaging of circulating blood components under vascular flow conditions. The resulting video sequences provide unique insights into the behavior of blood cells within the vasculature and can be used as a method to monitor and quantitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells at sites of vascular injury/ inflammation and potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker, helping screen new therapies and individualize dose and combinations of drugs. However, manual analysis of these video sequences is intractable, requiring hours per 400 second video clip. In this paper, we present an automated technique to analyze the behavior and recruitment of human leukocytes in whole blood under physiological conditions of shear through a simple multi-channel fluorescence microscope in real-time. This technique detects and tracks the recruitment of leukocytes to a bioactive surface coated on a flow chamber. Rolling cells (cells which partially bind to the bioactive matrix) are detected counted, and have their velocity measured and graphed. The challenges here include: high cell density, appearance similarity, and low (1Hz) frame rate. Our approach performs frame differencing based motion segmentation, track initialization and online tracking of individual leukocytes.

  13. Relationship between zinc malnutrition and alterations in murine peripheral blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.E.; Morford, L.A.; Fraker, P.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Studies using a murine model have shown that the immune system responds rapidly and adversely to zinc deficiency. The extent of alteration of peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and immunoglobulin levels were investigated in four zinc dietary groups: zinc adequate (ZA); restricted fed zinc adequate (RZA); marginal zinc deficient (MZD, 72-76% of ZA mouse weight); and severely zinc deficient. The peripheral white blood cell count was 3.66 {plus minus} 1.08 {times} 10{sup 6} cells/ml for ZA mice decreasing by 21%, 28% and 54% for RZA, MZD and SZD mice respectively. An equally dramatic change in the flow cytometric light scatter profile was found. ZA mice had 66% lymphocytes and 21% polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) in their peripheral blood while MZD and SZD mice contained 43% and 30% lymphocytes and 40% and 60% PMNs respectively. Analysis of the phenotypic distribution of specific classes of lymphocytes revealed ZA blood contained 25% B-cells and 40% T-cells (CD5{sup +}). B-cells decreased 40-50% for RZA and MZD mice and 60-70% for SZD mice. The decline in CD5{sup +} T-cells was more modest at 30% and 45% for MZD and SZD mice. A nearly 40% decline in both T{sub h} and T{sub c/s} cells was noted for both MZD and SZD mice. Radioimmunoassay of serum for changes in IgM and IgG content revealed no change among dietary groups while serum zinc decreased 10% for RZA mice and 50% for both MZD and SZD mice. The authors conclude that peripheral blood differential counts in concert with total B and T-cell phenotype may serve as indicators of zinc status while serum zinc and Ig will not.

  14. Circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes from patients with gram-negative bacteremia are not primed for enhanced production of leukotriene B4 or 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Sorrell, T C; Sztelma, K; May, G L

    1994-05-01

    The hypothesis was tested that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) from patients with gram-negative bacteremia are primed to produce leukotriene B4 (LTB4) or 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), in response to concentrations of calcium ionophore A23187, which are substimulatory for control PMNL. PMNL from 11 bacteremic patients and 8 healthy subjects (11 samples) produced similar quantities of LTB4, omega-oxidation products of LTB4, and 5-HETE after incubation with 0.3 and 0.5 microM A23187 for 5 min. At the detection threshold of 0.3 microM A23187, LTB4 was present in PMNL preparations from 9 of 11 patients and 7 of 11 control samples and 5-HETE from the same 9 patients and from 6 controls. There was no correlation between LTB4 or 5-HETE and plasma levels of endotoxin. In this group of patients, priming of PMNL by gram-negative bacteremia did not lead to enhanced production of LTB4, its omega-oxidation products, or 5-HETE when PMNL were challenged with low concentrations of A23187. PMID:8169412

  15. Association of leukocyte telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with endometrial cancer risk in Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhui; Zhang, Liren; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of each chromosome and play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. Interindividual variation of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risks of developing many human diseases including several cancers. The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometrial cancer risk is still inconsistent. Using a case-control study of endometrial cancer patients (n = 139) and control subjects (n = 139) in a Caucasian population, we assessed the association of relative LTL with the risk of endometrial cancer. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. We also determined the joint effects of LTL with established risk factors of endometrial cancer. The normalized LTL was significantly longer in endometrial cancer cases (median, 0.93; range, 0.19-1.62) than in controls (median, 0.70; range, 0.03-2.14) (P < 0.001). When individuals were dichotomized into long and short groups based on the median LTL value in the controls, individuals with long LTL had a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (adjusted OR, 3.84; 95%CI, 2.16-6.85; P < 0.001) compared to those with short LTL. When individuals were categorized into three groups or four groups according to tertile or quartile LTL value in the controls, there was a significant dose-response association between LTL and the risk of endometrial cancer (P < 0.001). Joint effects between LTL and smoking status, body mass index and a history of hypertension or diabetes in elevating endometrial cancer risk were observed. Long telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:26385889

  16. Derivative of wheat germ agglutinin specifically inhibits formyl-peptide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by blocking re-expression (or recycling) of receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, H.D.; Elfman, F.; Lobo, E.; Sklar, L.; Chenoweth, D.; Hooper, C.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanism of action of a derivative of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-D) which specifically and irreversibly inhibits N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis was examined. At a concentration that completely inhibited PMN chemotaxis, WGA-D had no effect on either the uptake or release of (/sup 3/H)-FMLP by PMN. Similarly, WGA-D did not affect either the short-term binding to, or internalization by, PMN of a fluoresceinated FMLP analog. WGA-D did interfere, however, with the re-expression (or recycling) of FMLP receptors by PMN that had been preincubated with 1 ..mu..M FMLP for 10 min at 4/sup 0/C. This effect was specific for WGA-D, because it was not observed when concanavalin A was used. Scatchard plot analysis of FMLP binding to PMN after receptor re-expression demonstrated that WGA-D-treated PMN had a significant diminution in the number of high affinity receptors. WGA-D-mediated inhibition of FMLP receptor re-expression was associated with inhibition of FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis, but had no effect on either FMLP-induced PMN superoxide anion generation or degranulation. Studies using (/sup 12/%I)-WGA-D demonstrated that PMN did not internalize WGA-D spontaneously. The data indicate that WGA-D perhaps by binding to the FMLP receptor, inhibits FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis by blocking the re-expression (or recycling) of a population of receptors required for continuous migration.

  17. (/sup 3/H)52770 RP, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist, and tritiated platelet-activating factor label a common specific binding site in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, O.; Robaut, C.; Cavero, I.

    1988-02-01

    In human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the tritiated platelet activating factor ((/sup 3/H)PAF) labels in a saturable manner a single class of binding sites with a Kd of 3.5 +/- 0.5 nM (n = 7) and a maximum binding capacity (Bmax) of 206 +/- 13 fmol/2.5 X 10(6) PMNs (n = 7). 52770 RP, a nonphospholipid antagonist of PAF receptors, fully and competitively displaced the (/sup 3/H)PAF from its binding sites with a Ki of 7.0 +/- 0.7 nM (n = 4). The high potency and the low solubility in cellular membranes of this compound led us to prepare (/sup 3/H)52770 RP. This ligand was characterized by a binding which was rapid, reversible, confined to a single site, saturable, specific and stereoselective. Its Kd and Bmax were 4.2 +/- 0.3 nM and 181 +/- 11 fmol/2.5 X 10(6) PMNs, respectively. The stereoselectivity of the binding was suggested by the 600- and 1050-fold higher potency of the d-enantiomer with respect to l-52770 RP in displacing (/sup 3/H)52770 RP or (/sup 3/H)PAF, respectively. Several PAF analogs (e.g., lyso-PAF, 2-O-methyl-lyso-PAF), which are poorly active as PAF receptor agonists in functional tests, were weak displacers of (/sup 3/H)PAF and (/sup 3/H)52770 RP. Furthermore, for a series of 14 known PAF receptor agonists or antagonists belonging to different chemical families, there was an excellent correlation (r = 0.98) between their ability to displace (/sup 3/H)PAF and (/sup 3/H)52770 RP. Thus, (/sup 3/H)52770 RP and (/sup 3/H)PAF appear to interact with the same binding site on human PMNs which is proposed to be the PAF receptor mediating functional responses.

  18. Contact activation of C3 enables tethering between activated platelets and polymorphonuclear leukocytes via CD11b/CD18.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Osama A; Mitroulis, Ioannis; Fromell, Karin; Kozarcanin, Huda; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D; Ekdahl, Kristina N; Nilsson, Bo

    2015-11-25

    Complement component C3 has a potential role in thrombotic pathologies. It is transformed, without proteolytic cleavage, into C3(H2O) upon binding to the surface of activated platelets. We hypothesise that C3(H2O) bound to activated platelets and to platelet-derived microparticles (PMPs) contributes to platelet-PMN complex (PPC) formation and to the binding of PMPs to PMNs. PAR-1 activation of platelets in human whole blood from normal individuals induced the formation of CD16+/CD42a+ PPC. The complement inhibitor compstatin and a C5a receptor antagonist inhibited PPC formation by 50?%, while monoclonal antibodies to C3(H2O) or anti-CD11b inhibited PPC formation by 75-100?%. Using plasma protein-depleted blood and blood from a C3-deficient patient, we corroborated the dependence on C3, obtaining similar results after reconstitution with purified C3. By analogy with platelets, PMPs isolated from human serum were found to expose C3(H2O) and bind to PMNs. This interaction was also blocked by the anti-C3(H2O) and anti-CD11b monoclonal antibodies, indicating that C3(H2O) and CD11b are involved in tethering PMPs to PMNs. We confirmed the direct interaction between C3(H2O) and CD11b by quartz crystal microbalance analysis using purified native C3 and recombinant CD11b/CD18 and by flow cytometry using PMP and recombinant CD11b. Transfectants expressing CD11b/CD18 were also shown to specifically adhere to surface-bound C3(H2O). We have identified contact-activated C3(H2O) as a novel ligand for CD11b/CD18 that mediates PPC formation and the binding of PMPs to PMNs. Given the various roles of C3 in thrombotic reactions, this finding is likely to have important pathophysiological implications. PMID:26293614

  19. Sensitivity of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes to visible light.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, L M; Polack, E; Nahmod, V E; Glikin, G C

    1995-01-01

    Overnight light exposure of cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes [PBML], significantly increased basal [3H]thymidine incorporation and upon stimulation with phytohemagglutinin [PHA]. Melatonin (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) enhanced the light-induced increase of [3H]thymidine incorporation, while serotonin (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation in the dark. The wavelengths responsible of this effect were restricted to the blue-green zone of the spectrum. The stimulatory effect of visible light on PHA-induced DNA replication had a circannual rhythm, being maximal during winter. In winter, white light also reduced melatonin and serotonin binding to PBML membranes and switched the PBML indole metabolism towards serotonin and 5-hydroxy-indole-acetic acid [HIAA] synthesis, with a concomitant decrease of melatonin production. PMID:7658917

  20. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Angeluts, A A; Esaulkov, M N; Kosareva, O G; Solyankin, P M; Shkurinov, A P; Gapeyev, A B; Pashovkin, T N; Matyunin, S N; Nazarov, M M; Cherkasova, O P

    2014-03-28

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 – 200 ?W cm{sup -2} within the frequency range of 0.1 – 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes. (biophotonics)

  1. Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeluts, A. A.; Gapeyev, A. B.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kosareva, O. G.; Matyunin, S. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Pashovkin, T. N.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.

    2014-03-01

    We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 - 200 ?W cm-2 within the frequency range of 0.1 - 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes.

  2. Leukocyte-adjusted epigenome-wide association studies of blood from solid tumor patients

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Scott M; Houseman, E Andres; Accomando, William P; Koestler, Devin C; Christensen, Brock C; Nelson, Heather H; Karagas, Margaret R; Marsit, Carmen J; Wiencke, John K; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Epigenome-wide studies of DNA methylation using blood-derived DNA from cancer patients are complicated by the heterogeneity of cell types within blood and the associated cell lineage specification of DNA methylation signatures. Here, we applied a novel set of analytic approaches to assess the association between cancer case-status and DNA methylation adjusted for leukocyte variation using blood specimens from three case-control cancer studies (bladder: 223 cases, 205 controls; head and neck: 92 cases, 92 controls; and ovarian: 131 cases, 274 controls). Using previously published data on leukocyte-specific CpG loci and a recently described approach to deconvolute subject-specific blood composition, we performed an epigenome-wide analysis to examine the association between blood-based DNA methylation patterns and each of the three aforementioned solid tumor types adjusted for cellular heterogeneity in blood. After adjusting for leukocyte profile in our epigenome-wide analysis, the omnibus association between case-status and methylation was significant for all three studies (bladder cancer: P = 0.047; HNSCC: P = 0.013; ovarian cancer: P = 0.0002). Subsequent analyses revealed that CpG sites associated with cancer were enriched for transcription factor binding motifs involved with cancer-associated pathways. These results support the existence of cancer-associated DNA methylation profiles in the blood of solid tumor patients that are independent of alterations in normal leukocyte distributions. Adoption of the methods developed here will make it feasible to rigorously assess the influence of variability of normal leukocyte profiles when investigating cancer related changes in blood-based epigenome-wide association studies. PMID:24671036

  3. Differential leukocyte counting and immunophenotyping in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood.

    PubMed

    Nemes, Elisa; Kagina, Benjamin M N; Smit, Erica; Africa, Hadn; Steyn, Marcia; Hanekom, Willem A; Scriba, Thomas J

    2015-02-01

    Absolute cell counts are typically measured in fresh samples, but this is impractical in large field studies. We compared quantification of leukocyte proportions and absolute counts using reference real-time methods (stain and lyse/no-wash (LNW) or hematology analyser) with a novel assay that allows long-term cryopreservation of fixed leukocytes for later counting (DLC-ICE: differential leukocyte count and immunophenotype in cryopreserved ex vivo whole blood). For the LNW method, whole blood (WB) was stained with fluorescent antibodies, then erythrocytes were lysed, and leukocytes fixed prior to flow cytometry. Alternatively, our novel DLC-ICE method entailed erythrocyte lysis and leukocyte fixation, cryopreservation and later staining of permeabilized cells prior to flow cytometry. Outcomes were proportions and absolute counts of granulocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes, T cells, B cells, and activated T cells within the leukocyte population. We also compared leukocyte subset counts in fresh WB from 51 healthy infants measured by hematology analyser at a rural clinical site or by DLC-ICE method after 2 years of cryopreservation. We observed excellent agreement and strong correlations between absolute counts or cell proportions measured by the LNW and DLC-ICE methods on fresh WB from 10 healthy adults. Compared to LNW, DLC-ICE yielded similar or brighter staining even after cryopreservation. Duration of cryopreservation, assessed monthly for 1 year, had little effect on cell enumeration: median coefficients of variation were below 15% for all outcomes. Under field site conditions, we observed strong correlations between infant leukocyte numbers measured in fresh samples by hematology analyser and those measured by DLC-ICE up to 2 years of cryopreservation. Our novel DLC-ICE method allows accurate flow cytometric quantification of cell subsets from fixed WB even after long-term cryopreservation. This method is ideal for batched, retrospective analysis of samples from large field studies, or when advanced flow cytometry equipment is not available for clinical research purposes. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:25515205

  4. Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

    2014-03-01

    Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

  5. Intracellular detection of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Lutz E; Weber, Stefan U; Fuchs, Dagmar; Klaschik, Sven; Schewe, Jens Christian; Book, Malte; Hoeft, Andreas; Stüber, Frank

    2005-05-01

    The oxidoreductase MIF is currently discussed as a new promising target of immunomodulatory therapy in patients with severe sepsis. An increasing body of evidence attributes an important role especially to intracellular MIF for regulation of endotoxin responsiveness as well as regulation of nuclear transcription factors. Up to now, measurement of MIF relied on ELISA techniques, lacking the ability to directly measure intracellular MIF and distinguish between different leukocyte subpopulations. Therefore, we developed a sensitive and robust flow cytometry-based method to reliably detect intracellular levels of MIF. This method can readily be applied in cultured cells as well as in subsets of human leukocytes in whole blood. Intracellular MIF content of whole-blood leukocyte subsets is detected simultaneously, and is individually determined for T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes, respectively. When tested in an ex vivo whole-blood stimulation system using PMA/Ionomycin the intracellular MIF content doubled in CD3+ T-lymphocytes and increased threefold in CD14+ macrophages. Baseline intracellular MIF levels of different leukocyte subpopulations were quantified in 22 healthy blood donors. Baseline intracellular MIF levels in T-lymphocytes are twice as high compared to those in B-lymphocytes and macrophages. PMID:15808414

  6. Reduction of the surface charge of blood polymorphonuclear cells by rheumatoid sera and heat induced aggregated human IgG (HAGG).

    PubMed Central

    Brown, K A; McCarthy, D; Perry, J D; Dumonde, D C

    1988-01-01

    Cell electrophoresis identifies two main subpopulations of blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs), which in terms of the speed of their anodic migration are referred to as the fast and slow population. When blood PMNs from normal healthy subjects were incubated in medium containing 20% RA serum there was a decrease in the percentage of fast cells with a corresponding increase in the slow population that was directly related to the levels of circulating immune complexes present in the sera. Similar results were obtained when using heat induced aggregated human IgG (HAGG) or Candida albicans instead of RA serum. The 'slowing' effect of HAGG, which was transient and time dependent, appeared to be due to its internalisation by the PMNs. These results suggest that in RA the large number of blood PMNs with a low surface charge (i.e., the slow population) may arise as a result of the constant interaction of these cells with circulating immune complexes. PMID:3291790

  7. Flow cytometric calcium flux assay: evaluation of cytoplasmic calcium kinetics in whole blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Eva; Glorieux, Griet; Dhondt, Annemieke; Leybaert, Luc; Vanholder, Raymond

    2009-08-31

    In leukocytes, as in many other cell types, cytoplasmic calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) changes play a key role in a series of pathways leading to activation. Here we describe a flow cytometric method allowing the simultaneous kinetic analysis of changes in [Ca(2+)](i) in the three types of leukocytes, i.e. monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes. Heparinised whole blood was diluted in phosphate buffered saline with Ca(2+) and 1 mM sodium pyruvate and incubated with the Ca(2+) indicator fluo3-acetoxymethyl ester. Leukocytes were identified by labelling with the phycoerythrin-conjugated antibody against CD45, the leukocyte common antigen. Resuspension of the cells in PBS with or without Ca(2+) allowed us to detect the origin of Ca(2+) changes. During flow cytometric analysis only CD45-positive cells were counted and monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes were evaluated separately. Baseline fluorescence of the fluo3-Ca(2+)-complex was determined and changes in [Ca(2+)](i) after stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 or the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) were recorded over a time period of 150 s. Stimulation with A23187 resulted in a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) in all three leukocyte subpopulations. This rise was sustained in the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(2+)(ex)) but had a transient character in the absence of Ca(2+)(ex). For fMLP, [Ca(2+)](i) changes occurred only in monocytes and granulocytes and were transient irrespective of the presence or absence of Ca(2+)(ex). In conclusion, the present method is a simple, fast and easy tool to analyse in vitro [Ca(2+)](i) changes over time in leukocytes under physiologically relevant conditions, without the need for their isolation or the lysis of erythrocytes. The whole blood approach allows a continuous interaction between the different leukocyte subpopulations and other blood components and a minimum of preparative manipulations avoids artefactual activation of the cells. A distinction can be made between Ca(2+) release from the intracellular stores and the entry of Ca(2+) from outside the cell. The approach allows to evaluate the effect of various agonists on [Ca(2+)](i) changes in leukocytes, with physiological, patho-physiological or therapeutic purposes. PMID:19616551

  8. The effect of acupuncture on leukocyte levels in peripheral blood is modified by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Rivas-Vilchis, José Federico; Barrera-Escorcia, Eduardo; Fregoso-Padilla, Martha

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown that acupuncture can modify circulating levels of subpopulations of leukocytes. There have been few investigations on the effect of acupuncture on prostaglandins metabolism. Aspirin is capable of inhibiting the metabolism of prostaglandins and to produce several pharmacological effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether prior administration of aspirin could modify the action of acupuncture on levels of circulating leukocytes. Fourteen healthy males (age: 19-23 years) were recruited from a university student population. This study was a placebo-controlled, prospective, cross-over design. Subjects were randomly assigned into A or B groups. Group A received aspirin 500 mg and group B placebo, after 1 week of a washout period, group A received placebo and group B aspirin. Subjects were given acupuncture with manual needling in GV14 (Dazhui) acupoint 2 hr after receiving medication. The needle was stimulated for 10 sec and was kept in place for 5 min. Leukocytes and their subpopulations were quantified in blood samples taken immediately before and 2 hr after acupuncture treatment. In each subject pre-acupuncture values were compared to those post-acupuncture. The results showed that acupuncture significantly increased overall leukocytes (p=0.006) and neutrophils (p<0.001). Aspirin partially inhibited these effects. The data suggest that the effect of acupuncture on leukocytes may be related to levels of prostaglandins. PMID:22128425

  9. Laser-induced priming of human blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chichuk, Tatyana V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Strashkevich, I. A.; Klebanov, Gennady I.

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the influence of He-Ne ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm) laser irradiation (LI) on a functional activity of human blood leucocytes. The method of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with the zymosan-activated phagocytes was used. The leucocytes were irradiated without and in the presence of autologic human blood plasma, containing of the endogenous (porphyrins) and/or exogenous (phthalocyanine) photosensitizers. The LI initiated a priming of the leucocytes. Priming revealed itself after the activation of the phagocytes by zymosan. The changes of the calcium concentration in leucocytes cytoplasm were studied too. Fluorimetric method with Fura-2AM was used for this. The laser irradiation initiated the changes of the calcium concentration in the leucocytes cytoplasm. All the investigating parameters depended on the irradiation dose and on the concentration of photosensitizers. The results of this work allowed to formulate the main theses of the free radical mechanism of the low intensive laser irradiation action on human blood leucocytes.

  10. Forces on a Wall-Bound Leukocyte in a Small Vessel Due to Red Cells in the Blood Stream

    E-print Network

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    Forces on a Wall-Bound Leukocyte in a Small Vessel Due to Red Cells in the Blood Stream Amir H. G at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois ABSTRACT As part of the inflammation response, white blood cells character of blood, especially in small vessels where the red blood cells must substantially deform to pass

  11. Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

    2001-05-01

    Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

  12. Biophysical Description of Multiple Events Contributing Blood Leukocyte Arrest on Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Philippe; Touchard, Dominique; Bongrand, Pierre; Pierres, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Blood leukocytes have a remarkable capacity to bind to and stop on specific blood vessel areas. Many studies have disclosed a key role of integrin structural changes following the interaction of rolling leukocytes with surface-bound chemoattractants. However, the functional significance of structural data and mechanisms of cell arrest are incompletely understood. Recent experiments revealed the unexpected complexity of several key steps of cell-surface interaction: (i) ligand-receptor binding requires a minimum amount of time to proceed and this is influenced by forces. (ii) Also, molecular interactions at interfaces are not fully accounted for by the interaction properties of soluble molecules. (iii) Cell arrest depends on nanoscale topography and mechanical properties of the cell membrane, and these properties are highly dynamic. Here, we summarize these results and we discuss their relevance to recent functional studies of integrin-receptor association in cells from a patient with type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency. It is concluded that an accurate understanding of all physical events listed in this review is needed to unravel the precise role of the multiple molecules and biochemical pathway involved in arrest triggering. PMID:23750158

  13. Comparison of photonic and electromagnetic effects on the human leukocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Beard, Richard B.; Feng, D.; Dai, Xiaoyan; Pourrezaei, Kambiz; Priezzhev, Alexander V.

    1998-06-01

    The dielectric and magnetic influence on human cells have been widely studied previously by the authors. Recently, the effects of energy in the visible electromagnetic spectrum have been investigated. In this subsequent study, the photonic effects on the in vitro migration of the polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes are compared with the corresponding electromagnetic field effects. Dielectric spectra of the polymorph in the 300 KHz to 400 KHz and 700 KHz to 800 KHz range have been measured. At frequencies of 350 KHz and 720 KHz an increase in the migration of the polymorphonuclear leukocyte have been observed. This stimulation was attributed to the charges on the nuclear surface. Recent preliminary data have shown a similar increased migration in the 20 MHz range. Photonic studies have indicated an enhanced migration for the polymorphonuclear leukocytes at a wavelength of 660 nm (red) and an inhibited migration at 565 nm (green). The photonic effects were postulated to be the results of a biochemical interaction rather than a membranous surface charge displacement secondary to an electric field. The migration of the white blood cells were measurement via the Boyden chamber technique and expressed in terms of a cytokinetic index which expresses the cellular movement independent of its environmental concentration gradient.

  14. Mechanisms of long-term cognitive dysfunction of sepsis: from blood-borne leukocytes to glial cells.

    PubMed

    Michels, Monique; Steckert, Amanda V; Quevedo, João; Barichello, Tatiana; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-12-01

    Several mechanisms are associated with brain dysfunction during sepsis; one of the most important are activation of microglia and astrocytes. Activation of glial cells induces changes in permeability of the blood-brain barrier, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and these alterations could induce neuronal dysfunction. Furthermore, blood-borne leukocytes can also reach the brain and participate in inflammatory response. Mechanisms involved in sepsis-associated brain dysfunction were revised here, focusing in neuroinflammation and involvement of blood-borne leukocytes and glial cells in this process. PMID:26515197

  15. Short telomere length in peripheral blood leukocyte predicts poor prognosis and indicates an immunosuppressive phenotype in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Qu, Falin; Li, Renli; He, Xianli; Li, Qiucheng; Xie, Shuang; Gong, Li; Ji, Gang; Lu, Jianguo; Bao, Guoqiang

    2015-03-01

    Compelling evidences indicate that relative telomere length (RTL) in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can predict the clinical outcome of several cancers. However, to date, the prognostic value of leukocyte RTL in gastric cancer (GC) patients has not been explored. In this study, relative telomere length (RTL) in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) was measured using a real-time PCR-based method in a total of 693 GC patients receiving surgical resection. The prognostic value of leukocyte RTL was first explored in the training set (112 patients) using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Then an independent cohort of 581 patients was used as a validation set. To explore potential mechanism, we detected the immunophenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma concentrations of several cytokines in GC patients. Patients with short RTL showed significantly worse overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) than those with long RTL in all patient sets. Furthermore, leukocyte RTL and TNM stage exhibited a notable joint effect in prognosis prediction. Integration of TNM stage and leukocyte RTL significantly improved the prognosis prediction efficacy for GC. In addition, we found that patients with short RTL had a higher CD4(+) T cell percentage in PBMCs, CD19(+)IL-10(+) Breg percentage in B cells and plasma IL-10 concentration, indicating an enhanced immunosuppressive status with short leukocyte RTL. In conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrates that leukocyte RTL is an independent prognostic marker complementing TNM stage and associated with an immunosuppressive phenotype in the peripheral blood lymphocytes in GC patients. PMID:25515040

  16. Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

  17. Human polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions are unaffected by human interferon-alpha 2.

    PubMed Central

    Farr, B; Gwaltney, J M; Hayden, F G; Mandell, G L

    1983-01-01

    Leukocyte-derived interferons have been reported to enhance the functions of polymorphonuclear neutrophils. This study reveals no effect of the highly purified recombinant DNA-produced human interferon-alpha 2 on the oxidative, chemotactic, adherent, phagocytic, and bactericidal activities of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils in vitro. PMID:6642666

  18. Methods for axolotl blood collection, intravenous injection, and efficient leukocyte isolation from peripheral blood and the regenerating limb.

    PubMed

    Debuque, Ryan J; Godwin, James W

    2015-01-01

    The vertebrate immune system comprises both adaptive and innate immune cells with distinct functions during the resolution of inflammation and wound healing after tissue injury. Recent evidence implicates a requirement for innate immune cells from the myeloid lineage during the early stages of limb regeneration in the Mexican axolotl. Understanding the functions of innate and adaptive immune cells in the axolotl has been hampered by a lack of approaches to isolate and analyze these cells. Here we describe a protocol to isolate myeloid cells from the regenerating axolotl limb that incorporates intravenous delivery of physiological labels. In addition we provide a protocol to enrich for leukocytes in the peripheral blood. These protocols produce single-cell suspensions that can be analyzed using flow cytometry or sorted into specific subsets using fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS). FACS is a routine approach to sort cells based on their physical characteristics as well as their cell surface antigen repertoire. Isolated cell populations can then be analyzed in a wide range of downstream assays to facilitate a greater understanding of leukocyte biology in the axolotl. PMID:25740489

  19. Latency of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) in tonsils and peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Favier, P A; Marin, M S; Morán, P E; Odeón, A C; Verna, A E; Pérez, S E

    2014-10-01

    Bovine herpesvirus types 1 (BoHV-1) and 5 (BoHV-5) can both establish latency in the trigeminal ganglion. Non-neural sites of latency have been described for BoHV-1 but not for BoHV-5. The aim of this study was to determine whether peripheral blood leukocytes and tonsils are targets for BoHV-5 infection and to establish whether all stages of that virus's infectious cycle can occur in those cell types. Comparisons with BoHV-1 infection of these tissues were also made in order to better understand the pathogenesis of both viruses. BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 were isolated from tonsils of acutely-infected calves. BoHV-5 was also isolated from a tonsil homogenate after dexamethasone-induced reactivation. During latency, infectious virus was recovered from a tonsil explant of one BoHV-5-infected calf. The genomes of BoHV-5 and BoHV-1 were detected in tonsils from acutely-infected calves although were not detected in tonsils from latently-infected calves or from calves treated with dexamethasone. Virus DNA was intermittently detected in leukocytes. The study has shown that BoHV-5 can establish latency in bovine tonsils and peripheral white blood cells, and that it can be reactivated from latently-infected tonsils, which might contribute to viral transmission. The titres of BoHV-1 and BoHV-5 in tonsils were similar, suggesting that replication at this site is a common feature for both viruses. PMID:25155304

  20. Age gene expression and coexpression progressive signatures in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Irizar, Haritz; Goñi, Joaquín; Alzualde, Ainhoa; Castillo-Triviño, Tamara; Olascoaga, Javier; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Otaegui, David

    2015-12-01

    Both cellular senescence and organismic aging are known to be dynamic processes that start early in life and progress constantly during the whole life of the individual. In this work, with the objective of identifying signatures of age-related progressive change at the transcriptomic level, we have performed a whole-genome gene expression analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes in a group of healthy individuals with ages ranging from 14 to 93years. A set of genes with progressively changing gene expression (either increase or decrease with age) has been identified and contextualized in a coexpression network. A modularity analysis has been performed on this network and biological-term and pathway enrichment analyses have been used for biological interpretation of each module. In summary, the results of the present work reveal the existence of a transcriptomic component that shows progressive expression changes associated to age in peripheral blood leukocytes, highlighting both the dynamic nature of the process and the need to complement young vs. elder studies with longitudinal studies that include middle aged individuals. From the transcriptional point of view, immunosenescence seems to be occurring from a relatively early age, at least from the late 20s/early 30s, and the 49-56year old age-range appears to be critical. In general, the genes that, according to our results, show progressive expression changes with aging are involved in pathogenic/cellular processes that have classically been linked to aging in humans: cancer, immune processes and cellular growth vs. maintenance. PMID:26362218

  1. Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

  2. Effects of spaceflight on rat peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichiki, A. T.; Gibson, L. A.; Jago, T. L.; Strickland, K. M.; Johnson, D. L.; Lange, R. D.; Allebban, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The white blood cell (WBC) elements and the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cell populations were analyzed to ascertain adaptation to micro-gravity and subsequent readaptation to 1 G in rats flown on the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission. Bone marrow cells were harvested from one group of rats killed inflight (FD13) and blood was drawn from three other groups at various times. The WBC level was normal on FD14 with the exception of neutrophilia. On FD13, numbers of colony-forming units-granulocyte (CFU-G), CFU-GM, and CFU-M from flight animals were decreased compared with ground controls when incubated with recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) alone or in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo). On recovery (R + 0), flight rats had decreased numbers of total leukocytes and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes with elevated neutrophils compared with control rats. They had lower numbers of CD4, CD8, CD2, CD3, and B cells in the peripheral blood but no differences in spleen lymphocytes.

  3. Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

    2014-03-01

    Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 ?g /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

  4. Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Is Associated with Severity of Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Udomsinprasert, Wanvisa; Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Vejchapipat, Paisarn; Zhan, Dong; Honsawek, Sittisak

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with the severity of biliary atresia (BA). Methods One hundred and fourteen BA patients and 114 age-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Relative telomere length (RTL) was assessed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate RTL as an independent risk factor of BA. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to calculate the accuracy of biomarkers in the prediction of liver cirrhosis. Results BA patients had significantly shorter telomeres than healthy controls (p < 0.0001). The RTL in BA patients with jaundice was considerably lower than that of patients without jaundice (p = 0.005). Moreover, RTL was markedly shorter in patients with cirrhosis (F4), as compared to patients with mild fibrosis (F2) and non-fibrosis (F0-F1, p < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that short RTL was associated with a higher risk of liver cirrhosis in BA. Tertile analysis showed a dose-response effect for this association (p trend < 0.0001). Additionally, RTL in BA children revealed a negative correlation with age (r = -0.50, p < 0.001). We noted an association between reduction of RTL and liver stiffness scores, adjusted for age and gender (b = -0.01, p < 0.0001). Short RTL can be employed to distinguish cirrhosis patients from non-cirrhosis patients (AUC = 0.78). Further analysis showed a linear correlation between leukocyte RTL and liver RTL in BA patients (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Conclusion The findings of this study provide evidence that telomere shortening is associated with an elevated risk of liver cirrhosis in BA. PMID:26230851

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Blood Brain/Nerve Barrier Dysfunction and Leukocyte Infiltration: Closely Related or Discordant?

    PubMed Central

    Weise, Gesa; Stoll, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood nerve barrier (BNB) preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf) allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) and perfluorocarbons enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage) infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients. PMID:23267343

  6. Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium (the layer of cells that lines the blood vessel walls) plays a central role in

    E-print Network

    Tees, David F.J.

    Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium (the layer of cells that lines the blood vessel a cascade of adhesive events commonly referred to as initial tethering, rolling, firm adhesion, the other steps of the adhesion cascade involve molecular interactions between the leukocyte

  7. CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 redistributes leukocytes from primary immune organs to secondary immune organs, lung, and blood in mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Li, Zhanzhuo; Gao, Ji-Liang; Wan, Wuzhou; Ganesan, Sundar; McDermott, David H; Murphy, Philip M

    2015-06-01

    AMD3100 (plerixafor), is a specific CXCR4 antagonist approved by the FDA for mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow to blood for transplantation in cancer. AMD3100 also mobilizes most mature leukocyte subsets to blood; however, their source and trafficking potential have not been fully delineated. Here, we show that a single injection of AMD3100 10 mg/kg into C57Bl/6 mice rapidly mobilizes (peak ? 2.5 h) the same leukocyte subsets to blood as in humans. Using this model, we found that AMD3100 mobilization of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes to blood is not reduced by splenectomy or by blockade of lymphocyte egress from lymph node with FTY720, but is coupled to (i) reduced content of each of these cell types in the bone marrow; (ii) reduced T-cell numbers in thymuses; (iii) increased lymphocytes in lymph nodes; and (iv) increased neutrophil and monocyte content in the lung. Direct intrathymic labeling showed that AMD3100 selectively mobilizes naïve thymic CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells to blood. Finally, AMD3100-induced neutrophil mobilization to blood did not reduce neutrophil trafficking to thioglycollate-inflamed peritoneum. Thus, AMD3100 redistributes lymphocytes, monocytes, and neutrophils from primary immune organs to secondary immune organs, peripheral tissues, and blood, without compromising neutrophil trafficking to inflamed sites. PMID:25801950

  8. Cultured peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from anorexia nervosa patients are refractory to visible light.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, L M; Polack, E; Nahmod, V E; Glikin, G C

    1995-01-01

    Cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes [PBML] from patients with anorexia nervosa [AN] did not respond to light stimulation as PBML of normal controls [NC] did. During winter, visible light increased [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of NC-PBML stimulated with phytohemagglutinin [PHA]. This effect was enhanced by 10(-7) M melatonin. PHA-stimulated DNA synthesis of PBML from AN patients failed to respond to photic stimulation during winter, and their proliferative response to melatonin was significantly blunted. In vitro photic stimulation of NC-PBML reduced melatonin while increasing both serotonin and 5-hydroxyindole 3-acetic acid [HIAA] production in both basal and PHA-stimulated conditions. In contrast AN-PBML, that in darkness enhanced the oxidative deamination of serotonin into HIAA more than NC-PBML, did not switch their indole metabolism in response to light. Light did not inhibit the binding of both melatonin and serotonin to AN-PBML as occurred in NC-PBML. The present data suggest that AN-PBML do not respond to light in vitro, because of a failure in the regulation of serotonin and melatonin metabolism. PMID:7542723

  9. Characterization of interferons induced by bacteria and interferon-producing leukocytes in human peripheral blood.

    PubMed Central

    Rönnblom, L; Forsgren, A; Alm, G V

    1983-01-01

    All of 23 different preparations of formaldehyde-fixed and heat-killed bacteria induced the appearance of high levels of interferon (IFN) in cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes. Some bacteria induced peak IFN titers after 24 h of culture, whereas other bacteria showed maximal titers on culture days 2 to 3. The IFN displayed various properties. One type, which appeared early during the cultures, had characteristics of IFN-alpha, being resistant to pH 2 treatment but neutralized by antibodies to IFN-alpha. A second type, which appeared later, on culture days 2 to 3, resembled IFN-gamma in being sensitive to pH 2 treatment but resistant to anti-IFN-alpha antibodies. A third type, which appeared to be sensitive to both pH 2 and antibody treatment, was interpreted as atypical IFN-alpha. The application of cell fractionation procedures indicated that nonadherent, predominantly Fc receptor-bearing, non-T, non-B cells were producers of IFN-alpha as defined by its antigenic properties. They copurified approximately with cells carrying natural killer activity toward human erythroid leukemia K562 cells. Some bacteria apparently also stimulated T lymphocytes to produce material with properties of IFN-gamma. PMID:6403464

  10. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W.; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-?. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection. PMID:26646682

  11. Extracellular Histones Induce Chemokine Production in Whole Blood Ex Vivo and Leukocyte Recruitment In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Westman, Johannes; Papareddy, Praveen; Dahlgren, Madelene W; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Smeds, Emanuel; Linder, Adam; Mörgelin, Matthias; Johansson-Lindbom, Bengt; Egesten, Arne; Herwald, Heiko

    2015-12-01

    The innate immune system relies to a great deal on the interaction of pattern recognition receptors with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular pattern molecules. Extracellular histones belong to the latter group and their release has been described to contribute to the induction of systemic inflammatory reactions. However, little is known about their functions in the early immune response to an invading pathogen. Here we show that extracellular histones specifically target monocytes in human blood and this evokes the mobilization of the chemotactic chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 from these cells. The chemokine induction involves the toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 complex on monocytes, and is under the control of interferon-?. Consequently, subcutaneous challenge with extracellular histones results in elevated levels of CXCL10 in a murine air pouch model and an influx of leukocytes to the site of injection in a TLR4 dependent manner. When analyzing tissue biopsies from patients with necrotizing fasciitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, extracellular histone H4 and CXCL10 are immunostained in necrotic, but not healthy tissue. Collectively, these results show for the first time that extracellular histones have an important function as chemoattractants as their local release triggers the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection. PMID:26646682

  12. Toward a reference method for leukocyte differential counts in blood: comparison of three flow cytometric candidate methods.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Mikael; Davis, Bruce H; Fest, Thierry; Wood, Brent L

    2012-11-01

    A Complete Blood Count performed by an automated hematology analyzer frequently requires a microscopic slide review. Recently, we and others have proposed combinations of monoclonal antibodies for an extended leukocyte differential by flow cytometry. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of these proposals. Ninety-two samples were analyzed at 2 sites to compare the accuracy of three published methods. Reference methods used were i) cell counter for leukocyte count and ii) microscopic review as defined by CSLI H20-A2 for cell subsets. Comparison of flow cytometers from 2 manufacturers (FC500 and CANTO/LSRII) was performed. Published protocols were adapted to three different models of flow cytometer and each provided similar results in leukocyte subset enumeration, although some discrepancies were noted for each protocol in comparison with the reference method. The conclusion is that each protocol carries advantages and disadvantages and there is no clear "winner". This study supports the fact that flow cytometry is a candidate to become a reference method for the leukocyte differential. None of the tested protocols clearly demonstrated superiority and each had demonstrable deficiencies. Additional work to develop a consensual 8 to 10 color panel is concluded to be necessary for a satisfactory reference method. PMID:22736499

  13. Age-Related Changes following In Vitro Stimulation with Rhodococcus equi of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes from Neonatal Foals

    PubMed Central

    Kachroo, Priyanka; Ivanov, Ivan; Seabury, Ashley G.; Liu, Mei; Chowdhary, Bhanu P.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2013-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is an intracellular bacterium primarily known as an equine pathogen that infects young foals causing a pyogranulomatuous pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms mediating the immune response of foals to R. equi are not fully elucidated. Hence, global genomic high-throughput tools like gene expression microarrays might identify age-related gene expression signatures and molecular pathways that contribute to the immune mechanisms underlying the inherent susceptibility of foals to disease caused by R. equi. The objectives of this study were 2-fold: 1) to compare the expression profiles at specific ages of blood leukocytes from foals stimulated with virulent R. equi with those of unstimulated leukocytes; and, 2) to characterize the age-related changes in the gene expression profile associated with blood leukocytes in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from 6 foals within 24 hours (h) of birth (day 1) and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after birth. The samples were split, such that half were stimulated with live virulent R. equi, and the other half served as unstimulated control. RNA was extracted and the generated cDNA was labeled with fluorescent dyes for microarray hybridizations using an equine microarray. Our findings suggest that there is age-related differential expression of genes involved in host immune response and immunity. We found induction of genes critical for host immunity against pathogens (MHC class II) only at the later time-points (compared to birth). While it appears that foals up to 8-weeks of age are able to initiate a protective inflammatory response against the bacteria, relatively decreased expression of various other immune-related genes points toward inherent diminished immune responses closer to birth. These genes and pathways may contribute to disease susceptibility in foals if infected early in life, and might thus be targeted for developing preventative or therapeutic strategies. PMID:23690962

  14. Leukocyte Activation in Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Minervino, Daniele; Gumiero, Daniela; Nicolazzi, Maria Anna; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Fuorlo, Mariella; Guidone, Caterina; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Fattorossi, Andrea; Mingrone, Geltrude; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The rising prevalence of obesity is a major global health problem. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery (BS) allows to obtain a significant weight loss and comorbidities improvement, among them one of the factors is the thrombotic risk. In this observational study, we measured indices of leukocyte activation in severely obese patients as markers of increased thrombotic risk in relation with serum markers of inflammation before and after BS. Frequency of polymorphonuclear neutrophil-platelet (PLT) and monocyte (MONO)-PLT aggregates as well as of tissue factor (TF) expressing MONOs was measured in the peripheral blood of 58 consecutive obese patients and 30 healthy controls. In 31 of the 58 obese patients, data obtained at the enrollment were compared with those obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months after BS. Compared with healthy controls, obese patients showed a higher frequency of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)-PLT aggregates (7.47?±?2.45 [6.82–8.11]% vs 5.85?±?1.89 [5.14–6.55]%, P?=?0.001), MONO-PLT aggregates (12.31?±?7.33 [10.38–14.24]% vs 8.14?±?2.22 [7.31–8.97]%, P?leukocyte-PLT aggregate formation and MONO activation represent an important mechanism underlying the increased thrombotic risk of obese patients. We also show that BS is effective in normalizing these inflammatory indices. PMID:26447995

  15. Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S

    PubMed Central

    žilinskas, Juozas; žekonis, Jonas; žekonis, Gediminas; Šadzevi?ien?, Renata; Sapragonien?, Marija; Navickait?, Justina; Barzdžiukait?, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10?4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients. PMID:21525811

  16. [The study of aberrant methylation in blood leukocytes of liquidators of the Chernobyl accident].

    PubMed

    Kuz'mina, N S; Miazin, A E; Lapteva, N Sh; Rubanovich, A V

    2014-01-01

    The study of aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of genes (P16/CDKN2A, P14/ARF, RASSF1A, GSTP1) in blood leukocytes of liquidators of the Chernobyl accident (n = 83, 38-76 years of age) and control subjects of two groups (n = 48, age ? 35 and n = 65, age > 35) was carried out using methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease analysis followed by PCR. The total number of AciI sites in the analyzed fragments ranged from 2 to 7 for different genes. Only 1 subject (2.1%) from the control group (healthy young individuals, age ? 35) has methylation of the studied CpG--dinucleotides of RASSF1A gene. Promoter methylation of at least one of the genes analyzed was observed in 28.92% liquidators and significantly exceeded (p = 0.016) such rate in a one-age (> 35 years of age) control group (12.31%). A significantly elevated frequency (p = 0.023) of individuals with abnormal methylation of GSTP1 gene in the group of liquidators as compared to the control group was revealed. The occurrence of promoter methylation of RASSF1A gene significantly correlated with aging both in the control group (r = 0.214; p = 0.023) and in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident (r = 0.230; p = 0.036). No similar trend was found for other genes. Multiple regression analysis showed that the growth in the number of methylated loci of a set of genes p16, p14 and GSTP1 is exclusively due to the fact of exposure (OR = 7.32, 95% CI = 2.49-25.83, p-value = 2.7 x 10(-5)). The results obtained demonstrate for the first time the reality of the radiation-induced aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoters of genes involved in the basic protective, functions of cells in the human body in remote periods after radiation exposure. PMID:25764814

  17. Novel Molecular Approaches in Heart Failure: Seven Trans-Membrane Receptors Signaling in the Heart and Circulating Blood Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schiattarella, Gabriele Giacomo; Magliulo, Fabio; Cattaneo, Fabio; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Sannino, Anna; Franzone, Anna; Oliveti, Marco; Perrino, Cinzia; Trimarco, Bruno; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the result of molecular, cellular, and structural changes induced by cardiac load or injury. A complex network of signaling pathways have been involved in the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the pivotal role of seven trans-membrane receptors (7TMRs), also called G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in HF. Moreover, we will discuss the current knowledge on the potential mirroring of 7TMR signaling between circulating blood leukocytes and the heart, and the related future possibilities in the management of HF patients.

  18. IgE-mediated 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) generation by peripheral blood leukocytes: its association with basophil activation

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowska-Polak, Anna; Moskwa, Sylwia; Kowalski, Marek L.; Grzegorczyk, Janina ?.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Allergen-induced basophil activation has been associated with the release of several mediators and with an increased expression of CD203c molecules on basophils. Aim To assess the influence of specific allergens on the generation of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic (15-HETE) from peripheral blood leukocytes in relation to basophil activation, on the basis of CD203c molecule expression and histamine release. Material and methods The study included 15 patients with clinical symptoms of birch pollen allergy confirmed by a positive skin prick test with the birch allergen, and 6 healthy controls. Leukocytes isolated from peripheral blood were incubated with 3 concentrations of the birch pollen allergen (Bet v 1), anti-IgE or with ionophore A23187. Results In vitro challenge of leukocytes from allergic patients with 1 ng/ml of allergen induced a significant increase in 15-HETE generation. An increase above 30% was observed in almost half the allergic patients, with mean values ranging from 40% to 46%, but not in healthy controls. Anti-IgE antibodies increased 15-HETE generation in 5 patients (termed IgE+), and the allergen induced a significant increase in 15-HETE in all patients who reacted to anti-IgE. The mean CD203c expression on basophils of the allergic patients increased after allergen challenge, but a significant increase (> 30%) was observed only in patients who demonstrated an increased expression after anti-IgE exposure. A significant correlation was seen between 15-HETE generation and histamine release induced by the highest concentration of the allergen (r = 0.95; p < 0.01). Conclusions Allergen-induced, IgE-mediated activation of basophils is associated with a significant increase in 15-HETE generation. PMID:26366149

  19. Effect of Very Low Dose Fast Neutrons on the DNA of Rats' Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Sherif S; Saeed, Abdu; Shaheen, Salem A; El Assouli, Sufian M; El Assouli, M-Zaki; Raouf, Gehan A

    2016-01-01

    The effect of very low dose fast neutrons on the chromatin and DNA of rats' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and leukocytes has been studied in the present work using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Fourteen female Wistar rats were used; seven were irradiated with neutrons of 0.9 cGy (Am-Be, 0.02 cGy h), and seven others were used as control. Second derivative and curve fitting were used to analyze the FTIR spectra. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify the group spectra. Meanwhile, the tail moment and percentage of DNA in the tail were used as indicators to sense the breaking and the level of damage in DNA. The analysis of FTIR spectra of the PBMC of the irradiated group revealed a marked increase in the area of phosphodiesters of nucleic acids and the area ratios of RNA/DNA and phosphodiesters/carbohydrates. A sharp significant increase and decrease in the areas of RNA and DNA ribose were recorded, respectively. In the irradiated group, leukocytes with different tail lengths were observed. The distributions of tail moments and the percentage of DNA in the tail of irradiated groups were heterogeneous. The mean value of the percentages of DNA in the tail at 0.5 h post-irradiation represented low-level damage in the DNA. Therefore, one can conclude that very low dose fast neutrons might cause changes in the DNA of PBMC at the submolecular level. It could cause low-level damage, double-strand break, and chromatin fragmentation of DNA of leukocytes. PMID:26606065

  20. Inhibition of interferon gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes of patients with sarcoidosis. Pathogenic implications.

    PubMed

    Bertrán, G; Arzt, E; Resnik, E; Mosca, C; Nahmod, V

    1992-04-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production by stimulated peripheral mononuclear leukocytes of 30 patients with sarcoidosis was studied. A significant inhibition (64 percent, 5 to 330 IU/ml vs normal individuals = 1,000 +/- 250 IU/ml) in the IFN-gamma synthesis was found. The inhibition is due to a defect in the circulating monocytes and not in the peripheral T lymphocytes of these patients. This defect in the peripheral IFN-gamma production could be involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. PMID:1555475

  1. The effects of oil exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes and splenic melano-macrophage centers of Gulf of Mexico fishes.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad Omar; Hohn, Claudia; Allen, Peter J; Ford, Lorelei; Dail, Mary Beth; Pruett, Stephen; Petrie-Hanson, Lora

    2014-02-15

    In August and November 2010 we collected and examined peripheral blood and tissues from three species of Gulf of Mexico fish. Findings were compared to non-exposed control fish. The leukocyte counts of exposed alligator gar were not significantly different from controls, while exposed Gulf killifish and sea trout had significantly decreased lymphocyte counts. Liver ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) values from sea trout were significantly greater than control sea trout EROD values, suggesting poly aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Splenic melano-macrophage centers (MMCs) from exposed sea trout and Gulf killifish showed a significant increase in number compared to non-exposed fish. Sea trout splenic MMCs were also significantly greater in size. These findings suggest that Gulf fish sampled were exposed to crude oil from the Macondo well and were in a lymphopenic or immuno-compromised state. PMID:24405733

  2. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors on Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Hypertensive Children Is Associated with the Severity of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gackowska, Lidia; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Trojanek, Joanna; Eljaszewicz, Andrzej; Kubiszewska, Izabela; Niemirska, Anna; Wierzbicka, Aldona; Michalkiewicz, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find out whether peripheral blood leukocyte adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (AdipoR1, AdipoR2) protein expression patterns (flow cytometry) differ between the primary hypertension children (n = 57) and healthy controls (n = 19) and if their expression levels are related to selected clinical parameters. The group of 26 patients [AdipoR(?)] showed lower and the group of 31 patients [AdipoR(+)] showed higher AdipoRs protein expression than the control and each other (P < 0.01 for neutrophils, P < 0.05 for monocytes). The AdipoR(+) leukocytes expressed higher AdipoR1 mRNA levels (RT-PCR) than AdipoR(?) ones and controls (P = 0.022 and P = 0.007, resp.). Despite greater BMI, the AdipoR(?) patients had unchanged serum adiponectin levels. In contrast, AdipoR(+) patients had lower serum adiponectin concentrations than the AdipoR(?) ones and controls (P < 0.001). The AdipoR(+) patients had higher blood pressure (P = 0.042) and greater carotid intima-media thickness (P = 0.017) than the AdipoR(?) ones. The stage of hypertension was associated with increased neutrophil but not monocyte AdipoR1 density (AdipoR1 MFI) (P < 0.05). Severe ambulatory hypertension was presented more often in AdipoR(+) patients than in AdipoR(?) ones (51.6% versus 26.9%, resp.; P < 0.01). In conclusion, neutrophil AdipoRs upregulation was associated with early stages of vascular injury, hypertension severity, and low serum levels of adiponectin. PMID:26146630

  3. Effects of immunoglobulin binding on signal transduction in bovine polymorphonuclear neutrophils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immunoglobulins are major molecules that mediate humoral immune responses. Their functional effects on leukocytes are mediated by the cell surface receptors for the Fc domain of immunoglobulins (FcR). Ligation of FcR on human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) is capable of triggering a wide rang...

  4. PrPSc Is Not Detected in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Scrapie-Infected Sheep: Determining the Limit of Sensitivity by Immunohistochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from scrapie-infected sheep were evaluated for the presence of PrPSc using dissociated retropharyngeal lymph node cells (DRLN) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrPSc positive cells were detected in 2.05% with a variance of .28% of 3,000,000DRLN cells but were not de...

  5. Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier in vitro and in vivo geared towards targeted molecular therapies for peripheral neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Greathouse, Kelsey M; Palladino, Steven P; Dong, Chaoling; Helton, Eric S; Ubogu, Eroboghene E

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral neuroinflammation is characterized by hematogenous mononuclear leukocyte infiltration into peripheral nerves. Despite significant clinical knowledge, advancements in molecular biology and progress in developing specific drugs for inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis, there are currently no specific therapies that modulate pathogenic peripheral nerve inflammation. Modeling leukocyte trafficking at the blood-nerve barrier using a reliable human in vitro model and potential intravital microscopy techniques in representative animal models guided by human observational data should facilitate the targeted modulation of the complex inflammatory cascade needed to develop safe and efficacious therapeutics for immune-mediated neuropathies and chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:26732309

  6. Degeneration and atrophy of the thymus of lethally irradiated dogs, rescued by transfusion of cryopreserved autologous blood leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.W.; Huegl, E.B.; Boedey, B.

    1987-12-01

    Dogs exposed to a fatal radiation dose of 12 Gy were rescued by transfusion of autologous blood leukocytes. A severe acute and long-lasting damage to the thymus was observed. The acute damage, as observed on the tenth day, consisted of a marked reduction in the number of lymphocytes, degeneration of Hassall's bodies, and hemorrhage. Long-term effects, observed several months after irradiation, were partial to total atrophy of the thymus. Regeneration, when it occurred, was limited to a few small isolated areas in which lymphopoiesis was supported by epithelial reticular cells. In contrast, the lymph nodes of all dogs had abundant cortical lymphopoiesis. The abundant hemopoiesis present in the marrow from the tenth day after irradiation until the end of the observation period should have provided sufficient circulating precursor cells to seed the thymus and regenerate the organ to the same extent as that observed in the other blood-forming organs. The impairment of lymphopoietic regeneration in the thymus seems to be due, therefore, to damage caused by irradiation on the specific stroma of the organ, which is not able to support such activity.

  7. IL-6 blockade reverses the abnormal STAT activation of peripheral blood leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, M A; Diaz-Torné, C; Hernández, M V; Reina, D; de la Fuente, D; Castellví, I; Moya, P; Ruiz, J M; Corominas, H; Zamora, C; Cantó, E; Sanmartí, R; Juarez, C; Vidal, S

    2015-06-01

    Considering the interplay of multiple STATs in response to cytokines, we investigated how IL-6 and its blocking affect STAT signaling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Leukocytes obtained from RA patients before and after tocilizumab treatment and healthy donors (HDs) were cytokine-stimulated and STAT phosphorylation was analyzed by cytometry. RA patients had significantly fewer pSTAT1+, pSTAT3+, and pSTAT6+ monocytes and pSTAT5+ lymphocytes than HDs. After 24weeks of treatment, percentages of IFN?-induced pSTAT1+ and IL-10-induced pSTAT3+ monocytes in RA patients increased, reaching levels comparable to HDs. pSTAT1+ and pSTAT3+ cells correlated inversely with RA disease activity index and levels of pSTAT+ cells at baseline were higher in patients with good EULAR response to tocilizumab. IFN?-induced pSTAT1+ cells correlated inversely with memory T cells and anti-CCP levels. IL-10-induced pSTAT3+ cells correlated with Treg/Teff ratio. Our findings suggest that IL-6 blocking reduces the inflammatory mechanisms through the correction of STAT1 and STAT3 activation status. PMID:25847223

  8. Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

    1982-02-01

    The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (P <0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

  9. Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

    1982-02-01

    The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

  10. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hund, S J; Antaki, J F

    2011-01-01

    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection–diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis. PMID:19809124

  11. Dry Olive Leaf Extract Counteracts L-Thyroxine-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Žukovec Topalovi?, Dijana; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  12. Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Topalovi?, Dijana Žukovec; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

  13. Activation of the TLR1/2 pathway induces the shaping of the immune response status of peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ying; Zhang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in the activation and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses through the recognition of specific components of pathogens. TLR1/2 on the cell surface plays an important role in defending against Gram-positive bacteria. The aim of the present study was to examine the expressional variation of immunomodulatory molecules in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) treated with the TLR1/2 agonist, Pam3Cys. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction result showed dramatically increased expression of immune-related factors treated with Pam3Cys. Antibody-chip assays confirmed that activation of TLR1/2 could induce secretion of four important immune factors [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and interferon-?). Western-blot analysis indicated the upregulation of three significant signal kinase proteins (phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, extracellular signal-related kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2). The study demonstrated that there were numerous molecules involved in the immune response of PBLs stimulated by the TLR1/2 ligand. Our future studies will focus on the mechanisms of these molecules in the TLR1/2 agonist-mediated immune response. PMID:24926371

  14. Underweight Full-Term Indian Neonates Show Differences in Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocyte Phenotype: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Deepak K.; Nair, Deepa; Raza, Saimah; Saini, Savita; Singh, Reeta; Kumar, Amit; Tripathi, Reva; Ramji, Siddarth; Batra, Aruna; Aggarwal, Kailash C.; Chellani, Harish K.; Arya, Sugandha; Bhatla, Neerja; Paul, Vinod K.; Aggarwal, Ramesh; Agarwal, Nidhi; Mehta, Umesh; Sopory, Shailaja; Natchu, Uma Chandra Mouli; Bhatnagar, Shinjini; Bal, Vineeta; Rath, Satyajit; Wadhwa, Nitya

    2015-01-01

    Background While infections are a major cause of neonatal mortality in India even in full-term neonates, this is an especial problem in the large proportion (~20%) of neonates born underweight (or small-for-gestational-age; SGA). One potential contributory factor for this susceptibility is the possibility that immune system maturation may be affected along with intrauterine growth retardation. Methods In order to examine the possibility that differences in immune status may underlie the susceptibility of SGA neonates to infections, we enumerated the frequencies and concentrations of 22 leukocyte subset populations as well as IgM and IgA levels in umbilical cord blood from full-term SGA neonates and compared them with values from normal-weight (or appropriate-for-gestational-age; AGA) full-term neonates. We eliminated most SGA-associated risk factors in the exclusion criteria so as to ensure that AGA-SGA differences, if any, would be more likely to be associated with the underweight status itself. Results An analysis of 502 such samples, including 50 from SGA neonates, showed that SGA neonates have significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), a higher myeloid DC (mDC) to pDC ratio, more natural killer (NK) cells, and higher IgM levels in cord blood in comparison with AGA neonates. Other differences were also observed such as tendencies to lower CD4:CD8 ratios and greater prominence of inflammatory monocytes, mDCs and neutrophils, but while some of them had substantial differences, they did not quite reach the standard level of statistical significance. Conclusions These differences in cellular lineages of the immune system possibly reflect stress responses in utero associated with growth restriction. Increased susceptibility to infections may thus be linked to complex immune system dysregulation rather than simply retarded immune system maturation. PMID:25898362

  15. In vitro study of interactions between silicon-containing nanoparticles and human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, E R; Rudimov, E G; Gornostaeva, A N; Beklemyshev, V I; Makhonin, I I; Maugeri, U O G; Buravkova, L B

    2013-07-01

    The effects of silicon dioxide-based nanoparticles on the viability and proliferative activity of human peripheral blood cultured lymphocytes were studied. All nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 ?g/ml produced a significant cytotoxic effect, its intensity depending on particles' structure: SiO2 nanoparticles were least toxic, while Ce3(+)-intercaled montmorillonite nanoparticles were most toxic. The cells died mainly by apoptosis and postapoptotic necrosis. Incubation with nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 ?g/ml for 72 h caused death of all phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes, while in concentrations of 1 and 10 ?g/ml the nanoparticles had no effect of proliferative activity of cells. The results suggest that the effects of nanoparticles on cells are determined by the nanoparticle concentration and size, as well as by their structure. PMID:24137611

  16. [The efficiency of a new porous type leukocyte removal filter for red cell blood components, Terumo Imuguard III-RC, in the rapid transfusion conditions].

    PubMed

    Kajiyama, S; Nakao, M; Kawaguchi, R; Nakatani, K; Okada, Y; Hazama, K; Unetani, H; Hanaki, C

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the efficiency of a new porous type leukocyte removal filter for red cell blood components, Terumo Imuguard III-RC, in the rapid transfusion conditions. One leukocyte removal filter was used for 2 units of RC-M.A.P (red cell mannitol-adenine-phosphate). Filtration methods employed were gravity infusion, high pressure infusion (300 mmHg), pumping infusion and 20 ml.min-1 infusion under high pressure (300 mmHg). Blood samples were taken before and after the filtration to measure white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and platelet content. Blood samples before filtration and after filtration with WBC excluded, were examined by automated hematology analyzer (Coulter counter STKS-Retic). WBC after filtration was counted by the hemacytometer method using Nageotte Chamber. The removal rate of WBC was found to be more than 99.99% and residual WBC content was less than 4 x 10(4) with every method. The recovery rate of RBC was not significantly decreased in all filtration methods. The removal rate of platelet was equal in all filtration methods. In conclusion, Imuguard III-RC could be useful for effective homologous blood transfusion. PMID:9223894

  17. The effect of injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum superoxide dismutase activity of lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Lima, S F; Bicalho, M L S; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Felippe, M J; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous supplementation of 300?mg of zinc, 50?mg of manganese, 25?mg of selenium, and 75?mg of copper on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at 10?±?2 days in milk (DIM), and on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during the transition period and subsequent lactation of multiparous Holstein cows. A total of 250 multiparous cows were randomly allocated into one of two treatments groups, namely, trace mineral supplemented (TMS) or control. Cows in the TMS group were injected at 230 and 260 days of gestation, and 35 days postpartum. Serum SOD activity was measured at enrollment, and 10, 60 and 100 DIM. Serum BHBA concentration and leukocyte function were assessed at 10 DIM. Overall serum SOD activity for TMS and control was 16.01 and 12.71?U/mL, respectively. The interaction between treatment and time of serum collection was significant. Additionally, overall serum SOD activity was 12.85 and 14.78?U/mL for cows diagnosed with mastitis and unaffected cows, respectively. Treatment did not affect leukocyte function. For parity >2, TMS cows had lower serum BHBA concentrations than control cows; BHBA concentrations were 0.41 and 0.27?mmol/L for control and TMS cows, respectively. In conclusion, cows diagnosed with mastitis had decreased serum SOD activity, and trace mineral supplementation increased serum SOD activity although leukocyte function was not affected by supplementation. PMID:24685102

  18. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide hinders polymorphonuclear leucocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hofman, V; Ricci, V; Mograbi, B; Brest, P; Luciano, F; Boquet, P; Rossi, B; Auberger, P; Hofman, P

    2001-03-01

    A prominent histologic feature of Helicobacter pylori infection is a dense infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) in gastric mucosa. H. pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been recognized as a primary virulence factor evoking acute mucosal inflammatory reaction. Previous works have shown that H. pylori LPS immunologic activities are lower than those of enterobacterial LPS. However, the effect of H. pylori LPS on spontaneous PMNL apoptosis, and mechanisms by which this H. pylori LPS may promote PMNL survival remain to be established. In this study, we investigated, by both morphologic and biochemical approaches, the action of H. pylori LPS on PMNL apoptosis in vitro, using broth culture filtrates (BCF) of H. pylori strains with different genotypes. We found that BCF from H. pylori caused a significant delay in spontaneous PMNL apoptosis and this delay was independent of the VacA, cag pathogenicity island and urease status. We demonstrated that LPS in BCF is responsible for this effect because it was abrogated by the LPS antagonist B287 (a synthetic analog of Rhodobactersphaeroides lipid A). Moreover, BCF from H. pylori induced P42/44MAP kinase activation in PMNL. Similar results were obtained with BCF of an Escherichia coli strain. Taken together these data suggest that longer survival of PMNL induced by H. pylori LPS may increase gastric epithelium injury in H. pylori-associated diseases. PMID:11310830

  19. CYTOKINE SECRETION BY BOVINE POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL LEUKOCYTES (PMN)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid recruitment and bacterial phagocytosis and killing by PMN are the most effective defenses against establishment of infection. In addition, PMN may play a key supportive role through secretion of cytokines during the inflammatory response. We sought to determine whether bovine PMN secrete cyt...

  20. Activation of Cannabioid Receptor 2 Attenuates Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions and Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction under Inflammatory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Servio H.; Haskó, János; Skuba, Andrew; Fan, Shongshan; McCormick, Ryan; Dykstra, Holly; Reichenbach, Nancy; Krizbai, Istvan; Mahadevan, Anu; Zhang, Ming; Tuma, Ronald; Son, Young-jin; Persidsky, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that modulation of the receptor-mediated cannabinoid system during neuroinflammation can produce potent neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. However in this context, little is known about how selective activation of the cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R) affects the activated state of the brain endothelium and blood brain barrier (BBB) function. Using human brain tissues and primary human brain endothelial cells (BMVEC) we demonstrate that the CB2R is highly upregulated during inflammatory insult. We then examined whether the CB2R agonists could attenuate inflammatory responses at the BBB using a mouse model of LPS-induced encephalitis and highly selective CB2R agonists. Visualization by intravital microscopy revealed that administration of JWH133 or a novel resorcinol-based compound O-1966, greatly attenuated leukocyte adhesion in surface pial vessels and in deep ascending cortical post-capillary venules. BBB permeability assessments with small and large fluorescent tracers showed that CB2R agonists were effective at preventing barrier leakiness after LPS administration. To determine whether the effects by CB2R agonists on barrier protection are not only due to the CB2R modulation of immune cell function, we tested the agonists in-vitro with barrier forming primary BMVEC. Remarkably, the addition of CB2R agonist increased trans-endothelial electrical resistance and increased the amount of tight junction protein present in membrane fractions. Furthermore, CB2R agonists decreased the induction of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 surface expression in BMVEC exposed to various pro-inflammatory mediators. Together, these results suggest that pharmacological CB2R ligands offer a new strategy for BBB protection during neuroinflammation. PMID:22442067

  1. Imaging of blood antigen distribution on blood cells by thermal lens microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hiroko; Sekiguchi, Kazuya; Nagao, Fumiko; Mukaida, Masahiro; Kitamori, Takehiko; Sawada, Tsuguo

    2000-05-01

    Blood group antigens on a cell were measured by a new microscopic method, i.e. thermal lens microscopy which involves spectrometry using a laser-induced thermal-lens effect. The blood group antigen was immunologically stained using antibody labeled with colloidal gold. Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) on lymphocytes and mononuclear leukocytes were observed by the thermal lens microscope, and Lewis blood group antigens on erythrocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were also observed. The antigen distribution on each cell-surface was imaged using this technique. In spite of convex surface of living cells, colloidal gold was correctly quantified by adjusting the deviation of the focal point of the probe laser by the phase of the signal. In the measurement of leukocyte antigens, antigens of HLA-A, -B, -C loci on the lymphocytes were identified and quantitated by using a single cell. The image of HLA-A, -B, -C antigen distribution on a mononuclear leukocyte was obtained. In the measurement of erythrocyte antigens, a small quantity of Lewis antigens was detected on the cord erythrocytes. Localized small quantities of membrane antigens are better quantitated without extraction or cytolysis. Our thermal lens microscope is a powerful and highly sensitive analytical tool for detecting and quantitating localized antigens in single cells and/or cell-surface-associated molecules.

  2. Temperature-induced transcription of inflammatory mediators and the influence of Hsp70 following LPS stimulation of southern bluefin tuna peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney homogenates.

    PubMed

    Polinski, Mark; Bridle, Andrew; Nowak, Barbara

    2013-05-01

    Temperature is known to influence inflammatory signalling in mammals, but far less understood in fish. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential effects of temperature on innate immune signalling in head kidney and leukocyte populations of the economically important southern bluefin tuna through the identification and utilization of gene expression targets in vitro. Here, we identified the mRNA sequences of five potential inflammatory mediators - TNF? (1 and 2), IL-1?, IL-8, and Cox2 - and demonstrate induction of four - TNF? (2), IL-1?, IL-8, and Cox2 - following LPS stimulation of both peripheral blood leukocytes and head kidney homogenates in vitro by real-time quantitative PCR. Comparison of transcriptional expression in cultures held at 18 and 25 °C (both within the presumed natural temperature range of this heterothermic species) showed accelerated transcription of cytokines TNF?, IL-1? and IL-8 following LPS stimulation at 25 °C in both tissue types. Peak induction reached comparable levels for each transcript at both temperatures during the 24 h test period with only limited (if any) protraction in expression resulting from cold temperature (18 °C) incubation. Partial mRNA sequences were also identified for both the constitutively expressed and heat inducible chaperone proteins Hsc70 and Hsp70, and 24 h incubation at 25 °C was sufficient to induce Hsp70 transcription in leukocyte but not in head kidney cell populations. Taken together these findings suggest that temperature exerts influence in the timing but not the degree of an innate inflammatory response in bluefin tuna and that different cell populations have differential responsiveness to heat shock in this heterothermic species. Further, LPS stimulation failed to induce Hsp70 at either incubation temperature in leukocytes; whereas 25 °C incubation caused Hsp70 up-regulation in leukocytes with or without the presence of LPS. This suggests that Hsp70 does not play a direct role in immune responsiveness for this species and that an environmental temperature of 25 °C in excess of 24 h initiates a cellular stress response in blood cells of this organism. Lastly, a strong correlation between Hsp70 and IL-8 transcriptional expression was observed following LPS/heat shock stimulation of leukocytes and five potential heat shock response elements were subsequently identified on the gene promoter region of IL-8 indicating that heat shock co-activation of this chemokine previously identified in mammals is also likely present in fish. PMID:23439399

  3. Physiologic imaging of radiolabeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The radiolabeling of leukocytes and other cellular elements of the blood has allowed a number of physiologic processes to be investigated. In addition, many commonly performed clinical nuclear medicine procedures utilize these techniques. The following is a review of the labeling technique and of the utility of radiolabeled leukocytes. 87 references.

  4. In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging in a case of pseudogout.

    PubMed

    Palestro, C J; Goldsmith, S J

    1992-05-01

    In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 90-year-old woman who had a fever and left lower extremity pain for 3 days. Leukocyte images demonstrated abnormal activity in the left knee and ankle. Aspiration of the left knee joint yielded cloudy yellow fluid with a leukocyte count of 30,000 per mm3 (75% polymorphonuclear leukocytes, 1% lymphocytes, and 24% monocytes). Cultures of the aspirate were reported as no growth. Microscopic examination of the aspirate revealed the presence of rod-shaped crystals of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate, confirming the diagnosis of calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, also known as pseudogout. The acute arthritis of pseudogout stimulates an intense leukocyte response; therefore, labeled leukocyte images performed on patients suspected of having this condition must be interpreted cautiously because scintigraphically it may not be possible to distinguish pseudogout from septic arthritis. PMID:1587041

  5. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... A clean-catch urine sample is preferred. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting ...

  6. Radiolabeled leukocytes and platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    Radiolabeled blood cells are widely used for both clinical and research studies. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown the tagging process does not significantly affect function. The labeling techniques and clinical uses of labeled leukocytes and platelets are reviewed.97 references.

  7. Leukocyte Activation in Obese Patients: Effect of Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Minervino, Daniele; Gumiero, Daniela; Nicolazzi, Maria Anna; Carnicelli, Annamaria; Fuorlo, Mariella; Guidone, Caterina; Di Gennaro, Leonardo; Fattorossi, Andrea; Mingrone, Geltrude; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2015-10-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity is a major global health problem. In severe obesity, bariatric surgery (BS) allows to obtain a significant weight loss and comorbidities improvement, among them one of the factors is the thrombotic risk. In this observational study, we measured indices of leukocyte activation in severely obese patients as markers of increased thrombotic risk in relation with serum markers of inflammation before and after BS.Frequency of polymorphonuclear neutrophil-platelet (PLT) and monocyte (MONO)-PLT aggregates as well as of tissue factor (TF) expressing MONOs was measured in the peripheral blood of 58 consecutive obese patients and 30 healthy controls. In 31 of the 58 obese patients, data obtained at the enrollment were compared with those obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months after BS.Compared with healthy controls, obese patients showed a higher frequency of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL)-PLT aggregates (7.47?±?2.45 [6.82-8.11]% vs 5.85?±?1.89 [5.14-6.55]%, P?=?0.001), MONO-PLT aggregates (12.31?±?7.33 [10.38-14.24]% vs 8.14?±?2.22 [7.31-8.97]%, P?leukocyte-PLT aggregate formation and MONO activation represent an important mechanism underlying the increased thrombotic risk of obese patients. We also show that BS is effective in normalizing these inflammatory indices. PMID:26447995

  8. Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases proinflammatory signaling in peripheral blood human leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Fadia; Haines, David; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Dashti, Ali A; Al-Awadhi, Adel; Ibrahim, Basel; Al-Zayer, Bashayer; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

    2014-05-01

    Sour cherry seed extract (SCE) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-treated human peripheral blood T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the chemokine interleukin-8. Both proteins are diagnostic biomarkers for inflammatory pathologies. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 11 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 8 healthy control subjects were co-cultured for 24h in lipopolysaccharide and the extract, then evaluated by flow cytometry for T cell activation and by enzyme-linked immunoassay for lymphocyte-associated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. There was a dose-dependent decrease in expression of the immunophenotypes: CD3+TNF-?+, and CD3+IL8+ in cultures from RA patients to a greater extent than in cells from healthy participants. These results suggest that the extract may have a modulatory roll in RA and other inflammatory disorders via the induction of HO-1, thus abating oxidative stress and strengthening regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:24631368

  9. Label-free in vivo imaging of human leukocytes using two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yan; Yan, Bo; Sun, Qiqi; Teh, Seng Khoon; Zhang, Wei; Wen, Zilong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate that two-photon excited endogenous fluorescence enables label-free morphological and functional imaging of various human blood cells. Specifically, we achieved distinctive morphological contrast to visualize morphology of important leukocytes, such as polymorphonuclear structure of granulocyte and mononuclear feature of agranulocyte, through the employment of the reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) fluorescence signals. In addition, NADH fluorescence images clearly reveal the morphological transformation process of neutrophils during disease-causing bacterial infection. Our findings also show that time-resolved NADH fluorescence can be potentially used for functional imaging of the phagocytosis of pathogens by leukocytes (neutrophils) in vivo. In particular, we found that free-to-bound NADH ratios measured in infected neutrophils increased significantly, which is consistent with a previous study that the energy consumed in the phagocytosis of neutrophils is mainly generated through the glycolysis pathway that leads to the accumulation of free NADH. Future work will focus on further developing and applying label-free imaging technology to investigate leukocyte-related diseases and disorders.

  10. Estradiol enhances leukocyte binding to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated endothelial cells via an increase in TNF-induced adhesion molecules E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule type 1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Cid, M C; Kleinman, H K; Grant, D S; Schnaper, H W; Fauci, A S; Hoffman, G S

    1994-01-01

    Adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells is a critical step in the development of acute and chronic inflammatory lesions. We report here that estradiol treatment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells stimulated up to a twofold increase in TNF-induced adhesion of both polymorphonuclear leukocytes and PMA-activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This effect was more evident (threefold increase) when endothelial cells were cultured on the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin. Progesterone, but not testosterone, had a similar stimulatory effect. Estradiol also promoted a slight increase in interferon gamma-stimulated endothelial cell adherence for peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but no effect of estradiol was observed when adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells was stimulated with IL-1 or IL-4. The estradiol-induced increase in leukocyte binding to human umbilical vein endothelial cells was partially blocked by antibodies to the adhesion molecules E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule type 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule type 1 (VCAM-1). Indirect immunofluorescence techniques showed that estradiol produces an increase in TNF-induced cell surface expression of these molecules. Northern blot analysis demonstrated a transient increase in TNF-induced expression of mRNA for E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in endothelial cells treated with estradiol. Our data demonstrate that estradiol has important regulatory functions in promoting leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions that might contribute to the observed predominance in females of some autoimmune inflammatory diseases. Images PMID:7506711

  11. Biphasic control of polymorphonuclear cell migration by Kupffer cells. Effect of exposure to metabolic products of ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Fainsilber, Z.; Feinman, L.; Shaw, S.; Lieber, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of the Kupffer cells in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis, rat liver Kupffer cells were cultured and exposed to products of ethanol metabolism. The resultant supernatants were tested to study their ability to stimulate or inhibit polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis. Kupffer cells produced increased chemokinetic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; when incubated with soluble products of microsomal peroxidation, the Kupffer cells engendered more chemokinetic activity than that produced by untreated Kupffer cells. When Kupffer cells were incubated with acetaldehyde, the chemokinetic activity that appeared in the supernatant did not differ from control. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear cells was not observed when the Kupffer cell supernatants were tested by checkerboard analysis.

  12. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- ... couldn't keep working and stay alive. White Blood Cells White blood cells (also called leukocytes, say: LOO- ...

  13. Modification of radiation-induced DNA double strand break repair pathways by chemicals extracted from Podophyllum hexandrum: an in vitro study in human blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Nitya N; Shukla, Sandeep K; Yashavarddhan, M H; Devi, Memita; Tripathi, Rajendra P; Gupta, Manju L

    2014-06-01

    Radiation exposure is a serious threat to biomolecules, particularly DNA, proteins and lipids. Various exogenous substances have been reported to protect these biomolecules. In this study we explored the effect of pre-treatment with G-002M, a mixture of three active derivatives isolated from the rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum, on DNA damage response in irradiated human blood leukocytes. Blood was collected from healthy male volunteers, preincubated with G-002M and then irradiated with various doses of radiation. Samples were analyzed using flow cytometry to quantify DNA double strand break (DSB) biomarkers including ?-H2AX, P53BP1 and levels of ligase IV. Blood samples were irradiated in vitro and processed to determine time and dose-dependent kinetics. Semiquantitative RT-PCR was performed at various time points to measure gene expression of DNA-PKcs, Ku80, ATM, and 53BP1; each of these genes is involved in DNA repair signaling. Pre-treatment of blood with G-002M resulted in reduction of ?-H2AX and P53BP1 biomarkers levels and elevated ligase IV levels relative to non-G-002M-treated irradiated cells. These results confirm suppression in radiation-induced DNA DSBs. Samples pre-treated with G-002M and then irradiated also showed significant up-regulation of DNA-PKcs and Ku80 and downregulation of ATM and 53BP1 gene expressions, suggesting that G-002M plays a protective role against DNA damage. The protective effect of G-002M may be due to its ability to scavange radiation-induced free radicals or assist in DNA repair. Further studies are needed to decipher the role of G-002M on signaling molecules involved in radiation-induced DNA damage repair pathways. PMID:24500925

  14. Evaluation of propolis, honey, and royal jelly in amelioration of peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model.

    PubMed

    El-Aidy, Waleed K; Ebeid, Ahmad A; Sallam, Abd El-Raouf M; Muhammad, Ibrahim E; Abbas, Ayman T; Kamal, M A; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2015-11-01

    Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model. The mice in group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice in group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies. The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells. PMID:26587007

  15. Evaluation of propolis, honey, and royal jelly in amelioration of peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model

    PubMed Central

    El-Aidy, Waleed K.; Ebeid, Ahmad A.; Sallam, Abd El-Raouf M.; Muhammad, Ibrahim E.; Abbas, Ayman T.; Kamal, M.A.; Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj

    2014-01-01

    Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model. The mice in group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice in group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies. The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells. PMID:26587007

  16. Short telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with an increased risk of oral premalignant lesion and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bau, Da-Tian; Lippman, Scott M.; Xu, Enping; Gong, Yilei; Lee, J. Jack; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are precursors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Short telomeres in peripheral blood leukocytes are associated with increased risks of several cancers. However, whether short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) predisposes to OPL and OSCC is unclear. Methods LTLs were measured in PBLs of 266 patients with OPL (N=174) or OSCC (N=92) at diagnosis and 394 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The association between LTL and OPL or OSCC risk, as well as the interaction of telomere length, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking on OPL or OSCC risk were analyzed. Results The age-adjusted relative LTL was the shortest in OSCC (1.64±0.29), intermediate in OPL (1.75±0.43), and longest in controls (1.82±0.36) (P for trend < 0.001). When dichotomized at the median value in controls, adjusting for age, gender, smoking and alcohol drinking status, the odds ratio (OR) for OPL and OSCC risks associated with short LTL was 2.03 (95% CI = 1.29–3.21) and 3.47 (95% CI = 1.84–6.53), respectively, with significant dose-response effects for both associations. Among 174 OPL patients, 23 progressed to OSCC and the mean LTL was shorter than in progressors than non-progressors (1.66±0.35 vs. 1.77±0.44), although the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.258) likely due to the small number of progressors. Interaction analysis shows that short LTL, smoking, and alcohol drinking are independent risk factors for OPL and OSCC. Conclusion Short LTL is associated with increased risks of developing OPL and OSCC and likely predisposes to the malignant progression of OPL patients. PMID:24105340

  17. Immunological changes in canine peripheral blood leukocytes triggered by immunization with first or second generation vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; de Andrade, Renata Aline; Sathler-Avelar, Renato; Magalhães, Camila Paula; Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Campolina, Sabrina Sidney; Mello, Maria Norma; Vianna, Leonardo Rocha; Mayrink, Wilson; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Malaquias, Luiz Cosme Cotta; Rocha, Luciana Morais; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2011-05-15

    In this study, we summarized the major phenotypic/functional aspects of circulating leukocytes following canine immunization with Leishvaccine and Leishmune®. Our findings showed that Leishvaccine triggered early changes in the innate immunity (neutrophils and eosinophils) with late alterations on monocytes. Conversely, Leishmune(®) induced early phenotypic changes in both, neutrophils and monocytes. Moreover, Leishvaccine triggered mixed activation-related phenotypic changes on T-cells (CD4+ and CD8+ and B-lymphocytes, whereas Leishmune(®) promoted a selective response, mainly associated with CD8+ T-cell activation. Mixed cytokine profile (IFN-?/IL-4) was observed in Leishvaccine immunized dogs whereas a selective pro-inflammatory pattern (IFN-?/NO) was induced by Leishmune® vaccination. The distinct immunological profile triggered by Leishvaccine and Leishmune® may be a direct consequence of the distinct biochemical composition of these immunobiological, i.e. complex versus purified Leishmania antigen along with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) versus saponin adjuvant. Both immunobiologicals are able to activate phagocytes and CD8+ T-cells and therefore could be considered as a putative vaccines against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). PMID:21439654

  18. The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.

    1973-01-01

    Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

  19. Mesenchymal Stromal/Stem Cell and Minocycline-Loaded Hydrogels Inhibit the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus that Evades Immunomodulation of Blood-Derived Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Alberto Daniel; Cantu, David Antonio; Vecchi, Joseph T; Rose, Warren E; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2015-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have demonstrated favorable wound healing properties in addition to their differentiation capacity. MSCs encapsulated in biomaterials such as gelatin and polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite hydrogels have displayed an immunophenotype change that leads to the release of cytokines and growth factors to accelerate wound healing. However, therapeutic potential of implanted MSC-loaded hydrogels may be limited by non-specific protein adsorption that facilitates adhesion of bacterial pathogens such as planktonic Staphylococcus aureus (SA) to the surface with subsequent biofilm formation resistant to immune cell recognition and antibiotic activity. In this study, we demonstrate that blood-derived primary leukocytes and bone marrow-derived MSCs cannot inhibit colony-forming abilities of planktonic or biofilm-associated SA. However, we show that hydrogels loaded with MSCs and minocycline significantly inhibit colony-forming abilities of planktonic SA while maintaining MSC viability and multipotency. Our results suggest that minocycline and MSC-loaded hydrogels may decrease the bioburden of SA at implant sites in wounds, and may improve the wound healing capabilities of MSC-loaded hydrogels. PMID:25716147

  20. Role of complement activation in cell adhesion to polymer blood contact surfaces. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Herzlinger, G.A.; Cumming, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Activation of complement components is well known to mediate chemotactic, adhesive, and phagocytic responses of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) to foreign substances in the inflammatory process. Complement dependent mechanisms of platelet injury have been described which are applicable to the canine model, which is most commonly used for the short-term evaluation of biomaterials and devices. In addition, complement activation at nylon leukapheresis filters and dialysis membrane blood contact surfaces has already been demonstrated. In this study the role of complement activation in mediating PMN and platelet adhesion to polymer blood contact surfaces using an ex vivo blood flow experiment with normal dogs, and dogs whose complement C3 level had been sharply reduced in vivo by prior administration of cobra venom factor (CVF) have been investigated. The effects of CVF on blood chemistry, hematology and ADP induced platelet aggregation (a noncomplement dependent process) were also investigated.

  1. Purification of myeloperoxidase from equine polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Mathy-Hartert, M; Bourgeois, E; Grülke, S; Deby-Dupont, G; Caudron, I; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

    1998-04-01

    Increases of plasma concentrations of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be used as markers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) activation in pathological situations (sepsis, acute lung injury, acute inflammation). To develop an assay for measurement of plasma MPO in horses during the above-mentioned infectious and inflammatory conditions, MPO was purified from equine PMN isolated from blood anticoagulated with citrate. PMN were extracted in a saline milieu (0.2 M Na acetate, 1 M NaCl, pH 4.7) to eliminate most of cellular proteins. Pellets were then extracted in the same buffer containing cationic detergent (1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide). The supernatant was further purified by ion exchange chromatography (Hiload S Sepharose HP column 0.5 x 26 cm, equilibrated with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7) with a NaCl gradient (until 1 M). Most of the peroxidase activity of MPO (spectrophotometrically measured by the oxidation of orthodianisidine by hydrogen peroxide) was eluted at 0.65 M NaCl. MPO was further purified by gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S 200 column 2.6 x 42 cm with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7). MPO (specific activity: 74.3 U/mg) was obtained with a yield of 30% from the detergent extraction supernatant. Electrophoresis (non-reducing conditions) showed 3 bands identified, by comparison with human MPO, (i) the mature tetrameric enzyme (150 kDa) with 2 light and 2 heavy subunits, (ii) the precursor form (88 kDa) and (iii) a form of the heavy subunit without the prosthetic heme group (40 kDa). The mature enzyme and its precursor were glycosylated and possessed peroxidase activity. Equine MPO showed strong similarities with human and bovine MPO, with an absorption peak at 430 nm (Soret peak) characteristic of ferrimyeloperoxidase. Enzymatic activity was pH dependent (optimal value at pH 5.5). PMID:9553712

  2. Hyperreactivity of Blood Leukocytes in Patients with NAFLD to Ex Vivo Lipopolysaccharide Treatment Is Modulated by Metformin and Phosphatidylcholine but Not by Alpha Ketoglutarate

    PubMed Central

    Daniluk, Jadwiga; S?abczy?ska, Olga; Kandefer-Szersze?, Martyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Toll-like receptor 4 and proinflammatory cytokines play a central role in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We investigated IL-1, IL-6 and TNF? production and toll-like receptor 4 in both—obese and lean patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease who met different sets of metabolic syndrome criteria and linked the results with the disease burden. Materials and Methods 95 subjects were divided into four groups depending on the following criteria: presence or absence of metabolic syndrome and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, glucose tolerance (prediabetes or normoglycemia) and BMI value (obese or lean). We determined the levels of IL-1?, IL-6, TNF?, and monocyte toll-like receptor 4 expression in fresh blood as well as in blood cultures treated with lipopolysaccharide with or without metformin, alphaketoglutarate or phosphatidylcholine supplementation. Results The blood leukocytes of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide treatment and produce elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to ex vivo treatment with lipopolysaccharide. Moreover, they overexpress toll-like receptor-4. Hyperreactivity was typical mainly for obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease together with metabolic syndrome and decreased with the severity of disease. Metformin was the most effective in attenuation of hyperreactivity in all groups of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but in obese patients the effectiveness of metformin was weaker than in lean. The reduction of cytokine level by metformin was accompanied by the decrease in toll-like receptor-4 expression. phosphatidylcholine also attenuated hyperreactivity to lipopolysaccharide but mainly in obese patients. Alpha ketoglutarate did not modulate cytokines’ level and toll-like receptor 4 expression in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients. Conclusions Metformin and phosphatidylcholine attenuated lipopolysaccharide induced toll-like receptor 4 overexpression and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines; however, their efficacy depended on combined presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome and obesity. PMID:26629827

  3. ?M?2-integrin-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interactions drive the flow-dependent trafficking of Guillain-Barré syndrome patient derived mononuclear leukocytes at the blood-nerve barrier in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Yosef, Nejla; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of hematogenous leukocyte trafficking at the human blood-nerve barrier (BNB) are largely unknown. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We developed a cytokine-activated human in vitro BNB model using primary endoneurial endothelial cells. Endothelial treatment with 10 U/mL tissue necrosis factor-? and 20 U/mL interferon-? resulted in de novo expression of proinflammatory chemokines CCL2, CXCL9, CXCL11 and CCL20, with increased expression of CXCL2-3, CXCL8 and CXCL10 relative to basal levels. Cytokine treatment induced/ enhanced ICAM-1, E- and P-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and the alternatively spliced pro-adhesive fibronectin variant, fibronectin connecting segment-1 expression in a time-dependent manner, without alterations in junctional adhesion molecule-A expression. Lymphocytes and monocytes from untreated GBS patients express ICAM-1 counterligands, ?M- and ?L-integrin, with differential regulation of ?M-integrin expression compared to healthy controls. Under flow conditions that mimic capillary hemodynamics in vivo, there was a >3-fold increase in total GBS patient and healthy control mononuclear leukocyte adhesion/ migration at the BNB following cytokine treatment relative to the untreated state. Function neutralizing monoclonal antibodies against human ?M-integrin (CD11b) and ICAM-1 reduced untreated GBS patient mononuclear leukocyte trafficking at the BNB by 59% and 64.2% respectively. Monoclonal antibodies against ?L-integrin (CD11a) and human intravenous immunoglobulin reduced total leukocyte adhesion/migration by 22.8% and 17.6% respectively. This study demonstrates differential regulation of ?M-integrin on circulating mononuclear cells in GBS, as well as an important role for ?M-integrin-ICAM-1 interactions in pathogenic GBS patient leukocyte trafficking at the human BNB in vitro. PMID:22552879

  4. The Effect of Hypertonic Saline on mRNA of Proinflammatory Cytokines in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Polymorphonuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Yoon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Jung-Youn; Moon, Sung-Woo; Cho, Young-Duck; Yeom, Ji-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertonic saline is often used to resuscitate patients experiencing shock. In such conditions, polymorphonuclear cells and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form an essential part of early induced innate immunity. Objective To investigate the immunomodulatory effect of hypertonic saline on polymorphonuclear cells by evaluating the changes in TLR-4 receptors and proinflammatory cytokines. Methods Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from whole blood using Polymorphprep (Axis-Shield, Oslo, Norway). The isolated polymorphonuclear cells were plated at a density of 1 × 106 cells/mL in 6-well flat-bottomed culture plates and were stimulated with 1 ?g/mL lipopolysaccharide or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. The stimulated polymorphonuclear cells were cultured in hypertonic saline at 10, 20, or 40 mmol/L above isotonicity. After that, the changes in TLR-4 and cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Results The level of TLR-4 mRNA expression decreased after stimulation with N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, but hypertonic saline did not affect the TLR-4 mRNA expression. TLR-4 mRNA expression was clearly induced upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, and the addition of hypertonic saline restored TLR-4 mRNA expression in polymorphonuclear cells. The interleukin-1? mRNA expression was decreased in the hypertonic environment. On the other hand, the tumor necrosis factor-? value was not influenced by the addition of hypertonic saline. Conclusions Hypertonic saline has an immunomodulatory effect on polymorphonuclear cells through the TLR-4 pathway, and the interleukin–1?-associated pathway is influenced more by hypertonic saline than is the tumor necrosis factor–?-associated pathway. PMID:25067987

  5. Effector cells involved in nonspecific and antibody-dependent mechanisms directed against Plasmodium falciparum blood stages in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Lunel, F; Druilhe, P

    1989-01-01

    We have evaluated in in vitro conditions the possible cooperative effect of antimalarial antibodies with several human blood cell types. When used alone, immunoglobulin G from African adults who had reached a state of premunition against malaria was found to have no or very limited direct effect on invasion and multiplication of P. falciparum asexual blood stages. In contrast, these antibodies induced a marked specific inhibition of parasite growth in the presence of normal blood monocytes, and the inhibition did not appear to be strain dependent. No similar antibody-dependent cellular inhibitory effect was found using human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, platelets, or adherent spleen cells. However, these cells could all exert in vitro some non-antibody-dependent inhibitory effect when present at high effector/target cell ratios. PMID:2659533

  6. Surface modification of polymeric materials and its effect on blood compatibility

    SciTech Connect

    Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Archuleta, T.; Barthell, B.L.; Kossowsky, R.; London, J.E.; Lehnert, B.E.; Duchane, D.V.

    1987-01-01

    The surfaces of commercially available polymeric materials have been modified through the chemical infusion process and physical vapor deposition. The surfaces of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been modified through a chemical infusion process by treatment of the sample with a solution containing varying amounts of titanium(IV)isopropoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The surfaces of silicone rubber samples have been coated with a thin coating of titanium dioxide with an ion beam sputtering technique. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and neutron activation analysis. The infused samples were evaluated for blood compatibility using two biological assays: an adherence assay in which the adherence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the samples was determined, and a hemolysis assay using rat blood erythrocytes to determine the hemolytic activity of the samples. Based on the results of these assays, the PMMA samples treated with PVP alone resulted in an improvement in reactivity with the blood cells. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Biologic and immunohistochemical analysis of interleukin-6 expression in vivo. Constitutive and induced expression in murine polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Terebuh, P. D.; Otterness, I. G.; Strieter, R. M.; Lincoln, P. M.; Danforth, J. M.; Kunkel, S. L.; Chensue, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered an important multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular responses, including the induction of acute-phase protein synthesis, lymphocyte activation, and hematopoiesis. In vitro studies have identified many cells that can produce IL-6, but the cellular sources under physiologic conditions have yet to be identified. Using immunoaffinity purified goat anti-murine IL-6, the authors performed immunohistochemical studies to localize cells expressing IL-6 in selected organs of normal and endotoxin challenged NIH-Swiss outbred mice. In the blood, findings were correlated with cell-associated bioactivity using the standard B9 cell proliferation assay. In normal mice, constitutive expression was seen in granulocytes, monocytes and their precursors as well as in bone marrow and splenic stromal macrophages. Hepatic macrophages were negative, as were lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors, and endothelial cells. In the absence of significant serum levels of IL-6, cell-associated IL-6 bioactivity was detected in circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not lymphocytes. After endotoxin challenge, there was a threefold increase in PMN IL-6 content from 1 to 3 hours followed by almost complete depletion at 6 hours. This correlated well with a threefold increase of IL-6 mRNA in the bone marrow followed by a decrease at 6 hours. This pattern also correlated with serum levels of IL-6, which peaked at 3 hours and dropped significantly by 6 hours. By 24 hours, cell-associated IL-6 showed recovery with no increase in serum levels. In vivo findings showing IL-6 expression in bone marrow macrophages support in vitro studies suggesting a role for IL-6 in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, PMNs as well as macrophages are likely important sources of IL-6 during inflammatory and septic states. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:1372159

  8. Substitution of aspartate for glycine 1018 in the type III procollagen (COL3A1) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: the mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother.

    PubMed

    Kontusaari, S; Tromp, G; Kuivaniemi, H; Stolle, C; Pope, F M; Prockop, D J

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino acid position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an alpha chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the alpha 1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro alpha(III) chain by adding 167.) Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. PMID:1496983

  9. Substitution of Aspartate for glycine 1018 in the Type III procollagen (COL3AI) gene causes type IV Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: The mutated allele is present in most blood leukocytes of the asymptomatic and mosaic mother

    SciTech Connect

    Kontusaari, S.; Tromp, G.; Kuivaniemi, H.; Prockop, D.J. ); Stolle, C. ); Pope, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    A proband with arterial ruptures and skin changes characteristic of the type IV variant of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was found to have a single-base mutation in the type III procollagen gene, which converted the codon for glycine at amino position 1018 to a codon for aspartate. (Amino acid positions are numbered by the standard convention in which the first glycine of the triple-helical domain of an [alpha] chain is number 1. The numbers of positions in the [alpha]1(III) chains can be converted to positions in the human pro[alpha](III) chain by adding 167.). Nucleotide sequencing of overlapping PCR products in which the two alleles were distinguished demonstrated that the mutation of glycine 1018 was the only mutation that changed the primary structure of type III procollagen. The glycine substitution markedly decreased the amount of type III procollagen secreted into the medium by cultured skin fibroblasts from the proband. It is surprising that the same mutation was found in about 94% of the peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband's asymptomatic 72-year-old mother. Other tissues from the mother contained the mutated allele; it was present in 0%-100% of different samples of hair cells and in about 40% of cells from the oral epithelium. Therefore, the mother was a mosaic for the mutation. Since the mutated allele was present in cells derived from all three germ layers, the results indicated that the mutation arose by the late blastocyst stage of development. The results also indicate that assays of blood leukocytes do not always reveal mosaicism or predict phenotypic involvement of tissues, such as blood vessels, that are derived from the same embryonic cells as are leukocytes. 66 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Influence of SkQ1 on Expression of Nrf2 Gene, ARE-Controlled Genes of Antioxidant Enzymes and Their Activity in Rat Blood Leukocytes under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Vnukov, V V; Gutsenko, O I; Milutina, N P; Kornienko, I V; Ananyan, A A; Danilenko, A O; Panina, S B; Plotnikov, A A; Makarenko, M S

    2015-12-01

    The study demonstrated that oxidative stress induced by hyperoxia (0.5 MPa for 90 min) resulted in reduction of mRNA levels of transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (SOD1, CAT, GPx4) in peripheral blood leukocytes of rats. The changes in gene expression profiles under hyperoxia were accompanied by disbalance of activity of antioxidant enzymes in the leukocytes, namely activation of superoxide dismutase and inhibition of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase. Pretreatment of rats with SkQ1 (50 nmol/kg for five days) significantly increased mRNA levels of transcription factor Nrf2 and Nrf2-induced genes encoding antioxidant enzymes SOD2 and GPx4 and normalized the transcriptional activity of the SOD1 and CAT genes in the leukocytes in hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress. At the same time, the activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase was increased, and the activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S-transferase returned to the control level. It is hypothesized that protective effect of SkQ1 in hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress can be realized via a direct antioxidant property and the stimulation of the Keap1/Nrf2 redox-sensitive signaling system. PMID:26638685

  11. PEO-like plasma polymerized tetraglyme surface interactions with leukocytes and proteins: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mingchao; Martinson, Laura; Wagner, Matthew S; Castner, David G; Ratner, Buddy D; Horbett, Thomas A

    2002-01-01

    Polyethylene oxide (PEO) surfaces reduce non-specific protein and cell interactions with implanted biomaterials and may improve their biocompatibility. PEO-like polymerized tetraglyme surfaces were made by glow discharge plasma deposition onto fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) substrates and were shown to adsorb less than 10 ng/cm2 of fibrinogen in vitro. The ability of the polymerized tetraglyme surfaces to resist leukocyte adhesion was studied in vitro and in vivo. Polymerized tetraglyme and FEP were implanted subcutaneously in mice and removed after 1 day or 4 weeks. Histological analysis showed a similar degree of fibrous encapsulation around all of the 4-week implants. Darkly stained wells were present in the fibrous tissues at the tissue-material interface of both FEP and tetraglyme. Scanning electron micrographs showed that in vivo macrophage adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was much higher than to FEP. After 2-hour contact with heparinized whole blood, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was much higher than to FEP, while platelet adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was lower than to FEP. When PMNs isolated from blood were suspended in 10% autologous plasma, cell adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was higher than to FEP; however when the cells were suspended in heat inactivated serum, cell adhesion to FEP was higher than to polymerized tetraglyme. The surface chemistry of polymerized tetraglyme did not change after 2-hour blood contact, but displayed nitrogen functional groups after 1-day implantation and became slightly degraded after 4-week implantation. The surface chemistry of FEP did not change significantly after blood contact or implantation. Loosely bound proteins such as fibrinogen on polymerized tetraglyme may contribute to the adhesion of PMNs and macrophages and ultimately to fibrous encapsulation (the foreign body response) around the implants. PMID:12160299

  12. The association between leukocytes and sperm quality is concentration dependent

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate the association between leukocytes (polymorphonuclear granulocytes -PMNL) and semen parameters at different leukocyte concentrations. Methods This was a retrospective clinical study at a university hospital andrology clinic. Semen samples from infertile men were analyzed for sperm morphology and motility according to seminal leukocytes (PMNL) concentration (category A: >0 to <0.25 × 10(6)/mL; category B: >0.25 to <0.5 × 10(6)/mL; category C: >0.5 to <0.75 × 10(6)/mL; category D: >0.75 to <1.0 × 10(6)/mL, category E: >1 × 10(6)/mL). Results The percentage of sperm with normal morphology increased significantly from category A (14%) to category D (19%) but decreased in category E to levels (14%) similar to those in category A. Motility grades a and a+b (combined) also increased from category A (12%, 20%) to category D (18.0%, 28.5%) and decreased in category E (11%, 20.5%) to levels similar to those in category A. Sperm deformities and motility grades c and d increased progressively in all categories. Summary Leukocytes had a positive association with normal morphology and progressive motility in semen samples at a concentration of 0-1 × 10(6)/mL. The findings suggest that the association between leukocytes (PMNL) and semen quality might be concentration dependent. PMID:20137070

  13. DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils of dairy cows during the transition period

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, M.; Endoh, D.; Oikawa, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the apoptotic process in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) in dairy cattle during the transition period. Blood samples were collected from 4 dairy cattle at 3 weeks before the expected parturition (wk -3), parturition (wk 0) and 3 weeks after parturition (wk +3). The DNA damage of PBMC and PMN was evaluated based on the comet assay using visual scoring (arbitrary units). Undamaged DNA remained within the core (score 0) and the broken DNA migrated from the core towards the anode forming the tail of a comet (scores 1-4). Significantly higher scores in PBMC at wk 0 and wk +3 were observed compared with those in PMN although there were no significant changes of scores in either cell type during the experimental period. It is suggested that the apoptotic rate of PBMC is accelerated compared with that of PMC during the transition period.

  14. Diagnosis approach of chronic lymphocytic leukemia on unstained blood smears using Raman microspectroscopy and supervised classification.

    PubMed

    Happillon, Teddy; Untereiner, Valérie; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Gobinet, Cyril; Daliphard, Sylvie; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Quinquenel, Anne; Delmer, Alain; Troussard, Xavier; Klossa, Jacques; Manfait, Michel

    2015-07-01

    We have investigated the potential of Raman microspectroscopy combined with supervised classification algorithms to diagnose a blood lymphoproliferative disease, namely chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). This study was conducted directly on human blood smears (27 volunteers and 49 CLL patients) spread on standard glass slides according to a cytological protocol before the staining step. Visible excitation at 532 nm was chosen, instead of near infrared, in order to minimize the glass contribution in the Raman spectra. After Raman measurements, blood smears were stained using the May-Grünwald Giemsa procedure to correlate spectroscopic data classifications with cytological analysis. A first prediction model was built using support vector machines to discriminate between the two main leukocyte subpopulations (lymphocytes and polymorphonuclears) with sensitivity and specificity over 98.5%. The spectral differences between these two classes were associated to higher nucleic acid content in lymphocytes compared to polymorphonuclears. Then, we developed a classification model to discriminate between neoplastic and healthy lymphocyte spectra, with a mean sensitivity and specificity of 88% and 91% respectively. The main molecular differences between healthy and CLL cells were associated with DNA and protein changes. These spectroscopic markers could lead, in the future, to the development of a helpful medical tool for CLL diagnosis. PMID:26017101

  15. Replication and persistence of measles virus in defined subpopulations of human leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, B S; Lampert, P W; Oldstone, M B

    1975-01-01

    Replication of Edmonston strain measles virus was studied in several human lymphoblast lines, as well as in defined subpopulations of circulating human leukocytes. It was found that measles virus can productively infect T cells, B cells, and monocytes from human blood. These conclusions were derived from infectious center studies on segregated cell populations, as well as from ultrastructural analyses on cells labeled with specific markers. In contrast, mature polymorphonuclear cells failed to synthesize measles virus nucleocapsids even after infection at a relatively high multiplicity of infection. Measles virus replicated more efficiently in lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens than in unstimulated cells. However, both phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen had a negligible stimulatory effect on viral synthesis in purified populations of monocytes. In all instances the efficiency of measles virus replication by monocytes was appreciably less than that of mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes or of continuously culture lymphoblasts. Under standard conditions of infection, all of the surveyed lymphoblast lines produced equivalent amounts of measles virus regardless of the major histocompatibility (HL-A) haplotype. Hence, no evidence was found that the HL-A3,7 haplotype conferred either an advantage or disadvantage with respect to measles virus synthesis in an immunologically neutral environment. A persistent infection with measles virus could be established in both T and B lymphoblasts. The release of infectious virus from such persistently infected cells was stable over a period of several weeks and was approximately 100-fold less than peak viral titers obtained in each respective line after acute infection. Images PMID:1081602

  16. Feature selection and classification of leukocytes using random forest.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, Mukesh; Arya, K V

    2014-12-01

    In automatic segmentation of leukocytes from the complex morphological background of tissue section images, a vast number of artifacts/noise are also extracted causing large amount of multivariate data generation. This multivariate data degrades the performance of a classifier to discriminate between leukocytes and artifacts/noise. However, the selection of prominent features plays an important role in reducing the computational complexity and increasing the performance of the classifier as compared to a high-dimensional features space. Therefore, this paper introduces a novel Gini importance-based binary random forest feature selection method. Moreover, the random forest classifier is used to classify the extracted objects into artifacts, mononuclear cells, and polymorphonuclear cells. The experimental results establish that the proposed method effectively eliminates the irrelevant features, maintaining the high classification accuracy as compared to other feature reduction methods. PMID:25284218

  17. Microvascular mechanisms of histamine-induced potentiation of leukocyte adhesion evoked by chemoattractants.

    PubMed Central

    Thorlacius, H.; Raud, J.; Xie, X.; Hedqvist, P.; Lindbom, L.

    1995-01-01

    1. Intravital microscopy of the rat mesentery was used to examine interactions between histamine and the chemoattractant leukotriene B4 (LTB4) with regard to leukocyte adhesion in postcapillary venules. 2. Topical administration of histamine caused a four fold potentiation of LTB4-induced leukocyte adhesion. 3. Histamine significantly increased the rolling leukocyte flux by 25%, and this effect of histamine on rolling was strictly blood flow-dependent, i.e. we found significant positive correlations between both blood flow and total leukocyte flux and between total and rolling leukocyte flux, while no changes in leukocyte rolling fraction or rolling velocity were observed. Furthermore, histamine caused a clear-cut increase in venular plasma protein leakage. 4. The platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist WEB 2086, which effectively inhibited adhesion of leukocytes evoked by exogenous PAF, did not reduce the potentiating effect of histamine on LTB4-induced leukocyte adhesion. 5. The vasodilator acetylcholine (ACh) caused a moderate enhancement of LTB4 induced leukocyte adhesion in proportion to its blood flow-dependent 40% increase in rolling leukocyte flux. In contrast to histamine, ACh did not provoke vascular leakage of plasma proteins. 6. Taken together, our findings suggest that histamine plays an important pro-inflammatory role in tissues where leukocyte rolling is already present, by potentiating chemoattractant-induced firm leukocyte adhesion through a combination of microcirculatory changes such as increased rolling leukocyte flux and vascular permeability. PMID:8719793

  18. Beta Adrenergic Receptors of Polymorphonuclear Particulates in Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Galant, Stanley P.; Duriseti, Lakshmi; Underwood, Sharon; Allred, Sandra; Insel, Paul A.

    1980-01-01

    We have tested the beta adrenergic receptor theory of bronchial asthma by determining the number and affinity of binding sites of the beta adrenergic radioligand [3H]dihydroalprenolol (DHA) and the activity of adenylate cyclase in broken cell preparations of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). We studied 31 control subjects (group 1), 30 asthmatics receiving no systemic adrenergic medication (group 2), and 17 asthmatics receiving adrenergic agonists systemically (group 3). Control subjects and asthmatics taking no adrenergic drugs bound similar amounts of DHA at 0.5 nM and 30 nM DHA and had about 900 binding sites per PMN. In contrast, asthmatics receiving adrenergic agonists had a >70% decrease in their number of DHA binding sites per PMN (254±57). In a subset of our three groups of subjects (eight from group 1, six from group 2, and five from group 3) we measured DHA binding at several DHA concentrations and found similar values (0.4-0.7 nM) for the dissociation constant of DHA among these subjects. In further studies we examined the interaction of the agonist (?)-isoproterenol with beta adrenergic receptors in 8 normal subjects and 10 asthmatics not receiving adrenergic medication. We tested the ability of isoproterenol to compete for DHA binding sites and to stimulate adenylate cyclase in sonicates prepared from PMN and examined under identical conditions. The dissociation constants for the competition of isoproterenol for DHA binding sites in normal and asthmatic subjects were virtually identical (?1.0 ?M). In addition, the (activation constant) values for stimulation of adenylate cyclase were similar (0.16-0.19 ?M) in the two groups of subjects. Thus, these data suggest that asthma per se is not associated with alteration in either the number or affinity of beta adrenergic receptors in PMN. Our findings indicate that previous reports of abnormal beta adrenergic receptor function in asthmatic patients may in part be explained by prior treatment of such patients with adrenergic agonists. Because the asthmatics who received adrenergic agonists in our study tended to be more ill and to receive additional medication compared to subjects in group 2, we cannot rule out unequivocally that severe asthma may be associated with decreased binding to beta adrenergic receptors. Nevertheless, we conclude that beta adrenergic receptors on PMN from asthmatics are relatively normal unless such patients are treated with adrenergic agonists. PMID:6101600

  19. Coupled Flow-Structure-Biochemistry Simulations of Dynamic Systems of Blood Cells Using an Adaptive Surface Tracking Method

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, M.H.; Kunz, R.F.; Bistline, J.E.; Dong, C.

    2009-01-01

    A method for the computation of low Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of freedom motion control and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mechanics is presented. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by presenting several three-dimensional cell system simulations, including the collision/interaction between a cancer cell and an endothelium adherent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell in a shear flow. PMID:20160939

  20. Analysis of blood leukocytes in a naturally occurring immunodeficiency of pigs shows the defect is localized to B and T cells.

    PubMed

    Ewen, C L; Cino-Ozuna, A G; He, H; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K; Rowland, R R R; Wyatt, C R

    2014-12-15

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the result of a set of inherited genetic defects which render components of the immune response nonfunctional. In Arabian horses, Jack Russell terriers, and mice, the disorder is a consequence of the absence of T and B lymphocytes, while natural killer (NK) cell and other leukocyte populations remain intact. Preliminary analysis of a naturally acquired form of inherited SCID in a line of pigs showed several defects in the architecture and composition of secondary lymphoid organs. In this study, a quantitative assessment of lymphocyte populations in affected and normal littermates showed depleted T or B lymphocyte populations in affected pigs; however, NK cells and neutrophils were present in numbers comparable to unaffected littermates. The results indicate that the immune defect in pigs shares the same features as other SCID-affected species. PMID:25454085

  1. Defective polymorphonuclear leukocyte formyl peptide receptor(s) in juvenile periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Perez, H D; Kelly, E; Elfman, F; Armitage, G; Winkler, J

    1991-01-01

    Juvenile periodontitis (JP) is a disease characterized by severe gingival infections. PMN from some JP patients exhibit abnormal chemotactic responsiveness when challenged with the synthetic formyl peptide, FMLP. While investigating PMN function in JP, we found a patient in whom abnormal PMN chemotactic responses to FMLP were associated with a defective population of PMN formyl peptide receptor(s) (FPR). JP PMN failed to respond chemotactically when challenged with FMLP, but exhibited normal chemotactic responses upon exposure to purified human C5a. Furthermore, JP PMN were capable of degranulating and generating superoxide anion radicals as well as normal PMN upon exposure to FMLP. Binding studies demonstrated that JP PMN had a diminution in the number of high-affinity FPR. Studies in which FPR was radiolabeled by chemical cross-linking demonstrated that JP PMN FPR exhibited the same molecular weight and N-linked glycosylation as normal PMN FPR. JP PMN FPR, however, was more resistant to papain cleavage than normal PMN FPR. Autoradiograms obtained from 2D-PAGE of normal and JP PMN FPR demonstrated decreased amounts of FPR isoforms in JP PMN. Images PMID:1999504

  2. Electrophoretic detection of protein p53 in human leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Paponov, V.D.; Kupsik, E.G.; Shcheglova, E.G.; Yarullin, N.N.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have found an acid-soluble protein with mol. wt. of about 53 kD in peripheral blood leukocytes of persons with Down's syndrome. It was present in different quantities in all 20 patients tested, but was virtually not discovered in 12 healthy blood donors. This paper determines the possible identity of this protein with protein p53 from mouse ascites carcinoma by comparing their electrophoretic mobilities, because the accuracy of electrophoretic determination of the molecular weight of proteins is not sufficient to identify them. The paper also describes experiments to detect a protein with electrophoretic mobility identical with that of a protein in the leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome in leukocytes of patients with leukemia. To discover if protein p53 is involved in cell proliferation, the protein composition of leukocytes from healthy blood donors, cultured in the presence and absence of phytohemagglutinin (PHA), was compared. Increased incorporation of H 3-thymidine by leukocytes of patients with Down's syndrome is explained by the presence of a population of immature leukocytes actively synthesizing DNA in the peripheral blood of these patients, and this can also explain the presence of protein p53 in the leukocytes of these patients.

  3. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

  4. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  5. Acridine orange leukocyte fluorography in mice.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, Judd M; Olson, Paul R; Nielson, Spencer; Miya, Tadashi R; Bankhead, Peter; McGeown, J Graham; Curtis, Timothy M; Ambati, Balamurali K

    2014-03-01

    Simultaneous non-invasive visualization of blood vessels and nerves in patients can be obtained in the eye. The retinal vasculature is a target of many retinopathies. Inflammation, readily manifest by leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial lining, is a key pathophysiological mechanism of many retinopathies, making it a valuable and ubiquitous target for disease research. Leukocyte fluorography has been extensively used in the past twenty years; however, fluorescent markers, visualization techniques, and recording methods have differed between studies. The lack of detailed protocol papers regarding leukocyte fluorography, coupled with lack of uniformity between studies, has led to a paucity of standards for leukocyte transit (velocity, adherence, extravasation) in the retina. Here, we give a detailed description of a convenient method using acridine orange (AO) and a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO, HRA-OCT Spectralis) to view leukocyte behavior in the mouse retina. Normal mice are compared to mice with acute and chronic inflammation. This method can be readily adopted in many research labs. PMID:24333760

  6. THE BOVINE NEUTROPHIL: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION IN BLOOD AND MILK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) form the first line of cellular defense against invading pathogens. The PMN is characterized by a polymorphic segmented nucleus, numerous cytoplasmic granules that provide constituents for killing bacteria, large stores of glycogen for energy and a high...

  7. Regulated expression of Mg2+ binding epitope on leukocyte integrin alpha subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Dransfield, I; Hogg, N

    1989-01-01

    The leukocyte integrins LFA-1, CR3 and p150,95 are a family of heterodimeric receptors that mediate divalent cation-dependent cellular adhesion reactions. In this study we describe a novel antibody-defined epitope present on the leukocyte integrin alpha subunits indicating that the antibody recognizes a structural feature common to all three polypeptides. Antibody recognition further differs from that of previously described anti-leukocyte integrin antibodies in that it is strictly dependent upon the presence of Mg2+. This suggests that the epitope is located within, or in close proximity to, the three conserved cation binding domains and is therefore a measure of Mg2+ bound to the leukocyte integrins and thus reflects functionally active molecules. The epitope can be induced on polymorphonuclear leukocytes, a subset of T cells and on monocytes but is absent or much reduced at low temperature or in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. These observations have considerable implications for the regulation of leukocyte integrin function suggesting that Mg2+ binding to the extracellular domain(s) of the alpha subunits is controlled from within the cell. We suggest that one mechanism by which ligand binding by these molecules can be 'switched' on and off in response to external signals is by regulation of Mg2+ binding to these molecules, converting from the cation-free, 'inactive' to the Mg2+-bound, 'active' form. Images PMID:2479549

  8. Leukocyte recruitment in the mouse fetus in vivo 1 Supplemental Materials

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    Leukocyte recruitment in the mouse fetus in vivo 1 Supplemental Materials Supplemental Methods.2-1-54-2531-69-07. #12;Leukocyte recruitment in the mouse fetus in vivo 2 Intravital microscopy A preliminary. After decapitation of fetuses, fetal blood was collected in Petri- dishes. Red blood cells were lyzed

  9. The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P; Lo, Hui-Chen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

  10. Five steps in leukocyte extravasation in the microcirculation by chemoattractants

    PubMed Central

    Oda, T.; Hatanaka, K.; Yamashina, S.

    1992-01-01

    For in vivo study of the phenomena observed in vitro, PMN (polymorphonuclear leukocyte) extravasation was analysed quantitatively in the microcirculation of the hamster cheek pouch using a video system. Topical application of leukotriene B4 or N-formyl-methionylleucyl- phenylalanine increased dose dependently the number of PMNs adhering to the venules. Eighty to 90% of the adhering PMNs disappeared from the vascular lumen into the venular wall within 10-12 rain after the adhesion. After PMNs had passed through the endothelial cell layer, they remained in the venular wall for more than 30 min after application of the chemoattractants and appeared in the extravascular space. Thus, the process could be divided into five steps: (1) rolling and (2) adhesion to the endothelium, (3) passage through the endothelial layer (4) remaining in the venular wall, and (5) passage through the basement membrane. PMID:18475492

  11. Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels

    PubMed Central

    Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David

    2013-01-01

    In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

  12. Labeling autologous leukocytes with indium-111 oxine

    SciTech Connect

    Beightol, R.W.; Baker, W.J.

    1980-06-01

    A method is described for labeling autologous leukocytes with indium-111 oxine, which is used for localizing inflammatory processes. To an aqueous solution of indium-111 chloride was added sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and then a freshly prepared solution of oxine (8-hydroxyquinoline) in ethanol. After 3-5 minutes of incubation at room temperature, the chelated indium-111 oxine was extracted with chloroform, evaporated to dryness, redissolved in ethanol, and diluted with 0.9% saline. Leukocytes were isolated from venous blood by centrifugation at 300-350 g and resuspended in 0.9% saline. The cells were labeled by adding the indium-111 oxine solution to the leukocyte suspension. Clinical results have shown indium-111-labeled leukocytes to be highly specific for abscess localization. Indium-111 is useful for imaging because its gamma emissions are suitable for external detection and its half-life of 67 hours allows studies to be performed over several days without presenting an excessive radiation dose to the patient.

  13. Leukocyte labeling with technetium-99m tin colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, B.H.; English, D.

    1987-09-01

    Triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma (MP) were used to characterize label distribution in human leukocyte preparations incubated with /sup 99m/Tc tin colloids. Less than 50% of the cell-associated radioactivity was specifically bound to leukocytes when heparinized blood was rotated with stannous fluoride colloid ((Tc)SFC). Labeling efficiency in leukocyte rich plasma (LRP) averaged 44%, of which greater than 90% was specifically bound to leukocytes. MP-gradient analysis also revealed that leukocyte labeling did not occur with stannous chloride colloid, nor when citrate was present during rotation with (Tc)SFC. When citrate was added after labeling to solubilize unbound (Tc)SFC, radiocolloid was removed from the leukocytes, indicating that the mechanism of (Tc)SFC labeling is adherence rather than phagocytosis. Technetium-labeled neutrophils exhibited normal in vitro chemotaxis and no lung uptake in vivo. Technetium-labeled mononuclear leukocytes, on the other hand, exhibited prolonged lung transit in vivo. Neither (Tc)SFC cell preparation showed signs of in vivo reoxidation to pertechnetate.

  14. Human uterine leukocytes and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Trundley, A; Moffett, A

    2004-01-01

    In human pregnancy, the embryo implants into the specialized mucosal wall of the uterus (decidua) and the placenta starts to form. Cells from the placenta (trophoblasts) invade into the uterine mucosa in order to open up maternal uterine arteries to ensure an adequate supply of blood to the developing fetus. The trophoblasts have a unique immunological phenotype compared to most cells especially with regard to their expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens. On the other side of the interaction, the uterine mucosa (endometrium) differentiates in preparation for implantation. One of the changes that takes place is the appearance in the endometrium of a large number of maternal leukocytes in the final part of the menstrual cycle. If pregnancy ensues, these leukocytes continue to increase in number and are found in close contact with trophoblasts. The composition of this population of maternal immune cells is unusual compared to that seen at other mucosal sites. A lot of research has focused on whether maternal T-cell responses are suppressed or modified during pregnancy. Research has also concentrated on the specialized uterine natural killer (NK) cells, which are found in the decidua in large numbers during early pregnancy. These uterine NK cells have been shown to express receptors for trophoblast MHC antigens, but their role in pregnancy is still mysterious. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of what is known about the immunology at the implantation site and also to provide an update of some of the most recent findings in this field. PMID:14651517

  15. Individual radiosensitivity and its daily variations. [leukocyte reaction to epinephrine load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druzhinin, Y. N.; Grigoryev, Y. G.; Podluzhnaya, G. N.; Pospishil, M.

    1974-01-01

    The effectiveness of determining individual radiosensitivity of rats by total gas exchange measurements, studies of Na/K content in urine, and the reaction of leukocytes to intra-abdominal administration of epinephrine, was studied. The most indicative results of predicting individual reaction to radiation were obtained by the leukocyte reaction to epinephrine load; however, changes in the leukocyte content of peripheral blood after epinephrine administration depended on the initial level during the day.

  16. Getting Leukocytes to the Site of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Muller, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    There is no “response” in either the innate or adaptive immune response unless leukocytes cross blood vessels. They do this through the process of diapedesis, in which the leukocyte moves in ameboid fashion through tightly apposed endothelial borders (paracellular transmigration) and in some cases through the endothelial cell itself (transcellular migration). This review summarizes the steps leading up to diapedesis, then focuses on the molecules and mechanisms responsible for transendothelial migration. Surprisingly, many of the same molecules and mechanisms that regulate paracellular migration also control transcellular migration, including a major role for membrane from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment. A hypothesis that integrates the various known mechanisms of transmigration is proposed. PMID:23345459

  17. Hydrogen peroxide signals E. coli phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear cells; up-stream and down-stream pathway.

    PubMed

    Petropoulos, Michalis; Karamolegkou, Georgia; Rosmaraki, Eleftheria; Tsakas, Sotiris

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (?2?2) is produced during a variety of cellular procedures. In this paper, the regulatory role of ?2?2, in Escherichia coli phagocytosis by the human polymorphonuclears, was investigated. White blood cells were incubated with dihydrorhodamine (DHR) in order to study H2O2 synthesis and E. coli-FITC to study phagocytosis. Flow cytometry revealed increased synthesis of H2O2 in polymorphonuclears which incorporated E. coli-FITC. The blocking of H2O2 synthesis by specific inhibitors, N-ethylmaleimide (???) for NADPH oxidase and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) for superoxide dismutase (SOD), decreased E. coli phagocytosis, as well. Immunoblot analysis of white blood cell protein extracts revealed that the blocking of NADPH oxidase and SOD decreased ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, while it had no effect on JNK and p38. Confocal microscopy showed that phosphorylation of MAPKs and phagocytosis solely occur in the polymorphonuclear and not in mononuclear cells. The use of specific MAPKs inhibitors showed that all of them are necessary for phagocytosis, but only phospho-p38 affects H2O2 synthesis. The blocking of JNK phosphorylation, in the presence of E. coli, evoked a further decrease of cytoplasmic p47 thus increasing its translocation onto the plasma membrane for the assembly of NADPH oxidase. It appears that newly synthesised H2O2 invigorates the phosphorylation and action of ERK-1/2 in E. coli phagocytosis, while phospho-JNK and phospho-p38 appear to regulate H2O2 production. PMID:26204503

  18. Leukocytic functions in burn-injured patients.

    PubMed

    Braquet, M; Lavaud, P; Dormont, D; Garay, R; Ducousso, R; Guilbaud, J; Chignard, M; Borgeat, P; Braquet, P

    1985-05-01

    Anergy associated with an increase in suppressor helper T cell (Tc) ratio and a decrease in natural killer (NK) is one main cause of death following thermal injury (Tl). Recently, in vitro studies have shown that LTB4 can induce human Tc to exert suppressor cell activity, and incubation of lymphocytes with LTB4 for 24 hours significantly suppressed NK cell activity. Thus, we undertook an investigation of both AA metabolism and immunologic response in 20 patients who suffered 40-90% total body surface area (TBSA) burns. Cyclooxygenase (CO:RIA) and lipoxygenase (LO;HPLC det.) metabolites and superoxide (O2 X-) production were measured in stimulated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNL) (A 23187 +/- AA for icosanoid release; phorbol myristate acetate for O2 X-production). Lyso-paf-acether (P-LPA) was measured in plasma samples. Ca2+-dependent K+permeability in PMNL was measured by the cell K+ release induced by A 23187. Tc and Tc subsets were determined using monoclonal antibodies (OKT3+, OKT4+ and OKT8+). A biphasic sequential release of the different substances (leukocytic icosanoids and O2 X-) was monitored: increase (approximately 36-48 h after Tl) and decrease (greater than or equal to 72 h after Tl). The increase in AA stimulation was more transient than that of O2 X -. The decline in the release of AA metabolites and O2 X-production was associated with the anergic phase (decrease OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio) and with the clinical outcome of the patients. The decrease in LTB4 and other LO metabolites could explain the impairment of neutrophil chemotaxis. Ca2+-dependent K+ permeability increased early up to 2 or 3 times normal. In order to go further with the mechanism of inhibition of LTB4 and O X-release, the effect of Tl plasma was assayed on normal leukocytes: a 10 min incubation with such plasma was sufficient to abolish LTB4 secretion. A less important inhibition was observed with O2 X-release (-32%) and Ca2+-dependent K+ permeability (-30%). Plasma inhibition seems to be due to a thermolabile factor(s) [protein(s): "suppressive factor(s) of membrane activation "SFMA] which is (are) under active investigation using gel-filtration chromatography and fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Among the SFMAs, certain acute phase proteins could play a key role: i.e., incubation (10 min) of normal PMNL with ceruloplasmin (1 mg/ml) abolished LO products and O X 2-release. PMID:2989978

  19. Local Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress Increases in the Microcirculation during Leukocytes-Endothelial Cell Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Saptarshi; Kavdia, Mahendra

    2012-01-01

    Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and leukocyte activation are important factors for vascular diseases including nephropathy, retinopathy and angiopathy. In addition, endothelial cell dysfunction is reported in vascular disease condition. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by increased superoxide (O2•?) production from endothelium and reduction in NO bioavailability. Experimental studies have suggested a possible role for leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in the vessel NO and peroxynitrite levels and their role in vascular disorders in the arterial side of microcirculation. However, anti-adhesion therapies for preventing leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction related vascular disorders showed limited success. The endothelial dysfunction related changes in vessel NO and peroxynitrite levels, leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction and leukocyte activation are not completely understood in vascular disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of endothelial dysfunction extent, leukocyte-endothelial interaction, leukocyte activation and superoxide dismutase therapy on the transport and interactions of NO, O2•? and peroxynitrite in the microcirculation. We developed a biotransport model of NO, O2•? and peroxynitrite in the arteriolar microcirculation and incorporated leukocytes-endothelial cell interactions. The concentration profiles of NO, O2•? and peroxynitrite within blood vessel and leukocytes are presented at multiple levels of endothelial oxidative stress with leukocyte activation and increased superoxide dismutase accounted for in certain cases. The results showed that the maximum concentrations of NO decreased ?0.6 fold, O2•? increased ?27 fold and peroxynitrite increased ?30 fold in the endothelial and smooth muscle region in severe oxidative stress condition as compared to that of normal physiologic conditions. The results show that the onset of endothelial oxidative stress can cause an increase in O2•? and peroxynitrite concentration in the lumen. The increased O2•? and peroxynitrite can cause leukocytes priming through peroxynitrite and leukocytes activation through secondary stimuli of O2•? in bloodstream without endothelial interaction. This finding supports that leukocyte rolling/adhesion and activation are independent events. PMID:22719984

  20. Leukocyte filtration in lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kurusz, Mark; Roach, John D; Vertrees, Roger A; Girouard, Mark K; Lick, Scott D

    2002-05-01

    Controlled reperfusion of the transplanted lung has been used in nine consecutive patients to decrease manifestations of lung reperfusion injury. An extracorporeal circuit containing a roller pump, heat exchanger and leukodepleting filter is primed with substrate-enhanced reperfusion solution mixed with approximately 2000 ml of the patient's blood. This solution is slowly recirculated to remove leukocytes prior to reperfusion. When the pulmonary anastomoses are completed, the pulmonary artery is cannulated through the untied anastomosis using a catheter containing a pressure lumen for measurement of infusion pressure. An atrial clamp is left in place on the patient's native atrial cuff to decrease the risk of systemic air embolism during the brief period of reperfusion from the extracorporeal reservoir. During reperfusion, the water bath to the heat exchanger is kept at 35 degrees C and the flow rate for reperfusion solution is between 150 and 200 m/min, keeping the pulmonary artery pressure <14 mmHg. Eight of nine patients were ventilated on 40% inspired oxygen within a few hours of operation and 7/9 were extubated on or before postoperative day 1. Six of nine patients are long-term survivors. PMID:12009087

  1. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    SciTech Connect

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  2. Endothelial-Leukocyte Interaction in Severe Malaria: Beyond the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Mariana C.; Padua, Tatiana A.; Henriques, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is the most important parasitic disease worldwide, accounting for 1 million deaths each year. Severe malaria is a systemic illness characterized by dysfunction of brain tissue and of one or more peripheral organs as lungs and kidney. The most severe and most studied form of malaria is associated with cerebral complications due to capillary congestion and the adhesion of infected erythrocytes, platelets, and leukocytes to brain vasculature. Thus, leukocyte rolling and adhesion in the brain vascular bed during severe malaria is singular and distinct from other models of inflammation. The leukocyte/endothelium interaction and neutrophil accumulation are also observed in the lungs. However, lung interactions differ from brain interactions, likely due to differences in the blood-brain barrier and blood-air barrier tight junction composition of the brain and lung endothelium. Here, we review the importance of endothelial dysfunction and the mechanism of leukocyte/endothelium interaction during severe malaria. Furthermore, we hypothesize a possible use of adjunctive therapies to antimalarial drugs that target the interaction between the leukocytes and the endothelium. PMID:26491221

  3. Leukocyte Populations in Human Preterm and Term Breast Milk Identified by Multicolour Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Trend, Stephanie; de Jong, Emma; Lloyd, Megan L.; Kok, Chooi Heen; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A.; Simmer, Karen; Kakulas, Foteini; Strunk, Tobias; Currie, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background Extremely preterm infants are highly susceptible to bacterial infections but breast milk provides some protection. It is unknown if leukocyte numbers and subsets in milk differ between term and preterm breast milk. This study serially characterised leukocyte populations in breast milk of mothers of preterm and term infants using multicolour flow cytometry methods for extended differential leukocyte counts in blood. Methods Sixty mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestational age), very preterm (28–31 wk), and moderately preterm (32–36 wk), as well as term (37–41 wk) infants were recruited. Colostrum (d2–5), transitional (d8–12) and mature milk (d26–30) samples were collected, cells isolated, and leukocyte subsets analysed using flow cytometry. Results The major CD45+ leukocyte populations circulating in blood were also detectable in breast milk but at different frequencies. Progression of lactation was associated with decreasing CD45+ leukocyte concentration, as well as increases in the relative frequencies of neutrophils and immature granulocytes, and decreases in the relative frequencies of eosinophils, myeloid and B cell precursors, and CD16- monocytes. No differences were observed between preterm and term breast milk in leukocyte concentration, though minor differences between preterm groups in some leukocyte frequencies were observed. Conclusions Flow cytometry is a useful tool to identify and quantify leukocyte subsets in breast milk. The stage of lactation is associated with major changes in milk leukocyte composition in this population. Fresh preterm breast milk is not deficient in leukocytes, but shorter gestation may be associated with minor differences in leukocyte subset frequencies in preterm compared to term breast milk. PMID:26288195

  4. Tc-99m labeled leukocytes: preparation and use in identification of abscess and tissue rejection

    SciTech Connect

    Farid, N.A.; White, S.M.; Heck, L.L.; Van Hove, E.D.

    1983-09-01

    A simple and reproducible method for the preparation and labeling of leukocytes with Tc-99m has been developed. Leukocytes were separated from blood, incubated with stannous pyrophosphate, and then with 20-30 mCi (740-1110 MBq) of /sup 99m/TcO-4. In leukocytes separated from human blood, the labeling efficiency was 81% +/- 6% (n . 4). Experiments on dogs with abscesses showed accumulation of the Tc-99m-labeled leukocytes in the infected sites, indicating the viability of the labeled leukocytes. Additional studies showed that rat lymphocytes that were labeled with Tc-99m, using the same technique, localized in heart transplant tissue that was being rejected.

  5. Flow resistance and drag forces due to multiple adherent leukocytes in postcapillary vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, G B; Cokelet, G R

    1998-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics was used to model flow past multiple adherent leukocytes in postcapillary size vessels. A finite-element package was used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for low Reynolds number flow of a Newtonian fluid past spheres adhering to the wall of a cylindrical vessel. We determined the effects of sphere number, relative geometry, and spacing on the flow resistance in the vessel and the fluid flow drag force acting to sweep the sphere off the vessel wall. The computations show that when adherent leukocytes are aligned on the same side of the vessel, the drag force on each of the interacting leukocytes is less than the drag force on an isolated adherent leukocyte and can decrease by up to 50%. The magnitude of the reduction depends on the ratio of leukocyte to blood vessel diameter and distance between adherent leukocytes. However, there is an increase in the drag force when leukocytes adhere to opposite sides of the vessel wall. The increase in resistance generated by adherent leukocytes in vessels of various sizes is calculated from the computational results. The resistance increases with decreasing vessel size and is most pronounced when leukocytes adhere to opposite sides of the vessel. PMID:9635783

  6. Intravascular staining for discrimination of vascular and tissue leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kristin G; Mayer-Barber, Katrin; Sung, Heungsup; Beura, Lalit; James, Britnie R; Taylor, Justin J; Qunaj, Lindor; Griffith, Thomas S; Vezys, Vaiva; Barber, Daniel L; Masopust, David

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of the cellular participants in tissue immune responses is crucial to understanding infection, cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, graft rejection and other immunological processes. Previous reports indicate that leukocytes in lung vasculature fail to be completely removed by perfusion. Several studies suggest that intravascular staining may discriminate between tissue-localized and blood-borne cells in the mouse lung. Here we outline a protocol for the validation and use of intravascular staining to define innate and adaptive immune cells in mice. We demonstrate application of this protocol to leukocyte analyses in many tissues and we describe its use in the contexts of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections or solid tumors. Intravascular staining and organ isolation usually takes 5-30 min per mouse, with additional time required for any subsequent leukocyte isolation, staining and analysis. In summary, this simple protocol should help enable interpretable analyses of tissue immune responses. PMID:24385150

  7. Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2013-02-01

    Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

  8. Altered Mitochondrial Function and Oxidative Stress in Leukocytes of Anorexia Nervosa Patients

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Victor M.; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Saiz-Alarcon, Vanessa; Sangüesa, Maria C.; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Bañuls, Celia; Falcón, Rosa; Castelló, Raquel; Rojo, Luis; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Context Anorexia nervosa is a common illness among adolescents and is characterised by oxidative stress. Objective The effects of anorexia on mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes from anorexic subjects were evaluated. Design and setting A multi-centre, cross-sectional case-control study was performed. Patients Our study population consisted of 20 anorexic patients and 20 age-matched controls, all of which were Caucasian women. Main outcome measures Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in the study population. To assess whether anorexia nervosa affects mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes of anorexic patients, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione levels, mitochondrial mass, and complex I and III activity in polymorphonuclear cells. Results Mitochondrial function was impaired in the leukocytes of the anorexic patients. This was evident in a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption (P<0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01) and GSH levels (P<0.05), and an increase in ROS production (P<0.05) with respect to control subjects. Furthermore, a reduction of mitochondrial mass was detected in leukocytes of the anorexic patients (P<0.05), while the activity of mitochondrial complex I (P<0.001), but not that of complex III, was found to be inhibited in the same population. Conclusions Oxidative stress is produced in the leukocytes of anorexic patients and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results lead us to propose that the oxidative stress that occurs in anorexia takes place at mitochondrial complex I. Future research concerning mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress should aim to determine the physiological mechanism involved in this effect and the physiological impact of anorexia. PMID:25254642

  9. Primary role for adherent leukocytes in sickle cell vascular occlusion: A new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Turhan, Aslihan; Weiss, Linnea A.; Mohandas, Narla; Coller, Barry S.; Frenette, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    Vascular occlusion is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease but its mechanisms are poorly understood. We demonstrate by using intravital microscopy in mice expressing human sickle hemoglobin (SS) that SS red blood cells (RBCs) bind to adherent leukocytes in inflamed venules, producing vasoocclusion of cremasteric venules. SS mice deficient in P- and E-selectins, which display defective leukocyte recruitment to the vessel wall, are protected from vasoocclusion. These data uncover a previously unsuspected paradigm for the pathogenesis of sickle cell vasoocclusion in which adherent leukocytes play a direct role and suggest that drugs targeting SS RBC–leukocyte or leukocyte–endothelial interactions may prevent or treat the vascular complications of this debilitating disease. PMID:11880644

  10. Dietary Fiber Intake is Associated with Increased Colonic Mucosal GPR43+ Polymorphonuclear Infiltration in Active Crohn’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingli; Zhu, Weiming; Gong, Jianfeng; Zuo, Lugen; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Jing; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 43/free fatty acid receptor 2 (GPR43/FFAR2) is essential for polymorphonuclear (PMN) recruitment. We investigated the expression of GPR43/FFAR2 in the colon from Crohn’s disease patients and whether dietary fiber in enteral nutrition increases GPR43+ polymorphonuclear infiltration in mucosa. Segments of ascending colon and white blood cells from peripheral blood were obtained from 46 Crohn’s disease patients and 10 colon cancer patients. The Crohn’s disease patients were grouped by the activity of disease (active or remission) and enteral nutrition with or without dietary fiber. Histological feature, expression and location of GPR43/FFAR2 and level of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukine-6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase were assessed. The results of hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry staining revealed that the infiltration of immune cells, including GPR43+ PMN, was more severe in active Crohn’s disease patients who consumed normal food or enteral nutrition with dietary fiber than in remission patients and colon cancer patients. This finding was supported by the results of GPR43 and myeloperoxidase expression. Active Crohn’s disease (CD) patients who consumed enteral nutrition without dietary fiber exhibited severe immune cell infiltration similar to the other active CD patients, but GPR43+ PMNs were rarely observed. The level of TNF-? mRNA in active Crohn’s disease patients was higher than those of the other patients. In conclusion, the use of dietary fiber in enteral nutrition by active Crohn’s disease patients might increase GPR43+ PMNs infiltration in colon mucosa. This effect was not observed in Crohn’s disease patients in remission. PMID:26140540

  11. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  12. Effect of ovariohysterectomy on canine postsurgical leukocyte function.

    PubMed

    Mojzisová, Jana; Hromada, R; Valocký, I; Paulík, S; Hipíková, Vlasta; Bajová, Viera; Posiváková, Serena; Bugarský, A

    2003-01-01

    The effect of surgery on phagocytic activity of blood leukocytes and mitogen-induced blastogenesis of lymphocytes was studied in fourteen dogs. Simple ovariohysterectomy with anaesthesia induced by ketamine and xylazine or by ketamine, xylazine and halothane caused a short nonsignificant depression of phagocytic activity that persisted for four hours after surgery. Ingestion capacity of leukocytes decreased significantly immediately after surgery. Mitogen-induced blastogenesis of lymphocytes was depressed significantly in the first 48 hours and despite partial recovery this parameter did not reach the value of the control groups until the end of observation (7 days). A more conspicuous decrease of blastogenic response of blood lymphocytes to mitogens was found after the use of ketamine and xylazine in a dose maintaining anaesthesia. Anaesthesia with ketamine and xylazine in the lower dose and maintained with halothane resulted in a later improvement of the blastogenic response of lymphocytes. PMID:12737049

  13. Role of platelet-activating factor in aggregation of leukocytes and platelets in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, S; Yamazaki, M; Maruyama, S

    1991-12-01

    Leukocyte and platelet aggregation stimulated with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) was measured in 32 patients with cerebral ischemia and in 15 controls, using a whole blood aggregometer. The increases in impedance and the reductions in leukocyte and platelet counts were significantly greater in stroke patients than in controls. Aggregation was inhibited by oral ticlopidine, but not by oral aspirin. The effects were clearly counteracted by platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonists, and counteracted in part by a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. The results suggest that platelets tend to be activated by PAF and leukotrienes liberated from hyperaggregable leukocytes in patients with ischemic stroke. PMID:1819711

  14. Fluorescently Activated Cell Sorting Followed by Microarray Profiling of Helper T Cell Subtypes from Human Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ishii, Naoto; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral blood samples have been subjected to comprehensive gene expression profiling to identify biomarkers for a wide range of diseases. However, blood samples include red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. White blood cells comprise polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, and various types of lymphocytes. Blood is not distinguishable, irrespective of whether the expression profiles reflect alterations in (a) gene expression patterns in each cell type or (b) the proportion of cell types in blood. CD4+ Th cells are classified into two functionally distinct subclasses, namely Th1 and Th2 cells, on the basis of the unique characteristics of their secreted cytokines and their roles in the immune system. Th1 and Th2 cells play an important role not only in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases, but also in diseases that are not considered to be immune or inflammatory disorders. However, analyses of minor cellular components such as CD4+ cell subpopulations have not been performed, partly because of the limited number of these cells in collected samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe fluorescently activated cell sorting followed by microarray (FACS–array) technology as a useful experimental strategy for characterizing the expression profiles of specific immune cells in the circulation. We performed reproducible gene expression profiling of Th1 and Th2, respectively. Our data suggest that this procedure provides reliable information on the gene expression profiles of certain small immune cell populations. Moreover, our data suggest that GZMK, GZMH, EOMES, IGFBP3, and STOM may be novel markers for distinguishing Th1 cells from Th2 cells, whereas IL17RB and CNTNAP1 can be Th2-specific markers. Conclusions/Significance Our approach may help in identifying aberrations and novel therapeutic or diagnostic targets for diseases that affect Th1 or Th2 responses and elucidating the involvement of a subpopulation of immune cells in some diseases. PMID:25379667

  15. Heparin Is an Adhesive Ligand for the Leukocyte Integrin Mac-1 (CDllb/CD18)

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    Heparin Is an Adhesive Ligand for the Leukocyte Integrin Mac-1 (CDllb/CD18) Michael S. Diamond,* Ronen Alon,* Charles A. Parkos,* Mark T. Quinn,~and Timothy A. Springer* *Center for Blood Research correspondence to Timothy A. Springer, Center for Blood Research, 200 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115. Tel

  16. Nano-to Microscale Dynamics of P-Selectin Detachment from Leukocyte Interfaces. I. Membrane Separation from the Cytoskeleton

    E-print Network

    Heinrich, Volkmar

    response by inter- rupting the rapid transport of leukocytes in blood flow. The brief lifetimes of flow (Schmidtke and Diamond, 2000; Park et al., 2002; Ramachandran et al., 2004). Less well understood

  17. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Efficiently Escapes Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils during Early Infection

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, Linda; Fahlgren, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The human-pathogenic species of the Gram-negative genus Yersinia preferentially target and inactivate cells of the innate immune defense, suggesting that this is a critical step by which these bacteria avoid elimination and cause disease. In this study, bacterial interactions with dendritic cells, macrophages, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in intestinal lymphoid tissues during early Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection were analyzed. Wild-type bacteria were shown to interact mainly with dendritic cells, but not with PMNs, on day 1 postinfection, while avirulent yopH and yopE mutants interacted with PMNs as well as with dendritic cells. To unravel the role of PMNs during the early phase of infection, we depleted mice of PMNs by using an anti-Ly6G antibody, after which we could see more-efficient initial colonization by the wild-type strain as well as by yopH, yopE, and yopK mutants on day 1 postinfection. Dissemination of yopH, yopE, and yopK mutants from the intestinal compartments to mesenteric lymph nodes was faster in PMN-depleted mice than in undepleted mice, emphasizing the importance of effective targeting of PMNs by these Yersinia outer proteins (Yops). In conclusion, escape from interaction with PMNs due to the action of YopH, YopE, and YopK is a key feature of pathogenic Yersinia species that allows colonization and effective dissemination. PMID:24379291

  18. Effect of allogeneic polymorphonuclear neutrophils on staphylococcal sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Belotsky, S; Diamantstein, L; Rubinstein, E

    1995-01-01

    The antibacterial and host-damaging properties of locally injected allogeneic polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) were studied in vivo. Peritoneal PMN were obtained from donor mice 24 h after i.m. infection with sublethal (SD) and lethal (LD) dose of Staphylococcus aureus. These donor PMN were mixed with S. aureus and injected i.m. into normal recipient mice. Normal donor PMN and PMN obtained from SL-infected donor mice did not induce the mortality of SL-infected recipient mice but protected LD-infected recipients (5.8% mortality vs. 29.4%). PMN obtained from LD-infected donor mice caused ca. 77% mortality in SD-infected recipients. In survivors, during the first 3 h infection, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF) concentrations were higher than those in nonsurvivors and then decreased. In contrast, TNF level in nonsurvivors continued to be increased until death. PMN from LD-infected donors had the highest spontaneous chemiluminescence response (CL), the shortest time of peak and the lowest level of intracellular CL against S. aureus. These donor PMN exhibited increased phagocytosis and decreased killing of S. aureus than that of PMN of SD-infected donor mice. Early stimulation of PMN functions such as bacterial internalization and respiratory burst may result in decrease of their tissue-damaging properties. PMID:7781657

  19. The effect of citrus-derived oil on bovine blood neutrophil function and gene expression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Biswas, D; Moyes, K M

    2015-02-01

    Research on the use of natural products to treat or prevent microbial invasion as alternatives to antibiotic use is growing. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) play a vital role with regard to the innate immune response that affects severity or duration of mastitis. To our knowledge, effect of cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (TCO) on bovine PMNL function has not been elucidated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of TCO on bovine blood PMNL chemotaxis and phagocytosis capabilities and the expression of genes involved in inflammatory response in vitro. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from jugular blood of 12 Holstein cows in mid-lactation and were incubated with 0.0 or 0.01% TCO for 120min at 37°C and 5% CO2, and phagocytosis (2×10(6) PMNL) and chemotaxis (6×10(6) PMNL) assays were then performed in vitro. For gene expression, RNA was extracted from incubated PMNL (6×10(6) PMNL), and gene expression was analyzed using quantitative PCR. The supernatant was stored at -80°C for analysis of tumor necrosis factor-?. Data were analyzed using a general linear mixed model with cow and treatment (i.e., control or TCO) in the model statement. In vitro supplementation of 0.01% of TCO increased the chemotactic ability to IL-8 by 47%; however, migration of PMNL to complement 5a was not altered. Treatment did not affect the production of tumor necrosis factor-? by PMNL. Expression of proinflammatory genes (i.e., SELL, TLR4, IRAK1, TRAF6, and LYZ) coding for proteins was not altered by incubation of PMNL with TCO. However, downregulation of TLR2 [fold change (FC=treatment/control)=-2.14], NFKBIA (FC=1.82), IL1B (FC=-2.16), TNFA (FC=-9.43), and SOD2 (FC=-1.57) was observed for PMNL incubated with TCO when compared with controls. Interestingly, expression of IL10, a well-known antiinflammatory cytokine, was also downregulated (FC=-3.78), whereas expression of IL8 (FC=1.93), a gene coding for the cytokine IL-8 known for its chemotactic function, tended to be upregulated in PMNL incubated with TCO. Incubation of PMNL with TCO enhanced PMNL chemotaxis in vitro. The expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response was primarily downregulated. Results showed that 0.01% TCO did not impair the function of PMNL in vitro. Future studies investigating the use of TCO as an alternative therapy for treatment of mastitis, including dose and duration, for cows during lactation are warranted. PMID:25434342

  20. The role of platelets in the recruitment of leukocytes during vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Ed Rainger, G.; Chimen, Myriam; Harrison, Matthew J.; Yates, Clara M.; Harrison, Paul; Watson, Stephen P.; Lordkipanidzé, Marie; Nash, Gerard B.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Besides their role in the formation of thrombus during haemostasis, it is becoming clear that platelets contribute to a number of other processes within the vasculature. Indeed, the integrated function of the thrombotic and inflammatory systems, which results in platelet-mediated recruitment of leukocytes, is now considered to be of great importance in the propagation, progression and pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease of the arteries. There are three scenarios by which platelets can interact with leukocytes: (1) during haemostasis, when platelets adhere to and are activated on sub-endothelial matrix proteins exposed by vascular damage and then recruit leukocytes to a growing thrombus. (2) Platelets adhere to and are activated on stimulated endothelial cells and then bridge blood borne leukocytes to the vessel wall and. (3) Adhesion between platelets and leukocytes occurs in the blood leading to formation of heterotypic aggregates prior to contact with endothelial cells. In the following review we will not discuss leukocyte recruitment during haemostasis, as this represents a physiological response to tissue trauma that can progress, at least in its early stages, in the absence of inflammation. Rather we will deal with scenarios 2 and 3, as these pathways of platelet–leukocyte interactions are important during inflammation and in chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. Indeed, these interactions mean that leukocytes possess means of adhesion to the vessel wall under conditions that may not normally be permissive of leukocyte–endothelial cell adhesion, meaning that the disease process may be able to bypass the regulatory pathways which would ordinarily moderate the inflammatory response. PMID:26196409

  1. Visualization of a prosthetic vascular graft due to platelet contamination during /sup 111/Indium-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.

    1988-09-01

    A prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft was visualized during /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a patient referred for possible abdominal abscess. The presence of significant cardiac blood-pool activity raised the possibility that this uptake was due to deposition of contaminating labeled platelets rather than labeled leukocytes. An analysis of a small sample of the patient's blood confirmed that the circulating activity was due to labeled platelets. Increased activity along prosthetic vascular grafts in patients undergoing /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy may be due to adherent platelet, and not indicative of infection.

  2. A Complement-Optimized EGFR Antibody Improves Cytotoxic Functions of Polymorphonuclear Cells against Tumor Cells.

    PubMed

    Derer, Stefanie; Cossham, Michael; Rösner, Thies; Kellner, Christian; Beurskens, Frank J; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Lohse, Stefan; Sina, Christian; Peipp, Matthias; Valerius, Thomas

    2015-11-15

    Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) has been suggested to be an important mechanism of action of tumor-targeting Abs. However, single unmodified epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting IgG1 Abs fail to trigger efficient CDC. For the current study, we generated a CDC-optimized variant of the EGFR Ab matuzumab (H425 wt) by introducing amino acid substitutions K326A/E333A (H425 mt). This Ab was then used to elucidate the impact of complement activation on the capacity of effector cells such as mononuclear cells (MNC) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) to exert Ab-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). H425 mt, but not H425 wt, significantly induced complement deposition, release of anaphylatoxins, and CDC against distinct tumor cell lines, whereas no differences in ADCC by MNC or PMN were detected. Notably, stronger cytotoxicity was induced by H425 mt than by H425 wt in whole blood assays and in experiments in which MNC or PMN were combined with serum. Although MNC-ADCC was not affected by C5 cleavage, the cytotoxic activity of PMN in the presence of serum strongly depended on C5 cleavage, pointing to a direct interaction between complement and PMN. Strong cell surface expression of C5a receptors was detected on PMN, whereas NK cells completely lacked expression. Stimulation of PMN with C5a led to upregulation of activated complement receptor 3, resulting in enhanced complement receptor 3-dependent PMN-ADCC against tumor cells. In conclusion, complement-optimized EGFR Abs may constitute a promising strategy to improve tumor cell killing by enhancing the interaction between humoral and cellular effector functions in Ab-based tumor therapy. PMID:26475927

  3. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

  4. Studies on the flow and distribution of leukocytes in mesentery microcirculation of rats

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yong; Liu, Ai-Hua; Zhao, Ke-Seng

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of leukocyte-endothelium interaction (LEI) on the flow and distribution of leukocytes in microcirculation under physiological condition. METHODS: A microcirculation image multiple parameter computer analysis system (MIMPCAS) was used to study the flow and distribution of leukocytes in mesentery microcirculation of rats in vivo. RESULTS: The difference of visible leukocyte flux (VLF) was as high as 131 times in the arterioles and venules with similar diameter and blood velocity. The visible leukocytes rolled along the blood vessel wall as a “jerky” movement. The frequency distribution of the visible leukocyte velocity (VLV) showed a “two-peak” curve. The low peak value was on 10 ?m/s-15 ?m/s while the high peak fell between 25 ?m/s-30 ?m/s. With the increase of diameter of venules, VLF increased while the VLV remained at the same level. With the increase of RBC velocity, VLV trends to elevate and VLF to fall down. CONCLUSION: The results herein might provide a basic theory for the study on the mechanism of LEI under physiological condition and novel methods for the prevention and treatment of high LEI in many pathological processes. PMID:11819437

  5. Photoperiod affects the expression of sex and species differences in leukocyte number and leukocyte trafficking in congeneric hamsters.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, S D; Dhabhar, F S; Viswanathan, K; Saul, A; Nelson, R J

    2003-11-01

    Sex differences in immune function are well documented. These sex differences may be modulated by social and environmental factors. Individuals of polygynous species generally exhibit more pronounced sex differences in immune parameters than individuals of monogamous species, often displaying an energetic trade-off between enhanced immunity and high mating success. During winter, animals contend with environmental conditions (e.g. low temperatures and decreased food availability) that evoke energetic-stress responses; many mammals restrict reproduction in response to photoperiod as part of an annual winter coping strategy. To test the hypothesis that extant sex and species differences in immune surveillance may be modulated by photoperiod, we examined leukocyte numbers in males and females of two closely related hamster species (Phodopus). As predicted, uniparental P. sungorus exhibited a robust sex difference, with total white blood cells, total lymphocytes, T cells, and B cells higher in females than males, during long days when reproduction occurs, but not during short days when reproduction usually stops. In contrast, biparental male and female P. campbelli exhibited comparable leukocyte numbers during both long and short days. To study sex differences in stress responses, we also examined immune cell trafficking in response to an acute (2 h) restraint stressor. During stressful challenges, it appears beneficial for immune cells to exit the blood and move to primary immune defense areas such as the skin, in preparation for potential injury or infection. Acute stress moved lymphocytes and monocytes out of the blood in all animals. Blood cortisol concentrations were increased in P. sungorus females compared to males at baseline (52%) and in response to restraint stress (38%), but only in long days. P. campbelli males and females exhibited comparable blood cortisol and stress responses during both long and short days. Our results suggest that interactions among social factors and the environment play a significant role in modulating sex and seasonal alterations in leukocyte numbers and stress responses. PMID:14529706

  6. Periovulatory leukocyte infiltration in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Oliver R; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, Chemyong

    2010-09-01

    Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (approximately 500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (approximately 1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a strong inverse relationship between leukocyte numbers in the ovary and spleen, as well as significant reduction of leukocyte infiltration in the splenectomized rats, were seen, indicating that the spleen may serve as an immediate supplier of leukocytes to the periovulatory ovary. PMID:20591976

  7. Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.

  8. Derivation of Cinnamon Blocks Leukocyte Attachment by Interacting with Sialosides

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Ling; Guu, Shih-Yun; Tsai, Chan-Chuan; Prakash, Ekambaranellore; Viswaraman, Mohan; Chen, Hsing-Bao; Chang, Chuan-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Molecules derived from cinnamon have demonstrated diverse pharmacological activities against infectious pathogens, diabetes and inflammatory diseases. This study aims to evaluate the effect of the cinnamon-derived molecule IND02 on the adhesion of leukocytes to host cells. The anti-inflammatory ability of IND02, a pentameric procyanidin type A polyphenol polymer isolated from cinnamon alcohol extract, was examined. Pretreatment with IND02 significantly reduced the attachment of THP-1 cells or neutrophils to TNF-?-activated HUVECs or E-selectin/ICAM-1, respectively. IND02 also reduced the binding of E-, L- and P-selectins with sialosides. Furthermore, IND02 could agglutinate human red blood cells (RBC), and the agglutination could be disrupted by sialylated glycoprotein. Our findings demonstrate that IND02, a cinnamon-derived compound, can interact with sialosides and block the binding of selectins and leukocytes with sialic acids. PMID:26076445

  9. Effect of acetaminophen on the leukocyte-labeling efficiency of indium oxine In 111

    SciTech Connect

    Augustine, S.C.; Schmelter, R.F.; Nelson, K.L.; Petersen, R.J.; Qualfe, M.A.

    1983-11-01

    The effect of acetaminophen on the labeling efficiency of leukocytes with indium oxine In 111 was studied. A blood sample was obtained from eight healthy men before and after they received acetaminophen 650 mg every four hours for 24 hours. After dividing the plasma from each sample into three portions, leukocytes were separated and labeled with indium oxine In 111. In an in vitro study, 200 ml of blood was obtained from one of the men, and the plasma was separated into four portions. Acetaminophen in 95% ethanol was added to three of the plasma fractions to produce acetaminophen concentrations of 4, 20, and 100 micrograms/ml; ethanol was added to the fourth fraction as a control. Each plasma fraction was then subdivided into three aliquots, and leukocytes were labeled as in the in vivo study. Mean leukocyte labeling efficiencies in both studies were calculated from the ratios of leukocyte radioactivity to initial radioactivity in the samples, expressed as percentages. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies before acetaminophen administration ranged from 79 to 85%; after administration, labeling efficiencies ranged from 70 to 87%. No significant differences in mean labeling efficiency before and after acetaminophen administration were noted in any of the subjects. Leukocyte labeling efficiencies in all in vitro plasma fractions were reduced, ranging from 54 to 63%, but no significant differences in labeling efficiency between any of the plasma fractions were found. Using the labeling procedures in this study, exposure of leukocytes from healthy men to acetaminophen in vivo or in vitro does not affect labeling efficiency with indium oxine In 111.

  10. Minimal amounts of kindlin-3 suffice for basal platelet and leukocyte functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Klapproth, Sarah; Moretti, Federico A; Zeiler, Marlis; Ruppert, Raphael; Breithaupt, Ute; Mueller, Susanna; Haas, Rainer; Mann, Matthias; Sperandio, Markus; Fässler, Reinhard; Moser, Markus

    2015-12-10

    Hematopoietic cells depend on integrin-mediated adhesion and signaling, which is induced by kindlin-3 and talin-1. To determine whether platelet and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions require specific thresholds of kindlin-3, we generated mouse strains expressing 50%, 10%, or 5% of normal kindlin-3 levels. We report that in contrast to kindlin-3-null mice, which die perinatally of severe bleeding and leukocyte adhesion deficiency, mice expressing as little as 5% of kindlin-3 were viable and protected from spontaneous bleeding and infections. However, platelet adhesion and aggregation were reduced in vitro and bleeding times extended. Similarly, leukocyte adhesion, extravasation, and bacterial clearance were diminished. Quantification of protein copy numbers revealed stoichiometric quantities of kindlin-3 and talin-1 in platelets and neutrophils, indicating that reduction of kindlin-3 in our mouse strains progressively impairs the cooperation with talin-1. Our findings show that very low levels of kindlin-3 enable basal platelet and neutrophil functions, whereas in stress situations such as injury and infection, platelets and neutrophils require a maximum of functional integrins that is achieved with high and stoichiometric quantities of kindlin-3 and talin-1. PMID:26438512

  11. Dual role of the leukocyte integrin ?M?2 in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Soloviev, Dmitry A; Hazen, Stanley L; Szpak, Dorota; Bledzka, Kamila M; Ballantyne, Christie M; Plow, Edward F; Pluskota, Elzbieta

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and macrophages are crucial contributors to neovascularization, serving as a source of chemokines, growth factors, and proteases. ?(M)?(2)(CD11b/CD18) and ?(L)?(2)(CD11a/CD18) are expressed prominently and have been implicated in various responses of these cell types. Thus, we investigated the role of these ?2 integrins in angiogenesis. Angiogenesis was analyzed in wild-type (WT), ?(M)-knockout (?(M)(-/-)), and ?(L)-deficient (?(L)(-/-)) mice using B16F10 melanoma, RM1 prostate cancer, and Matrigel implants. In all models, vascular area was decreased by 50-70% in ?(M)(-/-) mice, resulting in stunted tumor growth as compared with WT mice. In contrast, ?(L) deficiency did not impair angiogenesis and tumor growth. The neovessels in ?(M)(-/-) mice were leaky and immature because they lacked smooth muscle cell and pericytes. Defective angiogenesis in the ?(M)(-/-) mice was associated with attenuated PMN and macrophage recruitment into tumors. In contrast to WT or the ?(L)(-/-) leukocytes, the ?(M)(-/-) myeloid cells showed impaired plasmin (Plm)-dependent extracellular matrix invasion, resulting from 50-75% decrease in plasminogen (Plg) binding and pericellular Plm activity. Surface plasmon resonance verified direct interaction of the ?(M)I-domain, the major ligand binding site in the ?(2) integrins, with Plg. However, the ?(L)I-domain failed to bind Plg. In addition, endothelial cells failed to form tubes in the presence of conditioned medium collected from TNF-?-stimulated PMNs derived from the ?(M)(-/-) mice because of severely impaired degranulation and secretion of VEGF. Thus, ?(M)?(2) plays a dual role in angiogenesis, supporting not only Plm-dependent recruitment of myeloid cells to angiogenic niches, but also secretion of VEGF by these cells. PMID:25261488

  12. Leukocyte Recruitment in Inflammation: Basic Concepts and New Mechanistic Insights Based on New Models and Microscopic Imaging Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Leick, Marion; Azcutia, Veronica; Newton, Gail; Luscinskas, Francis W.

    2014-01-01

    The immune cell system is a critical component of host defense. Recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection, immune reaction, or injury is complex and involves coordinated adhesive interactions between the leukocyte and the endothelial cell monolayer that lines blood vessels. This article will review basic mechanisms in the recruitment of leukocytes to tissues, and then selectively review new concepts that are emerging based on advances in live cell imaging microscopy and mouse strains. These emerging concepts are altering the conventional paradigms of inflammatory leukocyte recruitment established in the early 1990’s. Indeed, recent publications have identified previously unrecognized contributions from pericytes and interstitial leukocytes and their secreted products that guide leukocytes to their targets. It is also notable that investigators have begun to design organs on a chip. Recent reports indicate that this avenue of research holds much promise. PMID:24562377

  13. Preparation and evaluation of a /sup 99m/Tc-SnF2 colloid kit for leukocyte labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, J.I.; Tatum, J.L.; Fratkin, M.J.; Apostolides, D.L.; Quint, R.I.

    1989-07-01

    Stannous fluoride colloid (SFC) kits for instant radiolabeling with 99mTc were prepared and evaluated for suitability as a leukocyte radiolabeling agent. Technetium-99m labeling for kits stored at -15/degree/C for up to 3 mo was greater than 95% as determined by instant thin layer chromatography while colloid particles of 1-3 microns were measured by electron microscope for these preparations. Canine leukocyte preparations labeled with (/sup 99m/Tc)SFC and characterized by triple density gradients of metrizamide in plasma demonstrated an 83% leukocyte association. Analysis of labeled cell preparation for up to 3 hr demonstrated label stability. Labeled leukocytes, when readministered in normal dogs, demonstrated bi-exponential blood clearance with uptake and subsequent clearance from lung. There was increasing uptake of labeled leukocytes by the liver until steady state was achieved. Furthermore, when whole blood samples were analyzed by the triple density gradient method, an increasing monocyte-to-granulocyte ratio was observed to occur with time. By 3 hr 95% of the whole blood activity was associated with the leukocyte fraction. Dogs in which a 24-hr sterile abscess was created demonstrated elevated blood-pool activity as compared to control with localization of the labeled cells at inflammatory sites within 3 hr following cell readministration.

  14. Nanowire array chips for molecular typing of rare trafficking leukocytes with application to neurodegenerative pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Minsuk; Kim, Dong-Joo; Lee, Mi-Ri; Wu, Yu; Han, Lin; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Fan, Rong

    2014-05-01

    Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective hematological analysis of the CSF from patients.Despite the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that restricts the entry of immune cells and mediators into the central nervous system (CNS), a small number of peripheral leukocytes can traverse the BBB and infiltrate into the CNS. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is one of the major routes through which trafficking leukocytes migrate into the CNS. Therefore, the number of leukocytes and their phenotypic compositions in the CSF may represent important sources to investigate immune-to-brain interactions or diagnose and monitor neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the paucity of trafficking leucocytes in the CSF, a technology capable of efficient isolation, enumeration, and molecular typing of these cells in the clinical settings has not been achieved. In this study, we report on a biofunctionalized silicon nanowire array chip for highly efficient capture and multiplexed phenotyping of rare trafficking leukocytes in small quantities (50 microliters) of clinical CSF specimens collected from neurodegenerative disease patients. The antibody coated 3D nanostructured materials exhibited vastly improved rare cell capture efficiency due to high-affinity binding and enhanced cell-substrate interactions. Moreover, our platform creates multiple cell capture interfaces, each of which can selectively isolate specific leukocyte phenotypes. A comparison with the traditional immunophenotyping using flow cytometry demonstrated that our novel silicon nanowire-based rare cell analysis platform can perform rapid detection and simultaneous molecular characterization of heterogeneous immune cells. Multiplexed molecular typing of rare leukocytes in CSF samples collected from Alzheimer's disease patients revealed the elevation of white blood cell counts and significant alterations in the distribution of major leukocyte phenotypes. Our technology represents a practical tool for potentially diagnosing and monitoring the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases by allowing an effective hematological analysis of the CSF from patients. Electro

  15. Isolation and Analysis of Brain-sequestered Leukocytes from Plasmodium berghei ANKA-infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryg-Cornejo, Victoria; Ioannidis, Lisa J.; Hansen, Diana S.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for isolation and characterization of adherent inflammatory cells from brain blood vessels of P. berghei ANKA-infected mice. Infection of susceptible mouse-strains with this parasite strain results in the induction of experimental cerebral malaria, a neurologic syndrome that recapitulates certain important aspects of Plasmodium falciparum-mediated severe malaria in humans 1,2 . Mature forms of blood-stage malaria express parasitic proteins on the surface of the infected erythrocyte, which allows them to bind to vascular endothelial cells. This process induces obstructions in blood flow, resulting in hypoxia and haemorrhages 3 and also stimulates the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes to the site of parasite sequestration. Unlike other infections, i.e neutrotopic viruses4-6, both malaria-parasitized red blood cells (pRBC) as well as associated inflammatory leukocytes remain sequestered within blood vessels rather than infiltrating the brain parenchyma. Thus to avoid contamination of sequestered leukocytes with non-inflammatory circulating cells, extensive intracardial perfusion of infected-mice prior to organ extraction and tissue processing is required in this procedure to remove the blood compartment. After perfusion, brains are harvested and dissected in small pieces. The tissue structure is further disrupted by enzymatic treatment with Collagenase D and DNAse I. The resulting brain homogenate is then centrifuged on a Percoll gradient that allows separation of brain-sequestered leukocytes (BSL) from myelin and other tissue debris. Isolated cells are then washed, counted using a hemocytometer and stained with fluorescent antibodies for subsequent analysis by flow cytometry. This procedure allows comprehensive phenotypic characterization of inflammatory leukocytes migrating to the brain in response to various stimuli, including stroke as well as viral or parasitic infections. The method also provides a useful tool for assessment of novel anti-inflammatory treatments in pre-clinical animal models. PMID:23329000

  16. Recruitment of 99m-technetium- or 111-indium-labelled polymorphonuclear leucocytes in experimentally induced pyogranulomas in lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Guilloteau, L.; Pepin, M.; Pardon, P.; Le Pape, A. )

    1990-10-01

    The recruitment of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) during the development of experimental pyogranulomas induced by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis was followed in nine male lambs by scintigraphic examination. Autologous blood PMNs were labelled with 99m-technetium or 111-indium and were re-injected intravenously into infected lambs. The functional properties of the labelled cells were monitored (1) in vitro by measuring their phagocytic and bactericidal activity against C. pseudotuberculosis and their chemotaxis under agarose, and (2) in vivo by following scintigraphically their capacity to accumulate in an inflammatory focus induced by intradermal injection of latex beads coated with Salmonella abortus equi lipopolysaccharide. Following inoculation of corynebacteria into the right ear of lambs, radioactive foci were observed to be localized in the right ear and in the draining lymph nodes during the 4 days following inoculation. Histopathological examination performed 32 h after inoculation confirmed the intense accumulation of PMNs at these sites. With the exception of one animal, which presented visible foci in the neck 14 days postinoculation, no radioactive foci were observed during the later phases of experimental infection, despite the presence of multiple pyogranulomas which were confirmed by bacteriological examination after necropsy of the lambs. Histopathological examination of these lesions revealed layers of fibroblasts, lymphocytes, and macrophages surrounding a necrotic centre. The results of these studies suggest that the contribution of PMNs during the chronic phase of inflammation is considerably reduced in comparison with the acute inflammatory phase of the infectious process.

  17. Blood leukocytes from benznidazole-treated indeterminate chagas disease patients display an overall type-1-modulated cytokine profile upon short-term in vitro stimulation with trypanosoma cruzi antigens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Benznidazole (Bz)-chemotherapy is recommended to prevent Chagas disease progression, despite its limited efficacy during chronic disease. However, the host mechanisms underlying these benefits still remain to be elucidated. Methods In this study, we have used short-term whole blood cultures to describe the cytokine profile of Bz-treated Indeterminate Chagas disease patients-(INDt) as compared to untreated patients-(IND). Results Our findings showed that IND presented increased levels of IL-10+neutrophils, IL-12+ and IL-10+monocytes and IFN-?+NK-cells. Moreover, IND showed slight increase of IL-4+CD4+T-cells and enhanced levels of IL-10+CD8+T-cells and B-cells. Additional analysis of cytokine Low and High producers also highlighted the presence of High cytokine producers within IND, including IL-10 from CD4+ T-cells and IFN-? from CD8+ T-cells, as compared to NI. The Bz-treatment lead to an overall cytokine down-regulation in the innate and adaptive compartments, including low levels of IL-12+ and IL-10+neutrophils and monocytes, IFN-?+NK-cells, IL-12+, TNF-?+, IFN-?+ and IL-5+CD4+T-cells and IL-10+B-cells, along with basal levels of cytokine-expressing CD8+T-cells in INDt as compared to IND. The in vitro antigen stimulation shifted the cytokine profile toward a type 1-modulated profile, with increased levels of IL-12+ and IL-10+ monocytes, IFN-?+ and IL-4+NK-cells along with TNF-?+ and IFN-?+CD8+T-cells. Analysis of Low and High cytokine producers, upon in vitro antigen stimulation, further confirm these data. Conclusion Together, our findings showed that the Bz treatment of Indeterminate Chagas’ disease patients shifts the cytokine patterns of peripheral blood monocytes, NK-cells and CD8+ T-cells towards a long-lasting Type-1-modulated profile that could be important to the maintenance of a non-deleterious immunological microenvironment. PMID:22625224

  18. Clinical implications of leukocyte infiltration at the choroid plexus in (neuro)inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Demeestere, Delphine; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E

    2015-08-01

    The choroid plexus (CP) is a highly vascularized organ located in the brain ventricles and contains a single epithelial cell layer forming the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). This barrier is crucial for immune surveillance in health and is an underestimated gate for entry of immune cells during numerous inflammatory disorders. Several of these disorders are accompanied by disturbance of the BCSFB and increased leukocyte infiltration, which affects neuroinflammation. Understanding the mechanism of immune cell entry at the CP might lead to identification of new therapeutic targets. Here, we focus on current knowledge of leukocyte infiltration at the CP in inflammatory conditions and its therapeutic implications. PMID:25979470

  19. Sour cherry seed kernel extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases representation of CD3+ TNF-?+ and CD3+IL-8+ subpopulations in peripheral blood leukocyte cultures from type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Fadia F; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Haines, David D; Dashti, Ali; Dashti, Hussain; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Bak, Istvan; Tosaki, Arpad

    2013-05-01

    The present study evaluates a hypothesis that sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extracts (SCE) modulate CD3+ T lymphocyte activity in ways predictive of potential for uses of SCE in management of inflammatory diseases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 12 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients and eight healthy control subjects were cultured 24 h with 100 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to increase inflammatory signaling and co-incubated with 0.5-100 µg/ml SCE. Cultures were evaluated by two-color flow cytometry for percent representation of CD3+ IL8+ and CD3+TNF-? cells which express interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-?, (TNF-?+) respectively, and by enzyme-linked immunoassay for lymphocyte-associated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, known to be induced by SCE). SCE dosage ranges of 0.5-100 µg/ml in cell cultures significantly suppressed LPS-increased CD3+TNF-?+ and CD3+IL8+ representation from all participants (p?

  20. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  1. Comparison of In-111-MERC leukocytes with In-111-Oxine leukocytes for abscess detection

    SciTech Connect

    Intenzo, C.M.; Desai, A.G.; Thakur, M.L.; Park, C.H.

    1985-05-01

    This study was done to compare the clinical results of generally accepted Indium-111-oxine (oxine) labeled leukocytes with a relatively newer Indium-111-2-Mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (Merc) labeled leukocytes for the detection of occult abscesses. Of the 74 patients suspected of harboring an occult abscess, autologous leukocytes of 34 patients were labeled with oxine while in 40 patients Merc labeled leukocytes were used. Whole body imaging was performed at 24 hours. Interpretation of the scans was done without the knowledge of the leukocyte label (i.e. oxine vs Merc). The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by either subsequent clinical course, radiographic correlation (CT, US, etc.), surgery pathology, or autopsy. The results presented in this paper indicate that there is no significant difference between the Merc and oxine labeled leukocytes for abscess detection. The ease of labeling and potential availability of Merc as a kit is an advantage.

  2. Prednisolone inhibits phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leucocytes via steroid receptor mediated events

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Carolyn J. P.; Morris, Karen J.; Jayson, Malcolm I. V.

    1983-01-01

    Prednisolone, at concentrations between 2·78 × 10?6 M (1 ?g/ml) and 1·39 × 10?8 M (5 × 10?3 ?g/ml) exerts an inhibitory effect on the phagocytosis of latex particles by normal human polymorphonuclear leucocytes in vitro as assessed by electron microscopical analysis. This inhibition appears to be receptor-mediated, as it is dependent upon RNA and protein synthesis and is glucocorticoid specific. Images PMID:6830325

  3. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.

    PubMed

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:25056125

  4. Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

    2015-05-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions.

  5. Role of H1 receptors and P-selectin in histamine-induced leukocyte rolling and adhesion in postcapillary venules.

    PubMed Central

    Asako, H; Kurose, I; Wolf, R; DeFrees, S; Zheng, Z L; Phillips, M L; Paulson, J C; Granger, D N

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the nature, magnitude, and mechanisms of histamine-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules of the rat mesentery using intravital microscopic techniques. Superfusion of the mesentery with histamine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) resulted in a dose-related increase in the number of rolling leukocytes, a reduction in rolling velocity, and an increased clearance of FITC-labeled rat albumin from blood to superfusate. The histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes and increased albumin clearance were prevented by histamine H1 (hydroxyzine, diphenhydramine) but not H2 (cimetidine) receptor antagonists. Because histamine induces expression of the adhesion molecule P-selectin in cultured endothelial cells, a monoclonal antibody directed against rat P-selectin and soluble sialyl-LewisX oligosaccharide (the carbohydrate ligand to P-selectin) were also tested as inhibitors. Both were effective in preventing the histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes, but neither agent attenuated the increased albumin clearance. These observations suggest that (a) histamine recruits rolling leukocytes and increases albumin leakage in postcapillary venules via H1 receptor activation, (b) histamine-induced recruitment of rolling leukocytes is mediated in part by P-selectin expressed on the endothelial cell surface, and (c) the histamine-induced vascular albumin leakage is unrelated to leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Our results are consistent with the view that histamine may act as a mediator of acute inflammatory reactions. PMID:7512982

  6. Effect of leukocyte adhesion and microvascular permeability on capillary perfusion during ischemia-reperfusion injury in hamster cheek pouch.

    PubMed

    Bertuglia, S; Colantuoni, A; Intaglietta, M

    1993-08-01

    The role of leukocyte sticking and permeability changes in the variation of perfused capillaries induced by ischemia reperfusion was studied in the hamster cheek pouch microcirculation. The drugs utilized were the antiperoxidative agents allopurinol, the calcium antagonists verapamil and diltiazem, and phenidone and adenosine, which inhibit leukotriene formation as well as leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium. The microvasculature was visualized by a fluorescence technique. Ischemia was induced by clamping the cheek pouch for 30 minutes followed by 30 minutes of reperfusion. The increase in permeability, the perfused capillary length and the number of adhering leukocytes to venular vessel wall were measured. Ischemia and reperfusion were associated with increased permeability, increased number of leukocytes sticking to the venular wall, and decreased number of functional capillaries. Microvascular injury evidenced by increased permeability was apparent in the first 5 min of ischemia. All the drugs decreased the number of leukocytes sticking to the venular wall; allopurinol, verapamil and adenosine reduced the increase in permeability, whereas phenidone and diltiazem were effective only during ischemia. In addition verapamil and adenosine preserved capillary blood flow during reperfusion. In conclusion, leukocyte sticking is correlated with increased microvascular permeability, but not with decreased perfusion of the capillary bed. These data suggest that leukocytes did not play a prominent role in the reduction of functional capillaries at the end of reperfusion. PMID:8262718

  7. Indium-111 autologous leukocyte imaging in pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.R.; Spence, R.A.; Laird, J.D.; Ferguson, W.R.; Kennedy, T.L.

    1986-03-01

    Thirty-nine patients with acute pancreatitis have been assessed using a prognostic factor grading system, abdominal ultrasound, and autologous leukocyte imaging. Both prognostic factor grading and leukocyte imaging can accurately assess the severity of the disease early in its course. All patients with a negative indium-labeled leukocyte image recovered without sequelae, whereas five of the 12 patients with a positive image developed complications, including two deaths. Abdominal ultrasound is of no value in assessing severity, but is a useful method of detecting those patients with gallstone-associated disease. In patients with suspected abscess formation following acute pancreatitis, indium leukocyte imaging does not differentiate between fat necrosis and abscess formation. In this situation, computerized tomography should be carried out before laparotomy is undertaken.

  8. Measuring leukocyte-endothelial interactions in mice.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L; Fukumura, Dai

    2013-06-01

    Intravital imaging techniques are powerful tools in the study of tumor pathophysiology. These techniques can be used to measure vascular parameters (e.g., angiogenesis, hemodynamics, and leukocyte-endothelial interactions) in tumors and normal vascular networks in mice. This protocol describes the use of single-photon microscopy and multiphoton laser-scanning microscopy to follow the migration of Rhodamine-6G, a fluorescently labeled tracer, following injection into the tail vein of a mouse. The Rhodamine-6G enters the circulatory system and labels leukocytes. It is possible to monitor changes in the interactions between leukocytes and the endothelium by determining the numbers of rolling and adhering leukocytes as well as the total flux of these cells. PMID:23734020

  9. Weaning management of newly received beef calves with or without continuous exposure to a persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus pen mate: effects on health, performance, bovine viral diarrhea virus titers, and peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Richeson, J T; Kegley, E B; Powell, J G; Beck, P A; Ley, B L Vander; Ridpath, J F

    2012-06-01

    Exposure to animals persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) results in immunomodulation of cohorts that may have health and growth consequences; however, effects may differ in low-risk, preconditioned (PC) vs. high-risk, auction market (AM) beef cattle. Our objective was to compare health and performance of PC or AM management systems with (PI) or without (CON) presence of a PI-BVDV pen mate using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four shipment blocks of crossbred PC steers (n = 236) from 3 ranch-origins were weaned, dewormed, vaccinated, tested for PI-BVDV, and kept on the ranch for ?42 d. Subsequently, PC steers were transported to a stocker receiving unit (RU), weighed (251 ± 2 kg), blood sampled, stratified by d -1 BW, and assigned randomly to treatment (PCPI or PCCON) with no additional processing. Simultaneously, 4 blocks of crossbred AM calves (n = 292) were assembled from regional auction markets and transported to the RU ± 36 h from PC arrival. The AM calves were weighed (245 ± 1.3 kg), stratified by gender and d -1 BW, processed under the same regimen used for PC steers at their origin ranch except bull calves were castrated, and then assigned randomly to treatment (AMPI or AMCON). Treatment pens (0.45 ha) were arranged spatially such that PI did not have fence-line or water source contact with CON. Calves were fed identically and followed the same antibiotic treatment protocol. Daily BW gain for the entire 42-d receiving trial was greater (P < 0.001) for PC (1.2 kg) compared with AM (0.85 kg). There was an exposure effect (P = 0.002) on ADG from d 28 to 42; CON gained 1.12 kg vs. 0.90 kg BW for PI cohort. Morbidity was markedly greater (P < 0.001) in AM (70%) vs. PC (7%), resulting in (P < 0.001) an antibiotic treatment cost of $20.52 and $2.48/animal, respectively. Treatment with a third antibiotic occurred more often (P = 0.04) for PI cohort, and the percentage of chronically ill cattle was greatest (P = 0.06) for AMPI. Upon arrival, BVDV type 1a, 1b, and 2a titers were greater for PC (treatment × day, P < 0.001), and the percentage seropositive to BVDV type 1a on d 0 was 100% for PC vs. 23% in AM. Platelets increased transiently (P < 0.001) with greater platelets observed in AM (P < 0.001). Results indicate that PC calves gain faster and require fewer antibiotic treatments during the receiving period. Exposure to PI reduced BW gain from d 28 to 42, increased the number of calves treated thrice, and increased chronically ill cattle for AM. PMID:22648754

  10. Short Fetal Leukocyte Telomere Length and Preterm Prelabor Rupture of the Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Ramkumar; Yu, Jie; Basanta-Henry, Patrice; Brou, Lina; Berga, Sarah L.; Fortunato, Stephen J.; Taylor, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Rupture of the fetal membranes is a common harbinger of imminent labor and delivery. Telomere shortening is a surrogate for oxidative stress (OS) and senescence. Fetal leukocyte and placental membrane DNA telomere lengths were evaluated to determine their association with preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) or spontaneous preterm births with intact membranes (PTB), compared to term birth. Methods Telomere lengths were quantified in cord blood leukocytes (n?=?133) from three major groups: 1) pPROM (n?=?28), 2) PTB (n?=?69) and 3) uncomplicated full term births (controls, n?=?35), using real-time quantitative PCR. Placental membrane specimens (n?=?18) were used to correlate fetal leukocyte and placental telomere lengths. Telomere length differences among the groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Pearson correlation coefficients determined relationships between leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths. Results In pregnancies with intact membranes, fetal leukocyte telomere length was inversely proportional to gestational age. The mean telomere length decreased as gestation progressed, with the shortest at term. pPROM had telomere lengths (9962±3124 bp) that were significantly shorter than gestational age-matched PTB (11546±4348 bp, p?=?0.04), but comparable to term births (9011±2497 bp, p?=?0.31). Secondary analyses revealed no effects of race (African American vs. Caucasian) or intraamniotic infection on telomere length. A strong Pearson's correlation was noted between fetal leukocyte and placental membrane telomere lengths (??=?0.77; p<0.01). Conclusions Fetal leukocyte telomere length is reduced in pPROM compared to PTB but is similar to term births. pPROM represents a placental membrane disease likely mediated by OS-induced senescence. PMID:22348044

  11. Induced expression and functional effects of aquaporin-1 in human leukocytes in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Gene expression profiling was performed via DNA microarrays in leukocytes from critically ill trauma patients nonseptic upon admission to the ICU, who subsequently developed either sepsis (n = 2) or severe sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome (n = 3). By comparing our results with published expression profiling studies in animal models of sepsis and lung injury, we found aquaporin-1 to be differentially expressed across all studies. Our aim was to determine how the water channel aquaporin-1 is involved in regulating the immune response in critically ill patients during infection acquired in the ICU. Methods Following the results of the initial genetic screening study, we prospectively followed aquaporin-1 leukocyte expression patterns in patients with ICU-acquired sepsis who subsequently developed septic shock (n = 16) versus critically ill patients who were discharged without developing sepsis (n = 13). We additionally determined aquaporin-1 expression upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure and explored functional effects of aquaporin-1 induction in polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs). Results Leukocyte aquaporin-1 expression was induced at the onset of sepsis (median 1.71-fold increase; interquartile range: 0.99 to 2.42, P = 0.012 from baseline) and was further increased upon septic shock (median 3.00-fold increase; interquartile range: 1.20 to 5.40, P = 0.023 from sepsis, Wilcoxon signed-rank test); no difference was observed between baseline and discharge in patients who did not develop sepsis. Stimulation of PMNs by LPS led to increased expression of aquaporin-1 in vitro, which could be abrogated by the NF-?B inhibitor EF-24. PMN hypotonic challenge resulted in a transient increase of the relative cell volume, which returned to baseline after 600 seconds, while incubation in the presence of LPS resulted in persistently increased cell volume. The latter could be abolished by blocking aquaporin-1 with mercury and restored by incubation in ?-mercaptoethanol, which abrogated the action of mercury inhibition. Conclusions Aquaporin-1 is induced in leukocytes of patients with ICU-acquired sepsis and exhibits higher expression in septic shock. This phenomenon may be due to LPS-triggered NF-?B activation that can also lead to alterations in plasma membrane permeability. PMID:24028651

  12. Neutrophil and Monocyte Leukocyte recruitment by PECAM, CD99 and other molecules via the LBRC

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, David P.; Muller, William A.

    2014-01-01

    The recruitment of specific leukocyte subtypes to the site of tissue injury is the cornerstone of inflammation and disease progression. This process has become an intense area of research because it presents several possible steps against which disease-specific therapies could be targeted. Leukocytes are recruited out of the blood stream by a series of events that includes their capture, rolling, activation, and migration along the endothelium. In the last step, the leukocytes squeeze between adjacent endothelial cells to gain access to the inflamed tissue through a process referred to as transendothelial migration (TEM). Although many of the molecules, such as PECAM and CD99, that regulate these sequential steps have been identified, much less is understood regarding how they work together to coordinate the complex intercellular communications and dramatic shape changes that take place between the endothelial cells and leukocytes. Several of the endothelial cell proteins that function in TEM are localized to the Lateral Border Recycling Compartment (LBRC), an interconnected reticulum of membrane that recycles selectively to the endothelial borders. The recruitment of the LBRC to surround the migrating leukocyte is required for efficient TEM. This review will focus on the proteins and mechanisms that mediate TEM and specifically how the LBRC functions in the context of these molecular interactions and membrane movements. PMID:24337626

  13. In vivo temporal and spatial profile of leukocyte adhesion and migration after experimental traumatic brain injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leukocytes are believed to be involved in delayed cell death following traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, data demonstrating that blood-borne inflammatory cells are present in the injured brain prior to the onset of secondary brain damage have been inconclusive. We therefore investigated both the interaction between leukocytes and the cerebrovascular endothelium using in vivo imaging and the accumulation of leukocytes in the penumbra following experimentally induced TBI. Methods Experimental TBI was induced in C57/Bl6 mice (n = 42) using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model, and leukocyte-endothelium interactions (LEI) were quantified using both intravital fluorescence microscopy (IVM) of superficial vessels and 2-photon microscopy of cortical vessels for up to 14 h post-CCI. In a separate experimental group, leukocyte accumulation and secondary lesion expansion were analyzed in mice that were sacrificed 15 min, 2, 6, 12, 24, or 48 h after CCI (n = 48). Finally, leukocyte adhesion was blocked with anti-CD18 antibodies, and the effects on LEI and secondary lesion expansion were determined 16 (n = 12) and 24 h (n = 21), respectively, following TBI. Results One hour after TBI leukocytes and leukocyte-platelet aggregates started to roll on the endothelium of pial venules, whereas no significant LEI were observed in pial arterioles or in sham-operated mice. With a delay of >4 h, leukocytes and aggregates did also firmly adhere to the venular endothelium. In deep cortical vessels (250 ?m) LEIs were much less pronounced. Transmigration of leukocytes into the brain parenchyma only became significant after the tissue became necrotic. Treatment with anti-CD18 antibodies reduced adhesion by 65%; however, this treatment had no effect on secondary lesion expansion. Conclusions LEI occurred primarily in pial venules, whereas little or no LEI occurred in arterioles or deep cortical vessels. Inhibiting LEI did not affect secondary lesion expansion. Importantly, the majority of migrating leukocytes entered the injured brain parenchyma only after the tissue became necrotic. Our results therefore suggest that neither intravascular leukocyte adhesion nor the migration of leukocytes into cerebral tissue play a significant role in the development of secondary lesion expansion following TBI. PMID:23448240

  14. Changes in the Differential Leukocyte Count of Chicks Inoculated with Salmonella1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, E. L.; Stephens, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of Salmonella anatum and S. heidelberg infections on the differential leukocyte counts of baby chickens. Newly hatched broiler-type chicks were inoculated in the yolk sac with suspensions of either S. anatum or S. heidelberg. At 0, 24, 48, and 72 hr after inoculation, blood was taken by heart puncture from chicks of both inoculated groups and from a group of uninoculated chicks. The averages of the leukocyte counts of three or four chicks from each group were used as the blood values for specific time intervals. The six classes of leukocytes counted were lymphocytes, monocytes, juveniles, heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils. The leukocytes classified as juveniles were immature or degenerate heterophils and were found almost exclusively in the infected chicks. Changes in heterophil, juvenile, and lymphocyte counts were affected by both the number of cells in the inoculum (300 versus 3 million cells of S. anatum) and species (S. anatum and S. heidelberg). Infection with either Salmonella species resulted in the development of a severe heterophilic leukopenia, and a significant increase in the percentage of both juveniles and lymphocytes by 48 hr postinoculation. Mortality rate was higher in groups of chicks inoculated with S. heidelberg than in groups given S. anatum. PMID:5422304

  15. Rapid quantitative assessment of phagocytic activity of Indium-111 labeled leukocytes by chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Juni, J.E.; Petry, N.; Wahl, R.L.; Geatti, O.

    1985-05-01

    Indium-111 labeled leukocyte imaging is gaining widespread acceptance. A rapid method for assaying changes in leukocyte viability and phagocytic function during the labeling process would facilitate the evaluation of new labeling techniques and testing of labeled cells before pt injection. The authors have conducted preliminary investigations of chemiluminescence in the clinical evaluation of leukocyte labeling. The chemiluminescence assay may be performed in 30 minutes with only 0.1 ml of whole blood. Zymossan is rapidly introduced to the blood or cell suspension resulting in the emission of light which is then counted by photometer. The amount of light given off by the reaction reflects both the phagocytic function of the cells and the ability of activated phagocytes to generate activated oxygen species. They have evaluated the chemiluminescent activity of normal human leukocyte suspensions both before and after labeling with Indium-111 oxine. The chemiluminescence assay provides a rapid means of evaluating granulocyte function. Correlations of this activity with image quality may provides clues for optimization of labeling techniques.

  16. Rapid, high-efficiency labeling of leukocytes with In-111 after hemolytic removal of erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Karesh, S.M.; Henkin, R.E.

    1985-05-01

    During the labeling of leukocytes with Indium-111, conventional methodology involves separation and washing to remove red cells. This technique results in the loss of a significant number of leukocytes. Citrated whole blood of ten normal volunteers was studied for an alternate labeling method following sedimentation for 30 to 45 minutes and low speed centrifugation of the leukocyte-rich plasma. The average labeling for these ten volunteers by Indium-111 was 90% versus 60% by the older technique. Viability as measured by the trypan blue exclusion test was greater than 95%, WBC losses were essentially zero, and no WBC clumping was observed. Eighteen patients referred for leukocyte imaging were studied by this method. In this patient population, there was 91% labeling with viability greater than 95% and no evidence of clumping. Less than 5% RBC's were noted in any lot. Indium-111 WBC activity 20 minutes post injection averaged 79% of whole blood activity. This modification results in decreased losses of white cells, reduces preparation time to less than 2 hours, and significantly improves the labeling efficiency of the final product. Liver/spleen ratios and image quality were unchanged from the original method.

  17. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Sima, Corneliu; Gastfreund, Shoshi; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by altered host-biofilm interactions that result in irreversible inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose to ineffective control of biofilm composition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. We elucidated how leukocytes affect the course of periodontitis in Rac-null mice. Mouse models of acute gingivitis and periodontitis were used to assess the early inflammatory response and patterns of chronicity leading to loss of alveolar bone due to inflammation in Rac-null mice. Leukocyte margination was differentially impaired in these mice during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice. Inflammatory responses to subgingival ligatures, assessed by changes in peripheral blood differential leukocyte numbers, were altered in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In response to persistent subgingival ligature-mediated challenge, Rac-null mice had increased loss of alveolar bone with patterns of resorption characteristic of aggressive forms of periodontitis. These findings were partially explained by higher osteoclastic coverage of the bone-periodontal ligament interface in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that leukocyte defects, such as decreased endothelial margination and tissue recruitment, are rate-limiting steps in the periodontal inflammatory process that lead to more aggressive forms of periodontitis. PMID:24269593

  18. Modulatory Role of Surface Coating of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms in Complement Opsonization and Leukocyte Uptake.

    PubMed

    Inturi, Swetha; Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K; Holers, V Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2015-11-24

    Notwithstanding rapid advances of nanotechnology in diagnostic imaging and drug delivery, the engineered nanocarriers still exhibit substantial lack of hemocompatibility. Thus, when injected systemically, nanoparticles are avidly recognized by blood leukocytes and platelets, but the mechanisms of immune recognition are not well understood and strategies to mitigate these phenomena remain underexplored. Using superparamagnetic dextran iron oxide (SPIO) nanoworms (NWs) we demonstrate an efficient and predominantly complement-dependent uptake by mouse lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes from normal and tumor bearing mice in vitro. Following intravenous injection into wild type mice, blood leukocytes as well as platelets became magnetically labeled, while the labeling was decreased by 95% in complement C3-deficient mice. Using blood cells from healthy and cancer patient donors, we demonstrated that neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils took up SPIO NWs, and the uptake was prevented by EDTA (a general complement inhibitor) and by antiproperdin antibody (an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of the complement system). Cross-linking and hydrogelation of SPIO NWs surface by epichlorohydrin decreased C3 opsonization in mouse serum, and consequently reduced the uptake by mouse leukocytes by more than 70% in vivo. Remarkably, the cross-linked particles did not show a decrease in C3 opsonization in human serum, but showed a significant decrease (over 60%) of the uptake by human leukocytes. The residual uptake of cross-linked nanoparticles was completely blocked by EDTA. These findings demonstrate species differences in complement-mediated nanoparticle recognition and uptake by leukocytes, and further show that human hemocompatibility could be improved by inhibitors of complement alternative pathway and by nanoparticle surface coating. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms of hemocompatibility of nanomedicines. PMID:26488074

  19. Reduced blood brain barrier breakdown in P-selectin deficient mice following transient ischemic stroke: a future therapeutic target for treatment of stroke

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The link between early blood- brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and endothelial cell activation in acute stroke remain poorly defined. We hypothesized that P-selectin, a mediator of the early phase of leukocyte recruitment in acute ischemia is also a major contributor to early BBB dysfunction following stroke. This was investigated by examining the relationship between BBB alterations following transient ischemic stroke and expression of cellular adhesion molecule P-selectin using a combination of magnetic resonance molecular imaging (MRMI), intravital microscopy and immunohistochemistry. MRMI was performed using the contrast, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) conjugated to Sialyl Lewis X (Slex) where the latter is known to bind to activated endothelium via E- or P selectins. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male C57/BL 6 wild-type (WT) mice and P-selectin-knockout (KO) mice. At 24 hours following middle cerebral artery occlusion, T1 maps were acquired prior to and following contrast injection. In addition to measuring P- and E-selectin expression in brain homogenates, alterations in BBB function were determined immunohistochemically by assessing the extravasation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or staining for polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes. In vivo assessment of BBB dysfunction was also investigated optically using intravital microscopy of the pial circulation following the injection of Fluorescein Isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran (MW 2000 kDa). Results MRI confirmed similar infarct sizes and T1 values at 24 hours following stroke for both WT and KO animals. However, the blood to brain transfer constant for Gd DTPA (Kgd) demonstrated greater tissue extravasation of Gd DTPA in WT animals than KO mice (P < 0.03). In the P selectin KO mice, ? T1 stroke -? T1 contralateral control cortex, decreased significantly in the Gd-DTPA(sLeX) group compared to Gd-DTPA, indicative of sLeX mediated accumulation of the targeted contrast agent. Regarding BBB function, in the P-selectin KO mice compared to WT control mice, there was an attenuation in the extravasation of IgG (P < 0.001), a trend for decreased FITC extravasation and less infiltration of PMN leukocytes (P < 0.001) thereby supporting the observed increase in Kgd permeability in stroke brain of WT compared to KO mice. Conclusion P-selectin expression contributes to enhanced BBB dysfunction at 24 hours after transient focal cerebral ischemia. PMID:20122276

  20. Halloysite Nanotube Coatings Suppress Leukocyte Spreading.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Andrew D; Marsh, Graham; Waugh, Richard E; Foster, David G; King, Michael R

    2015-12-22

    The nanoscale topography of adhesive surfaces is known to be an important factor governing cellular behavior. Previous work has shown that surface coatings composed of halloysite nanotubes enhance the adhesion, and therefore capture of, rare target cells such as circulating tumor cells. Here we demonstrate a unique feature of these coatings in their ability to reduce the adhesion of leukocytes and prevent leukocyte spreading. Surfaces were prepared with coatings of halloysite nanotubes and functionalized for leukocyte adhesion with E-selectin, and the dilution of nanotube concentration revealed a threshold concentration below which cell spreading became comparable to smooth surfaces. Evaluation of surface roughness characteristics determined that the average distance between discrete surface features correlated with adhesion metrics, with a separation distance of ?2 ?m identified as the critical threshold. Computational modeling of the interaction of leukocytes with halloysite nanotube-coated surfaces of varying concentrations demonstrates that the geometry of the cell surface and adhesive counter-surface produces a significantly diminished effective contact area compared to a leukocyte interacting with a smooth surface. PMID:26605493

  1. Mechanism of the cytostasis mediated by blood unstimulated neutrophils on syngeneic rat colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Reisser, D; Fady, C

    1991-01-01

    Non-activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) isolated from the blood of non-stimulated rats were spontaneously and selectively cytostatic in vitro against a syngeneic colon cancer cell line. In this experimental model, the mechanism of PMN-mediated cytostasis did not depend on oxidative metabolites, but involved soluble factor(s), possibly granule proteases. PMID:1932626

  2. ADAM9 is a Novel Product of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils: Regulation of Expression and Contributions to Extracellular Matrix Protein Degradation During Acute Lung Injury#

    PubMed Central

    Roychaudhuri, Robin; Hergrueter, Anja H.; Polverino, Francesca; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E.; Gupta, Kushagra; Borregaard, Niels; Owen, Caroline A.

    2014-01-01

    A disintegrin and a metalloproteinase domain 9 (ADAM9**) is known to be expressed by monocytes and macrophages. Herein, we report that ADAM9 is also a product of human and murine polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). ADAM9 is not synthesized de novo by circulating PMNs. Rather, ADAM9 protein is stored in the gelatinase and specific granules and the secretory vesicles of human PMNs. Unstimulated PMNs express minimal quantities of surface ADAM9, but activation of PMNs with degranulating agonists rapidly (within 15 min) increases PMN surface ADAM9 levels. Human PMNs produce small quantities of soluble forms of ADAM9 (sADAM9). Surprisingly, ADAM9 degrades several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins including fibronectin, entactin, laminin, and insoluble elastin as potently as MMP-9. However, ADAM9 does not degrade types I, III, or IV collagen, or denatured collagens in vitro. To determine whether Adam9 regulates PMN recruitment or ECM protein turnover during inflammatory responses, we compared wild type (WT) and Adam9?/? mice in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and bleomycin-mediated acute lung injury (ALI). Adam9 lung levels increase 10-fold during LPS-mediated ALI in WT mice (due to increases in leukocyte-derived Adam9), but Adam9 does not regulate lung PMN (or macrophage) counts during ALI. Adam9 increases mortality, promotes lung injury, reduces lung compliance, and increases degradation of lung elastin during LPS- and/or bleomycin-mediated ALI. Adam9 does not regulate collagen accumulation in the bleomycin-treated lung. Thus, ADAM9 is expressed in an inducible fashion on PMN surfaces where it degrades some ECM proteins, and promotes alveolar-capillary barrier injury during ALI in mice. PMID:25063875

  3. Suppression by IgA of IgG-mediated phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, J. M. A.

    1978-01-01

    IgA from normal human serum, a myeloma IgA and human colostral IgA were found to inhibit the IgG-dependent phagocytosis of Candida albicans (CA) blastospores by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) from normal human subjects. The inhibition was dependent on the Fc portion of IgA, was enhanced by heat treatment (56°C for 20 min) and depended on binding to the PMN, but not to the opsonized particle. Binding of CA to the PMN IgG Fc receptor was inhibited, whilst the binding to the PMN C3b receptor was unaffected. PMID:369752

  4. Modeling Leukocyte-Leukocyte Non-Contact Interactions in a Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Gritti, Nicola; Caccia, Michele; Sironi, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; D'Alfonso, Laura; Granucci, Francesca; Zanoni, Ivan; Chirico, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among leukocytes is at the basis of the innate and adaptive immune-response and it is largely ascribed to direct cell-cell contacts. However, the exchange of a number of chemical stimuli (chemokines) allows also non-contact interaction during the immunological response. We want here to evaluate the extent of the effect of the non-contact interactions on the observed leukocyte-leukocyte kinematics and their interaction duration. To this aim we adopt a simplified mean field description inspired by the Keller-Segel chemotaxis model, of which we report an analytical solution suited for slowly varying sources of chemokines. Since our focus is on the non-contact interactions, leukocyte-leukocyte contact interactions are simulated only by means of a space dependent friction coefficient of the cells. The analytical solution of the Keller-Segel model is then taken as the basis of numerical simulations of interactions between leukocytes and their duration. The mean field interaction force that we derive has a time-space separable form and depends on the chemotaxis sensitivity parameter as well as on the chemokines diffusion coefficient and their degradation rate. All these parameters affect the distribution of the interaction durations. We draw a successful qualitative comparison between simulated data and sets of experimental data for DC-NK cells interaction duration and other kinematic parameters. Remarkably, the predicted percentage of the leukocyte-leukocyte interactions falls in the experimental range and depends (?25% increase) upon the chemotactic parameter indicating a non-negligible direct effect of the non-contact interaction on the leukocyte interactions. PMID:24204669

  5. Comparison of optical data from flow cytometry and microscopy of leukocytes after exposure to specific reagents.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yuri; Kono, Mari; Yamamoto, Shiori; Wada, Atsushi; Morikawa, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    Flow cytometry and microscopy are equally important in cell analysis. However, few reports have compared the optical data (cell size, internal complexity and fluorescent signal) from flow cytometry and microscopy. In this study, we compared the scattergram from XN-series, a flow cytometry based hematology analyzer with microscopic images of similarly treated leukocytes, and investigated the correlation between the appearance in the scattergram and cell size, internal complexity and fluorescence intensity. Healthy human peripheral blood was analyzed using the XN analyzer. For microscopic comparison, five types of leukocytes (monocytes, lymphocytes, basophils, neutrophils and eosinophils) were isolated from the peripheral blood by centrifugation and magnetic cell sorting, treated with a specific reagent and analyzed using electron microscopy, laser microscopy and confocal laser microscopy. Cell size, residual internal structures and fluorescence intensity correlated with intensity of forward-scattering, side scattering and fluorescent light. In this study, optical data from a clinically used hematology analyzer was clarified using microscopic images. PMID:26015314

  6. Triggering of leukocytes by phase contrast in imaging cytometry with scanning fluorescence microscope (SFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, József; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Marecka, Monika; Malkusch, Wolf; Tárnok, Attila

    2009-02-01

    Slide-based cytometry (SBC) leads to breakthrough in cytometry of cells in tissues, culture and suspension. Carl Zeiss Imaging Solutions' new automated SFM combines imaging with cytometry. A critical step in image analysis is selection of appropriate triggering signal to detect all objects. Without correct target cell definition analysis is hampered. DNA-staining is among the most common triggering signals. However, the majority of DNA-dyes yield massive spillover into other fluorescence channels limiting their application. By microscopy objects of >5?m diameter can be easily detected by phase-contrast signal (PCS) without any staining. Aim was to establish PCS - triggering for cell identification. Axio Imager.Z1 motorized SFM was used (high-resolution digital camera, AxioCam MRm; AxioVision software: automatic multi-channel scanning, analysis). Leukocytes were stained with FITC (CD4, CD8) and APC (CD3) labelled antibodies in combinations using whole blood method. Samples were scanned in three channels (PCS/FITC/APC). Exposition-times for PCS were set as low as possible; the detection efficiency was verified by fluorescence. CD45-stained leukocytes were counted and compared to the number of PCS detected events. Leukocyte subtyping was compared with other cytometers. In focus the PCS of cells showed ring-form that was not optimal for cell definition. Out of focus PCS allows more effective qualitative and quantitative cell analyses. PCS was an accurate triggering signal for leukocytes enabling cell counting and discrimination of leukocytes from platelets. Leukocyte subpopulation frequencies were comparable to those obtained by other cytometers. In conclusion PCS is a suitable trigger-signal not interfering with fluorescence detection.

  7. Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased leukocyte peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression

    PubMed Central

    Mac-Marcjanek, Katarzyna; Nadel, Iwona; Wo?niak, Lucyna; Cypryk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammation; thereby it participates in metabolic diseases including diabetes. Although PPAR? expression has been observed in different tissues of diabetic patients, its level in leukocytes from subjects affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate leukocyte PPARG expression in GDM patients at 24–33 weeks of gestation and, in turn, to correlate these alterations with anthropometric and metabolic parameters of patients. Material and methods Leukocytes were isolated from the blood of normal glucose tolerant (NGT; n = 34) and GDM (n = 77) pregnant women between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. Leukocyte PPARG mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Univariate correlation analysis was performed to investigate associations between PPARG expression and clinical characteristics of patients. Results Leukocyte PPARG mRNA level was significantly higher in GDM than NGT women (p < 0.05). In the whole study group, PPARG expression positively correlated with plasma glucose concentrations at 1 h (r = 0.222, p = 0.049) and 2 h (r = 0.315, p = 0.020) of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and negatively correlated with plasma HDL cholesterol concentration (r = -0.351, p = 0.010). Conclusions The correlation between leukocyte PPARG overexpression and hyperglycaemia suggests that PPARG mRNA expression in these cells might be up-regulated in high-glucose conditions in GDM patients at 24–33 weeks of gestation. PMID:26322090

  8. Comparison of leukocytes labeled with indium-111-2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide and indium-111 oxine for abscess detection

    SciTech Connect

    Intenzo, C.M.; Desai, A.G.; Thakur, M.L.; Park, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    Indium-111 leukocyte scanning has evolved into a practical and highly accurate method for the identification of infectious and inflammatory processes. The most commonly used agent for labeling leukocytes has been (/sup 111/In)oxine. We have investigated a newer agent, 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (Merc) at our institution which unlike oxine, allows us to label leukocytes in plasma, using a simple kit procedure. Of the 92 consecutive patients referred for detection or localization of an infectious process, autologous leukocytes of 55 patients were labeled with (/sup 111/In)Merc, while those of the remaining 37 patients were labeled with (/sup 111/In)oxine. The sensitivities for Merc and oxine procedures were 87% and 92%, respectively, while the respective specificities were 100% and 92%. We conclude that the (/sup 111/In)Merc-labeled leukocytes are equally effective as (/sup 111/In)oxine-labeled leukocytes in detecting infectious processes. The use of (/sup 111/In)Merc is advantageous over (111In)oxine for white blood cell labeling because of its easier preparation.

  9. Flow cytofluorometric monitoring of leukocyte apoptosis in experimental cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotsmanova, Ekaterina Y.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Livanova, Ludmila F.; Kobkova, Irina M.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.; Shchukovskaya, Tatyana N.; Smirnova, Nina I.; Kutyrev, Vladimir V.

    2003-10-01

    Flow cytofluorometric DNA analysis was applied to determine of the relative contents of proliferative (more then 2C DNA per cell) and apoptotic (less then 2C DNA per cell) leukocytes in blood of adult rabbits, challenged with 10,000 times the 50 % effective dose of Vibrio cholerae virulent strain by the RITARD technique. It has been shown that irreversible increase the percentage of cells carrying DNA in the degradation stage brings to disbalance between the genetically controlled cell proliferation and apoptosis that leads to animal death from the cholera infection. Such fatal changes were not observed in challenging of immunized animals that were not died. Thus received data show that the flow cytofluorometric measurements may be used for detection of transgressions in homeostasis during acute infection diseases, for outlet prognosis of the cholera infection.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE White blood cell profiles of breeding American toads

    E-print Network

    Shutler, Dave

    , these hormones can cause shunting of leukocytes out of peripheral blood circulation and into the lymph nodes, skin, and immuno- logical organs [immunoredistribution (IR)] where they are likely to detect antigenic

  11. Ovine leukocyte profiles do not associate with variation in the prion gene, but are breed-dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prion genotype in sheep confer resistance to scrapie. In cattle, lymphocyte profile has been found to be associated with prion genotype. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if variations in the sheep prion gene were associated with leukocyte populations as measured by complete blood ce...

  12. Effect of Commiphora molmol on leukocytes proliferation in relation to histological alterations before and during healing from injury

    PubMed Central

    Haffor, Al-Said A.

    2010-01-01

    Myrrh, Commiphora molmol has been used as anti-inflammatory and wound healing commercial product. Leukocyte count had been reliable indicator for clinicians to monitor progress of healing for their patients. We hypothesized that myrrh supplement participate in the activation of leukocyte proliferation pathway prior and post skin injury and gastric ulcer. The purpose of the present study was to examine long-term effect of myrrh on leukocytes proliferation before injury and during different stages of healing. Results showed that all types of leukocytes were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the myrrh-treated groups before and during healing. The pretreatment with myrrh offered a time-dependent rise in leukocytes proliferation. Microscopic examination of blood smear from myrrh-treated rats with skin injury, showed an elevated count of middle-sized lymphocytes and neutrophils that were characterized with well-defined nuclear lobules and rich-granules cytoplasm. Furthermore, the microscopic examinations of the spleen and lymph nodes of myrrh-treated rats with skin injury, showed an increased thickness of lymphatic sheath around the arterioles in the white pulp that was associated with high density of the medium-sized lymphocytes in the secondary lymphoid follicles in the lymph nodes with engorged sinusoids. As myrrh enhanced leukocytes proliferation before injury, it can be concluded that myrrh posse’s antigenic-driven responses and that indicated some foreignness or toxicity of some constituents of myrrh. Because myrrh helped to maintain the relative rise of leukocytes counts throughout healing period and that implied it activated late steps of both proliferation and differentiation pathways for all types of leukocytes during effective phase of the specific immune responses. PMID:23961070

  13. Oxidative stress and reduced responsiveness of challenged circulating leukocytes following pulmonary instillation of metal-rich particulate matter in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Welding fume is an exposure that consists of a mixture of metal-rich particulate matter with gases (ozone, carbon monoxide) and/or vapors (VOCs). Data suggests that welders are immune compromised. Given the inability of pulmonary leukocytes to properly respond to a secondary infection in animal models, the question arose whether the dysfunction persisted systemically. Our aim was to evaluate the circulating leukocyte population in terms of cellular activation, presence of oxidative stress, and functionality after a secondary challenge, following welding fume exposure. Rats were intratracheally instilled (ITI) with PBS or 2 mg of welding fume collected from a stainless steel weld. Rats were sacrificed 4 and 24 h post-exposure and whole blood was collected. Whole blood was used for cellular differential counts, RNA isolation with subsequent microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and secondary stimulation with LPS utilizing TruCulture technology. In addition, mononuclear cells were isolated 24 h post-exposure to measure oxidative stress by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Welding fume exposure had rapid effects on the circulating leukocyte population as identified by relative mRNA expression changes. Instillation of welding fume reduced inflammatory protein production of circulating leukocytes when challenged with the secondary stimulus LPS. The effects were not related to transcription, but were observed in conjunction with oxidative stress. These findings support previous studies of an inadequate pulmonary immune response following a metal-rich exposure and extend those findings showing leukocyte dysfunction occurs systemically. PMID:25123171

  14. Cytokine production in leukocyte cultures during therapy with Echinacea extract.

    PubMed

    Elsässer-Beile, U; Willenbacher, W; Bartsch, H H; Gallati, H; Schulte Mönting, J; von Kleist, S

    1996-01-01

    We measured the levels of the cytokines IL-1-alpha, IL-1-beta, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma in culture supernatants of stimulated whole blood cells derived from 23 tumor patients undergoing a 4-week oral treatment with a spagyric extract from Echinacea angustifolia, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Thuja occidentalis (Echinacea complex). All patients had had curative surgery for a localized solid malignant tumor. Blood was taken before treatment and after 2 and 4 weeks of therapy. Twelve untreated tumor patients at the same clinical stage, also after curative surgery, served as a control group. In the blood cell cultures of all patients, a rather wide range of cytokine levels was found. After therapy with Echinacea complex, no significant alteration in the production of the cytokines could be seen in comparison to the controls, and also the leukocyte populations remained constant. We conclude that at this application and dosage, the therapy with Echinacea complex has no detectable effect on tumor patients' lymphocytes activity as measured by their cytokine production. PMID:8951617

  15. An Fc-receptor activity of plasma membranes from guinea-pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tsunawaki, S; Mizuno, D; Kakinuma, K; Kasahara, M

    1982-01-01

    Plasma membranes prepared from guinea-pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes showed an immune-complex-binding activity that corresponded well with the activity in intact cells. The characteristics of this activity were reversible binding, dependence on the Fc portion of antigen-complexed IgG (immunoglobulin G), competition with aggregated IgG and independence from energy metabolism. These results support the conclusion that the binding activity found in the isolated plasma membranes is an Fc-receptor activity of guinea-pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The activity showed Kd = 6.7 x 10(-8) M-IgG and maximum binding of 17 pmol of IgG/mg of membrane protein when measured with an immune complex of alpha-amylase and homologous guinea-pig anti-(alpha-amylase) IgG. Inhibition of the Fc-receptor activity by a series of various salts indicated the contribution of the hydrophobic interaction to the binding. Inhibitory effects of salts or metal-chelating reagents on the Fc-receptor activity were also observed on superoxide generation by these cells induced by the immune complex, suggesting a role of the Fc receptor as the immune-complex-binding site responsible for the initiation of superoxide generation. PMID:6289800

  16. MICROWAVES, HYPERTHERMIA, AND HUMAN LEUKOCYTE FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to microwaves (2450 MHz) affects the function of human leukocytes in the resting state and during antigenic or mitogenic challenge. This publication is a summary report of the construction and calibration of a waveguide...

  17. Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

  18. Chemokines in the corpus luteum: Implications of leukocyte chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Townson, David H; Liptak, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Chemokines are small molecular weight peptides responsible for adhesion, activation, and recruitment of leukocytes into tissues. Leukocytes are thought to influence follicular atresia, ovulation, and luteal function. Many studies in recent years have focused attention on the characterization of leukocyte populations within the ovary, the importance of leukocyte-ovarian cell interactions, and more recently, the mechanisms of ovarian leukocyte recruitment. Information about the role of chemokines and leukocyte trafficking (chemotaxis) during ovarian function is important to understanding paracrine-autocrine relationships shared between reproductive and immune systems. Recent advances regarding chemokine expression and leukocyte accumulation within the ovulatory follicle and the corpus luteum are the subject of this mini-review. PMID:14613530

  19. Leukocyte migration in experimental inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Palmen, M. J. H. J.; Van De Goot, F. R. W.; Macher, B. A.; Dieleman, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Emigration of leukocytes from the circulation into tissue by transendothelial migration, is mediated subsequently by adhesion molecules such as selectins, chemokines and integrins. This multistep paradigm, with multiple molecular choices at each step, provides a diversity in signals. The influx of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes into inflamed tissue is important in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. The importance of each of these groups of adhesion molecules in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, either in human disease or in animal models, will be discussed below. Furthermore, the possibilities of blocking these different steps in the process of leukocyte extravasation in an attempt to prevent further tissue damage, will be taken into account. PMID:18472841

  20. A new procedure for leukocytes labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kurkowski, C.; Biddle, B.; Ahern, M.; Grisanti, K.; Gilani, S.S.H.

    1985-05-01

    Abscess localization using leukocytes labeled with In-oxine-111 is an established procedure. However, In-111 offers one half life (67 hr.) to the clinician to work with and is an expensive isotope. As such, a new approach offering versatility to the clinician in the manipulation of isotopic half life by substituting In-111 with isotopes of iodine I-123 (13 hr.) and I-131 (8 days) is studied. Oxine having an activated aromatic moiety was radioiodinated via Hunter-Greenwood method using I-125, yield being 90%. Therefore, judging from the in vitro tests, leukocytes stay viable after being labeled with radioiodinated oxine. Since isotopes by definition have similar chemical properties, for in vivo studies, I-125 (30-35 kev) could be substituted with I-123 (159 kev) and I-131 (364 kev).

  1. The major leukocyte chemotactic and activating factors in the mouse gut lumen are not N-formylpeptide receptor 1 agonists.

    PubMed

    Ojode, Teresa; Schneider, Erich H; Tiffany, H Lee; Yung, Sunny; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    Cultured bacteria release N-formylpeptides, which are potent chemoattractants for phagocytic leukocytes acting at G-protein-coupled receptors FPR1 and FPR2. However, the distribution and immunologic activity of these molecules at mucosal surfaces, where large numbers of bacteria are separated from the immune system by epithelium, remain undefined. To investigate this for the gut, we tested leukocyte responses to cell-free gut luminal contents from C57Bl/6 mice fed a chow diet. Small and large intestine contents were able to compete with labeled N-formylpeptide for binding to FPR1, indicating the presence of FPR1 ligands in the gut lumen. Material from both small and large intestine induced robust calcium flux responses by primary FPR1(+) leukocytes (mouse bone marrow cells and splenocytes and human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells), as well as chemotactic responses by both mouse bone marrow cells and human peripheral blood neutrophils. However, unlike defined N-formylpeptides, calcium flux responses induced by gut luminal contents were insensitive both to pertussis toxin treatment of leukocytes and to proteinase K digestion of the samples. Moreover, the gut samples were fully active on neutrophils from mice lacking Fpr1, and the kinetics of the calcium flux response differed markedly for neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The active factor(s) could be dialyzed using a 3.5-kDa pore size membrane. Thus, mouse intestinal lumen contains small, potent and highly efficacious leukocyte chemotactic and activating factors that may be distinct from neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and distinct from Fpr1 agonists. PMID:22722599

  2. CCL2 Promotes Colorectal Carcinogenesis by Enhancing Polymorphonuclear Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Population and Function.

    PubMed

    Chun, Eunyoung; Lavoie, Sydney; Michaud, Monia; Gallini, Carey Ann; Kim, Jason; Soucy, Genevieve; Odze, Robert; Glickman, Jonathan N; Garrett, Wendy S

    2015-07-14

    Our study reveals a non-canonical role for CCL2 in modulating non-macrophage, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and shaping a tumor-permissive microenvironment during colon cancer development. We found that intratumoral CCL2 levels increased in patients with colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CRC), adenocarcinomas, and adenomas. Deletion of CCL2 blocked progression from dysplasia to adenocarcinoma and reduced the number of colonic MDSCs in a spontaneous mouse model of colitis-associated CRC. In a transplantable mouse model of adenocarcinoma and an APC-driven adenoma model, CCL2 fostered MDSC accumulation in evolving colonic tumors and enhanced polymorphonuclear (PMN)-MDSC immunosuppressive features. Mechanistically, CCL2 regulated T cell suppression of PMN-MDSCs in a STAT3-mediated manner. Furthermore, CCL2 neutralization decreased tumor numbers and MDSC accumulation and function. Collectively, our experiments support that perturbing CCL2 and targeting MDSCs may afford therapeutic opportunities for colon cancer interception and prevention. PMID:26146082

  3. Effect of donkey seminal plasma on sperm movement and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils attachment in vitro.

    PubMed

    Miró, Jordi; Vilés, Karina; García, Wilber; Jordana, Jordi; Yeste, Marc

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of seminal plasma in endometrial inflammation in donkeys, samples from fresh pure, fresh diluted and frozen-thawed semen of three different jackasses were co-incubated in water bath at 37°C with uterine Jennie's secretions collected 6h after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. Individual sperm movement parameters using the computerised sperm analysis system (CASA) and sperm-polymorphonuclear neutrophils (sperm-PMN) attachment observed in Diff-Quick stained smears were evaluated at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4h of co-incubation. Controls consisted of incubating diluted or frozen-thawed sperm in the absence of uterine secretions. For data analyses, a repeated measures ANOVA was performed with incubation time as intra-subject factor and with treatment and donkey as inter-subject factor, followed by a post-hoc Bonferroni's test. Greater values (P<0.05) of sperm-PMN percentages and a loss of progressive motility were observed in frozen-thawed semen compared with pure and diluted fresh semen samples throughout the incubation time. In addition, the presence of seminal plasma in fresh and diluted semen samples reduced the inflammatory response of polymorphonuclear neutrophils produced after insemination by suppressing the sperm-PMN attachment in vitro. Motility sperm parameters analysed by CASA were also less affected than those in frozen-thawed semen samples. In conclusion, seminal plasma in jennies appears to have a modulation on the endometrial response after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed donkey semen. As a result, spermatozoa with the greater motility characteristics are selected. PMID:23891218

  4. Leukocyte selenium, zinc, and copper concentrations in preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, K; Williams, M A; Woelk, G B; Mudzamiri, S; Madzime, S; King, I B; Bankson, D D

    2000-01-01

    Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. The etiology of this relatively common medical complication of pregnancy, however, remains unknown. We studied the relationship between maternal leukocyte selenium, zinc, and copper concentrations and the risk of preeclampsia in a large hospital-based case-control study. One hundred seventy-one women with proteinuric pregnancy-induced hypertension (with or without seizures) comprised the case group. Controls were 184 normotensive pregnant women. Leukocytes were separated from blood samples collected during the patients' postpartum labor and delivery admission. Leukocyte concentrations for the three cations were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Concentrations for each cation were reported as micrograms per gram of total protein. Women with preeclampsia had significantly higher median leukocyte selenium concentrations than normotensive controls (3.23 vs 2.80 microg/g total protein, p < 0.0001). Median leukocyte zinc concentrations were 31% higher in preeclamptics as compared with controls (179.15 vs 136.44 microg/g total protein, p < 0.0001). Although median leukocyte copper concentrations were slightly higher for cases than controls, this difference did not reach statistical significance (17.72 vs 17.00 microg/g total protein, p = 0.468). There was evidence of a linear increase in risk of preeclampsia with increasing concentrations of selenium and zinc. The relative risk for preeclampsia was 3.38 (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.53-7.54) among women in the highest quartile of the control selenium distribution compared with women in the lowest quartile. The corresponding relative risk and 95% CI for preeclampsia was 5.30 (2.45-11.44) for women in the highest quartile of the control zinc distribution compared with women in the lowest quartile. There was no clear pattern of a linear trend in risk with increasing concentration of leukocyte copper concentrations (adjusted for linear trend in risk = 0.299). Our results are consistent with some previous reports. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether observed alterations in selenium and zinc concentrations precede preeclampsia or whether the differences may be attributed to preeclampsia-related alterations in maternal and fetal-placental trace metal metabolism. PMID:11051601

  5. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Random blood sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test ... hours (fasting) At any time of the day (random) ... dL) is considered normal. If you had a random blood glucose test, a normal result depends on ...

  6. Involvement of VAMP-2 in exocytosis of IL-1{beta} in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) leukocytes after Vibrio anguillarum infection

    SciTech Connect

    Chai Yingmei; Huang Xiaohang . E-mail: xiaohanghuang@yahoo.ca; Cong Bailin; Liu Shenghao; Chen Kui; Li Guangyou; Gaisano, Herbert Y.

    2006-04-07

    Vibrio anguillarum is a major pathogen threatening the fish aquaculture in China. Infection of cultivated turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) with V. anguillarum induced rapid synthesis and secretion of IL-1{beta}, which initiates the innate immune response. SNARE proteins are known to regulate vesicular trafficking and fusion in all eukaryotes. Here, we determined whether SNARE proteins, specifically vesicle-associated membrane protein-2 (VAMP-2), are involved in regulated exocytosis of IL-1{beta} of leukocytes in marine fish. We show that VAMP-2 is present in turbot blood leukocytes, with nucleotide sequence identity of 88.2% and 93.0% to those of zebra fish and sea bass, respectively. After Vibrio infection, turbot leukocyte VAMP-2 was increased at the levels of transcription and translation in a temporal pattern coinciding with leukocyte IL-1{beta} secretion. Confocal microscopy localized VAMP-2 to vesicle structures in leukocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that VAMP-2 is involved in regulated exocytosis of cytokines in immunocytes in fish.

  7. Intravital Microscopy of Leukocyte-endothelial and Platelet-leukocyte Interactions in Mesenterial Veins in Mice.

    PubMed

    Herr, Nadine; Mauler, Maximilian; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a method that can be used to investigate different processes in different regions and vessels in living animals. In this protocol, we describe intravital microscopy of mesentery veins. This can be performed in a short period of time with reproducible results showing leukocyte-endothelial interactions in vivo. We describe an inflammatory setting after LPS challenge of the endothelium. But in this model one can apply many different types of inflammatory conditions, like bacterial, chemical or biological and investigate the administration of drugs and their direct effects on the living animal and its impact on leukocyte recruitment. This protocol has been applied successfully to a number of different treatments of mice and their effects on inflammatory response in vessels. Herein, we describe the visualization of leukocytes and platelets by fluorescently labeling these with rhodamine 6G. Additionally, any specific imaging can be performed using targeted fluorescently labeled molecules. PMID:26325284

  8. Leukocyte Count is Associated with Increased Platelet Reactivity and Diminished Response to Aspirin in Healthy Individuals with a Family History of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Faraday, Nauder; Yanek, Lisa R.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian; Qayyum, Rehan; Herrera-Galeano, J. Enrique; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, Lewis C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Markers of systemic inflammation, including blood leukocyte count, are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Leukocytes may promote platelet reactivity and thrombus formation, providing a basis for increased risk, but a relation between leukocyte count and platelet function has not been studied. Methods We evaluated the relation of blood leukocyte count, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) to platelet aggregation to collagen, ADP and arachidonic acid, and to urinary excretion of 11-dehydro thromboxane B2. Studies were conducted in 1600 individuals (45.0 ± 12.9 years, 42.7% male) at risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) before and after low dose aspirin. Results At baseline, platelet reactivity increased with increasing quartile of leukocyte count (median counts for each quartile were normal) for all measures of platelet function (P<0.0001). These relations were unchanged by aspirin. The relation between leukocyte count and each measure of platelet reactivity remained significant (P<0.05) after multivariable adjustment for CRP, IL-6, cardiac risk factors, hematologic variables, and platelet thromboxane production. CRP and IL-6 were independently associated with few measures of platelet reactivity. Conclusions Increasing quartile of leukocyte count, even within the normal range, is associated with increasing platelet reactivity in individuals at risk for CAD. This relationship is not altered by aspirin and is independent of inflammatory markers and platelet thromboxane production. Additional studies are needed to determine the mechanism(s) for this association and therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with elevated leukocyte counts. PMID:19185906

  9. Prionemia and Leukocyte-Platelet-Associated Infectivity in Sheep Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Models

    PubMed Central

    Lacroux, Caroline; Vilette, Didier; Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Litaise, Claire; Lugan, Séverine; Morel, Nathalie; Corbière, Fabien; Simon, Stéphanie; Simmons, Hugh; Costes, Pierrette; Weisbecker, Jean-Louis; Lantier, Isabelle; Lantier, Frederic; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Castilla, Joaquin

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of the circulation and distribution of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents in the blood of infected individuals remain largely unknown. This clearly limits the understanding of the role of blood in TSE pathogenesis and the development of a reliable TSE blood detection assay. Using two distinct sheep scrapie models and blood transfusion, this work demonstrates the occurrence of a very early and persistent prionemia. This ability to transmit disease by blood transfusion was correlated with the presence of infectivity in white blood cells (WBC) and peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) as detected by bioassay in mice overexpressing the ovine prion protein PrP (tg338 mice) and with the identification of abnormal PrP in WBC after using protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Platelets and a large variety of leukocyte subpopulations also were shown to be infectious. The use of endpoint titration in tg338 mice indicated that the infectivity in WBC (per ml of blood) was 106.5-fold lower than that in 1 g of posterior brainstem sample. In both WBC and brainstem, infectivity displayed similar resistance to PK digestion. The data strongly support the concept that WBC are an accurate target for reliable TSE detection by PMCA. The presence of infectivity in short-life-span blood cellular elements raises the question of the origin of prionemia. PMID:22156536

  10. Leukocyte polarization in cell migration and immune interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Madrid, F; del Pozo, M A

    1999-01-01

    Cell migration plays a key role in a wide variety of biological phenomena. This process is particularly important for leukocyte function and the inflammatory response. Prior to migration leukocytes undergo polarization, with the formation of a lamellipodium at the leading edge and a uropod at the trailing edge. This cell shape allows them to convert cytoskeletal forces into net cell-body displacement. Leukocyte chemoattractants, including chemokines, provide directional cues for leukocyte motility, and concomitantly induce polarization. Chemoattractant receptors, integrins and other adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal proteins and intracellular regulatory molecules change their cellular localization during cell polarization. A complex system of signal transduction molecules, including tyrosine kinases, lipid kinases, second messengers and members of the Rho family of small GTPases is thought to regulate the cytoskeletal rearrangements underlying leukocyte polarization and migration. The elucidation of the mechanisms and signals that control this complex reorganization will lead to a better understanding of critical questions in cell biology of leukocyte migration and polarity. PMID:9927410

  11. Indium-111 leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Uno, K.; Matsui, N.; Nohira, K.; Suguro, T.; Kitakata, Y.; Uchiyama, G.; Miyoshi, T.; Uematsu, S.; Inoue, S.; Arimizu, N.

    1986-03-01

    This study evaluates the usefulness of labeled leukocyte imaging in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In 33 patients, the incidence of pain and swelling in 66 wrist joints and 66 knee joints was compared with the accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes. No accumulation of (/sup 111/In)leukocytes was seen in any of the patients' wrists (0/12) or knee joints (0/14) when both pain and swelling were absent. In contrast, 93% (25/27) of wrist joints and 80% (24/30) of knee joints with both pain and swelling were positive by (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scintigraphy. There was little correlation between the stage of the disease, as determined by radiography, and (/sup 111/In)leukocyte accumulation. This study suggests that (/sup 111/In)leukocyte imaging may be a reliable procedure for monitoring the activity of rheumatoid arthritis, especially for confirming the lack of an ongoing inflammatory response.

  12. Coregulation in human leukocytes of the long pentraxin PTX3 and TSG-6

    PubMed Central

    Maina, Virginia; Cotena, Alessia; Doni, Andrea; Nebuloni, Manuela; Pasqualini, Fabio; Milner, Caroline M.; Day, Anthony J.; Mantovani, Alberto; Garlanda, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    The prototypic long PTX3 is a multifunctional protein involved in innate resistance to pathogens and in controlling inflammation. TSG-6 is a hyaluronan-binding protein that is involved in ECM remodeling and has anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective functions. PTX3 and TSG-6 are coregulated by growth differentiation factor-9 in granulosa cells, where they are produced during the periovulatory period and play essential roles in the incorporation of hyaluronan into the ECM during cumulus expansion. The present study was designed to assess whether PTX3 and TSG-6 are coregulated in leukocytes, in particular, in phagocytes and DC. Monocytes, macrophages, and myeloid DC were found to produce high levels of TSG-6 and PTX3 in response to proinflammatory mediators (LPS or cytokines). Unstimulated neutrophil polymorphonuclear granulocytes expressed high levels of TSG-6 mRNA, but not PTX3 transcript, and stored both proteins in granules. In contrast, endothelial cells expressed substantial amounts of PTX3 mRNA and low levels of TSG-6 transcript under the conditions tested. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, dampened LPS-induced TSG-6 and PTX3 expression. Divergent effects were observed with IL-10, which synergizes with TLR-mediated PTX3 induction but inhibits LPS-induced TSG-6 transcription. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms the colocalization of the two proteins in inflammatory infiltrates and in endothelial cells of inflamed tissues. Thus, here we show that myelomonocytic cells and MoDC are a major source of TSG-6 and that PTX3 and TSG-6 are coregulated under most of the conditions tested. The coordinated expression of PTX3 and TSG-6 may play a role in ECM remodeling at sites of inflammation. PMID:19389798

  13. Coregulation in human leukocytes of the long pentraxin PTX3 and TSG-6.

    PubMed

    Maina, Virginia; Cotena, Alessia; Doni, Andrea; Nebuloni, Manuela; Pasqualini, Fabio; Milner, Caroline M; Day, Anthony J; Mantovani, Alberto; Garlanda, Cecilia

    2009-07-01

    The prototypic long PTX3 is a multifunctional protein involved in innate resistance to pathogens and in controlling inflammation. TSG-6 is a hyaluronan-binding protein that is involved in ECM remodeling and has anti-inflammatory and chondroprotective functions. PTX3 and TSG-6 are coregulated by growth differentiation factor-9 in granulosa cells, where they are produced during the periovulatory period and play essential roles in the incorporation of hyaluronan into the ECM during cumulus expansion. The present study was designed to assess whether PTX3 and TSG-6 are coregulated in leukocytes, in particular, in phagocytes and DC. Monocytes, macrophages, and myeloid DC were found to produce high levels of TSG-6 and PTX3 in response to proinflammatory mediators (LPS or cytokines). Unstimulated neutrophil polymorphonuclear granulocytes expressed high levels of TSG-6 mRNA, but not PTX3 transcript, and stored both proteins in granules. In contrast, endothelial cells expressed substantial amounts of PTX3 mRNA and low levels of TSG-6 transcript under the conditions tested. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4, dampened LPS-induced TSG-6 and PTX3 expression. Divergent effects were observed with IL-10, which synergizes with TLR-mediated PTX3 induction but inhibits LPS-induced TSG-6 transcription. Immunohistochemical analysis confirms the colocalization of the two proteins in inflammatory infiltrates and in endothelial cells of inflamed tissues. Thus, here we show that myelomonocytic cells and MoDC are a major source of TSG-6 and that PTX3 and TSG-6 are coregulated under most of the conditions tested. The coordinated expression of PTX3 and TSG-6 may play a role in ECM remodeling at sites of inflammation. PMID:19389798

  14. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  15. Production of immunoreactive polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase in human breast cancer cells: possible role of polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase in the progression of human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, J. I.; Ogawa, M.; Ikei, S.; Omachi, H.; Yamashita, S. I.; Saishoji, T.; Nomura, K.; Sato, H.

    1994-01-01

    Breast cancer cells are known to express various proteolytic enzymes, which make them invasive and favour their dissemination to distant sites. However, it is unclear whether breast cancer cells have the ability to produce polymorphonuclear leucocyte elastase (PMN-E). We measured immunoreactive (ir) PMN-E content in the conditioned medium of two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and ZR-75-1, and two normal breast epithelial cell lines, HBL-100 and Hs 578Bst, using a highly specific and sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Furthermore, ir-PMN-E content was determined in tissue extracts from 62 human breast cancers. ir-PMN-E content in the culture medium of MCF-7 cells and ZR-75-1 cells increased as a function of time, regardless of the presence or absence of oestradiol. On the other hand, no detectable ir-PMN-E was secreted into the culture medium of HBL-100 and Hs 578Bst cells. ir-PMN-E was detectable in 59 of 62 tissue extracts prepared from human breast cancers, the concentration ranging from 0.12 to 19.17 micrograms per 100 mg of protein. When 62 breast cancer specimens were categorised into four groups in terms of clinical stage, ir-PMN-E content in breast cancer tissue was significantly higher in stage III (8.90 +/- 5.13 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein) and stage IV (12.19 +/- 5.44 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein) patients than in stage I (1.64 +/- 1.54 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein) and stage II (4.23 +/- 3.74 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein) patients. Breast cancer patients with high levels of ir-PMN-E showed significantly shorter disease-free survival and overall survival than those with low levels of ir-PMN-E at the cut-off point of 8.99 micrograms 100 mg-1 protein. In the multivariate analysis, ir-PMN-E content was found to be a significant prognostic factor for disease recurrence and death in human breast cancer. PMID:8286213

  16. Highly selective biomechanical separation of cancer cells from leukocytes using microfluidic ratchets and hydrodynamic concentrator

    E-print Network

    Ma, Hongshen

    Highly selective biomechanical separation of cancer cells from leukocytes using microfluidic morphological differences can be used to distinguish target cancer cells from contaminant leukocytes. Existing the microfluidic ratchet mechanism separates cancer cells from leukocytes based on a combination of size

  17. Cerebral nitric oxide represses choroid plexus NF?B-dependent gateway activity for leukocyte trafficking.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Kuti; Kertser, Alexander; Porat, Ziv; Schwartz, Michal

    2015-07-01

    Chronic neuroinflammation is evident in brain aging and neurodegenerative disorders and is often associated with excessive nitric oxide (NO) production within the central nervous system (CNS). Under such conditions, increased NO levels are observed at the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial layer that forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) and serves as a selective gateway for leukocyte entry to the CNS in homeostasis and following injury. Here, we hypothesized that elevated cerebral NO levels interfere with CP gateway activity. We found that induction of leukocyte trafficking determinants by the CP and sequential leukocyte entry to the CSF are dependent on the CP epithelial NF?B/p65 signaling pathway, which was inhibited upon exposure to NO. Examining the CP in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD-Tg) revealed impaired ability to mount an NF?B/p65-dependent response. Systemic administration of an NO scavenger in AD-Tg mice alleviated NF?B/p65 suppression at the CP and augmented its gateway activity. Together, our findings identify cerebral NO as a negative regulator of CP gateway activity for immune cell trafficking to the CNS. PMID:25940071

  18. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse History and Leukocyte Telomere Length among Women in Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Susan M.; Prescott, Jennifer; Tworoger, Shelley S.; DeVivo, Immaculata; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Abuse victimization in childhood is associated with a variety of age-related cardiometabolic diseases, but the mechanisms remain unknown. Telomeres, which form the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, have been proposed as measures of biological age, and a growing body of research suggests that telomere attrition may help to explain relationships between stress and cardiometabolic degradation. We examined the association between childhood abuse victimization and leukocyte telomere length among 1,135 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHSII). Methods The NHSII ascertained physical and sexual child abuse histories in 2001. Telomere length was measured in genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes collected between 1996 and 1999. The ratio of telomere repeat copy number to a single gene copy number (T/S) was determined by a modified version of the quantitative real-time PCR telomere assay. Telomere length was log-transformed and corrected for assay variation across batch. We regressed telomere length on childhood abuse exposure variables and covariates using linear regression. Results We observed a reduction in telomere length associated with moderate physical abuse versus no physical abuse, but there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship for increased severity of physical abuse. No associations were noted for sexual abuse. Conclusions We found no evidence of an association between severity of childhood physical or sexual abuse and leukocyte telomere length in the NHSII. PMID:26053088

  19. Proteomic analysis of peripheral leukocytes in Alzheimer’s disease patients treated with divalproex sodium

    PubMed Central

    Mhyre, Timothy R.; Loy, Rebekah; Tariot, Pierre N.; Profenno, Louis A.; Maguire-Zeiss, Kathleen A.; Zhang, Dabao; Coleman, Paul D.; Federoff, Howard J.

    2008-01-01

    The molecular profiling of peripheral tissues, including circulating leukocytes, may hold promise in the discovery of biomarkers for diagnosing and treating neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As a proof-of-concept, we performed a proteomics study on peripheral leukocytes from patients with AD both before and during treatment with divalproex sodium. Using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we identified ten differentially expressed proteins: two up-regulated proteins, 14-3-3 protein ? and peroxiredoxin 2; and eight down-regulated proteins, actin-interacting protein, mitogen activated protein kinase 1, beta actin, annexin A1, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, transforming protein RhoA, acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member B, and a currently unidentified protein. A subset was validated on both the transcript and protein levels in normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures treated with valproic acid. These proteins comprise a number of functional classes that may be important to the biology of AD and to the therapeutic action of valproate. These data also suggest the potential of using peripheral leukocytes to monitor pharmaceutical action for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:17521776

  20. Shorter Ends, Faster End? Leukocyte Telomere Length and Mortality Among Older Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Glei, Dana A; Goldman, Noreen; Weinstein, Maxine; Risques, Rosa Ana

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have found mixed results regarding the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL)-thought to be a marker of cellular aging-and all-cause mortality. Some studies have reported a significant inverse relationship, but others have not, perhaps in part owing to insufficient power. We examine the relationship using data from a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese (54+ in 2000), which is larger (n = 942) than most previous studies, and which includes comprehensive information on potential confounders including white blood cell distribution and inflammatory markers. Results from a Cox hazards model demonstrate a small, but significant, association between LTL and mortality that is independent of age, sex, and lifestyle factors. White blood cell distribution, especially the proportion of neutrophils, is an important predictor of LTL; however, the association between LTL and mortality changes little controlling for white blood cell distribution. In contrast, the association between LTL and mortality weakens considerably (by 48%) after adjustment for inflammatory markers and homocysteine. Our results suggest that the relationship between short telomeres and mortality is tied to inflammation and homocysteine. Longitudinal studies are needed to explore bidirectional influences resulting from the fact that inflammation leads to shorter leukocyte telomeres, which in turn results in senescence, which exacerbates inflammation. PMID:25326284

  1. Metabolism of leukotrienes by L-gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and dipeptidase from human polymorphonuclear granulocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Raulf, M; Stüning, M; König, W

    1985-01-01

    Stimulation of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes with the calcium-ionophore A23187 and opsonized zymosan leads to the release of leukotrienes. The cell-free supernatants of the stimulated cells revealed gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and dipeptidase activity which induced the metabolism of exogeneously added LTC4 and LTD4 respectively. No glutathione-S-transferase activity was present in the supernatant. In the absence of calcium, no leukotrienes were generated; dipeptidase activity was slowly released and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was not detected. By subcellular fractionation, glutathione-S-transferase activity was present in the microsomal and cytosol fractions, and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and dipeptidase were recovered from the granular and microsomal fractions. By equilibrium density-gradient centrifugation, highest dipeptidase activity eluted in the range between 1.18 and 1.22 g/ml; gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase was present in the range from 1.13 to 1.18 g/ml and 1.20 to 1.22 g/ml; glutathione-S-transferase did not enter the gradient under these conditions. Solubilization of the 100,000 g pellet of homogenized cells with Triton X-100 led to the release of soluble gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase and dipeptidase enzymes into the supernatant. PMID:2860060

  2. Impaired bactericidal but not fungicidal activity of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Georgiadou, Sarah P; Wierda, William G; Wright, Susan; Albert, Nathaniel D; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael; Lewis, Russell E

    2013-08-01

    We examined the qualitative polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-associated immune impairment in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) by characterizing phagocytic killing of key non-opsonized bacterial (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus) pathogens. Neutrophils were collected from 47 non-neutropenic patients with CLL (PMN count > 1000/mm(3)) and age-matched and young healthy controls (five each). A subset of patients (13%) had prior or subsequent infections. We found that the patients with CLL had diminished PMN microbicidal response against bacteria but not against fungi compared with the controls. Compared to patients with effective PMN responses, we did not identify differences of basal PMN pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptor gene expression, soluble pathogen-associated molecular pattern gene expression or inflammatory cytokine signatures in patients with impaired PMN responses when PMNs were analyzed in multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays. However, differences in PMN microbicidal response against A. fumigatus in patients with CLL were associated with the degree of hypogammaglobulinemia. PMID:23163595

  3. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte locomotion and aggregation in patients with alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rajkovic, I A; Yousif-Kadaru, A G; Wyke, R J; Williams, R

    1984-01-01

    Defects in stimulated movement of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes was detected in 57% of patients with alcoholic liver disease. Serum from patients with the cellular defect had no effect on the function of normal PMN leucocytes. Aggregation responses of patients' PMN leucocytes suggest that the cellular defect may be related to specific abnormalities in the response to the C5a chemotactic factor. Defective serum attractant activity was found in 65% of the patients tested and the presence in the patients serum of humoral directed antagonists appeared to be responsible for the defect in majority of cases. Further analysis pointed to the presence of at least two distinct antagonists and the possible involvement of proteases in this serum abnormality. The activity of the serum antagonists or the severity of the cellular defect were unrelated to the presence of bacterial infection or elevations in serum IgA or IgG. The high frequency of cellular defects, possibly as a result of in vivo activation, in conjunction with serum abnormalities could account for the increased susceptibility of patients with alcoholic liver disease to bacterial infection. PMID:6509797

  4. Low-Level Laser Therapy Attenuates LPS-Induced Rats Mastitis by Inhibiting Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    WANG, Yueqiang; HE, Xianjing; HAO, Dandan; YU, Debin; LIANG, Jianbin; QU, Yanpeng; SUN, Dongbo; YANG, Bin; YANG, Keli; WU, Rui; WANG, Jianfa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on a rat model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis and its underlying molecular mechanisms. The rat model of mastitis was induced by inoculation of LPS through the canals of the mammary gland. The results showed that LPS-induced secretion of IL-1? and IL-8 significantly decreased after LLLT (650 nm, 2.5 mW, 30 mW/cm2). LLLT also inhibited intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression and attenuated the LPS-induced decrease of the expression of CD62L and increase of the expression of CD11b. Moreover, LLLT also suppressed LPS-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) entering the alveoli of the mammary gland. The number of PMNs in the mammary alveolus and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were decreased after LLLT. These results suggested that LLLT therapy is beneficial in decreasing the somatic cell count and improving milk nutritional quality in cows with an intramammary infection. PMID:25452258

  5. Long Non-Coding RNA and Alternative Splicing Modulations in Parkinson's Leukocytes Identified by RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Soreq, Lilach; Guffanti, Alessandro; Salomonis, Nathan; Simchovitz, Alon; Israel, Zvi; Bergman, Hagai; Soreq, Hermona

    2014-01-01

    The continuously prolonged human lifespan is accompanied by increase in neurodegenerative diseases incidence, calling for the development of inexpensive blood-based diagnostics. Analyzing blood cell transcripts by RNA-Seq is a robust means to identify novel biomarkers that rapidly becomes a commonplace. However, there is lack of tools to discover novel exons, junctions and splicing events and to precisely and sensitively assess differential splicing through RNA-Seq data analysis and across RNA-Seq platforms. Here, we present a new and comprehensive computational workflow for whole-transcriptome RNA-Seq analysis, using an updated version of the software AltAnalyze, to identify both known and novel high-confidence alternative splicing events, and to integrate them with both protein-domains and microRNA binding annotations. We applied the novel workflow on RNA-Seq data from Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' leukocytes pre- and post- Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) treatment and compared to healthy controls. Disease-mediated changes included decreased usage of alternative promoters and N-termini, 5?-end variations and mutually-exclusive exons. The PD regulated FUS and HNRNP A/B included prion-like domains regulated regions. We also present here a workflow to identify and analyze long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) via RNA-Seq data. We identified reduced lncRNA expression and selective PD-induced changes in 13 of over 6,000 detected leukocyte lncRNAs, four of which were inversely altered post-DBS. These included the U1 spliceosomal lncRNA and RP11-462G22.1, each entailing sequence complementarity to numerous microRNAs. Analysis of RNA-Seq from PD and unaffected controls brains revealed over 7,000 brain-expressed lncRNAs, of which 3,495 were co-expressed in the leukocytes including U1, which showed both leukocyte and brain increases. Furthermore, qRT-PCR validations confirmed these co-increases in PD leukocytes and two brain regions, the amygdala and substantia-nigra, compared to controls. This novel workflow allows deep multi-level inspection of RNA-Seq datasets and provides a comprehensive new resource for understanding disease transcriptome modifications in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24651478

  6. PBMC telomerase activity, but not leukocyte telomere length, correlates with hippocampal volume in major depression.

    PubMed

    Wolkowitz, Owen M; Mellon, Synthia H; Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S; Blackburn, Elizabeth H; Lin, Jue; Reus, Victor I; Burke, Heather; Rosser, Rebecca; Mahan, Laura; Mackin, Scott; Yang, Tony; Weiner, Michael; Mueller, Susanne

    2015-04-30

    Accelerated cell aging, indexed in peripheral leukocytes by telomere shortness and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by telomerase activity, has been reported in several studies of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the relevance of these peripheral measures for brain indices that are presumably more directly related to MDD pathophysiology is unknown. In this study, we explored the relationship between PBMC telomerase activity and leukocyte telomere length and magnetic resonance imaging-estimated hippocampal volume in un-medicated depressed individuals and healthy controls. We predicted that, to the extent peripheral and central telomerase activity are directly related, PBMC telomerase activity would be positively correlated with hippocampal volume, perhaps due to hippocampal telomerase-associated neurogenesis, neuroprotection or neurotrophic facilitation, and that this effect would be clearer in individuals with increased PBMC telomerase activity, as previously reported in un-medicated MDD. We did not have specific hypotheses regarding the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampal volume, due to conflicting reports in the published literature. We found, in 25 un-medicated MDD subjects, that PBMC telomerase activity was significantly positively correlated with hippocampal volume; this relationship was not observed in 18 healthy controls. Leukocyte telomere length was not significantly related to hippocampal volume in either group (19 unmedicated MDD subjects and 17 healthy controls). Although the nature of the relationship between peripheral telomerase activity and telomere length and the hippocampus is unclear, these preliminary data are consistent with the possibility that PBMC telomerase activity indexes, and may provide a novel window into, hippocampal neuroprotection and/or neurogenesis in MDD. PMID:25773002

  7. Impaired leukocyte trafficking and skin inflammatory responses in hamsters lacking a functional circadian system.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Brian J; Cable, Erin J; Patel, Priyesh N; Pyter, Leah M; Onishi, Kenneth G; Stevenson, Tyler J; Ruby, Norman F; Bradley, Sean P

    2013-08-01

    The immune system is under strong circadian control, and circadian desynchrony is a risk factor for metabolic disorders, inflammatory responses and cancer. Signaling pathways that maintain circadian rhythms (CRs) in immune function in vivo, and the mechanisms by which circadian desynchrony impairs immune function, remain to be fully identified. These experiments tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives CRs in the immune system, using a non-invasive model of SCN circadian arrhythmia. Robust CRs in blood leukocyte trafficking, with a peak during the early light phase (ZT4) and nadir in the early dark phase (ZT18), were absent in arrhythmic hamsters, as were CRs in spleen clock gene (per1, bmal1) expression, indicating that a functional pacemaker in the SCN is required for the generation of CRs in leukocyte trafficking and for driving peripheral clocks in secondary lymphoid organs. Pinealectomy was without effect on CRs in leukocyte trafficking, but abolished CRs in spleen clock gene expression, indicating that nocturnal melatonin secretion is necessary for communicating circadian time information to the spleen. CRs in trafficking of antigen presenting cells (CD11c(+) dendritic cells) in the skin were abolished, and antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin inflammatory responses were markedly impaired in arrhythmic hamsters. The SCN drives robust CRs in leukocyte trafficking and lymphoid clock gene expression; the latter of which is not expressed in the absence of melatonin. Robust entrainment of the circadian pacemaker provides a signal critical to diurnal rhythms in immunosurveilliance and optimal memory T-cell dependent immune responses. PMID:23474187

  8. Impaired Leukocyte Trafficking and Skin Inflammatory Responses in Hamsters Lacking a Functional Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Brian J.; Cable, Erin J.; Patel, Priyesh N.; Pyter, Leah M.; Onishi, Kenneth G.; Stevenson, Tyler J.; Ruby, Norman F.; Bradley, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    The immune system is under strong circadian control, and circadian desynchrony is a risk factor for metabolic disorders, inflammatory responses and cancer. Signaling pathways that maintain circadian rhythms (CRs) in immune function in vivo, and the mechanisms by which circadian desynchrony impairs immune function, remain to be fully-identified. These experiments tested the hypothesis that the hypothalamic circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) drives CRs in the immune system, using a non-invasive model of SCN circadian arrhythmia. Robust CRs in blood leukocyte trafficking, with a peak during the early light phase (ZT4) and nadir in the early dark phase (ZT18), were absent in arrhythmic hamsters, as were CRs in spleen clock gene (per1, bmal1) expression, indicating that a functional pacemaker in the SCN is required for the generation of CRs in leukocyte trafficking and for driving peripheral clocks in secondary lymphoid organs. Pinealectomy was without effect on CRs in leukocyte trafficking, but abolished CRs in spleen clock gene expression, indicating that nocturnal melatonin secretion is necessary for communicating circadian time information to the spleen. CRs in trafficking of antigen presenting cells (CD11c+ dendritic cells) in the skin were abolished, and antigen-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity skin inflammatory responses were markedly impaired in arrhythmic hamsters. The SCN drives robust CRs in leukocyte trafficking and lymphoid clock gene expression; the latter of which is not expressed in the absence of melatonin. Robust entrainment of the circadian pacemaker provides a signal critical to diurnal rhythms in immunosurveilliance and optimal memory T-cell dependent immune responses. PMID:23474187

  9. Erythrocyte and blood antibacterial defense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is an axiom that blood cellular immunity is provided by leukocytes. As to erythrocytes, it is generally accepted that their main function is respiration. Our research provides objective video and photo evidence regarding erythrocyte bactericidal function. Phase-contrast immersion vital microscopy of the blood of patients with bacteremia was performed, and the process of bacteria entrapping and killing by erythrocytes was shot by means of video camera. Video evidence demonstrates that human erythrocytes take active part in blood bactericidal action and can repeatedly engulf and kill bacteria of different species and size. Erythrocytes are extremely important integral part of human blood cellular immunity. Compared with phagocytic leukocytes, the erythrocytes: a) are more numerous; b) are able to entrap and kill microorganisms repeatedly without being injured; c) are more resistant to infection and better withstand the attacks of pathogens; d) have longer life span and are produced faster; e) are inauspicious media for proliferation of microbes and do not support replication of chlamidiae, mycoplasmas, rickettsiae, viruses, etc.; and f) are more effective and uncompromised bacterial killers. Blood cellular immunity theory and traditional view regarding the function of erythrocytes in human blood should be revised. PMID:24883200

  10. Impact of the International Prognostic Scoring System cytogenetic risk groups on the outcome of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings: a retrospective analysis of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation-Chronic Malignancies Working Party

    PubMed Central

    Onida, Francesco; Brand, Ronald; van Biezen, Anja; Schaap, Michel; von dem Borne, Peter A.; Maertens, Johan; Beelen, Dietrich W.; Carreras, Enric; Alessandrino, Emilio P.; Volin, Liisa; Kuball, Jürgen H.E.; Figuera, Angela; Sierra, Jorge; Finke, Jürgen; Kröger, Nicolaus; de Witte, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Acquired chromosomal abnormalities are important prognostic factors in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes treated with supportive care and with disease-modifying therapeutic interventions, including allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To assess the prognostic impact of cytogenetic characteristics after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation accurately, we investigated a homogeneous group of 523 patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes who have received stem cells from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings. Overall survival at five years from transplantation in good, intermediate, and poor cytogenetic risk groups according to the International Prognostic Scoring System was 48%, 45% and 30%, respectively (P<0.01). Both the disease status (complete remission vs. not in complete remission) and the morphological classification at transplant in the untreated patients were significantly associated with probability of overall survival and relapse-free survival (P<0.01). The cytogenetic risk groups have no prognostic impact in untreated patients with refractory anemia ± ringed sideroblasts (P=0.90). However, combining the good and intermediate cytogenetic risk groups and comparing them to the poor-risk group showed within the other three disease-status-at-transplant groups a hazard ratio of 1.86 (95%CI: 1.41–2.45). In conclusion, this study shows that, in a large series of patients with primary myelodysplastic syndromes, poor-risk cytogenetics as defined by the standard International Prognostic Scoring System is associated with a relatively poor survival after allogeneic stem cell transplantation from human leukocyte antigen-identical siblings except in patients who are transplanted in refractory anemia/refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts stage before progression to higher myelodysplastic syndrome stages. PMID:25085359

  11. Prolactin-releasing peptide is a potent mediator of the innate immune response in leukocytes from Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Romero, Alex; Manríquez, René; Alvarez, Claudio; Gajardo, Cristina; Vásquez, Jorge; Kausel, Gudrun; Monrás, Mónica; Olavarría, Víctor H; Yáñez, Alejandro; Enríquez, Ricardo; Figueroa, Jaime

    2012-06-30

    Prolactin (PRL)-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a strong candidate stimulator of pituitary PRL transcription and secretion in teleosts. However, the role in control of extrapituitary PRL expression or its effects on innate immunity are unclear even in mammals. To study the possible presence of PrRP in peripheral organs, PrRP expression patterns and their effect on innate immunity were characterised in SHK-1 cells and head kidney (HK) leukocytes purified from the salmonid, Salmo salar. We detected immunoreactive cells in leukocytes from blood and HK of S. salar and found that PrRP mRNA was abundantly expressed in these cells. We have recently reported that physiological concentrations of native PRL, downstream of neuropeptide PrRP were able to induce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HK leukocytes and macrophages from S. salar and Sparus aurata. It is of interest to note that in this work we have revealed that synthetic PrRP was able to induce expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins) IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and PRL. We also show here that PrRP increased both (ROS) production and phagocytosis. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that PrRP may be a local modulator of innate immune responses in leukocytes from S. salar. PMID:22578983

  12. Complementary role of CT and In-111 leukocyte scans in the diagnosis of infected hematoma and thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.A.; Floyd, W.; Raval, B.; Sandler, C.; Gobuty, A.H.

    1984-01-01

    Patients with traumatic hematomas or those with indwelling catheters who subsequently develop fever and sepsis without clinical localizing signs to indicate an inflammatory focus can present a diagnostic dilemma. Early diagnosis of an infected hematoma or thrombus is important to optimal management. CT can provide, exquisite delineation of anatomy identifying and localizing a post-traumatic fluid collection but cannot reliably distinguish hematoma from abscess in all cases. A thrombus at a catheter tip may be too small to be resolved; when identified, the question of infection again remains. In-111 leukocyte scanning provides a method for identifying or ruling out infection in these situations. The authors performed In-111 leukocyte scans on 15 patients with indwelling catheters. Five of these patients were febrile with positive blood cultures. In-111 leukocyte scans showed positive findings in 8 patients: 5 showed surgically confirmed infected hematomas in the abdomen (3 in the pelvis, 1 in a kidney, 1 in the splenic bed), and 3 showed infected thrombosis in catheter tips. The authors conclude that CT scanning and In-111 leukocyte scanning play complementary roles in the evaluation of traumatic hematomas and thrombosis, the former providing precise anatomic delineation and the latter providing evidence of inflammation.

  13. Localization of indium-111 leukocytes in noninfected neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Lamki, L.M.; Kasi, L.P.; Haynie, T.P.

    1988-12-01

    Indium-111-labeled autologous leukocyte studies in general carry a high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the investigation of infections and abscesses. However, past studies have described sporadic cases in which In leukocytes localized in tumors. Our experience using In leukocytes for the investigation of fever of unknown origin in cancer patients, however, indicates a relatively high incidence of In leukocyte localization in noninfected neoplasms. Out of the 61 patients studied for fever of unknown origin, 21 patients (34%) manifested abnormal localization of In leukocytes in neoplasms without clinical evidence of infection. These included patients with abnormal localization in: (a) lymph nodes, (b) soft-tissue tumors, and (c) bone neoplasms. The tumors included both primary and secondary lesions, and hematologic as well as solid tumors. The mechanism of In leukocyte localization in tumors is still not completely explained. Interpretations of In leukocyte studies in cancer patients with fever should take into consideration the possibility that localization may occur in neoplastic tissue per se and does not always indicate the presence of infection.

  14. Necrosis and apoptosis of polymorphonuclear cells exposed to peritoneal dialysis fluids in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cendoroglo, M; Sundaram, S; Groves, C; Ucci, A A; Jaber, B L; Pereira, B J

    1997-12-01

    Conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids are known to inhibit polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) phagocytosis, oxidative burst and enzyme release. However, the relative contributions of apoptosis and/or necrosis to this dysfunction have not been examined. We investigated the effects of osmolality, glucose concentration and heat-sterilization of PD fluids on necrosis and apoptosis of PMN. Polymorphonuclear cells were isolated from 8 healthy volunteers and exposed to different PD fluids for four hours. PMN were then double-stained with Hoechst 33342 and propidium iodide to study the proportion of viable, apoptotic and necrotic cells. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed to confirm the results obtained with flow cytometry. The fluids studied were conventionally heat-sterilized 1.5% Dianeal (1.5% D), conventionally heat-sterilized 4.25% Dianeal (4.25% D), 1.5% D in which the osmolality was increased to that of 4.25% D by adding mannitol (1.5% D + M), a filter-sterilized version of 4.25% D (4.25% D-F) and a 1.1% amino acid PD fluid (AA) (Nutrineal PD4). All PD fluids had their pH equilibrated (pH = 7.4) by the addition of sodium bicarbonate. Compared to PMN exposed to culture medium, a significantly higher proportion of necrosis was observed in PMN exposed to 1.5% D (P = 0.04). The 4.25% D induced greater necrosis than 1.5% D (P = 0.001), and the 4.25% D also induced significantly more necrosis (P = 0.002) compared to 4.25% D-F. These data suggest that the consequences of heat-sterilization, rather than high glucose concentration are responsible for the necrosis observed. Indeed, the proportion of necrotic PMN with 4.25% D-F was not significantly different from 1.5% D. The 1.5% D + M and AA induced significantly more apoptosis compared to 1.5% D (P = 0.006 and P < 0.05, respectively), suggesting that apoptosis can be induced by the high osmolality of PD fluids. However, 1.5% D +/- M also induced significantly more apoptosis (P = 0.007) compared to 4.25% D-F. This suggests that the apoptosis effect is specific for the osmolyte present in PD fluids, and that mannitol and amino acids induce more apoptosis than glucose. In summary, the different non-physiological components of conventional PD fluids evaluated in this study had a differential effect on PMN survival. Heat sterilization of high glucose-containing PD fluids was associated predominantly with necrosis of PMN, and high osmolality with apoptosis. PMID:9407510

  15. Effect of monodesethyl amodiaquine on human polymorphonuclear neutrophil functions in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Labro, M T; el Benna, J

    1991-01-01

    We have previously observed that the antimalarial drug amodiaquine impairs the human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) oxidative burst in vitro. However, the drug acted at a concentration of 100 micrograms/ml, far higher than that which is achievable therapeutically. Since amodiaquine is extensively metabolized into monodesethyl amodiaquine, we investigated whether the metabolite modified PMN functions at lower concentrations than amodiaquine does. Monodesethyl amodiaquine strongly depressed PMN chemotaxis and phagocytosis at concentrations as low as 10 micrograms/ml. This inhibition was reversed by washing out the drug. The PMN oxidative burst was markedly depressed by monodesethyl amodiaquine, whatever the assay technique (luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence, myeloperoxidase activity) or stimulus used (opsonized zymosan, phorbol myristate acetate, formylmethionyl leucyl phenylalanine). There were extreme interindividual variations in sensitivity to the depressive effect of monodesethyl amodiaquine when the PMN oxidative burst was assayed in terms of luminol-amplified chemiluminescence or lucigenin-amplified chemiluminescence. PMN samples were divided into two groups on the basis of the MIC of the drug: 60% of the samples were "highly sensitive," being strongly inhibited at concentrations as low as 0.1 micrograms/ml (obtained during therapy), whereas the "moderately sensitive" samples were inhibited at concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml and above. The difference between the two groups was highly significant. This PMN sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of the drug was not related to intrinsic oxidative metabolism. Our data indicate that monodesethyl amodiaquine, the main metabolite of amodiaquine, has a far stronger inhibitory effect on various PMN functions in vitro than the parent drug, warranting relevant in vivo studies. PMID:1649569

  16. Endocytosis and shedding of the decay accelerating factor on human polymorphonuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Tausk, F; Fey, M; Gigli, I

    1989-11-15

    The decay-accelerating factor (DAF) is a cell membrane glycoprotein that functions in the control of C activation. We studied the modulation of membrane DAF on polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) by using anti-DAF antibodies. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis showed that DAF expression was reduced by 43 +/- 7% on resting or stimulated cells that were held at 37 degrees C for 30 min when compared with those kept on ice. Most of this reduction occurred within the first 15 min, and was followed by a gradual further decrease in surface DAF. PMN that were held at 37 degrees C for varying periods of time before DAF measurement had a gradual decrease suggestive of release of DAF from the PMN membrane or endocytosis. To examine the latter, PMN were reacted with anti-DAF at 0 degree C, followed by 125I-Fab'2 secondary antibodies at either 0 degree C or 37 degrees C, and subsequently treated with pronase. Thirty +/- 11% of the 125I remained bound to cells kept at 37 degrees C compared to 2% in those held at 0 degrees C. Internalization was further confirmed by electron microscopy. In PMN that were not exposed to pronase, 26 +/- 2% of the surface-associated 125I was released at 37 degrees C compared with 7% at 0 degrees C. Immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE of surface-labeled PMN showed that the temperature-dependent released DAF had a lower m.w. than membrane DAF. Immunofluorescent studies revealed that 37 degrees C mediated the redistribution of DAF from a homogeneous pattern into caps. These results show that under the conditions studied DAF is partially internalized and partially released from the PMN membrane to the fluid phase; the latter may contribute to the presence of DAF in body fluids. PMID:2478622

  17. Spatial and Temporal Profiles for Anti-Inflammatory Gene Expression in Leukocytes during a Resolving Model of Peritonitis1

    PubMed Central

    Damazo, Amilcar S.; Yona, Simon; Flower, Roderick J.; Perretti, Mauro; Oliani, Sonia M.

    2007-01-01

    The recent appreciation of the role played by endogenous counterregulatory mechanisms in controlling the outcome of the host inflammatory response requires specific analysis of their spatial and temporal profiles. In this study, we have focused on the glucocorticoid-regulated anti-inflammatory mediator annexin 1. Induction of peritonitis in wild-type mice rapidly (4 h) produced the expected signs of inflammation, including marked activation of resident cells (e.g., mast cells), migration of blood-borne leukocytes, mirrored by blood neutrophilia. These changes subsided after 48–96 h. In annexin 1null mice, the peritonitis response was exaggerated (?40% at 4 h), with increased granulocyte migration and cytokine production. In blood leukocytes, annexin 1 gene expression was activated at 4, but not 24, h postzymosan, whereas protein levels were increased at both time points. Locally, endothelial and mast cell annexin 1 gene expression was not detectable in basal conditions, whereas it was switched on during the inflammatory response. The significance of annexin 1 system plasticity in the anti-inflammatory properties of dexamethasone was assessed. Clear induction of annexin 1 gene in response to dexamethasone treatment was evident in the circulating and migrated leukocytes, and in connective tissue mast cells; this was associated with the steroid failure to inhibit leukocyte trafficking, cytokine synthesis, and mast cell degranulation in the annexin 1null mouse. In conclusion, understanding how inflammation is brought under control will help clarify the complex interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways operating during the host response to injury and infection. PMID:16547279

  18. Blood Culture and Stimulation Conditions for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in Cervids by the Cervigam Assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitogen and antigen induced interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) responses of peripheral blood leukocytes from cervids were evaluated using a commercial, whole blood assay for the cytokine (Cervigam trademark, Prionics AG). Whole blood was from Mycobacterium bovis-infected white-tailed deer and reindeer, M....

  19. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking, and Immunohematology (AFSC 90470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This three-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are hematology (the physiology of blood, complete blood counts and related studies, erythrocyte studies, leukocyte and thrombocyte maturation, and blood

  20. Imaging granularity of leukocytes with third harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Using third harmonic generation (THG) microscopy, we demonstrate that granularity differences of leukocytes can be revealed without a label. Excited by a 1230 nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order of magnitude smaller. Interestingly, the characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to track the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. These results suggest that label-free THG imaging may provide timely tracking of leukocyte movement without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status. PMID:23024916

  1. Detection of aortoarterial graft infections by leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.G.; Seabold, J.E.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1983-09-01

    Infections of aortoarterial prostheses are serious, difficult to detect, and difficult to treat. Scintigraphy with indium-111 labeled autologous leukocytes is an accurate noninvasive method of assessing the presence and extent of such an infection. In three cases of aorto-arterial bypass graft infections, the leukocyte study was successful in establishing the diagnosis and in assessing the extent of infection. Other noninvasive diagnostic techniques are useful, but all have serious limitations. The leukocyte study alone appears to be free of likely sources of error.

  2. Determinants of Leukocyte Margination in Rectangular Microchannels

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhishek; Munn, Lance L.

    2009-01-01

    Microfabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices has provided a new set of tools for studying fluid dynamics of blood at the scale of real microvessels. However, we are only starting to understand the power and limitations of this technology. To determine the applicability of PDMS microchannels for blood flow analysis, we studied white blood cell (WBC) margination in channels of various geometries and blood compositions. We found that WBCs prefer to marginate downstream of sudden expansions, and that red blood cell (RBC) aggregation facilitates the process. In contrast to tubes, WBC margination was restricted to the sidewalls in our low aspect ratio, pseudo-2D rectangular channels and consequently, margination efficiencies of more than 95% were achieved in a variety of channel geometries. In these pseudo-2D channels blood rheology and cell integrity were preserved over a range of flow rates, with the upper range limited by the shear in the vertical direction. We conclude that, with certain limitations, rectangular PDMS microfluidic channels are useful tools for quantitative studies of blood rheology. PMID:19768109

  3. Influence of Magnetite Nanoparticles on Human Leukocyte Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Džarová, Anežka; Dubni?ková, Martina; Závišová, Vlasta; Koneracká, Martina; Kop?anský, Peter; Gojzewski, Hubert; Timko, Milan

    2010-12-01

    Chemically synthesized magnetite particles coated by sodium oleate and PEG (MNP), and magnetosomes (MS) influence the process of phagocytosis and the metabolic activity (lysozyme and peroxidase activity) in leukocytes. Lysozyme activity is oxygen-independent liquidation mechanisms of engulfed microorganism, peroxidase activity is an oxygen-dependent mechanism. Both tested types of nanoparticles lysed leukocyte cells during incubation. MNP at concentrations of 10 and 20 ?g/mL lysed almost all leukocytes and their cell viability was in the 14±0.05% range. On the other hand MS begin to influence leukocytes activity at the concentration of 1 ?g/ml and this influence grows with increasing concentration up to 20 ?g/ml. MS are more suitable for biological applications than MNP which are more aggressive material than MS. MS should not be used above 10 ?g/mL.

  4. Osteomyelitis complicating fracture: pitfalls of /sup 111/In leukocyte scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Pjura, G.A.; Lowry, P.A.; Gobuty, A.H.; Traina, J.F.

    1987-05-01

    /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging has shown greater accuracy and specificity than alternative noninvasive methods in the detection of uncomplicated osteomyelitis. Forty patients with suspected osteomyelitis complicating fractures (with and without surgical intervention) were evaluated with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. All five patients with intense focal uptake, but only one of 13 with no uptake, had active osteomyelitis. However, mild to moderate /sup 111/In leukocyte uptake, observed in 22 cases, indicated the presence of osteomyelitis in only four of these; the other false-positive results were observed in noninfected callus formation, heterotopic bone formation, myositis ossificans, and sickle-cell disease. These results suggest that /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte imaging is useful for the evaluation of suspected osteomyelitis complicating fracture but must be used in conjunction with clinical and radiographic correlation to avoid false-positive results.

  5. Bayesian data analysis of the dynamics of rolling leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskopp, Mats Leif; Preuss, Roland; Deussen, Andreas; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dieterich, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The coordinated recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and inflammation is a central process of the immune system and proceeds in several steps. Here we focus on the dynamics of rolling leukocytes obtained from in vitro experiments. Trajectories of rolling leukocytes in small flow chambers are acquired with phase contrast microscopy under different levels of fluid shear stress and a variation of protein coatings of the (adhesive) surfaces. Bayesian data analysis of a random walk model including drift is applied to individual trajectories of leukocytes. The analysis allows the estimation of drift velocities and diffusion coefficients within an uncertainty of about 10% and shows a certain homogeneity of the cell groups. Drift velocities of cells saturate in spite of increasing fluid flow. In addition, the analysis reveals some correlated fluctuations of cells' translocations requiring a refinement of the stochastic model.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this condition develop severe inflammation of the gums (gingivitis) and other tissue around the teeth (periodontitis), which ... Registry: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gingivitis MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Immunodeficiency Disorders Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment ...

  7. Interactions of Penicillium marneffei with Human Leukocytes In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Rongrungruang, Yong; Levitz, Stuart M.

    1999-01-01

    Penicillium marneffei, a dimorphic fungus endemic in parts of Asia, causes disease in those with impaired cell-mediated immunity, especially persons with AIDS. The histopathology of penicilliosis marneffei features the intracellular infection of macrophages. We studied the interactions between human leukocytes and heat-killed yeast-phase P. marneffei. Monocyte-derived macrophages bound and internalized P. marneffei in the presence of complement-sufficient pooled human serum (PHS). Binding and phagocytosis were still seen if PHS was heat inactivated or omitted altogether. The binding of unopsonized P. marneffei to monocyte-derived macrophages occurred in the absence of divalent cations and was not affected by inhibitors of mannose and ?-glucan receptors or monoclonal antibodies directed against CD14 and CD11/CD18. Binding was profoundly inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin. A vigorous respiratory burst was seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with P. marneffei, regardless of whether the fungi were opsonized. However, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) release from PBMC stimulated with P. marneffei occurred only if serum was present. These data demonstrate that (i) monocyte-derived macrophages bind and phagocytose P. marneffei even in the absence of opsonization, (ii) binding is divalent cation independent but is inhibited by wheat germ agglutinin, suggesting that the major receptor(s) recognizing P. marneffei is a glycoprotein with exposed N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminyl groups, (iii) P. marneffei stimulates the respiratory burst regardless of whether opsonins are present, and (iv) serum factors are required for P. marneffei to stimulate TNF-? release. The ability of unopsonized P. marneffei to parasitize mononuclear phagocytes without stimulating the production of TNF-? may be critical for the virulence of this intracellular parasite. PMID:10456924

  8. Altered DNA Methylation in Leukocytes with Trisomy 21

    PubMed Central

    Kerkel, Kristi; Schupf, Nicole; Hatta, Kota; Pang, Deborah; Salas, Martha; Kratz, Alexander; Minden, Mark; Murty, Vundavalli; Zigman, Warren B.; Mayeux, Richard P.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Torkamani, Ali; Schork, Nicholas J.; Silverman, Wayne; Croy, B. Anne; Tycko, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The primary abnormality in Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is well known; but how this chromosomal gain produces the complex DS phenotype, including immune system defects, is not well understood. We profiled DNA methylation in total peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and T-lymphocytes from adults with DS and normal controls and found gene-specific abnormalities of CpG methylation in DS, with many of the differentially methylated genes having known or predicted roles in lymphocyte development and function. Validation of the microarray data by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-sensitive Pyrosequencing (MS-Pyroseq) confirmed strong differences in methylation (p<0.0001) for each of 8 genes tested: TMEM131, TCF7, CD3Z/CD247, SH3BP2, EIF4E, PLD6, SUMO3, and CPT1B, in DS versus control PBL. In addition, we validated differential methylation of NOD2/CARD15 by bisulfite sequencing in DS versus control T-cells. The differentially methylated genes were found on various autosomes, with no enrichment on chromosome 21. Differences in methylation were generally stable in a given individual, remained significant after adjusting for age, and were not due to altered cell counts. Some but not all of the differentially methylated genes showed different mean mRNA expression in DS versus control PBL; and the altered expression of 5 of these genes, TMEM131, TCF7, CD3Z, NOD2, and NPDC1, was recapitulated by exposing normal lymphocytes to the demethylating drug 5-aza-2?deoxycytidine (5aza-dC) plus mitogens. We conclude that altered gene-specific DNA methylation is a recurrent and functionally relevant downstream response to trisomy 21 in human cells. PMID:21124956

  9. Quantifying transient psychological stress using a novel technique: changes to PMA-induced leukocyte production of ROS in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shelton-Rayner, Graham K; Mian, Rubina; Chandler, Simon; Robertson, Duncan; Macdonald, David W

    2011-01-01

    Although much work has been conducted to quantify the long-term physiological effects of psychological stress, measures of short-term, low-level stress have been more elusive. This study assessed the effect of exposure of volunteers to a mild, brief, psychologically stressful event, on the functional ability of leukocytes in whole blood to respond to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) in vitro. Volunteers operated a car electric window and adjusted it to 4 pre-determined positions. Between each operation the mechanism's polarity was covertly altered (group B) or remained unaltered (group A). For each treatment group 10 different subjects provided capillary blood samples pre- and post-stressor. Using a chemiluminescent technique termed leukocyte coping capacity, the ability of leukocytes to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro was assessed. ROS release differed significantly at 10 min post-stressor between treatment groups, suggesting exposure to acute psychological stress leads to a reduced ability to respond to bacterial challenge. PMID:21375949

  10. An optimised perfusion technique for extracting murine gastric leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Ng, Garrett Z; Sutton, Philip

    2015-12-01

    The stomach is a difficult tissue to analyse by flow cytometry, largely due to the difficulty of isolating viable leukocytes. Here we present the re-optimization of a perfusion technique that compares favourably against two other methods of enzymatic digestion for the release of gastric leukocytes. We believe that this technique could greatly assist the analysis of immune cells basally present in the murine stomach and that infiltrate during infection or disease. PMID:26478184

  11. Constitutive and agonist stimulated ATP secretion in leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Campwala, Hinnah; Fountain, Samuel J.

    2013-01-01

    Release and reception of extracellular ATP by leukocytes plays a critical role in immune responses to infection, injury and cardiovascular disease. Leukocytes of both the innate, adaptive immune and central nervous system express a repertoire of cell surface receptors for ATP (P2X and P2Y receptors) and its metabolites. ATP acts as a damage-associated molecule pattern (DAMP) released by injured or dying cells. Detection of released ATP by neighboring leukocytes initiates inflammation and wound healing. However, recent evidence from our group and others suggests ATP release by leukocytes themselves serves to regulate homeostatic mechanisms and coordinate responses to external pro-inflammatory cues. Examples include the homeostatic control of intracellular calcium and regulation of migratory guidance during chemotactic response to external cues. Though there has been some progress in elucidating ATP release mechanisms of some mammalian cells types, release conduits and coupling signal transduction machinery remain larger elusive for leukocytes. Our recent studies suggest a role for secretory lysosomes in releasing ATP in monocytes. Though poorly defined, targeting ATP release mechanisms in leukocytes have great anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:23713132

  12. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  13. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  14. Blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  15. Prepartal dietary energy level affects peripartal bovine blood neutrophil metabolic, antioxidant, and inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z; Bu, D P; Vailati Riboni, M; Khan, M J; Graugnard, D E; Luo, J; Cardoso, F C; Loor, J J

    2015-08-01

    During the dry period, cows can easily overconsume higher-grain diets, a scenario that could impair immune function during the peripartal period. Objectives were to investigate the effects of energy overfeeding on expression profile of genes associated with inflammation, lipid metabolism, and neutrophil function, in 12 multiparous Holstein cows (n=6/dietary group) fed control [CON, 1.34 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM)] or higher-energy (HE, 1.62 Mcal/kg of DM) diets during the last 45 d of pregnancy. Blood was collected to evaluate 43 genes in polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) isolated at -14, 7, and 14 d relative to parturition. We detected greater expression of inflammatory-related cytokines (IL1B, STAT3, NFKB1) and eicosanoid synthesis (ALOX5AP and PLA2G4A) in HE cows than in CON cows. Around parturition, all cows had a close balance in mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory IL1B and the anti-inflammatory IL10, with greater expression of both in cows fed HE than CON. The expression of CCL2, LEPR, TLR4, IL6, and LTC4S was undetectable. Cows in the HE group had greater expression of genes involved in PMNL adhesion, motility, migration, and phagocytosis, which was similar to expression of genes related to the pro-inflammatory cytokine. This response suggests that HE cows experienced a chronic state of inflammation. The greater expression of G6PD in HE cows could have been associated with the greater plasma insulin, which would have diverted glucose to other tissues. Cows fed the HE diet also had greater expression of transcription factors involved in metabolism of long-chain fatty acids (PPARD, RXRA), suggesting that immune cells might be predisposed to use endogenous ligands such as nonesterified fatty acids available in the circulation when glucose is in high demand for milk synthesis. The lower overall expression of SLC2A1 postpartum than prepartum supports this suggestion. Targeting interleukin-1? signaling might be of value in terms of controlling the inflammatory response around calving. The present study revealed that overfeeding cows during late pregnancy results in activation, ahead of parturition, of PMNL responses associated with stress and inflammation. These adaptations observed in PMNL did not seem to be detrimental for production. PMID:26026766

  16. Functional Mineralocorticoid Receptors in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells Regulate ICAM-1 Expression and Promote Leukocyte Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Massimiliano; Newfell, Brenna G.; la Sala, Andrea; Baur, Wendy; Fabbri, Andrea; Rosano, Giuseppe; Mendelsohn, Michael E.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2008-01-01

    In clinical trials, aldosterone antagonists decrease cardiovascular mortality and ischemia by unknown mechanisms. The steroid hormone aldosterone acts by binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), a ligand-activated transcription factor. In humans, aldosterone causes MR-dependent endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction and in animal models, aldosterone increases vascular macrophage infiltration and atherosclerosis. MR antagonists inhibit these effects without changing blood pressure, suggesting a direct role for vascular MR in EC function and atherosclerosis. Whether human vascular EC express functional MR is not known. Here we show that human coronary artery and aortic EC express MR mRNA and protein and that EC MR mediates aldosterone-dependent gene transcription. Human EC also express the enzyme 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2(11?HSD2) and inhibition of 11?HSD2 in aortic EC enhances gene transactivation by cortisol, supporting that EC 11?HSD2 is functional. Furthermore, aldosterone stimulates transcription of the proatherogenic leukocyte-EC adhesion molecule Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1(ICAM1) gene and protein expression on human coronary artery EC, an effect inhibited by the MR antagonist spironolactone and by MR knock-down with siRNA. Cell adhesion assays demonstrate that aldosterone promotes leukocyte-EC adhesion, an effect that is inhibited by spironolactone and ICAM1 blocking antibody, supporting that aldosterone induction of EC ICAM1 surface expression via MR mediates leukocyte-EC adhesion. These data show that aldosterone activates endogenous EC MR and proatherogenic gene expression in clinically important human EC. These studies describe a novel mechanism by which aldosterone may influence ischemic cardiovascular events and support a new explanation for the decrease in ischemic events in patients treated with aldosterone antagonists. PMID:18467630

  17. Crossing the Vascular Wall: Common and Unique Mechanisms Exploited by Different Leukocyte Subsets during Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Schnoor, Michael; Alcaide, Pilar; Voisin, Mathieu-Benoit; van Buul, Jaap D.

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte extravasation is one of the essential and first steps during the initiation of inflammation. Therefore, a better understanding of the key molecules that regulate this process may help to develop novel therapeutics for treatment of inflammation-based diseases such as atherosclerosis or rheumatoid arthritis. The endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are known as the central mediators of leukocyte adhesion to and transmigration across the endothelium. Engagement of these molecules by their leukocyte integrin receptors initiates the activation of several signaling pathways within both leukocytes and endothelium. Several of such events have been described to occur during transendothelial migration of all leukocyte subsets, whereas other mechanisms are known only for a single leukocyte subset. Here, we summarize current knowledge on regulatory mechanisms of leukocyte extravasation from a leukocyte and endothelial point of view, respectively. Specifically, we will focus on highlighting common and unique mechanisms that specific leukocyte subsets exploit to succeed in crossing endothelial monolayers. PMID:26568666

  18. Sexual dimorphisms in leukocyte trafficking in a mouse peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Kay, Emma; Gomez-Garcia, Lorena; Woodfin, Abigail; Scotland, Ramona S; Whiteford, James R

    2015-11-01

    Sexual dimorphisms exist in the incidence and severity of many diseases, with females demonstrating relative protection from inflammatory conditions. The extent and mechanisms by which excessive leukocyte recruitment underlies these differences are not well established, and better understanding is essential for the development of targeted therapies. Here, we set out to compare the male and female inflammatory response in a murine zymosan-induced peritonitis model and to understand how leukocyte subsets are mobilized from storage pools in both sexes. This work shows that female C57BL/6 mice recruit fewer classical monocytes and neutrophils during zymosan-induced peritonitis. In addition, sex differences were evident in the circulation, as female mice showed reduced neutrophilia and monocytosis vs. male counterparts, despite having similar mobilization from BM stores. Importantly, we show that storage and trafficking of splenic leukocytes during acute inflammation are distinct between the sexes. Male mice have greater splenic stores of neutrophils and classical and nonclassical monocytes, despite similar spleen sizes, signifying another source of potential pathogenic leukocytes. This work demonstrates that males and females have distinct leukocyte-trafficking profiles in acute inflammation and suggests that the spleen, not the BM, plays a role in determining sex differences in the available pool of immune cells. Such dimorphisms demonstrate the importance of considering gender in assay development, drug design, and clinical trials. PMID:26138922

  19. Leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus volume: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nilsonne, Gustav; Tamm, Sandra; Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Lekander, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length has been shown to correlate to hippocampus volume, but effect estimates differ in magnitude and are not uniformly positive. This study aimed primarily to investigate the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocampus gray matter volume by meta-analysis and secondarily to investigate possible effect moderators. Five studies were included with a total of 2107 participants, of which 1960 were contributed by one single influential study. A random-effects meta-analysis estimated the effect to r = 0.12 [95% CI -0.13, 0.37] in the presence of heterogeneity and a subjectively estimated moderate to high risk of bias. There was no evidence that apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype was an effect moderator, nor that the ratio of leukocyte telomerase activity to telomere length was a better predictor than leukocyte telomere length for hippocampus volume. This meta-analysis, while not proving a positive relationship, also is not able to disprove the earlier finding of a positive correlation in the one large study included in analyses. We propose that a relationship between leukocyte telomere length and hippocamus volume may be mediated by transmigrating monocytes which differentiate into microglia in the brain parenchyma. PMID:26674112

  20. [Mesenchymal stem cells influence on leukocytes allergen-specific reactions in case of atopic hypersencitivity].

    PubMed

    Aisenstadt, A A; Supilnikova, O V; Bagaeva, V V; Smoljaninov, A B; Samoylovich, M P; Klimovich, V B

    2015-01-01

    Buffy coat samples containing lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes, were obtained from the peripheral blood of 16 donors who had clinical manifestations of atopic hypersensitivity in their medical background. After ex vivo incubation with donor-specific allergens, the percentage of B- and T-lymphocytes and natural killers (NK) remained unchanged. Buffy coat incubation with allergens induced production of IgE and IL-4 in all studied samples. In 13 out of 16 cases the reaction to contact with an allergen was also evident in the increasing of T-activated lymphocytes (CD3+, HLA-DR+) subpopulation. Co-cultivation with MSC from bone marrow, adipose tissue and umbilical cord resulted in blocking of allergen-induced IgE and IL4 secretion and HLA-DR+ T-lymphocytes subpopulation increase. There were no significant differences in the effect of MSCs, isolated from three different sources, on allergen-specific responses of leukocytes. Co-culturing of leukocytes with MSCs from all three sources led to an increase in the content of regulatory T-lymphocytes by an average of 30%. Thus, the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs in vitro results in blocking of the effector part of allergic reactions. PMID:26021169

  1. Adhesion of leukocytes under oscillating stagnation point conditions: a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Walker, P G; Alshorman, A A; Westwood, S; David, T

    2002-01-01

    Leukocyte recruitment from blood to the endothelium plays an important role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Cells show a primary and secondary adhesive process with primary bonds responsible for capture and rolling and secondary bonds for arrest. Our objective was to investigate the role played by this process on the adhesion of leukocytes in complex flow. Cells were modelled as rigid spheres with spring like adhesion molecules which formed bonds with endothelial receptors. Models of bond kinetics and Newton's laws of motion were solved numerically to determine cell motion. Fluid force was obtained from the local shear rate obtained from a CFD simulation of the flow over a backward facing step.In stagnation point flow the shear rate near the stagnation point has a large gradient such that adherent cells in this region roll to a high shear region preventing permanent adhesion. This is enhanced if a small time dependent perturbation is imposed upon the stagnation point. For lower shear rates the cell rolling velocity may be such that secondary bonds have time to form. These bonds resist the lower fluid forces and consequently there is a relatively large permanent adhesion region. PMID:12122269

  2. Polystyrene microspheres enable 10-color compensation for immunophenotyping of primary human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Byrd, Tiara; Carr, Karen D; Norman, John C; Huye, Leslie; Hegde, Meenakshi; Ahmed, Nabil

    2015-11-01

    Compensation is a critical process for the unbiased analysis of flow cytometry data. Numerous compensation strategies exist, including the use of bead-based products. The purpose of this study was to determine whether beads, specifically polystyrene microspheres (PSMS) compare to the use of primary leukocytes for single color based compensation when conducting polychromatic flow cytometry. To do so, we stained individual tubes of both PSMS and leukocytes with panel specific antibodies conjugated to fluorochromes corresponding to fluorescent channels FL1-FL10. We compared the matrix generated by PSMS to that generated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Ideal for compensation is a sample with both a discrete negative population and a bright positive population. We demonstrate that PSMS display autofluorescence properties similar to PBMC. When comparing PSMS to PBMC for compensation PSMS yielded more evenly distributed and discrete negative and positive populations to use for compensation. We analyzed three donors' PBMC stained with our 10-color T cell subpopulation panel using compensation generated by PSMS vs.PBMC and detected no significant differences in the population distribution. Panel specific antibodies bound to PSMS represent an invaluable valid tool to generate suitable compensation matrices especially when sample material is limited and/or the sample requires analysis of dynamically modulated or rare events. © 2015 The Authors. Cytometry Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26202733

  3. Herpes Murine Model as a Biological Assay to Test Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts Activity

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Jazmín, Nohemí; Estrada-Parra, Sergio; Becerril-García, Miguel Angel; Limón-Flores, Alberto Yairh; Vázquez-Leyva, Said; Pavón, Lenin; Velasco-Velázquez, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra

    2015-01-01

    Human dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLEs) are heterogeneous mixtures of low-molecular-weight peptides that are released on disruption of peripheral blood leukocytes from healthy donors. DLEs improve clinical responses in infections, allergies, cancer, and immunodeficiencies. Transferon is a human DLE that has been registered as a hemoderivate by Mexican health authorities and commercialized nationally. To develop an animal model that could be used routinely as a quality control assay for Transferon, we standardized and validated a murine model of cutaneous HSV-1 infection. Using this model, we evaluated the activity of 27 Transferon batches. All batches improved the survival of HSV-1-infected mice, wherein average survival rose from 20.9% in control mice to 59.6% in Transferon-treated mice. The activity of Transferon correlated with increased serum levels of IFN-? and reduced IL-6 and TNF-? concentrations. Our results demonstrate that (i) this mouse model of cutaneous herpes can be used to examine the activity of DLEs, such as Transferon; (ii) the assay can be used as a routine test for batch release; (iii) Transferon is produced with high homogeneity between batches; (iv) Transferon does not have direct virucidal, cytoprotective, or antireplicative effects; and (v) the protective effect of Transferon in vivo correlates with changes in serum cytokines. PMID:25984538

  4. Distribution and dosimetry of In-111 labeled leukocytes and platelets in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, D.A.; Finston, R.A.; Smith, S.I.

    1981-06-01

    The distribution of In-111 labeled leukocytes and platelets was studied by whole body gamma camera imaging in patients. Images were made approximately one hour and 24 hours after IV injection, and stored in digital form in computer memory. Estimates of the quantitative organ distribution were made from the geometric mean of the anterior and posterior region of interest counts after suitable background subtraction. Nearly quantitative retention of cell activity was observed with little or no excretion seen in either gut or kidneys. Mixed leukocytes distributed in spleen, liver and bone marrow in decreasing order of concentration, similar at both times, with a transient lung uptake noted at the one hour time only. The dose from 0.5 mCi In-111-WBC's was: liver, 1.4 rad; spleen, 8.5 rad; marrow, 2.3 rad. Lymphocytes had similar distribution with the addition of inguinal and cervical lymph nodes. The dose from 0.5 mCi In-111-lymphocytes was: liver, 0.8 rad; spleen, 6.7 rad; marrow and lymphatic tissue, 1.4 rad. Platelets distributed primarily in the blood pool with most of the remainder concentrating in the spleen, with a small amount in the penis. The dose from 0.5 mCi of In-111-platelets was: liver, 3.2 rad; spleen, 8.6 rad; and whole body, 0.3 rad.

  5. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  6. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bank will store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ... to make blood. There's currently no man-made alternative to human blood. However, researchers have developed medicines ...

  7. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if you need a blood transfusion after surgery. Blood from these donors must be collected at least a few days ... blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. It is important to note that there is ...

  8. Occult purulent pericarditis detected by indium-111 leukocyte imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, M.L.; Niebulski, H.I.; Uretsky, B.F.; Salerni, R.; Klein, H.A.; Forstate, W.J.; Starzl, T.E.

    1984-05-01

    Leukocyte imaging with indium-111 is a relatively new technique which, to this point in time, has been discussed almost exclusively in the radiologic literature. Although this procedure has been used mainly to detect intra-abdominal infection, the thorax is routinely imaged along with the abdomen, and therefore detection of cardiac disease may be feasible. This case report is of a young woman after liver transplantation who developed occult purulent pericarditis initially detected by a leukocyte scan with indium-111. This case demonstrates that striking pericardial uptake on a whole-body indium-111 leukocyte scan can occur with purulent pericarditis, and it reemphasizes how insidiously purulent pericarditis may present in an immunosuppressed patient.

  9. Improving diagnosis of appendicitis. Early autologous leukocyte scanning

    SciTech Connect

    DeLaney, A.R.; Raviola, C.A.; Weber, P.N.; McDonald, P.T.; Navarro, D.A.; Jasko, I. )

    1989-10-01

    A prospective nonrandomized study investigating the accuracy and utility of autologous leukocyte scanning in the diagnosis of appendicitis was performed. One hundred patients in whom the clinical diagnosis of appendicitis was uncertain underwent indium 111 oxyquinoline labelling of autologous leukocytes and underwent scanning 2 hours following reinjection. Of 32 patients with proved appendicitis, three scans revealed normal results (false-negative rate, 0.09). Of 68 patients without appendicitis, three scans had positive results (false-positive rate, 0.03; sensitivity, 0.91; specificity, 0.97; predictive value of positive scan, 0.94; predictive value of negative scan, 0.96; and overall accuracy, 0.95). Scan results altered clinical decisions in 19 patients. In 13 cases, the scan produced images consistent with diagnoses other than appendicitis, expediting appropriate management. Early-imaging In 111 oxyquinoline autologous leukocyte scanning is a practical and highly accurate adjunct for diagnosing appendicitis.

  10. The study of indicators of bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous injection of gold nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikht, Nataliya I.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2015-03-01

    In study the evaluation of the influence of gold nanorods on morphological indicators of red bone marrow and peripheral blood of rats with diabetes and transplanted liver tumor after intravenous administration of gold nanorods was conducted. We used gold nanorods with length 41 ± 8 nm and diameter of 10.2±2 nm, synthesized in the laboratory of nanobiotechnology IBPPM RAS (Saratov). After intravenous administration of gold nanorods the decrease of leukocytes, platelets and lymphocytes was observed in animals of control group in blood. It was marked the decrease of the number of mature cellular elements of the leukocyte germ in bone marrow - stab neutrophils and segmented leukocytes, and the increase of immature elements- metamyelocytes, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ after nanoparticle administration. The decrease of leukocyte amount was noted in blood and the increase of cellular elements of the leukocyte germ was revealed in bone marrow, indicating the activation of leukocyte germ in rats with alloxan diabetes and transplanted tumors. The changes of morphological indicators of blood and bone marrow testify about stimulation of myelocytic sprouts of hemopoiesis in bone marrow as a result of reduction of mature cells in peripheral blood after gold nanoparticle administration.

  11. Preparation and Application of an Innovative Thrombocyte/Leukocyte-Enriched Plasma to Promote Tissue Repair in Chelonians

    PubMed Central

    Di Ianni, Francesco; Merli, Elisa; Burtini, Francesca; Conti, Virna; Pelizzone, Igor; Di Lecce, Rosanna; Parmigiani, Enrico; Squassino, Gian Paolo; Del Bue, Maurizio; Lucarelli, Enrico; Ramoni, Roberto; Grolli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Platelet concentrates are widely used in mammalian regenerative medicine to improve tissue healing. Chelonians (Testudines) would benefit from the application of thrombocyte preparations to regenerate damaged tissues, since traumatic injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality for both wild-living and domesticated animals. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol that optimized the recovery of the thrombocytes from blood samples and to show the efficacy of thrombocyte-enriched plasma in chelonians. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from Testudo spp. (n = 12) and Trachemys scripta elegans (n = 10). Blood cells were fractionated by sodium diatrizoate-sodium polysucrose density gradient using a two-step centrifugation protocol. Thrombocytes and leukocytes were isolated and resuspended to obtain thrombocyte-leucocyte rich plasma (TLRP). The mean recovery of leukocytes and thrombocytes was 48.9% (±4.0 SEM, n = 22) of the whole blood cell content. No statistically significant difference was observed between blood samples collected from different turtle species. The ability of TLRP to form a gel was evaluated by adding variable concentrations of calcium gluconate at room temperature and at 37°C. A reliable and consistent clotting of the TLRP was obtained in glass tubes and dishes by adding 5-20% v/v of a 100 mg/ml solution of calcium gluconate. Furthermore, in order to test the clinical efficacy of TLRP, a preliminary evaluation was performed on four turtles (Testudo spp.) with traumatic injuries. In all the four animals, a successful clinical outcome was observed. The results demonstrated that a thrombocyte-enriched plasma, comparable to mammalian platelet rich plasma, can be prepared from chelonian blood samples. Furthermore, although the low number of cases presented does not allow definitive conclusions from a clinical point of view, their outcome suggests that TLRP application could be further investigated to improve the healing process of both soft and hard tissue injuries in chelonians. PMID:25901960

  12. Preparation and application of an innovative thrombocyte/leukocyte-enriched plasma to promote tissue repair in chelonians.

    PubMed

    Di Ianni, Francesco; Merli, Elisa; Burtini, Francesca; Conti, Virna; Pelizzone, Igor; Di Lecce, Rosanna; Parmigiani, Enrico; Squassino, Gian Paolo; Del Bue, Maurizio; Lucarelli, Enrico; Ramoni, Roberto; Grolli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Platelet concentrates are widely used in mammalian regenerative medicine to improve tissue healing. Chelonians (Testudines) would benefit from the application of thrombocyte preparations to regenerate damaged tissues, since traumatic injuries are leading causes of morbidity and mortality for both wild-living and domesticated animals. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol that optimized the recovery of the thrombocytes from blood samples and to show the efficacy of thrombocyte-enriched plasma in chelonians. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from Testudo spp. (n = 12) and Trachemys scripta elegans (n = 10). Blood cells were fractionated by sodium diatrizoate-sodium polysucrose density gradient using a two-step centrifugation protocol. Thrombocytes and leukocytes were isolated and resuspended to obtain thrombocyte-leucocyte rich plasma (TLRP). The mean recovery of leukocytes and thrombocytes was 48.9% (±4.0 SEM, n = 22) of the whole blood cell content. No statistically significant difference was observed between blood samples collected from different turtle species. The ability of TLRP to form a gel was evaluated by adding variable concentrations of calcium gluconate at room temperature and at 37°C. A reliable and consistent clotting of the TLRP was obtained in glass tubes and dishes by adding 5-20% v/v of a 100 mg/ml solution of calcium gluconate. Furthermore, in order to test the clinical efficacy of TLRP, a preliminary evaluation was performed on four turtles (Testudo spp.) with traumatic injuries. In all the four animals, a successful clinical outcome was observed. The results demonstrated that a thrombocyte-enriched plasma, comparable to mammalian platelet rich plasma, can be prepared from chelonian blood samples. Furthermore, although the low number of cases presented does not allow definitive conclusions from a clinical point of view, their outcome suggests that TLRP application could be further investigated to improve the healing process of both soft and hard tissue injuries in chelonians. PMID:25901960

  13. Three-phase CFD analytical modeling of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jonghwun; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    The behavior of blood cells in disturbed flow regions of arteries has significant relevance for understanding atherogenesis. However, their distribution with red blood cells (RBCs) and leukocytes is not so well studied and understood. Our three-phase computational fluid dynamics approach including plasma, RBCs, and leukocytes was used to numerically simulate the local hemodynamics in such a flow regime. This model has tracked the wall shear stress (WSS), phase distributions, and flow patterns for each phase in a concentrated suspension shear flow of blood. Unlike other computational approaches, this approach does not require dispersion coefficients as an input. The non-Newtonian viscosity model was applied to a wide physiological range of hematocrits, including low shear rates. The migration and segregation of blood cells in disturbed flow regions were computed, and the results compared favorably with available experimental data. The predicted higher leukocyte concentration was correlated with relatively low WSS near the stenosis having a high WSS. This behavior was attributed to flow-dependent interactions of the leukocytes with RBCs in pulsatile flow. This three-phase hemodynamic analysis may have application to vulnerable plaque formation in arteries with in vivo complex flow conditions. PMID:17244522

  14. Deterministic hydrodynamics: Taking blood apart John A. Davis*

    E-print Network

    ) and flow cytometry (FACS) are widely used methods. However, they typically require additional labels. Size, without labels, has also been used to isolate rare blood components by using filter-based methods (6 magnetophoretic separation (7) and separation by leukocyte mar- gination (8). Size-based filter methods have also

  15. CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF

    E-print Network

    CELL TYPES, DIFFERENTIAL CELL COUNTS, AND BLOOD CELL MEASUREMENTS OF A PORTUGUESE SHARK describe the cell types, differential cell counts, and measurements of both the erythrocytes and leukocytes unusually large cell Sizes in all cell categories. Cell measurements revealed erythrocytes larger than those

  16. Pesticide Use and Relative Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Hoppin, Jane A.; Hou, Lifang; Koutros, Stella; Gadalla, Shahinaz M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Lubin, Jay; Blair, Aaron; Hoxha, Mirjam; Baccarelli, Andrea; Sandler, Dale; Alavanja, Michael; Beane Freeman, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies suggest that telomere length (TL) may be influenced by environmental exposures, including pesticides. We examined associations between occupational pesticide use reported at three time points and relative telomere length (RTL) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. RTL was measured by qPCR using leukocyte DNA from 568 cancer-free male AHS participants aged 31-94 years with blood samples collected between 2006 and 2008. Self-reported information, including pesticide use, was collected at three time points: enrollment (1993-1997) and two follow-up questionnaires (1998-2003, 2005-2008). For each pesticide, we evaluated cumulative use (using data from all three questionnaires), and more recent use (using data from the last follow-up questionnaire). Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the associations between pesticide use (ever, lifetime days, intensity-weighted lifetime days (lifetime days*intensity score)) and RTL, adjusting for age at blood draw and use of other pesticides. Of the 57 pesticides evaluated with cumulative use, increasing lifetime days of 2,4-D (p-trend=0.001), diazinon (p-trend=0.002), and butylate (p-trend=0.01) were significantly associated with shorter RTL, while increasing lifetime days of alachlor was significantly associated with longer RTL (p-trend=0.03). Only the association with 2,4-D was significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 40 pesticides evaluated for recent use, malathion was associated with shorter RTL (p=0.03), and alachlor with longer RTL (p=0.03). Our findings suggest that leukocyte TL may be impacted by cumulative use and recent use of certain pesticides. PMID:26196902

  17. Association of leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number with colorectal cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Yang, Gong; Li, Guoliang; Courtney, Regina; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Hong-Lan; Purdue, Mark P.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin

    2014-01-01

    Background Mitochondria play an important role in cellular energy metabolism, free radical production, and apoptosis and thus may be involved in cancer development. Methods We evaluated mtDNA copy number in peripheral leukocytes in relation to CRC risk in a case-control study of 444 CRC cases and 1,423 controls nested in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study. Relative mtDNA copy number was determined by a quantitative real-time PCR assay using peripheral leukocyte DNA samples collected at the time of study enrollment, prior to cancer diagnosis. Results We found that baseline mtDNA copy number was lower among women who subsequently developed CRC (geometric mean = 0.277, 95% CI: 0.269-0.285) than among women who remained cancer-free (geometric mean = 0.288, 95% CI: 0.284-0.293; P=0.0153). Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were 1.26 (95% CI: 0.93-1.70) and 1.44 (95% CI: 1.06-1.94) for the middle and lower tertiles of mtDNA copy number, respectively, compared with the upper tertile (highest mtDNA copy number; P for trend=0.0204). The association varied little by the interval between blood collection and cancer diagnosis. Conclusions Our data suggest that mtDNA copy number measured in peripheral leukocytes may be a potential biomarker useful for CRC risk assessment. Impact If confirmed, mtDNA copy number measured in peripheral leukocytes may be a biomarker useful for colorectal cancer risk assessment. PMID:25139937

  18. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Irradiation together with Lipid A on Human Leukocytes Activities In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakova, E.; Dubnickova, M.; Boreyko, A.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of gamma irradiation and of Lipid A from Escherichia coli on phagocytosis, lyzosyme and peroxidase activities of human leukocytes, in vitro was investigated. Leukocytes samples were irradiated with 1 and 5 Gy, respectively. The number of irradiated leukocytes was decreased in the irradiated samples. Only samples with additive Lipid A were not damaged by irradiation. The Lipid A had positive influence on biological activities of the irradiated leukocytes.

  19. An investigation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities from blood components of Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).

    PubMed

    Phosri, Santi; Mahakunakorn, Pramote; Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Swatsitang, Prasan; Daduang, Sakda; Dhiravisit, Apisak; Thammasirirak, Sompong

    2014-10-01

    Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were found from Crocodylus siamensis (C. siamensis) blood. The 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging and linoleic peroxidation assays were used to investigate the antioxidant activities of the crocodile blood. Results show that crocodile blood components had antioxidant activity, especially hemoglobin (40.58 % nitric oxide radical inhibition), crude leukocyte extract (78 % linoleic peroxidation inhibition) and plasma (57.27 % hydroxyl radical inhibition). Additionally, the anti-inflammatory activity of the crocodile blood was studied using murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) as a model. The results show that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were not toxic to RAW 264.7 cells. Also they showed anti-inflammatory activity by reduced nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) productions from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells. The NO inhibition percentages of hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma were 31.9, 48.24 and 44.27 %, respectively. However, only crude leukocyte extract could inhibit IL-6 production. So, the results of this research directly indicate that hemoglobin, crude leukocyte extract and plasma of C. siamensis blood provide both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be used as a supplementary agent in pharmaceutical products. PMID:25216803

  20. Development of a microfabricated cytometry platform for characterization and sorting of individual leukocytes

    E-print Network

    Revzin, Alexander

    leukocytes Alexander Revzin,{a Kazuhiko Sekine,a Aaron Sin,a Ronald G. Tompkinsa and Mehmet Toner*b Received October 2004 DOI: 10.1039/b405557h Organizing leukocytes into high-density arrays makes these cells-density leukocyte arrays and demonstrates retrieval of single cells from the array. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG

  1. Targeted Drug Delivery To Leukocytes with ICAM-1 Derived Peptides

    E-print Network

    Majumdar, Sumit

    2008-07-15

    , the objective of the dissertation was to explore the possibility of selectively delivering drugs to leukocytes using ICAM-1 derived peptides. Fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated cIBR (FITC-cIBR) and doxorubicin conjugated cIBR (DOX-cIBR) entered the HL-60...

  2. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675...

  3. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675...

  4. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675...

  5. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675...

  6. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660 Section 864.7660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  7. 21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660 Section 864.7660 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  8. 21 CFR 864.7675 - Leukocyte peroxidase test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leukocyte peroxidase test. 864.7675 Section 864.7675 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7675...

  9. Activation of latent collagenase purified from human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Sorsa, T A

    1987-01-01

    Latent human leukocyte collagenase was isolated to apparent homogeneity by a simple and rapid method. Isolation was accomplished by gel filtration on Sepharose 6B and ion exchange chromatography on QAE Sephadex A-50 followed by affinity chromatography on Cibacron Blue Sepharose. The purified latent enzyme exhibits an apparent molecular weight of 70 kD as estimated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Reduction with dithiothreitol does not change the mobility of the latent human leukocyte collagenase on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating that the enzyme consists of a single polypeptide chain. The enzyme could be activated by trypsin and thiol reagents such as phenylmercuric chloride and N-ethylmaleimide. Upon activation by trypsin a 54 kD polypeptide was formed from the 70 kD latent enzyme. Concomitant with the activation by thiol reagents, no loss of molecular weight was detected. Inactivated trypsin, i.e. phenylmethyl sulfonyl-trypsin or soybean trypsin inhibitor treated trypsin, was not able to activate latent human leukocyte collagenase. The results support the concept that latent human leukocyte collagenase exists as a proenzyme and thiol-dependent activation occurs through conformational perturbation in the proenzyme molecule. PMID:3037686

  10. Uptake of radiolabeled leukocytes in prosthetic graft infection

    SciTech Connect

    Serota, A.I.; Williams, R.A.; Rose, J.G.; Wilson, S.E.

    1981-07-01

    The utility of radionuclide labeled leukocytes in the demonstration of infection within vascular prostheses was examined. The infrarenal aorta was replaced with a 3 cm Dacron graft in 12 dogs. On the third postoperative day, six of the animals received an intravenous injection of 10(8) Staphylococcus aureus. Labeled leukocyte scans were performed at postoperative days one and three, and then weekly for 8 weeks with indium-111 and technetium-99 labeled autologous leukocytes. When scans showed focal uptake of isotope in the area of prosthetic material, the grafts were aseptically excised and cultured on mannitol-salt agar. Both control and infected animals had retroperitoneal isotope activity in the immediate postoperative period that disappeared by the end of the first week. By the eighth postoperative week, all of the animals that received the bacteremic challenge had both radionuclide concentration in the region of the vascular prosthesis and S. aureus cultured subsequently from the perigraft tissues. None of the control animals had either radionuclide or bacteriologic evidence of infection at the eighth postoperative week. The radiolabeled leukocyte scan is a highly sensitive and specific technique, clinically applicable for the diagnosis of vascular prosthetic infections.

  11. Medical Applications of Leukocyte Surface Molecules—the CD molecules

    PubMed Central

    Zola, Heddy

    2006-01-01

    Leukocytes are the cells of the immune system and are centrally involved in defense against infection, in autoimmune disease, allergy, inflammation, and in organ graft rejection. Lymphomas and leukemias are malignancies of leukocytes, and the immune system is almost certainly involved in most other cancers. Each leukocyte expresses a selection of cell surface glycoproteins and glycolipids which mediate its interaction with antigen, with other components of the immune system, and with other tissues. It is therefore not surprising that the leukocyte surface molecules (CD molecules) have provided targets for diagnosis and therapy. Among the “celebrities” are CD20, a target for lymphoma therapeutic antibodies which earns $2 billion annually (and makes a significant difference to lymphoma patients), and CD4, the molecule used by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as an entry portal into cells of the immune system. This short review provides a background to the CD molecules and antibodies against them, and summarizes research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications of antibodies against these molecules. PMID:17380197

  12. Differential MSC activation leads to distinct mononuclear leukocyte binding mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Daniel J.; Dicarlo, Bryan; Hetz, Robert A.; Smith, Philippa; Cox, Charles S.; Olson, Scott D.

    2014-04-01

    Advances in the field of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal cell (MSC) biology have demonstrated that MSCs can improve disease outcome when `activated' to exert immunomodulatory effects. However, the precise mechanisms modulating MSC-immune cells interactions remain largely elusive. In here, we activated MSC based on a recent polarization paradigm, in which MSCs can be polarized towards a pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotype depending on the Toll-like receptor stimulated, to dissect the mechanisms through which MSCs physically interact with and modulate leukocytes in this context. Our data show that MSCs activated through the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway increased VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 dependent binding of leukocytes. On the other hand, TLR3 stimulation strongly increases leukocytes affinity to MSC comparatively, through the formation of cable-like hyaluronic acid structures. In addition, TLR4 activation elicited secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by MSCs, whereas TLR3-activated MSCs displayed a milder pro-inflammatory phenotype, similar to inactivated MSCs. However, the differently activated MSCs maintained their ability to suppress leukocyte activation at similar levels in our in vitro model, and this immunomodulatory property was shown here to be partially mediated by prostaglandin. These results reinforce the concept that alternate activation profiles control MSC responses and may impact the therapeutic use of MSCs.

  13. Two-step model of leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction in inflammation: distinct roles for LECAM-1 and the leukocyte beta 2 integrins in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    von Andrian, U H; Chambers, J D; McEvoy, L M; Bargatze, R F; Arfors, K E; Butcher, E C

    1991-01-01

    The lectin homing receptor LECAM-1 (LAM-1, Leu8) and the beta 2 integrins, particularly Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18), participate in leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in inflammation. LECAM-1 is rapidly shed while Mac-1 expression is dramatically increased upon neutrophil activation, suggesting functionally distinct roles for these molecules. Using intravital video microscopy, we have compared the effect of antibodies against LECAM-1 and CD18 on leukocyte interactions with rabbit mesenteric venules. Anti-LECAM-1 monoclonal antibody and its Fab fragments inhibited initial reversible leukocyte rolling along the vascular wall. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody had no effect on rolling but prevented subsequent firm attachment of leukocytes to venular endothelium. These results support a two-step model of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions: reversible rolling mediated in part by LECAM-1 facilitates leukocyte recruitment by the local microenvironment and precedes activation-dependent firm attachment involving beta 2 integrins. Images PMID:1715568

  14. In vivo compartmental analysis of leukocytes in mouse lungs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Brijesh V; Tatham, Kate C; Wilson, Michael R; O'Dea, Kieran P; Takata, Masao

    2015-10-01

    The lung has a unique structure consisting of three functionally different compartments (alveolar, interstitial, and vascular) situated in an extreme proximity. Current methods to localize lung leukocytes using bronchoalveolar lavage and/or lung perfusion have significant limitations for determination of location and phenotype of leukocytes. Here we present a novel method using in vivo antibody labeling to enable accurate compartmental localization/quantification and phenotyping of mouse lung leukocytes. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice received combined in vivo intravenous and intratracheal labeling with fluorophore-conjugated anti-CD45 antibodies, and lung single-cell suspensions were analyzed by flow cytometry. The combined in vivo intravenous and intratracheal CD45 labeling enabled robust separation of the alveolar, interstitial, and vascular compartments of the lung. In naive mice, the alveolar compartment consisted predominantly of resident alveolar macrophages. The interstitial compartment, gated by events negative for both intratracheal and intravenous CD45 staining, showed two conventional dendritic cell populations, as well as a Ly6C(lo) monocyte population. Expression levels of MHCII on these interstitial monocytes were much higher than on the vascular Ly6C(lo) monocyte populations. In mice exposed to acid aspiration-induced lung injury, this protocol also clearly distinguished the three lung compartments showing the dynamic trafficking of neutrophils and exudative monocytes across the lung compartments during inflammation and resolution. This simple in vivo dual-labeling technique substantially increases the accuracy and depth of lung flow cytometric analysis, facilitates a more comprehensive examination of lung leukocyte pools, and enables the investigation of previously poorly defined "interstitial" leukocyte populations during models of inflammatory lung diseases. PMID:26254421

  15. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  16. Class I odorant receptors, TAS1R and TAS2R taste receptors, are markers for subpopulations of circulating leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Malki, Agne; Fiedler, Julia; Fricke, Kristina; Ballweg, Ines; Pfaffl, Michael W; Krautwurst, Dietmar

    2015-03-01

    Our cellular immune system has to cope constantly with foodborne substances that enter the bloodstream postprandially. Here, they may activate leukocytes via specific but yet mostly unknown receptors. Ectopic RNA expression out of gene families of chemosensory receptors, i.e., the ?400 ORs, ?25 TAS2R bitter-taste receptors, and the TAS1R umami- and sweet-taste receptor dimers by which we typically detect foodborne substances, has been reported in a variety of peripheral tissues unrelated to olfaction or taste. In the present study, we have now discovered, by gene-specific RT-PCR experiments, the mRNA expression of most of the Class I ORs (TAS1R) and TAS2R in 5 different types of blood leukocytes. Surprisingly, we did not detect Class II OR mRNA. By RT-qPCR, we show the mRNA expression of human chemosensory receptors and their cow orthologs in PMN, thus suggesting an evolutionary concept. By immunocytochemistry, we demonstrate that some olfactory and taste receptors are expressed, on average, in 40-60% of PMN and T or B cells and largely coexpress in the same subpopulation of PMN. The mRNA expression and the size of subpopulations expressing certain chemosensory receptors varied largely among individual blood samples, suggesting a regulated expression of olfactory and taste receptors in these cells. Moreover, we show mRNA expression of their downstream signaling molecules and demonstrate that PTX abolishes saccharin- or 2-PEA-induced PMN chemotactic migration, indicating a role for Gi-type proteins. In summary, our data suggest "chemosensory"-type subpopulations of circulating leukocytes. PMID:25624459

  17. Gene expression disorders of innate antibacterial signaling pathway in pancreatic cancer patients: implications for leukocyte dysfunction and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    D?browska, Aleksandra; Lech, Gustaw; S?odkowski, Maciej; S?otwi?ska, Sylwia M.

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate changes in gene expression of innate antibacterial signaling pathways in patients with pancreatic cancer. Expression of the following genes was measured in peripheral blood leukocytes of 55 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR): TLR4, NOD1, MyD88, TRAF6 and HMGB1. The levels of expression of TLR4, NOD1 and TRAF6 genes were significantly elevated (p = 0.007; p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively), while MyD88 expression was markedly reduced (p = 0.0002), as compared to controls. Expression of TLR4 and NOD1 exceeded the normal level more than 3.5-fold and there was a significant correlation found between the expression of these genes (r = 0.558, p < 0.001). TLR4, NOD1 and MyD88 genes were expressed at a similar level both before and after surgery. No significant changes in the expression of HMGB1 gene were observed. The results of the study clearly indicate abnormal expression of genes belonging to innate antibacterial signaling pathways in peripheral blood leukocytes of patients with pancreatic cancer, which may lead to leukocyte dysfunction. Overexpression of TLR4, NOD1 and TRAF6 genes, and decreased MyD88 gene expression may contribute to chronic inflammation and tumor progression by up-regulation of the innate antibacterial response. The parameters tested are useful for monitoring innate immunity gene disorders and pancreatic cancer progression. PMID:26155170

  18. Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Stephen D; Vogel, Megan E; Kindel, Tammy L; Smith, Darcey L H; Idelman, Gila; Avissar, Uri; Kakarlapudi, Ganesh; Masnovi, Michelle E

    2015-11-15

    Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression. PMID:26381705

  19. Indium-111-leukocyte imaging in acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Clarke, K.; Tsai, D.; Nuechterlein, P.; Gora, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Eleven patients with suspected acute cholecystitis underwent sequential {sup 99}mTc-iminodiacetic derivative (IDA) and {sup 111}In-white blood cell (WBC) imaging to determine if {sup 111}In-WBCs accumulate within an acutely inflamed hemorrhagic gallbladder wall and, thus, could be employed as a reasonable alternative to {sup 99}mTc-IDA scintigraphy in detecting acute cholecystitis. Seven patients had surgically confirmed acute cholecystitis. Of these cases, five had a true-positive {sup 99}mTc-IDA and {sup 111}In-WBC, one an indeterminate {sup 111}In-WBC and true-positive {sup 99}mTc-IDA, and one a true-positive {sup 111}In-WBC and false-negative {sup 99}mTc-IDA scan. The remaining four patients did not have acute cholecystitis. All visualized their gallbladder within 1 hr after {sup 99}mTc-IDA administration and none had {sup 111}In-WBC gallbladder wall uptake. Both {sup 111}In-WBC and {sup 99}mTc-IDA scintigraphy accurately detected acute cholecystitis: hepatobiliary scintigraphy demonstrated a cystic duct obstruction and {sup 111}In-WBC imaging detected the inflammatory infiltrate within the gallbladder wall. The sensitivity and specificity of each was 86% and 100%, respectively.

  20. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  1. Endothelial actin-binding proteins and actin dynamics in leukocyte transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Schnoor, Michael

    2015-04-15

    The endothelium is the first barrier that leukocytes have to overcome during recruitment to sites of inflamed tissues. The leukocyte extravasation cascade is a complex multistep process that requires the activation of various adhesion molecules and signaling pathways, as well as actin remodeling, in both leukocytes and endothelial cells. Endothelial adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin or ICAM-1, are connected to the actin cytoskeleton via actin-binding proteins (ABPs). Although the contribution of receptor-ligand interactions to leukocyte extravasation has been studied extensively, the contribution of endothelial ABPs to the regulation of leukocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration remains poorly understood. This review focuses on recently published evidence that endothelial ABPs, such as cortactin, myosin, or ?-actinin, regulate leukocyte extravasation by controlling actin dynamics, biomechanical properties of endothelia, and signaling pathways, such as GTPase activation, during inflammation. Thus, ABPs may serve as targets for novel treatment strategies for disorders characterized by excessive leukocyte recruitment. PMID:25848070

  2. Daily variations in the expression of miR-16 and miR-181a in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Figueredo, Diego de Siqueira; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes; Andrade, Tiago Gomes de

    2015-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are controlled by a molecular mechanism that is organized in transcriptional and translational feedback loops of gene expression. Recent studies have been demonstrating the involvement of microRNAs (miRs) in post-transcriptional/translational control of circadian rhythms. In the present study we aimed to analyze the daily variations of miR-16 and miR-181a expression in human leukocytes. These miRs were independently associated with hematopoiesis and circadian rhythms in previous studies using experimental models. Peripheral blood from 6 subjects was sampled in a 24 hour period for expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Initially, we evaluated the expression stability of RNU6-2, RNU1A-1, RNU5A-1, SNORD-25, SCARNA-17 and SNORA-73A as candidate genes for normalization of RT-qPCR data. The combination of the four most stable genes (SNORA-73A/SCARNA-17/SNORD-25/RNU6-2) was indicated to provide a better normalization of miRs expressions. The results show a daily variation of miR-181a and miR-16 expression in human leukocytes, suggesting a potential participation of these genes in the modulation of the circadian rhythms present in blood cells. PMID:25641414

  3. Extracorporeal tumor cell filtration during extended liver surgery: first clinical use of leukocyte depletion filters – a case series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During oncologic surgery, intraoperative manipulation of tumor tissue is almost unpreventable and causes a high risk of tumor cell dissemination into venous blood. A tumor cell-reducing effect of leukocyte adhesion filter systems has been shown under in vitro conditions. Methods In a first clinical attempt, leukocyte adhesion filters were integrated into veno-venous bypass systems in four patients undergoing extended liver surgery for secondary hepatic malignancies. Practicability, handling, and safety aspects as well as potency of cell removal and clinical side effects of the filter system were analyzed. Results All patients tolerated the application of the system without problems during operative and postoperative follow-up. Immunohistochemical staining of perioperative blood samples detected cytokeratin positive (CK+) cells in three cases during the hepatic mobilization. Conclusions Effectiveness of CK+ cell depletion and safety of the procedure was shown. The presented surgical technique represents a safe and innovative tool; however, clinical significance has to be examined in a larger patient cohort. PMID:23866965

  4. [Blood isolates epidemiology in a clinical haematology department].

    PubMed

    Elmaataoui, A; Elghazouani, M; Eric, N Akwa; Doghmi, K; Mikdame, M; Elhamzaoui, S; Elouennass, M

    2009-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy is responsible for infections by decreasing the phagocytosis and chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis during the period from 18/10/2006 to 21/05/2008, on all bacteria isolated from blood cultures performed in the department of clinical hematology at the hospital military instruction Mohamed V. One hundred and sixty two blood isolates were selected; Gram positive cocci (CGP) accounted for 60.34% and Gram negative bacilli (GNB) for 24.14%. Coagulase negative staphylococci (SNA) and S. aureus presented a resistance to methicilline respectively 54.55% and 22.22%. Prevalence of Gram positive cocci is consistent with the results of the EORTC (International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group). Analysis of resistance patterns of all species, except for staphylococci, showed phenotypes essentially community, sometimes wild. In conclusion probabilistic antibiotic treatement of bacteraemia in the haematology department should focus among other staphylococci resistant to methicilline. PMID:19411231

  5. Mechanistic insights into flow induced segregation in blood and other multicomponent suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Amit; Graham, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Blood is a multicomponent suspension comprising mostly of red-blood-cells (RBCs) along with trace amounts of leukocytes and platelets. Under normal flow conditions both the leukocytes and the platelets segregate near the vessel walls, a phenomenon commonly known as margination. The key physical differences between RBCs, leukocytes, and platelets are their relative size and rigidity: leukocytes are larger than RBCs and platelets smaller, but both are considerably stiffer than RBCs. In this work we study the blood flow problem using a model system of fluid-filled elastic capsule mixtures. Using boundary integral (BI) simulations we delineate the effect of size and rigidity on the segregation behavior, and relate these to the observations of leukocyte and platelet margination in blood. Further, we introduce a novel Monte Carlo simulation technique, which incorporates two of the key transport mechanisms in confined suspensions: the wall-induced migration and hydrodynamic pair collisions. The model accurately reproduces the results of BI simulations and provides a mechanistic understanding of the margination phenomena. In particular, it clarifies the important role of heterogeneous pair collisions (collisions between two different species) on the observed margination behavior.

  6. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is concerned with the health risks to astronauts, particularly those risks related to radiation exposure. Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of (A) peripheral leukocyte distribution; (B) plasma cytokine levels; (C) cytokine production profiles following whole blood stimulation of either T cells or monocytes.

  7. Clinical use of indium-111 labeled blood products

    SciTech Connect

    Loken, M.K.; Clay, M.E.; Carpenter, R.T.; Boudreau, R.J.; McCullough, J.J.

    1985-12-01

    Following the introduction of In-111 oxine as a label for blood cells by McAffee and Thakur in 1976, these procedures have become increasingly important in the practice of nuclear medicine. Of particular interest are studies involving the use of labeled leukocytes for the detection of focal infection. The clinical utility of labeled platelets is less well developed, although the use of platelets to detect the formation of thrombi in blood vessels and on vascular grafts and prostheses is gaining prominence. This report summarizes the techniques presently employed at the University of Minnesota for the labeling of blood products, and their clinical use. Consideration also is given to the desired expertise and cost factors involved in the labeling of leukocytes and platelets.43 references.

  8. Leukocytes: The Double-Edged Sword in Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kryczka, Jakub; Boncela, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Skin tissue scar formation and fibrosis are often characterized by the increased production and deposition of extracellular matrix components, accompanied by the accumulation of a vast number of myofibroblasts. Scaring is strongly associated with inflammation and wound healing to regain tissue integrity in response to skin tissue injury. However, increased and uncontrolled inflammation, repetitive injury, and individual predisposition might lead to fibrosis, a severe disorder resulting in the formation of dense and stiff tissue that loses the physical properties and physiological functions of normal tissue. Fibrosis is an extremely complicated and multistage process in which bone marrow-derived leukocytes act as both pro- and antifibrotic agents, and therefore, few, if any, effective therapies are available for the most severe and lethal forms of fibrosis. Herein, we discuss the current knowledge on the multidimensional impact of leukocytes on the induction of fibrosis, focusing on skin fibrosis. PMID:26568664

  9. Oligonol Supplementation Affects Leukocyte and Immune Cell Counts after Heat Loading in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Beom; Shin, Young Oh

    2014-01-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight form of polyphenol and has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, making it a potential promoter of immunity. This study investigates the effects of oligonol supplementation on leukocyte and immune cell counts after heat loading in 19 healthy male volunteers. The participants took a daily dose of 200 mg oligonol or a placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. After each supplement, half-body immersion into hot water was made, and blood was collected. Then, complete and differential blood counts were performed. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate and phenotype lymphocyte subsets. Serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 in blood samples were analyzed. Lymphocyte subpopulation variables included counts of total T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Oligonol intake attenuated elevations in IL-1? (an 11.1-fold change vs. a 13.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 12.0-fold change vs. a 12.6-fold change 1h after heating) and IL-6 (an 8.6-fold change vs. a 9.9-fold change immediately after heating; a 9.1-fold change vs. a 10.5-fold change 1h after heating) immediately and 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. Oligonol supplementation led to significantly higher numbers of leukocytes (a 30.0% change vs. a 21.5% change immediately after heating; a 13.5% change vs. a 3.5% change 1h after heating) and lymphocytes (a 47.3% change vs. a 39.3% change immediately after heating; a 19.08% change vs. a 2.1% change 1h after heating) relative to those in the placebo group. Oligonol intake led to larger increases in T cells, B cells, and NK cells at rest (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, and p < 0.001, respectively) and immediately after heating (p < 0.001) in comparison to those in the placebo group. In addition, levels of T cells (p < 0.001) and B cells (p < 0.001) were significantly higher 1 h after heating in comparison to those in the placebo group. These results demonstrate that supplementation with oligonol for 1 week may enhance the immune function under heat and suggest a potential useful adjunct to chemotherapy in malignant diseases. PMID:24962480

  10. Taurine protects against methotrexate-induced toxicity and inhibits leukocyte death

    SciTech Connect

    Cetiner, Mustafa; Sener, Goeksel; Sehirli, A. Ozer; Eksioglu-Demiralp, Emel; Ercan, Feriha; Sirvanci, Serap; Gedik, Nursal; Akpulat, Sertac; Tecimer, Tuelay; Yegen, Berrak C. . E-mail: byegen@marmara.edu.tr

    2005-11-15

    The efficacy of methotrexate (MTX), a widely used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent, is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Regarding the mechanisms of these side effects, several hypotheses have been put forward, among which oxidative stress is noticeable. The present study was undertaken to determine whether taurine, a potent free radical scavenger, could ameliorate MTX-induced oxidative injury and modulate immune response. Following a single dose of methotrexate (20 mg/kg), either saline or taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered for 5 days. After decapitation of the rats, trunk blood was obtained and the ileum, liver, and kidney were removed to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and collagen content, as well as histological examination. Our results showed that MTX administration increased the MDA, MPO activity, and collagen contents and decreased GSH levels in all tissues (P < 0.001), while these alterations were reversed in taurine-treated group (P < 0.05-0.01). Elevated (P < 0.001) TNF-{alpha} level observed following MTX treatment was depressed with taurine (P < 0.01). Oxidative burst of neutrophils stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate was reduced in saline-treated MTX group (P < 0.001), while taurine abolished this effect. Similarly, flow cytometric measurements revealed that leukocyte apoptosis and cell death were increased in MTX-treated animals, while taurine reversed these effects (P < 0.05). Reduced cellularity in bone marrow samples of MTX-treated group (P < 0.01) was reversed back to control levels in taurine-treated rats. Severe degeneration of the intestinal mucosa, liver parenchyma, glomerular, and tubular epithelium observed in saline-treated group was improved by taurine treatment. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against methotrexate-induced oxidant organ injury and inhibits leukocyte apoptosis and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the systemic side effects of chemotherapeutics.

  11. Major differences in the responses of primary human leukocyte subsets to IFN-beta.

    PubMed

    van Boxel-Dezaire, Anette H H; Zula, Joana A; Xu, Yaomin; Ransohoff, Richard M; Jacobberger, James W; Stark, George R

    2010-11-15

    Treatment of cell lines with type I IFNs activates the formation of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (STAT1/STAT2/IFN regulatory factor-9), which induces the expression of many genes. To study this response in primary cells, we treated fresh human blood with IFN-? and used flow cytometry to analyze phosphorylated STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, B cells, and monocytes. The activation of STAT1 was remarkably different among these leukocyte subsets. In contrast to monocytes and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, few B cells activated STAT1 in response to IFN-?, a finding that could not be explained by decreased levels of IFNAR2 or STAT1 or enhanced levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 or relevant protein tyrosine phosphatases in B cells. Microarray and real-time PCR analyses revealed the induction of STAT1-dependent proapoptotic mRNAs in monocytes but not in B cells. These data show that IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 or STAT1 homodimers are not the main activators of gene expression in primary B cells of healthy humans. Notably, in B cells and, especially in CD4(+) T cells, IFN-? activated STAT5 in addition to STAT3, with biological effects often opposite from those driven by activated STAT1. These data help to explain why IFN-? increases the survival of primary human B cells and CD4(+) T cells but enhances the apoptosis of monocytes, as well as to understand how leukocyte subsets are differentially affected by endogenous type I IFNs during viral or bacterial infections and by type I IFN treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis, hepatitis, or cancer. PMID:20956346

  12. Flow-cytometric determination of high-density-lipoprotein binding sites on human leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitz, G.; Wulf, G.; Bruening, T.A.; Assmann, G.

    1987-12-01

    In this method, leukocytes were isolated from 6 mL of EDTA-blood by density-gradient centrifugation and subsequently incubated with rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC)-conjugated high-density lipoproteins (HDL). The receptor-bound conjugate particles were determined by fluorescent flow cytometry and compared with /sup 125/I-labeled HDL binding data for the same cells. Human granulocytes express the highest number of HDL binding sites (9.4 x 10(4)/cell), followed by monocytes (7.3 x 10(4)/cell) and lymphocytes (4.0 x 10(4)/cell). Compared with conventional analysis of binding of /sup 125/I-labeled HDL in tissue-culture dishes, the present determination revealed significantly lower values for nonspecific binding. In competition studies, the conjugate competes for the same binding sites as /sup 125/I-labeled HDL. With the use of tetranitromethane-treated HDL3, which fails to compete for the HDL receptor sites while nonspecific binding is not affected, we could clearly distinguish between 37 degrees C surface binding and specific 37 degrees C uptake of RITC-HDL3, confirming that the HDL receptor leads bound HDL particles into an intracellular pathway rather than acting as a docking type of receptor. Patients with familial dysbetalipoproteinemia showed a significantly higher number of HDL binding sites in the granulocyte population but normal in lymphocytes and monocytes, indicating increased uptake of cholesterol-containing lipoproteins. In patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, HDL binding was increased in all three cell types, indicating increased cholesterol uptake and increased cholesterol synthesis. The present method allows rapid determination of HDL binding sites in leukocytes from patients with various forms of hyper- and dyslipoproteinemias.

  13. [The effect of an immune antibacterial plasma and a donor leukocyte mass on the immune system of patients with suppurative-septic processes].

    PubMed

    Bulava, G V; Zdanovskaia, L K; Titova, T I

    1989-10-01

    The influence of immune antistaphylococcal, anti-Proteus and anti-Pseudomonas aeruginosa plasma and donor leukocyte mass on some humoral and cell-mediated immunity characteristics in patients with purulent and septic diseases has been studied. The study has shown that treatment with immune plasma leads to an increase in the amount of circulating T lymphocytes and in the concentration of IgA, IgM and IgG, to the activation of phagocytosis and to an increase in the titers of the corresponding antimicrobial antibodies simultaneously with a decrease in the content of bacterial antigens in the blood serum. Treatment with donor leukocyte mass has also been found to lead to an increase in the concentration of T lymphocytes and immunoglobulins, to enhance the functional activity of phagocytizing neutrophils and to promote the normalization of the content of leukocytes in the peripheral blood. The use of these preparations as stimulating agents in the treatment of patients having purulent septic diseases and, simultaneously, low cell-mediated immunity characteristics is recommended. PMID:2514532

  14. Transfusions of blood products and cancer outcomes.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, J F; Cata, J P

    2015-10-01

    Approximately half of cancer patients scheduled for major surgery are anemic. Also, a significant number of patients will present to the operating room with low platelet counts and coagulopathic disorders. Unfortunately, administration of red blood cells, platelets concentrates and fresh-frozen plasma is associated with unwanted adverse effects including fever, hemolytic reactions and transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM). TRIM is a multifactorial immunologic phenomenon in the recipient mediated by donor leukocytes, microparticles such as ectosomes, and growth factors. As some of these molecules are secreted in a time-dependent manner, blood storage time may play an important in TRIM, although the evidence is limited. Perioperative administration of red blood cells and associated TRIM has also been associated with increased recurrence of certain solid tumors, such as colorectal, lung, and hepatobiliary tumors. In this continuing education article, we review the available evidence on how perioperative blood product transfusions can affect oncological outcomes, such as cancer recurrence. PMID:25896733

  15. Indium-111 leukocyte localization in infected prosthetic graft

    SciTech Connect

    Purnell, G.L.; Walker, C.W.; Allison, J.W.; Dalrymple, G.V. )

    1990-08-01

    Infective endocarditis can be difficult to prove, even in the face of strong clinical suspicion. A case in which standard methods of diagnosis failed to demonstrate endocarditis in a patient with recurrent Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and porcine aortic valve is reported. An In-111 labelled leukocyte SPECT study demonstrated uptake in the aortic root and leaflets, and autopsy demonstrated vegetations on the leaflets. In-111 may prove useful in demonstrating endocarditis in patients with prosthetic valve infection.

  16. Labeled leukocyte scans for detection of retained polyurethane foam

    SciTech Connect

    Ellenberger, P.; Graham, W.P. 3d.; Manders, E.K.; Basarab, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Complete removal of an infected polyurethane-covered breast prosthesis is difficult, and retained tissue-embedded foam can form a nidus for persistent infection. Scanning the chest wall after administration of indium-111 oxine-labeled autogenous leukocytes will locate areas of infection around retained fragments of foam, thereby facilitating their removal and allowing eventual successful reconstruction. This technique may deserve wider application for locating infected foreign bodies in a variety of patient problems.

  17. In-111-leukocyte scanning in inflammatory renal disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, H.D.; Goodwin, D.A.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1981-06-01

    In-111-leukocyte scanning has recently been introduced as a clinically effective method for detecting inflammatory disease and abscesses. The authors present six cases that demonstrate the usefulness of this new technique in suspected inflammatory renal disease. Two patients had renal abscesses, two had acute pyelonephritis, one had acute focal bacterial nephritis (acute lobar nephronia), and one had a transitional cell carcinoma with associated acute and chronic inflammation.

  18. Nonvisualization of sterile surgical incisions with indium-111 labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.

    1985-09-01

    The localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes (WBCs) in recent surgical incisions was studied in 18 patients. In-111 WBC images correlated well with culture results and clinical findings. No accumulation of In-111 WBCs was detected at the site of noninfected incisions in nine patients. In-111 WBCs did accumulate at incision sites in nine patients with infected surgical incisions. These results indicate that In-111 WBC study can accurately distinguish between normal healing and infection of recent surgical incisions.

  19. Use of indium-111 oxine to study pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration in endotoxin shock and effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdsson, G.H.; Christenson, J.T.; al-Mousawi, M.; Owunwanne, A. )

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of indium-111 oxine-labeled leukocytes was simultaneously recorded in multiple organs during endotoxin shock in sheep. Also, the effects of the beta-2 receptor agonist terbutaline were studied. An experimental protocol was designed to mimic a clinical condition in an intensive care setting as far as possible. The animals were ventilated with 50% oxygen to avoid hypoxemia and were given large amounts of intravenous fluids to reduce adverse effects of hypovolemia. A moderate dose of E. coli endotoxin (10 micrograms/kg bwt) was given by intravenous infusion to 14 adult sheep, seven of them receiving continuous intravenous infusion of terbutaline (20 micrograms/kg/hr) during 4 hr, starting 30 min after endotoxin, when signs of lung injury had developed. The other seven acted as controls. A marked pulmonary and hepatic leukocyte sequestration together with a sharp drop in leukocyte counts in peripheral blood occurred within minutes after start of the endotoxin infusion in both groups. However, no changes were observed in the kidneys or the gut. After 60 min and until the end of the experiment, there was a significantly lower activity in the lungs and in the liver of the animals treated with terbutaline than in the controls (P less than .01). Furthermore, less marked hemodynamic and respiratory alterations occurred in the terbutaline group compared with the controls. This study confirms the results of other investigators showing that significant leukocyte sequestration occurs in the lungs during endotoxemia, but it also demonstrates that leukocytes sequestrate in the liver, although slightly less than in the lungs.

  20. Unconventional apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN): staurosporine delays exposure of phosphatidylserine and prevents phagocytosis by M?-2 macrophages of PMN

    PubMed Central

    Franz, S; Muñoz, L E; Heyder, P; Herrmann, M; Schiller, M

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and subsequent ‘silent’ removal represents an important check-point for the resolution of inflammation. Failure in PMN clearance resulting in secondary necrosis-driven tissue damage has been implicated in conditions of chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Apoptotic PMN undergo profound biophysical changes that warrant their efficient recognition and uptake by phagocytes before fading to secondary necrosis. In this study, we demonstrate that staurosporine (STS), a non-selective but potent inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase and protein kinase C, exerts a drastic impact on PMN apoptosis. PMN treated with STS underwent an unconventional form of cell death characterized by a delayed exposure of aminophospholipids, including phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylethanolamine and an increased exposure of neo-glycans. STS caused an impaired cellular fragmentation and accelerated DNA fragmentation. Phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN lacking PS on their surfaces was decreased significantly, which highlights the importance of PS for the clearance of apoptotic PMN. Specific opsonization with immune complexes completely restored phagocytosis of STS-treated PMN, demonstrating the efficiency of back-up clearance pathways in the absence of PS exposure. PMID:24995908

  1. Glutamine improves impaired cellular exudation and polymorphonuclear neutrophil phagocytosis induced by total parenteral nutrition after glycogen-induced murine peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Shigeo; Kudsk, Kenneth A; Le, Tho; Zarzaur, Ben L; Johnson, Cheryl D

    2003-01-01

    Clinical and laboratory evidence shows that enteral feeding significantly reduces pneumonia and intra-abdominal abscess formation after celiotomy for severe trauma. Supplementation of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with glutamine (GLN) supports impaired immunity induced by TPN in several animal and human studies. This work investigates the peritoneal cellular response and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) bactericidal function after mouse chemical peritonitis after TPN with and without GLN. Thirty-three mice received chow, TPN, or 2% GLN-supplemented TPN (GLN-TPN) for 5 days. All mice then received 2 mL of a 1% glycogen solution intraperitoneally to induce cell exudation, and peritoneal exudative cells (PECs) were recovered 4 h later. Total and differential PEC numbers, as well as PMN phagocytosis, reactive oxygen intermediate production (ROI), CD11b (integrin aM chain) expression, and CD16/32 (Fcgamma II/III receptor) expression were measured. PMN, macrophage, and lymphocyte cell numbers were significantly lower with TPN than with chow or GLN-TPN groups, with no differences between chow and GLN-TPN. TPN significantly lowered peritoneal PMN phagocytosis compared with chow (P < 0.05) and approached significance with GLN-TPN (P = 0.06). There were no significant differences in ROI production or CD11b and CD16/32 expression on peritoneal PMN. GLN supplementation improved the reduction in cell exudation and PMN phagocytosis induced by TPN after chemical peritonitis. PMID:12558144

  2. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils and granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit natural killer cell activity toward Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Mueller-Leisse, Johanna; Brueggemann, Sabrina; Bouzani, Maria; Schmitt, Anna-Lena; Einsele, Hermann; Loeffler, Juergen

    2015-08-01

    Invasive aspergillosis is a devastating infectious disease in immunocompromised patients. Besides neutrophils and macrophages, natural killer (NK) cells have recently emerged as important players in immunity to this infection. It was shown that NK cells comprise an essential role in the clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) in neutropenic but not in nonneutropenic mice. However, the antifungal activity of NK cells and their regulation have not been fully characterized. In this study, we investigated the interplay between polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) or granulocyte myeloid-derived suppressor cells (Gr-MDSCs) with NK cells. Both cell types exhibited an equal inhibitory effect on NK cell activation through downregulation of NKp30 expression on the cell surface and cytotoxicity towards the cell line K562. Furthermore, we showed that NK cell activation and antifungal cytotoxicity were impaired when NK cells had been cultured in the presence of PMNs or Gr-MDSCs before fungal stimulation. Besides the reduced cytotoxicity a decreased release of interferon gamma (IFN?), a key player in the clearance of an A. fumigatus infection, was observed. Thus, inhibition of NK cell activity by PMNs or Gr-MDSCs might impair an effective anti-fungal immune response during recovery from conditions such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:26026170

  3. Peripheral leukocyte subpopulations and catecholamine levels in astronauts as a function of mission duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, P. J.; Meck, J. V.; Waters, W. W.; D'Aunno, D.; Ziegler, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight duration on immune cells and their relationship to catecholamine levels. METHODS: Eleven astronauts who flew aboard five different US Space Shuttle flights ranging in duration from 4 to 16 days were studied before launch and after landing. RESULTS: Consistent with prior studies, spaceflight was associated with a significant increase in the number of circulating white blood cells (p <.01), including neutrophils (p <.01), monocytes (p <.05), CD3+CD4+ T-helper cells (p <.05), and CD19+ B cells (p <.01). In contrast, the number of CD3-CD16+56+ natural killer cells was decreased (p <.01). Plasma norepinephrine levels were increased at landing (p <.01) and were significantly correlated with the number of white blood cells (p <.01), neutrophils (p <.01), monocytes (p <.01), and B cells (p <.01). Astronauts who were in space for approximately 1 week showed a significantly larger increase on landing in plasma norepinephrine (p =.02) and epinephrine (p =.03) levels, as well as number of circulating CD3+CD4+ T-helper cells (p <.05) and CD3+CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells (p <.05) as compared with astronauts in space for approximately 2 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the stress of spaceflight and landing may lead to a sympathetic nervous system-mediated redistribution of circulating leukocytes, an effect potentially attenuated after longer missions.

  4. Alterations in viscosity and filterability of whole blood and blood cell subpopulations in diabetic cats.

    PubMed

    Kelly, L W; Barden, C A; Tiedeman, J S; Hatchell, D L

    1993-03-01

    Capillary closure and venous dilatation occur early in diabetic retinopathy, and altered blood rheology may play a role. For example previous studies have shown leukocytes are less deformable, are more activated, and occlude retinal capillaries more often in diabetic subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if rheologic changes developed in diabetic cats, a model in which we have documented retinal capillary basement membrane thickening, microaneurysms, and intraretinal hemorrhage characteristics of early diabetic retinopathy. Viscosity of blood, plasma and purified erythrocyte suspensions was measured by rotational viscometry and plasma fibrinogen content was determined by heat precipitation. Filterability of blood and purified erythrocyte, mononuclear leukocyte, and granulocyte suspensions was determined at constant flow, measuring the increase in pressure over 2 min relative to the pressure generated by buffer alone. Viscosity of whole blood and plasma, but not erythrocytes, was significantly elevated (P < 0.005) in the diabetic cats over normals at all shear rates studied (450, 225 and 90 sec-1). Furthermore, fibrinogen levels were significantly elevated in diabetic cats compared to normals (P < 0.004), and were positively correlated with the viscosity of whole blood and plasma. The filterability of mononuclear leukocytes and whole blood in diabetic cats was decreased 56% and 74% when compared to normals, P < 0.0006 and P < 0.025, respectively. In contrast, the filterability of granulocytes and erythrocytes was not significantly different between the two groups. These results suggest that the rheologic alterations in diabetes are numerous, and involve both cellular and plasma protein changes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8472789

  5. Formation of secondary messengers by blood-formed elements in low-power laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, Gregory E.; Proshina, Olga V.; Zhigalina, Valentina N.; Filimonovskaya, Lyudmila S.; Romanova, Tatyana P.; Petrisheva, Svetlana G.; Zolotarjova, Tamara M.

    1995-05-01

    Irradiation of heparinized rat blood by He-Ne laser light ((lambda) - 632.8 nm, power density - 5 mW/cm2) during 15 or 30 min was performed in vitro experiments. The complex of biochemical parameters of erythrocytes, plasma and cytochemical parameters of polymorphonuclear leucocytes was studied. Laser irradiation was stated to cause different metabolic changes in red blood cells and neutrophils depending on the dose. In both doses of irradiation glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity lowers in erythrocytes, succinate dehydrogenase activity and lysosomal cationic proteins content increase in neutrophils. Stimulation of oxygen active forms production in cellular membranes of blood formed elements results in plasma malonic dialdehyde level increase and in the change of the balance between primary and secondary lipid peroxidation products. Cooperative interaction between different blood cells in the process of realization of system response to laser exposure is supposed to exist.

  6. Evaluation of genotoxicity in leukocytes and testis following intra-vasal contraception with RISUG and its reversal by DMSO and NaHCO? in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A S; Alam, I; Hussain, M; Khan, S R; Lohiya, N K

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of genotoxicity of RISUG® - a vas based contraceptive, was carried out in the present study. Animals were allotted into groups of sham operated control, vas occlusion with RISUG (5-7 ?l) for 360 days and reversal by DMSO (250-500 ?l) and 5% NaHCO? (500 ?l). Blood samples and testis were collected at 360 days of vas occlusion and 90 days of vas occlusion reversal for comet analysis. Hydrogen peroxide induced samples were used as positive control. Olive moment, tail length and percentage DNA in tail were recorded with minimum variation in all groups for both leukocytes and testis. When compared with positive control the variation was highly significant for both 20 ?M and 50 ?M H?O? (p<0.001). It is concluded that vas occlusion with RISUG at the contraceptive dose regimen is not associated with genotoxicity in leukocytes or the testis of pre- and post-reversal rats. PMID:23246611

  7. Stimulation of natural killer cell activity and inhibition of proliferation of various leukemic cells by purified human leukocyte interferon subtypes.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Kelley, S; Chiu, H; Stebbing, N

    1982-04-01

    One of several human leukocyte interferon subtypes A (LeIF-A), obtained in purified form from a gene cloned in Escherichia coli, stimulated human peripheral blood natural killer cell activity, whereas another human leukocyte interferon subtype D (LeIF-D) had no effect with the use of K562 as target cells. With Daudi as target cells, both LeIF-A and LeIF-D stimulated natural killer cell activity. A hybrid human leukocyte interferon, NH2-terminal 61 amino acids and COOH-terminal 104 residues of LeIF-A and LeIF-D, respectively (LeIF-AD) showed greater stimulation than did LeIF-A, but the stimulation did not exceed that of natural buffy coat interferon. A mixture of equal antiviral units of LeIF-A and LeIF-D was no more effective than was LeIF-A alone. The cloned interferon subtypes showed differential effects on the proliferation of three human leukemic cell lines: Daudi (B-cell lymphoblastoid leukemia); BALL 1 (B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia); CCRF-HSB-2 (T-cell acute lymphoblastoid leukemia). Growth of Daudi cells was generally most sensitive to all the interferons tested, LeIF-A, -D, -AD, and a buffy coat preparation; no viable cells remained after 120-hr exposure to 1000-unit/ml doses of the interferons. BALL 1 was relatively resistant to the interferon subtypes tested including LeIF-AD, but this cell lines was very sensitive to a preparation of natural buffy coat interferon. CCRF-HSB-2 showed some sensitivity to all the interferons with greatest sensitivity to LeIF-A (10% of the viable cells were detected after 1000 units/ml exposure for 120 hr). In contrast to the leukemic cell lines tested, human amnion cells (WISH) and the human erythroid leukemia, K562, were resistant to the antiproliferative activity of the interferons. PMID:6174222

  8. Impaired Vitamin D Signaling in Endothelial Cell Leads to an Enhanced Leukocyte-Endothelium Interplay: Implications for Atherosclerosis Development

    PubMed Central

    Bozic, Milica; Álvarez, Ángeles; de Pablo, Carmen; Sanchez-Niño, Maria-Dolores; Ortiz, Alberto; Dolcet, Xavier; Encinas, Mario; Fernandez, Elvira; Valdivielso, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation leading to leukocyte recruitment and adhesion plays an essential role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Vitamin D has cardioprotective actions, while its deficiency is a risk factor for the progression of cardiovascular damage. Our aim was to assess the role of basal levels of vitamin D receptor (VDR) on the early leukocyte recruitment and related endothelial cell-adhesion-molecule expression, as essential prerequisites for the onset of atherosclerosis. Knockdown of VDR in endothelial cells (shVDR) led to endothelial cell activation, characterized by upregulation of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and IL-6, decreased peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) rolling velocity and increased PBMC rolling flux and adhesion to the endothelium. shVDR cells showed decreased I?B? levels and accumulation of p65 in the nucleus compared to shRNA controls. Inhibition of NF-?B activation with super-repressor I?B? blunted all signs of endothelial cell activation caused by downregulation of VDR in endothelial cells. In vivo, deletion of VDR led to significantly larger aortic arch and aortic root lesions in apoE-/- mice, with higher macrophage content. apoE-/-VDR-/-mice showed higher aortic expression of VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and IL-6 when compared to apoE-/-VDR+/+ mice. Our data demonstrate that lack of VDR signaling in endothelial cells leads to a state of endothelial activation with increased leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions that may contribute to the more severe plaque accumulation observed in apoE-/-VDR-/- mice. The results reveal an important role for basal levels of endothelial VDR in limiting endothelial cell inflammation and atherosclerosis. PMID:26322890

  9. Atypical lymphocytes and leukocytes in the peripheral circulation of caged hens.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul F

    2015-07-01

    Lymphocytes comprise a family of cells descended from bursa and thymus progenitors whose differentiation is not possible by standard hematology. However, if they are small with a nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio near 1, they are "resting" at least in the microscopic sense. Activation, increases their size, and decreases the nuclear:cytoplasmic (N:C) ratio. Reactive cells are infrequent in healthy animal blood. Their presence indicates an immune response in progress, inflammation, stress, or other pathology. Here the purpose is to describe unusual leukocytes and lymphocytes found in the periphery of commercial hens. Samples of Wright stained blood films obtained from commercial hens housed in modern cages are the data source. Photomicroscopy used an Olympus CX41 light microscope equipped with an Infinity-2 1.4 megapixel charge-coupled device (CCD) Universal Serial Bus (USB) 2.0 camera, at 100× (oil) magnification. Collectively these cells illustrate a continuum between mildly "reactive" to grossly "atypical" states. The description begins with normal resting cells, proceeds to mildly atypical, and concludes with grossly abnormal cells. Bone marrow cells, a source of plasmacytes, are included for comparison. Examples of circulating plasmacytes, large plasmacytoid lymphocytes (LPL), foam cells, and cells expressing properties of more than one lineage are included. The importance of these observations lies in their contribution to cytology, hematology, and immunology. Last, because of the wide use of heterophil:lymphocyte ratios (H:L) as a stress measure they bear directly the welfare issues of caged animals. When cells similar to the types described here are in blood, they indicate stress independent of H:L or other standard measures. PMID:26038581

  10. An ex vivo RT-qPCR-based assay for human peripheral leukocyte responsiveness to glucocorticoids in surgically induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gråberg, Truls; Strömmer, Lovisa; Hedman, Erik; Uzunel, Mehmet; Ehrenborg, Ewa; Wikström, Ann-Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An assay to determine glucocorticoid (GC) responsiveness in humans could be used to monitor GC non-responsiveness in states of GC insufficiency and could provide a tool to adapt GC treatment to individual patients. We propose an ex vivo assay to test GC responsiveness in peripheral leukocytes. The assay was evaluated in a human experimental model of surgery-induced inflammation. Patients and methods Changes in expression of the GC-regulated genes GILZ, IL1R2, FKBP5, and HLA-DR and glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GR?) were determined by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in peripheral leukocytes from surgical patients and healthy blood donors (total n=60) in response to low (1 nM) and high (1 µM) dexamethasone (DEX). The final selection of a suitable endogenous control gene was based on the studies of stability during DEX treatment and inflammation. Correlations between pre- and postoperative GC-induced gene expression, the postoperative systemic inflammatory and metabolic response (CRP, IL-6, white blood cell count, cytokines, resistin, free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, and adiponectin), and the clinical outcome were analyzed. The length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU-LOS), the length of stay in the hospital, and postoperative complications were used to measure clinical outcome. Results When the blood donors were compared to the patients, there were no significant differences in the regulation of the genes in response to DEX, except for GR?. Preoperative, but not postoperative, gene regulation of GILZ and GR? was negatively correlated to ICU-LOS (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Preoperative GILZ and FKBP5 gene regulation was negatively correlated to postoperative systemic TNF? and MIP-1? levels. Conclusion We suggest that this assay could be used to determine GC responsiveness. An alteration in preoperative GC responsiveness may be related to a patient’s ability to recover from surgically induced inflammatory stress. PMID:26316794

  11. Reducing the Viscosity of Blood by Pulsed Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, R.; Huang, K.

    2010-03-01

    Blood viscosity is a major player in heart disease. When blood is viscous, in addition to a high blood pressure required for the blood circulation, blood vessel walls are also easy to be damaged. While this issue is very important, currently the only method to reduce the blood viscosity is to take medicine, such as aspirin. Here we report our new finding that the blood viscosity can be reduced by pulsed magnetic field. Blood is a suspension of red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets in plasma, a complex solution of gases, salts, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The base liquid, plasma, has low viscosity. The effective viscosity of whole blood increases mainly due to the red blood cells, which have a volume fraction about 40% or above. Red blood cells contain iron and are sensitive to magnetic field. Therefore, when we apply a strong magnetic field, the red cells make their diameters align in the field direction to form short chains. This change in rheology reduces the effective viscosity as high as 20-30%. While this reduction is not permanent, it lasts for several hours and repeatable. The reduction rate can be controlled by selecting suitable magnetic field and duration of field application to make blood viscosity within the normal range.

  12. Blood smear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... due to: Breakdown of red blood cells (decreased osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol ... blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased osmotic fragility Presence of elliptocytes may be a sign ...

  13. Blood Thinners

    MedlinePLUS

    ... it takes to form a blood clot. Antiplatelet drugs, such as aspirin, prevent blood cells called platelets ... that your healthcare provider knows all of the medicines and supplements you are using.

  14. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... re needed. Blood also collects waste products, like carbon dioxide, and takes them to the organs responsible for ... carry oxygen to the body's tissues and remove carbon dioxide. Red blood cells make up about 40%-45% ...

  15. Correlation between depression, anxiety, and polymorphonuclear cells’ resilience in ulcerative colitis: the mediating role of heat shock protein 70

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate whether anxiety and depression levels are associated with Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) induction in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods The design was cross-sectional. Clinical activity was assessed by the Rachmilewitz Index (CAI). Three psychometric questionnaires were used: Zung Depression Rating Scale (ZDRS), Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Colon biopsies were obtained from each affected anatomical site. Severity of inflammation was assessed by eosin/hematoxylin. Constitutive (HSP70c) and inducible (HSP70i) HSP70 expression were immunohistochemically studied. Results 29 UC patients were enrolled (69% men). Mean age was 46.5 years (SD: 19.5). Inflammation severity was moderate in 17 patients, severe in 6, and mild in 6. The mean number of years since diagnosis was 7.9 (SD: 6.5). The mean CAI was 6.4 (SD: 3.1). In active UC, there was downregulation of HSP70c in inflamed epithelium, without significant HSP70 induction. In 22/29 cases of active cryptitis, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) clearly expressed HSP70i, with weak, focal positivity in the other 7 cases. Except for the hospital anxiety scale, scores in all psychometric tools were higher in patients with strong HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN. Logistic regression showed a strong positive relationship between HSP70i immunoreactivity in the PMN cells and scores in the trait anxiety, ZDRS, and hospital depression scales, (Odds ratios 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5; P?=?0.018, 0.023, and 0.038; Wald test, 5.6, 5.2, and 4.3 respectively) and a weaker but significant positive correlation with the CAI (Odds ratio 1.654; P?=?0.049; Wald test 3.858). Conclusion HSP70 is induced in PMN cells of UC patients and its induction correlates with depression and anxiety levels. PMID:24742079

  16. Role of CD31 Binding Partners in Viable Leukocyte Detachment from Macrophages 

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Kim

    2007-01-01

    CD31 mediates homophilic interactions between leukocytes and macrophages during inflammation, apoptotic cells remain attached and are engulfed whereas viable cells actively detach. We hypothesised that differential ...

  17. Mechanisms of force generation and force transmission during interstitial leukocyte migration

    PubMed Central

    Renkawitz, Jörg; Sixt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    For innate and adaptive immune responses it is essential that inflammatory cells use quick and flexible locomotion strategies. Accordingly, most leukocytes can efficiently infiltrate and traverse almost every physiological or artificial environment. Here, we review how leukocytes might achieve this task mechanistically, and summarize recent findings on the principles of cytoskeletal force generation and transduction at the leading edge of leukocytes. We propose a model in which the cells switch between adhesion-receptor-mediated force transmission and locomotion modes that are based on cellular deformations, but independent of adhesion receptors. This plasticity in migration strategies allows leukocytes to adapt to the geometry and molecular composition of their environment. PMID:20865016

  18. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... might be the red blood cells, platelets or plasma . Rarely is whole blood (red cells, plasma, platelets, and white cells) used for a transfusion. ... important for other components such as platelets and plasma, where most of the red blood cells have ...

  19. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type has a marker known as "B." Type AB. The blood cells in this type have both ... of the four main blood groups (A, B, AB, and O) may or may not have Rh ... marker and Rh factor, but not A marker. AB negative. This blood type has A and B ...

  20. The Study of Leukocyte Functions in a Rotating Wall Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trial, JoAnn

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of leukocytes under free-fall conditions in a rotating wall vessel. In such a vessel, the tendency of a cell to fall in response to gravity is opposed by the rotation of the vessel and the culture medium within, keeping the cells in suspension without fluid shear. Previous reports indicated that such functions as lymphocyte migration through collagen matrix or monocyte cytokine secretion are altered under these conditions, and these changes correlate with similar functional defects of cultured cells seen during spaceflight.

  1. Production of antibodies which recognize opiate receptors on murine leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.J.J.; Bost, K.L.; Blalock, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    An antibody has been developed which recognizes opiate receptors on cells of the immune system. This antibody blocks specific binding of the radiolabeled opiate receptor ligand, /sup 3/H-dihydromorphine, to receptors on murine splenocytes. Additionally, the anti-receptor antibody competes with ..beta..-endorphin, meta-enkephalin, and naloxone for the same binding site on the leukocytes. Moreover, the anti-receptor antibody possesses agonist activity similar to ..beta..-endorphin in suppressing cAMP production by lymphocytes. These results suggest the development of an antibody which recognizes classical opiate receptors on cells of the immune system.

  2. Detection and quantification of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine adducts in peripheral blood of people exposed to ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, V.L. ); Taffe, B.G.; Shields, P.G.; Harris, C.C. ); Povey, A.C. )

    1993-03-01

    Ionizing radiation produces a variety of damaging insults to nucleic acids, including the promutagenic lesion 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. In the present study, the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine content of peripheral blood leukocyte DNA isolated from individuals exposed to therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation was determined by a HPLC-coupled [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay. Peripheral blood leukocyte DNA from individuals irradiated with 180--200 cGy were observed to contain 2--4.5 times as much 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine as that from unexposed individuals. These results were confirmed by the use of a HPLC-coupled electrochemical detection system. Thus, human exposure to ionizing radiation significantly increased the circulating leukocyte DNA content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A simple method for in vivo labelling of infiltrating leukocytes in the mouse retina using indocyanine green dye.

    PubMed

    Sim, Dawn A; Chu, Colin J; Selvam, Senthil; Powner, Michael B; Liyanage, Sidath; Copland, David A; Keane, Pearse A; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A; Bainbridge, James W B; Lee, Richard W; Dick, Andrew D; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a method to label and image myeloid cells infiltrating the mouse retina and choroid in vivo, using a single depot injection of indocyanine green dye (ICG). This was demonstrated using the following ocular models of inflammation and angiogenesis: endotoxin-induced uveitis, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model. A near-infrared scanning ophthalmoscope was used for in vivo imaging of the eye, and flow cytometry was used on blood and spleen to assess the number and phenotype of labelled cells. ICG was administered 72?h before the induction of inflammation to ensure clearance from the systemic circulation. We found that in vivo intravenous administration failed to label any leukocytes, whereas depot injection, either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous, was successful in labelling leukocytes infiltrating into the retina. Progression of inflammation in the retina could be traced over a period of 14?days following a single depot injection of ICG. Additionally, bright-field microscopy, spectrophotometry and flow cytometric analysis suggest that the predominant population of cells stained by ICG are circulating myeloid cells. The translation of this approach into clinical practice would enable visualization of immune cells in situ. This will not only provide a greater understanding of pathogenesis, monitoring and assessment of therapy in many human ocular diseases but might also open the ability to image immunity live for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease and systemic immune-mediated disorders. PMID:26398933

  4. Evaluation of genotoxic effects in human leukocytes after in vitro exposure to 1950 MHz UMTS radiofrequency field.

    PubMed

    Zeni, O; Schiavoni, A; Perrotta, A; Forigo, D; Deplano, M; Scarfi, M R

    2008-04-01

    In the present study the third generation wireless technology of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) signal was investigated for the induction of genotoxic effects in human leukocytes. Peripheral blood from six healthy donors was used and, for each donor, intermittent exposures (6 min RF on, 2 h RF off) at the frequency of 1950 MHz were conducted at a specific absorption rate of 2.2 W/kg. The exposures were performed in a transverse electro magnetic (TEM) cell hosted in an incubator under strictly controlled conditions of temperature and dosimetry. Following long duration intermittent RF exposures (from 24 to 68 h) in different stages of the cell cycle, micronucleus formation was evaluated by applying the cytokinesis block micronucleus assay, which also provides information on cell division kinetics. Primary DNA damage (strand breaks/alkali labile sites) was also investigated following 24 h of intermittent RF exposures, by applying the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCG)/comet assay. Positive controls were included by treating cell cultures with Mitomycin-C and methylmethanesulfonate for micronucleus and comet assays, respectively. The results obtained indicate that intermittent exposures of human lymphocytes in different stages of cell cycle do not induce either an increase in micronucleated cells, or change in cell cycle kinetics; moreover, 24 h intermittent exposures also fail to affect DNA structure of human leukocytes soon after the exposures, likely indicating that repairable DNA damage was not induced. PMID:18027845

  5. A simple method for in vivo labelling of infiltrating leukocytes in the mouse retina using indocyanine green dye

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Dawn A.; Chu, Colin J.; Selvam, Senthil; Powner, Michael B.; Liyanage, Sidath; Copland, David A.; Keane, Pearse A.; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A.; Bainbridge, James W. B.; Lee, Richard W.; Dick, Andrew D.; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have developed a method to label and image myeloid cells infiltrating the mouse retina and choroid in vivo, using a single depot injection of indocyanine green dye (ICG). This was demonstrated using the following ocular models of inflammation and angiogenesis: endotoxin-induced uveitis, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model. A near-infrared scanning ophthalmoscope was used for in vivo imaging of the eye, and flow cytometry was used on blood and spleen to assess the number and phenotype of labelled cells. ICG was administered 72?h before the induction of inflammation to ensure clearance from the systemic circulation. We found that in vivo intravenous administration failed to label any leukocytes, whereas depot injection, either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous, was successful in labelling leukocytes infiltrating into the retina. Progression of inflammation in the retina could be traced over a period of 14?days following a single depot injection of ICG. Additionally, bright-field microscopy, spectrophotometry and flow cytometric analysis suggest that the predominant population of cells stained by ICG are circulating myeloid cells. The translation of this approach into clinical practice would enable visualization of immune cells in situ. This will not only provide a greater understanding of pathogenesis, monitoring and assessment of therapy in many human ocular diseases but might also open the ability to image immunity live for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease and systemic immune-mediated disorders. PMID:26398933

  6. 520-d Isolation and confinement simulating a flight to Mars reveals heightened immune responses and alterations of leukocyte phenotype.

    PubMed

    Yi, B; Rykova, M; Feuerecker, M; Jäger, B; Ladinig, C; Basner, M; Hörl, M; Matzel, S; Kaufmann, I; Strewe, C; Nichiporuk, I; Vassilieva, G; Rinas, K; Baatout, S; Schelling, G; Thiel, M; Dinges, D F; Morukov, B; Choukèr, A

    2014-08-01

    During interplanetary exploration, chronic stress caused by long term isolation and confinement in the spacecraft is one of the major concerns of physical and psychological health of space travelers. And for human on Earth, more and more people live in an isolated condition, which has become a common social problem in modern western society. Collective evidences have indicated prolonged chronic stress could bring big influence to human immune function, which may lead to a variety of health problems. However, to what extent long-term isolation can affect the immune system still remains largely unknow. A simulated 520-d Mars mission provided an extraordinary chance to study the effect of prolonged isolation. Six healthy males participated in this mission and their active neuroendocrine and immune conditions were studied with saliva and blood samples from all participants on chosen time points during the isolation period. As a typical neuroendocrine parameter, stress hormone cortisol was measured in the morning saliva samples. Immune phenotype changes were monitored through peripheral leukocyte phenotype analysis. Using an ex vivo viral infection simulation assay we assessed the immune response changes characterized by the ability to produce representative endogenous pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results of this study revealed elevated cortisol levels, increased lymphocyte amount and heightened immune responses, suggesting that prolonged isolation acting as chronic stressors are able to trigger leukocyte phenotype changes and poorly controlled immune responses. PMID:24704568

  7. Renal transplant patients treated with total lymphoid irradiation show specific unresponsiveness to donor antigens the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR)

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, D.; Saper, V.; Strober, S.

    1987-06-01

    A group of 25 cadaveric renal transplant recipients received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) before transplantation, rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin on alternate days for 10 days after transplantation, and low dose prednisone (5 to 10 mg/day) as the sole maintenance immunosuppressive therapy. Allograft function and the mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR) were monitored serially. After 18 to 30 mo, nine patients were selected on the basis of a return of the MLR such that the mean stimulation index to a panel of normal stimulator cells was greater than or equal to 5, a stable serum creatinine level which was less than or equal to 2 mg/dl, and a history of no more than one rejection episode. The MLR of these patients' post-transplant peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) against cryopreserved donor cells was compared with that against cryopreserved normal third-party cells. In control experiments, the MLR of cryopreserved pre-TLI recipient PBML or fresh normal PBML were tested against the same panel of donor and third-party stimulator cells. Seven of the nine recipients showed a pattern of specific unresponsiveness to the donor cells more than 18 mo after transplantation. Preliminary attempts to identify antigen specific suppressor cells were unsuccessful. The pattern of unresponsiveness may indicate a state of specific immune tolerance to the allogeneic graft.

  8. [Immunoreaction and blood transfusion--chairmen's introductory remarks].

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Tsutomu; Matsushita, Tadashi

    2013-05-01

    Although blood transfusion is an extremely important therapeutic procedure that usually proceeds without complications, there are some risks associated with donated blood. Investigations into the causes of transfusion reactions and their prevention are important issues for transfusion therapy. In addition to nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for infectious diseases and the irradiation of blood to prevent post-transfusion GVHD, prestorage leukocyte reduction and diversion of the first part of the donation of blood were recently introduced into transfusion therapy. This symposium, entitled "Immunoreaction and blood transfusion", reviewed the immune responses associated with blood transfusion, which is probably the most frequent medical procedure performed in allogeneic organ transplantation, with four themes provided by the four featured invited speakers: transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, transfusion-transmitted infectious disease surveillance, and transfusion-related immunomodulation. PMID:23947177

  9. In vivo imaging of leukocyte trafficking in blood vessels and tissues

    E-print Network

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    of the immune system. Intravital microscopy (IVM) techniques have been employed for more than a century to study multiphoton PLN peripheral LN PP Peyer's patch SLO secondary lymphatic organs Introduction Recent progress- ing the physiological recruitment of lymphocytes to sec- ondary lymphatic organs (SLOs; [11

  10. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation during early sepsis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guarda, Ismael Francisco Mota Siqueira; Correia, Cristiano Jesus; Breithaupt-Faloppa, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Sueli Gomes; Moreno, Ana Carolina Ramos; Martinez, Marina Baquerizo; Rocha-e-Silva, Mauricio; Sannomiya, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Experimental studies on sepsis have demonstrated that ethyl pyruvate is endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of ethyl pyruvate on leukocyte-endothelial interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation in a live Escherichia coli-induced sepsis model in rats. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were administered an intravenous suspension of E. coli bacteria or were subjected to a sham procedure. Three hours after bacterial infusion, the rats were randomized into the following groups: a control group without treatment, a group treated with lactated Ringer's solution (4 mL/kg, i.v.), and a group treated with lactated Ringer's solution (4 mL/kg, i.v.) plus ethyl pyruvate (50 mg/kg). At 24 h after bacterial infusion, leukocyte-endothelial interactions were investigated using intravital microscopy, and the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was evaluated via immunohistochemistry. White blood cell and platelet counts were also determined at baseline and 3 h and 24 h after E. coli inoculation. RESULTS: The non-treated and lactated Ringer's solution-treated groups exhibited increases in the numbers of rolling leukocytes (?2.5-fold increase), adherent cells (?3.0-fold), and migrated cells (?3.5-fold) compared with the sham group. In contrast, treatment with Ringer's ethyl pyruvate solution reduced the numbers of rolling, adherent and migrated leukocytes to the levels observed in the sham group. Additionally, the expression of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was significantly increased on mesenteric microvessels in the non-treated group compared with the sham group (p<0.001). The expression of both adhesion molecules was reduced in the other groups, with ethyl pyruvate being more effective than lactated Ringer's solution. Infusion of bacteria caused significant leukopenia (3 h), followed by leukocytosis with granulocytosis (24 h). There was also an intense and progressive reduction in the number of platelets. However, no differences were observed after treatment with the different solutions. CONCLUSIONS: The presented data suggest that ethyl pyruvate efficiently reduces the inflammatory response in the mesenteric microcirculation in an experimental model of sepsis induced by live E. coli and is associated, at least in part, with down-regulation of P-selectin and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. PMID:26222821

  12. Leukocytes from diabetic patients kill retinal endothelial cells: Effects of berberine

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Pei; Ge, Hongyan; Liu, Haitao; Kern, Timothy S.; Du, Lingling; Guan, Linan; Su, Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Accumulating evidence in animals suggests that leukocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. The present study was designed to investigate whether leukocytes from diabetic patients could kill retinal endothelial cells and whether that cytotoxicity could be inhibited in vivo by administration of berberine. Methods Human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) were cocultured (24 h) with leukocytes freshly isolated from nondiabetic and diabetic patients, and leukocyte-mediated death of HRECs was analyzed with flow cytometry. HRECs or leukocytes were incubated with antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) or integrin beta-2, or with various concentrations of berberine. The protein expression levels of inflammatory factors were investigated using western blots, and activities of antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content were examined as markers of oxidative stress. In addition, leukocytes were isolated from 28 diabetic patients with retinopathy and nondiabetic patients before and after 1 month in vivo therapy with berberine. The effects of the berberine on leukocyte-mediated killing of endothelial cells was again assessed. Results Leukocytes from diabetic patients induced more apoptosis of HRECs in a coculture system than did cells from nondiabetic patients, and this killing occurred primarily via direct cell–cell contact. Berberine inhibited the leukocyte-mediated killing of HRECs in vitro, the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities, the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B, and the increase in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and malondialdehyde content in HRECs cultured in high glucose. Berberine also decreased integrin beta-2 expression of leukocytes in vitro and in vivo. Oral consumption of berberine for 1 month likewise inhibited the diabetes-induced increase in leukocyte-mediated killing of HRECs. Conclusions Our findings suggest that leukocytes from diabetic patients kill retinal endothelial cells, and that berberine can inhibit this leukocyte-mediated killing of vascular endothelium. Coculture of leukocytes with HRECs might serve as a biomarker to study the role of leukocytes in the development of diabetic retinopathy, and the data are consistent with berberine being a therapy against diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24146542

  13. 77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... the Federal Register of January 31, 2011 (76 FR 5386), FDA announced the availability of the draft..., Rockville, MD 20852- 1448. Send one self-addressed adhesive label to assist the office in processing...

  14. Vitamin C Prevents Cigarette Smoke-Induced Leukocyte Aggregation and Adhesion to Endothelium in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Hans-Anton; Frei, Balz; Arfors, Karl-E.

    1994-08-01

    A common feature of cigarette-smoke (CS)-associated diseases such as atherosclerosis and pulmonary emphysema is the activation, aggregation, and adhesion of leukocytes to micro- and macrovascular endothelium. A previous study, using a skinfold chamber model for intravital fluorescence microscopy in awake hamsters, has shown that exposure of hamsters to the smoke generated by one research cigarette elicits the adhesion of fluorescently labeled leukocytes to the endothelium of arterioles and small venules. By the combined use of intravital microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, we now demonstrate in the same animal model that (i) CS-induced leukocyte adhesion is not confined to the microcirculation, but that leukocytes also adhere singly and in clusters to the aortic endothelium; (ii) CS induces the formation in the bloodstream of aggregates between leukocytes and platelets; and (iii) CS-induced leukocyte adhesion to micro- and macrovascular endothelium and leukocyte-platelet aggregate formation are almost entirely prevented by dietary or intravenous pretreatment with the water-soluble antioxidant vitamin C (venules, 21.4 ± 11.0 vs. 149.6 ± 38.7 leukocytes per mm^2, P < 0.01; arterioles, 8.5 ± 4.2 vs. 54.3 ± 21.6 leukocytes per mm^2, P < 0.01; aortas, 0.8 ± 0.4 vs. 12.4 ± 5.6 leukocytes per mm^2, P < 0.01; means ± SD of n = 7 animals, 15 min after CS exposure). No inhibitory effect was observed by pretreatment of the animals with the lipid-soluble antioxidants vitamin E or probucol. The protective effects of vitamin C on CS-induced leukocyte adhesion and aggregation were seen at vitamin C plasma levels (55.6 ± 22.2 ?M, n = 7) that can easily be reached in humans by dietary means or supplementation, suggesting that vitamin C effectively contributes to protection from CS-associated cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases in humans.

  15. Multistep Navigation and the Combinatorial Control of Leukocyte Chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Foxman, Ellen F.; Campbell, James J.; Butcher, Eugene C.

    1997-01-01

    Cells migrating within tissues may encounter multiple chemoattractant signals in complex spatial and temporal patterns. To understand leukocyte navigation in such settings, we have explored the migratory behavior of neutrophils in model scenarios where they are presented with two chemoattractant sources in various configurations. We show that, over a wide range of conditions, neutrophils can migrate “down” a local chemoattractant gradient in response to a distant gradient of a different chemoattractant. Furthermore, cells can chemotax effectively to a secondary distant agonist after migrating up a primary gradient into a saturating, nonorienting concentration of an initial attractant. Together, these observations suggest the potential for cells' step-by-step navigation from one gradient to another in complex chemoattractant fields. The importance of such sequential navigation is confirmed here in a model system in which neutrophil homing to a defined domain (a) requires serial responses to agonists presented in a defined spatial array, and (b) is a function of both the agonist combination and the sequence in which gradients are encountered. We propose a multistep model of chemoattractant-directed migration, which requires that leukocytes display multiple chemoattractant receptors for successful homing and provides for combinatorial determination of microenvironmental localization. PMID:9382879

  16. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  17. Electromagnetic wave emitting products and "Kikoh" potentiate human leukocyte functions.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Y; Iizawa, O; Ishimoto, K; Jiang, X; Kanoh, T

    1993-09-01

    Tourmaline (electric stone, a type of granite stone), common granite stone, ceramic disks, hot spring water and human palmar energy (called "Kikoh" in Japan and China), all which emit electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared region (wavelength 4-14 microns). These materials were thus examined for effects on human leukocyte activity and on lipid peroxidation of unsaturated fatty acids. It was revealed that these materials significantly increased intracellular calcium ion concentration, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils, and the blastogenetic response of lymphocytes to mitogens. Chemotactic activity by neutrophils was also enhanced by exposure to tourmaline and the palm of "Kikohshi" i.e., a person who heals professionally by the laying on of hands. Despite the increase in reactive oxygen species generated by neutrophils, lipid peroxidation from unsaturated fatty acid was markedly inhibited by these four materials. The results suggest that materials emitting electromagnetic radiation in the far infrared range, which are widely used in Japan for cosmetic, therapeutic, and preservative purposes, appear capable of potentiating leukocyte functions without promoting oxidative injury. PMID:8406976

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  19. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  20. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  1. Protective effect of dry olive leaf extract in adrenaline induced DNA damage evaluated using in vitro comet assay with human peripheral leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Cabarkapa, Andrea; Zivkovi?, Lada; Zukovec, Dijana; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

    2014-04-01

    Excessive release of stress hormone adrenaline is accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species which may cause disruption of DNA integrity leading to cancer and age-related disorders. Phenolic-rich plant product dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) is known to modulate effects of various oxidants in human cells. The aim was to evaluate the effect of commercial DOLE against adrenaline induced DNA damage in human leukocytes by using comet assay. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 6 healthy subjects were treated in vitro with three final concentrations of DOLE (0.125, 0.5, and 1mg/mL) for 30 min at 37°C under two different protocols, pretreatment and post-treatment. Protective effect of DOLE was assessed from its ability to attenuate formation of DNA lesions induced by adrenaline. Compared to cells exposed only to adrenaline, DOLE displayed significant reduction (P<0.001) of DNA damage at all three concentrations and under both experimental protocols. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive association between DOLE concentration and leukocytes DNA damage (P<0.05). Antigenotoxic effect of the extract was more pronounced at smaller concentrations. Post-treatment with 0.125 mg/mL DOLE was the most effective against adrenaline genotoxicity. Results indicate genoprotective and antioxidant properties in dry olive leaf extract, strongly supporting further explorations of its underlying mechanisms of action. PMID:24389114

  2. Comparison of purified indium-111 granulocytes and indium-111 mixed leukocytes for imaging of infections

    SciTech Connect

    Schauwecker, D.S.; Burt, R.W.; Park, H.M.; Mock, B.H.; Tobolski, M.M.; Yu, P.L.; Wellman, H.N.

    1988-01-01

    Several methods have been proposed for the separation and labeling of white blood cells for the diagnosis of suspected infection. We retrospectively compared 105 patients imaged with /sup 111/In purified granulocytes (GRAN) to 106 patients imaged with /sup 111/In mixed leukocytes (MIX). We found that in acute infection the sensitivity of GRAN and MIX were both high and not statistically different. In chronic infections the sensitivities were lower than for acute infections. Again, there was no significant difference between GRAN and MIX with the borderline significant exception of MIX being superior to GRAN in chronic soft tissue infections (p = 0.06). We then had independent observers blindly grade the degree of lesion visualization. We found that delayed images visualized the lesions better than early images (p = 0.0001) and acute infection was better visualized than chronic infection (p = 0.03). We concluded that, in routine clinical practice, MIX is probably the agent of choice for three reasons: (a) easier preparation, (b) comparable sensitivity in acute infection and, (c) borderline superior sensitivity in chronic infection.

  3. Human HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts: Immune-activating cells that interact with decidual leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Tilburgs, Tamara; Crespo, Ângela C; van der Zwan, Anita; Rybalov, Basya; Raj, Towfique; Stranger, Barbara; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Strominger, Jack L

    2015-06-01

    Invading human leukocyte antigen-G+ (HLA-G+) extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) are rare cells that are believed to play a key role in the prevention of a maternal immune attack on foreign fetal tissues. Here highly purified HLA-G+ EVT and HLA-G- villous trophoblasts (VT) were isolated. Culture on fibronectin that EVT encounter on invading the uterus increased HLA-G, EGF-Receptor-2, and LIF-Receptor expression on EVT, presumably representing a further differentiation state. Microarray and functional gene set enrichment analysis revealed a striking immune-activating potential for EVT that was absent in VT. Cocultures of HLA-G+ EVT with sample matched decidual natural killer cells (dNK), macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were established. Interaction of EVT with CD4+ T cells resulted in increased numbers of CD4+CD25(HI)FOXP3+CD45RA+ resting regulatory T cells (Treg) and increased the expression level of the Treg-specific transcription factor FOXP3 in these cells. However, EVT did not enhance cytokine secretion in dNK, whereas stimulation of dNK with mitogens or classical natural killer targets confirmed the distinct cytokine secretion profiles of dNK and peripheral blood NK cells (pNK). EVT are specialized cells involved in maternal-fetal tolerance, the properties of which are not imitated by HLA-G-expressing surrogate cell lines. PMID:26015573

  4. Human HLA-G+ extravillous trophoblasts: Immune-activating cells that interact with decidual leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Tilburgs, Tamara; van der Zwan, Anita; Rybalov, Basya; Raj, Towfique; Stranger, Barbara; Gardner, Lucy; Moffett, Ashley; Strominger, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Invading human leukocyte antigen-G+ (HLA?G+) extravillous trophoblasts (EVT) are rare cells that are believed to play a key role in the prevention of a maternal immune attack on foreign fetal tissues. Here highly purified HLA?G+ EVT and HLA?G? villous trophoblasts (VT) were isolated. Culture on fibronectin that EVT encounter on invading the uterus increased HLA?G, EGF-Receptor-2, and LIF-Receptor expression on EVT, presumably representing a further differentiation state. Microarray and functional gene set enrichment analysis revealed a striking immune-activating potential for EVT that was absent in VT. Cocultures of HLA?G+ EVT with sample matched decidual natural killer cells (dNK), macrophages, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were established. Interaction of EVT with CD4+ T cells resulted in increased numbers of CD4+CD25HIFOXP3+CD45RA+ resting regulatory T cells (Treg) and increased the expression level of the Treg-specific transcription factor FOXP3 in these cells. However, EVT did not enhance cytokine secretion in dNK, whereas stimulation of dNK with mitogens or classical natural killer targets confirmed the distinct cytokine secretion profiles of dNK and peripheral blood NK cells (pNK). EVT are specialized cells involved in maternal–fetal tolerance, the properties of which are not imitated by HLA?G–expressing surrogate cell lines. PMID:26015573

  5. Immunostimulatory effects of RACK1 pseudosubstrate in human leukocytes obtained from young and old donors

    PubMed Central

    Corsini, Emanuela; Galbiati, Valentina; Pinto, Antonella; Davin, Annalisa; Polito, Letizia; Guaita, Antonio; Racchi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Aims of this study were to investigate the ability of RACK1 pseudosubstrate alone or in combination with classical immune stimuli to activate human leukocytes, and to restore age-associated immune defects. A total of 25 donors (17 old donors, 77–79 yrs; 8 young donors, 25–34 yrs) were enrolled. To evaluate the effect of RACK1 pseudosubstrate on cytokine production and CD86 expression the whole blood assay was used. Cultures were treated with RACK1 pseudosubstrate in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and incubated for 24 h or 48 h for LPS-induced CD86 expression, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 production, and PHA-induced IL-4, IL-10, IFN-?, respectively. RACK1 pseudosubstrate alone induced IL-6, IL-8, and CD86 expression in both young and old donors, and IFN-? in old donors. In combination with LPS an increase in IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-? was observed, also resulting in restoration of age-associated defective production, while no changes in the other parameters investigated were found. Even if based on a small sample size, these results suggest the possibility to by-pass some of age-associated immune alterations, which may be beneficial in situations were natural immune stimulation is required, and highlight a different role of PKC? in immune cells activation. PMID:25779661

  6. Changes in the leukocyte methylome and its effect on cardiovascular-related genes after exercise.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; O'Brien, Brendan J; Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2015-02-15

    Physical exercise has proven cardiovascular benefits, yet there is no clear understanding of the related molecular mechanisms leading to this. Here we determined the beneficial epigenetic effects of exercise after sprint interval training, a form of exercise known to improve cardiometabolic health. We quantified genome-wide leukocyte DNA methylation of 12 healthy young (18-24 yr) men before and after 4 wk (thrice weekly) of sprint interval training using the 450K BeadChip (Illumina) and validated gene expression changes in an extra seven subjects. Exercise increased subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal running performance, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in conjunction with genome-wide DNA methylation changes. Notably, many CpG island and gene promoter regions were demethylated after exercise, indicating increased genome-wide transcriptional changes. Among genes with DNA methylation changes, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor known to be involved in cardiovascular disease, was demethylated and showed decreased mRNA expression. Additionally, we found that in microRNAs miR-21 and miR-210, gene DNA methylation was altered by exercise causing a cascade effect on the expression of the mature microRNA involved in cardiovascular function. Our findings demonstrate that exercise alters DNA methylation in circulating blood cells in microRNA and protein-coding genes associated with cardiovascular physiology. PMID:25539938

  7. Detection of abnormalities in febrile AIDS patients with In-111-labeled leukocyte and Ga-67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Fineman, D.S.; Palestro, C.J.; Kim, C.K.; Needle, L.B.; Vallabhajosula, S.; Solomon, R.W.; Goldsmith, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    Thirty-six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who were febrile but without localizing signs, underwent indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphy 24 hours after injection of labeled white blood cells (WBCs) and were restudied 48 hours after injection of gallium-67 citrate. Fifty-six abnormalities were identified as possible sources of the fever; 27 were confirmed with biopsy. Of these 27, 15 were identified only on In-111 WBC scans (including colitis, sinusitis, and focal bacterial pneumonia); six, only on Ga-67 scans (predominantly Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and lymphadenopathy); and six, on both studies (predominantly pulmonary lesions). In-111 WBC scanning revealed 21 of 27 abnormalities (78%) and gallium scanning, 12 of 27 (44%). If only one scintigraphic study has been performed, particularly with Ga-67, a significant number of lesions would not have been detected. The authors believe radionuclide evaluation of the febrile AIDS patient without localizing signs should begin with In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Gallium scanning may be used depending on results of In-111 WBC scans or if there is a high index of suspicion for P carinii pneumonia.

  8. Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 deficiency impairs responses to polymicrobial sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia-Ren; Han, Xiaohui; Soriano, Sulpicio G; Yuki, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in polymicrobial sepsis model in mice. METHODS: Cecal ligation and puncture model was used to study polymicrobial sepsis in wild type and LFA-1 knockout (KO) (= CD11a KO) mice. Their survivals were examined. Neutrophil recruitment to the abdominal cavity, bacterial tissue load and bacterial killing by neutrophils, tissue cytokine profiles, and serum cytokines were examined. Apoptosis of tissues was assessed using cleaved-caspase 3 and TUNNEL staining. The recruitment of neutrophils to various tissues was assessed using myeloperoxidase staining or measuring myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: LFA-1 deficiency significantly decreased survival (P = 0.0024) with the reduction of neutrophil recruitment to the abdominal cavity and higher bacterial load in blood. It was also associated with increased apoptosis in spleen and more organ injuries probed by interleukin-6 mRNA level. However, the deficiency of LFA-1 did not prevent neutrophil recruitment to lung, liver, spleen or kidney, which suggested the existence of LFA-1 independent recruitment mechanism in these organs. CONCLUSION: LFA-1 deficiency did not attenuate neutrophil recruitment to various organs to adequately mitigate secondary tissue injury in sepsis. It was associated with decreased neutrophil recruitment to the abdominal cavity, higher bacterial load, leading to increased mortality in an abdominal, polymicrobial sepsis. PMID:26380827

  9. Lack of association between human leukocyte antigen-E alleles and nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Tunisians.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Elham; Ghedira, Randa; Ghandri, Nahla; Farhat, Karim; Gabbouj, Sallouha; Bouaouina, Noureddine; Abdelaziz, Hamdi; Nouri, Abdelatif; Chouchane, Lotfi

    2011-08-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), a cancer with a remarkable geographical and worldwide ethnic distribution, has been strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genes. The presence of additional HLA risk factors has been suggested by several reports. In the present study, we analyzed the implication of HLA-E gene polymorphisms in NPC susceptibility in Tunisians, a population characterized by an intermediate incidence of NPC with specific clinical features. Peripheral blood DNA was obtained from 185 patients with NPC and 177 matched controls. Genotyping for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms, codon 83Gly/Arg, codon 157Arg/Gly, and codon 107Arg/Gly, was performed using the polymerase chain reaction method. The HLA-E*01:01 and HLA-E*01:03 were the only alleles found among Tunisians. The HLA-E*01:03 allele had a slight increase in patients with NPC (43%) compared with controls (37%), but the difference did not reach a statistical significance. Our results show the lack of association between HLA-E alleles and NPC in the Tunisian population. This is not in agreement with the previous studies, suggesting a potential implication of HLA-E gene polymorphisms in the susceptibility to NPC among populations with high-risk incidence. Our study further supports the dissimilarity of NPC between populations with different NPC incidence. PMID:21332388

  10. Leukocyte attraction by CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in humans and mice with pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Matthias; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Angele, Barbara; Geldhoff, Madelijn; Marquez, Gabriel; Varona, Rosa; Häcker, Georg; Schmetzer, Helga; Häcker, Hans; Hammerschmidt, Sven; van der Ende, Arie; Pfister, Hans-Walter; van de Beek, Diederik; Koedel, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    We previously identified CCL20 as an early chemokine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with pneumococcal meningitis but its functional relevance was unknown. Here we studied the role of CCL20 and its receptor CCR6 in pneumococcal meningitis. In a prospective nationwide study, CCL20 levels were significantly elevated in the CSF of patients with pneumococcal meningitis and correlated with CSF leukocyte counts. CCR6-deficient mice with pneumococcal meningitis and WT mice with pneumococcal meningitis treated with anti-CCL20 antibodies both had reduced CSF white blood cell counts. The reduction in CSF pleocytosis was also accompanied by an increase in brain bacterial titers. Additional in vitro experiments showed direct chemoattractant activity of CCL20 for granulocytes. In summary, our results identify the CCL20-CCR6 axis as an essential component of the innate immune defense against pneumococcal meningitis, controlling granulocyte recruitment. PMID:24699535

  11. Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing Using a Knowledge Base Coupled with a High-Throughput Oligonucleotide Probe Array Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Keskin, Derin B.; Lin, Hsin-Nan; Lin, Hong Huang; DeLuca, David S.; Leppanen, Scott; Milford, Edgar L.; Reinherz, Ellis L.; Brusic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are important biomarkers because multiple diseases, drug toxicity, and vaccine responses reveal strong HLA associations. Current clinical HLA typing is an elimination process requiring serial testing. We present an alternative in situ synthesized DNA-based microarray method that contains hundreds of thousands of probes representing a complete overlapping set covering 1,610 clinically relevant HLA class I alleles accompanied by computational tools for assigning HLA type to 4-digit resolution. Our proof-of-concept experiment included 21 blood samples, 18 cell lines, and multiple controls. The method is accurate, robust, and amenable to automation. Typing errors were restricted to homozygous samples or those with very closely related alleles from the same locus, but readily resolved by targeted DNA sequencing validation of flagged samples. High-throughput HLA typing technologies that are effective, yet inexpensive, can be used to analyze the world’s populations, benefiting both global public health and personalized health care. PMID:25505899

  12. The state diagram for cell adhesion under flow: Leukocyte rolling and firm adhesion

    E-print Network

    Tees, David F.J.

    The state diagram for cell adhesion under flow: Leukocyte rolling and firm adhesion Kai-Chien Chang, Philadelphia, PA, and approved July 31, 2000 (received for review May 24, 2000) Leukocyte adhesion under flow mediated by selectins) followed by firm adhesion (primarily me- diated by integrins). Using a computational

  13. HARVESTING OF LEUKOCYTES FROM INTESTINAL LUMEN IN MURINE GIARDIASIS AND PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF THESE CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aims of the study were to develop a method for harvesting leukocytes from the mouse small intestinal lumen and to identify leukocytes which enter the intestinal lumen of mice infected with Giardia muris. Giardia-infected and uninfected BALB/c mice were anesthetized, and the s...

  14. Leukocyte accumulation promoting fibrin deposition is mediated in vivo by P-selectin on adherent platelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palabrica, Theresa; Lobb, Roy; Furie, Barbara C.; Aronovitz, Mark; Benjamin, Christopher; Hsu, Yen-Ming; Sajer, Susan A.; Furie, Bruce

    1992-10-01

    THE glycoprotein P-selectin is a cell adhesion molecule of stimulated platelets and endothelial cells, which mediates the interaction of these cells with neutrophils and monocytes1,2. It is a membrane component of cell storage granules3-6, and is a member of the selectin family which includes E-selectin and L-selectin7,8. P-selectin recognizes both lineage-specific carbohydrate ligands on monocytes and neutrophils, including the Lewis x antigen, sialic acid, and a protein component9-12. In inflammation and thrombosis, P-selectin may mediate the interaction of leukocytes with platelets bound in the region of tissue injury and with stimulated endothelium1,2. To evaluate the role of P-selectin in platelet-leukocyte adhesion in vivo, the accumulation of leukocytes within an experimental thrombus was explored in an arteriovenous shunt model in baboons13. A Dacron graft implanted within an arteriovenous shunt is thrombogenic, accumulating platelets and fibrin within its lumen. These bound platelets express P-selectin14. Here we show that antibody inhibition of leukocyte binding to P-selectin expressed on platelets immobilized on the graft blocks leukocyte accumulation and inhibits the deposition of fibrin within the thrombus. These results indicate that P-selectin is an important adhesion molecule on platelets, mediating platelet-leukocyte binding in vivo, that the presence of leukocytes in thrombi is mediated by P-selectin, and that these leukocytes promote fibrin deposition.

  15. Possible pitfalls with clinical imaging of indium-111 leukocytes: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, R.E.; Welch, D.

    1980-02-01

    Indium-111 leukocyte imaging is a reliable procedure for detecting abscesses. Problems such as cell clumping can occur before injection, thus altering the normal distribution. Furthermore, accumulation of the labeled leukocytes in the colon, brain infarcts, and accessory spleens has been observed. Thus, these physiologic and pathologic conditions other than abscesses must be borne in mind to avoid false-positive diagnoses of abscess.

  16. Colonic localization of indium-111 labeled leukocytes in active Behcet's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Harre, R.G.; Conrad, G.R.; Seabold, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    A patient with known Behcet's disease demonstrated intense colonic localization of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Gastrointestinal involvement had not been previously manifested, but extensive colonic inflammation was documented by endoscopy. This case illustrates the utility of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging for detecting active bowel disease in a debilitated patient with documented Behcet's vasculitis.

  17. In-111-labeled leukocyte imaging: false-positive study due to acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.F.; Rudd, T.G.

    1983-09-01

    A case is reported in which In-111-labeled leukocytes accumulated in the left colon on a 24-hr delayed image. This was found to be secondary to an upper gastrointestinal bleed in progress at the time of injection of the radiolabeled leukocytes.

  18. HUMAN LEUKOCYTE FUNCTIONS AND THE U.S. SAFETY STANDARD FOR EXPOSURE TO RADIO-FREQUENCY RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human mononuclear leukocytes were exposed to microwaves at energies relevant to current public safety recommendations. No detectable effects on viability or function of the leukocytes resulted from exposure to microwaves at specific absorption rates up to 4 milliwatts per millili...

  19. Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body proton irradiation on leukocyte populations and lymphoid organs: part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.; Dutta-Roy, Radha; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of part I of this study was to evaluate the effects of whole-body proton irradiation on lymphoid organs and specific leukocyte populations. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve to total doses of 0.5 gray (Gy), 1.5 Gy, and 3.0 Gy, each delivered at a low dose rate (LDR) of 1 cGy/min and high dose rate (HDR) of 80 cGy/min. Non-irradiated and 3 Gy HDR gamma-irradiated groups were included as controls. At 4 days post-irradiation, highly significant radiation dose-dependent reductions were observed in the mass of both lymphoid organs and the numbers of leukocytes and T (CD3(+)), T helper (CD3(+)/CD4(+)), T cytotoxic (CD3(+)/CD8(+)), and B (CD19(+)) cells in both blood and spleen. A less pronounced dose effect was noted for natural killer (NK1.1(+) NK) cells in spleen. Monocyte, but not granulocyte, counts in blood were highly dose-dependent. The numbers for each population generally tended to be lower with HDR than with LDR radiation; a significant dose rate effect was found in the percentages of T and B cells, monocytes, and granulocytes and in CD4(+):CD8(+) ratios. These data indicate that mononuclear cell response to the entry region of the proton Bragg curve is highly dependent upon the total dose and that dose rate effects are evident with some cell types. Results from gamma- and proton-irradiated groups (both at 3 Gy HDR) were similar, although proton-irradiation gave consistently lower values in some measurements.

  20. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  1. Immune-stimulatory effects of a bacteria-based probiotic on peripheral leukocyte subpopulations and cytokine mRNA expression levels in scouring holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Qadis, Abdul Qadir; Goya, Satoru; Yatsu, Minoru; Kimura, Atsushi; Ichijo, Toshihiro; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-05-01

    Subpopulations of peripheral leukocytes and cytokine mRNA expression levels were evaluated in scouring and healthy Holstein calves (age 10 ± 5 days; n=42) treated with a probiotic consisting of Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium and Clostridium butyricum. The calves were assigned to the scouring or healthy group and then subdivided into pathogen-positive treated (n=8), pathogen-positive control (n=8), pathogen-negative treated (n=6), pathogen-negative control (n=6), healthy treated (n=6) and healthy control (n=8) groups. A single dose of the probiotic (3.0 g/100 kg body weight) was given to each calf in the treatment groups for 5 days. Blood samples were collected on the first day of scour occurrence (day 0) and on day 7. In the scouring calves, smaller peripheral leukocyte subpopulations and cytokine mRNA expression levels were noted on day 0. The numbers of CD3(+) T cells; CD4(+), CD8(+) and WC1(+) ?? T cell subsets; and CD14(+), CD21(+) and CD282(+) (TLR2) cells were significantly increased in the scouring and healthy treated calves on day 7. Furthermore, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma mRNA expression was elevated in the peripheral leukocytes of the scouring and healthy treated calves on day 7. The scouring calves given the probiotic recovered on day 7. A significantly smaller number of peripheral leukocytes and lower cytokine mRNA expression level might be induced by scouring in calves. Repeated probiotic administration might stimulate cellular immunity and encourage recovery from scouring in pre-weaning Holstein calves. PMID:24451928

  2. Whole blood: the future of traumatic hemorrhagic shock resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Alan D; Berséus, Olle; Hervig, Tor; Strandenes, Geir; Lunde, Turid Helen

    2014-05-01

    Toward the end of World War I and during World War II, whole-blood transfusions were the primary agent in the treatment of military traumatic hemorrhage. However, after World War II, the fractionation of whole blood into its components became widely accepted and replaced whole-blood transfusion to better accommodate specific blood deficiencies, logistics, and financial reasons. This transition occurred with very few clinical trials to determine which patient populations or scenarios would or would not benefit from the change. A smaller population of patients with trauma hemorrhage will require massive transfusion (>10 U packed red blood cells in 24 h) occurring in 3% to 5% of civilian and 10% of military traumas. Advocates for hemostatic resuscitation have turned toward a ratio-balanced component therapy using packed red blood cells-fresh frozen plasma-platelet concentration in a 1:1:1 ratio due to whole-blood limited availability. However, this "reconstituted" whole blood is associated with a significantly anemic, thrombocytopenic, and coagulopathic product compared with whole blood. In addition, several recent military studies suggest a survival advantage of early use of whole blood, but the safety concerns have limited is widespread civilian use. Based on extensive military experience as well as recent published literature, low-titer leukocyte reduced cold-store type O whole blood carries low adverse risks and maintains its hemostatic properties for up to 21 days. A prospective randomized trial comparing whole blood versus ratio balanced component therapy is proposed with rationale provided. PMID:24662782

  3. Closed-tube human leukocyte antigen DQA1?05 genotyping assay based on switchable lanthanide luminescence probes.

    PubMed

    Lehmusvuori, Ari; Kiviniemi, Minna; Ilonen, Jorma; Soukka, Tero

    2014-11-15

    Genotyping in closed tube is commonly performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and allele-specific oligonucleotide probes using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Here we introduce a homogeneous human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQA1?05 end-point PCR assay based on switchable lanthanide luminescence probe technology and a simple dried blood sample preparation. The switchable probe technology is based on two non-luminescent oligonucleotide probes: one carrying a non-luminescent lanthanide chelate and the other carrying a light-absorbing antenna ligand. Hybridization of the probes in adjacent positions to the target DNA leads to the formation of a highly luminescent lanthanide chelate complex by self-assembly of the reporter molecules. Performance of the HLA-DQA1?05 assay was evaluated by testing blood samples collected on sample collection cards and was prepared by lysing the punched samples (3-mm discs) using alkaline reaction conditions and high temperature. Testing of 147 blood samples yielded 100% correlation to the heterogeneous DELFIA technology-based reference assay. Genotyping requires carefully designed probe sequences able to discriminate matched and mismatched target sequences by hybridization. Furthermore, definite genotype discrimination was achieved because inherently non-luminescent switchable probes together with time-resolved measurement mode led to very low background signal level and, therefore, very high signal differences averaging 54-fold between DQA1?05 and other alleles. PMID:25120130

  4. In vivo kinetics of canine leukocytes labeled with technetium-99m HM-PAO and indium-111 tropolonate

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, B.H.; Schauwecker, D.S.; English, D.; Young, K.A.; Wellman, H.N.

    1988-07-01

    Two weeks after the introduction of osteomyelitis in three dogs, autologous leukocytes were dual-labeled with both (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO and (/sup 111/In)tropolonate, and reinjected. Blood sampling and imaging were then performed. Two weeks later, the same dogs received simultaneous injections of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC and (/sup 111/In)WBC for comparison. For both studies, blood samples were drawn over 6 hr to determine the respective blood clearance half-time (TB) and % recovery (%R0) of cell-bound radioactivity. There were no significant differences in the average TB results of the /sup 99m/Tc and /sup 111/In groups, either within or between the dual- and singly-labeled studies. The %R0 of singly-labeled (/sup 99m/Tc)WBC was about half that of the other groups (p less than 0.01); however, this difference was attributed to the dissimilar radiochemical purity of the (/sup 99m/Tc)HM-PAO reagents. Region of interest analysis of the 6 and 24 hr images revealed no significant differences between either cell label in the relative or absolute in vivo uptake at known sites of osteomyelitis, noninfected surgery, and normal bone marrow.

  5. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... minutes. It's a lot like getting a blood test . After you're done, you'll want to sit and rest for a few minutes, drink lots of fluids, and take it easy the rest of the day (no hard workouts!). Your local blood bank or Red Cross can give you more information ...

  6. Porcine leukocyte 5- and 12-lipoxygenases are iron enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kroneck, P M; Cucurou, C; Ullrich, V; Ueda, N; Suzuki, H; Yoshimoto, T; Matsuda, S; Yamamoto, S

    1991-08-01

    5- and 12-lipoxygenases isolated from porcine leukocytes were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance at X-band and atomic absorption spectroscopy. For comparison potato 5-lipoxygenase was studied under identical experimental conditions. All three lipoxygenases contained between 0.7 and 0.9 Fe atoms/enzyme molecule. As isolated, both mammalian enzymes exhibited a characteristic EPR signal at low magnetic field with a maximum at g = 5.20 indicative of a high-spin ferric iron center. The signal was not affected by the oxidants 12-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid or arachidonic acid, nor was it affected by the reductant nordihydroguaiaretic acid. In the case of the potato enzyme an intense EPR signal with resonances at g = 7.50, 6.39 and 5.84 was only observed after addition of an oxidant, such as 9-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid. PMID:1652456

  7. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, W; Weisse, C S; Reynolds, C P; Bowles, C A; Baum, A

    1989-01-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels. The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable. PMID:2555149

  8. Differential sensitivity of human leukocyte subpopulations to ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Spielberg, H.; June, C.; Cereb, N.; Nystrom-Rosander, C.; Deeg, H.J.

    1989-02-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light, in addition to its effect on DNA, can cause cell-membrane alterations and modification of cell surface antigens, and interfere with interactions of different cell populations, antigen presentation, and cytokine release. The mechanisms are still poorly understood. However, current data indicate that UV irradiation profoundly affects donor/host interactions in transplantation models by altering the immunogenicity of donor tissue and the immune response of the recipient. In the present study we used intracellular Ca{sup 2+} (Ca{sup 2+}i) mobilization as a parameter of how various cell populations responded to UV light. These data show that UV treatment profoundly affects leukocytes. There is a preferential inhibition of lymphocytes compared to hemopoietic precursor cells and of CD{sup 8+} compared to CD{sup 8{minus}} negative T-cells.

  9. Human Leukocyte Antigen Diversity: A Southern African Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Tshabalala, Mqondisi; Mellet, Juanita; Pepper, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasingly well-documented evidence of high genetic, ethnic, and linguistic diversity amongst African populations, there is limited data on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) diversity in these populations. HLA is part of the host defense mechanism mediated through antigen presentation to effector cells of the immune system. With the high disease burden in southern Africa, HLA diversity data is increasingly important in the design of population-specific vaccines and the improvement of transplantation therapeutic interventions. This review highlights the paucity of HLA diversity data amongst southern African populations and defines a need for information of this kind. This information will support disease association studies, provide guidance in vaccine design, and improve transplantation outcomes. PMID:26347896

  10. Chronic stress, leukocyte subpopulations, and humoral response to latent viruses

    SciTech Connect

    McKinnon, W.; Weisse, C.S.; Reynolds, C.P.; Bowles, C.A.; Baum, A. )

    1989-01-01

    Psychological stress has been shown to affect immune system status and function, but most studies of this relationship have focused on acute stress and/or laboratory situations. The present study compared total numbers of leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (determined by flow cytometry) and antibody titers to latent and nonlatent viruses among a group of chronically stressed individuals living near the damaged Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant with those of a demographically comparable control group. Urinary catecholamine and cortisol levels were also examined. Residents of the TMI area exhibited greater numbers of neutrophils, which were positively correlated with epinephrine levels. The TMI group also exhibited fewer B lymphocytes, T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Antibody titers to herpes simplex were significantly different across groups as well, whereas titers to nonlatent rubella virus as well as IgG and IgM levels were comparable.

  11. Misleading scan findings on In-111 whole body leukocyte images

    SciTech Connect

    Goodgold, H.M.; Samuels, L.D.

    1985-05-01

    ''Pitfalls'' in clinical imaging with Indium-111 Leukocytes (In-111 WBC) have been previously discussed. The authors expand these findings by describing 5 further cases of misleading In-111 WBC uptake patterns, 2 cases were of bladder visualization without bladder inflammation; one was due to excretion of WBC's from an infected kidney and another from ''Cross-talk'' from Tc-99m MDP bladder activity from a bone scan performed the day before. Three cases of abdominal activity, yet not due to abscess or inflammatory bowel disease, were due to; swallowed WBC's from bilateral pneumonias, gastro-intestinal hemorrhage, and paraaortic lymph node tracer uptake. The patient's entire clinical status, all complementary diagnostic procedures, and/or follow-up scans all need to be considered to arrive at the proper diagnosis when unusual In-111 WBC scan patterns are encountered.

  12. Telomere Length in Peripheral Leukocyte DNA and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Savage, Sharon A.; Blaser, Martin J.; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Pegoraro, Valeria; Dong, Linda M.; Zatonski, Witold; Lissowska, Jolanta; Chow, Wong-Ho; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Telomere length reflects lifetime cumulative oxidative stress from environmental exposures, such as cigarette smoking and chronic inflammation. Shortened telomere length is thought to cause genomic instability and has been associated with several cancers. We examined the association of telomere length in peripheral leukocyte DNA with gastric cancer risk as well as potential confounding factors and risk modifiers for telomere length–related risk. In a population-based study of gastric cancer conducted in a high-risk population in Warsaw, Poland, between 1994 and 1996, we measured relative telomere length in 300 cases and 416 age- and gender-matched controls using quantitative real-time PCR. Among controls, telomeres were significantly shorter in association with aging (P < 0.001), increasing pack-years of cigarette smoking (P = 0.02), decreasing fruit intake (P = 0.04), and Helicobacter pylori positivity (P = 0.03). Gastric cancer cases had significantly shorter telomere length (mean ± SD relative telomere length, 1.25 ± 0.34) than controls (1.34 ± 0.35; P = 0.0008). Gastric cancer risk doubled [odds ratio (OR), 2.04; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.33-3.13] among subjects in the shortest compared with the highest quartile of telomere length (Ptrend < 0.001). Telomere length–associated risks were higher among individuals with the lowest risk profile, those H. pylori–negative (OR, 5.45; 95% CI, 2.10-14.1), non-smokers (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.71-5.51), and individuals with high intake of fruits (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46-4.05) or vegetables (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.51-3.81). Our results suggest that telomere length in peripheral leukocyte DNA was associated with H. pylori positivity, cigarette smoking, and dietary fruit intake. Shortened telomeres increased gastric cancer risk in this high-risk Polish population. PMID:19861514

  13. The multifaceted role of PIP2 in leukocyte biology.

    PubMed

    Tuosto, Loretta; Capuano, Cristina; Muscolini, Michela; Santoni, Angela; Galandrini, Ricciarda

    2015-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) represents about 1 % of plasma membrane phospholipids and behaves as a pleiotropic regulator of a striking number of fundamental cellular processes. In recent years, an increasing body of literature has highlighted an essential role of PIP2 in multiple aspects of leukocyte biology. In this emerging picture, PIP2 is envisaged as a signalling intermediate itself and as a membrane-bound regulator and a scaffold of proteins with specific PIP2 binding domains. Indeed PIP2 plays a key role in several functions. These include directional migration in neutrophils, integrin-dependent adhesion in T lymphocytes, phagocytosis in macrophages, lysosomes secretion and trafficking at immune synapse in cytolytic effectors and secretory cells, calcium signals and gene transcription in B lymphocytes, natural killer cells and mast cells. The coordination of these different aspects relies on the spatio-temporal organisation of distinct PIP2 pools, generated by the main PIP2 generating enzyme, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K). Three different isoforms of PIP5K, named ?, ? and ?, and different splice variants have been described in leukocyte populations. The isoform-specific coupling of specific isoforms of PIP5K to different families of activating receptors, including integrins, Fc receptors, toll-like receptors and chemokine receptors, is starting to be reported. Furthermore, PIP2 is turned over by multiple metabolising enzymes including phospholipase C (PLC) ? and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) which, along with Rho family small G proteins, is widely involved in strategic functions within the immune system. The interplay between PIP2, lipid-modifying enzymes and small G protein-regulated signals is also discussed. PMID:26265181

  14. Exercise and leukocyte interchange among central circulation, lung, spleen, and muscle ?

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Gregory R.; Zaldivar, Frank P.; Nance, Dwight M.; Kodesh, Einat; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Cooper, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    Circulating leukocytes increase rapidly with exercise then quickly decrease when the exercise ends. We tested whether exercise acutely led to bidirectional interchange of leukocytes between the circulation and the lung, spleen, and active skeletal muscle. To accomplish this it was necessary to label a large number of immune cells (granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes) in a way that resulted in minimal perturbation of cell function. Rats were injected intravenously with a single bolus of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinamidyl ester (CFSE) dye which is rapidly and irreversibly taken up by circulating cells. The time course of the disappearance of labeled cells and their reappearance in the circulation following exercise was determined via flow cytometry. The majority of circulating leukocytes were labeled at 4 h. post-injection and this proportion slowly declined out to 120 h. At both 24 and 120 h, running resulted in an increase in the proportion of labeled leukocytes in the circulation. Analysis of the skeletal muscle, spleen and lung indicated that labeled leukocytes had accumulated in those tissues and were mobilized to the circulation in response to exercise. This indicates that there is an ongoing exchange of leukocytes between the circulation and tissues and that exercise can stimulate their redistribution. Exchange was slower with muscle than with spleen and lung, but in all cases, influenced by exercise. Exercise bouts redistribute leukocytes between the circulation and the lung, spleen and muscle. The modulatory effects of exercise on the immune system may be regulated in part by the systemic redistribution of immune cells. PMID:21238578

  15. Detection of acute synthetic vascular graft infection with IN-111 labeled leukocyte imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Alazraki, N.; Dries, D.; Lawrence, P.; Murphy, K.; Kercher, J.; Datz, F.; Christian, P.; Taylor, A.

    1985-05-01

    Synthetic vascular graft infection is characterized by late diagnosis due to indolent and nonspecific symptoms. Reported data on accuracy of In-111 labeled leukocyte imaging to identify vascular graft infection is sparse and conflicting. The purpose of this animal study was to clarify the accuracy of detection of early graft infection using a mixed population of In-111 labeled leukocytes. Twelve mongrel dogs received dacron aortic interposition grafts. Seven grafts were contaminated at surgery by topical ATCC S. aureus, 10/sup 8/ organisms per ml. Six control animals received no graft contamination Mixed population In-111 homologous leukocyte labeling was performed followed by imaging at 24 and 48 hours following intravenous injection of 250 ..mu..Ci In-111 leukocytes. Scans were done on Day 2 post-surgery. Infected dogs were sacrificed following Indium imaging; control dogs were rescanned at 3 weeks postop and sacrificed thereafter. Autopsy results were correlated with scans, yielding sensitivity 71%, specificity 100%, accuracy 85% for In-111 leukocyte imaging to detect early graft infection. False positive leukocyte imaging in the early postop period was not a problem. At autopsy all 5 dogs with infected grafts and positive scans had gross pus. The 2 dogs with false negative scans showed no gross pus at autopsy; cultures were positive for S. aureus in all 7 dogs. Scans at 2 days and 3 weeks post-surgery were true negatives in all 6 control dogs. These data suggest a high level of clinical reliability of leukocyte imaging for early graft infection detection.

  16. p,p'-DDE depresses the immune competence of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) leukocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misumi, Ichiro; Vella, Anthony T.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Nakanishi, Teruyuki; Schreck, Carl B.

    2005-01-01

    p,p?-DDE, the main metabolite of DDT, is still detected in aquatic environments throughout the world. Here, the effects and mechanisms by which p,p?-DDE exposure might affect the immune system of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was studied. Isolated salmon splenic and pronephric leukocytes were incubated with different concentrations of p,p?-DDE, and cell viability, induction of apoptosis, and mitogenic responses were measured by flow cytometry and Alamar Blue assay. p,p?-DDE significantly reduced cell viability and proliferation and increased apoptosis. The effect of p,p?-DDE on pronephric leukocytes was more severe than on splenic leukocytes, likely because pronephric leukocytes had a higher proportion of granulocytes, cells that appear more sensitive to p,p?-DDE. The effect of p,p?-DDE on leukocytes appeared to vary between developmental stages or seasonal differences. The mitogenic response of leukocytes of chinook salmon exposed to p,p?-DDE in vivo exhibited a biphasic dose–response relationship. Only leukocytes isolated from salmon treated with 59 ppm p,p?-DDE had a significantly lower percentage of Ig+ blasting cells than controls, although the response was biphasic. These results support the theory that exposure to chemical contaminants could lead to an increase in disease susceptibility and mortality of fish due to immune suppression.

  17. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  18. Blood Test: Glucose

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Blood Glucose Record Definition: Hyperglycemia Definition: Hypoglycemia Helping Kids Deal With Injections and Blood ... Record Getting a Blood Test (Video) Diabetes Center Definition: Blood Glucose Level Blood Test (Video) Blood Glucose ...

  19. Biology of Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manuals Consumer Version Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Also of Interest ( ... to Consumer Version DOCTORS: Go to Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  20. Direct rheological, cytometric, and cardiological effect of intravenous laser irradiation of blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaikina, I. V.; Malashevich, P. N.; Volkova, E. G.; Kovkova, A. V.; Pashkevich, O. I.; Podol'Tsev, A. S.

    2008-11-01

    As a result of the first session of intravenous laser irradiation of blood, it has been established that changes in the blood cellular elements, according to the data of cytometry, and in the blood and plasma viscosity are analogous to the changes occurring when a blood specimen is being incubated at a temperature of 48°C for 1 h or during its storage for 18 days at 12°C in a refrigerator: average dimensions of leukocytes decrease, thrombocytes decline in number, the deformability of erythrocytes is impaired, and the viscosity of the blood increases. Analogous changes in the cytometric and rheological indices, as well as a small hemolysis of eryth-rocytes, were observed on irradiation of a blood specimen in vitro. The suggestion has been made that the therapeutic effect of intravenous laser irradiation of blood is due to the generation of young cellular elements and their ejection into the blood channel instead of those damaged by the laser radiation.

  1. Blood histamine release: A new allergy blood test

    SciTech Connect

    Faraj, B.A.; Gottlieb, G.R.; Camp, V.M.; Lollies, P.

    1985-05-01

    Allergen-mediated histamine release from human leukocytes represents an important model for in vitro studies of allergic reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the measurement of histamine released in allergic patients (pts) by radioenzymatic assay following mixing of their blood with common allergens represents a reliable index for diagnosis of atopic allergy. Three categories of allergies were used: (1) housedust and mite; (2) cat and dog dander; (3) trees and grasses and ragweed mixture. The presence of allergy was established by intradermal skin testing in the study group of 82 pts. Significant atopy was defined as greater than or equal to 3+ (overall range 0-4 +, negative to maximum) on skin testing. The test was carried out in tubes with 0.5 ml heparinized blood, 0.5 ml tris albumin buffer, and one of the allergens (60-100 PNU/ml). In 20 controls without allergy, there always was less than or equal to 4% histamine release (normal response). A significant allergen-mediated histamine release, ranging from 12 to 30% of the total blood histamine content, was observed in 96% of the pts with skin test sensitivity of greater than or equal to 3+. There was good agreement between skin testing and histamine release in terms of the allergen causing the response. Thus, measurement of histamine release in blood in response to allergen challenge represents a clinically useful in vitro test for the diagnosis of atopic allergy. Because data can be obtained from a single sample and are highly quantitative, this new method should have application to the longitudinal study of allergic pts and to the assessment of interventions.

  2. Acute Fluoxetine Treatment Induces Slow Rolling of Leukocytes on Endothelium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Nadine; Mauler, Maximilian; Witsch, Thilo; Stallmann, Daniela; Schmitt, Stefanie; Mezger, Julius; Bode, Christoph; Duerschmied, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Activated platelets release serotonin at sites of inflammation where it acts as inflammatory mediator and enhances recruitment of neutrophils. Chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) depletes the serotonin storage pool in platelets, leading to reduced leukocyte recruitment in murine experiments. Here, we examined the direct and acute effects of SSRI on leukocyte recruitment in murine peritonitis. Methods C57Bl/6 and Tph1?/? (Tryptophan hydroxylase1) mice underwent acute treatment with the SSRI fluoxetine or vehicle. Serotonin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Leukocyte rolling and adhesion on endothelium was analyzed by intravital microscopy in mesentery venules with and without lipopolysaccharide challenge. Leukocyte extravasation in sterile peritonitis was measured by flow cytometry of abdominal lavage fluid. Results Plasma serotonin levels were elevated 2 hours after fluoxetine treatment (0.70±0.1 µg/ml versus 0.27±0.1, p?=?0.03, n?=?14), while serum serotonin did not change. Without further stimulation, acute fluoxetine treatment increased the number of rolling leukocytes (63±8 versus 165±17/0.04 mm2min?1) and decreased their velocity (61±6 versus 28±1 µm/s, both p<0.0001, n?=?10). In Tph1?/? mice leukocyte rolling was not significantly influenced by acute fluoxetine treatment. Stimulation with lipopolysaccharide decreased rolling velocity and induced leukocyte adhesion, which was enhanced after fluoxetine pretreatment (27±3 versus 36±2/0.04 mm2, p?=?0.008, n?=?10). Leukocyte extravasation in sterile peritonitis, however, was not affected by acute fluoxetine treatment. Conclusions Acute fluoxetine treatment increased plasma serotonin concentrations and promoted leukocyte-endothelial interactions in-vivo, suggesting that serotonin is a promoter of acute inflammation. E-selectin was upregulated on endothelial cells in the presence of serotonin, possibly explaining the observed increase in leukocyte-endothelial interactions. However transmigration of neutrophils in sterile peritonitis was not affected by higher serotonin concentrations, indicating that the effect of fluoxetine was restricted to early steps in the leukocyte recruitment. Whether SSRI use in humans alters leukocyte recruitment remains to be investigated. PMID:24520366

  3. Systemic leukopenia, evaluation of laminar leukocyte infiltration and laminar lesions in horses with naturally occurring colic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Deconto, Ivan; Gonçalves, Kamila Alcala; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; de Brito, Harald Fernando Vicente; de Sousa, Renato Silva

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at identifying laminar lesions and leukocyte infiltration in hoof laminar tissue of horses with colic syndrome and its correlation with the total leukocyte count before death. Six healthy horses were used as control group (CG), and eighteen horses with lethal gastrointestinal disease were divided into two groups: leukopenic group (LG) with seven leukopenic horses, and non-leukopenic group (NLG) with 11 horses with total leukocyte count within reference range for the species. Leukocyte infiltration was examined by immunohistochemistry. Laminar lesions were observed in both LG and NLG, with no differences in severity between them. LG showed increase of the leukocyte infiltration in the hoof laminar tissue, when compared to CG and NLG. Horses with severe colic syndrome (LG and NLG) developed intense laminar lesions without clinical signs of laminitis, with increased leukocyte infiltration. However, the LG demonstrated an even higher increase of leukocyte infiltration compared to both CG and NLG. PMID:26267083

  4. Blood Types

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also help save lives. Donate Now Find CPR Classes American Red Cross first aid, CPR and AED ... Testing Clinical Services Infectious Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App ...

  5. Blood Components

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also help save lives. Donate Now Find CPR Classes American Red Cross first aid, CPR and AED ... Testing Clinical Services Infectious Disease Testing Reimbursement Resources Educational Resources PACS Therapeutic Apheresis Our Supporters Blood App ...

  6. Blood Smear

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their function, and their lifespan. Examples include anemia , myeloproliferative neoplasms , bone marrow disorders , and leukemia . Usually, only normal, ... the number of eosinophils Leukemia or myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative neoplasm — immature white blood cells such as blasts may ...

  7. Donating Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Stress & Coping Center Writing a Paper Abusive ... disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile and they're used only ...

  8. Blood Typing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... causing anemia such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia Bleeding during or after surgery Injury or trauma ... need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ...

  9. Blood typing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... whether or not you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells. If you have this substance, you are considered Rh+ (positive). Those without it are considered Rh- (negative). ...

  10. Nutritional Effect of Oral Supplement Enriched in ?-3 Fatty Acids, Arginine, RNA on Immune Response and Leukocyte–platelet Aggregate Formation in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Iwase, Harunobu; Kariyazono, Hiroko; Arima, Junko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of a supplement enriched in ?-3 fatty acids on immune responses and platelet–leukocyte complex formation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Patients in the supplement group (n = 7) took a supplement enriched in ?-3 fatty acids (Impact®) in addition to a hospital diet for five successive days before surgery; those in the control group (n = 7) took only hospital diet and did not take Impact®. Blood samples in both groups were collected at same time points. Before surgery, samples were collected five days before surgery, at the start of supplementation (baseline), and the end of supplementation (postoperative day (POD)-0). After surgery, samples were collected on POD-1 and POD-7. The expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, the ratio of CD4-/CD8-positive cells, the production of interferon (IFN)-? by CD4-positive cells, plasma levels of cytokines, and leukocyte–platelet aggregates were measured. Before surgery (POD-0), the supplement caused significant increases in HLA-DR expression, CD4/CD8 ratio, and plasma levels of IFN-?; these levels were significantly higher compared to those in the control group (P < 0.05, respectively). After surgery (POD-1), all values dramatically decreased in comparison with those of POD-0; however, the values in the supplement group were significantly higher compared to their respective markers in the control group (P < 0.05, respectively). Significant differences of HLA-DR expression and CD4/CD8 ratio persisted through POD-7. Before surgery (POD-0), plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-10 in the supplement group decreased significantly compared with those in the control group (P < 0.05). After surgery (POD-1), plasma levels of IL-10 in both the control and supplement groups increased; these levels in the supplement group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Significant decreases in the percentage of leukocyte–platelet aggregates were found after supplementation; the difference between the supplement and the control groups was found on POD-0 and POD-1 (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, the dietary supplement increased HLA-DR expression, the CD4/CD8 ratio, and the production of IFN-? by CD4-positive cells; conversely, the levels of IL-10 and the formation of leukocyte–platelet aggregates before and after surgery were suppressed. These beneficial effects may decrease the incidence of complications after surgery. PMID:24932104

  11. Role of adenosine deaminase, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in cyanide-induced adenosine monophosphate catabolism in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, A C

    1980-01-01

    1. The role of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) (EC 3.1.3.5) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in the CN-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides in intact rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes was investigated by inhibiting the enzymes in situ. 2. KCN (10mM for 90 min) induced a 20-30% fall in ATP concentration accompanied by an approximately equimolar increase in hypoxanthine, ADP, AMP and adenosine concentrations were unchanged, and IMP and inosine remained undetectable ( less than 0.05 nmol/10(7) cells). 3. Cells remained 98% intact, as judged by loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). 4. Pentostatin (30 microM), a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, completely inhibited hypoxanthine production from exogenous adenosine (55 microM), but did not black CN-induced hypoxanthine production or cause adenosine accumulation in intact cells. This implied that IMP rather than adenosine was an intermediate in AMP breakdown in response to cyanide. 5. Antibodies raised against purified plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase inhibited the ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) by 95-98%. Non-specific phosphatases were blocked by 10 mM-sodium beta-glycerophosphate. 6. These two agents together blocked hypoxanthine production from exogenous AMP and IMP (200 microM) by more than 90%, but had no effect on production from endogenous substrates. 7. These data suggest that ectophosphatases do not participate in CN-induced catabolism of intracellular AMP in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 8. A minor IMPase, not inhibited by antiserum, was detected in the soluble fraction of disrupted cells. PMID:6249264

  12. Detection of a prosthetic aortic valvular abscess with indium-111-labeled leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    An unsuspected annular abscess at the base of a prosthetic aortic valve in a patient with endocarditis was identified by indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy alone. This highly sensitive and specific technique expediently demonstrated the surgically proven inflammatory focus.

  13. Experimental methods by optical trapping for investigation of leukocyte cell rolling mechanics

    E-print Network

    Navarro, Sergio Michael

    2008-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of a range of experimental methods by optical trapping in order to investigate the mechanical behavior of the leukocyte cell membrane as it undergoes cell rolling. ...

  14. Genetic epistasis between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens in Kawasaki disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Bossi, G; Mannarino, S; Pietrogrande, M C; Salice, P; Dellepiane, R M; Cremaschi, A L; Corana, G; Tozzo, A; Capittini, C; De Silvestri, A; Tinelli, C; Pasi, A; Martinetti, M

    2015-10-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a pediatric acute multisystemic vasculitis complicated by development of coronary artery lesions. The breakthrough theory on KD etiopathogenesis points to pathogens/environmental factors triggered by northeastern wind coming from China. Natural Killer cells and T lymphocytes express the inhibitory/activating Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) to elicit an immune response against pathogens by binding to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I epitopes. We first report on the role of KIR/HLA genetic epistasis in a sample of 100 Italian KD children. We genotyped KIR, HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C polymorphisms, and compared KD data with those from 270 Italian healthy donors. The HLA-A*11 ligand for KIR2DS2/2DS4/3DL2 was a KD susceptibility marker by itself (odds ratio (OR)=3.85, confidence interval (CI)=1.55-9.53, P=0.004). Although no epistasis between HLA-A*11 and KIR2DS2/S4 emerged, HLA-A*11 also engages KIR3DL2, a framework gene encoding for a pathogen sensor of CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and KD blood mononuclear cells are actually prone to pathogen CpG-ODN activation in the acute phase. Moreover, carriers of KIR2DS2/HLA-C1 and KIR2DL2/HLA-C1 were more frequent among KD, in keeping with data demonstrating the involvement of these HLA/KIR couples in autoimmune endothelial damage. The highest KD risk factor was observed among carriers of KIR2DL2 and two or more HLA ligands (OR=10.24, CI=1.87-56.28; P=0.007). PMID:26335810

  15. Increased leukocyte mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with oral premalignant lesions: an epidemiology study

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonggang; Gong, Yilei; Gu, Jian; Lee, J.Jack; Lippman, Scott M.; Wu, Xifeng

    2014-01-01

    Although changes in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) have been linked to increased susceptibility to several cancers, the relationship between the mtDNA copy number in PBLs and the risk of cancer precursors has not been investigated. In this study, we measured the relative mtDNA copy number in PBLs of 143 patients with histologically confirmed oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) and of 357 healthy controls that were frequency-matched to patients according to age, sex and race. OPL patients had a significantly higher mtDNA copy number than the controls (1.36±0.74 versus 1.11±0.32; P < 0.001). In analyses stratified by sex, race, alcohol consumption and smoking status, the mtDNA copy number was higher in the OPL patients than in the controls in all the strata. Using the median mtDNA copy number in the control group as a cutoff, we found that individuals with a high mtDNA copy number had significantly higher risk of having OPLs than individuals with a low mtDNA copy number (adjusted odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.23–3.05, P = 0.004). Analysis of the joint effect of alcohol consumption and smoking revealed even greater risk for OPLs. Our results suggest that high mtDNA copy number in PBLs is significantly associated with having OPLs. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiologic study to show that the mtDNA copy number may indicate the risk of cancer precursors. PMID:24743515

  16. Effects of donor/recipient human leukocyte antigen mismatch on human cytomegalovirus replication following liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, RW; Mattes, FM; Rolando, N; Rolles, K; Smith, C; Shirling, G; Atkinson, C; Burroughs, AK; Milne, RSB; Emery, VC; Griffiths, PD

    2015-01-01

    Background Natural immunity against cytomegalovirus (CMV) can control virus replication after solid organ transplantation; however, it is not known which components of the adaptive immune system mediate this protection. We investigated whether this protection requires human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching between donor and recipient by exploiting the fact that, unlike transplantation of other solid organs, liver transplantation does not require HLA matching, but some donor and recipient pairs may nevertheless be matched by chance. Methods To further investigate this immune control, we determined whether chance HLA matching between donor (D) and recipient (R) in liver transplants affected a range of viral replication parameters. Results In total, 274 liver transplant recipients were stratified according to matches at the HLA A, HLA B, and HLA DR loci. The incidence of CMV viremia, kinetics of replication, and peak viral load were similar between the HLA matched and mismatched patients in the D+/R+ and D?/R+ transplant groups. D+/R? transplants with 1 or 2 mismatches at the HLA DR locus had a higher incidence of CMV viremia >3000 genomes/mL blood compared to patients matched at this locus (78% vs. 17%; P = 0.01). Evidence was seen that matching at the HLA A locus had a small effect on peak viral loads in D+/R? patients, with median peak loads of 3540 and 14,706 genomes/mL in the 0 and combined (1 and 2) mismatch groups, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion Overall, our data indicate that, in the setting of liver transplantation, prevention of CMV infection and control of CMV replication by adaptive immunity is minimally influenced by HLA matching of the donor and recipient. Our data raise questions about immune control of CMV in the liver and also about the cells in which the virus is amplified to give rise to CMV viremia. PMID:25572799

  17. Leukocyte labeling in plasma made simple and efficient: Preparation and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, M.L.; McKenney, S.; Seifert, C.; Madsen, M.; Suntherlingam, M.; Desai, A.; Patel, J.; Park, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Over the past few years the use of In-111 leukocytes (In-111-L) for abscess localization has become increasingly popular. Using less toxic Mercaptopyridine-N-oxide or its Na-salt (Merc, LD/sub 50/ 340 mg/kg b.w.) rather than oxine (LD/sub 50/ 88.8 mg/kg b.w.), In-111-L could be prepared either in salt balance media or preferably by a kit procedure in plasma. In the plasma preparation L concentrated in 0.5 ml plasma are added to 25 ..mu..g dry Merc and subsequently incubated at an ambient temperature for 20 minutes with a weak chelate of In-111 either dry or in solution. Greater than 90/sup 0/ labeling efficiency is achieved which compared favorably to 10 ..mu..g and 50 ..mu..g each of oxine and tropolone. Phagocytic ability of 10 million L exposed to up to 200 ..mu..g Merc remained unaffected. In-111-L and Ga-67 citrate were given to abscess bearing dogs and abscess/blood (24 hr.) ratios of 75 and 12 respectively were achieved. Those were similar to those obtained with In-111-oxine labeled L (75.2 vs. 75.8). Abscess/liver and abscess/spleen ratios obtained with In-111-merc labeled L (14.6 and 4.2 respectively) were more favorable than those obtained with In-111-oxine labeled L (4.2d and 1.8 respectively). These indicated that less quantity of L labeled with In-111-Merc was deposited in these organs. Furthermore, L labeled with In-111-Merc cleared more rapidly from human lungs than L labeled with In-111-oxine. Data indicate that use of Merc permits efficient L labeling in plasma, provides a kit method, and preserves L physiologic function.

  18. Protective effect of antioxidants on DNA damage in leukocytes from X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Desirèe P; Donida, Bruna; da Rosa, Helen T; Manini, Paula R; Moura, Dinara J; Saffi, Jenifer; Deon, Marion; Mescka, Caroline P; Coelho, Daniella M; Jardim, Laura B; Vargas, Carmen R

    2015-06-01

    Toxic metabolites accumulation and oxidative stress have been associated to the pathophysiology of X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD), an inborn error of peroxisome metabolism. Parameters of oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in X-ALD patients were already described in literature; however, DNA injuries were not studied yet. Considering that, the aims were to investigate DNA damage by comet assay in heterozygotes and symptomatic X-ALD patients, to look for associations between DNA damage and lipid peroxidation as measured by urinary 15-F2t-isoprostane; and to evaluate the in vitro effect of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), trolox (TRO) and rosuvastatin (RSV) on DNA damage in leukocytes from symptomatic patients. Symptomatic patients presented higher DNA damage levels than those found in heterozygotes and controls; heterozygotes and controls showed similar results. In order to investigate the in vitro antioxidant effect on DNA damage, whole blood cells from symptomatic patients were incubated with NAC (1 and 2.5mM), TRO (25 and 75 ?M) and RSV (0.5, 2 and 5 ?M) before DNA damage analysis. NAC, TRO and RSV, at all tested concentrations, were all capable to reduce DNA damage in symptomatic X-ALD patients until control levels. Finally, DNA damage correlated with urinary isoprostanes and plasmatic levels of TBA-RS and DCFH-DA, allowing to hypothesize that DNA damage might be induced by lipid peroxidation in symptomatic patients. The present work yields experimental evidence that NAC, TRO and RSV reduce the in vitro DNA injury in symptomatic X-ALD patients, what may suggest that the administration of these antioxidants might be considered as an adjuvant therapy for X-ALD. PMID:25765338

  19. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on IgG titer, leukocytes subset and spleen index in rats

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Tahereh; Arshami, Javad; Tahmasbi, Abdol Mansur; Haghparast, Ali Reza

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Hypericum perforatum L. is a medicinal plant containing many polyphenolic compounds, ?including flavonoids and phenolic acids with antidepressant and anti-inflammatory properties. ?This study was investigated the effects of Hypericum perforatum extract (HPE) on immunity, ?body weight (BW), and spleen index (SI) in rats.? Materials and Methods: A total of 24 Wistar male rats were randomly received 4 different doses (6 rats each) of HPE ??(0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BW) intraperitoneally for 14 days using a completely ?randomized design. On days 1 and 7, rats were received 0.5 ml SRBC (10%) injection. Blood ?samples were collected on day 14 to evaluate IgG titer and leukocyte count. On days 1, 7 and ??14, the BW and on day 14 spleen were weighted for SI. ? Results: The IgG titer increased with higher doses of HPE. The HPE increased number of ?lymphocytes at 200 mg but decreased at 400 mg, number of neutrophils decreased at 200 mg ?but increased at 400 mg, and number of monocytes increased at 100 mg and 200 mg but ?decreased at 400 mg (p<0.01). Increasing doses of HPE lowered BW (p<0.01). ?The HPE increased SI at 100 mg and 200 mg but decreased at 400 mg (p>0.072). ? Conclusions: The results showed that HPE slightly improved IgG titer but significantly increased ?the number of leukocytes and monocytes at 200 mg, and neutrophils at 400 mg. The HPE ?decreased BW at 100 mg and 200 mg with no damage on spleen. ? PMID:25386405

  20. Detection of global DNA hypomethylation of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with infantile spasms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jing; Shi, Xiu-Yu; Yang, Xiao-Fan; Ju, Jun; Liu, Yu-Jie; Li, Zhi-Fang; Li, Yu-Fen; Zou, Li-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of infantile spasms remains unclear. DNA methylation may play a pivotal role in the development of some types of neurological diseases, such as epilepsy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between global DNA methylation of peripheral blood leukocytes and cryptogenic infantile spasms. DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes was extracted from 20 patients with cryptogenic infantile spasms and 20 gender and age matched healthy controls. Global DNA methylation percentage of peripheral blood leukocytes was measured using a global DNA methylation quantification kit. Global DNA methylation levels of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with cryptogenic infantile spasms (23.4 ± 20.0%) were significantly lower than those in healthy controls (46.8 ± 8.4%). Furthermore, we did not find any association between the levels of DNA methylation and effectiveness of Adrenocorticotropic hormone treatment. Our study demonstrates that global DNA hypomethylation of peripheral blood lymphocytes is correlated with infantile spasms. This finding provides information for better understanding of the pathogenesis of infantile spasms. PMID:25524839

  1. Evidence for predictive validity of blood assays to evaluate individual radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Severin, Erhard . E-mail: severie@uni-muenster.de; Greve, Burkhard; Pascher, Elke; Wedemeyer, Niels; Hacker-Klom, Ursula; Silling, Gerda; Kienast, Joachim; Willich, Normann; Goehde, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: An escalation in standard irradiation dose ensuring improved local tumor control is estimated, but this strategy would require the exclusion of the most sensitive individuals from treatment. Therefore, fast and reliable assays for prediction of the individual radiosensitivity are urgently required. Methods and Materials: Seven parameters in lymphocytes of 40 patients with leukemia were analyzed before, during, and after total body irradiation (TBI) and in vitro X-ray irradiation. These were: cell proliferation, nuclear damage, activation of cytokines, and numbers of total leukocytes of CD34+ hematopoietic blood stem cells and of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Additionally, antioxidative capacity of blood plasma, uric acid, and hemoglobin levels were measured. Blood samples of 67 healthy donors were used as controls. Results: In vivo and in vitro irradiations showed comparable results. A dose-response relationship was found for most parameters. Three parameters were associated with severe acute oral mucositis (Grade 3 or 4 vs. Grade 0 to 2): leukocytes fewer than 6200/{mu}L after 4 Gy TBI, a rate of >19% lymphocytes with reduced DNA and protein content ('necroses') after 4 Gy in vitro irradiation, and a small antioxidative capacity in blood plasma (<0.68 mMol) after 8 Gy TBI. Conclusion: Three simple blood assays were associated with oral mucositis that are posed here hypothetically as an early symptom of enhanced radiosensitivity in leukemic patients: leukocyte count, damaged lymphocyte score, and the antioxidative capacity after exposure.

  2. Indium-111 leukocyte scintigraphic detection of myocardial abscess formation in patients with endocarditis

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, M.D.; Jacobson, A.F.

    1989-05-01

    Myocardial abscess formation in patients with bacterial endocarditis in most clinical settings, especially in patients with prosthetic valves, is a primary indicator for surgical valve replacement. We report the detection of myocardial abscesses using /sup 111/In leukocyte scintigraphy in three patients with prosthetic or native valve endocarditis and nondiagnostic echocardiograms. Leukocyte scintigraphy may allow identification of myocardial abscess formation earlier than other imaging modalities.

  3. In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a case of multifocal candidiasis

    SciTech Connect

    Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Goldsmith, S.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The value of indium-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy for the diagnosis of infection in the general population is well documented; there is less information available on its role in the evaluation of the immunocompromised patient. In this study, leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 31-year-old immunocompromised woman who had a possible intra-abdominal abscess. No abscess was detected, but intense oral, esophageal, gastric, and vaginal uptake was observed. Candida infection was histologically confirmed at all four sites.

  4. In-111-leukocyte scintigraphy for detection of infection associated with peritoneal dialysis catheters

    SciTech Connect

    Kipper, S.L.; Steiner, R.W.; Witztum, K.F.; Basarab, R.M.; Kipper, M.S.; Halpern, S.E.; Ashburn, W.L.

    1984-05-01

    In-111-labeled leukocytes were administered to 13 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in order to locate catheter-associated infections. Using a marker to indicate the catheter exit site, infections of the catheter tunnel were correctly identified prior to surgery in 4 patients with relapsing peritonitis and infections of the exit site were diagnosed in 5 out of 7 patients. The authors conclude that In-111-leukocyte scintigraphy appears to be accurate in diagnosing peritoneal infections of the dialysis catheter tunnel.

  5. Identifying the Rules of Engagement Enabling Leukocyte Rolling, Activation, and Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jonathan; Hunt, C. Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The LFA-1 integrin plays a pivotal role in sustained leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial surface, which is a precondition for leukocyte recruitment into inflammation sites. Strong correlative evidence implicates LFA-1 clustering as being essential for sustained adhesion, and it may also facilitate rebinding events with its ligand ICAM-1. We cannot challenge those hypotheses directly because it is infeasible to measure either process during leukocyte adhesion following rolling. The alternative approach undertaken was to challenge the hypothesized mechanisms by experimenting on validated, working counterparts: simulations in which diffusible, LFA1 objects on the surfaces of quasi-autonomous leukocytes interact with simulated, diffusible, ICAM1 objects on endothelial surfaces during simulated adhesion following rolling. We used object-oriented, agent-based methods to build and execute multi-level, multi-attribute analogues of leukocytes and endothelial surfaces. Validation was achieved across different experimental conditions, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo, at both the individual cell and population levels. Because those mechanisms exhibit all of the characteristics of biological mechanisms, they can stand as a concrete, working theory about detailed events occurring at the leukocyte–surface interface during leukocyte rolling and adhesion experiments. We challenged mechanistic hypotheses by conducting experiments in which the consequences of multiple mechanistic events were tracked. We quantified rebinding events between individual components under different conditions, and the role of LFA1 clustering in sustaining leukocyte–surface adhesion and in improving adhesion efficiency. Early during simulations ICAM1 rebinding (to LFA1) but not LFA1 rebinding (to ICAM1) was enhanced by clustering. Later, clustering caused both types of rebinding events to increase. We discovered that clustering was not necessary to achieve adhesion as long as LFA1 and ICAM1 object densities were above a critical level. Importantly, at low densities LFA1 clustering enabled improved efficiency: adhesion exhibited measurable, cell level positive cooperativity. PMID:20174606

  6. Association between Kinin B1 Receptor Expression and Leukocyte Trafficking across Mouse Mesenteric Postcapillary Venules

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Peter G.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Perretti, Mauro

    2000-01-01

    Using intravital microscopy, we examined the role played by B1 receptors in leukocyte trafficking across mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo. B1 receptor blockade attenuated interleukin (IL)-1?–induced (5 ng intraperitoneally, 2 h) leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions and leukocyte emigration (?50% reduction). The B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9bradykinin (DABK), although inactive in saline- or IL-8–treated mice, caused marked neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and emigration 24 h after challenge with IL-1? (when the cellular response to IL-1? had subsided). Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot revealed a temporal association between the DABK-induced response and upregulation of mesenteric B1 receptor mRNA and de novo protein expression after IL-1? treatment. DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking was antagonized by the B1 receptor antagonist des-arg10HOE 140 but not by the B2 receptor antagonist HOE 140. Similarly, DABK effects were maintained in B2 receptor knockout mice. The DABK-induced responses involved the release of neuropeptides from C fibers, as capsaicin treatment inhibited the responses. Treatment with the neurokinin (NK)1 and NK3 receptor antagonists attenuated the responses, whereas NK2, calcitonin gene-related peptide, or platelet-activating factor receptor antagonists had no effect. Substance P caused leukocyte recruitment that, similar to DABK, was inhibited by NK1 and NK3 receptor blockade. Mast cell depletion using compound 48/80 reduced DABK-induced leukocyte trafficking, and DABK treatment was shown histologically to induce mast cell degranulation. DABK-induced trafficking was inhibited by histamine H1 receptor blockade. Our findings provide clear evidence that B1 receptors play an important role in the mediation of leukocyte–endothelial cell interactions in postcapillary venules, leading to leukocyte recruitment during an inflammatory response. This involves activation of C fibers and mast cells, release of substance P and histamine, and stimulation of NK1, NK3, and H1 receptors. PMID:10934225

  7. Inhibitory leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, FeiFei; Zheng, JunKe; Kang, XunLei; Deng, Mi; Lu, ZhiGang; Kim, Jaehyup; Zhang, ChengCheng

    2015-12-01

    Inhibitory leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILRB1-5) signal through immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in their intracellular domains and recruit phosphatases protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6 (PTPN6, SHP-1), protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 6 (PTPN6, SHP-2), or Src homology 2 domain containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) to negatively regulate immune cell activation. These receptors are known to play important regulatory roles in immune and neuronal functions. Recent studies demonstrated that several of these receptors are expressed by cancer cells. Importantly, they may directly regulate development, drug resistance, and relapse of cancer, and the activity of cancer stem cells. Although counterintuitive, these findings are consistent with the generally immune-suppressive and thus tumor-promoting roles of the inhibitory receptors in the immune system. This review focuses on the ligands, expression pattern, signaling, and function of LILRB family in the context of cancer development. Because inhibition of the signaling of certain LILRBs directly blocks cancer growth and stimulates immunity that may suppress tumorigenesis, but does not disturb normal development, LILRB signaling pathways may represent ideal targets for treating hematological malignancies and perhaps other tumors. PMID:26566804

  8. Germinal center B cells and mixed leukocyte reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Monfalcone, A.P.; Kosco, M.H.; Szakal, A.K.; Tew, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine if germinal center (GC) B cells are sufficiently activated to stimulate mixed leukocyte reactions (MLR). Percoll density fractionation and a panning technique with peanut agglutinin (PNA) were used to isolate GC B cells from the lymph nodes of immune mice. The GC B cells were treated with mitomycin C or irradiation and used to stimulate allogeneic or syngeneic splenic T cells in the MLR. Controls included high-density (HD) B cells prepared from spleens of the same mice and HD B cells activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dextran sulfate. GC B cells bound high amount sof PNA (i.e., PNAhi). Similarly, the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated B cells were PNAhi. Treatment with neuraminidase rendered the PNAlo HD B cells PNAhi. GC B cells and the LPS-dextran sulfate-activated HD B cells stimulated a potent MLR, while the untreated HD B cells did not. However, following neuraminidase treatment, the resulting PNAhi HD B cell population was able to induce an MLR. The PNA marker appeared to be an indicator of stimulatory activity, but incubating the cells with PNA to bind the cell surface ligand did not interfere with the MLR. GC B cells were also capable of stimulating a syngeneic MLR in most experiments although this was not consistently obtained. It appears that germinal centers represent a unique in vivo microenvironment that provides the necessary signals for B cells to become highly effective antigen-presenting cells.

  9. Leukocyte telomerase activity and antidepressant efficacy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Soeiro-de-Souza, Marcio Gerhardt; Teixeira, Antonio L; Mateo, Elvis C; Zanetti, Marcus V; Rodrigues, Flavia G; de Paula, Vanessa J; Bezerra, Julia F; Moreno, Ricardo A; Gattaz, Wagner F; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo

    2014-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes that cap linear DNA strands, protecting DNA from damage. Recently, shorten telomeres length has been reported in bipolar disorder (BD) and depression. The enzyme telomerase regulates telomeres? length, which has been associated with cellular viability; however it is not clear how telomerase may be involved in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of BD. In the present study, leukocyte telomerase activity was assessed in 28 medication-free BD depressed individuals (DSM-IV-TR criteria) at baseline and after 6 weeks of lithium therapy (n=21) also matching with 23 healthy controls. There was no difference between telomerase activity in subjects with BD depression (before or after lithium) and controls. Improvement of depressive symptoms was negatively associated with telomerase activity after 6 weeks of lithium therapy. This is the first study describing telomerase activity in BD research. Overall, telomerase activity seems not directly involved in the pathophysiology of short-term BD. Lithium?s antidepressant effects may involve regulation at telomerase activity. Further studies with larger samples and long-term illness are also warranted. PMID:24731723

  10. Role of salivary leukocyte protease inhibitor in periodontal disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Pateel, Deepak; Seema, H.; Kale, Akla

    2010-01-01

    Context: Proteases play a major role in the tissue destruction involved in periodontal disease. It is known that the balance between proteases and their inhibitors is a major determinant in maintaining tissue integrity. The association between the proteases and periodontitis is well established, but not many studies have been carried out to know the role played by a protease inhibitor like salivary leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in periodontitis. Aim: The aim of the present study was to correlate SLPI with periodontitis. Settings and Design: Case-control study. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five clinically confirmed cases of periodontitis and 20 controls were included in the study. A detailed case history and periodontal index (PI) were recorded. Two milliliters of unstimulated saliva samples was obtained and subjected to quantification of SLPI leaves using SLPI in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Based on the periodontal index score of the individuals, the cases and controls were divided into groups A, B and C, and the obtained SLPI levels were compared among the groups. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test and correlation coefficient test. Results: The results showed that in the initial stages of periodontitis there is a tendency of SLPI levels to be raised. The SLPI levels were found to be reduced in the terminal stages of periodontitis. Conclusion: It appears that SLPI accumulates in the local environment, at least in the initial stages of the periodontal disease, probably to inhibit the action of increased elastic activity. PMID:21691548

  11. Characterization of Leukocyte Formin FMNL1 Expression in Human Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Heuser, Vanina D.; Iljin, Kristiina; Kampf, Caroline; Uhlen, Mathias; Carpén, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Formins are cytoskeleton regulating proteins characterized by a common FH2 structural domain. As key players in the assembly of actin filaments, formins direct dynamic cytoskeletal processes that influence cell shape, movement and adhesion. The large number of formin genes, fifteen in the human, suggests distinct tasks and expression patterns for individual family members, in addition to overlapping functions. Several formins have been associated with invasive cell properties in experimental models, linking them to cancer biology. One example is FMNL1, which is considered to be a leukocyte formin and is known to be overexpressed in lymphomas. Studies on FMNL1 and many other formins have been hampered by a lack of research tools, especially antibodies suitable for staining paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissues. Here we characterize, using bioinformatics tools and a validated antibody, the expression pattern of FMNL1 in human tissues and study its subcellular distribution. Our results indicate that FMNL1 expression is not restricted to hematopoietic tissues and that neoexpression of FMNL1 can be seen in epithelial cancer. PMID:24700756

  12. Characterization of Leukocyte Formin FMNL1 Expression in Human Tissues.

    PubMed

    Gardberg, Maria; Heuser, Vanina D; Iljin, Kristiina; Kampf, Caroline; Uhlen, Mathias; Carpén, Olli

    2014-04-01

    Formins are cytoskeleton regulating proteins characterized by a common FH2 structural domain. As key players in the assembly of actin filaments, formins direct dynamic cytoskeletal processes that influence cell shape, movement and adhesion. The large number of formin genes, fifteen in the human, suggests distinct tasks and expression patterns for individual family members, in addition to overlapping functions. Several formins have been associated with invasive cell properties in experimental models, linking them to cancer biology. One example is FMNL1, which is considered to be a leukocyte formin and is known to be overexpressed in lymphomas. Studies on FMNL1 and many other formins have been hampered by a lack of research tools, especially antibodies suitable for staining paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissues. Here we characterize, using bioinformatics tools and a validated antibody, the expression pattern of FMNL1 in human tissues and study its subcellular distribution. Our results indicate that FMNL1 expression is not restricted to hematopoietic tissues and that neoexpression of FMNL1 can be seen in epithelial cancer. PMID:24700756

  13. Chemokine-leukocyte interactions. The voodoo that they do so well.

    PubMed

    Taub, D D

    1996-12-01

    Leukocyte recruitment from the circulation into inflammatory tissues requires a series of soluble and cell-bound signals between the responding leukocyte and vascular endothelial barrier. Chemotactic factors are believed to be responsible for this selective adhesion and transmigration. A superfamily of small, soluble, structurally-related molecules called 'chemokines' have been identified and shown to selectively promote the rapid adhesion and chemotaxis of a variety of leukocyte subtypes both in vivo and in vitro. Chemokines are produced by almost every cell type in the body in response to a number of inflammatory signals, in particular those which activate leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. These molecules also appear to play important roles in hematopoesis, cellular activation, and leukocyte effector functions. In addition, chemokines have been found in the tissues of a variety of disease states characterized by distinct leukocytic infiltrates, including rheumatoid arthritis, sepsis, atherosclerosis, asthma, psoriasis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, HIV replication, and a variety of pulmonary disease states. This review will primarily focus on the role of chemokines in cell adhesion and trafficking as well as their role as effector molecules. PMID:9023058

  14. Immunosuppressive Drugs Affect High-Mannose/Hybrid N-Glycans on Human Allostimulated Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Poche?, Ewa; Bocian, Katarzyna; Z?bczy?ska, Marta; Korczak-Kowalska, Gra?yna; Lity?ska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    N-glycosylation plays an important role in the majority of physiological and pathological processes occurring in the immune system. Alteration of the type and abundance of glycans is an element of lymphocyte differentiation; it is also common in the development of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. The N-glycosylation process is very sensitive to different environmental agents, among them the pharmacological environment of immunosuppressive drugs. Some results show that high-mannose oligosaccharides have the ability to suppress different stages of the immune response. We evaluated the effects of cyclosporin A (CsA) and rapamycin (Rapa) on high-mannose/hybrid-type glycosylation in human leukocytes activated in a two-way mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). CsA significantly reduced the number of leukocytes covered by high-mannose/hybrid N-glycans, and the synergistic action of CsA and Rapa led to an increase of these structures on the remaining leukocytes. This is the first study indicating that ?1 and ?3 integrins bearing high-mannose/hybrid structures are affected by Rapa and CsA. Rapa taken separately and together with CsA changed the expression of ?1 and ?3 integrins and, by regulating the protein amount, increased the oligomannose/hybrid-type N-glycosylation on the leukocyte surface. We suggest that the changes in the glycosylation profile of leukocytes may promote the development of tolerance in transplantation. PMID:26339568

  15. Distinct glycosyltransferases synthesize E-selectin ligands in human vs. mouse leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Nandini; Buffone Jr., Alexander; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2013-01-01

    The binding of selectins to carbohydrate epitopes expressed on leukocytes is the first step in a multi-step cell adhesion cascade that controls the rate of leukocyte recruitment at sites of inflammation. The glycans that function as selectin-ligands are post-translationally synthesized by the serial action of Golgi resident enzymes called glycosyltransferases (glycoTs). Whereas much of our current knowledge regarding the role of glycoTs in constructing selectin-ligands comes from reconstituted biochemical investigations or murine models, tools to assess the impact of these enzymes on the human ligands are relatively underdeveloped. This is significant since the selectin-ligands, particularly those that bind E-selectin, vary between different leukocyte cell populations and they are also different in humans compared with mice. To address this shortcoming, a recent study by Buffone et al. (2013) outlines a systematic strategy to knockdown upto three glycoTs simultaneously in human leukocytes. The results suggest that the fucosyltransferases (FUTs) regulating selectin-ligand synthesis may be species-specific. In particular, they demonstrate that FUT9 plays a significant role during human, but not mouse, leukocyte-endothelial interactions. Overall, this article discusses the relative roles of the FUTs during human L-, E-, and P-selectin-ligand biosynthesis, and the potential that the knockdown strategy outlined here may assess the role of other glycoTs in human leukocytes also. PMID:23590904

  16. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    PubMed

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (P<0.05 for time effect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation. PMID:24302679

  17. A silent chemokine receptor regulates steady-state leukocyte homing in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Heinzel, Kornelia; Benz, Claudia; Bleul, Conrad C.

    2007-01-01

    The location of leukocytes in different microenvironments is intimately connected to their function and, in the case of leukocyte precursors, to the executed differentiation and maturation program. Leukocyte migration within lymphoid organs has been shown to be mediated by constitutively expressed chemokines, but how the bioavailability of these homeostatic chemokines is regulated remains unknown. Here, we report in vivo evidence for the role of a nonsignaling chemokine receptor in the migration of leukocytes under physiological, i.e., noninflammatory, conditions. We have studied the in vivo role of the silent chemokine receptor CCX-CKR1 by both loss- and gain-of-function approaches. CCX-CKR1 binds the constitutively expressed chemokines CC chemokine ligand (CCL)19, CCL21, and CCL25. We find that CCX-CKR1 is involved in the steady-state homing of CD11c+MHCIIhigh dendritic cells to skin-draining lymph nodes, and it affects the homing of embryonic thymic precursors to the thymic anlage. These observations indicate that the silent chemokine receptor CCX-CKR1, which is exclusively expressed by stroma cells, but not hematopoietic cells themselves, regulates homeostatic leukocyte migration by controlling the availability of chemokines in the extracellular space. This finding adds another level of complexity to our understanding of leukocyte homeostatic migration. PMID:17485674

  18. Stress-induced enhancement of leukocyte trafficking into sites of surgery or immune activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, Kavitha; Dhabhar, Firdaus S.

    2005-04-01

    Effective immunoprotection requires rapid recruitment of leukocytes into sites of surgery, wounding, infection, or vaccination. In contrast to immunosuppressive chronic stressors, short-term acute stressors have immunoenhancing effects. Here, we quantify leukocyte infiltration within a surgical sponge to elucidate the kinetics, magnitude, subpopulation, and chemoattractant specificity of an acute stress-induced increase in leukocyte trafficking to a site of immune activation. Mice acutely stressed before sponge implantation showed 200-300% higher neutrophil, macrophage, natural killer cell, and T cell infiltration than did nonstressed animals. We also quantified the effects of acute stress on lymphotactin- (LTN; a predominantly lymphocyte-specific chemokine), and TNF-- (a proinflammatory cytokine) stimulated leukocyte infiltration. An additional stress-induced increase in infiltration was observed for neutrophils, in response to TNF-, macrophages, in response to TNF- and LTN, and natural killer cells and T cells in response to LTN. These results show that acute stress initially increases trafficking of all major leukocyte subpopulations to a site of immune activation. Tissue damage-, antigen-, or pathogen-driven chemoattractants subsequently determine which subpopulations are recruited more vigorously. Such stress-induced increases in leukocyte trafficking may enhance immunoprotection during surgery, vaccination, or infection, but may also exacerbate immunopathology during inflammatory (cardiovascular disease or gingivitis) or autoimmune (psoriasis, arthritis, or multiple sclerosis) diseases. chemokine | psychophysiological stress | surgical sponge | wound healing | lymphotactin

  19. Blood Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The method that is used for the collection, storage and real-time analysis of blood and other bodily fluids has been licensed to DBCD, Inc. by NASA. The result of this patent licensing agreement has been the development of a commercial product that can provide serum or plasma from whole