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1

[A quantitative measurement of polymorphonuclear leukocyte oxidative metabolism using plasma depleted blood by flow cytometry].  

PubMed

We investigated a method measuring the superoxide production in peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in whole blood by flow cytometer using DCFH-DA as marker dye. The DCFH-DA which is colorless in its form and is freely permeable into blood cells is converted into DCF, a fluorescent substance, by oxidative reaction of superoxide in PMN. Thus, the superoxide production in PMN is measurable by counting number of fluorescence positive cells and their intensity by flow cytometer. However, when the DCFH-DA is added to the whole blood, a considerable amount of it is trapped not only in PMN but also in red blood cell, thus giving rise an inconsistent incorporation of the DCFH-DA in PMN due to differences in number of red blood cell among samples. Furthermore, there are several anti-oxidative factors in blood plasma. In order to avoid possible effects of plasma oxidative factors and red blood cell-numbers in whole blood on the measurement of PMN-superoxide production, we prepared plasma depleted blood by washing and the number of red blood cells was adjusted to 5 x 10(6) microliters before addition of DCFH-DA. This improved reproducibility and gave within assay coefficient of variance (CV) of 3.62% for a sample with normal value and 7.09% for a low value sample. The value obtained by this method correlated well with those of NBT reduction test (r = -0.887). It is concluded that this method is simple, reliable and useful for the clinical determination of superoxide production instead of NBT test. PMID:8393947

Ko, T; Kabutomori, O; Futsukaichi, Y; Ogawa, M; Nishiyama, M; Midoh, A; Fushimi, R; Amino, N

1993-03-01

2

Intraepidermal Accumulation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Annular Pustular Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A case of annular pustular psoriasis is described. The annular zone of the lesion provides a model for studying the dynamics of intraepidermal accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in psoriasis. It could be shown that the unstimulated accumulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was limited to the clinically involved skin. The appearance of polymorphonuclear leukocytes proved to be associated with acanthosis. The micropustule

A. M. Lammers

1988-01-01

3

Migration of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A characteristic feature of the early and active psoriatic lesion is the intraepidermal penetration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) with the formation of intraepidermal micropustules of Kogoj and microabscesses of Munro, localized in the stratum corneum. In pustular psoriasis the accumulation of PMN dominates the clinical picture. During the last decade our insight into the regulation of the migration of PMN

A. Chang

1989-01-01

4

Oxidative DNA damage of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes, selectively induced by chronic arsenic exposure, is associated with extent of arsenic-related skin lesions  

SciTech Connect

There is increasing evidence that oxidative stress is an important risk factor for arsenic-related diseases. Peripheral blood leukocytes constitute an important defense against microorganisms or pathogens, while the research on the impact of chronic arsenic exposure on peripheral blood leukocytes is much more limited, especially at low level arsenic exposure. The purpose of the present study was to explore whether chronic arsenic exposure affects oxidative stress of peripheral blood leukocytes and possible linkages between oxidative stress and arsenic-induced skin lesions. 75 male inhabitants recruited from an As-endemic region of China were investigated in the present study. The classification of arsenicosis was based on the degree of skin lesions. Arsenic levels were measured in drinking water and urine by Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. 8-OHdG of peripheral blood leukocytes was evaluated using immunocytochemical staining. 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not in monocytes (MNs). The 8-OHdG staining of PMN cytoplasm was observed in all investigated populations, while the 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was frequently found along with the elevated amounts of cell debris in individuals with skin lesion. Urinary arsenic levels were increased in the severe skin lesion group compared with the normal group. No relationship was observed between drinking water arsenic or urine 8-OHdG and the degree of skin lesions. These findings indicated that the target and persistent oxidative stress in peripheral blood PMNs may be employed as a sensitive biomarker directly to assess adverse health effects caused by chronic exposure to lower levels of arsenic. -- Highlights: ? Male inhabitants were investigated from an As-endemic region of China. ? 8-OHdG-positive reactions were only present in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). ? 8-OHdG staining of PMN nuclei was paralleled by increased debris of cells. ? Oxidative DNA damage of PMNs is associated with arsenic-related skin lesions.

Pei, Qiuling, E-mail: 924969007@qq.com [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Ma, Ning [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan)] [Faculty of Health Science, Suzuka University of Medical Science, Suzuka, 510-0293 (Japan); Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wenchao; Li, Yong; Ma, Zhifeng; Li, Yunyun; Tian, Fengjie; Zhang, Wenping [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Mu, Jinjun [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [The Second Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Li, Yuanfei [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [The First Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan (030001) (China); Wang, Dongxing; Liu, Haifang; Yang, Mimi; Ma, Caifeng; Yun, Fen [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)] [Department of Toxicology, Public Health College, Shanxi Medical University, No 56 Xin Jian Nan Lu, Taiyuan (030001) (China)

2013-01-01

5

Antibiotic proteins of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Nine polypeptide peaks with antibiotic activity were resolved from human polymorphonuclear leukocyte azurophil granule membranes. All but 1 of the 12 constituent polypeptides were identified by N-terminal sequence analysis. Near quantitative recovery of protein and activity permitted an assessment of the contribution of each species to the overall respiratory-burst-independent antimicrobial capacity of the cell. Three uncharacterized polypeptides were discovered, including two broad-spectrum antibiotics. One of these, a defensin that we have designated human neutrophil antimicrobial peptide 4, was more potent than previously described defensins but represented less than 1% of the total protein. The other, named azurocidin, was abundant and comparable to bactericidal permeability-increasing factor in its contribution to the killing of Escherichia coli. Images PMID:2501794

Gabay, J E; Scott, R W; Campanelli, D; Griffith, J; Wilde, C; Marra, M N; Seeger, M; Nathan, C F

1989-01-01

6

Shiga Toxins Present in the Gut and in the Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Circulating in the Blood of Children with Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, the main cause of acute renal failure in early childhood, is caused primarily by intestinal infections from some Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxins. The toxins released in the gut are targeted to renal endothelium after binding to polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The presence of Shiga toxins in the feces and the circulating neutrophils of 20 children with hemolytic

Maurizio Brigotti; Alfredo Caprioli; Alberto E. Tozzi; Pier Luigi Tazzari; Francesca Ricci; Roberto Conte; Domenica Carnicelli; Maria Antonietta Procaccino; Fabio Minelli; Alfonso V. S. Ferretti; Fabio Paglialonga; Alberto Edefonti; Gianfranco Rizzoni; Thomas Ĺkerlund; Bo Svenungsson; Ĺsa Lagergren; Lars G. Burman; Anna C. Noller; M. Catherine McEllistrem; Kathleen A. Shutt; Lee H. Harrison

2006-01-01

7

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence to nylon: effect of oral corticosteroids.  

PubMed Central

The effect of orally administered glucocorticoids on polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence was studied by using the nylon fiber adherence assay. Inhibition of adherence 4 h after administration of the agent was confirmed, and in addition, augmentation of adherence was noted 24 h after ingestion of prednisone. Crossover studies revealed inhibition and augmentation to be cell associated as well as plasma mediated. Suspension of washed, dextran-sedimented polymorphonuclear leukocytes, harvested 4 h after prednisone ingestion in base-line or 24-h plasma failed to reverse inhibition of adherence. Adherence of 24-h polymorphonuclear leukocytes was augmented when suspended in all test plasmas. Plasma-mediated effects were demonstrated by inhibition of base-line adherence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes suspended in 4-h plasma and augmentation of adherence of cells in 24-h plasma. Plasma-mediated effects were reversible by washing. PMID:546786

McGillen, J; Phair, J

1979-01-01

8

Thromboxane A2 Mediates Augmented Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Adhesiveness  

PubMed Central

We examined the role of prostaglandins and thromboxanes as mediators of plasma-dependent increased polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesiveness induced by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors—indomethacin and d,l-6-chloro-?-methyl-carbozole-2-acetic acid (R020-5720)—reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced adherence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by 74 and 62%, respectively. In addition, inhibitors of thromboxane synthetase—imidazole, 9,11-azoprosta-5,13-dienoic acid, and 1-benzylimidazole—suppressed the stimulation of adherence by 31, 66, and 83%, respectively. Exogenous prostaglandins E1, E2, and F2? did not increase polymorphonuclear leukocyte adherence, nor were they detected in significant quantities in supernates of polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to lipopolysaccharide. However, inhibitors of both cyclo-oxygenase and thromboxane synthetase reduced increases in adherence induced by arachidonic acid (10 ?g/ml), suggesting that lipopolysaccharide-mediated increases in adherence were due to an arachidonic acid product other than prostaglandin E2 or F2?. 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoic acid, a precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins, did not enhance polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesiveness. We next demonstrated lipopolysaccharide-stimulated generation, by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, of a labile, low molecular weight, dialyzable substance capable of enhancing the adherence of unstimulated leukocytes. In parallel experiments, a 10-fold increase in immunoreactive thromboxane B2 over basal levels was detected after exposure of leukocytes to lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of lipopolysaccharide enhancement of adherence by specific rabbit antibodies to thromboxane B2 strongly supported a primary role for thromboxane A2 as the mediator of the observed increases in adherence. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated purified platelets did not increase leukocyte adherence, whereas thrombin-stimulated platelets did increase adherence. These studies suggest that lipopolysaccharide stimulates polymorphonuclear leukocytes to produce thromboxane A2, which enhances their adhesiveness to nylon. PMID:6772674

Spagnuolo, Philip J.; Ellner, Jerrold J.; Hassid, Aviv; Dunn, Michael J.

1980-01-01

9

High affinity capture and concentration of quinacrine in polymorphonuclear neutrophils via vacuolar ATPase-mediated ion trapping: Comparison with other peripheral blood leukocytes and implications for the distribution of cationic drugs  

SciTech Connect

Many cationic drugs are concentrated in acidic cell compartments due to low retro-diffusion of the protonated molecule (ion trapping), with an ensuing vacuolar and autophagic cytopathology. In solid tissues, there is evidence that phagocytic cells, e.g., histiocytes, preferentially concentrate cationic drugs. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes could differentially take up a fluorescent model cation, quinacrine, depending on their phagocytic competence. Quinacrine transport parameters were determined in purified or total leukocyte suspensions at 37 °C. Purified polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs, essentially neutrophils) exhibited a quinacrine uptake velocity inferior to that of lymphocytes, but a consistently higher affinity (apparent K{sub M} 1.1 vs. 6.3 ?M, respectively). However, the vacuolar (V)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 prevented quinacrine transport or initiated its release in either cell type. PMNLs capture most of the quinacrine added at low concentrations to fresh peripheral blood leukocytes compared with lymphocytes and monocytes (cytofluorometry). Accumulation of the autophagy marker LC3-II occurred rapidly and at low drug concentrations in quinacrine-treated PMNLs (significant at ? 2.5 ?M, ? 2 h). Lymphocytes contained more LAMP1 than PMNLs, suggesting that the mass of lysosomes and late endosomes is a determinant of quinacrine uptake V{sub max}. PMNLs, however, exhibited the highest capacity for pinocytosis (uptake of fluorescent dextran into endosomes). The selectivity of quinacrine distribution in peripheral blood leukocytes may be determined by the collaboration of a non-concentrating plasma membrane transport mechanism, tentatively identified as pinocytosis in PMNLs, with V-ATPase-mediated concentration. Intracellular reservoirs of cationic drugs are a potential source of toxicity (e.g., loss of lysosomal function in phagocytes). - Highlights: • Quinacrine is concentrated in acidic organelles via V-ATPase-mediated ion trapping. • Human peripheral blood leukocytes capture and concentrate quinacrine. • Polymorphonuclear leukocytes do so with higher apparent affinity. • Polymorphonuclear are also more competent than lymphocytes for pinocytosis.

Roy, Caroline; Gagné, Valérie; Fernandes, Maria J.G.; Marceau, François, E-mail: francois.marceau@crchul.ulaval.ca

2013-07-15

10

Random locomotion and chemotaxis of human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes from a patient with leukocyte adhesion deficiency-1: normal displacement in close quarters via chimneying.  

PubMed

The beta2 integrins are known to be important in the motile function of leukocytes in general and in the adhesive response to inflammatory stimuli in particular. In the current study, under direct microscopic observation with concomitant time-lapse video recording, we examined the locomotion of human blood PMN from a patient with Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency-1 (LAD), a disorder in which beta2 integrins on the cell surface are markedly deficient in number or function. In thin slide preparations such that the leukocytes were somewhat compressed between slide and cover slip, PMNLAD exhibited normal random locomotion and chemotaxis, apparently by using the opposing surfaces to generate the force for locomotion (chimneying). In thicker preparations, an adherence deficit was evident, but chemotaxis still occurred, even by PMNLAD anticoagulated in EDTA. Consistent with the paucity of beta2 integrins on the surface of the PMNLAD was their failure to aggregate in the presence of antibodies to beta2 integrins, even when they had been brought together by chemotaxis. We relate these findings to the reported independence from integrins of PMN in the lung vasculature in LAD, as well as in certain experimental conditions. PMID:10913965

Malawista, S E; de Boisfleury Chevance, A; Boxer, L A

2000-07-01

11

Entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Factors involved in the phagocytosis and entry into polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi were studied by electron microscopy. R. tsutsugamushi propagated in baby hamster kidney cell cultures was incubated with guinea pig peritoneal PMNs in vitro at 35 degrees C. Structurally intact and degenerating rickettsiae were found in phagosomes, but only intact rickettsiae escaped phagosomes and specifically entered the glycogen-rich cytoplasm. The extraphagosomal cytoplasmic rickettsiae were found within 30 min after incubation; continued incubation for 4 h increased the rickettsial entry about fourfold as seen in ultrathin sections. Most rickettsiae in phagosomes were degenerating after 4 h of incubation. When incubated at 25 degrees C, no entry and very few phagocytized rickettsiae were observed. At 40 degrees C, rickettsial entry was greatly reduced, but more rickettsiae were found in phagosomes than at 35 degrees C. Preincubation of rickettsiae at 56 degrees C for 20 min with trypsin or with 2,4-dinitrophenol inhibited entry, but many rickettsiae were in phagosomes. Glutaraldehyde or formaldehyde fixation of rickettsiae and addition of 2-deoxyglucose, iodoacetamide, cytochalasin B, colchicine, or vinblastine inhibited all rickettsial uptake by PMNs. Acid phosphatase cytochemistry of infected PMNs revealed the enzyme activity only in phagosomes with degenerated rickettsiae and not in those with intact rickettsiae. These observations indicated that rickettsiae are passively phagocytized by PMNs, and only those that are intact actively escape from phagosomes, which selectively inhibits lysosomal fusion. Images PMID:6815091

Rikihisa, Y; Ito, S

1982-01-01

12

Hypothyroidism modifies lipid composition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

Thyroid hormones are important regulators of lipid metabolism. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are essential components of innate immune response. Our goal was to determine whether hypothyroidism affects lipid metabolism in PMN cells. Wistar rats were made hypothyroid by administrating 0.1 g/L 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water during 30 days. Triacylglycerides (TG), cholesterol and phospholipids were determined in PMN and serum by conventional methods. The mRNA expression of LDL receptor (LDL-R), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR), sterol regulatory element binding protein 2 (SREBP-2), and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT-2) were quantified by Real-Time PCR. Cellular neutral lipids were identified by Nile red staining. We found hypothyroidism decreases serum TG whereas it increases them in PMN. This result agrees with those observed in Nile red preparations, however DAGT-2 expression was not modified. Cholesterol synthesizing enzyme HMGCoAR mRNA and protein was reduced in PMN of hypothyroid rats. As expected, cholesterol content decreased in the cells although it increased in serum. Hypothyroidism also reduced relative contents of palmitic, stearic, and arachidonic acids, whereas increased the myristic, linoleic acids, and the unsaturation index in PMN. Thus, hypothyroidism modifies PMN lipid composition. These findings would emphasize the importance of new research to elucidate lipid-induced alterations in specific function(s) of PMN. PMID:22613972

Coria, Mariela J; Carmona Viglianco, Yamila V; Marra, Carlos A; Gomez-Mejiba, Sandra E; Ramirez, Dario C; Anzulovich, Ana C; Gimenez, Maria S

2012-01-01

13

Oxidation of methionine by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

Studies of the photosensitized oxidation have demonstrated that photodynamic oxidation of methionine is mediated by singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). In this study, we demonstrated that phagocytosing human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), but not resting PMN, oxidized both intracellular and extracellular methionine to methionine sulfoxide. N-ethylmaleimide, which inhibits phagocytosis and cellular metabolism, inhibited the oxidation of methionine. Neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease did not oxidize methionine even in the presence of phagocytosis. The oxidation of methionine by phagocytosing normal PMN was inhibited by (1)O(2) quenchers, (1.4-diazabicyclo-[2,2,2]-octane, tryptophan, NaN(3)), myeloperoxidase (MPO) inhibitors (NaN(3), KCN) and catalase. In contrast, superoxide dismutase, ethanol, and mannitol had no effect. Furthermore, (1)O(2) quenchers did not interfere with the production of superoxide (O(2) (-)) by phagocytosing PMN. The combination of catalase and SOD did not enhance the inhibition of methionine by phagocytosing PMN. On the other hand, deuterium oxide stimulated the oxidation of methionine by PMN almost 200%.H(2)O(2) at high concentrations oxidized methionine to methionine sulfoxide. However, when similar amounts of H(2)O(2) were added to human PMN, they did not oxidize methionine. In contrast, when H(2)O(2), at concentrations too low to oxidize methionine by itself, was added to the granular fraction, but not the soluble fraction, they oxidized methionine to methionine sulfoxide. The oxidation of methionine by the combination of H(2)O(2) and granular fractions was inhibited by (1)O(2) quenchers and MPO inhibitors, but it was stimulated by deuterium oxide. Removal of chloride anion also prevented the oxidation of methionine by the granular fractions. Our results suggest that the oxidation of methionine by phagocytosing PMN is dependent on the MPO-mediated antimicrobial system (MPO-H(2)O(2)-Cl(-)). They also suggest, but do not prove that the oxidation of methionine is mediated by (1)O(2). Oxidation of methionine may be one of the mechanisms that human PMN damage microorganisms. PMID:6245104

Tsan, M F; Chen, J W

1980-05-01

14

Isolation, In111 labeling, and abscess detection efficiency of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from blood and peritoneal fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In-111 labeled blood and peritoneal exudate PMN were compared for labeling efficiency and ability to migrate to sites of experimental abscesses using both direct sampling and visual imaging techniques. Blood PMN were prepared by combining heparinized blood with 6% Hetastarch for 1 hour and layering the plasma over a double density Ficoll-Hy-paque gradient (S.G. 1.076 over 1.141). The PMN layer

K. M. Bettin; M. K. Elson; D. N. Gerding; D. M. Bamberger; L. A. Forstrom; R. B. Shafer

1984-01-01

15

Isolation, In-111 labeling, and abscess detection efficiency of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from blood and peritoneal fluid  

SciTech Connect

In-111 labeled blood and peritoneal exudate PMN were compared for labeling efficiency and ability to migrate to sites of experimental abscesses using both direct sampling and visual imaging techniques. Blood PMN were prepared by combining heparinized blood with 6% Hetastarch for 1 hour and layering the plasma over a double density Ficoll-Hy-paque gradient (S.G. 1.076 over 1.141). The PMN layer (90-99% PMN) at the interface yielded 10/sup 6/-10/sup 7/ PMN from 80-120 ml of blood. Peritoneal PMN were obtained by infusion of 0.1% glycogen, followed by infusion of saline after 4 or 18 hours. The exudate yielded 10/sup 7/-10/sup 8/ PMN (80-99% PMN). PMN suspensions were labeled for 30 minutes by addition of 100 ..mu..Ci of In-111-oxine, then washed twice. Percent cell-associated radioactivity of the labeled blood, 4 hour, and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 89%, 88%, and 86%. The labeled PMN were injected intravenously into rabbits which had two of three abdominal capsules (table tennis balls drilled with 250 1.5 mm holes) inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus 4 hours earlier. Peak venous recovery of circulating labeled PMN, for blood, 4 hour and 18 hour peritoneal PMN was 60%, 43%, and 19%. Gamma camera images 24 hours after infusion into infected rabbits were superior with 4 hour peritoneal PMN. The peritoneal PMN harvested 4 hours after glycogen stimulation are simple to prepare, are obtainable in greater numbers than blood PMN, and result in better abscess visualization.

Bettin, K.M.; Elson, M.K.; Gerding, D.N.; Bamberger, D.M.; Forstrom, L.A.; Shafer, R.B.

1984-01-01

16

Human polymorphonuclear leukocyte response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in biofilms.  

PubMed Central

The interaction of human neutrophils with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms was examined by using a chemiluminescence assay. The biofilms induced an oxidative burst response by polymorphonuclear leukocytes which was slow and only 25% of the response to planktonic bacteria. The reduced response to P. aeruginosa biofilms could play a role in the persistence of bacteria in chronic infections. PMID:2114367

Jensen, E T; Kharazmi, A; Lam, K; Costerton, J W; Hřiby, N

1990-01-01

17

Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of

W. L. Hand; N. L. King-Thompson

1990-01-01

18

Sialyl Lewis X Moiety on Rat Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Responsible for Binding to Rat E-Selectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the presence of the carbohydrate ligand for E-selectin on the cell surface of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). Rat PMN, isolated from peripheral blood, adhered to recombinant rat E-selectin-coated microplates. The adhesion was inhibited either by an anti-rat E-selectin monoclonal antibody (MAb), a sialyl Lewis X (SLex) oligosaccharide or neuraminidase digestion. FACS analysis revealed the expression of SLex as

E. Misugi; N. Kawamura; N. Imanishi; S. J. Tojo; S. Morooka

1995-01-01

19

Lipids of alveolar macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, and their phagocytic vesicles  

PubMed Central

Phagocytic vesicles were isolated from rabbit alveolar macrophages and guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocytes that had ingested emulsified paraffin oil. Phospholipids and their fatty acids were determined in whole cells and in the phagocytic vesicle and pellet fractions separated from them. The cholesterol-to-phospholipid ratios in the vesicle fractions were distinctly higher than those of the respective whole cells or pellet fractions. The vesicle fractions also had higher phospholipid-to-protein ratios than did the whole cells. The phospholipids of the phagocytic vesicle fraction from macrophages contained relatively more sphingomyelin, lyso-(bis)phosphatidic acid, and phosphatidylserine and less lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidylinositol than did the whole cells or pellet fractions. The phospholipids of phagocytic vesicles from polymorphonuclear leukocytes contained significantly more phosphatidylinositol than did the pellet fractions. Lyso(bis)phosphatidic acid, which constituted 15% of the phospholipid in rabbit alveolar macrophages and 25% of that in their phagocytic vesicles, contained almost 60% oleic acid and 20% linoleic acid. This lipid was not detected in rabbit peritoneal macrophages or in rat alveolar macrophages. The polyunsaturated fatty acids of leukocyte phospholipids were chiefly linoleic, whereas in macrophages arachidonic accounted for almost 20% of the total fatty acids. The macrophages produced malondialdehyde when ingesting polystyrene beads or emulsified paraffin oil, from which it was inferred that peroxidation of endogenous lipid can occur during phagocytosis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes in which less than 3% of phospholipid fatty acids were arachidonic did not produce malondialdehyde during phagocytosis of these inert particles, but did when ingesting an emulsion containing linolenate, thus providing evidence for peroxidation of ingested lipid. Isolated phagocytic vesicles from alveolar macrophages contained lipid peroxides and generated malondialdehyde when incubated with ADP, FeCl3, and NADH. PMID:4344731

Mason, Robert J.; Stossel, Thomas P.; Vaughan, Martha

1972-01-01

20

Cytoplasts made from human blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes with or without heat: preservation of both motile function and respiratory burst oxidase activity.  

PubMed Central

Anucleate fragments (cytoplasts) from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are simplified systems that can be used to elucidate specific pathways by which cell function is altered. PMN cytoplasts in current use are defective either in activatable respiratory burst oxidase activity or in motile function. By centrifugation of PMN on discontinuous gradients of Ficoll without cytochalasin B, we have created granule-poor cytoplasts in which both these capacities are preserved. Specifically, they generate superoxide anion (O2-.) and reduce nitroblue tetrazolium dye on appropriate stimulation; they respond chemotactically to erythrocytes destroyed by laser microirradiation or to the specific chemoattractants fMet-Leu-Phe (10 nM) and C5a (zymosan-activated serum); and they ingest and kill staphylococci. We can improve the yield of these fragments progressively by preheating (45 degrees C) the cells in suspension for increasing periods of time, but those treatments are attended by a decreasing percentage of cytoplasts with activatable oxidase activity, and a progressive inability of the cytoplasts to ingest and to kill staphylococci. These easily made and multipotent cytoplasts readily lend themselves to studies of PMN physiology. Images PMID:3025874

Malawista, S E; Van Blaricom, G

1987-01-01

21

Amphotericin-B promotes leukocyte aggregation of nylon-wool-fiber-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

Severe pulmonary reactions have been reported in patients receiving leukocyte transfusion and amphotericin-B. To study the interaction of amphotericin-B with polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), purified human PMN were incubated with 200 mg of nylon wool fiber for 60 min either in the absence or presence of 2 mM EDTA. PMN were recovered in acid citrate dextrose solution and were suspended in balanced salt solution for determination of their aggregation properties. The cells exposed to nylon wool fibers without EDTA aggregated in response to concentration as low as 1.25 micrograms/ml of amphotericin-B. Cells initially treated with EDTA, however, failed to aggregate. Serum from a patient treated with amphotericin-B aggregated PMN exposed to nylon wool fiber but not control cells, whereas serum taken before amphotericin was given without effect on the PMN treated with nylon wool fiber. Amphotericin-B at 5 micrograms/ml failed to potentiate the release of beta-glucocuronidase or lactic dehydrogenase by PMN treated by nylon wool beyond that seen with exposure to the fibers alone. Rabbit peripheral blood was similarly incubated with nylon wool fibers and the recovered PMN were infused into recipient rabbits that had received 1 mg/kg of amphotericin-B intravenously 1 hr prior to the infusion of the leukocytes. Rabbits were sacrificed 30 min after transfusion of PMN, and their lungs were excised for histologic sectioning. Those rabbits receiving a combination of amphotericin-B and 4 x 10(7) nylon-wool-fiber-treated PMN had evidence of pulmonary hemorrhage and accumulation of leukocytes in the pulmonary vasculature whereas those animals who received such cells alone had normal appearing lung tissue. In summary, amphotericin-B at concentrations achievable in vivo enhanced the aggregation of PMN damaged by incubation with nylon fiber with subsequent accumulation of the phagocytes in pulmonary tissue. PMID:6789841

Boxer, L A; Ingraham, L M; Allen, J; Oseas, R S; Baehner, R L

1981-09-01

22

Effects of erythromycin, josamycin and spiramycin on rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis.  

PubMed

The effects of three macrolide antibiotics were studied on rat polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis. Rats were given 25 mg/kg twice a day of either erythromycin, josamycin or spiramycin by gastric intubation for 5 days. In all cases, chemotaxis was found to be impaired by 10-20% only. As macrolides are known to reach high intracellular concentrations within polymorphonuclear leukocytes, our results suggest that these antibiotics are unlikely to exert a deleterious influence on the chemotactic response of treated patients. PMID:3731922

Eyraud, A; Descotes, J; Lombard, J Y; Laschi-Loquerie, A; Tachon, P; Veysseyre, C; Evreux, J C

1986-01-01

23

Uptake of antibiotics by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasts  

SciTech Connect

Enucleated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN cytoplasts), which have no nuclei and only a few granules, retain many of the functions of intact neutrophils. To better define the mechanisms and intracellular sites of antimicrobial agent accumulation in human neutrophils, we studied the antibiotic uptake process in PMN cytoplasts. Entry of eight radiolabeled antibiotics into PMN cytoplasts was determined by means of a velocity gradient centrifugation technique. Uptakes of these antibiotics by cytoplasts were compared with our findings in intact PMN. Penicillin entered both intact PMN and cytoplasts poorly. Metronidazole achieved a concentration in cytoplasts (and PMN) equal to or somewhat less than the extracellular concentration. Chloramphenicol, a lipid-soluble drug, and trimethoprim were concentrated three- to fourfold by cytoplasts. An unusual finding was that trimethroprim, unlike other tested antibiotics, was accumulated by cytoplasts more readily at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. After an initial rapid association with cytoplasts, cell-associated imipenem declined progressively with time. Clindamycin and two macrolide antibiotics (roxithromycin, erythromycin) were concentrated 7- to 14-fold by cytoplasts. This indicates that cytoplasmic granules are not essential for accumulation of these drugs. Adenosine inhibited cytoplast uptake of clindamycin, which enters intact phagocytic cells by the membrane nucleoside transport system. Roxithromycin uptake by cytoplasts was inhibited by phagocytosis, which may reduce the number of cell membrane sites available for the transport of macrolides. These studies have added to our understanding of uptake mechanisms for antibiotics which are highly concentrated in phagocytes.

Hand, W.L.; King-Thompson, N.L. (Veterans Administration Medical Center (Atlanta), Decatur, GA (USA))

1990-06-01

24

Production of superoxide anion by polymorphonuclear leukocytes from diabetic patients with or without diabetic retinopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy. The production of superoxide anion (O2-.) by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) from 45 insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients in the resting state and in response to a soluble stimulus (phorbol myristate acetate) was measured spectrophotometrically and compared with that of 15 age and sex matched controls. The resting superoxide anion

Ahmed M. Abu El-Asrar; Rafik T. Soliman; Saleh A. Al-Amro; Fahad J. Al-Shammary

1995-01-01

25

Regulation of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte-Intestinal Epithelial Cell Interactions: Signalling Events and Potential Drug Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crucial event in the inflammatory response is recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) to a site of infection or injury. PMNL-epithelial interactions involve many fundamental cell processes, including adhesion, migra- tion, secretion, phagocytosis and apoptosis. Thus, migration of PMNL across epithelial-lined organs is a primary event component of host defense. Moreover, PMNL transepithelial migration often results in disease symptoms. New

Paul Hofman

2007-01-01

26

Cigarette Smoking Causes Sequestration of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Released from the Bone Marrow in Lung Microvessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies from our laboratory have shown that chronic cigarette smoke exposure causes a neutrophilia asso- ciated with a shortening of the mean transit time of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) though the post- mitotic pool of the marrow. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that PMN newly re- leased from bone marrow by smoke exposure preferentially sequestered in pulmonary

Takeshi Terashima; Maria E. Klut; Dean English; Jennifer Hards; James C. Hogg; Stephan F. van Eeden

27

Oxidative Metabolism of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes and Serum Opsonic Activity in Chronic Renal Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Luminol-amplified chemiluminescence was used to study the oxidative metabolism of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), in resting state and in response to opsonized zymosan, in 65 patients with different degrees of chronic renal failure (CRF) or on regular dialysis treatment (RDT). Every patient was compared on the same day with a normal subject. Furthermore, the serum opsonic activity was evaluated, cross-matching zymosan

Leonardo Lucchi; Gianni Cappelli; Maria Angela Acerbi; Andrea Spattini; Egidio Lusvarghi

1989-01-01

28

Metabolism of arachidonic acid by canine polymorphonuclear leukocytes synthesis of lipoxygenase and omega-oxidized metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes and metabolites of arachidonic acid, especially lipoxygenase products, have been reported to contribute to myocardial damage after coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. While canine models of myocardial ischemia were used in many of these studies, very little is known about arachidonic acid metabolism by canine PMNs. Moreover, it is unclear whether arachidonic acid metabolites released by

Mark Rosolowsky; J. R. Falck; William B. Campbell

1996-01-01

29

In Vivo Mobilization of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes in Psoriasis: Relationship to Clinical Parameters and Serum Inhibitory Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mean migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) toward autologous and homologous control sera, evaluated by quantitative skin window chamber technique, was only slightly reduced in 60 patients with psoriasis as compared to 27 normal controls (p < 0.1). A significant decrease in cell migration was found (1) in patients with actively spreading lesions, (2) in patients with extensive lesions involving more

Maja Tigalonowa; Wieslaw Gli?ski; Stefania Jablo?ska

1983-01-01

30

IgA-associated Inhibition of Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Chemotaxis in Neutrophilic Dermatoses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemotactic activity of normal human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) confronted with heat inactivated sera from patients with psoriasis as well as various chronic proliferative diseases was determined using modified Boyden chambers. By the addition of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) at a concentration of 1 ng\\/ml the chemoattractant activities of the sera were greatly potentiated. However, the chemotactic migration of normal

Jens-M. Schroder; Berthold Szperalski; Berthold Chang-Jo Koh; Enno Christophers

1981-01-01

31

Activated factor XI inhibits chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

PMN leukocytes are the most abundant leukocytes in the circulation and play an important role in host defense. PMN leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory responses at sites of infection are critical components in innate immunity. Although inflammation and coagulation are known to have bidirectional relationships, little is known about the interaction between PMN leukocytes and coagulation factors. Coagulation FXI participates in the intrinsic coagulation pathway upon its activation, contributing to hemostasis and thrombosis. We have shown previously that FXI-deficient mice have an increased survival and less leukocyte accumulation into the peritoneum in severe polymicrobial peritonitis. This result suggests a role for FXI in leukocyte trafficking and/or function. In this study, we characterized the functional consequences of FXIa binding to PMN leukocytes. FXIa reduced PMN leukocyte chemotaxis triggered by the chemokine, IL-8, or the bacterial-derived peptide, fMLP, perhaps as a result of the loss of directed migration. In summary, our data suggest that FXIa modulates the inflammatory response of PMN leukocytes by altering migration. These studies highlight the interplay between inflammation and coagulation and suggest that FXIa may play a role in innate immunity. PMID:21807745

Itakura, Asako; Verbout, Norah G; Phillips, Kevin G; Insall, Robert H; Gailani, David; Tucker, Erik I; Gruber, Andras; McCarty, Owen J T

2011-11-01

32

Exudate polymorphonuclear leukocytes isolated from skin chambers are primed for enhanced response to subsequent stimulation with chemoattractant f-Met-Leu-Phe and C3-opsonized yeast particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to respond metabolically to stimulation with both soluble and paniculate substances was investigated in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) isolated from an aseptic inflammatory reaction. Exudate PMNLs isolated from skin chambers (E-PMNLs) and blood PMNLs isolated from the peripheral blood (B-PMNLs) of the same individual were investigated in parallel. E-PMNLs were primed, resulting in an increased chemiluminescence (CL) response

Gunnar Briheim; Brittinger Coble; Olle Stendahl; Claes Dahlgren

1988-01-01

33

Measuring Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Macrophages and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Macrophages and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) represent an essential part of the innate immune system. These cells mediate a wide spectrum of immunological functions including bacterial defense, immune modulation, and inflammation; they are necessary for tissue homeostasis and also contribute to pathologies such as malignancy, autoimmunity, and chronic inflammation. Both macrophages and PMNs express a set of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are involved in a variety of biological functions such as the turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components, angiogenesis, and the regulation of inflammation. Given the link between unregulated MMP function and diseases such as chronic inflammation or cancer, it is not surprising that these enzymes have been implicated as key effectors in clinical studies. Thus, it is important to widen our knowledge about the role of these enzymes in macrophage and PMN biology. Here, we briefly discuss the general role of inflammatory cell–derived MMPs and describe methods to analyze their activity in macrophages and PMN. PMID:21462166

Kessenbrock, Kai; Brown, Markus; Werb, Zena

2012-01-01

34

Induction of 5-lipoxygenase activation in polymorphonuclear leukocytes by 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,2-Diacylglycerols (DAGs) can prime polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL) for enhanced release of arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products upon subsequent agonist stimulation. Here, we demonstrate that in isolated human PMNL, 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG) functions as a direct agonist stimulating 5-LO product formation (up to 42-fold). OAG caused no release of endogenous AA, but in the presence of exogenous AA,

Dana Albert; Eva Buerkert; Dieter Steinhilber; Oliver Werz

2003-01-01

35

Effects of hypertonic saline on expression of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion molecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertonic saline prevents vascular adherence of neutrophils and ameliorates isch- emic tissue injury. We hypothesized that hyper- tonic saline attenuates N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl- phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated expression of adhe- sion molecules on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs). fMLP-stimulated up-regula- tion of b2-integrins was diminished by hypertonic saline but not by hypertonic choline chloride-, mannitol-, or sucrose-modified Hanks' buffered salt solution. Shedding of L-selectin was

M. Thiel; F. Buessecker; K. Eberhardt; A. Chouker; F. Setzer; U. Kreimeier; K.-E. Arfors; K. Peter; K. Messmer

2001-01-01

36

Dendritic Cells Take up and Present Antigens from Viable and Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DC) are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8), for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs.

Carlos Alfaro; Natalia Suarez; Carmen Ońate; Jose L. Perez-Gracia; Ivan Martinez-Forero; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; Inmaculada Rodriguez; Guiomar Perez; Elixabet Bolańos; Asis Palazon; Miguel Fernandez de Sanmamed; Aizea Morales-Kastresana; Alvaro Gonzalez; Ignacio Melero

2011-01-01

37

Decreased extracellular release of granule enzymes from in vitro-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes in guttate psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which were stimulated either with synthetic chemotactic peptide (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, FMLP) or with C3b-opsonized zymosan as a promoter of phagocytosis, was studied in 66 patients with psoriasis, 18 lesion-free psoriatics, 18 healthy subjects, and 14 other dermatological disorder controls. Stimulated release of lysozyme (from specific granules and azurophil granules) and beta-glucuronidase (from azurophil granules) in

Wieslaw Glinski; Maya Tigalonowa; Stefania Jablonska; Ewa Janczura

1986-01-01

38

Oxidative DNA damage in polymorphonuclear leukocytes of patients with familial Mediterranean fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder characterized by recurrent, inflammatory self-limited episodes of fever and other symptoms. This disease is caused by more than 25 mutations in the gene MEFV. During fever attacks, there is a substantial influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the affected tissues. Attack-free periods are accompanied by the up-regulation of neutrophil and monocyte

Güldal Kirkali; Mehmet Tunca; Sermin Genc; Pawel Jaruga; Miral Dizdaroglu

2008-01-01

39

Effect of the lipopolysaccharide antagonist Planktothrix sp. FP1 cyanobacterial extract on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

CyP is a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-like molecule extracted from the freshwater cyanobacterium Oscillatoria planktothrix FP1, which has been reported to be a potent competitive inhibitor of bacterial LPS. In the present study the ability of CyP to affect human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function was investigated. PMNs were isolated from venous blood by standard density-gradient centrifugation. Cell migration was measured by use of the Boyden chamber assay. Interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production was measured using a sandwich-type enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. PMN intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed by the use of a fluorescent probe coupled to spectrophotometry. CyP 10-100 ?g/ml was chemotactic for PMNs without affecting the chemotactic response to either E. coli LPS or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). CyP per se did not affect PMN production of either IL-8 or TNF-?, but concentration-dependently reduced LPS-induced production of both cytokines. On the contrary, CyP had no effect either on fMLP-induced production of IL-8 or on PMN oxidative burst (at rest and after stimulation with fMLP), a response which is known to be independent from LPS-operated pathways. In human PMNs CyP behaves as a selective and effective LPS antagonist. These findings support the therapeutic potential of CyP in endotoxin-dependent disease. PMID:21115122

Maio, Ramňna Consučlo; Cosentino, Marco; Rossetti, Carlo; Molteni, Monica; Lecchini, Sergio; Marino, Franca

2011-02-01

40

Appearance of Fc receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes after migration and their role in phagocytosis.  

PubMed Central

The effect of the migration of bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro on their phagocytic activity was studied. PMNs were examined before and after migration through various membranes for rosette formation with sensitized sheep erythrocytes to detect Fc receptors (FcRs), phagocytic activity mediated through FcRs with opsonized staphylococci (Smith strain), and phagocytic activity mediated through nonimmunological receptors with unopsonized staphylococci (strain 305). Migration of PMNs was observed from the upper to the lower compartment of the blind well chamber through Millipore and Nuclepore membranes; through Millipore, Nuclepore, and nylon membranes coated with collagen; and through collagen-coated Millipore, Nuclepore, and nylon membranes overlaid with MA-104, BHK-21, MDBK-99, TB, or FBHE cells. Random migration of PMNs toward the plain medium (the same medium in the upper and lower compartments) through the membranes with and without a monolayer of cells increased the percentage of PMNs forming rosettes. In contrast, migration toward the medium containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS), formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP), or zymosan-activated serum (Act. serum) did not change the percentage of PMNs forming rosettes. The increased percentage of PMNs forming rosettes was associated with the enhanced phagocytosis of opsonized staphylococci (mediated by FcRs). In contrast, migration of PMNs toward LPS, FMLP, or Act. serum did not enhance phagocytosis mediated through FcRs. However, PMNs after migration toward LPS, FMLP, Act. serum, and plain medium enhanced phagocytosis of unopsonized staphylococci (mediated through the nonimmunological receptors). Images PMID:3710588

Targowski, S P; Niemialtowski, M

1986-01-01

41

Appearance of Fc receptors on polymorphonuclear leukocytes after migration and their role in phagocytosis.  

PubMed

The effect of the migration of bovine blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in vitro on their phagocytic activity was studied. PMNs were examined before and after migration through various membranes for rosette formation with sensitized sheep erythrocytes to detect Fc receptors (FcRs), phagocytic activity mediated through FcRs with opsonized staphylococci (Smith strain), and phagocytic activity mediated through nonimmunological receptors with unopsonized staphylococci (strain 305). Migration of PMNs was observed from the upper to the lower compartment of the blind well chamber through Millipore and Nuclepore membranes; through Millipore, Nuclepore, and nylon membranes coated with collagen; and through collagen-coated Millipore, Nuclepore, and nylon membranes overlaid with MA-104, BHK-21, MDBK-99, TB, or FBHE cells. Random migration of PMNs toward the plain medium (the same medium in the upper and lower compartments) through the membranes with and without a monolayer of cells increased the percentage of PMNs forming rosettes. In contrast, migration toward the medium containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS), formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP), or zymosan-activated serum (Act. serum) did not change the percentage of PMNs forming rosettes. The increased percentage of PMNs forming rosettes was associated with the enhanced phagocytosis of opsonized staphylococci (mediated by FcRs). In contrast, migration of PMNs toward LPS, FMLP, or Act. serum did not enhance phagocytosis mediated through FcRs. However, PMNs after migration toward LPS, FMLP, Act. serum, and plain medium enhanced phagocytosis of unopsonized staphylococci (mediated through the nonimmunological receptors). PMID:3710588

Targowski, S P; Niemialtowski, M

1986-06-01

42

Chemotactic peptide-induced arachidonic acid mobilization in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes prelabeled with tritiated arachidonic acid liberated radiolabeled products when exposed to the chemotactic peptide fMet-Leu-Phe. The effect was enhanced in the presence of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl glycerol; these agents activate phospholipid- and Ca2+-dependent protein kinase C. In contrast, arachidonic acid mobilization was suppressed by two compounds known to inhibit protein kinase C activity: polymyxin B and 1-(5-isoquinolinylsulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine. These results suggest that protein kinase C was involved in arachidonic acid mobilization in leukocytes stimulated with chemotactic peptide.

Galbraith, G.M.

1988-11-01

43

Effect of antibody on entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi into polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasm.  

PubMed Central

The effects of rickettsial antibodies on the entry of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, Gilliam strain, into guinea pig polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasm were studied by electron microscopy. Immunoglobulin G fractions were obtained from four rabbit antisera against: yolk sac-propagated rickettsiae; baby hamster kidney cell (BHK-21)-propagated rickettsiae; formaldehyde-fixed, BHK-21 cell-propagated rickettsiae; and glutaraldehyde-fixed, BHK-21 cell-propagated rickettsiae. A fuzzy coating was observed on the rickettsiae after reaction with each of the antibodies. All of the antibodies increased the uptake of rickettsiae by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The opsonization effect was higher with an antibody against BHK-21 cell-propagated rickettsiae than with an antibody against yolk sac-propagated rickettsiae, and an antibody to live rickettsiae had a higher opsonization effect than did antibodies to chemically fixed rickettsiae. Rickettsiae were released from phagosomes into the cytoplasm with the four antibodies. The highest number of rickettsiae were released into the cytoplasm with antibody against live rickettsiae propagated in BHK-21 cells. The four antibodies inhibited the translocation of the cytoplasmic rickettsiae from the filamentous area to glycogen-rich zones. Almost 100% inhibition of translocation was observed with antibodies against live rickettsiae. These results indicate that rabbit antibodies against rickettsiae, when used alone, were unable to completely prevent rickettsial entry into polymorphonuclear leukocyte cytoplasm in vitro. Images PMID:6403463

Rikihisa, Y; Ito, S

1983-01-01

44

Adherence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to nylon: modulation by prostacyclin (PGI2), corticosteroids, and complement activation.  

PubMed

Effects of in vitro addition of prostacyclin (PGI2), hydrocortisone, and zymosan to plasma on adherence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) to nylon were investigated. PGI2, in nanogram concentrations, and hydrocortisone, in high concentrations, inhibited base-line adherence of PMNLs; zymosan-treated plasma augmented retention of PMNLs by nylon columns. Incubation of plasma with antiserum to C5, hydrocortisone, or PGI2 blocked zymosan-mediated effects. Prostaglandins (PGD2, PGE1, and PGF2 alpha) when added in votro did not alter base-line adherence. PMNLs obtained 4 hr after administration of oral prednisone to volunteers were partially resistant to effects of zymosan-activated plasma. PMID:6988525

McGillen, J; Patterson, R; Phair, J P

1980-03-01

45

Role for macrophage products in endotoxin-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation during inflammation.  

PubMed

Endotoxins (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) released by Gram-negative bacteria induce acute inflammation with polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) infiltration. The mechanism of PMNL accumulation appears to be complement-independent and is not well understood. Here, we report investigation of the factors which may mediate LPS-induced PMNL accumulation in the pleural cavity and skin of rabbits. The intrapleural injection of 50 ng of Escherichia coli 0111 LPS caused the appearance in the exudate fluid of an activity which, upon intradermal injection induced PMNL accumulation in the skin, as measured by a 51Cr-labeled leukocyte assay and which was confirmed histologically. This activity preceded by 30 minutes the massive influx of PMNL into the pleural cavity. 125I-labeled LPS, gel filtration chromatography, limulus amebocyte lysate assays, and polymyxin B allowed distinction between reactions in the skin attributable to LPS and reactions due to the effect of this "PMNL infiltration-inducing activity." Pleural macrophages cultured for 3 to 6 hours with 3 to 30 ng/ml of LPS also released factors which induced PMNL infiltration into the skin. Sephadex G-100 chromatography of LPS-induced pleural exudate fluid or of supernatants from LPS-stimulated macrophage cultures yielded identical elution profiles, with one major peak of PMNL infiltration-inducing activity at an apparent molecular weight of 45,000 and a minor peak at 14,000 to 18,000. Only the low molecular weight fraction contained interleukin 1 activity. Lipid A was required for the secretion of these factors by macrophages. The LPS shed by killed E. coli also induced macrophage production of PMNL infiltration-inducing activity. The activity was sensitive to pronase, and its production was inhibited by an inhibitor of protein synthesis (cycloheximide). The active factors did not induce PMNL chemotaxis, aggregation, or chemiluminescence in vitro indicating that the activity was not C5a. We conclude that PMNL infiltration induced by LPS and perhaps by Gram-negative bacteria, may be mediated in part by the secretion from tissue macrophages of factors which can recruit PMNLs from the blood. The most active of these (approximately equal to 45,000 daltons) lacks interleukin-1 or PMNL chemotactic activity. PMID:3491929

Issekutz, A C; Megyeri, P; Issekutz, T B

1987-01-01

46

Nonoxidative antimicrobial effects of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte granule proteins on Chlamydia spp. in vitro.  

PubMed Central

Proteins from isolated granules of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were assessed for their nonoxidative microbicidal effect on chlamydiae by two different methods: a radioisotope assay for elementary body integrity and a biological assay for inclusion development. Crude granule extract, which consisted of a mixture of all granule proteins, caused a 20 to 30% decrease in infectivity and a 52% decrease in infectivity when incubated with Chlamydia psittaci CAL-10 and Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E, respectively. To define more specifically the components that were damaging to chlamydiae, crude granule extract was subjected to Sephadex G-75 column chromatography and isolated granule fractions were obtained. Only fractions containing lysozyme as the major component consistently caused reductions in infectivity of C. trachomatis elementary bodies. In contrast, fractions collected after the lysozyme fraction, containing proteins with molecular masses of 13,000 daltons or less, had detrimental effects on C. psittaci infectivity. Additional experiments using highly purified human polymorphonuclear leukocyte lysozyme confirmed its infectivity-reducing action upon C. trachomatis but not upon C. psittaci. Images PMID:3653985

Register, K B; Davis, C H; Wyrick, P B; Shafer, W M; Spitznagel, J K

1987-01-01

47

Hypothermia augments polymorphonuclear leukocyte degranulation and interleukin-8 production from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and increases lipopolysaccharide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte–endothelial cell interaction when followed by normothermia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine if hypothermia followed by normothermia (rewarmed to 37°C) changes the inflammatory response of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Design: Prospective, controlled, in vitro study. Setting: University laboratory. Participants: PMNs from 4 healthy volunteers and HUVEC. Measurements and Main Results: PMNs and HUVEC were incubated for 3 hours at 20°C, 30°C, or 37°C

Yukinori Sakao; Yoshiaki Nakahara; Ferdicia K. Carr; Edmund J. Miller

2002-01-01

48

The effect of topical retinoids on the leukotriene-B 4 -induced migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic retinoids are effective in a variety of inflammatory dermatoses. Disorders in which polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are involved, such as psoriasis and acne, respond particularly well to various retinoids. However, side-effects restrict the use of systemic retinoids to severe manifestations. Topical application might provide the possibility of avoiding the systemic side-effects of these compounds. In this communication we report on

G. Wozel; A. Chang; M. Zultak; B. M. Czarnetzki; R. Happle; J. Barth; P. C. M. Kerkhof

1991-01-01

49

Vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bacterial vaginosis as markers for histologic endometritis among women without symptoms of pelvic inflammatory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The study was performed to determine whether vaginal polymorphonuclear leukocytes can be used as predictors of histologic endometritis among women at risk for, but without symptoms of, acute pelvic inflammatory disease. Study design: Five hundred thirty-seven women with, or at risk for, pelvic infection underwent pelvic examinations, including endometrial biopsies. These women were assessed for the presence of vaginal

Mark H. Yudin; Sharon L. Hillier; Harold C. Wiesenfeld; Marijane A. Krohn; Antonio A. Amortegui; Richard L. Sweet

2003-01-01

50

Cryopreservable neutrophil surrogates. Stored cytoplasts from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes retain chemotactic, phagocytic, and microbicidal function.  

PubMed Central

Cryopreservation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) has largely failed, probably because of their rich content of granular (lysosomal) enzymes. We have been developing granule-poor cytoplasts (anucleate fragments) from PMN which retain motile functions of the parent cell. The two types studied here were induced either by brief heating on surfaces (cytokineplasts) or by discontinuous gradient centrifugation (Ficoll) without heat or drugs (U-cytoplasts). Freshly made, these cytoplasts respond chemotactically to formyl peptide (fMet-Leu-Phe), and they take up and kill roughly half as many Staphylococcus aureus as their (larger, granular) parent PMN. Unlike their parent cells, after cryopreservation both cytoplasts remain chemotactic, and in matched experiments they take up and kill staphylococci with undiminished avidity. These findings are the first indications that PMN cytoplasts suitable for clinical use may be feasible. Images PMID:2536406

Malawista, S E; Van Blaricom, G; Breitenstein, M G

1989-01-01

51

Suppression of superoxide generation by normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated in plasma from patients with Felty's syndrome.  

PubMed

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) isolated from patients with Felty's syndrome (FS) generate fewer superoxide anions (O-2) upon stimulation with fmet-leu-phe than PMN from normal controls or patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, plasma samples were obtained from 12 patients with RA and 12 patients with FS. Incubation of normal PMN in plasma from Felty patients resulted in a significant reduction in both the rate and total quantity of O-2 generation when activated with fmet-leu-phe. This was not observed with plasma from RA patients. The capacity of a plasma sample to suppress O-2 generation correlated with plasma IgG-PMN-binding activity (IgG-PBA) and, to a lesser extent, with the content of circulating immune complexes (CIC). These data suggest that IgG-PBA and possibly CIC have a pathogenetic role in both qualitative and quantitative defects in PMN in Felty patients. PMID:3037685

Friman, C; Davis, P; Starkebaum, G; Johnston, C; Dasgupta, M; Grace, M; Wong, K

1987-01-01

52

[Chemoluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in neonates with bacterial infections (author's transl)].  

PubMed

Chemoluminescence (CL) measurement of phagocytozing polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) is used to determine the activity of intracellular O2-dependent bactericidal capacity. PMN in the cordblood of healthy neonates compared to those of healthy adults is significantly decreased but kinectically normal. Phagocytozing PMN of infected neonates produce CL in a distinctly lower degree than those from the cordblood of healthy neonates. This pronounced depression of CL is a temporary event during bacterial infections, the CL reaction is also retarded. On the contrary phagocytozing PMN of older children and adults show an increase of CL production during bacterial infections. The described pattern of the oxidative metabolism reacting to bacterial infections on the neonatal period shows a reduced bactericidal capacity of these cells due to bacterial infections. Probably this pattern is one cause of increased letality and morbidity observed in bacterial infections of the newborn. PMID:7322141

Eschenbach, C

1981-11-01

53

Chemiluminescent and flow cytometric analysis of gamma interferon preincubation on neonatal and adult rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) has multiple immunomodulating effects and has been postulated as a possible immunopotentiating agent for the prevention or treatment of neonatal infections. This report describes the effect of rat recombinant IFN-gamma on the oxidative burst activity and CD11b expression of neonatal and adult rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Oxidative burst activity was assessed by chemiluminescence and dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry. Neonatal PMNL exhibited significantly less oxidative burst activity than did adult PMNL. IFN-gamma mildly enhanced the chemiluminescence response of PMNL from both the rat pups and adults, but this effect was not statistically significant when analyzed by a multivariate model of repeated-measures analysis of variance for both chemiluminescence and dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry. CD11b expression was also not significantly enhanced by IFN-gamma. PMID:8877130

Wittler, R R; Lieberman, M M; Paine, D D; Muehlbauer, S L; Lima, J E; Sachanandani, D M; Pinney, C A

1996-01-01

54

Determination of phagocytosis of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

A procedure for the measurement of phagocytosis by bovine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) of /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus was modified so that a larger number of samples could be compared in a single run, and smaller volumes of sample, PMN, and /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus could be used. Results were highly reproducible, with a coefficient of variation between duplicate determinations of less than or equal to 2%. Lysostaphin was prepared from the supernatant of S staphylolyticus and was compared with a commercially available preparation. Effects of lysostaphin on PMN and influence of incubation media on release of /sup 32/P from /sup 32/P-labeled S aureus by lysostaphin were examined.

Dulin, A.M.; Paape, M.J.; Weinland, B.T.

1984-04-01

55

Polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis induced by zinc, copper and nickel in vitro.  

PubMed

Metallic dental restorations and prosthetic constructions are susceptible to corrosion in oral environment, resulting in the release of various heavy metal ions. Chloride salts of zinc, copper, nickel, chromium, iron and gold were tested for their ability to promote the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Using a modified Boyden chamber assay for chemotaxis zinc, copper and nickel enhanced the migration of PMN cells in concentration range of 0.5-1.0 mM, whereas no augmentation in migratory activity was noted using chromium or iron. In contrast, an inhibition in migratory activity was observed in cells directed toward gold ions. Exposure of cells to zinc, copper or nickel ions induced an orientation reaction in leukocytes in a similar fashion as the polarization reaction induced by a potent peptide chemoattractant, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP), in these cells. Exposure of PMN cells to zinc or nickel in chemotactic concentrations stimulated the chemotaxis of these cells to fMLP 2-fold, whereas pretreatment of the cells with zinc prior to assay markedly decreased the subsequent chemotactic migration of the cells to this metal or to fMLP. The enhanced locomotion of PMN cells induced by zinc, copper or nickel ions was found to be in greater extent due to an increase in directed migration (chemotaxis) rather than an augmentation in random movement (chemokinesis) as assessed by Zigmond-Hirsch checkerboard analysis. These results suggest that zinc, copper and nickel ions attract leukocytes by inducing and promoting the chemotactic response in these cells, which may modulate the inflammatory response of host tissue around such metals. PMID:7492570

Hujanen, E S; Seppä, S T; Virtanen, K

1995-10-19

56

Biochemical and Functional Characterization of MCS2 Antigen (CD13) on Myeloid Leukemic Cells and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antigen defined by MCS-2 monoclonal antibody (niAh) was char acterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of surface and internally labeled cells. Surface iodination revealed that MCS-2 antigen on the surfaces of acute myelogenous leukemia cells, III 61)cells, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) had the same molecular weight (.Vf, 150,000) and that their autoradiographic bands were also the same. Internal

Kenji Sakai; Toshio Hattori; Kimitaka Sagawa; M Usuo Yokoyama; Kiyoshi Takatsuki

57

Carcinogenic Sulfide Salts of Nickel and Cadmium Induce H2O2Formation by Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some derivatives of nickel, cadmium, and cobalt are carcinogenic in humans and\\/or animals but their mechanisms of action are not known. We show that they are capable of stimulating human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as measured by H2O2 formation, a known tumor promoter. Most effective were the carcinogens nickel subsulfide, which caused a 550% net increase in IM)., over that formed

Zhaojing Zhong; Walter Troll; Karen L. Koenig; Krystyna Frenkel

58

Defective adherence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to nylon induced by thalassemic serum.  

PubMed

The effects of sera obtained from 18 patients with homozygous beta-thalassemia on the adherence and chemotaxis of normal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) was studied. The adherence of PMNLs suspended in thalassemic serum was 3.1% +/- 2.5% (mean +/- SD) compared with 17.9% +/- 8.0% adherence in control serum (P less than 0.00001). Zymosan-treated thalassemic serum did not generate chemotactic factors, and zymosan-treated normal serum did not induce chemotaxis of PMNLs suspended in thalassemic serum. When added to zymosan-treated normal plasma, thalassemic serum inhibited augmentation of PMNL adherence to nylon columns. These abnormalities were due to a heat-labile factor(s) in the sera of patients with thalassemia. Suspending PMNLs in heated thalassemic serum (56 C for 30 min) resulted in an increase of adherence to 14.6% +/- 6.2% (P less than 0.0001). PMNLs suspended in heated thalassemic serum responded normally to chemotactic attractants. PMID:7086204

Bassaris, H P; Lianou, P E; Skoutelis, A T; Papavassiliou, J T; Phair, J P

1982-07-01

59

IgA-associated inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in neutrophilic dermatoses.  

PubMed

The chemotactic activity of normal human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) confronted with heat inactivated sera from patients with psoriasis as well as various chronic proliferative diseases was determined using modified Boyden chambers. By the addition of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) at a concentration of 1 ng/ml the chemoattractant activities of the sera were greatly potentiated. However, the chemotactic migration of normal PMNs was strongly inhibited by sera from patients with long standing and wide spread psoriasis, pyoderma gangrenosum, severe acne conglobata, Sweet syndrome, and some patients with chronic arthritis following rheumatoid fever. In acute guttate psoriasis and atopic dermatitis increased migratory activities were seen. The inhibition of chemotaxis correlated with increased serum IgA levels as determined by radial immuno diffusion. Column chromatography (Sephacryl S-300) revealed serum fractions of strong inhibitory potency at a molecular weight near 200,000 Dalton. These inhibitory fractions were seen in patients with long standing neutrophil related diseases and could not be detected in normal control sera. It appears that inhibition of PMN chemotaxis is a secondary phenomenon and may play an autoregulatory role in PMN related inflammation. PMID:7310170

Schröder, J M; Szperalski, B; Koh, C J; Christophers, E

1981-12-01

60

Increased activity of 5-lipoxygenase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes from asthmatic patients  

SciTech Connect

The formation of 5-lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid, 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE, was determined in 100,000 x g supernatant of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from 17 healthy subjects, 17 patients with extrinsic asthma and 15 patients with intrinsic asthma. After the supernatant was incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid in the presence of calcium and indomethacin, the lipoxygenase products of arachidonic acid were separated by thin layer chromatography. The results were expressed as the percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into the product per 10/sup 7/ cells. The formation of 5,12-diHETE, but not of the 5-HETE, was significantly increased in the cells from the group of patients with extrinsic asthma (4.38 +/- 0.78%, mean +/- S.E.; p < 0.01) and intrinsic asthma (6.09 +/- 1.11%; p < 0.01), when compared to normal subjects (1.74 +/- 0.30%). Both extrinsic and intrinsic asthmatics had significantly enhanced 5-lipoxygenase activity, which was expressed as the sum of percentage conversion of /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid into 5-HETE and 5,12-diHETE. The percentage conversion in normal subjects was 4.19 +/- 0.39%, 6.24 +/- 0.84% for 17 patients with extrinsic asthma (p < 0.05), and 8.59 +/- 1.29% for 15 patients with intrinsic asthma (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference between these asthmatic groups. These results indicate that 5-lipoxygenase activity is increased in patients with bronchial asthma. 22 references, 3 figures.

Mita, H.; Yui, Y.; Taniguchi, N.; Yasueda, H.; Shida, T.

1985-09-09

61

Putative glycoprotein and glycolipid polymorphonuclear leukocyte receptors for the Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 fimbrial lectin.  

PubMed Central

Recognition of receptors on sialidase-treated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) by the Gal/GalNAc lectin associated with the type 2 fimbriae of certain strains of actinomyces results in activation of the PMNs, phagocytosis, and destruction of the bacteria. In the present study, plant lectins were utilized as probes to identify putative PMN receptors for the actinomyces lectin. The Gal-reactive lectin from Ricinus communis (RCAI), the Gal/GalNAc-reactive lectins from R. communis (RCAII) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA), as well as the Gal beta 1-3GalNAc-specific lectins from Arachis hypogaea (PNA) and Agaricus bisporus (ABA) inhibited killing of Actinomyces naeslundii WVU45 by sialidase-treated PMNs. These five lectins detected a 130-kDa surface-labeled glycoprotein on nitrocellulose transfers of PMN extracts separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This glycoprotein was revealed only after treatment of the transfers with sialidase, a condition analogous to the sialidase dependence of the lectin-mediated biological responses of the PMNs to the actinomyces. The mannose-reactive lectin concanavalin A did not inhibit killing of the actinomyces and failed to detect the 130-kDa glycoprotein but did block PMN-dependent killing of Escherichia coli B, a bacterium that possesses mannose-sensitive fimbriae. Therefore, the PMN glycoprotein receptor for A. naeslundii is clearly distinct from those recognized by E. coli. Two major putative glycolipid receptors were also identified by actinomyces and RCAI overlays on sialidase-treated thin-layer chromatograms of PMN gangliosides. Thus, both a 130-kDa glycoprotein and certain gangliosides are implicated in the attachment of the actinomyces to PMNs. PMID:7790078

Sandberg, A L; Ruhl, S; Joralmon, R A; Brennan, M J; Sutphin, M J; Cisar, J O

1995-01-01

62

Antipseudomonal Agents Exhibit Differential Pharmacodynamic Interactions with Human Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes against Established Biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen infecting the lower respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, where it forms tracheobronchial biofilms. Pseudomonas biofilms are refractory to antibacterials and to phagocytic cells with innate immunity, leading to refractory infection. Little is known about the interaction between antipseudomonal agents and phagocytic cells in eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Herein, we investigated the capacity of three antipseudomonal agents, amikacin (AMK), ceftazidime (CAZ), and ciprofloxacin (CIP), to interact with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) against biofilms and planktonic cells of P. aeruginosa isolates recovered from sputa of CF patients. Three of the isolates were resistant and three were susceptible to each of these antibiotics. The concentrations studied (2, 8, and 32 mg/liter) were subinhibitory for biofilms of resistant isolates, whereas for biofilms of susceptible isolates, they ranged between sub-MIC and 2 × MIC values. The activity of each antibiotic alone or in combination with human PMNs against 48-h mature biofilms or planktonic cells was determined by XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] assay. All combinations of AMK with PMNs resulted in synergistic or additive effects against planktonic cells and biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates compared to each component alone. More than 75% of CAZ combinations exhibited additive interactions against biofilms of P. aeruginosa isolates, whereas CIP had mostly antagonistic interaction or no interaction with PMNs against biofilms of P. aeruginosa. Our findings demonstrate a greater positive interaction between AMK with PMNs than that observed for CAZ and especially CIP against isolates of P. aeruginosa from the respiratory tract of CF patients. PMID:25645829

Chatzimoschou, Athanasios; Simitsopoulou, Maria; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Walsh, Thomas J; Roilides, Emmanuel

2015-04-01

63

Diminished priming of neonatal polymorphonuclear leukocytes by lipopolysaccharide is associated with reduced CD14 expression.  

PubMed Central

Previous research in our laboratory has shown that polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) from neonates are not primed effectively in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (from Escherichia coli 0111:B4) compared with priming of adult PMN. This finding led us to speculate that differences between neonatal and adult LPS receptors may account for the lower response by neonatal PMN to LPS. In these experiments, we investigated if CD14 or other LPS receptors contribute to the priming activity of PMN by LPS. We found that unprimed neonatal and adult PMN expressed similar numbers of CD14 (11.6 +/- 9.2 versus 18.6 +/- 2.7 fluorescence units [FlU]; P > 0.05) and LPS-binding sites (2.94 +/- 1.4 versus 4.94 +/- 0.79 FlU; P > 0.05). Monoclonal antibody against CD14 (MY4) did not significantly change the binding of LPS to adult unprimed PMN, suggesting that LPS receptors other than CD14 receptors are predominant on PMN. However, when PMN were pretreated with LPS (10 ng/ml) for 45 min at 37 degrees C, expression of CD14 on adult PMN increased to 33.8 +/- 4.9 FlU (P < 0.05 versus unprimed adult PMN) while that on neonatal PMN showed little change, increasing to 17.2 +/- 10.3 FlU (P > 0.05 versus unprimed neonatal PMN; P < 0.05 versus primed adult PMN). Furthermore, MY4 specifically blocked oxidative-radical production from PMN primed with LPS (10 ng/ml) compared with that from control PMN (P < 0.01). These studies suggest that LPS primes PMN by activating CD14 expression. We conclude that lower expression of CD14 or failure to up-regulate CD14 after LPS pretreatment contributes to the inability of neonatal PMN to be primed by LPS. PMID:7528732

Qing, G; Rajaraman, K; Bortolussi, R

1995-01-01

64

Electron microscopic identification of hydrogen peroxide detected in fixed human polymorphonuclear leukocytes during phagocytosis.  

PubMed

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) engaged in phagocytosis produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as those that occur in an activated NADPH oxidase reaction, to eliminate ingested microorganisms. The translocation of NADPH oxidase components to produce antimicrobial free radicals from the vesicles to the phagosomes may be important. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) derived from O2- has been observed by electron microscopy using a cerium method. However, 2'-7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate can also detect H2O2 through fluorescence. The main objective of the present study was to measure the H2O2-dependent fluorescence of PMNs after opsonized zymosan A (OPZ) phagocytosis using a microplate reader under different fixation conditions, including 0.5, 1, and 10% glutaraldehyde (GA) individually for 1, 5, 10, or 30 min. An additional objective was to visualize, through the use of electron microscopic cytochemistry, the process of H2O2 generation in OPZ phagocytic fixed PMNs. The fixed PMNs showed that the largest fluorescent value was produced by a concentration of 0.5% GA for all fixation times. This suggested that the fixation of PMNs with a high concentration of GA inhibited phagocytosis and produced ROS. In the fixed PMNs, electron microscopic results showed that after 1 min of mixing, some PMNs attached to particles and exhibited mild deposits in their secretory vesicles. When PMNs engulfed particles, free radical-producing vesicles had enhanced reaction deposits 10 min later and fused to the phagosomal membrane, releasing numerous free radicals into the lumen. Time-dependent H2O2 production was enhanced in the secretory vesicles, some of which were fused exactly to the phagosome membranes. PMID:24815108

Moriguchi, Keiichi; Ohno, Norikazu

2014-01-01

65

Dendritic Cells Take up and Present Antigens from Viable and Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DC) are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8), for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs. Such internalization was abrogated at 4°C and partly inhibited by anti-CD18 mAb. In mice, DC which had internalized PMNs containing electroporated ovalbumin (OVA) protein, were able to cross-present the antigen to CD8 (OT-1) and CD4 (OT-2) TCR-transgenic T cells. Moreover, in humans, tumor cell debris is internalized by PMNs and the tumor-cell material can be subsequently taken up from the immunomagnetically re-isolated PMNs by DC. Importantly, if human neutrophils had endocytosed bacteria, they were able to trigger the maturation program of the DC. Moreover, when mouse PMNs with E. coli in their interior are co-injected in the foot pad with DC, many DC loaded with fluorescent material from the PMNs reach draining lymph nodes. Using CT26 (H-2d) mouse tumor cells, it was observed that if tumor cells are intracellularly loaded with OVA protein and UV-irradiated, they become phagocytic prey of H-2d PMNs. If such PMNs, that cannot present antigens to OT-1 T cells, are immunomagnetically re-isolated and phagocytosed by H-2b DC, such DC productively cross-present OVA antigen determinants to OT-1 T cells. Cross-presentation to adoptively transferred OT-1 lymphocytes at draining lymph nodes also take place when OVA-loaded PMNs (H-2d) are coinjected in the footpad of mice with autologous DC (H-2b). In summary, our results indicate that antigens phagocytosed by short-lived PMNs can be in turn internalized and productively cross-presented by DC. PMID:22206007

Alfaro, Carlos; Suarez, Natalia; Ońate, Carmen; Perez-Gracia, Jose L.; Martinez-Forero, Ivan; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Perez, Guiomar; Bolańos, Elixabet; Palazon, Asis; de Sanmamed, Miguel Fernandez; Morales-Kastresana, Aizea; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Melero, Ignacio

2011-01-01

66

Peripheral blood leukocytes of cows with subclinical endometritis show an altered cellular composition and gene expression.  

PubMed

Subclinical endometritis (SCE) is an important postpartum disease in dairy cows, but conventional cytobrush diagnosis often gives imprecise results. The aim of this study was to analyze disease-associated changes in peripheral blood as potential diagnostic parameters. Cellular subpopulations of blood leukocytes from cows with or without SCE (45-55 days postpartum) were flow-cytometrically quantified. Gene expression of whole blood leukocytes was assessed by PAXgene analysis. Subclinical endometritis cows showed significantly higher number of blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils. Among mononuclear cells, numbers of B-cells, NK-cells, and CD172a-positive monocytes were significantly elevated. Compared with non-SCE cows, blood leukocytes of SCE cows significantly expressed higher copy numbers of CXCL8, TNF, and IL12. To test whether circulating plasma factors are responsible for these changes, leukocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, and monocyte subpopulations (classical, intermediate, nonclassical) of healthy cows were stimulated with plasma of SCE and non-SCE cows. Although gene expression of whole leukocytes and polymorphonuclear cells remained unaltered, plasma from SCE animals significantly elevated expressed messenger RNA copy numbers of CXCL8, CXCL1, and IL1B in intermediate monocytes. In conclusion, elevated number of selected mononuclear subpopulations in peripheral blood and enhanced expression of distinct genes encoding for inflammatory mediators in blood leukocytes reflect the subclinical uterine inflammatory process in cows. Whether the observed changes in the periphery of SCE cows are the consequence of the uterine inflammatory process, or whether they affect the pathogenesis of the disease is currently unknown. PMID:24560452

Düvel, Anna; Maaß, Janine; Heppelmann, Maike; Hussen, Jamal; Koy, Mirja; Piechotta, Marion; Sandra, Olivier; Smith, David G E; Sheldon, Iain Martin; Dieuzy-Labaye, Isabelle; Zieger, Peter; Schuberth, Hans Joachim

2014-04-15

67

Comparison of the antioxidant properties of wound dressing materials–carboxymethylcellulose, hyaluronan benzyl ester and hyaluronan, towards polymorphonuclear leukocyte-derived reactive oxygen species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In chronic wounds, factors are released which perpetuate inflammatory processes, including polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide radical (O2?) and hydroxyl radical (OH) species. The glycosaminoglycan, hyaluronan, has established antioxidant properties towards ROS, although the antioxidant potential of wound dressing biomaterials, such as 75% benzyl esterified hyaluronan (BEHA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMCH), are less characterised. This study

R. Moseley; M. Walker; R. J. Waddington; W. Y. J. Chen

2003-01-01

68

Blood leukocyte and spleen lymphocyte immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters  

SciTech Connect

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic physical activity on the immune response of spleen lymphocytes and whole blood leukocytes of hamsters. Animals were kept sedentary or allowed to exercise spontaneously on running wheels for eight weeks. Physically active animals averaged 12 kilometers per day. The immune response of spleen lymphocytes whole blood leukocytes was evaluated by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in response to Concanavalin A or lipopolysaccharide. There was no treatment effect between physically active and sedentary hamster in response of spleen lymphocytes. The immune response of whole blood leukocytes to these mitogens was significantly greater in physically active vs. sedentary hamsters. These results demonstrate that chronic physical activity has the capacity to modulate immunoresponses.

Peters, B.A.; Sothmann, M.; Wehrenberg, W.B. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

1989-01-01

69

Species-specific expression of sialosyl-Le x on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), in relation to selectin-dependent PMN responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sialosyl-Lex (SLex) and its positional isomer sialosyl-Lea are the epitopes recognized by the lectin domain of E- and P-selectins. Expression of SLex in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) plays an important role in recruitment of these cells at sites of inflammation through activation of selectins. We studied expression of SLex in PMN of seven mammalian species in comparison with that in humans.

Kazunori Ito; Kazuko Handa; Sen-Itiroh Hakomori

1994-01-01

70

Effects of Green Tea Catechin on Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte 5?Lipoxygenase Activity, Leukotriene B4 Synthesis, and Renal Damage in Diabetic Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of green tea catechin on polymorphonuclear leukocyte 5?-lipoxygenase activity, leukotriene B4 synthesis, and renal damage in diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 100 ± 10 g were randomly assigned to 1 normal group and 3 diabetic groups given a catechin-free diet (DM-0C group), 0.25% catechin diet (DM-0.25C group), or 0.5%

Jeong-Hwa Choi; Young-Mi Chai; Gil-Jae Joo; In-Koo Rhee; In-Seon Lee; Kwan-Ryu Kim; Myung-Sook Choi; Soon-Jae Rhee

2004-01-01

71

Harvesting the noncirculating pool of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in rats by hetastarch exchange transfusion (HET): yield and functional assessment  

SciTech Connect

Isolation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) provides an opportunity to study PMN activity in vitro and to label PMN for study of in vivo kinetics. However, simple phlebotomy (SP) of a small animal frequently yields too few PMN for in vitro handling, while PMN harvested from an induced-peritonitis may not accurately reflect PMN in a less stimulated state. We report a novel method of harvesting PMN from the circulation of rats, using hetastarch exchange transfusion (HET), which is both time and animal sparing. HET harvested 8-fold more PMN than SP. In vitro cell function was examined with assays of adherence, chemotaxis, bacterial killing, and superoxide generation. No significant (p less than 0.05) difference was found between PMN obtained by HET and pooled-PMN obtained by SP. In vivo function was examined following labeling with indium 111-oxine. The kinetics pattern described suggested normal migratory activity when compared to previous reports. The data demonstrate that rats possess a relatively large, noncirculating pool of PMN which is readily accessible by HET.

Williams, J.H. Jr.; Moser, K.M.; Ulich, T.; Cairo, M.S.

1987-11-01

72

beta. -Endorphin and related peptides suppress phorbol myristate acetate-induced respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

In the present study, the immunomodulatory effect of {beta}-endorphin ({beta}-E) and shorter pro-opiomelancortin (POMC) fragments was evaluated by assessing their influence on respiratory burst in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). The effect of the peptides on phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated production of reactive oxygen metabolites was measured in a lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) assay. Both POMC peptides with opiate-like activity and their non-opioid derivatives were tested. With the exception of {alpha}-E, PMA-stimulated respiratory burst was suppressed by all POMC fragments tested. A U-shaped dose-response relation was observed. Doses lower than 10{sup {minus}17}M and higher than 10{sup {minus}8}M were without effect. {beta}-E and dT{beta}E both suppressed PMA-induced oxidative burst in human PMN at physiological concentrations. {gamma}-E and dT{gamma}E proved to be less potent inhibitors, reaching maximal effect at higher concentrations. DE{gamma}E exerted an even less pronounced but still significant suppressive effect at the concentration of 10{sup {minus}10}M. None of the endorphins tested was shown to affect resting oxidative metabolism in the PMN. The modulatory effects of the opioid peptides could not be blocked by the opioid antagonist naloxone.

Diamant, M.; Henricks, P.A.J.; Nijkamp, F.P.; de Wied, D. (Univ. of Utrecht (Netherlands))

1989-01-01

73

IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function. PMID:20556207

Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

2010-01-01

74

IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.  

PubMed

The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function. PMID:20556207

Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

2010-01-01

75

Motility of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Roles of hydroxy fatty acids, other lipids, and cations.  

PubMed Central

Rapid ionic fluxes across local areas of leukocyte plasma membranes result in local swelling, ie, ruffling or blebbing. These fluxes are stimulated either locally or generally over the cell membranes by hydrophobic chemotactic peptides. This swelling is associated with migration of the cells in the direction of the swollen area of the cell. Hydroxy fatty acids, other lipids, and Ca++ ionophores activate a Ca++-dependent migratory activity of the cell, whereas acidic peptides activate a monovalent cation-dependent migratory activity. These two processes are therefore additive. The swelling due to the peptides results in an increase in urea space but no change in inulin space, whereas, swelling due to permeant cations and anions causes a massive increase in both spaces. Migration appears to result from the pushing of cellular contents, nucleus and cytoplasm, into the more swollen area of the cell by unopposed contraction of the unswollen area of the cell. PMID:655264

Lynn, W. S.; Mukherjee, C.

1978-01-01

76

VARIATION AMONG GOATS IN THE ABILITY OF THEIR POLYMORPHONUCLEAR NEUTROPHIL LEUKOCYTES AND MAMMARY SECRETIONS TO SUPPORT PHAGOCYTOSIS: INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF MILK FAT GLOBULES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objectives of this study were to determine if fat globules and casein in goat milk were inhibitory to phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from blood, and to determine if variation existed among goats in the ability of PMN to phagocytose and in the ability of milk whey ...

77

Human cytomegalovirus replicates abortively in polymorphonuclear leukocytes after transfer from infected endothelial cells via transient microfusion events.  

PubMed

Using a recently developed model for in vitro generation of pp65-positive polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), we demonstrated that PMNLs from immunocompetent subjects may harbor both infectious human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and viral products (pp65, p72, DNA, and immediate-early [IE] and pp67 late mRNAs) as early as 60 min after coculture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) or human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) infected with a clinical HCMV isolate (VR6110) or other wild-type strains. The number of PMNLs positive for each viral parameter increased with coculture time. Using HELF infected with laboratory-adapted HCMV strains, only very small amounts of viral DNA and IE and late mRNAs were detected in PMNLs. A cellular mRNA, the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 mRNA, which is abundantly present in both infected and uninfected HUVEC, was detected in much larger amounts in PMNLs cocultured with VR6110-infected cells than in controls. Coculture of PMNLs with VR6110-infected permissive cells in the presence or absence of RNA, protein, and viral DNA synthesis inhibitors showed that only IE genes were transcribed in PMNLs during coculture. Synthesis of IE transcripts in PMNLs was also supported by the finding that only the copy number of IE mRNA (and not the DNA or the pp67 mRNA) per infected PMNL increased markedly with time, and the pp67 to IE mRNA copy number ratio changed from greater than 10 in infected HUVEC to less than 1 in cocultured PMNLs. Fluorescent probe transfer experiments and electron microscopy studies indicated that transfer of infectious virus and viral products from infected cells to PMNLs is likely to be mediated by microfusion events induced by wild-type strains only. In addition, HCMV pp65 and p72 were both shown to localize in the nucleus of the same PMNLs by double immunostaining. Two different mechanisms may explain the virus presence in PMNLs: (i) one major mechanism consists of transitory microfusion events (induced by wild-type strains only) of HUVEC or HELF and PMNLs with transfer of viable virus and biologically active viral material to PMNLs; and (ii) one minor mechanism, i.e., endocytosis, occurs with both wild-type and laboratory strains and leads to the acquisition of very small amounts of viral nucleic acids. In conclusion, HCMV replicates abortively in PMNLs, and wild-type strains and their products (as well as cellular metabolites and fluorescent dyes) are transferred to PMNLs, thus providing evidence for a potential mechanism of HCMV dissemination in vivo. PMID:10823870

Gerna, G; Percivalle, E; Baldanti, F; Sozzani, S; Lanzarini, P; Genini, E; Lilleri, D; Revello, M G

2000-06-01

78

77 FR 59000 - Guidance for Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Industry: Pre-Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion; Availability AGENCY...Industry: Pre- Storage Leukocyte Reduction of Whole Blood and Blood Components Intended for Transfusion''...

2012-09-25

79

Abnormal mobility of neonatal polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Relationship to impaired redistribution of surface adhesion sites by chemotactic factor or colchicine.  

PubMed Central

To determine the mechanism(s) of diminished, stimulated, and directed migration of neonatal (N) polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), chemotactic factor (CF) sensory and PMN effector functions were studied in healthy N and adult or maternal controls (C). N PMN demonstrated high affinity binding for N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-[3H]phenylalanine (fMLP), which was saturable between 40 and 100 nM as observed with C PMN. The kinetics of binding and the characteristics of dissociation of binding by N PMN were equivalent to control PMN. Both "threshold" and "peak" concentrations (1 and 10 nM, respectively) of fMLP effected comparable PMN chemiluminescence among neonates and controls. An equivalent threshold concentration (0.05 nM) of fMLP effected N and C PMN shape change in suspension, and a maximally effective concentration (5 nM) induced comparable bipolar configuration, although uropod formation was only 38 +/- 8% of N PMN, compared with 73 +/- 11% of C PMN (P less than 0.01). Striking abnormalities of N PMN adherence were identified: mean +/- SD base-line (unstimulated) N adherence values (39 +/- 8%) were equal to C (38 +/- 9%), but diminished increments in response to single CF stimuli were noted among N (fMLP: 42 +/- 7% (N), 70 +/- 11% (C); C5a: 41 +/- 6% (N), 68 +/- 6% (C); BCF: 41 +/- 6% (N), 63 +/- 9% (C), P less than 0.01 for each CF). On sequential exposure to increasing concentrations of CF N PMN failed to demonstrate expected decreased adherence values; sequential stimuli with fMLP (0.1 nM, 10 nM) or C5a (8 microgram protein/ml, 32 microgram protein/ml) effected mean +/- 1 SD values of 51 +/- 9% (N), 30 +/- 9% (C), and 34 +/- 10 (N), 48 +/- 14% (C), respectively. As demonstrated with a latex bead-binding technique, N PMN failed to redistribute adhesion sites to the cell's tail under the same experimental conditions; in 21 N samples studied, restricted unipolar binding occurred in 33 +/- 8% (fMLP) or 37 +/- 7% (C5a) of PMN in contrast to C values of 70% (fMLP), or 71% (C5a), P less than 0.001. Similar findings were observed when PMN were preincubated with colchicine (25 microgram/ml); expected diminished adherence scores (compared with base-line values) were demonstrated with C PMN but not with N cells, P less than 0.01. Additionally colchicine-induced redistribution of adhesion sites as was observed with C samples (72 +/- 14% unipolar binding) was significantly (P less than 0.001) less among N PMN (31 +/- 11% unipolar binding). These investigations indicate that CF sensory mechanisms of N PMN are normal, compared with healthy adult or maternal controls. Diminished stimulated locomotion of the N PMN may be functionally related to reduced modulation of cell adhesiveness by chemotactic stimulation. Images PMID:7287906

Anderson, D C; Hughes, B J; Smith, C W

1981-01-01

80

Red blood cells augment leukocyte rolling in a virtual blood vessel.  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte rolling and arrest on the vascular endothelium is a central event in normal and pathological immune responses. However, rigorous estimation of the fluid and surface forces involved in leukocyte-endothelial interactions has been difficult due to the particulate, non-Newtonian nature of blood. Here we present a Lattice-Boltzmann approach to quantify forces exerted on rolling leukocytes by red blood cells in a "virtual blood vessel." We report that the normal force imparted by erythrocytes is sufficient to increase leukocyte binding and that increases in tangential force and torque can promote rolling of previously adherent leukocytes. By simulating changes in hematocrit we show that a close "envelopment" of the leukocyte by the red blood cells is necessary to produce significant changes in the forces. This novel approach can be applied to a large number of biological and industrial problems involving the complex flow of particulate suspensions. PMID:12324405

Migliorini, Cristiano; Qian, YueHong; Chen, Hudong; Brown, Edward B; Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L

2002-01-01

81

Reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) following intravascular activation of complement. Role of platelets (PT) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)  

SciTech Connect

Infusion of cobra venom factor (CVF) into the left renal artery of 300 gm Sprague-Dawley rats caused leukocyte aggregation in the glomeruli. GFR (using /sup 125/Iothalamate infusion) was markedly reduced in animals receiving CVF as compared to normal saline (N.S.) controls (CVF 0.172 +/- 0.1 ml/min/100 gm vs. N.S. 1.19 +/- 0.1 ml/min/100 gm, P < .001) (n=4). This reduction in GFR coincided with PMN accumulation in the glomeruli, both were maximal over the first two hours. Renal blood flow was comparable in the CVF and N.S. groups (CVF 2.24 ml/min and N.S. 2.85 ml/min, n=3). In order to study the role of PMN and PT in causing reduction of GFR in this model, depletion studies were undertaken. PMN depletion by anti neutrophil antibody attenuated the fall in GFR (PMN depleted + CVF 0.49 +/- 0.1 ml/min.100 gm, P < 0.025). PT depletion by anti platelet antibody also reduced the fall in GFR after CVF (PT depleted + CVF 0.32 +/- 0.1 ml/min/100 gm, P < 0.05). The antisera itself had no effect on GFR. These studies show the important role played by PMN and PT in causing reduction of GFR following infusion of CVF into the renal artery.

Rehan, A.; Wiggins, R.C.; Kunkel, R.G.; Johnson, K.J.

1986-03-05

82

Trilinolein potentiates the pro-aggregating effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trilinolein, a triacylglycerol with linoleic acid as the only type of fatty acid residue in all three of the glycerol esterified positions, was recently reported to have an antiplatelet effect, mediated through stimulating nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP) formation. In our study, trilinolein induced aggregation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) and, pretreatment with 0.1 nM trilinolein enhanced phorbol-12-myristate

Sien-Hung Yang; Chung-Yue Hong

1999-01-01

83

Blood spotlight on leukocytes and obesity  

PubMed Central

The rise of obesity and its attendant pathological sequelae, including type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease, constitute an ongoing public health catastrophe in both the developed and, more recently, the developing world. Although the underlying pathophysiology is complex, chronic low-grade inflammation has emerged as a central driver of both primary metabolic dysfunction and subsequent tissue failure. Importantly, this inflammation has been shown to arise as a consequence of both the disruption of homeostatic tissue resident leukocytes and the recruitment of antagonistic effector cells from the circulation. In this review, we discuss the roles of visceral adipose tissue’s salient leukocyte lineages in the transition to obesity and highlight key points at which this emerging immune axis may be manipulated for therapeutic effect. PMID:24065242

Carvalheira, Jose Barreto Campello; Qiu, Yifu

2013-01-01

84

Biologic effects of leukocytes present in transfused cellular blood products.  

PubMed

A considerable literature has accumulated over the past decade indicating that leukocytes present in allogeneic cellular blood components, intended for transfusion, are associated with adverse effects to the recipient. These include the development of febrile transfusion reactions, graft-versus-host disease, alloimmunization to leukocyte antigens, and the immunomodulatory effects that might influence the prognosis of patients with a malignancy. Moreover, it has become evident that such leukocytes may be the vector of infectious agents such as CMV, HTLV-I/II, and EBV as well as other viruses. An interesting development that has occurred coincidentally in transfusion medicine is that agencies responsible for the provision of blood products are being designated manufacturers of biologicals. The trend among manufacturers of biologicals is to try to produce pure products to provide for the specific therapeutic need of patients. Thus, with the realization that allogeneic leukocytes and their products may have adverse biologic activities, there is increasing pressure from various sources for the reduction of the leukocyte content in allogeneic blood components to minimize the occurrence of their adverse effects. Although the threshold leukocyte number below which these effects might no longer occur is still to be determined, a 2 to 3 log10 leukocyte reduction, provided by the currently available commercial leukocyte filters, has been shown to reduce the frequency of many of such reactions. On the other hand, the immunosuppressive effects produced by the infusion of allogeneic leukocytes might be beneficial for some patients, ie, for the maintenance of kidney allografts, in possibly reducing the relapse rate in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, and in ameliorating recurrent spontaneous abortion. Moreover, therapeutic granulocyte transfusions may be of benefit in certain well-defined categories of patients infected with bacteria, yeast, and/or fungi. These include neonates with bacterial sepsis associated with bone marrow failure as well as severely neutropenic leukemic patients with an infection unresponsive to appropriate and specific antibiotic therapy. Many of the results obtained with the use of leukocyte depletion filters are tantalizing, but the actual clinical benefit of leukodepletion has not been established in most instances, because much of the available data are retrospective or from uncontrolled clinical trials. Moreover, issues of cost-effectiveness and quality control have not been considered adequately. Properly designed prospective clinical trials are essential to provide data with which to answer such questions and also to help define the optimal conditions required for the preparation of blood components ultimately destined for clinical use. Only with the availability of such data can sound decisions be made about the clinical value of leukodepletion. PMID:8080981

Bordin, J O; Heddle, N M; Blajchman, M A

1994-09-15

85

Effect of oestrous cycle on the oxidative burst activity of blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes in cows.  

PubMed

Blood polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) oxidative burst activity, plasma cortisol levels, and the total and differential white blood cells counts (WBC) of six cycled dairy cows were evaluated for a period of 24 days, three times a week; on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. The PMN oxidative burst was indirectly evaluated by flow cytometry, measuring the intracellular oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate to 2',7' dichlorofluorescein (DCF) by H2O2-production. Results are presented as the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of DCF. Cow's oestrous cycle was evaluated by following the plasma progesterone levels using a radioimmunoassay method. Levels of cortisol in the plasma were measured using a fluorimetric method. The oxidative burst activity of PMN, represented a maximum value (MFI=117.6+/-7.4) during the oestrous period. A fall was then observed, in which a steady state was observed during the lutheinic phase of the oestrous cycle, reaching the minimum value [MFI=73.2+/-11.2 (p

Chaveiro, A; Moreira da Silva, F

2009-12-01

86

Indirect blastogenesis of peripheral blood leukocytes in experimental gingivitis.  

PubMed Central

The blastogenic response of peripheral blood leukocytes to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was followed over a short course of experimental gingivitis, developed in human volunteers who strictly avoided oral hygeine procedures for periods up to 9 days. Eleven young males initially received thorough dental prophylaxes and supervised oral hygeine until they acquired optimal gingival health. At this point, leukocytes (5 X 10(5)) incubated with 1.5 to 25 mug of LPS in serum-free media showed no response as measured by tritiated thymidine uptake. Coincubation of cells with LPS and phytohemagglutinin (PHA), however, caused synergistic enhancement of blastogenesis in every LPS-PHA dose combination tried. With progressive accumulation of dental plaque and the concomitant development of gingival inflammation, this synergistic response was lost and replaced, proportionately, by a direct response to LPS. The leukocyte response to PHA was marginally enhanced with gingivitis. PMID:1270143

Gaumer, H R; Holm-Pedersen, P; Folke, L E

1976-01-01

87

Leukocyte interaction with protein cascades in blood coagulation.  

PubMed

Coagulation preserves the homeostasis of internal body fluids against life-threatening blood losses. Although generally viewed as a regulated enzymatic cascade, this mechanism depends on the participation of vascular cells. Leukocytes, in particular, have evolved a formidable machinery to initiate and amplify blood clotting reactions through the recognition of cell surface receptors, proteolytic enzymes, and cofactor and regulatory molecules. The consequences of thrombin generation on the leukocyte surface are not exclusively restricted to the hemostatic balance. Rather, thrombin and other coagulation proteases influence a panoply of cellular functions, ranging from activation pathways and adherence phenomena, to DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of normal and malignant phenotypes. For this multivalency of cellular responses, the process of blood coagulation is now perceived as a broad cell signaling mechanism that participates in all pathophysiological aspects of host inflammatory responses. PMID:9371970

Altieri, D C

1995-01-01

88

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor stimulates JAK2 signaling pathway and rapidly activates p93fes, STAT1 p91, and STAT3 p92 in polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), supports proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation of hemopoietic cells by its interaction with a heterodimeric receptor. Although GM-CSF receptor is devoid of tyrosine kinase enzymatic activity, GM-CSF-induced peripheral blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) functional activation is mediated by the phosphorylation of a large number of intracellular signaling molecules. We have previously shown that JAK2 becomes tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to GM-CSF in PMN. In the present study we demonstrate that also the signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family members STAT1 p91 and STAT3 p92 and the product of the c-fps/fes protooncogene become tyrosine-phosphorylated upon GM-CSF stimulation and physically associated with both GM-CSF receptor beta common subunit and JAK2. Moreover GM-CSF was able to induce JAK2 and p93fes catalytic activity. We also demonstrate that the association of the GM-CSF receptor beta common subunit with JAK2 is ligand-dependent. Finally we demonstrate that GM-CSF induces a DNA-binding complex that contains both p91 and p92. These results identify a new signal transduction pathway activated by GM-CSF and provide a mechanism for rapid activation of gene expression in GM-CSF-stimulated PMN. PMID:8631962

Brizzi, M F; Aronica, M G; Rosso, A; Bagnara, G P; Yarden, Y; Pegoraro, L

1996-02-16

89

Plunder of Human Blood Leukocytes Containing Ingested Material, by Other Leukocytes: Where Is the Fusagen That Allows Preservation of Membrane Integrity and Motile Function?  

PubMed Central

In studying phagocytosis of zymosan particles by human blood monocytes in phase-contrast videomicroscopy, we found that monocytes loaded with zymosan particles became chemotactic for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) which closed on them and purloined their particle content. This despoliation usually occurred in monocytes that had begun to swell—prefiguring their death. The violent seizure of their contents by the aggressing PMN often tore the monocytes apart. However, some apparently healthy monocyte survived the removal of zymosan content by PMN or, more commonly, its removal by another monocyte. PMN—a much hardier cell in slide preparations—that were similarly loaded with zymosan particles, also attracted PMN. The latter could remove zymosan from the target cell without killing it. Thus, leukocytes were sacrificing significant portions of themselves without losing residual membrane integrity and motile function. Their behavior with respect to other particles (e.g., bacteria) will be of interest. We suggest that the membrane fusagen resides in the inner membrane leaflets when they are brought together in an extreme hourglass configuration. This event may be similar to the fragmentation of erythrocytes into intact pieces, the formation of cytokineplasts, the rear extrusion of content by migrating cells on surfaces, and the phagocytic process itself. PMID:23840370

Malawista, Stephen E.; Chevance de Boisfleury, Anne

2013-01-01

90

Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) Are Increased and Exert Immunosuppressive Activity Together with Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes (PMNs) in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Patients  

PubMed Central

Tumor immune tolerance can derive from the recruitment of suppressor cell population, including myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), able to inhibit T cells activity. We identified a significantly expanded MDSCs population in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis that decreased to normal levels after imatinib therapy. In addition, expression of arginase 1 (Arg1) that depletes microenvironment of arginine, an essential aminoacid for T cell function, resulted in an increase in patients at diagnosis. Purified CML CD11b+CD33+CD14-HLADR- cells markedly suppressed normal donor T cell proliferation in vitro. Comparing CML Gr-MDSCs to autologous polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) we observed a higher Arg1 expression and activity in PMNs, together with an inhibitory effect on T cells in vitro. Our data indicate that CML cells create an immuno-tolerant environment associated to MDSCs expansion with immunosuppressive capacity mediated by Arg1. In addition, we demonstrated for the first time also an immunosuppressive activity of CML PMNs, suggesting a strong potential immune escape mechanism created by CML cells, which control the anti-tumor reactive T cells. MDSCs should be monitored in imatinib discontinuation trials to understand their importance in relapsing patients. PMID:25014230

Giallongo, Cesarina; Parrinello, Nunziatina; Tibullo, Daniele; La Cava, Piera; Romano, Alessandra; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Palumbo, Giuseppe A.; Stagno, Fabio; Vigneri, Paolo; Di Raimondo, Francesco

2014-01-01

91

Defective polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions in children receiving chemotherapy for cancer are partially restored by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in vitro.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has important direct and priming effects on different functions of normal mature polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL). Previous study has shown an alteration in respiratory burst and bactericidal activities of PMNL harvested from children with cancer treated with chemotherapy. The present study evaluates the possibility that recombinant human (rh) G-CSF could correct these defective functions in vitro. Free radical formation in defective PMNL was enhanced by rhG-CSF to a level similar to that found in normal PMNL primed by rhG-CSF. The defective bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was also corrected. This bactericidal activity was not different from that observed in normal PMNL primed by rhG-CSF. In conclusion, correction of the altered free radical-formation pathway by rhG-CSF in these cells contributed to the restoration of normal bactericidal activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. PMID:8843219

Lejeune, M; Sariban, E; Cantinieaux, B; Ferster, A; Devalck, C; Fondu, P

1996-10-01

92

Inhibitory effects of various drugs on phorbol myristate acetate and n-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine induced O2- production in polymorphonuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

To clarify the mechanisms of O2- formation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the effects of clinically employed drugs on PMNs were investigated by measuring changes in membrane potential and rates of O2- production. These variables were effectively diminished with antihistaminic agents, adrenergic beta-antagonists, and antiarrhythmic drugs when guinea pig peritoneal PMNs were stimulated by either phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). The order of potency of the inhibitory effects of these chemicals on the PMA-induced O2- formation was as follows: azelastine (IC50 = 4.1 microM) less than clemastine less than dl-propranolol less than chlorpheniramine maleate less than dichlorisoproterenol less than quinidine less than diphenhydramine less than indomethacin (IC50 greater than 400 microM). Similar phenomena were observed when FMLP was employed instead of PMA, but the FMLP-stimulated O2- production was effectively inhibited by indomethacin. Changes in membrane potential, using the cyanin dye method, also indicated that most of these drugs cancelled functional changes of plasma membrane of PMNs. From these observations, it was demonstrated that changes in membrane potential by the stimuli were essential for the initiation of O2- generation from plasma membrane of PMNs, although the initiation mechanisms were not identical for the two stimuli. PMID:6148947

Taniguchi, K; Takanaka, K

1984-10-15

93

Tracking flow of leukocytes in blood for drug analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern microscopy techniques allow imaging of circulating blood components under vascular flow conditions. The resulting video sequences provide unique insights into the behavior of blood cells within the vasculature and can be used as a method to monitor and quantitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells at sites of vascular injury/ inflammation and potentially serve as a pharmacodynamic biomarker, helping screen new therapies and individualize dose and combinations of drugs. However, manual analysis of these video sequences is intractable, requiring hours per 400 second video clip. In this paper, we present an automated technique to analyze the behavior and recruitment of human leukocytes in whole blood under physiological conditions of shear through a simple multi-channel fluorescence microscope in real-time. This technique detects and tracks the recruitment of leukocytes to a bioactive surface coated on a flow chamber. Rolling cells (cells which partially bind to the bioactive matrix) are detected counted, and have their velocity measured and graphed. The challenges here include: high cell density, appearance similarity, and low (1Hz) frame rate. Our approach performs frame differencing based motion segmentation, track initialization and online tracking of individual leukocytes.

Basharat, Arslan; Turner, Wesley; Stephens, Gillian; Badillo, Benjamin; Lumpkin, Rick; Andre, Patrick; Perera, Amitha

2011-03-01

94

Rheology of Leukocytes, Leukocyte Suspensions, and Blood in Leukemia POSSIBLE RELATIONSHIP TO CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS  

PubMed Central

Suspensions of leukemic lymphocytes and myeloblasts and blood of leukemic patients were studied to examine (a) the effect of leukemic cells on blood viscosity and (b) the ability of leukemic cells to traverse channels of capillary diameter. The viscosity of suspensions of leukemic cells was dependent logarithmically on (a) shear strain rate and (b) cytocrit, although, suspensions of small lymphocytes and of myeloblasts had a similar viscosity at equivalent shear rates and cytocrit. The minimum apparent viscosity (MAV) of leukemic cells and red blood cells, measured over shear rates of 2.3-230 s-1 was dependent logarithmically on cytocrit. However, MAV was slightly greater for leukemic cells than for red cells at cytocrits up to 20%. At cytocrits above 20%. MAV of leukemic cells increased more rapidly than that of erythrocytes. For example, at a 15% cytocrit MAVWBC (1.85 centipoise) was only slightly greater than MAVRBC (1.59); whereas, at 45% cytocrit MAVWBC (14.9) was markedly greater than MAVRBC (3.81). The blood of subjects with leukemia with marked elevation of leukocyte concentration (leukocrits of 6-32%) had 24% higher mean MAV (3.72) than blood with a similar total cytocrit composed of red cells (3.00). A negative correlation was present between leukocrit and erythrocrit in chronic lymphocytic (r = - 0.82) and chronic granulocytic (r = - 0.81) leukemia. Therefore, the modest increase in whole blood MAV in leukemia can be explained by (a) the negative association of leukocrit and erythrocrit and (b) the rarity of leukocrits over 20% and total cytocrits over 45%. However, the MAV of blood of leukemic patients was 71% greater than expected on the basis of their packed red cell volume. Hence, the ratio of hemoglobin concentration (O2 carrying capacity) to MAV was abnormally low in the subjects with leukemia studied. Individual leukemic leukocytes were nearly rigid. The mean deformability index (DI) of leukemic myeloblasts (1.22; 1.18) and lymphocytes (1.22; 1.40) as measured by filtration and elastometry, respectively, at 50 mm H2O negative pressure, approached that of a rigid body (1.0) as compared to red cells studied by filtration (3.09) or elastometry (4.23). The ability of leukemic cells to traverse nucleopore filter or micropipette channels was related to cell diameter. The relevance of the rheology of leukemic cells to the interruption of blood flow and of tissue oxygen delivery and thereby to clinical manifestations of leukemia is considered. Images PMID:4509637

Lichtman, Marshall A.

1973-01-01

95

Abnormalities of polymorphonuclear leukocyte function associated with a heritable deficiency of high molecular weight surface glycoproteins (GP138): common relationship to diminished cell adherence.  

PubMed Central

Investigations of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function were performed in a 5-yr-old white female with delayed umbilical cord separation, impaired pus formation, and a severe defect of PMN chemotaxis. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated an almost total deficiency of a high molecular weight glycoprotein(s) (GP138) in the granule and membrane fractions of the patient's cells, and NaB3H4-galactose oxidase labeling demonstrated the absence of a major glycoprotein complex on the surface of her PMNs. Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were employed in flow cytometry experiments to demonstrate that two previously characterized glycoproteins (Mo1 and LFA1) were undetectable on the surface of the patient's PMNs and monocytes. Immunoprecipitation of 125I-labeled patient cells with subunit specific MAbs confirmed that the alpha-subunits of Mo1 (155 kD) and LFA1 (177 kD) and their common beta-subunit (94 kD) were totally deficient. Functional analyses of patient PMNs demonstrated severe impairment of adherence- and adhesion-dependent cell functions including spreading, aggregation, orientation in chemotactic gradients, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and phagocytosis of particles (Oil-Red-0-paraffin, zymosan) selectively opsonized with C3-derived ligands. Patient PMNs demonstrated a normal capacity to rosette with IgG or C3b-coated sheep erythrocytes, but rosette formation with C3bi-coated erythrocytes was profoundly diminished. Adhesion-independent functions including shape change, N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-3H-phenylalanine binding, and O-2 generation or secretion elicited by soluble stimuli were normal. Membrane fluidity, surface charge, and microtubule assembly were also normal. These findings provide new evidence that critical PMN surface glycoproteins are required to facilitate multiple adhesion-dependent cellular functions of the inflammatory response. Images PMID:6746906

Anderson, D C; Schmalstieg, F C; Arnaout, M A; Kohl, S; Tosi, M F; Dana, N; Buffone, G J; Hughes, B J; Brinkley, B R; Dickey, W D

1984-01-01

96

LYSIS OF ANTIBODY COATED CHICKEN ERYTHROCYTES BY A NON-LYMPHOCYTE PIG BLOOD LEUKOCYTE  

E-print Network

LYSIS OF ANTIBODY COATED CHICKEN ERYTHROCYTES BY A NON-LYMPHOCYTE PIG BLOOD LEUKOCYTE B. CHARLEY H : minimal essential medium. CRBC : chicken red blood cells. PBL : peripheral blood leukocytes. EA communication, using a con- ventionnal slchromium release test with label- led chicken erythrocytes sensitized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

97

[Effect of experimental dyslipoproteinemia of atherogenic nature on the lipid composition of the rabbit myocardium and peripheral blood leukocytes].  

PubMed

Content of total lipids, phospholipids, total-, free- and ester-bound cholesterol, free fatty acids and triglycerides were increased in myocardium of left ventricle of rabbits with atherogenic dyslipoproteinemia as compared with intact animals. In polymorphonuclear leukocytes content of total lipids and phospholipids was increased only, while in mononuclear leukocytes concentration of total lipids, free-, total- and ester-bound cholesterol and of free fatty acids was elevated. PMID:3445539

Zhukhorov, L S; Kalinkin, M N

1987-01-01

98

Computational fluid dynamic studies of leukocyte adhesion effects on non-Newtonian blood flow through microvessels.  

PubMed

The study of the effect of leukocyte adhesion on blood flow in small vessels is of primary interest to understand the resistance changes in venular microcirculation. Available computational fluid dynamic studies provide information on the effect of leukocyte adhesion when blood is considered as a homogeneous Newtonian fluid. In the present work we aim to understand the effect of leukocyte adhesion on the non-Newtonian Casson fluid flow of blood in small venules; the Casson model represents the effect of red blood cell aggregation. In our model the blood vessel is considered as a circular cylinder and the leukocyte is considered as a truncated spherical protrusion in the inner side of the blood vessel. The cases of single leukocyte adhesion and leukocyte pairs in positions aligned along the same side, and opposite sides of the vessel wall are considered. The Casson fluid parameters are chosen for cat blood and human blood and comparisons are made for the effects of leukocyte adhesion in both species. Numerical simulations demonstrated that for a Casson fluid with hematocrit of 0.4 and flow rate Q = 0.072 nl/s, a single leukocyte increases flow resistance by 5% in a 32 microns diameter and 100 microns long vessel. For a smaller vessel of 18 microns, the flow resistance increases by 15%. PMID:11026943

Das, B; Johnson, P C; Popel, A S

2000-01-01

99

Randomized trial comparing packed red cell blood transfusion with and without leukocyte depletion for gastrointestinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Allogeneic transfusion is associated with postoperative infections that significantly prolong hospital stays and increase costs. Recent studies suggest that filtering leukocytes from blood prior to transfusion reduces the risk of postoperative infection associated with blood transfusion. We compared the incidence of postoperative infections, hospital stays, and hospital charges of gastrointestinal surgery patients transfused with packed red cells or leukocyte-depleted

Paul Ian Tartter; Kala Mohandas; Penny Azar; Jill Endres; Jess Kaplan; Morton Spivack

1998-01-01

100

Reduction in shear stress, activation of the endothelium, and leukocyte priming are all required for leukocyte passage across the blood--retina barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The passage of leukocytes across the blood-retina barrier at the early stages of an in- flammatory reaction is influenced by a complex series of interactions about which little is known. In particular, the relationship between hydrodynamic factors, such as shear stress and leukocyte velocity, to the adherence and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes into the retina is unclear. We have used

Heping Xu; Ayyakkannu Manivannan; Keith A. Goatman; Hui-Rong Jiang; Janet Liversidge; Peter F. Sharp; John V. Forrester; Isabel J. Crane

2003-01-01

101

Evaluation of antitularaemia immunity via whole human blood leukocyte cytofluorometric analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tularaemia is followed by development of a long-lasting protective immunity. Peripheral blood leukocytes of vaccinated individuals partially lysed in vitro after exposure to killed Francisella tularensis cells and this leukocytolis reaction is used for evaluation of antitularaemia immunity. Here, results from cytofluorometric characterization of human whole blood leukocyte response following exposure to F. tularensis are reported. Leukocytes were stained in whole blood by acridine orange. The green (nuclear chromatin) and red (lysosomal granules) fluorescent signals from individual cells were measured by flow cytometry to detect the decrease of leukocyte concentration in whole human blood (the leukocytolis intensity) and to calculate the damaged leukocytes with changed chromatin structure and lysosomal granules per cell content. Our data indicate that flow cytometry offers a rapid and more informative technique for evaluation of human antitularaemia immunity in vitro.

Firstova, Victoria V.; Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Schmelkova, Tatyana P.; Shchukovskaya, Tatyana N.

2005-06-01

102

Acupuncture Regulates Leukocyte Subpopulations in Human Peripheral Blood  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture has recently been attracting more and more people throughout the world as an alternative treatment, however little is known about its physiological activities (i.e. immune system). We examined acupuncture both quantitatively and qualitatively by measuring CD-positive cell counts and cytokine expression levels in the blood, to determine the activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. Fifteen milliliters of peripheral blood obtained from 17 healthy volunteers aged 21–51 years, were analyzed using flow cytometry before and after acupuncture treatment. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of CD2+, CD4+, CD8+, CD11b+, CD16+, CD19+, CD56+ cells as well as IL-4, IL-1? and IFN-? levels in the cells after acupuncture stimulation of meridian points. These observations indicate that acupuncture may regulate the immune system and promote the activities of humoral and cellular immunity as well as NK cell activity. In this article, we discussed how acupuncture regulated leukocyte numbers and functions since they are considered to be potential indicators for evaluating complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:18227912

Takahashi, Takashi; Sakuma, Masahiro; Sugita, Toshiroh; Uchikawa, Kumiko; Sakaihara, Satoshi; Kanda, Tsugiyasu; Arai, Matsuo; Kawakita, Kenji

2007-01-01

103

Study of terahertz-radiation-induced DNA damage in human blood leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out the studies aimed at assessing the effect of terahertz radiation on DNA molecules in human blood leukocytes. Genotoxic testing of terahertz radiation was performed in three different oscillation regimes, the blood leukocytes from healthy donors being irradiated for 20 minutes with the mean intensity of 8 - 200 ?W cm-2 within the frequency range of 0.1 - 6.5 THz. Using the comet assay it is shown that in the selected regimes such radiation does not induce a direct DNA damage in viable human blood leukocytes.

Angeluts, A. A.; Gapeyev, A. B.; Esaulkov, M. N.; Kosareva, O. G.; Matyunin, S. N.; Nazarov, M. M.; Pashovkin, T. N.; Solyankin, P. M.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Shkurinov, A. P.

2014-03-01

104

Phagocytosis of bacteria by polymorphonuclear leukocytes: a freeze-fracture, scanning electron microscope, and thin-section investigation of membrane structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in membrane structure of rabbit polymorphonuclear (PMN) leuko- cytes during bacterial phagocytosis was investigated with scanning electron microscope (SEM), thin-section, and freeze-fracture techniques. SEM observa- tions of bacterial attachment sites showed the involvement of limited areas of PMN membrane surface (0.01-0.25\\/zm2). Frequently, these areas of attachment were located on membrane extensions. The membrane extensions were present before, during,

P. L. MOORE; H. L. BANK; N. T. BRISSIE; S. S. SPICER

1978-01-01

105

Dynamic properties of blood flow and leukocyte mobilization in infected flaps  

SciTech Connect

Two aspects of the inflammatory response to infection--blood flow alteration and leukocyte mobilization--are investigated in the canine model. The elevation of paired musculocutaneous (MC) and random pattern (RP) flaps allowed comparison of healing flaps with significant differences in blood flow (lower in random pattern flaps) and resistance to infection (greater in musculocutaneous flaps). Blood flow changes as determined by radioactive xenon washout were compared in normal skin and distal flap skin both after elevation and following bacterial inoculation. Simultaneous use of In-111 labeled leukocytes allowed determination of leukocyte mobilization and subsequent localization in response to flap infection. Blood flow significantly improved in the musculocutaneous flap in response to infection. Although total leukocyte mobilization in the random pattern flap was greater, the leukocytes in the musculocutaneous flap were localized around the site of bacterial inoculation within the dermis. Differences in the dynamic blood flow and leukocyte mobilization may, in part, explain the greater reliability of musculocutaneous flaps when transposed in the presence of infection.

Feng, L.J.; Price, D.C.; Mathes, S.J.; Hohn, D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-11-01

106

Improved survival of newborns receiving leukocyte transfusions for sepsis  

SciTech Connect

To determine the role of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocyte transfusions in neonates with sepsis, 23 consecutive newborns were prospectively randomly selected during an 18-month period in a treatment plan to receive polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusions with supportive care or supportive care alone. Thirteen neonates received transfusions every 12 hours for a total of five transfusions. Each transfusion consisting of 15 mL/kg of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was subjected to 1,500 rads of radiation. The polymorphonuclear leukocytes were obtained by continuous-flow centrifugation leukapheresis and contained 0.5 to 1.0 X 10(9) granulocytes per 15 mL with less than 10% lymphocytes. Positive findings on blood cultures were obtained in 14/23 patients and seven were randomly selected for each treatment group. Absolute granulocyte counts were less than 1,500/microL in 13 patients but tibial bone marrow examinations revealed that the neutrophil supply pool was depleted in only three patients. The survival was significantly greater in the treatment group compared with the group that did not receive transfusions.

Cairo, M.S.; Rucker, R.; Bennetts, G.A.; Hicks, D.; Worcester, C.; Amlie, R.; Johnson, S.; Katz, J.

1984-11-01

107

Selection of the best features for leukocytes classification in blood smear microscopic images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic differential counting of leukocytes provides invaluable information to pathologist for diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. The main objective of this paper is to detect leukocytes from a blood smear microscopic image and classify them into their types: Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil, Lymphocyte and Monocyte using features that pathologists consider to differentiate leukocytes. Features contain color, geometric and texture features. Colors of nucleus and cytoplasm vary among the leukocytes. Lymphocytes have single, large, round or oval and Monocytes have singular convoluted shape nucleus. Nucleus of Eosinophils is divided into 2 segments and nucleus of Neutrophils into 2 to 5 segments. Lymphocytes often have no granules, Monocytes have tiny granules, Neutrophils have fine granules and Eosinophils have large granules in cytoplasm. Six color features is extracted from both nucleus and cytoplasm, 6 geometric features only from nucleus and 6 statistical features and 7 moment invariants features only from cytoplasm of leukocytes. These features are fed to support vector machine (SVM) classifiers with one to one architecture. The results obtained by applying the proposed method on blood smear microscopic image of 10 patients including 149 white blood cells (WBCs) indicate that correct rate for all classifiers are above 93% which is in a higher level in comparison with previous literatures.

Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Banaem, Hossein Usefi

2014-03-01

108

A New Machine Classification Method Applied to Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses pattern classification of images by computer and describes the Two Domain Method in which expert knowledge is acquired using multidimensional scaling of judgments of dissimilarities and linear mapping. An application of the Two Domain Method that tested its power to discriminate two patterns of human blood leukocyte distribution is…

Rorvig, Mark E.; And Others

1993-01-01

109

Histamine Release from Peripheral Blood Leukocytes with Purified Bee Venom Allergens: Effect of Hyperimmune Beekeeper Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of 15 strongly bee-venom-allergic patients to highly purified venom allergens was compared using skin prick test titration, peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) histamine release and radioallergosorbent test with three highly purified bee venom allergens: phospholipase (PLA2), hyaluronidase (HYAL) and acid phosphatase (ACID P). Sensitivity to the three allergens ranked in the same order for all three tests and in

P. M. Clinton; D. M. Kemeny; L. J. F. Youlten; M. H. Lessof

1989-01-01

110

EFFECTS OF THE MAMMARY GLAND ON FUNCTIONAL CAPACITIES OF BLOOD MONOCULEAR LEUKOCYTE POPULATIONS FROM PERIPARTURIENT COWS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The composition and functional capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte populations from dairy cows are altered substantially during the peripartal period. These changes are associated with a heightened susceptibility of the mammary gland to infection. It has been postulated that the met...

111

A computational study of the effects of leukocyte adhesion on non-Newtonian blood flow in microvessels.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the effects of leukocyte adhesion on blood flow in microvessels is of significant interest for understanding the resistance changes in microcirculation. Several computational fluid dynamic studies have been done to understand flow resistance and drag forces due to adhering leukocytes by considering blood as a Newtonian fluid. In the present work we investigate the effect of leukocyte adhesion on the non-Newtonian flow of blood in microvessels. In the model the blood vessel is considered as a circular cylindrical tube and the leukocyte is considered as a truncated spherical protrusion inward from the blood vessel wall. The cases of single leukocyte adhesion and adhesion of a pair of leukocytes in the aligned and opposite configurations are considered. Blood (red blood cell suspension) is modeled as a Casson fluid and the parameters of the Casson fluid model are chosen both for cat blood and human blood. Comparisons are made for the resistance changes due to leukocyte adhesion for different hematocrits and for microvessels of different size.

Das, Bigyani; Popel, Aleksander S.

1998-11-01

112

Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count.

Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan))

1990-10-01

113

Altered expression of adhesion molecules on peripheral blood leukocytes in feline infectious peritonitis.  

PubMed

Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a fatal, coronavirus-induced systemic disease in domestic and wild felids. The pathology associated with FIP (multifocal granulomatous vasculitis) is considered to be elicited by exaggerated activation and subsequent extravasation of leukocytes. As changes in the expression of adhesion molecules on circulating leukocytes precede their margination and emigration, we reasoned that the expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules may be altered in FIP. In present study, the expression of principal adhesion molecules involved in leukocyte transmigration (CD15s, CD11a, CD11b, CD18, CD49d, and CD54) on peripheral blood leukocytes from cats with naturally occurring FIP (n=15) and controls (n=12) was quantified by flow cytometry using a formaldehyde-based rapid leukocyte preparation technique. T- and B-lymphocytes from FIP patients exhibit higher expression of both subunits (CD11a and CD18) composing the ?2 integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1. In addition, the expression of the ?4 subunit (CD49d) of the ?1 integrin very late antigen (VLA)-4 was elevated on B-lymphocytes from FIP patients. The expression of CD11b and CD18, that combine to form the ?2 integrin macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1), was elevated on monocytes, whereas the density of CD49d was reduced on this population in FIP. Granulocytes of FIP cats displayed an increased expression of the ? chain of Mac-1 (CD11b). These observations suggest that leukocytes from FIP patients show signs of systemic activation causing them to extravasate into surrounding tissues and ultimately contribute to pyogranuloma formation seen in FIP. PMID:23910523

Olyslaegers, Dominique A J; Dedeurwaerder, Annelike; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Vermeulen, Ben L; Dewerchin, Hannah L; Nauwynck, Hans J

2013-10-25

114

Changes in the level of spontaneous DNA damage in whole blood leukocytes during storage.  

PubMed

We evaluated structural damage to DNA (%TDNA) in blood leukocytes from healthy donors of different age at different periods (0-6 days) of blood storage at 4-8°C. It was found that the basal level of DNA damage increased and intracellular antioxidant level decreased during storage. Mean %TDNA was 6.8±3.3% in the fresh blood and 19.2±8.1% after 5-day storage. The experiments with exposure to reactive oxygen species induced by irradiation suggest that depletion of low-molecular-weight endogenous antioxidants occurs as soon as after 5-h storage. Our results suggest that storage time should be taken into account when assessing the basal and induced levels of leukocyte DNA damage by the comet assay. PMID:23330085

Sirota, N P; Kuznetsova, E A

2012-11-01

115

Laser-induced priming of human blood leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the influence of He-Ne ((lambda) equals 632.8 nm) laser irradiation (LI) on a functional activity of human blood leucocytes. The method of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence with the zymosan-activated phagocytes was used. The leucocytes were irradiated without and in the presence of autologic human blood plasma, containing of the endogenous (porphyrins) and/or exogenous (phthalocyanine) photosensitizers. The LI initiated a priming of the leucocytes. Priming revealed itself after the activation of the phagocytes by zymosan. The changes of the calcium concentration in leucocytes cytoplasm were studied too. Fluorimetric method with Fura-2AM was used for this. The laser irradiation initiated the changes of the calcium concentration in the leucocytes cytoplasm. All the investigating parameters depended on the irradiation dose and on the concentration of photosensitizers. The results of this work allowed to formulate the main theses of the free radical mechanism of the low intensive laser irradiation action on human blood leucocytes.

Chichuk, Tatyana V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Strashkevich, I. A.; Klebanov, Gennady I.

1999-12-01

116

Quantitation of acute experimental ocular inflammation with /sup 111/indium-leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

The cellular component of an acute ocular inflammation in rabbits was measured with autologous leukocytes exogenously labeled with /sup 111/Indium tropolonate. Inflammation was induced by intravitreal bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). After 16 hr blood was removed, leukocytes separated, labeled with /sup 111/Indium tropolonate and reinjected. Three cell fractions were examined: a leukocyte rich fraction which had been prepared with Dextran; and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocyte fractions which had been prepared using a discontinuous Percoll gradient. Two hours after labeled leukocytes were injected, measurements of /sup 111/Indium were made in blood, plasma, the whole eye and in ocular compartments. From these data the numbers of each leukocyte population present were estimated and compared directly to histopathologic changes. Both polymorphonuclear and mononuclear leukocytes entered ocular tissues during the 2 hr period beginning 20 hr after LPS injection. Altered ocular vascular permeability was successfully measured with /sup 125/Iodine-albumin in some of these same rabbits. Both the number and type of inflammatory cell entering ocular tissues during a set period of time of the inflammatory response could thus be measured. This technique provides an opportunity to define the relationship of leukocyte infiltration and altered ocular vascular permeability in ocular tissues during the inflammatory response.

Howes, E.L. Jr.; Cole, P.W.; Cruse, V.K.; Pollycove, M.

1988-03-01

117

Acupuncture Regulates Leukocyte Subpopulations in Human Peripheral Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acupuncture has recently been attracting more and more people throughout the world as an alternative treatment, however little is known about its physiological activities (i.e. immune system). We examined acupuncture both quantitatively and qualitatively by measuring CD-positive cell counts and cytokine expression levels in the blood, to determine the activity of T cells, B cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK)

Nobuo Yamaguchi; Takashi Takahashi; Masahiro Sakuma; Toshiroh Sugita; Kumiko Uchikawa; Satoshi Sakaihara; Tsugiyasu Kanda; Matsuo Arai; Kenji Kawakita

2007-01-01

118

Influence of hormone supplementation therapy on the incidence of denture stomatitis and on chemiluminescent activity of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in blood of menopausal-aged women  

PubMed Central

Background Menopause is a health and social problem that affects a large number of women. Inadequate quantity of steroid hormones also impacts quality of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity. During menopausal age, many women wear removable prosthetic restorations in order to replace missing teeth. Such restorations may facilitate the development of inflammations in the surface of the oral cavity, referred to as denture stomatitis. Objective The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of hormone supplementation therapy on the incidence of Candida-associated denture stomatitis and on the metabolic activity of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in peripheral blood of female patients. Materials and methods The study was conducted on a group of women in menopausal age, users of hormone replacement therapy and of removable prosthetic restorations. Female patients were subjected to a clinical study that included interviews and physical examinations. Laboratory microbiological examinations were completed on the basis of direct swabs collected from the mucous membrane of the oral cavity and from the surface of dentures. Metabolic activity of polymorphonuclear granulocytes in peripheral blood of female patients was evaluated by means of a chemiluminescence test. Results Candida-associated denture stomatitis observed was characterized by a strong growth of fungi and a lower chemiluminescent activity of neutrophils in blood of female patients undergoing hormone supplementation therapy. Conclusions Patients using hormone supplementation therapy and removable prosthetic restorations constitute a high-risk group for Candida infections and inflammations of the mucous membrane of the oral cavity; thus they should remain under constant dental control. PMID:21147619

2010-01-01

119

Inhalation of Ultrafine Particles Alters Blood Leukocyte Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Humans  

PubMed Central

Ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter < 100 nm) may contribute to the respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with particulate air pollution. We tested the hypothesis that inhalation of carbon UFPs has vascular effects in healthy and asthmatic subjects, detectable as alterations in blood leukocyte expression of adhesion molecules. Healthy subjects inhaled filtered air and freshly generated elemental carbon particles (count median diameter ~ 25 nm, geometric standard deviation ~ 1.6), for 2 hr, in three separate protocols: 10 ?g/m3 at rest, 10 and 25 ?g/m3 with exercise, and 50 ?g/m3 with exercise. In a fourth protocol, subjects with asthma inhaled air and 10 ?g/m3 UFPs with exercise. Peripheral venous blood was obtained before and at intervals after exposure, and leukocyte expression of surface markers was quantitated using multiparameter flow cytometry. In healthy subjects, particle exposure with exercise reduced expression of adhesion molecules CD54 and CD18 on monocytes and CD18 and CD49d on granulocytes. There were also concentration-related reductions in blood monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils and increased lymphocyte expression of the activation marker CD25. In subjects with asthma, exposure with exercise to 10 ?g/m3 UFPs reduced expression of CD11b on monocytes and eosinophils and CD54 on granulocytes. Particle exposure also reduced the percentage of CD4+ T cells, basophils, and eosinophils. Inhalation of elemental carbon UFPs alters peripheral blood leukocyte distribution and expression of adhesion molecules, in a pattern consistent with increased retention of leukocytes in the pulmonary vascular bed. PMID:16393658

Frampton, Mark W.; Stewart, Judith C.; Oberdörster, Günter; Morrow, Paul E.; Chalupa, David; Pietropaoli, Anthony P.; Frasier, Lauren M.; Speers, Donna M.; Cox, Christopher; Huang, Li-Shan; Utell, Mark J.

2006-01-01

120

Sulfidoleukotriene generation from peripheral blood leukocytes of horses affected with insect bite dermal hypersensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfidoleukotrienes (sLT) generated in vitro after incubation of equine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) with different inducing agents were determined in 18 healthy and 16 insect bite dermal hypersensitivity (IDH)-affected horses. PBL from these 32 horses were stimulated with Concanavalin A, Parascaris equorum, Culicoides nubeculosus and Simulium extracts, and with a six-Grass mix. The cells of all but four horses generated

E. Marti; A. Urwyler; M. Neuenschwander; R. Eicher; D. Meier; A. L. de Weck; H. Gerber; S. Lazary; C. A. Dahinden

1999-01-01

121

Shorter telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with childhood autism  

PubMed Central

Telomeres are protective chromosomal structures that play a key role in preserving genomic stability. Epidemiologic studies have shown that the abnormal telomere length in leukocytes is associated with some mental disorders and age-related diseases. However, the association between leukocyte telomere length and autism has not been investigated. Here we investigated the possible association between relative telomere length (RTL) in peripheral blood leukocytes and childhood autism by using an established real-time polymerase chain reaction method. We observed significantly shorter RTL in patients with childhood autism than in controls (p = 0.006). Individuals with shorter RTL had a significantly increased presence of childhood autism compared with those who had long RTL. In patients, we found that family training interventions have a significant effect on telomere length (P = 0.012), but no correlations between RTL and clinical features (paternal age, maternal age, age of onset, illness of duration, CARS score and ABC score) were observed in this study. These results provided the first evidence that shorter leukocytes telomere length is significantly associated with childhood autism. The molecular mechanism underlying telomere length may be implicated in the development of autism. PMID:25399515

Li, Zongchang; Tang, Jinsong; Li, Hong; Chen, Shan; He, Ying; Liao, Yanhui; Wei, Zhen; Wan, Guobin; Xiang, Xi; Xia, Kun; Chen, Xiaogang

2014-01-01

122

Effects of josamycin on polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis.  

PubMed

The effects of josamycin on the chemotactic response of blood polymorphonuclear leucocytes were studied. After oral administration of 2 g/day or 50 mg/kg/day for five days in man and rats respectively, polymorphonuclear chemotaxis was reduced by 20%. After in-vitro incubation with 10 mg/l josamycin chemotaxis was unaltered, whereas a 15% decrease was noted with 25 mg/l josamycin. These data suggest that josamycin is unlikely to severely impair chemotaxis in patients. PMID:3733591

Eyraud, A; Lombard, J Y; Descotes, J; Laschi-Loquerie, A; Tachon, P; Veysseyre, C; Evreux, J C

1986-06-01

123

Flow cytofluorometric assay of human whole blood leukocyte DNA degradation in response to Yersinia pestis and Staphylococcus aureus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human leukocytes containing less than 2C DNA per cell (damaged or dead cells) were detected and quantified by flow cytometry and DNA-specific staining with ethidium bromide and mithramycin in whole blood infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Yersinia pestis. Addition of live S. aureus to the blood (100 microbe cells per one leukocyte) resulted in rapid degradation of leukocyte DNA within 3 to 6 hours of incubation at 37 degree(s)C. However, only about 50 percent cells were damaged and the leukocytes with the intact genetic apparatus could be found in the blood for a period up to 24 hours. The leukocyte injury was preceded by an increase of DNA per cell content (as compared to the normal one) that was likely to be connected with the active phagocytosis of S. aureus by granulocytes (2C DNA of diploid phagocytes plus the all bacterial DNA absorbed). In response to the same dose of actively growing (at 37 degree(s)C) virulent Y. pestis cells, no increase in DNA content per cell could be observed in the human blood leukocytes. The process of the leukocyte DNA degradation started after a 6-hour incubation, and between 18 to 24 hours of incubation about 90 percent leukocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) lost their specific DNA fluorescence. These results demonstrated a high potential of flow cytometry in comparative analysis in vitro of the leukocyte DNA degradation process in human blood in response to bacteria with various pathogenic properties. They agree with the modern idea of an apoptotic mechanism of immunosuppression in plague.

Kravtsov, Alexander L.; Grebenyukova, Tatyana P.; Bobyleva, Elena V.; Golovko, Elena M.; Malyukova, Tatyana A.; Lyapin, Mikhail N.; Kostyukova, Tatyana A.; Yezhov, Igor N.; Kuznetsov, Oleg S.

2001-05-01

124

A three-dimensional atlas of human dermal leukocytes, lymphatics, and blood vessels.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (M?), and T cells are major components of the skin immune system, but their interstitial spatial organization is poorly characterized. Using four-channel whole-mount immunofluorescence staining of the human dermis, we demonstrated the three-dimensional distribution of CD31(+) blood capillaries, LYVE-1(+) lymphatics, discrete populations of CD11c(+) myeloid DCs, FXIIIa(+) M?, and lymphocytes. We showed phenotypic and morphological differences in situ between DCs and M?. DCs formed the first dermal cellular layer (0-20 ?m beneath the dermoepidermal junction), M? were located deeper (40-60 ?m), and CD3(+) lymphocytes were observed throughout (0-60 ?m). Below this level, DCs, T cells, and the majority of M? formed stable perivascular sheaths. Whole-mount imaging revealed the true extent of dermal leukocytes previously underestimated from cross-section views. The total area of apical dermis (0-30 ?m) contained approximately 10-fold more myeloid DCs than the entire blood volume of an average individual. Surprisingly, <1% of dermal DCs occupied lymphatics in freshly isolated skin. Dermal DCs rapidly accumulated within lymphatics, but M? remained fixed in skin explants cultured ex vivo. The leukocyte architecture observed in normal skin was distorted in inflammation and disease. These studies illustrate the micro-anatomy of dermal leukocytes and provide further insights into their functional organization. PMID:24352044

Wang, Xiao-Nong; McGovern, Naomi; Gunawan, Merry; Richardson, Connor; Windebank, Martin; Siah, Tee-Wei; Lim, Hwee-Ying; Fink, Katja; Li, Jackson L Yao; Ng, Lai G; Ginhoux, Florent; Angeli, Veronique; Collin, Matthew; Haniffa, Muzlifah

2014-04-01

125

A correlation study of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function with age.  

PubMed

The current study aimed to investigate the association between telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function in various age groups of a healthy population. A total of 139 healthy individuals were divided into five groups according to their age: 35?44, 45?54, 55?64, 65?74 and >75 years old. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained and the telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length was assayed using a digoxigenin?labeled hybridization probe in Southern blot assays. Laboratory assays of kidney function were also performed. A correlation was observed between TRF length and age (r=?0.314, P<0.001), with the telomere length of the individuals >75 years group being significantly shorter than the telomere length of the 35?44, 45?54 and 55?64 years age groups (P<0.05). By contrast, the TRF length for males versus females did not differ for any of the age groups, while a correlation was observed between TRF length and serum levels of cystatin C (r=?0.195, P<0.05). There was also a correlation between TRF length and glomerular filtration rate (r=?0.184, P<0.05). The current study demonstrated that in this cohort, leukocyte telomere length reduced with age and was correlated with serum levels of cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, TRF length is associated with kidney function and may serve as a marker of aging. PMID:25646618

Zhang, Wei-Guang; Wang, Yong; Hou, Kai; Jia, Lin-Pei; Ma, Jie; Zhao, De-Long; Zhu, Shu-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Guang-Yan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

2015-06-01

126

Biophysical description of multiple events contributing blood leukocyte arrest on endothelium.  

PubMed

Blood leukocytes have a remarkable capacity to bind to and stop on specific blood vessel areas. Many studies have disclosed a key role of integrin structural changes following the interaction of rolling leukocytes with surface-bound chemoattractants. However, the functional significance of structural data and mechanisms of cell arrest are incompletely understood. Recent experiments revealed the unexpected complexity of several key steps of cell-surface interaction: (i) ligand-receptor binding requires a minimum amount of time to proceed and this is influenced by forces. (ii) Also, molecular interactions at interfaces are not fully accounted for by the interaction properties of soluble molecules. (iii) Cell arrest depends on nanoscale topography and mechanical properties of the cell membrane, and these properties are highly dynamic. Here, we summarize these results and we discuss their relevance to recent functional studies of integrin-receptor association in cells from a patient with type III leukocyte adhesion deficiency. It is concluded that an accurate understanding of all physical events listed in this review is needed to unravel the precise role of the multiple molecules and biochemical pathway involved in arrest triggering. PMID:23750158

Robert, Philippe; Touchard, Dominique; Bongrand, Pierre; Pierres, Anne

2013-01-01

127

Focal MMP-2 and MMP-9 Activity at the Blood-Brain Barrier Promotes Chemokine-Induced Leukocyte Migration.  

PubMed

Although chemokines are sufficient for chemotaxis of various cells, increasing evidence exists for their fine-tuning by selective proteolytic processing. Using a model of immune cell chemotaxis into the CNS (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis [EAE]) that permits precise localization of immigrating leukocytes at the blood-brain barrier, we show that, whereas chemokines are required for leukocyte migration into the CNS, additional MMP-2/9 activities specifically at the border of the CNS parenchyma strongly enhance this transmigration process. Cytokines derived from infiltrating leukocytes regulate MMP-2/9 activity at the parenchymal border, which in turn promotes astrocyte secretion of chemokines and differentially modulates the activity of different chemokines at the CNS border, thereby promoting leukocyte migration out of the cuff. Hence, cytokines, chemokines, and cytokine-induced MMP-2/9 activity specifically at the inflammatory border collectively act to accelerate leukocyte chemotaxis across the parenchymal border. PMID:25704809

Song, Jian; Wu, Chuan; Korpos, Eva; Zhang, Xueli; Agrawal, Smriti M; Wang, Ying; Faber, Cornelius; Schäfers, Michael; Körner, Heinrich; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Hallmann, Rupert; Sorokin, Lydia

2015-02-24

128

TNF{alpha} release from peripheral blood leukocytes depends on a CRM1-mediated nuclear export  

SciTech Connect

Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokine that plays a major role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders such as septic shock and arthritis, respectively. Leukocytes stimulated with inflammatory signals such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are the predominant producers of TNF{alpha}, and thus control of TNF{alpha} release from stimulated leukocytes represents a potential therapeutic target. Here, we report that leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of CRM1-dependent nuclear protein export, inhibits TNF{alpha} release from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood neutrophils and mononuclear cells. In addition, immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and immunoblotting analysis indicate that TNF{alpha} is localized in the nucleus of human neutrophils and mononuclear cells. This study demonstrates that the cellular release of TNF{alpha} from stimulated leukocytes is mediated by the CRM1-dependent nuclear export mechanism. Inhibition of CRM1-dependent cellular release of TNF{alpha} could thus provide a novel therapeutic approach for disorders involving excessive TNF{alpha} release.

Miskolci, Veronika [Department of Biology, St. John's University, NY 11439 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research at the North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY 11040 (United States); Ghosh, Chandra C. [Department of Biology, St. John's University, NY 11439 (United States); Rollins, Janet [Department of Biology, St. John's University, NY 11439 (United States); Romero, Carlos [Department of Biology, St. John's University, NY 11439 (United States); Vu, Hai-Yen [Department of Biology, St. John's University, NY 11439 (United States); Robinson, Staci [Department of Biology, St. John's University, NY 11439 (United States); Davidson, Dennis [Department of Pediatrics, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research at the North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY 11040 (United States); Vancurova, Ivana [Department of Biology, St. John's University, NY 11439 (United States) and Department of Pediatrics, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research at the North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY 11040 (United States)]. E-mail: vancuroi@stjohns.edu

2006-12-15

129

Cisplatin-DNA damage and repair in peripheral blood leukocytes in vivo and in vitro.  

PubMed Central

We have extended our studies on the relationship between cisplatin/carboplatin-induced DNA damage in readily accessible tissue(s) and clinical response to therapy. Such an approach may assist in the study of cancer drug resistance and in establishing parameters for assessing human populations for sensitivity to DNA damaging agents in the environment. Platinum-DNA adduct levels were measured by atomic absorbance spectrometry. DNA repair capacity was assessed in human T-lymphocytes by the ability to repair cisplatin lesions in cellular DNA or in transfected plasmid DNA. In a "blinded" study of 21 patients receiving combination cisplatin/carboplatin drug therapy, there was a direct relationship between DNA damage in leukocytes and disease response (summary two-sided p = 0.00011). The cohort of patients had 15 different tumor types, suggesting that blood tissue and tumor tissue of an individual may process platinum-DNA damage similarly regardless of the tissue of origin of the tumor. In leukocytes in vivo, persistence and accumulation were prominent features of the cisplatin-DNA adduct profile. Functional DNA repair capacity has been studied in eight human leukocyte cell lines in vitro (three, T-cells; three, B-cells; one, monocytic; one, promyelocytic), using a host cell reactivation assay with cisplatin-damaged pRSVcat. In the three T cell lines studied, host cell reactivation efficiency was directly related to the cells' abilities to repair cisplatin-damaged cellular DNA (correlation coefficient = 0.993).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1486863

Dabholkar, M; Bradshaw, L; Parker, R J; Gill, I; Bostick-Bruton, F; Muggia, F M; Reed, E

1992-01-01

130

Modulatory effect of visible light on chemiluminescence of stimulated and nonstimulated blood leukocytes of carp (Cyprinus carpio, L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Irradiation of carp blood leukocytes with a non-laser visible light resulted in a significant inhibition of the spontaneous luminol-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells of a part of the fish. Those leukocytes that were sensitive to the visible light, showed a shorter time-to-peak than the non sensitive, following their stimulation with Ca ionophore. Because a shorter time-to-peak correlates with inflammation, it could be suggested that the visible light susceptible leukocyte reflect a pre-inflammatory state of their donors.

Belotsky, Sandro; Avtalion, Ramy R.; Friedmann, Harry; Lubart, Rachel

1998-12-01

131

Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and DNA Methylation in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Background: Arsenic is an epigenetic toxicant and could influence fetal developmental programming. Objectives: We evaluated the association between arsenic exposure and DNA methylation in maternal and umbilical cord leukocytes. Methods: Drinking-water and urine samples were collected when women were at ? 28 weeks gestation; the samples were analyzed for arsenic using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. DNA methylation at CpG sites in p16 (n = 7) and p53 (n = 4), and in LINE-1 and Alu repetitive elements (3 CpG sites in each), was quantified using pyrosequencing in 113 pairs of maternal and umbilical blood samples. We used general linear models to evaluate the relationship between DNA methylation and tertiles of arsenic exposure. Results: Mean (± SD) drinking-water arsenic concentration was 14.8 ± 36.2 ?g/L (range: < 1–230 ?g/L). Methylation in LINE-1 increased by 1.36% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52, 2.21%] and 1.08% (95% CI: 0.07, 2.10%) in umbilical cord and maternal leukocytes, respectively, in association with the highest versus lowest tertile of total urinary arsenic per gram creatinine. Arsenic exposure was also associated with higher methylation of some of the tested CpG sites in the promoter region of p16 in umbilical cord and maternal leukocytes. No associations were observed for Alu or p53 methylation. Conclusions: Exposure to higher levels of arsenic was positively associated with DNA methylation in LINE-1 repeated elements, and to a lesser degree at CpG sites within the promoter region of the tumor suppressor gene p16. Associations were observed in both maternal and fetal leukocytes. Future research is needed to confirm these results and determine if these small increases in methylation are associated with any health effects. PMID:22466225

Baccarelli, Andrea; Hoffman, Elaine; Tarantini, Letizia; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Mostofa, Golam; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; Wright, Robert O.; Christiani, David C.

2012-01-01

132

Short telomere length in peripheral blood leukocyte predicts poor prognosis and indicates an immunosuppressive phenotype in gastric cancer patients.  

PubMed

Compelling evidences indicate that relative telomere length (RTL) in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can predict the clinical outcome of several cancers. However, to date, the prognostic value of leukocyte RTL in gastric cancer (GC) patients has not been explored. In this study, relative telomere length (RTL) in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) was measured using a real-time PCR-based method in a total of 693 GC patients receiving surgical resection. The prognostic value of leukocyte RTL was first explored in the training set (112 patients) using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Then an independent cohort of 581 patients was used as a validation set. To explore potential mechanism, we detected the immunophenotypes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma concentrations of several cytokines in GC patients. Patients with short RTL showed significantly worse overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) than those with long RTL in all patient sets. Furthermore, leukocyte RTL and TNM stage exhibited a notable joint effect in prognosis prediction. Integration of TNM stage and leukocyte RTL significantly improved the prognosis prediction efficacy for GC. In addition, we found that patients with short RTL had a higher CD4(+) T cell percentage in PBMCs, CD19(+)IL-10(+) Breg percentage in B cells and plasma IL-10 concentration, indicating an enhanced immunosuppressive status with short leukocyte RTL. In conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrates that leukocyte RTL is an independent prognostic marker complementing TNM stage and associated with an immunosuppressive phenotype in the peripheral blood lymphocytes in GC patients. PMID:25515040

Qu, Falin; Li, Renli; He, Xianli; Li, Qiucheng; Xie, Shuang; Gong, Li; Ji, Gang; Lu, Jianguo; Bao, Guoqiang

2015-03-01

133

Rate of manual leukocyte differentials in dog, cat and horse blood samples using ADVIA 120 cytograms  

PubMed Central

Background Modern automated haematology instruments are capable of performing leukocyte differentials faster, cheaper and with a higher precision than the traditional 100-cell manual differential count. Thus, in human laboratories, criteria are defined for performing a manual review of the blood smear resulting in a marked reduction of manual differential counts. While common in human laboratories, this approach to reducing the number of manual differentials in veterinary laboratories is still not commonly performed. Thus, our aim was to determine the rate and causes of manual leukocyte differentials in a university clinical pathology laboratory using the automated laser-based haematology analyser ADVIA 120. Overall, 14,953 complete blood cell counts from dogs, cats and horses were reviewed. Manual leukocyte differentials were requested if abnormal ADVIA peroxidase and baso cytograms were detected (i.e. suspicion of left shift or atypical lymphocytes/blasts, inappropriate separation of cell populations). Results In 21% of canine, 32% of feline and 20% of equine samples, a manual differential was requested. Indistinct separation of the cell population was present in 10% to 15% of the cases. Depending on the species, atypical lymphocytes were suspected in 2% to 12%, left shift in 13% to 25% and suspicion of blasts was present in less than 0.4% of the cases. Conclusions The obtained results are comparable to those published for human medicine and the rate of manual differentiation could be markedly reduced in veterinary laboratories if microscopic examination was used as a validation procedure rather than as a reflexive substitute for automated differentiation. PMID:24903909

2014-01-01

134

Constitutive and virus-induced interferon production by peripheral blood leukocytes.  

PubMed

The production of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) by normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) was studied using polyclonal antipeptide antibodies designed to react either with all IFN-alpha subtypes or with individual subtypes IFN-alpha 2 or IFN-alpha 4. In this study, we demonstrate the detection of intracellular IFN-alpha in PBMNC using immunofluorescence staining and flow-cytometric analysis. Virtually all cells of the PBMNC population were shown to produce IFN-alpha reactive with all three antisera after stimulation with Sendai virus. The immunofluorescence studies also demonstrated that IFN-alpha is produced by PBMNC in the absence of known viral stimulation but is not secreted in detectable levels. Double-labeling with specific monoclonal antibodies to T and B lymphocytes confirmed that the entire populations of these two cell types produce IFN-alpha, both constitutively and after virus induction. Polymorphonuclear cells (PMNC) isolated from Ficoll-Paque pellets were also shown to contain intracellular IFN-alpha, both before and after virus induction. The finding that all PBMNC produce IFN-alpha constitutively suggests that IFN-alpha may have important regulatory functions in situations other than during overt viral infections. PMID:7875240

Greenway, A L; Hertzog, P J; Devenish, R J; Linnane, A W

1995-03-01

135

Peripheral blood leukocytes transcriptomic signature highlights the altered metabolic pathways by heat stress in zebu cattle.  

PubMed

High temperature during summer greatly affects animal production due to altered reproductive and metabolic functions. However, information regarding high throughput analysis of change in gene expression in diary animals are relatively nil. In present study, gene expression profiling by microarray was done in peripheral blood leukocytes of heat exposed (42 °C, 4h) cattle (n=3), Tharparkar (Bos indicus). A total 460 transcripts were differentially expressed with a fold change of ? 2. Randomly selected real-time validation showed that 73.08% correlation with microarray data. Functional annotation and pathway study of the DEGs reveals that, up-regulated genes significantly (P<0.05) affect the protein processing and NOD like receptor pathways, while down regulated genes were significantly (P<0.05) found to associated with Glycolytic pathways. In conclusion, the present study showed that heat stress affects expression of significant number of genes in peripheral blood leukocytes and further analysis is required to understand their functional role in livestock. PMID:24367940

Kolli, Vamsikrishna; Upadhyay, R C; Singh, Dheer

2014-02-01

136

Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas

2000-04-01

137

EXPERIMENTAL MASTITIS WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI: SEQUENTIAL RESPONSE OF LEUKOCYTES AND OPSONIC ACTIVITY  

E-print Network

EXPERIMENTAL MASTITIS WITH ESCHERICHIA COLI: SEQUENTIAL RESPONSE OF LEUKOCYTES AND OPSONIC ACTIVITY infusion of bacteria (Hill, 1979); b) opsonic activity is required in milk to enable polymorphonuclear

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

138

Levels of DNA damage in blood leukocyte samples from non-diabetic and diabetic female rats and their fetuses exposed to air or cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to evaluate DNA damage level in blood leukocytes from diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats exposed to air or to cigarette smoke, and to correlate the findings with levels of DNA damage detected in blood leukocyte samples from their fetuses. A total of 20 rats were distributed into four experimental groups: non-diabetic (control;

Paula Helena Ortiz Lima; Débora Cristina Damasceno; Yuri Karen Sinzato; Maricelma da Silva Soares de Souza; Daisy Maria Fávero Salvadori; Iracema de Mattos Paranhos Calderon; Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge

2008-01-01

139

Isoprinosine and levamisole as stimulators of interferon production in blood leukocytes of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Blood leukocytes of 16 patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and 18 healthy controls were induced for interferon (IFN) production by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA) in the presence or absence of isoprinosine and levamisole at concentrations of 10 micrograms/ml and 1 ng/ml. This interferon was neutralized in 87-95% by anti-HuIFN-gamma monoclonal antibodies. In the presence of the drugs the IFN-gamma production was enhanced, however, IFN-gamma titers yielded from leukocytes of cirrhotic patients were still below the titers observed in stimulated and unstimulated blood leukocytes of healthy controls. For example, IFN titers induced by PHA in the presence of levamisole (1 ng/ml) in cirrhotic patients were 2.5 times lower (20.2 +/- 11.1 U/ml) in comparison to healthy subjects (50.6 +/- 27.3 U/ml). PMID:9597085

Daniluk, J; Kandefer-Szersze?, M

1997-01-01

140

Effects of non-leukocyte-reduced and leukocyte-reduced packed red blood cell transfusions on oxygenation of rat spinotrapezius muscle.  

PubMed

Leukoreduction of blood used for transfusion alleviates febrile transfusion reactions, graft versus host disease and alloimmunization to leukocyte antigen. However, the actual clinical benefit of leukoreduction in terms of microcirculatory tissue O2 delivery after packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion has not been investigated. As such, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of non-leukoreduced (NLR) and leukoreduced (LR) fresh pRBC transfusion on interstitial oxygenation in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interstitial fluid PO2 and arteriolar diameters in spinotrapezius muscle preparations were monitored before and after transfusion with NLR- or LR-pRBCs. The major findings were that (1) transfusion of NLR-pRBCs significantly decreased interstitial oxygenation whereas transfusion of LR-pRBCs did not, and (2) transfusion with LR-pRBCs elicited a substantially greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than did transfusion with NLR-pRBCs. These changes in PO2 and ABP were not associated with changes in the diameters of resistance arterioles in the spinotrapezius muscle. These data suggest that transfusion of fresh NLR-pRBCs may negatively affect tissue oxygenation via enhanced leukocyte influx and decreased O2 delivery. They also suggest that leukocytes diminish the capability of transfused pRBCs to increase cardiac output. As such, transfusion of LR-pRBCs may be less deleterious on tissue PO2 levels than NLR-pRBCs although a concomitantly greater increase in ABP may accompany transfusion of LR-pRBCs. PMID:24189119

Sundararajan, Sripriya; Dodhy, Sami C; Pittman, Roland N; Lewis, Stephen J

2014-01-01

141

Effects of non-leukocyte-reduced and leukocyte-reduced packed red blood cell transfusions on oxygenation of rat spinotrapezius muscle  

PubMed Central

Leukoreduction of blood used for transfusion alleviates febrile transfusion reactions, graft versus host disease and alloimmunization to leukocyte antigen. However, the actual clinical benefit of leukoreduction in terms of microcirculatory tissue O2 delivery after packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusion has not been investigated. As such, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of non-leukoreduced (NLR) and leukoreduced (LR) fresh pRBC transfusion on interstitial oxygenation in anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats. Interstitial fluid PO2 and arteriolar diameters in spinotrapezius muscle preparations were monitored before and after transfusion with NLR- or LR-pRBCs. The major findings were that (1) transfusion of NLR-pRBCs significantly decreased interstitial oxygenation whereas transfusion of LR-pRBCs did not, and (2) transfusion with LR-pRBCs elicited a substantially greater increase in arterial blood pressure (ABP) than did transfusion with NLR-pRBCs. These changes in PO2 and ABP were not associated with changes in the diameters of resistance arterioles in the spinotrapezius muscle. These data suggest that transfusion of fresh NLR-pRBCs may negatively affect tissue oxygenation via enhanced leukocyte influx and decreased O2 delivery. They also suggest that leukocytes diminish the capability of transfused pRBCs to increase cardiac output. As such, transfusion of LR-pRBCs may be less deleterious on tissue PO2 levels than NLR-pRBCs although a concomitantly greater increase in ABP may accompany transfusion of LR-pRBCs. PMID:24189119

Sundararajan, Sripriya; Dodhy, Sami C.; Pittman, Roland N.; Lewis, Stephen J.

2015-01-01

142

Virus-specific antibodies interfere with avian influenza infection in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes from young or aged chickens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...

143

Rapid detection of human cytomegalovirus DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes of viremic transplant recipients by the polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Peripheral blood leukocyte samples (n = 458) of 24 bone marrow transplant and 52 kidney transplant patients were examined weekly for the presence of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) using an improved culture technique (DEAFF; detection of early antigen fluorescent foci). In total 5 (21%) bone marrow transplant and 11 (21%) kidney transplant patients developed a viremia. Patients' samples were investigated for the presence of HCMV DNA using an in vitro DNA amplification technique, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From the statistically evaluable viremic patients (n = 13), 110 blood samples were analyzed. In 5 of these patients, the DEAFF and PCR led to identical results. In 8 patients however the PCR was more sensitive, i.e. HCMV DNA was detected for a longer period of time. Applying statistical analysis using the McNemar test, this result was significant (P less than 0.05). The PCR applied on leukocyte samples did not detect HCMV DNA in viruric patients without viremia. Moreover, the current PCR never led to positive results with peripheral blood leukocyte samples of healthy seropositive or seronegative controls. Since the PCR can be performed in 6 hr, this technique will contribute to rapid detection of HCMV DNA in peripheral blood leukocytes and therefore to optimal clinical management of HCMV-infected transplant recipients. PMID:2546301

Jiwa, N M; Van Gemert, G W; Raap, A K; Van de Rijke, F M; Mulder, A; Lens, P F; Salimans, M M; Zwaan, F E; Van Dorp, W; Van der Ploeg, M

1989-07-01

144

Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections  

PubMed Central

Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

2007-01-01

145

Effects of spaceflight on rat peripheral blood leukocytes and bone marrow progenitor cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The white blood cell (WBC) elements and the bone marrow myeloid progenitor cell populations were analyzed to ascertain adaptation to micro-gravity and subsequent readaptation to 1 G in rats flown on the 14-day Spacelab Life Sciences-2 (SLS-2) mission. Bone marrow cells were harvested from one group of rats killed inflight (FD13) and blood was drawn from three other groups at various times. The WBC level was normal on FD14 with the exception of neutrophilia. On FD13, numbers of colony-forming units-granulocyte (CFU-G), CFU-GM, and CFU-M from flight animals were decreased compared with ground controls when incubated with recombinant rat interleukin-3 (rrIL-3) alone or in combination with recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEpo). On recovery (R + 0), flight rats had decreased numbers of total leukocytes and absolute numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes with elevated neutrophils compared with control rats. They had lower numbers of CD4, CD8, CD2, CD3, and B cells in the peripheral blood but no differences in spleen lymphocytes.

Ichiki, A. T.; Gibson, L. A.; Jago, T. L.; Strickland, K. M.; Johnson, D. L.; Lange, R. D.; Allebban, Z.

1996-01-01

146

Forces on a Wall-Bound Leukocyte in a Small Vessel Due to Red Cells in the Blood Stream  

PubMed Central

As part of the inflammation response, white blood cells (leukocytes) are well known to bind nearly statically to the vessel walls, where they must resist the force exerted by the flowing blood. This force is particularly difficult to estimate due to the particulate character of blood, especially in small vessels where the red blood cells must substantially deform to pass an adhered leukocyte. An efficient simulation tool with realistically flexible red blood cells is used to estimate these forces. At these length scales, it is found that the red cells significantly augment the streamwise forces that must be resisted by the binding. However, interactions with the red cells are also found to cause an average wall-directed force, which can be anticipated to enhance binding. These forces increase significantly as hematocrit values approach 25% and decrease significantly as the leukocyte is made flatter on the wall. For a tube hematocrit of 25% and a spherical protrusion with a diameter three-quarters that of the vessel, the average forces are increased by ?40% and the local forces are more than double those estimated with an effective-viscosity-homogenized blood. Both the enhanced streamwise and wall-ward forces and their unsteady character are potentially important in regard to binding mechanisms. PMID:23062353

Isfahani, Amir H.G.; Freund, Jonathan B.

2012-01-01

147

Flow cytometric assay for analysis of cytotoxic effects of potential drugs on human peripheral blood leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxicity test of new chemicals belongs to the first steps in the drug screening, using different cultured cell lines. However, primary human cells represent the human organism better than cultured tumor derived cell lines. We developed a very gentle toxicity assay for isolation and incubation of human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and tested it using different bioactive oligopeptides (OP). Effects of different PBL isolation methods (red blood cell lysis; Histopaque isolation among others), different incubation tubes (e.g. FACS tubes), anticoagulants and blood sources on PBL viability were tested using propidium iodide-exclusion as viability measure (incubation time: 60 min, 36°C) and flow cytometry. Toxicity concentration and time-depended effects (10-60 min, 36 °C, 0-100 ?g /ml of OP) on human PBL were analyzed. Erythrocyte lysis by hypotonic shock (dH2O) was the fastest PBL isolation method with highest viability (>85%) compared to NH4Cl-Lysis (49%). Density gradient centrifugation led to neutrophil granulocyte cell loss. Heparin anticoagulation resulted in higher viability than EDTA. Conical 1.5 mL and 2 mL micro-reaction tubes (both polypropylene (PP)) had the highest viability (99% and 97%) compared to other tubes, i.e. three types of 5.0 mL round-bottom tubes PP (opaque-60%), PP (blue-62%), Polystyrene (PS-64%). Viability of PBL did not differ between venous and capillary blood. A gentle reproducible preparation and analytical toxicity-assay for human PBL was developed and evaluated. Using our assay toxicity, time-course, dose-dependence and aggregate formation by OP could be clearly differentiated and quantified. This novel assay enables for rapid and cost effective multiparametric toxicological screening and pharmacological testing on primary human PBL and can be adapted to high-throughput-screening.°z

Nieschke, Kathleen; Mittag, Anja; Golab, Karolina; Bocsi, Jozsef; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Kamysz, Wojciech; Tarnok, Attila

2014-03-01

148

Apoptotic effects of tamoxifen on leukocytes from horse peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.  

PubMed

A reduction in inflammatory cell apoptosis is an important concept in the maintenance of inflammation and a potential target for the resolution of inflammation in many inflammatory diseases. Dysregulation of apoptosis has been implicated in a range of diseases, including tumors, neurodegenerative disorders and autoimmunity, and may also be implicated in allergic asthma. In horses, recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) is an asthma-like condition that is characterized increased survival neutrophil bronchial. Tamoxifen is a synthetic, non-steroidal, anti-estrogen agent that is widely used for treating all stages of breast cancer and has been approved for the prevention of breast cancer in high-risk women. The observed efficacy of tamoxifen has been attributed to both growth arrest and the induction of apoptosis. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate the ability of tamoxifen to induce apoptosis in vitro in granulocytic cells from peripheral blood and in mononuclear cells from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in horses. Flow cytometry using commercial AnnexinV-FITC and propidium iodide was used to quantify early and late apoptotic leukocytes, respectively. The results showed a significant increase in early apoptosis in peripheral blood and bronchial granulocytic cells treated with tamoxifen. The rate of early apoptosis of mononuclear cells from blood and BALF when incubated with tamoxifen was significantly lower compared with granulocytic cells. We did not observe a direct effect of tamoxifen on late apoptosis in any of the in vitro assays in the cell types used here. These results indicate that the apoptotic mechanisms under these experimental conditions would affect only blood and BALF granulocytic cells, particularly in early apoptosis. Finally, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to better understand apoptotic mechanisms because tamoxifen could be used to treat chronic, inflammatory pathologies associated with granulocytes and allergic diseases, such as asthma or equine RAO. PMID:23846832

Sarmiento, J; Perez, B; Morales, N; Henriquez, C; Vidal, L; Folch, H; Galecio, J S; Morán, G

2013-12-01

149

Comparison of the effects of various clinically applied mistletoe preparations on peripheral blood leukocytes.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare the biological effects of 12 different clinically applied mistletoe preparations (I, II, III and IV) from the host trees "pinus" (P), "malus" (M), "abies" (A) and "quercus" (Q) on human leukocytes. When the preparations I-P, II-P, III-P and IV-A were added to the whole blood cell cultures of 37 cancer patients (breast cancer, n = 22, colorectal cancer, n = 15) and 34 healthy controls, a significant induction of the cytokines IL-1-beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-alpha was found with preparation I-P. A significant induction of IL-1-beta and TNF-alpha was obtained with the preparations II-P and III-P as compared to the nonstimulated control cultures. Induction of IFN-gamma was not found with any preparation. Cytokine induction was comparable in the blood cell cultures of the tumor patients and the healthy controls. When the clinical preparations I-P, I-M, I-Q, II-P, II-M, II-A, III-P, III-M, III-A and IV-P, IV-M, IV-A were tested in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 5 healthy donors, differences in the induction of cytokine production and apoptosis were seen after addition of the mistletoe preparations from different host trees. Increased levels of IL-1-beta were found after addition of the preparations I-P and I-M, increased levels of TNF-alpha were measured after addition of preparations I-P and III-A. Induction of apoptosis was most evident with the preparations I-M, I-Q, III-M and IV-A. Neither cytokine induction nor apoptosis could be correlated to the amount of lectins found in the preparations. Stimulation of separated CD4(+)-, CD8(+)- and CD14(+)-cells from 5 healthy donors with the above noted preparations revealed an induction of IL-1-beta and TNF-alpha production by the preparations I-P, I-M and I-Q mainly in monocytes and to a minimal extent in lymphocytes. Also apoptosis was seen mainly in CD14(+)-monocytes. From these results it is concluded that both, apoptosis and cytokine production are induced differentially in leukocyte cultures by clinically applied mistletoe preparations. However, there is no correlation between the biological effects and the lectin content of the various preparations and none of them were comparable with respect to the extent of these effects. Therefore, it may be expected that clinical studies with different preparations are not comparable either. PMID:9893935

Elsässer-Beile, U; Lusebrink, S; Grussenmeyer, T; Wetterauer, U; Schultze-Seemann, W

1998-12-01

150

The Influence of Age and Sex on the Cell Counts of Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Subpopulations in Chinese Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Non-human primates such as Chinese rhesus macaques are the favorable models for preclinical study of potential therapeutic drugs, vaccines and mechanisms of human diseases. Little is known about the normal levels of leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques. To obtain these data, 100 blood samples from Chinese rhesus macaques were collected. The normal range of major leukocyte subpopulations, such as T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), were quantitatively analyzed by flow cytometry through BD trucount tubes. The influence of age and sex on the cell counts of leukocyte subpopulations was analyzed. The counts of CD3+T cells, CD3+CD4+T cells, CD3+CD8+T cells and B cells decreased with age, but those of monocytes, mDCs and pDCs had no significant correlation with age. Significant differences existed in the cell counts of most leukocyte subpopulations between the male and female groups except pDCs. Furthermore the values of the females were higher than those of the males. The study provided basic information about the leukocyte subpopulations of Chinese rhesus macaques, and it may be valuable for immunobiological study of Chinese rhesus macaques. PMID:20003819

Xia, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Gao-Hong; Wang, Rui-Rui; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2009-01-01

151

Activation of human leukocytes on tantalum trabecular metal in comparison to commonly used orthopedic metal implant materials.  

PubMed

We analyzed leukocyte functions and cytokine response of human leukocytes toward porous tantalum foam biomaterial (Trabecular Metaltrade mark, TM) in comparison to equally sized solid orthopedic metal implant materials (pure titanium, titanium alloy, stainless steel, pure tantalum, and tantalum coated stainless steel). Isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) were cocultured with equally sized metallic test discs for 24 h. Supernatants were analyzed for cytokine content by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to the other used test materials there was a significant increase in the release of IL (interleukin)-1ra and IL-8 from PMN, and of IL-1ra, IL-6, and TNF-alpha from PBMC in response to the TM material. The cytokine release correlated with surface roughness of the materials. In contrast, the release of IL-2 was not induced showing that mainly myeloid leukocytes were activated. In addition, supernatants of these leukocyte/material interaction (conditioned media, CM) were subjected to whole blood cell function assays (phagocytosis, chemotaxis, bacterial killing). There was a significant increase in the phagocytotic capacity of leukocytes in the presence of TM-conditioned media. The chemotactic response of leukocytes toward TM-conditioned media was significantly higher compared to CM obtained from other test materials. Furthermore, the bactericidal capacity of whole blood was enhanced in the presence of TM-conditioned media. These results indicate that leukocyte activation at the surface of TM material induces a microenvironment, which may enhance local host defense mechanisms. PMID:18286637

Schildhauer, T A; Peter, E; Muhr, G; Köller, M

2009-02-01

152

Gradient separation of granulocytic progenitor cells (CFUc) from human blood mononuclear leukocytes.  

PubMed

Two different density-gradient techniques were compared for separation of human blood-derived granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFUc) from immunocompetent cells using albumin or Percoll as gradient media. Mean CFUc enrichment by means of discontinuous albumin gradient was twofold, whereas Percoll gradients yielded about 20- to 40-fold enrichment of CFUc in relation to lymphocytes. The pH of gradient media proved to have a major influence on separation quality. Based on these results and the development of a new density-separation technique in a 600-ml plastic bag, replacing customary Ficoll-Hypaque gradients, a method for large-scale purification of CFUc from leukapheresis-derived leukocytes has been constructed, working in a closed, sterile system. About 11 X 10(9) mononuclear cells containing 6 X 10(5) CFUc could be processed within 10 h. Lymphocytes were reduced to less than 1% of their initial number, and an average of about 50% of the original CFUc could be recovered. PMID:2857652

Martin, H; Neumann, M; Fache, I; Fliedner, T M; Pflieger, H

1985-02-01

153

Evaluation of level of DNA damage in blood leukocytes of non-diabetic and diabetic rat exposed to cigarette smoke  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to use the comet assay to evaluate the steady-state level of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes from diabetic and non-diabetic female Wistar rats exposed to air or to cigarette smoke. A total of 20 rats were distributed into four experimental groups (n=5rats\\/group): non-diabetic (control) and diabetic exposed to filtered air; non-diabetic and

Paula Helena Ortiz Lima; Yuri Karen Sinzato; Maricelma da Silva Soares de Souza; Mariana Gobbo Braz; Marilza Vieira Cunha Rudge; Débora Cristina Damasceno

2007-01-01

154

Normal pregnancy and preeclampsia both produce inflammatory changes in peripheral blood leukocytes akin to those of sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to seek evidence for circulating leukocyte activation in preeclampsia.STUDY DESIGN: Whole blood flow cytometric techniques were used to analyze surface markers of activation (CD11b, CD14, CD23, CD49d, CD62L, CD64, CD66b, HLA-DR) and intracellular reactive oxygen species. Samples were taken from 21 women with preeclampsia, 21 matched normal pregnant women, 21 healthy nonpregnant controls, and 6 nonpregnant

Gavin P. Sacks; Katarina Studena; Ian L. Sargent; Christopher W. G. Redman

1998-01-01

155

Effect of gold nanoparticles on production of reactive oxygen species by human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of gold nanoparticles on ROS production by leukocytes. ROS production was detected by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LDCL) of human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan. Nanoparticle size was 5, 10 and 30 nm. Simultaneous addition of nanoparticles and opsonized zymosan showed that 5-nm nanoparticles inhibited LDCL intensity in comparison with the control, when LDCL recording was conducted in the presence of opsonized zymosan. Increasing nanoparticle size from 5 up to 30 nm enhanced LDCL intensity. Preincubation of gold nanoparticles with autologous blood plasma increased LDCL intensity. In the control (without gold nanoparticles), blood plasma produced no activating effect on LDCL. We found that the effect of gold nanoparticles on leukocyte LDCL depended on nanoparticle size: 10- and 30-nm nanoparticles inhibited LDCL intensity in comparison with the control (incubation in the absence of nanoparticles) irrespective of the duration of incubation, while 5-nm gold nanoparticles had no effect on LDCL intensity. Incubation of gold nanoparticles with autologous plasma increased LDCL intensity if nanoparticle size was 30 and 10 nm. PMID:24319701

Piryazev, A P; Azizova, O A; Aseichev, A V; Dudnik, L B; Sergienko, V I

2013-11-01

156

Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity.  

PubMed

Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. This investigation assessed the effects of MBG on leukocyte recovery and granulocyte/monocyte function in vivo after dose intensive paclitaxel (Ptx) in a normal mouse. After a cumulative dose of Ptx (90-120 mg/kg) given to B6D2F1mice, daily oral MBG (4 or 6 mg/kg), intravenous G-CSF (80 microg/kg) or Ptx alone were compared for effects on the dynamics of leukocyte recovery in blood, CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen, and granulocyte/monocyte production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Leukocyte counts declined less in Ptx + MBG mice compared to Ptx-alone (p = 0.024) or Ptx + G-CSF treatment (p = 0.031). Lymphocyte levels were higher after Ptx + MBG but not Ptx + G-CSF treatment compared to Ptx alone (p < 0.01). MBG increased CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen (p < 0.001, p = 0.002) 2 days after Ptx. After two additional days (Ptx post-day 4), MBG restored granulocyte/monocyte ROS response to normal levels compared to Ptx-alone and increased ROS response compared to Ptx-alone or Ptx + G-CSF (p < 0.01, both). The studies indicate that oral MBG promoted maturation of HPC to become functionally active myeloid cells and enhanced peripheral blood leukocyte recovery after chemotoxic bone marrow injury. PMID:20140432

Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna

2010-06-01

157

Maitake beta-glucan promotes recovery of leukocytes and myeloid cell function in peripheral blood from paclitaxel hematotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow myelotoxicity is a major limitation of chemotherapy. While granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) treatment is effective, alternative approaches to support hematopoietic recovery are sought. We previously found that a beta-glucan extract from maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa (MBG) enhanced colony forming unit-granulocyte monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of mouse bone marrow and human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), stimulated G-CSF production and spared HPC from doxorubicin toxicity in vitro. This investigation assessed the effects of MBG on leukocyte recovery and granulocyte/monocyte function in vivo after dose intensive paclitaxel (Ptx) in a normal mouse. After a cumulative dose of Ptx (90–120 mg/kg) given to B6D2F1 mice, daily oral MBG (4 or 6 mg/kg), intravenous G-CSF (80 ?g/kg) or Ptx alone were compared for effects on the dynamics of leukocyte recovery in blood, CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen, and granulocyte/monocyte production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Leukocyte counts declined less in Ptx + MBG mice compared to Ptx-alone (p = 0.024) or Ptx + G-CSF treatment (p = 0.031). Lymphocyte levels were higher after Ptx + MBG but not Ptx + G-CSF treatment compared to Ptx alone (p < 0.01). MBG increased CFU-GM activity in bone marrow and spleen (p < 0.001, p = 0.002) 2 days after Ptx. After two additional days (Ptx post-day 4), MBG restored granulocyte/monocyte ROS response to normal levels compared to Ptx-alone and increased ROS response compared to Ptx-alone or Ptx + G-CSF (p < 0.01, both). The studies indicate that oral MBG promoted maturation of HPC to become functionally active myeloid cells and enhanced peripheral blood leukocyte recovery after chemotoxic bone marrow injury. PMID:20140432

Lin, Hong; de Stanchina, Elisa; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Hong, Feng; Seidman, Andrew; Fornier, Monica; Xiao, Wei-Lie; Kennelly, Edward J.; Wesa, Kathleen; Cassileth, Barrie R.

2011-01-01

158

Inhibition of peripheral blood neutrophil oxidative burst in periodontitis patients with a homeopathic medication Traumeel S  

PubMed Central

Summary Background The anti-inflammatory effects of a homeopathic remedy, Traumeel S, have been observed in experimental and clinical studies; however, its antioxidant properties have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with periodontitis. Material/Methods The study was performed using venous blood of 22 individuals with chronic periodontitis and 21 healthy subjects. The antioxidant effects of Traumeel S on the production of reactive oxygen species by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli neutrophils were investigated using luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence (CL). Results Polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients produced higher levels (p<0.01) of light output of lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence and significantly reduced (p<0.01) light output of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence than analogous cells of healthy subjects. Highly diluted (10?4 of the stem solution) Traumeel S significantly (by approximately 50%) reduced superoxide-induced oxidation of lucigenin by unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of periodontitis patients and had a tendency to intensify luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Preincubation of the unstimulated and stimulated with unopsonized E. coli polymorphonuclear leukocytes of healthy subjects with Traumeel S exerts no inhibitory action on the luminol- and lucigenin-dependent chemiluminescence of the above-mentioned cells. Conclusions This study indicates that Traumeel S may significantly reduce production of superoxide anion by unstimulated and stimulated peripheral blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils of periodontitis patients. PMID:21525811

žilinskas, Juozas; žekonis, Jonas; žekonis, Gediminas; Šadzevi?ien?, Renata; Sapragonien?, Marija; Navickait?, Justina; Barzdžiukait?, Ingrida

2011-01-01

159

Leukocyte, red blood cell and morphological adaptation to moderate physical training in rats undernourished in the neonatal period  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the impact of moderate physical exercise on the total and differential leukocyte counts and red blood cell count of 36 sixty-day-old adult male Wistar rats subjected to early malnourishment. Methods The rats were divided in nourished (N - casein 17%) and malnourished groups (M - casein 8%) and thesegroups were then subdivided in trained (T) untrained (U) creating four groups NT, NU, MT and MU. The NT and MTgroups were submitted to moderate physical exercise using a treadmill (60 min/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Onthe 1st day, before the training started T0 and 24 hours after the last training day of the week (T1 until T8), a 1 mLaliquot of blood was collected from the animals' tails for analysis. The total leukocyte count was evaluated in a cellcounter with an electronic microscope. The cyanmethemoglobin technique was used to measure the hemoglobin level. The hematocrit values were determined as a percentage using the micro-hematocrit technique with a microcapillaryreader and a cell counter was used to determine the red blood cell count. The t-test was used for statistical analysis and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Data are expressed as means ± standard deviation. Results There was a significant difference in the total leukocyte count between the NT (9.1 ± 0.1) and MT groups (8.0 ± 0.1) from T1 and in neutrophils between the NT (22.1 ± 0.6) and MT groups (24.6 ± 1.8) from T7 (p < 0.05). There was no statistical significance in the hemoglobin, hematocrit and red blood cell count from T1. Conclusions According to the results of this study, moderate physical exercise seems to have induced physiologic adaptation in adult rats from T1. PMID:23049442

Viana, Marcelo Tavares; Perez, Manuella Cavalcanti; Ribas, Valdenilson Ribeiro; Martins, Gilberto de Freire; de Castro, Célia Maria Machado Barbosa

2012-01-01

160

[The study of aberrant methylation in blood leukocytes of liquidators of the Chernobyl accident].  

PubMed

The study of aberrant methylation of CpG islands in the promoter regions of genes (P16/CDKN2A, P14/ARF, RASSF1A, GSTP1) in blood leukocytes of liquidators of the Chernobyl accident (n = 83, 38-76 years of age) and control subjects of two groups (n = 48, age ? 35 and n = 65, age > 35) was carried out using methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease analysis followed by PCR. The total number of AciI sites in the analyzed fragments ranged from 2 to 7 for different genes. Only 1 subject (2.1%) from the control group (healthy young individuals, age ? 35) has methylation of the studied CpG--dinucleotides of RASSF1A gene. Promoter methylation of at least one of the genes analyzed was observed in 28.92% liquidators and significantly exceeded (p = 0.016) such rate in a one-age (> 35 years of age) control group (12.31%). A significantly elevated frequency (p = 0.023) of individuals with abnormal methylation of GSTP1 gene in the group of liquidators as compared to the control group was revealed. The occurrence of promoter methylation of RASSF1A gene significantly correlated with aging both in the control group (r = 0.214; p = 0.023) and in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident (r = 0.230; p = 0.036). No similar trend was found for other genes. Multiple regression analysis showed that the growth in the number of methylated loci of a set of genes p16, p14 and GSTP1 is exclusively due to the fact of exposure (OR = 7.32, 95% CI = 2.49-25.83, p-value = 2.7 x 10(-5)). The results obtained demonstrate for the first time the reality of the radiation-induced aberrant methylation of CpG islands in promoters of genes involved in the basic protective, functions of cells in the human body in remote periods after radiation exposure. PMID:25764814

2014-01-01

161

White blood cell counts, leukocyte ratios, and eosinophils as inflammatory markers in patients with coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Inflammation is a key feature of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. The leukocyte count has emerged as a marker of inflammation that is widely available in clinical practice. Since inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis and its end results, discovering new biomarkers of inflammation becomes important in order to help diagnostic accuracy and provide prognostic information about coronary cardiac disease. In acute coronary syndromes and percutaneous coronary intervention, elevated levels of almost all subtypes of white blood cell counts, including eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio constitute independent predictors of adverse outcomes. Eosinophil count and eosinophil-leukocyte ratio, in particular, emerge as novel biomarkers for risk stratification in patients with coronary artery disease. Since the presence of eosinophils denotes hypersensitivity inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with Kounis syndrome, this reality is essential for elucidating the etiology of inflammation in order to consider predictive and preventive measures and to apply the appropriate therapeutic methods. PMID:24770327

Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

2015-03-01

162

Effective and cheap removal of leukocytes and platelets from Plasmodium vivax infected blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Investigations of Plasmodium vivax are restricted to samples collected from infected persons or primates, because this parasite cannot be maintained in in vitro cultures. Contamination of P. vivax isolates with host leukocytes and platelets is detrimental to a range of ex vivo and molecular investigations. Easy-to-produce CF11 cellulose filters have recently provided us with an inexpensive method for the

Kanlaya Sriprawat; Supaporn Kaewpongsri; Rossarin Suwanarusk; Mara L Leimanis; Aung Pyae Phyo; Georges Snounou; Bruce Russell; Laurent Renia; François Nosten

2009-01-01

163

Effect of two-chambered bicarbonate lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on peripheral blood mononuclear cell and polymorphonuclear cell function in vitro.  

PubMed

Low pH, high osmolality, increasing glucose concentration, and glucose degradation products (GDP) formed during heat sterilization of conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids have been shown to have a detrimental effect on cells involved in peritoneal host defense. The two-chambered PD fluid bag in which glucose at pH approximately 3 is separated from a bicarbonate (25 mmol/L)-lactate (15 mmol/L) buffer during heat sterilization permits PD fluids with lower GDP to be delivered to the patient at neutral pH. To establish the possible benefit of two-chambered bag PD fluids on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell function, we compared conventional 1.5% Dianeal (1.5%D) with 1.5% two-chambered bag bicarbonate-lactate (1.5%D-B), and conventional 4.25% Dianeal (4.25%D) with 4.25% two-chambered bag bicarbonate-lactate (4.25%D-B). Furthermore, to study the effect of the sterilization process on PBMC and PMN function, we compared filter-sterilized 4.25%D (4.25%D-F) with 4.25%D and 4.25%D-B. PBMC were harvested by Ficoll-Hypaque separation, and 2.5 x 10(6) cells in RPMI were incubated with an equal volume of the test fluids for 4 hours, pelleted, and resuspended in RPMI containing 10 ng endotoxin for a further 20 hours. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by endotoxin-stimulated PBMC was not significantly different (P = 0.10) between 1.5%D-B and 1.5%D, but was significantly higher (P = 0.01) with 4.25%D-B compared with 4.25%D. PBMC exposed to filter-sterilized fluid (4.25%D-F) showed significantly higher endotoxin-stimulated TNF-alpha production compared with 4.25%D (P = 0.02), but was not significantly different from 4.25%D-B (P = 0.40). PMN were harvested by Ficoll-Hypaque separation and 10 x 10(6) cells incubated with test fluids for 30 minutes. After incubation, phagocytosis (phagocytosis index) was determined by the uptake of 14C-labeled Staphylococcus aureus, oxidative burst by reduction of ferricytochrome C to ferrocytochrome C on stimulation with PMA, and enzyme release by measurement of endotoxin-stimulated bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI). Bicarbonate-lactate two-chambered fluids of similar osmolality and glucose concentration conferred a significant improvement in phagocytosis (P = 0.02 for 1.5%D-B and P < 0.001 for 4.25%D-B). Oxidative burst and BPI release were significantly higher in 4.25%D-B compared with 4.25%D (P < 0.001). Filter-sterilized 4.25%D-F conferred a significant improvement in phagocytosis and oxidative burst compared with 4.25%D (P < 0.001) or 4.25%D-B (P < 0.001). Furthermore, conventional 4.25%D was associated with significantly lower BPI release compared with 4.25%D-F (P = 0.01). GDP's acetaldehyde and 5-HMF were analyzed in 4.25%D-B, 4.25%D, and 4.25%D-F. Acetaldehyde was below the lower limit (0.79 ppm) of the standard curve in 4.25%D-B and 4.25%D-F fluids but was detected (3.76 to 5.12 ppm) in all of the 4.25%D fluids. Relative levels of 5-HMF in the 4.25%D-B (0.032 to 0.041 Abs @ 284 nm) and 4.25%D (0.031 to 0.036 Abs @ 284 nm) were similar. The lowest levels (0.001 Abs @ 284 nm) were observed in the filter-sterilized 4.25%D-F. The beneficial effects of two-chambered bicarbonate lactate-buffered PD fluids on PBMC and PMN function are probably related to reduction of GDP from heat sterilization of glucose in a separate chamber at a lower pH. This improvement in biocompatibility could have a beneficial affect on peritoneal defenses. PMID:9370184

Sundaram, S; Cendoroglo, M; Cooker, L A; Jaber, B L; Faict, D; Holmes, C J; Pereira, B J

1997-11-01

164

Comparative phenotypic profile of subpopulations of peripheral blood leukocytes in European (Bos taurus taurus) and Zebu cattle (Bos taurus indicus).  

PubMed

Differences in cellular and humoral immunity in Zebu (Bos taurus indicus) and European (B. taurus taurus) cattle breeds, which may be related to differences in resistance or susceptibility to infectious or parasitic diseases, are largely unknown. This study aimed to perform a comparative analysis of innate and adaptive immunity of European (including Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Hereford) and Zebu (including Gir, Nelore, and Guzera) breeds, by assessing their peripheral blood leukocyte profiles (i.e., monocytes, eosinophils, and lymphocytes, including CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and CD21(+) B cells). Higher frequencies of cells involved in innate immunity were observed in Zebu breeds, particularly monocytes and non-T and non-B cells (13.37 ± 0.9058 and 37.67 ± 1.55, respectively). This finding may contribute to the increased resistance of B. taurus indicus to certain infectious and parasitic diseases. Considering other leukocyte populations in the peripheral blood, among-breed variation was greater than differences between the two subspecies. This study will serve as a basis for further investigations regarding comparative immunology and resistance to infectious and parasitic diseases of cattle. PMID:24391031

Macędo, A A; Marciano, A P V; Rocha, L M; Alves-Júnior, J R F; Faria, A M C; Bittar, J F F; Araújo, M S S; Santos, R L; Martins-Filho, O A

2013-01-01

165

Leukocyte Chemoattraction by 1,2-diacylglycerol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous reports have demonstrated the hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in response to chemoattractants and in lymphocytes in response to the mitogen phytohemagglutinin. We investigated the role of 1,2-diacylglycerol, one of the products of receptor-linked phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis, in mediating the migratory response of leukocytes. In an under-agarose migration system, we found 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol to be a strong chemoattractant

Timothy M. Wright; Robert D. Hoffman; Junichi Nishijima; Laszlo Jakoi; Ralph Snyderman; Hyun S. Shin

1988-01-01

166

Caveolin-1 Increases Proinflammatory Chemoattractants and Blood–Retinal Barrier Breakdown but Decreases Leukocyte Recruitment in Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1), the signature protein of caveolae, modulates inflammatory responses, and innate immunity. However, Cav-1?s role in retinal inflammation has not been rigorously tested. In this study, we examined the effect of Cav-1 ablation on the sensitivity of the retina to inflammation. Methods. Cav-1 knockout (KO) mice were challenged by intravitreal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and inflammatory cell recruitment was assessed by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Leukostasis was assessed in retinal flatmounts after perfusion with FITC-labeled Concanavalin A (FITC-ConA). Chemoattractants were measured by multiplex immunoassays. Blood–retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown was assessed quantitatively by a FITC-dextran permeability assay. The ratio of extravascular to total immune cells was determined by CD45 immunohistochemistry of retinal flatmounts. Results. Inflammatory challenge resulted in significant blunting of proinflammatory cytokine (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1/CCL2], CXCL1/KC, IL-6, and IL-1?) responses as well as reduced inflammatory BRB breakdown in Cav-1 KO retinas. Paradoxically, Cav-1 deficiency resulted in significantly increased recruitment of immune cells compared with controls as well as increased leukostasis. A similar ratio of extravascular/total leukocytes were found in Cav-1 KO and wild-type (WT) retinas suggesting that Cav-1 deficient leukocytes were as competent to extravasate as those from WT mice. We found increased levels of circulating immune cells in naďve (not challenged with LPS) Cav-1 KO mice compared with controls. Conclusions. Caveolin-1 paradoxically modulates inflammatory signaling and leukocyte infiltration through distinct mechanisms. We hypothesize that Cav-1 expression may enhance inflammatory signaling while at the same time supporting the physical properties of the BRB. PMID:25159208

Li, Xiaoman; Gu, Xiaowu; Boyce, Timothy M.; Zheng, Min; Reagan, Alaina M.; Qi, Hui; Mandal, Nawajes; Cohen, Alex W.; Callegan, Michelle C.; Carr, Daniel J. J.; Elliott, Michael H.

2014-01-01

167

Synergistic effects of high blood cholesterol and hypertension on leukocyte and platelet recruitment in the cerebral microcirculation  

PubMed Central

Hypertension or hypercholesterolemia can induce a proinflammatory and prothrombogenic phenotype in the microcirculation of the brain, however, less is known about how the combination of these risk factors affects the vasculature. We recently reported that a moderate (60%) increase in plasma cholesterol blunts the recruitment of leukocytes and platelets in the cerebral microvessels elicited by hypertension. In this study, we examined whether larger increments in blood cholesterol (4-fold) exerts a similar modulating influence on the vasculature in the presence of hypertension. Apolipoprotein E knockout mice with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt induced hypertension were placed on a high cholesterol diet and exhibited exaggerated leukocyte and platelet adhesion responses in cerebral microvessels. Intermittent feeding (every 4th day) with the high cholesterol diet yielded similar phenotypic changes in the vasculature. Once mice were placed on high cholesterol diet, 4 days on normal diet was needed to revert to a normal vascular phenotype. Angiotensin II type-1 receptors, and reactive oxygen species appear to contribute to the vascular responses induced by hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Our findings indicate that the combination of hypertension and large increases in plasma cholesterol concentration results in a severe, but reversible, inflammatory and thrombogenic phenotype in the cerebral microvasculature. PMID:24379186

Rodrigues, Stephen F.; Almeida-Paula, Lidiana D.; Granger, D. Neil

2014-01-01

168

Leukocyte Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Blood Is Not Associated with Major Depressive Disorder in Young Adults  

PubMed Central

Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide, and has significant genetic predisposition. Mitochondria may have a role in MDD and so mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been suggested as a possible biomarker for this disease. We aimed to test whether the mtDNA copy number of peripheral blood leukocytes is related to MDD in young adults. Methods A case-control study was conducted with 210 MDD patients and 217 healthy controls (HC). The mtDNA copy number was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. Depression severity was assessed by the Hamilton-17 Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). Results We found no significant differences in mtDNA copy number between MDD patients and HC, though the power analysis showed that our sample size has enough power to detect the difference. There were also no significant correlations between mtDNA copy number and the clinical characteristics (such as age, age of onset, episodes, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score and Global Assessment of Function Scale (GAF) score) in MDD patients. Conclusion Our study suggests that leukocyte mtDNA copy number is unlikely to contribute to MDD, but it doesn’t mean that we can exclude the possibility of involvement of mitochondria in the disease. Further studies are required to elucidate whether mtDNA can be a biomarker of MDD. PMID:24809340

He, Ying; Tang, Jinsong; Li, Zongchang; Li, Hong; Liao, Yanhui; Tang, Yanqing; Tan, Liwen; Chen, Jindong; Xia, Kun; Chen, Xiaogang

2014-01-01

169

IL-17A Expression Is Localised to Both Mononuclear and Polymorphonuclear Synovial Cell Infiltrates  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study examines the expression of IL-17A-secreting cells within the inflamed synovium and the relationship to in vivo joint hypoxia measurements. Methods IL-17A expression was quantified in synovial tissue (ST), serum and synovial fluid (SF) by immunohistochemistry and MSD-plex assays. IL-6 SF and serum levels were measured by MSD-plex assays. Dual immunofluorescence for IL-17A was quantified in ST CD15+ cells (neutrophils), Tryptase+ (mast cells) and CD4+ (T cells). Synovial tissue oxygen (tpO2) levels were measured under direct visualisation at arthroscopy. Synovial infiltration was assessed using immunohistochemistry for cell specific markers. Peripheral blood mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells were isolated and exposed to normoxic or 3% hypoxic conditions. IL-17A and IL-6 were quantified as above in culture supernatants. Results IL-17A expression was localised to mononuclear and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells in inflamed ST. Dual immunoflourescent staining co-localised IL-17A expression with CD15+ neutrophils Tryptase+ mast cells and CD4+T cells. % IL-17A positivity was highest on CD15+ neutrophils, followed by mast cells and then CD4+T-cells. The number of IL-17A-secreting PMN cells significantly correlated with sublining CD68 expression (r?=?0.618, p<0.01). IL-17A SF levels correlated with IL-6 SF levels (r?=?0.675, p<0.01). Patients categorized according to tp02< or >20mmHg, showed those with low tp02<20mmHg had significantly higher IL-17A+ mononuclear cells with no difference observed for PMNs. Exposure of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells to 3% hypoxia, significantly induced IL-6 in mononuclear cells, but had no effect on IL-17A expression in mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells. Conclusion This study demonstrates IL-17A expression is localised to several immune cell subtypes within the inflamed synovial tissue, further supporting the concept that IL-17A is a key mediator in inflammatory arthritis. The association of hypoxia with Il-17A expression appears to be indirect, probably through hypoxia-induced pro-inflammatory pathways and leukocyte influx within the joint microenvironment. PMID:21887369

Moran, Ellen M.; Heydrich, René; Ng, Chin Teck; Saber, Tajvur P.; McCormick, Jennifer; Sieper, Joachim; Appel, Heiner; Fearon, Ursula; Veale, Douglas J.

2011-01-01

170

PrPSc Is Not Detected in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Scrapie-Infected Sheep: Determining the Limit of Sensitivity by Immunohistochemistry  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from scrapie-infected sheep were evaluated for the presence of PrPSc using dissociated retropharyngeal lymph node cells (DRLN) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). PrPSc positive cells were detected in 2.05% with a variance of .28% of 3,000,000DRLN cells but were not de...

171

Role of leukocyte factors and cationic polyelectrolytes in phagocytosis of group a streptococci and Candida albicans by neutrophils, macrophages, fibroblasts and epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of cationic polyelectrolytes opsonized group A streptococci andCandida albicans to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and by mouse peritoneal macrophages. The most potent opsonins for streptococci were specific antibodies supplemented with complement, nuclear histone, polylysine, polyarginine, ribonuclease, leukocyte lysates, leukocyte cationic protein and, to a lesser extent, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase. Histone, RNAse, leukocyte extracts, and platelet extracts also

Isaac Ginsburg; Michael N. Sela; Abraham Morag; Zohar Ravid; Zvia Duchan; Mina Ferne; Sonia Rabinowitz-Bergner; Peter Page Thomas; Philip Davies; John Niccols; John Humes; Robert Bonney

1981-01-01

172

Cell-type specific gene expression profiles of leukocytes in human peripheral blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Blood is a complex tissue comprising numerous cell types with distinct functions and corresponding gene expression profiles. We attempted to define the cell type specific gene expression patterns for the major constituent cells of blood, including B-cells, CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells, lymphocytes and granulocytes. We did this by comparing the global gene expression profiles of purified B-cells, CD4+ T-cells,

Chana Palmer; Maximilian Diehn; Ash A Alizadeh; Patrick O Brown

2006-01-01

173

Red Blood Cell Size Is Inversely Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in a Large Multi-Ethnic Population  

PubMed Central

Although mutations in the genes encoding either the protein or RNA component of telomerase have been found in patients with various blood disorders, the impact of telomere length on hematopoiesis is less well understood for subjects from the general population. Here we have measured telomere lengths of genomic DNA isolated from circulating leukocytes of 3157 subjects, ranging from 18 to 85 years of age, enrolled in a large multiethnic population based study, the Dallas Heart Study 2. Shorter telomere lengths are marginally associated with lower red blood cell counts in this cohort, but are significantly associated with larger mean red blood cell size (as measured by the MCV), increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW), higher hemoglobin levels and lower platelet counts, even after correction for age, gender and ethnicity (p-values of <0.0001, <0.0001, 0.0009 and 0.0016, respectively). In a multiple regression model we find that telomere length is a significant covariate of MCV (p?=?7.6×10?8), independent of age, ethnicity, BMI, current smoking, alcohol consumption, iron or homocysteine levels. The effect of telomere length on MCV variation is comparable to the effect of smoking or alcohol consumption and is more significant in older individuals (p?=?9.2×10?7 for >50 years vs. p?=?0.0006 for <50 years of age). To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between telomere length and red cell size in a large urban US population and suggests a biologic mechanism for macrocytosis of aging. PMID:23226558

Kozlitina, Julia; Garcia, Christine Kim

2012-01-01

174

Increased soluble human leukocyte antigen-G levels in peripheral blood from climbers on Mount Everest.  

PubMed

Soluble human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is involved in maternal-fetal tolerance, transplant acceptance, and tumor escape from immunosurveillance, operating by inhibiting activity of T, antigen presenting cells (APC), and natural killer (NK) cells. HLA-G gene expression is modulated in vitro after hypoxic conditions, a situation evidenced during pregnancy and tumor progression. In extreme altitude, mountaineers are in hypoxic conditions that generate physiologic adaptative responses, some of them giving rise to pathologic signs. We performed measurements of plasma soluble HLA-G in six climbers before departure of the expedition and during their ascent to and descent from summit of Mount Everest, and in 3 Sherpas at 5300-6400 m. We found that HLA-G levels are upregulated during the ascent with a unique pattern in comparison with angiogenic/lymphangiogenic factors. Our data suggest that HLA-G has to be taken into account in the mechanisms participating in adaptation to high altitudes and reinforce hypoxia as an important factor in the regulation of HLA-G expression. PMID:20732367

Bourguignon, Michel; Yaghi, Layale; Flajollet, Sébastien; Radanne-Krawice, Irčne; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie; Lugrin, Didier; Richalet, Jean-Paul; Carosella, Edgardo D; Moreau, Philippe

2010-11-01

175

Degeneration and atrophy of the thymus of lethally irradiated dogs, rescued by transfusion of cryopreserved autologous blood leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

Dogs exposed to a fatal radiation dose of 12 Gy were rescued by transfusion of autologous blood leukocytes. A severe acute and long-lasting damage to the thymus was observed. The acute damage, as observed on the tenth day, consisted of a marked reduction in the number of lymphocytes, degeneration of Hassall's bodies, and hemorrhage. Long-term effects, observed several months after irradiation, were partial to total atrophy of the thymus. Regeneration, when it occurred, was limited to a few small isolated areas in which lymphopoiesis was supported by epithelial reticular cells. In contrast, the lymph nodes of all dogs had abundant cortical lymphopoiesis. The abundant hemopoiesis present in the marrow from the tenth day after irradiation until the end of the observation period should have provided sufficient circulating precursor cells to seed the thymus and regenerate the organ to the same extent as that observed in the other blood-forming organs. The impairment of lymphopoietic regeneration in the thymus seems to be due, therefore, to damage caused by irradiation on the specific stroma of the organ, which is not able to support such activity.

Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.W.; Huegl, E.B.; Boedey, B.

1987-12-01

176

Effect of oxidatively modified and non-modified human serum albumin on luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of native and oxidized human serum albumin on luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of human peripheral blood leukocytes stimulated with opsonized zymosan. Human serum albumin was added simultaneously with opsonized zymosan at the beginning of the chemiluminescent reaction. Otherwise, leukocytes were incubated with human serum albumin at 37°C for various periods before addition of opsonized zymosan. Oxidized human serum albumin was obtained by the method of metal-catalyzed oxidation. In control to non-modified albumin, oxidized albumin produced an inhibitory effect on luminol-dependent chemiluminescence of leukocytes. These changes were observed in experiments with addition of oxidized albumin at the beginning of a chemiluminescent reaction and after incubation of study agent with cells. PMID:25065314

Piryazev, A P; Azizova, A P; Aseichev, A V; Sergienko, V I

2014-07-01

177

Demonstration of opsonizing antibodies to Francisella tularensis by leukocyte chemiluminescence.  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three individuals were vaccinated with a viable attenuated strain of Francisella tularensis, and blood was collected at various time intervals during 4 weeks. To demonstrate opsonizing antibodies, a mixture of serum and vaccine bacteria was incubated, whereafter the chemiluminescence response of polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes to this mixture was recorded. No opsonizing antibodies against F. tularensis were found in sera obtained before vaccination. Eleven days after vaccination, sera from nine individuals, and 21 days after vaccination, sera from all 23 individuals contained antibodies. Antibodies were demonstrated earlier with the chemiluminescent technique that with the agglutination reaction. Heat treatment (56 degrees C, 30 min) or removal of complement component C3 from immune serum reduced the chemiluminescent response of the leukocytes. A high chemiluminescent response of the leukocytes was induced by immunoglobulin G (IgG)- and IgM-enriched fractions of immune serum in the presence of complement. In the absence of complement, the IgG fraction induced a low chemiluminescent response; the IgM fraction induced no response at all. PMID:7216416

Löfgren, S; Tärnvik, A; Carlsson, J

1980-01-01

178

Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

2011-01-01

179

Differential counting of blood leukocytes using automated microscopy and a decision support system based on artificial neural networks--evaluation of DiffMaster Octavia.  

PubMed

The morphological appearance of blood cells has an established association to clinical conditions. A novel system, DiffMaster Octavia for differential counting of blood leukocytes, has been evaluated. The system consisted of a microscope, 3-chip color charge coupled device (CCD) camera, automated motorized stage holder, electronic hardware for motor and light control and software for automatic cell location and image processing for preclassification of blood cells using artificial neural networks. The DiffMaster test method, was evaluated on 322 routine blood samples (400 cells per sample) using manual microscopy as reference method. The results showed a correlation of determination (r(2)) of 0.8-0.98 for the normal cell classes and blast cells. The DiffMaster correctly preclassified 89% of all leukocytes with a good reproducibility. After verification of the cell classes, the agreement between the test and reference method was 91% whether the sample was abnormal or normal. The clinical sensitivity was 98% and specificity 82%. The sensitivity to identify blast cells was slightly higher with the DiffMaster than manual microscopy. Similar levels of short-term imprecision for the two methods were found for all cell classes. In conclusion this study shows that the DiffMaster can provide a decision support system which, together with a qualified morphologist, can generate leukocyte differential count reports of high quality. PMID:12755789

Swolin, B; Simonsson, P; Backman, S; Löfqvist, I; Bredin, I; Johnsson, M

2003-06-01

180

An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

Hund, S. J.; Antaki, J. F.

2009-10-01

181

An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection–diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis. PMID:19809124

Hund, S J; Antaki, J F

2011-01-01

182

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (P <0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

1982-02-01

183

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool  

SciTech Connect

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM.

Thakur, M.L.; Walsh, L.J.; Zaret, B.L.; Gottschalk, A.

1982-02-01

184

Effect of antiarrhythmic drugs on In-111-labeled leukocytes: chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool.  

PubMed

The influence of lidocaine (L) and procainamide (P) on the chemotactic ability and adherence to nylon wool of In-111-labeled human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was investigated. At the normal therapeutic levels of L (0.022 mM whole blood) or P (0.03 mM whole blood) no change in PMN function was observed. However, at and above five times the aforementioned blood levels of L, significant reduction in the chemotactic ability of PMNs was noted (p less than 0.005). The adverse effects of In-111 radiation appeared insignificant at all L or P concentrations during the 3-hr observation period. The labeled PMNs were resistant to the toxic effects of a higher concentration of P than that of L, and the reduction in PMN chemotaxis and adherence to nylon wool was not apparent until the P concentration reached 1.5 mM. PMID:7057254

Thakur, M L; Walsh, L J; Zaret, B L; Gottschalk, A

1982-02-01

185

In vitro transmission of HCMV between fibroblasts and peripheral blood leukocytes in the presence of IL-4.  

PubMed

We demonstrated transmission of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from the human lung fibroblast MRC-5 to peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs). mRNA of the HCMV immediately-early (IE) antigen was detected in PBLs cultured with IL-2 or IL-2 + IL-4 that made direct contact with HCMV-infected MRC-5, whereas it was not detected in PBLs prevented from making cell-to-cell contact. However, mRNA of HCMV IE was not detected in PBLs cultured with IL-2 and IFN-gamma that made direct contact with HCMV-infected MRC-5. Transmission of the pp65 antigen was increased in culture medium containing IL-4. At a higher viral infection titer, cell-free HCMV infected adherent PBLs cells. The subset, which did not adhere, did not infect cell-free viruses even at a very high multiplicity of infection. Moreover, the adhered subset of PBLs infected with HCMV was able to transmit HCMV to non-infected fibroblasts. Our results suggest that cell-to-cell contact (when PBLs make direct contact with HCMV-infected cells) is important in the mechanism of HCMV transmission and that the adherent cells of PBLs are one of the most important vehicles for HCMV infection. Moreover, we suggest that type 2 cytokines such as IL-4 enhance the transmission of HCMV to PBLs. PMID:11402618

Kitajima, H; Okubo, Y; Honda, J; Yonemitsu, J; Yoshida, N; Fumimori, T; Yoshimuta, T; Hamada, M; Oizumi, K

2001-01-01

186

Dry Olive Leaf Extract Counteracts L-Thyroxine-Induced Genotoxicity in Human Peripheral Blood Leukocytes In Vitro  

PubMed Central

The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

Žukovec Topalovi?, Dijana; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

2015-01-01

187

Dry olive leaf extract counteracts L-thyroxine-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

The thyroid hormones change the rate of basal metabolism, modulating the consumption of oxygen and causing production of reactive oxygen species, which leads to the development of oxidative stress and DNA strand breaks. Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf contains many potentially bioactive compounds, making it one of the most potent natural antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of L-thyroxine and to investigate antioxidative and antigenotoxic potential of the standardized oleuropein-rich dry olive leaf extract (DOLE) against hydrogen peroxide and L-thyroxine-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood leukocytes by using the comet assay. Various concentrations of the extract were tested with both DNA damage inducers, under two different experimental conditions, pretreatment and posttreatment. Results indicate that L-thyroxine exhibited genotoxic effect and that DOLE displayed protective effect against thyroxine-induced genotoxicity. The number of cells with DNA damage, was significantly reduced, in both pretreated and posttreated samples (P < 0.05). Comparing the beneficial effect of all tested concentrations of DOLE, in both experimental protocols, it appears that extract was more effective in reducing DNA damage in the pretreatment, exhibiting protective role against L-thyroxine effect. This feature of DOLE can be explained by its capacity to act as potent free radical scavenger. PMID:25789081

Žukovec Topalovi?, Dijana; Živkovi?, Lada; ?abarkapa, Andrea; Djeli?, Ninoslav; Baji?, Vladan; Dekanski, Dragana; Spremo-Potparevi?, Biljana

2015-01-01

188

Leukocyte involvement in pulmonary localization of blood-borne microparticulates: relationship to altered lung fluid balance.  

PubMed

The lung lymph fistula preparation in sheep was used to study the influence of localization of blood-borne foreign microparticulates in the lung on lymph flow (Qlym); lymph-to-plasma total protein concentration ratios (L/P); pulmonary transvascular protein clearance (Qlym X L/P); and pulmonary hemodynamics. Test particles small enough to readily pass through capillary beds were infused intraarterially to avoid acute lung vascular injury by macroembolism. In sheep, tissue distribution patterns demonstrated that by 15 min after intravenous infusion of the gelatinized reticuloendothelial (RE) test lipid emulsion (0.8-1.0 micron) or gelatinized colloidal carbon (250 A), 30-35% of the injected particle dose localized in the lung, with approximately 15-22% in RE cell-rich organs such as the liver. Particle infusion resulted in an acute neutropenia in the absence of a decline in platelets. Electron microscopy revealed that the increased particulate localization in the lung reflected particle uptake by marginated phagocytic cells as well as the presence of microaggregates within the vascular space. Lung localization of both particulates resulted in approximately a 200-300% increase in both lymph flow and transvascular protein clearance. The hemodynamic response coupled with the pattern of transvascular protein clearance in relationship to lymph flow suggests that the alterations in fluid and protein flux were due to both an increase in microvascular pressure as well as an increase in lung vascular permeability. Marginated phagocytic cells which rapidly ingest the blood-borne foreign test particles may contribute to the altered lung fluid balance seen with the entrance of foreign or abnormal microparticulates in the blood. PMID:6705154

Niehaus, G D; Saba, T M; Edmonds, R H; Dillon, B C

1984-01-01

189

Expression of Biliverdin Reductase A in Peripheral Blood Leukocytes Is Associated with Treatment Response in HCV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with systemic oxidative stress. Since the heme catabolic pathway plays an important role in antioxidant protection, we attempted to assess the gene expression of key enzymes of heme catabolism, heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2), and biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA) in the liver and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of patients chronically infected with HCV. Methods Gene expressions (HMOX1, HMOX2, BLVRA) and HCV RNA were analyzed in PBL of HCV treatment naďve patients (n?=?58) and controls (n?=?55), with a subset of HCV patients having data on hepatic gene expression (n?=?35). Based upon the therapeutic outcome, HCV patients were classified as either responders (n?=?38) or treatment-failure patients (n?=?20). Blood samples in HCV patients were collected at day 0, and week 12, 24, 36, and 48 after the initiation of standard antiviral therapy. Results Compared to the controls, substantially increased BLVRA expression was detected in PBL (p<0.001) of therapeutically naďve HCV patients. mRNA levels of BLVRA in PBL closely correlated with those in liver tissue (r2?=?0.347,p?=?0.03). A marked difference in BLVRA expression in PBL between the sustained responders and patients with treatment failure was detected at week 0 and during the follow-up (p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that BLVRA basal expression in PBL was an independent predictor for sustained virological response (OR 15; 95% CI 1.05–214.2; P?=?0.046). HMOX1/2 expression did not have any effect on the treatment outcome. Conclusion Our results suggest that patients with chronic HCV infection significantly upregulate BLVRA expression in PBL. The lack of BLVRA overexpression is associated with non-responsiveness to standard antiviral therapy; whereas, HMOX1/2 does not seem to have any predictive potential. PMID:23536765

Subhanova, Iva; Muchova, Lucie; Lenicek, Martin; Vreman, Hendrik J.; Luksan, Ondrej; Kubickova, Kristyna; Kreidlova, Miluse; Zima, Tomas

2013-01-01

190

Establishment of a microplate assay for flow cytometric assessment and it is use for the evaluation of age-related phenotypic changes in canine whole blood leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of flow cytometric assays for canine use is still requiring standardization. Despite several studies using purified mononuclear cells, no methodology or reference ranges are available for immunophenotyping of whole blood leukocytes (WBL). Fresh and pre-fixed WBL were used to identify cell-subsets, (Thy-1+\\/CD5+\\/CD4+\\/CD8+\\/CD21+ and CD14+) and measure MHC-II, CD45RA\\/CD45RB expression. We described here an efficient method for fast quantification

Alexandre B. Reis; Cláudia M. Carneiro; Maria das Graças Carvalho; Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho; Rodolfo C. Giunchetti; Wilson Mayrink; Odair Genaro; Rodrigo Corręa-Oliveira; Olindo A. Martins-Filho

2005-01-01

191

Human Recombinant Antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein 3 Cloned from Peripheral Blood Leukocytes of Individuals with Immunity to Malaria Demonstrate Antiparasitic Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunoglobulins from individuals with immunity to malaria have a strong antiparasitic effect when trans- ferred to Plasmodium falciparum malaria infected patients. One prominent target of antiparasitic antibodies is the merozoite surface antigen 3 (MSP-3). We have investigated the antibody response against MSP-3 residues 194 to 257 (MSP-3194-257) on the molecular level. mRNA from peripheral blood leukocytes from clinically immune individuals

Rasmus Lundquist; Leif Kofoed Nielsen; Ali Jafarshad; Daw SoeSoe; Lars Harder Christensen; P. Druilhe; M. H. Dziegiel

2006-01-01

192

Leukocyte chemoattractant activity of diacylglycerol  

SciTech Connect

Phosphatidylinositol breakdown with the generation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (1,2-DG) and inositol phosphates occurs in response to receptor mediated stimulation of lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). In the authors attempt to demonstrate the direct role of 1,2-DG in cell migration, they have found 1,2 dioctanoyl glycerol (1,2-C8DG) to be a chemoattractant for 6C3HED, a mouse thymic lymphoma, and human peripheral blood PMN's. The chemoattractant activity for both cell types was observed at concentrations from 0.5 to 10mM in an under agarose assay. The maximum effect of 1,2-C8DG on 6C3HED cells was similar to that of 1mM lysophosphatidylcholine and the maximum effect of 1,2-C8DG on PMN's was similar to that of 10/sup -7/M f-met-leu-phe. Other 1,2-DG's with acyl chains ranging from 6 to 18 carbons in length and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol were also chemoattractants for 6C3HED, although their activities were less than 1,2-C8DG. In addition, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), another activator of protein kinase C, was a chemoattractant for 6C3HED and human PMN's. PMA was more potent than 1,2-C8DG for both 6C3HED and PMN's with chemoattractant activity in the range of 30nM to 1..mu..M. These studies support the direct role of 1,2-DG in the transduction of chemotactic stimuli in leukocytes and further suggest that the formation of diacylglycerol represents a common step in the migratory responses of lymphoid and myeloid cells.

Wright, T.M.; Hoffman, R.D.; Nishijima, J.; Shin, H.S.

1986-03-05

193

Is chemotactic activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes increased in psoriasis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemotactic activity of PMNs of 44 patients with common psoriasis and 20 healthy individuals was studied by modified Boyden chamber assay and casein as a chemoattractant. The patients were classified according to the activity of the disease, extent of skin lesions, and duration of the disease and of the last relapse. There was a high statistically significant increase in chemotactic

A. Langner; T. P. Chorzelski; M. Fraczykowska; S. Jab?o?ska; J. Szyma?czyk

1983-01-01

194

In vitro study of interactions between silicon-containing nanoparticles and human peripheral blood leukocytes.  

PubMed

The effects of silicon dioxide-based nanoparticles on the viability and proliferative activity of human peripheral blood cultured lymphocytes were studied. All nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 ?g/ml produced a significant cytotoxic effect, its intensity depending on particles' structure: SiO2 nanoparticles were least toxic, while Ce3(+)-intercaled montmorillonite nanoparticles were most toxic. The cells died mainly by apoptosis and postapoptotic necrosis. Incubation with nanoparticles in a concentration of 100 ?g/ml for 72 h caused death of all phytohemagglutinin-activated lymphocytes, while in concentrations of 1 and 10 ?g/ml the nanoparticles had no effect of proliferative activity of cells. The results suggest that the effects of nanoparticles on cells are determined by the nanoparticle concentration and size, as well as by their structure. PMID:24137611

Andreeva, E R; Rudimov, E G; Gornostaeva, A N; Beklemyshev, V I; Makhonin, I I; Maugeri, U O G; Buravkova, L B

2013-07-01

195

The effect of injectable trace minerals (selenium, copper, zinc, and manganese) on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum superoxide dismutase activity of lactating Holstein cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of subcutaneous supplementation of 300?mg of zinc, 50?mg of manganese, 25?mg of selenium, and 75?mg of copper on peripheral blood leukocyte activity and serum ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations at 10?±?2 days in milk (DIM), and on serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during the transition period and subsequent lactation of multiparous Holstein cows. A total of 250 multiparous cows were randomly allocated into one of two treatments groups, namely, trace mineral supplemented (TMS) or control. Cows in the TMS group were injected at 230 and 260 days of gestation, and 35 days postpartum. Serum SOD activity was measured at enrollment, and 10, 60 and 100 DIM. Serum BHBA concentration and leukocyte function were assessed at 10 DIM. Overall serum SOD activity for TMS and control was 16.01 and 12.71?U/mL, respectively. The interaction between treatment and time of serum collection was significant. Additionally, overall serum SOD activity was 12.85 and 14.78?U/mL for cows diagnosed with mastitis and unaffected cows, respectively. Treatment did not affect leukocyte function. For parity >2, TMS cows had lower serum BHBA concentrations than control cows; BHBA concentrations were 0.41 and 0.27?mmol/L for control and TMS cows, respectively. In conclusion, cows diagnosed with mastitis had decreased serum SOD activity, and trace mineral supplementation increased serum SOD activity although leukocyte function was not affected by supplementation. PMID:24685102

Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Lima, S F; Bicalho, M L S; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Felippe, M J; Gilbert, R O; Bicalho, R C

2014-05-01

196

Polymorphonuclear neutrophil function in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed Central

In vitro functions of polymorphonuclear (PMN) neutrophils were studied in 20 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS). An increase in the basal chemiluminescence (CL) activity of peripheral blood PMNs was found, suggesting that these cells had been preactivated in vivo. Patients with more extensive skin disease or signs of disease progression tended to have higher basal CL values. Active oxygen products during the respiratory burst may increase the extent of inflammatory and fibrotic processes and could be involved in the endothelial injury in PSS. The stimulatory capacity of CL response was normal in our study. No alterations were found in the opsonised yeast phagocytic activity of granulocytes when compared with control values. The binding of erythrocyte-antibody particles was found also to be normal. A depressed chemotactic activity of PMN cells against zymosan activated serum was also shown. The cause of the decreased chemotaxis of PMNs remains to be elucidated. PMID:3592786

Czirják, L; Dankó, K; Sipka, S; Zeher, M; Szegedi, G

1987-01-01

197

Induction of nitric oxide production by bovine mammary epithelial cells and blood leukocytes.  

PubMed

A recent study from our laboratory has shown that significant amounts of nitric oxide are released by somatic cells recovered during endotoxin-induced mastitis. The present study was undertaken to investigate which cell type(s) among milk somatic cell population can produce nitric oxide under inflammatory conditions. Nitric oxide release from mammary epithelial cell lines and from bovine neutrophils and monocytes extracted from blood was measured in response to cytokines and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides. An epithelial cell line isolated from bovine mammary gland, FbE cells, was found to release nitric oxide after exposure to interleukin-1beta. This nitric oxide production was completely abolished by addition of L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine, a potent inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor. Bovine monocytes produced nitric oxide in response to recombinant bovine interferon-gamma alone or in combination with E. coli lipopolysaccharides. In these cells, nitric oxide release was reduced by the addition of inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine and aminoguanidine. Lipopolysaccharides and recombinant bovine interferon-gamma increased nitric oxide synthase mRNA in neutrophils, but nitric oxide release could not be detected under any of the experimental conditions used. These results show that bovine epithelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes produce nitric oxide under inflammatory conditions and suggest that these cell populations are responsible for nitric oxide release observed during mastitis. PMID:11417702

Boulanger, V; Bouchard, L; Zhao, X; Lacasse, P

2001-06-01

198

Critical role of nitric oxide during the apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with AIDS.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) increase the CD4(+) cell count, but complete normalization of this parameter has not been obtained in some patients. As oxidative stress plays an important role during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia and lymphocyte apoptosis, we asked whether the nitric oxide (NO) pathway plays a role in the in vitro survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HIV-1(+) patients and how it correlates with peripheral CD4(+) cell levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PBMC were isolated from patients with AIDS and assayed for apoptosis and proliferation in the presence of various chemicals, including agonists or antagonists of the NO pathway. Data were then compared with several in vivo parameters from the same patients. RESULTS: Apoptosis of PBMC in the presence of exogenous NO is significantly higher in patients with low peripheral CD4(+) cell levels than in patients with high CD4(+) cell numbers or seronegative individuals. In addition, endogenous NO inhibition rescues cells from apoptosis in AIDS patients with low circulating CD4(+) cell numbers and helps recovery of the T cell proliferative response. NO-mediated apoptosis does not require cGMP but involves peroxynitrite generation, PARP activation, and NAD(+) depletion. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data suggest the involvement of NO during the apoptosis and functional impairment of lymphocytes in patients with AIDS. PMID:10666481

Mossalayi, M. D.; Becherel, P. A.; Debré, P.

1999-01-01

199

Forces on a Wall-Bound Leukocyte in a Small Vessel Due to Red Cells in the Blood Stream  

E-print Network

increase significantly as hematocrit values approach 25% and decrease significantly as the leukocyte is made flatter on the wall. For a tube hematocrit of 25% and a spherical protrusion with a diameter three

Freund, Jonathan B.

200

Biotin deficiency reduces expression of SLC19A3, a potential biotin transporter, in leukocytes from human blood.  

PubMed

In evaluating potential indicators of biotin status, we quantitated the expression of biotin-related genes in leukocytes from human blood of normal subjects before and after inducing marginal biotin deficiency. Biotin deficiency was induced experimentally by feeding an egg-white diet for 28 d. Gene expression was quantitated for the following biotin-related proteins: methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (MCCA) and B (MCCB); propionyl-CoA carboxylase chains A (PCCA) and B (PCCB); pyruvate carboxylase (PC); acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoforms A (ACCA) and B (ACCB); holocarboxylase synthetase (HCS); biotinidase; and 2 potential biotin transporters: sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT) and solute carrier family 19 member 3 (SLC19A3). For 7 subjects who successfully completed the study, the abundance of the specific mRNAs was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR at d 0 and 28. At d 28, SLC19A3 expression had decreased to 33% of d 0 (P < 0.02 by two-tailed, paired t test). Expression of MCCA, PCCA, PC, ACCA, ACCB, HCS, biotinidase, and SMVT decreased to approximately 80% of d 0 (P < 0.05). Expression of the MCCB and PCCB chains that do not carry the biotin-binding motif did not change significantly; we speculate that expression of the biotin-binding chains of biotin-dependent carboxylases is more responsive to biotin status changes. These data provide evidence that expression of SLC19A3 is a relatively sensitive indicator of marginal biotin deficiency. PMID:15623830

Vlasova, Tatyana I; Stratton, Shawna L; Wells, Amanda M; Mock, Nell I; Mock, Donald M

2005-01-01

201

Chemiluminescence and superoxide anion production by leukocytes from chronic hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemiluminescence and superoxide anion production by leukocytes from chronic hemodialysis patients. During phagocytosis or in response to a soluble stimulus, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) undergo a burst of oxidative metabolism involved intimately in antimicrobial activity. Superoxide anion produced during the burst is bactericidal either directly or as an intermediate metabolite. In addition, stimulated PMN's emit light or chemiluminescence (CL). CL is

Elizabeth E Ritchey; John D Wallin; Sudhir V Shah

1981-01-01

202

Discoidin domain receptor 1 isoform-a (DDR1alpha) promotes migration of leukocytes in three-dimensional collagen lattices.  

PubMed

Although integrins are crucial for migration of leukocytes through endothelium, integrin-independent mechanisms appear to take over and mediate the migration of leukocytes through extracellular matrix (ECM) in a three-dimensional tissue microenvironment. Discoidin domain receptor (DDR) 1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by collagen, the most abundant ECM protein. In the present study, we detected that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils were induced to express DDR1 after incubation in RPMI 1640. The expression level of DDR1 in PBMC was increased further by stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1beta, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, lipopolysaccharide, or phytohemagglutinin, but not with interferon-gamma. In vivo, DDR1 mRNA was detectable in mononuclear leukocytes infiltrating human renal tumor tissue. Among three DDR1 isoforms, DDR1alpha was the major transcript in leukocytes. Functionally, overexpression of either DDR1alpha or DDR1beta in THP-1 cells resulted in increased adherence to collagen-coated plates in a beta1-integrin independent manner. However, only DDR1alpha-, but not DDR1beta-, overexpressing cells exhibited marked pseudopod extension and migrated successfully through three-dimensional collagen lattices. Consequently, we propose that the interaction of DDR1alpha with collagen of the ECM results in a requisite intracellular signaling that enables leukocytes to migrate in a tissue microenvironment and participate in host defense. PMID:11606478

Kamohara, H; Yamashiro, S; Galligan, C; Yoshimura, T

2001-12-01

203

Distinct kinetic and mechanical properties govern selectin-leukocyte interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocytes are recruited from the bloodstream to sites of inflammation by the selectin family of adhesion receptors. In vivo and in vitro studies reveal distinctive rolling velocities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes over E-, P- and L-selectin substrates. The kinetic and mechanical properties of the selectin-ligand bonds responsible for these differences at the single-molecule level are not well understood. Using single-molecule force

William D. Hanley; Denis Wirtz; Konstantinos Konstantopoulos

2004-01-01

204

The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.  

PubMed

Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

1992-12-01

205

Development of hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of chronic myelogenous leukocytes from microscopic image of peripheral blood smear.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a hedge operator based fuzzy divergence measure and its application in segmentation of leukocytes in case of chronic myelogenous leukemia using light microscopic images of peripheral blood smears. The concept of modified discrimination measure is applied to develop the measure of divergence based on Shannon exponential entropy and Yager's measure of entropy. These two measures of divergence are compared with the existing literatures and validated by ground truth images. Finally, it is found that hedge operator based divergence measure using Yager's entropy achieves better segmentation accuracy i.e., 98.29% for normal and 98.15% for chronic myelogenous leukocytes. Furthermore, Jaccard index has been performed to compare the segmented image with ground truth ones where it is found that that the proposed scheme leads to higher Jaccard index (0.39 for normal, 0.24 for chronic myelogenous leukemia). PMID:24238941

Ghosh, Madhumala; Chakraborty, Chandan; Konar, Amit; Ray, Ajoy K

2014-02-01

206

The alpha 4-integrin supports leukocyte rolling and adhesion in chronically inflamed postcapillary venules in vivo  

PubMed Central

A role for the alpha 4-integrin (alpha 4 beta 1 or alpha 4 beta 7), has been implicated in the recruitment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to sites of inflammation. However, the adhesive interactions (i.e., tethering, rolling, and adhesion) mediated by the alpha 4-integrin have not been characterized in vivo. The objective of this study was to establish a model wherein postcapillary venules were chronically inflamed, and then use intravital microscopy to identify the adhesive interactions mediated by the alpha 4-integrin in vivo. Between 4 and 20 d after immunization with Mycobacterium butyricum, animals developed a systemic vasculitis characterized by large increases in the numbers of rolling and adhering leukocytes within mesenteric venules. The selectins could only account for approximately 50% of the leukocyte rolling whereas the remaining cells rolled exclusively via the alpha 4-integrin. Anti-alpha 4 therapy also eliminated the increase in leukocyte adhesion observed in this model, whereas selectin therapies and an anti-CD18 (beta 2-integrin) monoclonal antibody (mAb) did not reduce adhesion. A serum against polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) was used to confirm that a significant proportion of rolling cells, and most of the adhering cells were PBMCs. Sequential treatment with anti-PMN serum and the anti-alpha 4 mAb demonstrated that alpha 4-dependent rolling was distinct from PMN rolling populations. Initial leukocyte tethering via the alpha 4- integrin could not be demonstrated in this model, whereas L-selectin did support leukocyte tethering. These data suggest that the alpha 4- integrin can mediate both rolling and adhesion in the multistep recruitment of PMBCs in vivo, and these interactions occur independently of the selectins and beta 2-integrins. PMID:8642310

1996-01-01

207

Polymorphonuclear Leucocyte Chemotaxis in Patients with Bacterial Infections  

PubMed Central

A new in vitro method of measuring the chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear leucocytes from peripheral blood has been used to calculate a chemotactic index. The mean chemotactic index in 15 patients with bacterial infection (434) was significantly less (P <0·0005) than in 15 normal controls (553) matched for age and sex. The reduction in chemotaxis could be correlated with the duration of the infection, with the greatest impairment being found in those patients with the shortest duration of infection. In five patients studied before and after appropriate therapy the chemotactic index returned to normal values with clearing of the infection. It is suggested that the impairment in chemotaxis may be due to prior phagocytosis of antibody-antigen complexes by the polymorphonuclear leucocytes. PMID:5569983

Mowat, Alastair G.; Baum, John

1971-01-01

208

Neuroimmunity and the Blood–Brain Barrier: Molecular Regulation of Leukocyte Transmigration and Viral Entry into the Nervous System with a Focus on NeuroAIDS  

PubMed Central

HIV infection of the central nervous system (CNS) can result in neurologic dysfunction with devastating consequences in a significant number of individuals with AIDS. Two main CNS complications in individuals with HIV are encephalitis and dementia, which are characterized by leukocyte infiltration into the CNS, microglia activation, aberrant chemokine expression, blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and eventual damage and/or loss of neurons. One of the major mediators of NeuroAIDS is the transmigration of HIV-infected leukocytes across the BBB into the CNS. This review summarizes new key findings that support a critical role of the BBB in regulating leukocyte transmigration. In addition, we discuss studies on communication among cells of the immune system, BBB, and the CNS parenchyma, and suggest how these interactions contribute to the pathogenesis of Neuro-AIDS. We also describe some of the animal models that have been used to study and characterize important mechanisms that have been proposed to be involved in HIV-induced CNS dysfunction. Finally, we review the pharmacologic interventions that address neuroinflammation, and the effect of substance abuse on HIV-1 related neuroimmunity. PMID:18040782

Buckner, Clarisa M.; Luers, Aimée J.; Calderon, Tina M.; Eugenin, Eliseo A.

2015-01-01

209

Effect of parathyroid hormone on elastase release from human polymorphonuclear leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of parathyroid hormone on elastase release from human polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Acute and chronic renal failure are clinical states associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism and increased catabolism. It has been suggested that elevated proteolytic activity is present in the blood in these clinical states. It is, theoretically, possible that the excess blood levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with these

Shaul G Massry; Roland M Schaefer; Markus Teschner; Margarete Roeder; James F Zull

1989-01-01

210

Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases proinflammatory signaling in peripheral blood human leukocytes from rheumatoid arthritis patients.  

PubMed

Sour cherry seed extract (SCE) was evaluated for its capacity to inhibit lipopolysaccharide-treated human peripheral blood T cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and the chemokine interleukin-8. Both proteins are diagnostic biomarkers for inflammatory pathologies. Peripheral blood leukocytes from 11 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 8 healthy control subjects were co-cultured for 24h in lipopolysaccharide and the extract, then evaluated by flow cytometry for T cell activation and by enzyme-linked immunoassay for lymphocyte-associated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. There was a dose-dependent decrease in expression of the immunophenotypes: CD3+TNF-?+, and CD3+IL8+ in cultures from RA patients to a greater extent than in cells from healthy participants. These results suggest that the extract may have a modulatory roll in RA and other inflammatory disorders via the induction of HO-1, thus abating oxidative stress and strengthening regulation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. PMID:24631368

Mahmoud, Fadia; Haines, David; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Dashti, Ali A; Al-Awadhi, Adel; Ibrahim, Basel; Al-Zayer, Bashayer; Juhasz, Bela; Tosaki, Arpad

2014-05-01

211

Leukocyte and /sup 67/Ga-citrate dynamics in experimental subcutaneous Streptococcus faecalis infections. [Rabbits  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of white blood cell (WBC) and /sup 67/Ga-citrate accumulation were studied in rabbits with subcutaneous polyethylene chambers. Uninfected chamber fluid (CF) contained <1000 WBCs/mm/sup 3/, most of which were mononuclear. After /sup 67/Ga injection, radioactivity increased slowly in uninfected fluid, peaked between 24 and 48 hours, and then gradually decreased. /sup 67/Ga scans showed no uptake in excess of background levels around the uninfected chambers. After injection of Streptococcus faecalis directly into the chambers, bacterial concentrations initially decreased, increased by 4 to 24 hours, and then decreased slightly. WBCs began to increase 4 hours after infection due to influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. /sup 67/Ga localized in infected chambers before the increase in WBCs. Use of the subcutaneous chamber model could help elucidate the mechanism(s) of /sup 67/Ga accumulation at sites of in flammation.

Tight, R.R.; Siddiqui, A.R.

1981-07-01

212

Leukocyte and /sup 67/Ga-citrate dynamics in experimental subcutaneous Streptococcus faecalis infections  

SciTech Connect

The dynamics of white blood cell (WBC) and /sup 67/Ga-citrate accumulation were studied in rabbits with subcutaneous polyethylene chambers. Uninfected chamber fluid (CF) contained less than 1,000 WBCs/mm3, most of which were mononuclear. After /sup 67/Ga injection, radioactivity increased slowly in uninfected fluid, peaked between 24 and 48 hours, and then gradually decreased. /sup 67/Ga scans showed no uptake in excess of background levels around the uninfected chambers. After injection of Streptococcus faecalis directly into the chambers, bacterial concentrations initially decreased, increased by 4-24 hours, and then decreased slightly. WBCs began to increase 4 hours after infection due to influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. /sup 67/Ga localized in infected chambers before the increase in WBCs. Use of the subcutaneous chamber model could help elucidate the mechanism(s) of /sup 67/Ga accumulation at sites of inflammation.

Tight, R.R.; Siddiqui, A.R.

1981-07-01

213

Enhanced Chemotactic and Phagocytic Activities of Leukocytes in Psoriasis Vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocytes derived from the peripheral blood of peripheral patients demonstrated an enhanced chemotactic response compared with leukocytes from healthy subjects. No significant difference was detected between the chemotactic response of leukocytes from patients with minimal or no skin involvement and those from patients with extensive lesions. Psoriatic leukocytes also had a significantly higher capacity to engulf 125I labeled Shigella flexneri

A. Wahba; H. A. Cohen; M. Bar-Eli; R. Gallily

1978-01-01

214

Biphasic control of polymorphonuclear cell migration by Kupffer cells. Effect of exposure to metabolic products of ethanol  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate the role of the Kupffer cells in the regulation of the inflammatory reaction seen in alcoholic hepatitis, rat liver Kupffer cells were cultured and exposed to products of ethanol metabolism. The resultant supernatants were tested to study their ability to stimulate or inhibit polymorphonuclear cell chemotaxis. Kupffer cells produced increased chemokinetic activity for human polymorphonuclear leukocytes; when incubated with soluble products of microsomal peroxidation, the Kupffer cells engendered more chemokinetic activity than that produced by untreated Kupffer cells. When Kupffer cells were incubated with acetaldehyde, the chemokinetic activity that appeared in the supernatant did not differ from control. Chemotaxis of polymorphonuclear cells was not observed when the Kupffer cell supernatants were tested by checkerboard analysis.

Fainsilber, Z.; Feinman, L.; Shaw, S.; Lieber, C.S.

1988-01-01

215

The FASEB JournalFJ Express Full-Length Article Pain control by CXCR2 ligands through Ca2-regulated release of opioid peptides from polymorphonuclear cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocytes counteract inflammatory pain by releasing opioid peptides, which bind to opioid receptors on peripheral sensory neurons. In the early phase of inflammation, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) are the major source of opioids. Their recruitment is governed by ligands at the chemokine receptor CXCR2. Here, we examined whether chemokines can also induce opioid peptide secretion from PMN and thus inhibit inflammatory

Heike L. Rittner; Dominika Labuz; Michael Schaefer; Shaaban A. Mousa; Stefan Schulz; Michael Schafer; Christoph Stein; Alexander Brack

216

Peripheral Blood Leukocyte Gene Expression Patterns and Metabolic Parameters in Habitually Snoring and Non-Snoring Children with Normal Polysomnographic Findings  

PubMed Central

Background: Children who snore but do not have gas exchange abnormalities or alterations of sleep architecture have primary snoring (PS). Since increasing evidence suggest that PS may be associated with morbidity, we hypothesized that assessing genome-wide gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) will identify a distinct signature in PS children. Methods: Children (aged 4–9 years) with and without habitual snoring and a normal PSG were designated as either PS or controls. Whole genome expression profiles of PBL and metabolic parameters in 30 children with PS and 30 age-, gender-, ethnicity-, and BMI-matched controls were compared. Pathway-focused gene network analysis of the PBL transcriptome was performed. Metabolic parameters were measured in an independent follow-up cohort of 98 children (64 PS and 34 controls) to evaluate the computationally derived findings. Results: PS was not associated with a distinct transcriptional signature in PBL. Exploratory functional network analysis of enriched gene sets identified a number of putative pathways—including those mapping to insulin signaling, adipocyte differentiation, and obesity—with significant alterations in glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity emerging in the follow-up cohort of children with PS, but no differences in lipid profiles. Conclusions: PS children do not exhibit global perturbations in their PBL transcriptional response, suggesting that current normative PSG criteria are overall valid. However, subtle differences in functionally coherent pathways involved in glycemic homeostasis were detected and confirmed in a larger independent pediatric cohort indicating that PS may carry increased risk for end-organ morbidity in susceptible children. Citation: Khalyfa A; Gharib SA; Kim J; Capdevila OS; Kheirandish-Gozal L; Bhattacharjee R; Hegazi M; Gozal D. Peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression patterns and metabolic parameters in habitually snoring and non-snoring children with normal polysomnographic findings. SLEEP 2011;34(2):153-160. PMID:21286499

Khalyfa, Abdelnaby; Gharib, Sina A.; Kim, Jinkwan; Capdevila, Oscar Sans; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Hegazi, Mohamed; Gozal, David

2011-01-01

217

Effect of infection with BHV-1 on peripheral blood leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in calves with subclinical BVD.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) are important cattle pathogens that induce a broad immunosuppression on cell-mediated immune response on its own participating in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). The aim of our study was to evaluate the quantitative changes in immunocompetent cells in healthy calves and calves with subclinical bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), both inoculated with BHV-1. Total leukocyte counts exhibited changes mainly in neutrophils and lymphocytes that can contribute to the BVDV immunosuppression, thus accounting for some of the intergroup differences. Monocytes did not display numerical changes in either group. Regarding lymphocyte subpopulations, even though CD4+ T lymphocytes and B cells were depleted around 4 dpi in both infected groups, the main difference observed between both groups was in CD8+ T cells which displayed an earlier depletion in BVDV inoculated calves that can promote a greater BHV-1 dissemination, thus aggravating the course of the disease. PMID:23541923

Molina, V; Risalde, M A; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Pedrera, M; Romero-Palomo, F; Luzzago, C; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

2013-08-01

218

Biocompatibility of Cellulosic and Synthetic Membranes Assessed by Leukocyte Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The contact of blood with artificial surfaces may activate blood leukocytes and platelets and initiate the leukocyte inflammatory response. We have investigated the effect of a hemodialysis (HD) with a cellulosic- and a synthetic-based membrane on circulating leukocyte activation. Methods: Samples were obtained from patients with ESRD at baseline, and at 15 and 120 min of a hemodialysis session

Maria Rosa Hernández; Ana Maria Galán; Aleix Cases; Jose Lopez-Pedret; Arturo Pereira; Raul Tonda; Jordi Bozzo; Gines Escolar; Antonio Ordinas

2004-01-01

219

Genetics Home Reference: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1  

MedlinePLUS

... at least four different proteins known as ?2 integrins. Integrins that contain the ?2 subunit are found embedded ... membrane that surrounds white blood cells (leukocytes). These integrins help leukocytes gather at sites of infection or ...

220

Leukocyte telomeres are longer in African Americans than in whites: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Family Heart Study and the Bogalusa Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is ostensibly a bio-indicator of human aging. Here we report that African Americans have longer LTL than whites. We studied cross-sectionally 2453 individuals from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Family Heart Study (age = 30–93 years) and the Bogalusa Heart Study (age = 19–37 years), comprising 1742 whites and 711 African Americans. We measured LTL by Southern blots of the terminal restriction fragments length. In 234 participants, telomere repeats were also measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Adjusted for age and body mass index (BMI), the respective leukocyte telomere lengths (mean ± SEM) were considerably longer in African Americans than in whites both in the Family Heart Study (7.004 ± 0.033 kb vs. 6.735 ± 0.024 kb, p < 0.0001) and the Bogalusa Heart Study (7.923 ± 0.063 kb vs. 7.296 ± 0.039 kb, p < 0.0001). We confirmed the racial effect on LTL by qPCR (3.038 ± 0.565 T/S units for African Americans vs. 2.714 ± 0.487 T/S units for whites, p < 0.001). Cross-sectionally, sex- and BMI-adjusted LTL became shorter with age (range 19–93 years) at a steeper slope in African Americans than in whites (0.029 kb year?1 vs. 0.020 kb year?1, respectively, p = 0.0001). We suggest that racial difference in LTL arises from a host of interacting biological factors, including replication rates of hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:18462274

Hunt, Steven C; Chen, Wei; Gardner, Jeffrey P; Kimura, Masayuki; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Eckfeldt, John H; Berenson, Gerald S; Aviv, Abraham

2008-01-01

221

Cell-surface enzymes in control of leukocyte trafficking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte trafficking between the blood and the tissues is pivotal for normal immune responses. Cell-adhesion molecules (such as selectins and leukocyte integrins) and chemoattractants (such as chemokines) have well-established roles in supporting leukocyte exit from the blood. Emerging data now show that, for both leukocytes and endothelial cells, enzymatic reactions that are catalysed by cell-surface-expressed enzymes with catalytic domains outside

Sirpa Jalkanen; Marko Salmi

2005-01-01

222

Tracking Leukocytes In Vivo with Shape and Size Constrained Active Contours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inflammatory disease is initiated by leukocytes (white blood cells) rolling along the inner surface lining of small blood vessels called postcapillary venules. Studying the number and velocity of rolling leukocytes is essential to understanding and successfully treating inflammatory diseases. Potential inhibitors of leukocyte recruitment can be screened by leukocyte rolling assays and successful inhibitors validated by intravital microscopy. In this

Nilanjan Ray; Scott T. Acton; Klaus Ley

2002-01-01

223

Disorders of sex development expose transcriptional autonomy of genetic sex and androgen-programmed hormonal sex in human blood leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gender appears to be determined by independent programs controlled by the sex-chromosomes and by androgen-dependent programming during embryonic development. To enable experimental dissection of these components in the human, we performed genome-wide profiling of the transcriptomes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in patients with rare defined \\

Paul-Martin Holterhus; Jan-Hendrik Bebermeier; Ralf Werner; Janos Demeter; Annette Richter-Unruh; Gunnar Cario; Mahesh Appari; Reiner Siebert; Felix Riepe; James D Brooks; Olaf Hiort

2009-01-01

224

Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxic effects of gamma radiation on the peripheral blood leukocytes of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on non-target cells of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) patients exposed to various cumulative doses of gamma rays during radiotherapy. The ten patients (P1-P10) were treated with cobalt 60 gamma radiation (External Beam Radiotherapy) for a period of five to six weeks with a daily fraction of 2Gy for 5 days each week. The genotoxic effects of radiation (single strand breaks - SSBs) in these patients were analyzed using the alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) technique, with the Olive Tail Moment (OTM) as the critical parameter. A sample of each patient's peripheral blood before starting with radiotherapy (pre-therapy) served as the control, and blood collected at weekly time intervals during the course of the radiotherapy served as treated (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60Gy) samples. In vivo radiosensitivity of these patients, as indicated by SSB's after the cumulative radiation doses at the various times, was assessed using Student's t-test. Significant DNA damage relative to the individual patient's pre-therapy baseline data was observed in all patients. Inter-individual variation of the genotoxic effects was analyzed using two-way ANOVA. The correlation between doses for the means of smoker and non-smoker patients was calculated using the Pearson test. The results of this study may indicate the need to reduce the daily radiotherapy dose further to prevent genotoxic effects on non-target cells, thus improving safety. Furthermore, these results may indicate that the estimation of DNA damage following exposure to a gamma radiation, as measured by the comet assay in whole blood leukocytes, can be used to screen human populations for radiation-induced genetic damage at the molecular level. PMID:23370449

Kadam, Samit B; Shyama, Soorambail K; Almeida, Valentine G

2013-04-15

225

The effects of stress on the enzymes of peripheral leukocytes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work showed an early response of rabbit and human leukocyte enzymes to the stress of bacterial infection. Since these represented a mixed population of leukocytes and since polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) increased in these preparations, it was necessary to establish whether the observed increase in lactate dehydrenase (LDH) and protein was the result of an increase in any one particular cell type or in all cells. The need for the development of a simple reproducible method for the differential separation of peripheral leukocytes for the furtherance of our own studies was apparent. It was also becoming increasingly apparent that morphologically similar cells, such as small lymphocytes (L) and macrophages, were capable of different biological functions. A dextran gradient centrifugation method was developed which has provided an easily reproducible technique for separating L from PMN. During the course of this work, in which over 250 rabbits were examined, the pattern of daily leukocyte protein and enzyme variation became increasingly more apparent. This information could have some impact on future work with leukocyte enzymes, by our group and by other workers. The differences in normal protein and enzyme levels maintained by some individuals, and some inbred strains, were evaluated and reported separately. It has been shown that one type of leukocyte may react more to a given stress than other leukocytes.

Leise, E. M.; Gray, I.

1973-01-01

226

Genetic characterization of hepatitis B virus in peripheral blood leukocytes: evidence for selection and compartmentalization of viral variants with the immune escape G145R mutation.  

PubMed

The compartmentalization of viral variants in distinct host tissues is a frequent event in many viral infections. Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) classically is considered hepatotropic, it has strong lymphotropic properties as well. However, unlike other viruses, molecular evolutionary studies to characterize HBV variants in compartments other than hepatocytes or sera have not been performed. The present work attempted to characterize HBV sequences from the peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of a large set of subjects, using advanced molecular biology and computational methods. The results of this study revealed the exclusive compartmentalization of HBV subgenotype Ae/A2-specific sequences with a potent immune escape G145R mutation in the PBL of the majority of the subjects. Interestingly, entirely different HBV genotypes/subgenotypes (C, D, or Aa/A1) were found to predominate in the sera of the same study populations. These results suggest that subgenotype Ae/A2 is selectively archived in the PBL, and the high prevalence of G145R indicates high immune pressure and high evolutionary rates of HBV DNA in the PBL. The results are analogous to available literature on the compartmentalization of other viruses. The present work thus provides evidence in favor of the compartment-specific abundance, evolution, and emergence of the potent immune escape mutant. These findings have important implications in the field of HBV molecular epidemiology, transmission, transfusion medicine, organ transplantation, and vaccination strategies. PMID:19420079

Datta, Sibnarayan; Panigrahi, Rajesh; Biswas, Avik; Chandra, Partha K; Banerjee, Arup; Mahapatra, Pradip K; Panda, Chinmoy K; Chakrabarti, Shekhar; Bhattacharya, Sujit K; Biswas, Kuntal; Chakravarty, Runu

2009-10-01

227

Early CD3+/CD15+ peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism patterns correlate with long-term engraftment in non-malignant hematopoietic SCT.  

PubMed

Following hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) for non-malignant disorders (NMDs) variable donor chimerism among lympho-hematopoietic lines may be observed. We retrospectively evaluated early post-HSCT, lineage-sorted (CD3+ and CD15+) peripheral blood leukocyte chimerism data to characterize patterns and assess for association with long-term CD15+ engraftment. 'Early' was defined as the first value obtained between days +14 and +42, 'late' as the last recorded value after day +90. 'High' donor chimerism was defined as ?80% on either fraction at all time-points. Patients were classified into four subgroups with respect to early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns (high/low) then analyzed for long-term CD15+ chimerism status. A total of 135 transplants were evaluable, with all three time-points available in 97. Underlying disease, graft source, patient age and conditioning intensity varied. 'Split' early chimerism (discordant high/low CD3+/CD15+ status) was common. Multivariable analysis revealed strong association between conditioning regimen and primary disease on early CD3+/CD15+ chimerism patterns and a dominant predictive effect of early CD15+ chimerism on long-term CD15+ donor engraftment (observed at median day +365). These data may guide real-time clinician decisions (restraint vs intervention, when available) when faced with unfavorable or unusual early lympho-hematopoietic chimerism patterns following HSCT for NMD. PMID:24419524

Ketterl, T G; Flesher, M; Shanley, R; Miller, W

2014-04-01

228

Impact on outcomes of human leukocyte antigen matching by allele-level typing in adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing umbilical cord blood transplantation.  

PubMed

This retrospective study analyzed the impact of directional donor-recipient human leukocyte antigen (HLA) disparity using allele-level typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 in 79 adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received single-unit umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplant at a single institution. With extended high-resolution HLA typing, the donor-recipient compatibility ranged from 2/8 to 8/8. HLA disparity showed no negative impact on nonrelapse mortality (NRM), graft-versus-host (GVH) disease or engraftment. Considering disparities in the GVH direction, the 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 44% and 22% for patients receiving an UCB unit matched ? 6/8 and < 6/8, respectively (P = .04). In multivariable analysis, a higher HLA disparity in the GVH direction using extended high-resolution typing (Risk ratio [RR] 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5.1; P = .0009) and first complete remission at time of transplantation (RR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.8; P = .01) were the only variables significantly associated with an improved disease-free survival. In conclusion, we found that in adults with AML undergoing single-unit UCBT, an increased number of HLA disparities at allele-level typing improved disease-free survival by decreasing the relapse rate without a negative effect on NRM. PMID:24516896

Sanz, Jaime; Jaramillo, Francisco J; Planelles, Dolores; Montesinos, Pau; Lorenzo, Ignacio; Moscardó, Federico; Martin, Guillermo; López, Francisca; Martínez, Jesús; Jarque, Isidro; de la Rubia, Javier; Larrea, Luis; Sanz, Miguel A; Sanz, Guillermo F

2014-01-01

229

West Nile Virus-Induced Cell Adhesion Molecules on Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Regulate Leukocyte Adhesion and Modulate Permeability of the In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Model  

PubMed Central

Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE). Infection with WNV (NY99 strain) significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1) did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101) strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via ‘Trojan horse’ route, and improve WNV disease outcome. PMID:25036379

Verma, Saguna

2014-01-01

230

Purification of myeloperoxidase from equine polymorphonuclear leucocytes.  

PubMed

Increases of plasma concentrations of neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) can be used as markers of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) activation in pathological situations (sepsis, acute lung injury, acute inflammation). To develop an assay for measurement of plasma MPO in horses during the above-mentioned infectious and inflammatory conditions, MPO was purified from equine PMN isolated from blood anticoagulated with citrate. PMN were extracted in a saline milieu (0.2 M Na acetate, 1 M NaCl, pH 4.7) to eliminate most of cellular proteins. Pellets were then extracted in the same buffer containing cationic detergent (1% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide). The supernatant was further purified by ion exchange chromatography (Hiload S Sepharose HP column 0.5 x 26 cm, equilibrated with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7) with a NaCl gradient (until 1 M). Most of the peroxidase activity of MPO (spectrophotometrically measured by the oxidation of orthodianisidine by hydrogen peroxide) was eluted at 0.65 M NaCl. MPO was further purified by gel filtration chromatography (Sephacryl S 200 column 2.6 x 42 cm with 25 mM Na acetate, 0.2 M NaCl, pH 4.7). MPO (specific activity: 74.3 U/mg) was obtained with a yield of 30% from the detergent extraction supernatant. Electrophoresis (non-reducing conditions) showed 3 bands identified, by comparison with human MPO, (i) the mature tetrameric enzyme (150 kDa) with 2 light and 2 heavy subunits, (ii) the precursor form (88 kDa) and (iii) a form of the heavy subunit without the prosthetic heme group (40 kDa). The mature enzyme and its precursor were glycosylated and possessed peroxidase activity. Equine MPO showed strong similarities with human and bovine MPO, with an absorption peak at 430 nm (Soret peak) characteristic of ferrimyeloperoxidase. Enzymatic activity was pH dependent (optimal value at pH 5.5). PMID:9553712

Mathy-Hartert, M; Bourgeois, E; Grülke, S; Deby-Dupont, G; Caudron, I; Deby, C; Lamy, M; Serteyn, D

1998-04-01

231

Assessment of DNA sensitivity in peripheral blood leukocytes after occupational exposure to microwave radiation: the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay.  

PubMed

DNA sensitivity in peripheral blood leukocytes of radar-facility workers daily exposed to microwave radiation and an unexposed control subjects was investigated. The study was carried out on clinically healthy male workers employed on radar equipment and antenna system service within a microwave field of 10 muW/cm(2)-20 mW/cm(2) with frequency range of 1,250-1,350 MHz. The control group consisted of subjects of similar age. The evaluation of DNA damage and sensitivity was performed using alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay (bleomycin-sensitivity assay). The levels of DNA damage in exposed subjects determined by alkaline comet assay were increased compared to control group and showed inter-individual variations. After short exposure of cultured lymphocytes to bleomycin cells of subjects occupationally exposed to microwave (MW) radiation responded with high numbers of chromatid breaks. Almost three times higher number of bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined in comparison with control group. The difference in break per cell (b/c) values recorded between smokers and non-smokers was statistically significant in the exposed group. Regression analyses showed significant positive correlation between the results obtained with two different methods. Considering the correlation coefficients, the number of metaphase with breaks was a better predictor of the comet assay parameters compared to b/c ratio. The best correlation was found between tail moment and number of chromatid with breaks. Our results indicate that MW radiation represents a potential DNA-damaging hazard using the alkaline comet assay and chromatid breakage assay as sensitive biomarkers of individual cancer susceptibility. PMID:18214694

Garaj-Vrhovac, Vera; Orescanin, Visnja

2009-02-01

232

Determination of acid alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase enzyme activity in peripheral blood leukocytes of gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa).  

PubMed

We examined gazelle peripheral blood leucocytes using the alpha-Naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) staining technique (pH 5.8). Our purpose was to determine the percentage of ANAE positive lymphocytes. The proportion of ANAE positive T-lymphocytes was 72%. T-lymphocytes showed an ANAE positive reaction, but eosinophilic granulocytes and monocytes also showed a positive reaction. By contrast, no reaction was detected in B-lymphocytes, neutrophil granulocytes or platelets. The reaction observed in T-lymphocytes was a red-brown coloration, usually 1-2 granules, but enough granules to fill the cytoplasm were detected rarely. As a result of ANAE enzyme staining, we concluded that the staining technique can be used as a cytochemical marker for gazelle T-lymphocytes. PMID:19085516

Altunay, H; Harem, I S; Harem, M K; Asti, R N; Kurtdede, N

2008-12-01

233

Role of complement activation in cell adhesion to polymer blood contact surfaces. [Dogs  

SciTech Connect

Activation of complement components is well known to mediate chemotactic, adhesive, and phagocytic responses of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's) to foreign substances in the inflammatory process. Complement dependent mechanisms of platelet injury have been described which are applicable to the canine model, which is most commonly used for the short-term evaluation of biomaterials and devices. In addition, complement activation at nylon leukapheresis filters and dialysis membrane blood contact surfaces has already been demonstrated. In this study the role of complement activation in mediating PMN and platelet adhesion to polymer blood contact surfaces using an ex vivo blood flow experiment with normal dogs, and dogs whose complement C3 level had been sharply reduced in vivo by prior administration of cobra venom factor (CVF) have been investigated. The effects of CVF on blood chemistry, hematology and ADP induced platelet aggregation (a noncomplement dependent process) were also investigated.

Herzlinger, G.A.; Cumming, R.D.

1980-01-01

234

Herpes simplex type I virus infected human vascular endothelial cells induce the production of anti-viral and proinflammatory factors by peripheral blood leukocytes in vitro.  

PubMed

Viral infection of the vascular wall cellular elements is involved in development of several pathophysiological events, including vasculitis, transplant rejection, and atherosclerosis. Previously, we have shown that cultured human vascular endothelial cells (ECs) may be effectively infected with herpes simplex type I virus (HSV-1), and this cultural model could be a useful tool for the explanation of many aspects of viral disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of conditioned media (CM) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) on HSV-1 reproduction and cell adhesion molecule expression in cultured ECs. PBMC-CM induced the delay of virus reproduction or inhibition of virus reproduction. Effects of CM correlated with multiplicity of infection used for EC, time of PBMC contact with infected and glutaraldehyde-fixed endothelium, and the level of IFNs and cytokine production. Passages of and CM-treated and infected cells without signs of virus reproduction were, sometimes, followed by virus reactivation. However, at a low level of infection of CM-treated ECs the virus reactivation was not observed even after 2-3 cell passages. Neutralizing antibodies against IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha, used separately or together, significantly abrogated the delaying and/or inhibiting action of CM. Additionally, PBMC-CM significantly increased the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on cultured ECs. The strongest cell activation was induced by CM obtained from PBMCs co-incubated with virus-infected endothelium. Obtained results suggest that primed leukocytes produce soluble factors with either anti-viral or pro-inflammatory activity, and the effect of PBMC-CM may have a bi-directional action. On the one hand, due to production of interferons and several cytokines CM sets up HSV-1 latency or virus elimination from cultured cells. On the other, the same cytokines act on infected and/or neighboring ECs and initiate the cascade of inflammatory reactions in the vascular wall. PMID:12687253

Scheglovitova, Olga N; Romanov, Yuri A; Maksianina, Ekaterina V; Svintsitskaya, Veronika A; Pronin, Andrey G

2002-07-01

235

Fetal cells in the maternal blood. Lack of response of fetal cells in maternal blood to mitogens and mixed leukocyte culture.  

PubMed

In an attempt to stimulate fetal cells in the maternal blood to mitotic division, peripheral blood lymphocytes were cultured from ten primiparous women and six multiparous women. In the case of the ten primiparous women, PWM was used to stimulate lymphocytes in 3- and 7-day cultures made at the 16th, 20th, 24th, and 28th week of gestation. Altogether, 10565 mitoses were analyzed after quinacrine staining of cells from five mothers who each subsequently gave birth to a male infant, and not a single XY mitosis was found. In the case of the multiparous women, lymphocyte cultures, with PHA or LPS as mitogen and MLC, were initiated between the 13th and 20th week of pregnancy. Four of the mothers were pregnant with a male child, and two with a female child. From cultures of each of the four mothers expecting a boy, a total of 9721 mitoses were analyzed after quinacrine staining, and not a single XY mitosis was found. However, one XY cell was found in the culture from one of the two women who delivered a girl. The XY mitosis probably originated from a pregnancy 8 months earlier which terminated in a male infant. In an attempt to culture and obtain good chromosome preparations from small numbers of cells, it was shown that a good mitotic response and good chromosome preparations could be obtained from as few as 6000 lymphocytes. PMID:143444

Schröder, J; Schröder, E; Cann, H M

1977-08-31

236

Erythrocyte and leukocyte: two partners in bacteria killing.  

PubMed

Leukocytes can't perform phagocytosis in blood stream. Blood velocity prevents phagocytosis because there is no time for leukocyte to recognize and catch bacteria. Bloodstream clearance from pathogens is performed by erythrocytes. During motion in bloodstream erythrocytes become charged by triboelectric effect. This charge attracts bacteria and fixes them on the surface of erythrocyte, then bacteria are engulfed and killed by hemoglobin oxygen. In bloodstream, leukocyte thin-wrinkled elastic membrane can't be charged by triboelectric effect and so leukocyte can't catch bacteria by means of electrostatic attraction force. Leukocytes engulf and kill bacteria out of blood circulatory system: in tissues, lymph nodes, slow velocity lymph, etc. Erythrocyte and leukocyte are bactericidal partners: the first kills bacteria in bloodstream, the second kills them locally, out of blood circulation. PMID:25259410

Minasyan, Hayk A

2014-01-01

237

Biologic and immunohistochemical analysis of interleukin-6 expression in vivo. Constitutive and induced expression in murine polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes.  

PubMed Central

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is considered an important multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of a variety of cellular responses, including the induction of acute-phase protein synthesis, lymphocyte activation, and hematopoiesis. In vitro studies have identified many cells that can produce IL-6, but the cellular sources under physiologic conditions have yet to be identified. Using immunoaffinity purified goat anti-murine IL-6, the authors performed immunohistochemical studies to localize cells expressing IL-6 in selected organs of normal and endotoxin challenged NIH-Swiss outbred mice. In the blood, findings were correlated with cell-associated bioactivity using the standard B9 cell proliferation assay. In normal mice, constitutive expression was seen in granulocytes, monocytes and their precursors as well as in bone marrow and splenic stromal macrophages. Hepatic macrophages were negative, as were lymphocytes, megakaryocytes, erythroid precursors, and endothelial cells. In the absence of significant serum levels of IL-6, cell-associated IL-6 bioactivity was detected in circulating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), but not lymphocytes. After endotoxin challenge, there was a threefold increase in PMN IL-6 content from 1 to 3 hours followed by almost complete depletion at 6 hours. This correlated well with a threefold increase of IL-6 mRNA in the bone marrow followed by a decrease at 6 hours. This pattern also correlated with serum levels of IL-6, which peaked at 3 hours and dropped significantly by 6 hours. By 24 hours, cell-associated IL-6 showed recovery with no increase in serum levels. In vivo findings showing IL-6 expression in bone marrow macrophages support in vitro studies suggesting a role for IL-6 in hematopoiesis. Furthermore, PMNs as well as macrophages are likely important sources of IL-6 during inflammatory and septic states. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:1372159

Terebuh, P. D.; Otterness, I. G.; Strieter, R. M.; Lincoln, P. M.; Danforth, J. M.; Kunkel, S. L.; Chensue, S. W.

1992-01-01

238

Surface modification of polymeric materials and its effect on blood compatibility  

SciTech Connect

The surfaces of commercially available polymeric materials have been modified through the chemical infusion process and physical vapor deposition. The surfaces of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) have been modified through a chemical infusion process by treatment of the sample with a solution containing varying amounts of titanium(IV)isopropoxide and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The surfaces of silicone rubber samples have been coated with a thin coating of titanium dioxide with an ion beam sputtering technique. The treated samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and neutron activation analysis. The infused samples were evaluated for blood compatibility using two biological assays: an adherence assay in which the adherence of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the samples was determined, and a hemolysis assay using rat blood erythrocytes to determine the hemolytic activity of the samples. Based on the results of these assays, the PMMA samples treated with PVP alone resulted in an improvement in reactivity with the blood cells. 16 refs., 4 figs.

Wrobleski, D.A.; Cash, D.L.; Archuleta, T.; Barthell, B.L.; Kossowsky, R.; London, J.E.; Lehnert, B.E.; Duchane, D.V.

1987-01-01

239

Abnormal polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis in Behçet's syndrome.  

PubMed Central

Experiments both in vitro and in vivo have been performed to study the chemotactic response of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) in Behçet's syndrome. The experimental results were apparently contradictory. Using modified Boyden chambers we found that the PMNs from patients with Behçet's syndrome responded to a greater extent in vitro than normal cells, but with skin chambers placed over abrasions the in vivo response was less than normal. The significance of these findings is discussed and related to the histological appearances that may be seen in this condition. PMID:485576

James, D W; Walker, J R; Smith, M J

1979-01-01

240

PEO-like plasma polymerized tetraglyme surface interactions with leukocytes and proteins: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

PubMed

Polyethylene oxide (PEO) surfaces reduce non-specific protein and cell interactions with implanted biomaterials and may improve their biocompatibility. PEO-like polymerized tetraglyme surfaces were made by glow discharge plasma deposition onto fluorinated ethylene propylene copolymer (FEP) substrates and were shown to adsorb less than 10 ng/cm2 of fibrinogen in vitro. The ability of the polymerized tetraglyme surfaces to resist leukocyte adhesion was studied in vitro and in vivo. Polymerized tetraglyme and FEP were implanted subcutaneously in mice and removed after 1 day or 4 weeks. Histological analysis showed a similar degree of fibrous encapsulation around all of the 4-week implants. Darkly stained wells were present in the fibrous tissues at the tissue-material interface of both FEP and tetraglyme. Scanning electron micrographs showed that in vivo macrophage adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was much higher than to FEP. After 2-hour contact with heparinized whole blood, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was much higher than to FEP, while platelet adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was lower than to FEP. When PMNs isolated from blood were suspended in 10% autologous plasma, cell adhesion to polymerized tetraglyme was higher than to FEP; however when the cells were suspended in heat inactivated serum, cell adhesion to FEP was higher than to polymerized tetraglyme. The surface chemistry of polymerized tetraglyme did not change after 2-hour blood contact, but displayed nitrogen functional groups after 1-day implantation and became slightly degraded after 4-week implantation. The surface chemistry of FEP did not change significantly after blood contact or implantation. Loosely bound proteins such as fibrinogen on polymerized tetraglyme may contribute to the adhesion of PMNs and macrophages and ultimately to fibrous encapsulation (the foreign body response) around the implants. PMID:12160299

Shen, Mingchao; Martinson, Laura; Wagner, Matthew S; Castner, David G; Ratner, Buddy D; Horbett, Thomas A

2002-01-01

241

CD18 Antibody Treatment Limits Early Myocardial Reperfusion Injury after Initial Leukocyte Deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following myocardial ischemia, initial reperfusion with whole blood impairs the recovery of ventricular function. The exact mechanisms underlying early myocardial reperfusion injury are not clear, but leukocytes play an important role. In this study, we tested if treating the initial blood reperfusate with a monoclonal antibody (CL26) against the leukocyte adhesion protein CD18 would reduce the leukocyte contribution to early

Paul F. McDonagh; Donald S. Wilson; Hiroshi Iwamura; C. Wayne Smith; Stuart K. Williams; Jack G. Copeland

1996-01-01

242

Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting  

PubMed Central

Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results demonstrated impressive segmentation accuracy. Conclusions Insensitive to the variance of images, the LNS (Leukocyte Nuclei Segmentation) method functioned well to isolate the leukocyte nuclei from a blood smear image with much better UR (Under Segmentation Rate), ER (Overall Error Rate), and RDE (Relative Distance Error). The presented LC (Lobe Counting) method is capable of splitting leukocyte nuclei into lobes. The experimental results illuminated that both methods can give expressive performances. In addition, three advanced image processing techniques were proposed as weighted Sobel operator, GDW (Gradient Direction Weight), and GBPD (Genetic-based Parameter Detector). PMID:21073711

2010-01-01

243

Replication and persistence of measles virus in defined subpopulations of human leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Replication of Edmonston strain measles virus was studied in several human lymphoblast lines, as well as in defined subpopulations of circulating human leukocytes. It was found that measles virus can productively infect T cells, B cells, and monocytes from human blood. These conclusions were derived from infectious center studies on segregated cell populations, as well as from ultrastructural analyses on cells labeled with specific markers. In contrast, mature polymorphonuclear cells failed to synthesize measles virus nucleocapsids even after infection at a relatively high multiplicity of infection. Measles virus replicated more efficiently in lymphocytes stimulated with mitogens than in unstimulated cells. However, both phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen had a negligible stimulatory effect on viral synthesis in purified populations of monocytes. In all instances the efficiency of measles virus replication by monocytes was appreciably less than that of mitogenically stimulated lymphocytes or of continuously culture lymphoblasts. Under standard conditions of infection, all of the surveyed lymphoblast lines produced equivalent amounts of measles virus regardless of the major histocompatibility (HL-A) haplotype. Hence, no evidence was found that the HL-A3,7 haplotype conferred either an advantage or disadvantage with respect to measles virus synthesis in an immunologically neutral environment. A persistent infection with measles virus could be established in both T and B lymphoblasts. The release of infectious virus from such persistently infected cells was stable over a period of several weeks and was approximately 100-fold less than peak viral titers obtained in each respective line after acute infection. Images PMID:1081602

Joseph, B S; Lampert, P W; Oldstone, M B

1975-01-01

244

Interaction of human leukocytes and Entamoeba histolytica. Killing of virulent amebae by the activated macrophage.  

PubMed

Capable effector mechanisms in the human immune response against the cytolytic, protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica have not been described. To identify a competent human effector cell, we studied the in vitro interactions of normal human polymorphonuclear neutrophils, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocytes (MC), and MC-derived macrophages with virulent axenic amebae (strain HMI-IMSS). Amebae killed neutrophils, PBMC, MC, and MC-derived macrophages (P less than 0.001), without loss of parasite viability. The addition of heat-inactivated immune serum did not enable leukocytes to kill amebae, nor did it protect these host cells from amebae. MC-derived macrophages, activated with lymphokine elicited by the mitogens conconavalin A, phytohemagglutinin, or an amebic soluble protein preparation (strain HK9), killed 55% of amebae by 3 h in a trypan blue exclusion assay (P less than 0.001); during this time, 40% of the activated macrophages died. Lysis of amebae was confirmed using 111Indium oxine radiolabeled parasites and was antibody independent. Macrophage death appeared to be due to the deleterious effect of lysed amebae rather than the contact-dependent effector mechanisms of E. histolytica. Adherence between activated macrophages and amebae was greater than that between other leukocytes and amebae (P less than 0.001). Microscopic observations, kinetic analysis of the killing of amebae by activated macrophages, and suspension of amebae with adherent activated macrophages in a 10% dextran solution indicated that contact by activated macrophages was necessary to initiate the killing of amebae. Catalase but not superoxide dismutase inhibited the amebicidal capacity of activated macrophages (P less than 0.001). However, activated macrophages from an individual with chronic granulomatous disease were able to kill amebae, but not as effectively as normal cells (P less than 0.01). In summary, activated MC-derived macrophages killed virulent E. histolytica trophozoites through a contact-dependent, antibody-independent mechanism involving oxidative-dependent and -independent processes. PMID:2863284

Salata, R A; Pearson, R D; Ravdin, J I

1985-08-01

245

Chemokines in rapid leukocyte adhesion triggering and migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte subsets are recruited from the blood to lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues via a multi-step process that involves distinct adhesive and activation steps. Chemokines, a family of chemotactic cytokines that signal through G-protein-coupled receptors, play critical roles in regulating the leukocyte recruitment cascade. Chemokines can be transported and immobilized on the surface of vascular endothelial cells, where they activate leukocyte

Brent Johnston; Eugene C Butcher

2002-01-01

246

Leukocyte trafficking in experimental autoimmune uveitis in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte trafficking from blood into tissue is a fundamental process in immune surveil- lance and the immune response to stimuli. Experi- mental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) is an animal model for posterior uveitis and is mediated by T lymphocytes and macrophages that infiltrate the posterior segment of the eye. To analyze leukocyte migration into retinal tissue during the course of EAU,

Adrian Parnaby-Price; Miles R. Stanford; John Biggerstaff; Lucy Howe; Roy A. Whiston; John Marshall; Graham R. Wallace

1998-01-01

247

Coupled Flow-Structure-Biochemistry Simulations of Dynamic Systems of Blood Cells Using an Adaptive Surface Tracking Method  

PubMed Central

A method for the computation of low Reynolds number dynamic blood cell systems is presented. The specific system of interest here is interaction between cancer cells and white blood cells in an experimental flow system. Fluid dynamics, structural mechanics, six-degree-of freedom motion control and surface biochemistry analysis components are coupled in the context of adaptive octree-based grid generation. Analytical and numerical verification of the quasi-steady assumption for the fluid mechanics is presented. The capabilities of the technique are demonstrated by presenting several three-dimensional cell system simulations, including the collision/interaction between a cancer cell and an endothelium adherent polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) cell in a shear flow. PMID:20160939

Hoskins, M.H.; Kunz, R.F.; Bistline, J.E.; Dong, C.

2009-01-01

248

Endometrial leukocytes and menstruation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines evidence supporting the concept that menstruation occurs as a result of an inflammatory process. In the endometrium, leukocyte numbers rise in the late secretory phase following the fall in serum progesterone concentrations. It is postulated that products released following activation of these leukocytes are critically important for menstruation. Mast cells, eosinophils, neutrophils and macrophages in particular are

Lois A. Salamonsen; Louise J. Lathbury

2000-01-01

249

Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Apoptosis Is Accelerated by Sulfatides or Sulfatides-Treated Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Neutrophils die by apoptosis following activation and uptake of microbes or enter apoptosis spontaneously at the end of their lifespan if they do not encounter a pathogen. Here we report that sulfatides or sulfatides-treated Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria accelerated human neutrophil apoptosis. Neutrophil apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry. Sulfatides caused prominent increase in percentage of apoptotic cells after 2.5?hrs of incubation. Salmonella Typhimurium bacteria by themselves did not affect the basal level of apoptosis in neutrophil population. When neutrophils were added to S. Typhimurium “opsonized” by sulfatides, apoptotic index significantly increased, whereas the number of phagocyting cells was not influenced. Sulfatides' proapoptotic effect was strongly dependent on the activity of ?-galactosidase; inhibition of this enzyme impaired its potency to accelerate apoptosis. These data support the mechanism of neutrophil apoptosis triggering based on sulfatides' ability to accumulate in intracellular compartments and mediate successive increase in ceramide content resulting from ?-galactosidase activity.

Grishina, Zoryana V.; Viryasova, Galina M.; Romanova, Yulia M.; Sud'ina, Galina F.

2015-01-01

250

Resistance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to non-oxidative killing by adherent human polymorphonuclear leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Summary Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) is characterized by abundant neutrophil (PMN) influx, but PMNs cannot clear initial infection, indicating Gc possess defenses against PMN challenge. In this study, survival of liquid-grown Gc was monitored after synchronous infection of adherent, interleukin 8-treated human PMNs. 40% to 70% of FA1090 Gc survived 1 h of PMN exposure, after which bacterial numbers increased. Assays with bacterial viability dyes along with soybean lectin to detect extracellular Gc revealed that a subset of both intracellular and extracellular PMN-associated Gc were viable. Gc survival was unaffected in PMNs chemically or genetically deficient for producing reactive oxygen species (ROS). This result held true even for OpaB+ Gc, which stimulate neutrophil ROS production. Catalase- and RecA-deficient Gc, which are more sensitive to ROS in vitro, had no PMN survival defect. recN and ngo1686 mutant Gc also exhibit increased sensitivity to ROS and PMNs, but survival of these mutants was not rescued in ROS-deficient cells. The ngo1686 mutant showed increased sensitivity to extracellular but not intracellular PMN killing. We conclude that Gc are remarkably resistant to PMN killing, killing occurs independently of neutrophil ROS production, and Ngo1686 and RecN defend Gc from non-oxidative PMN antimicrobial factors. PMID:19290914

Criss, Alison K.; Katz, Ben Z.; Seifert, H. Steven

2009-01-01

251

Release of Infectious Epstein-Barr Virus by Transformed Marmoset Leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marmoset blood leukocytes transformed in vitro by Epstein-Barr virus regularly release extracellular infectious Epstein-Barr virus with high titers of transforming activity. By comparison, human umbilical cord leukocytes and adult human leukocytes transformed by Epstein-Barr virus release either no extracellular infectious virus or small amounts, irregularly.

George Miller; Muriel Lipman

1973-01-01

252

HMGN2: a novel antimicrobial effector molecule of human mononuclear leukocytes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocytes are a central cellular ele- ment of innate-immune defense in mammals. In addition to the generation of toxic oxygen radicals and nitric oxide, leukocytes express and secrete a broad array of antimicrobial proteins and peptides. In the study, an antimicrobial polypeptide was iso- lated and purified from human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes in the presence of inter- leukin (IL)-2.

Yun Feng; Ning Huang; Qi Wu; Boyao Wang

2005-01-01

253

The effect of leukocyte hydrolases on bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts of human blood leukocytes were employed as a source of bactericidal and bacteriolytic agents againstStaphylococcus aureus. While the bactericidal action of the extracts was a very rapid process, bacteriolysis is a very slow process. Both the killing and the lysis of staphylococci depended on the age of the culture, maximal effects being obtained only with young cells. The

N. Ne'eman; Z. Duchan; M. Lahav; M. N. Sela; I. Ginsburg

1976-01-01

254

Oxygen radical production by avian leukocytes.  

PubMed Central

Oxygen radical production by heterophils of red-tailed hawks and chickens, and by neutrophils of calves, was evaluated in a chemiluminescence microassay. Leukocytes were isolated by centrifugation of blood in capillary tubes and then challenged with opsonized zymosan in the presence of luminol. Avian heterophils produced significantly fewer oxygen radicals than did bovine neutrophils. PMID:1884301

Conlon, P; Smith, D; Gowlett, T

1991-01-01

255

Analysis of blood leukocytes in a naturally occurring immunodeficiency of pigs shows the defect is localized to B and T cells.  

PubMed

Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the result of a set of inherited genetic defects which render components of the immune response nonfunctional. In Arabian horses, Jack Russell terriers, and mice, the disorder is a consequence of the absence of T and B lymphocytes, while natural killer (NK) cell and other leukocyte populations remain intact. Preliminary analysis of a naturally acquired form of inherited SCID in a line of pigs showed several defects in the architecture and composition of secondary lymphoid organs. In this study, a quantitative assessment of lymphocyte populations in affected and normal littermates showed depleted T or B lymphocyte populations in affected pigs; however, NK cells and neutrophils were present in numbers comparable to unaffected littermates. The results indicate that the immune defect in pigs shares the same features as other SCID-affected species. PMID:25454085

Ewen, C L; Cino-Ozuna, A G; He, H; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K; Rowland, R R R; Wyatt, C R

2014-12-15

256

Polymorphonuclear neutrophil in brain parenchyma after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.  

PubMed

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) infiltration into brain parenchyma after cerebrovascular accidents is viewed as a key component of secondary brain injury. Interestingly, a recent study of ischemic stroke suggests that after ischemic stroke, PMNs do not enter brain parenchyma and as such may cause no harm to the brain. Thus, the present study was designed to determine PMNs' behavior after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Using the autologous blood injection model of ICH in rats and immunohistochemistry for PMNs and vascular components, we evaluated the temporal and spatial PMNs distribution in the ICH-affected brain. We found that, similar to ischemia, there is a robust increase in presence of PMNs in the ICH-injured tissue that lasts for at least 1 to 2 weeks. However, in contrast to what was suggested for ischemia, besides PMNs that stay in association with the vasculature, after ICH, we found abundance of intraparenchymal PMNs (with no obvious association with vessels) in the ICH core and hematoma border, especially between 1 and 7 days after the ictus. Interestingly, the increased presence of intraparenchymal PMNs after ICH coincided with the massive loss of microvascular integrity, suggesting vascular disruption as a potential cause of PMNs presence in the brain parenchyma. Our study indicates that in contrast to ischemic stroke, after ICH, PMNs target not only vascular compartment but also brain parenchyma in the affected brain. As such, it is possible that the pathogenic role and therapeutic implications of targeting PMNs after ICH could be different from these after ischemic stroke. Our work suggests the needs for more studies addressing the role of PMNs in ICH. PMID:24696130

Zhao, Xiurong; Sun, Guanghua; Zhang, Han; Ting, Shun-Ming; Song, Shen; Gonzales, Nicole; Aronowski, Jaroslaw

2014-10-01

257

Migration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes is influenced by dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and populate many tissues where they may participate in inflammatory reactions. The infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNLs) into tissues is a prominent feature of inflammation. The mechanisms of PMNL recruitment depend on chemotactic factors and adhesion molecules expressed on endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether DCs participate in the early recruitment of PMNLs. Dendritic cells derived from peripheral blood monocytes were used for this study. PMNLs incubated with culture supernatant (CS) from untreated or from tumour necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-treated (1 hr, 100 U/ml, 37°) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) had increased surface expression of both CD11b and CD18. Moreover, both untreated and TNF-?-treated moDCs induced PMNL chemotaxis. By blocking CXCL8, CXCL5, CXCL7 and Pan GRO (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3), we observed that CXCL8/interleukin-8 might be the chemokine that induced the PMNL chemotactic activity in the CS of untreated and TNF-?-treated moDC. Furthermore, we investigated the regulation of CXCL8 production in moDCs by adhesion molecule engagement. Our data demonstrated that CD31, CD18, CD29 and CD49d participated in the adhesion of immature moDCs to endothelium. Moreover, engagement of domains 1–3 of CD31, but not of CD29 or CD18, decreased the production of CXCL8 by immature but not mature moDCs (which display lower CD31 levels than immature moDCs). Overall, these results suggest that DCs not only trigger a specific immune response, but also the innate immune response by recruiting PMNLs. Furthermore, our results also suggest that CXCL8 production by immature DCs might be regulated by signalling through CD31 during their migration through the vascular endothelium. PMID:15720439

Scimone, M Lucila; Lutzky, Viviana P; Zittermann, Sandra I; Maffia, Paulo; Jancic, Carolina; Buzzola, Fernanda; Issekutz, Andrew C; Chuluyan, H Eduardo

2005-01-01

258

Endothelial f-actin depolymerization enables leukocyte transmigration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A demanding task of medicine is to understand and control the immune system. Central players in the cellular immune response\\u000a are the leukocytes that leave the blood stream for host defense. Endothelial cells limit the emigration rate of leukocytes.\\u000a Being located between blood and tissues, they permit or deny the passage. The exact mechanism of this process called diapedesis\\u000a is

Laura Isac; Gerold Thoelking; Albrecht Schwab; Hans Oberleithner; Christoph Riethmuller

2011-01-01

259

A novel function for a glucose analog of blood group H antigen as a mediator of leukocyte-endothelial adhesion via intracellular adhesion molecule 1.  

PubMed

The 4A11 antigen is a unique cytokine-inducible antigen up-regulated on rheumatoid arthritis synovial endothelium compared with normal endothelium. In soluble form, this antigen, Lewisy-6/H-5-2 (Ley/H), or its glucose analog, 2-fucosyllactose (H-2g), mediates angiogenesis. The Ley/H antigen is structurally related to the soluble E-selectin ligand, sialyl Lewisx, and is selectively expressed in skin, lymphoid organs, thymus, and synovium, suggesting that it may be important in leukocyte homing or adhesion. In the present study, we used H-2g as a functional substitute to demonstrate a novel property for Ley/H antigen in inducing leukocyte-endothelial adhesion. H-2g significantly enhanced the expression of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs) intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), but not vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, E-selectin, and P-selectin. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting showed glycolipids Ley-6, H-5-2, or the glucose analog H-2g quickly activated human microvascular endothelial cell line-1 (HMEC-1) Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and that the JAK2 inhibitor, AG-490, completely inhibited HMVEC ICAM-1 expression and HL-60 adhesion to HMEC-1s. Use of a JAK/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) profiling system confirmed that H-2g selectively activated STAT3 but not STAT1 and STAT2. AG-490 inhibited H-2g-induced Erk1/2 and PI3K-Akt activation, suggesting that JAK2 is upstream of the Erk1/2 and PI3K-Akt pathways. Furthermore, the JAK2 inhibitor AG-490, the Erk1/2 inhibitor PD98059, or the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 or antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed against JAK2, Erk1/2, or phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase blocked H-2g-induced HMVEC ICAM-1 expression and HL-60 adhesion to HMEC-1s. Hence, H-2g signals through JAK2 and its downstream signal transducers STAT3, Erk1/2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase result in ICAM-1 expression and cell adhesion. Potential treatment strategies through the inhibition of JAK-dependent pathways to target H-2g signals may provide a useful approach in inflammation-driven diseases like rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:12672794

Zhu, Kui; Amin, M Asif; Kim, Michael J; Katschke, Kenneth J; Park, Christy C; Koch, Alisa E

2003-06-13

260

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

261

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

262

Endogenous Tetrapyrroles Influence Leukocyte Responses to Lipopolysaccharide in Human Blood: Pre-Clinical Evidence Demonstrating the Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Biliverdin  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is associated with abnormal host immune function in response to pathogen exposure, including endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS). Cytokines play crucial roles in the induction and resolution of inflammation in sepsis. Therefore, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endogenous tetrapyrroles, including biliverdin (BV) and unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) on LPS-induced cytokines in human blood. Biliverdin and UCB are by products of haem catabolism and have strong cytoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, whole human blood supplemented with BV and without was incubated in the presence or absence of LPS for 4 and 8 hours. Thereafter, whole blood was analysed for gene and protein expression of cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-6, TNF, IFN-?, IL-1Ra and IL-8. Biliverdin (50 ?M) significantly decreased the LPS-mediated gene expression of IL-1?, IL-6, IFN-?, IL-1Ra and IL-8 (P<0.05). Furthermore, BV significantly decreased LPS-induced secretion of IL-1? and IL-8 (P<0.05). Serum samples from human subjects and, wild type and hyperbilirubinaemic Gunn rats were also used to assess the relationship between circulating bilirubin and cytokine expression/production. Significant positive correlations between baseline UCB concentrations in human blood and LPS-mediated gene expression of IL-1? (R=0.929), IFN-? (R=0.809), IL-1Ra (R=0.786) and IL-8 (R=0.857) were observed in blood samples (all P<0.05). These data were supported by increased baseline IL-1? concentrations in hyperbilirubinaemic Gunn rats (P<0.05). Blood samples were also investigated for complement receptor-5 (C5aR) expression. Stimulation of blood with LPS decreased gene expression of C5aR (P<0.05). Treatment of blood with BV alone and in the presence of LPS tended to decrease C5aR expression (P=0.08). These data indicate that supplemented BV inhibits the ex vivo response of human blood to LPS. Surprisingly, however, baseline UCB was associated with heighted inflammatory response to LPS. This is the first study to explore the effects of BV in a preclinical human model of inflammation and suggests that BV could represent an anti-inflammatory target for the prevention of LPS mediated inflammation in vivo. PMID:25177524

Bisht, Kavita; Tampe, Jens; Shing, Cecilia; Bakrania, Bhavisha; Winearls, James; Fraser, John; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Bulmer, Andrew C.

2014-01-01

263

Acridine orange leukocyte fluorography in mice.  

PubMed

Simultaneous non-invasive visualization of blood vessels and nerves in patients can be obtained in the eye. The retinal vasculature is a target of many retinopathies. Inflammation, readily manifest by leukocyte adhesion to the endothelial lining, is a key pathophysiological mechanism of many retinopathies, making it a valuable and ubiquitous target for disease research. Leukocyte fluorography has been extensively used in the past twenty years; however, fluorescent markers, visualization techniques, and recording methods have differed between studies. The lack of detailed protocol papers regarding leukocyte fluorography, coupled with lack of uniformity between studies, has led to a paucity of standards for leukocyte transit (velocity, adherence, extravasation) in the retina. Here, we give a detailed description of a convenient method using acridine orange (AO) and a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO, HRA-OCT Spectralis) to view leukocyte behavior in the mouse retina. Normal mice are compared to mice with acute and chronic inflammation. This method can be readily adopted in many research labs. PMID:24333760

Cahoon, Judd M; Olson, Paul R; Nielson, Spencer; Miya, Tadashi R; Bankhead, Peter; McGeown, J Graham; Curtis, Timothy M; Ambati, Balamurali K

2014-03-01

264

Failure of P-selectin blockade alone to protect the liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated blood-perfused rat liver  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine if blockade of P-selectin in the isolated blood-perfused cold ex vivo rat liver model protects the liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: The effect of P-selectin blockade was assessed by employing an isolated blood-perfused cold ex vivo rat liver with or without P-selectin antibody treatment before and after 6 h of cold storage in University of Wisconsin solution. RESULTS: In our isolated blood-perfused rat liver model, pre-treatment with P-selectin antibody failed to protect the liver from ischemia-reperfusion injury, as judged by the elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity. In addition, P-selectin antibody treatment did not significantly reduced hepatic polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation after 120 min of perfusion. Histological evaluation of liver sections obtained at 120 min of perfusion showed significant oncotic necrosis in liver sections of both ischemic control and P-selectin antibody-treated groups. However, total bile production after 120 min of perfusion was significantly greater in P-selectin antibody-treated livers, compared to control livers. No significant difference in P-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNAs and proteins, GSH, GSSG, and nuclear NF-?B was found between control and P-selectin antibody-treated livers. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we have shown that blockade of P-selectin alone failed to reduced polymorphonuclear leukocyte accumulation in the liver and protect hepatocytes from ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated blood-perfused cold-ex vivo rat liver model. PMID:19058306

Wyllie, Samuel; Barshes, Neal R; Gao, Feng-Qin; Karpen, Saul J; Goss, John A

2008-01-01

265

Changes in apoptosis of human polymorphonuclear granulocytes with aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many alterations with aging occur at the cellular and organic levels in the immune system ultimately leading to a decrease in the immune response. Our aim in the present work was to study apoptosis of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) with aging under various stimulations since apoptosis might play an important role in several pathologies encountered with aging. The PMN of healthy

T Fülöp Jr; C Fouquet; P Allaire; N Perrin; G Lacombe; J Stankova; M Rola-Pleszczynski; D Gagné; J. R Wagner; A Khalil; G Dupuis

1997-01-01

266

MMP-8 promotes polymorphonuclear cell migration through collagen barriers in obliterative bronchiolitis  

PubMed Central

Increased levels of MMP-8 (neutrophil collagenase) have been reported in OB, but the biological role of MMP-8 in OB is not known. MMP-8 is an interstitial collagenase highly expressed by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, which are prominent in early OB. Here, we show that MMP-8 promotes migration of PMNs through the collagen-rich matrix in a mouse heterotopic airway transplant model of OB. Overall, MMP-8?/? mice had significantly fewer PMNs in the airway lumen 2 and 14 days post-transplantation, and the percentage of PMNs traversing the matrix to the lumen was decreased markedly in the MMP-8?/? compared with WT mice at 14 days. There were significantly more PMNs outside of the lumen in the ECM in the MMP-8?/? mice compared with WT mice. In vitro, significantly fewer MMP-8?/? PMNs migrated through 3D cross-linked collagen gels than WT PMNs. MMP inhibitor GM6001 was also able to impede migration of WT PMNs through collagen gels. The decreased migration was likely a result of pericollagenase activity of MMP-8, as WT PMNs expressing MMP-8 were not able to migrate effectively through collagen that was resistant to the collagenase. Protection from OB was seen in the MMP-8?/? mice, as the airway lumen had significantly less obliteration and collagen deposition, suggesting that MMP-8 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of OB. PMID:19801498

Khatwa, Umakanth A.; Kleibrink, Bjoern E.; Shapiro, Steven D.; Subramaniam, Meera

2010-01-01

267

Influence of latent iron deficiency on generation of oxygen species in polymorphonuclear leucocytes.  

PubMed

Measurement of luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) was employed to estimate the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in patients with latent iron deficiency. There were no differences in the resting value of PMN CL among 20 patients with iron deficient erythropoiesis (2.92 + 0.38 number of pulses) and 20 normal controls (3.07 + 0.52; P greater than 0.05), but a significant decrease of peak value of PMN CL was observed in patients (45.82 + 7.41) as compared with controls (76.08 + 10.12; P less than 0.01). CL production by PMN in 6 patients with storage iron depletion was similar to that of 6 healthy controls. As a good correlation was found between the peak value of PMN CL and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) level, increase of FEP could serve as a clinical indicator in the evaluation of decrease of ROS generation in PMN of patients with iron deficiency. Oral iron supplementation could effectively improve the impaired PMN ROS generation. PMID:2122944

Cu, Y; Zhang, Z N; Li, R S

1990-08-01

268

The Multiple Chemokine–Binding Bovine Herpesvirus 1 Glycoprotein G (BHV1gG) Inhibits Polymorphonuclear Cell but Not Monocyte Migration into Inflammatory Sites  

PubMed Central

Chemokines facilitate the recruitment of inflammatory cells into tissues, contributing to target organ injury in a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Targeting either single chemokines or chemokine receptors alters the progression of disease in animal models of rheumatoid arthritis and lupus with varying degrees of efficacy, but clinical trials in humans have been less successful. Given the redundancy of chemokine–chemokine receptor interactions, targeting of more than one chemokine may be required to inhibit active inflammatory disease. To test the effects of multiple chemokine blockade in inflammation, we generated an adenovirus expressing bovine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein G (BHV1gG), a viral chemokine antagonist that binds to a wide spectrum of murine and human chemokines, fused to the fragment crystallizable (Fc) portion of murine immunoglobulin (IgG)2a. Administration of the adenovirus significantly inhibited thioglycollate-induced migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice and reduced both clinical severity and articular damage in K/BxN serum transfer-induced arthritis. However, treatment with BHV1gG-Ig fusion protein did not prevent monocyte infiltration into the peritoneum in the thioglycollate model and did not prevent renal monocyte infiltration or nephritis in lupus-prone NZB/W mice. These observations suggest that the simultaneous inhibition of multiple chemokines by BHV1gG has the potential to interfere with acute inflammatory responses mediated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes, but is less effective in chronic inflammatory disease mediated by macrophages.

Liu, Zheng; Bethunaickan, Ramalingam; Sahu, Ranjit; Brenner, Max; Laragione, Teresina; Gulko, Percio S; Davidson, Anne

2013-01-01

269

Stimulation of Ca2+-dependent chemiluminescence in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes by polystyrene beads and the non-lytic action of complement.  

PubMed Central

(1) Chemiluminenscence of rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes was stimulated by a phagocytic stimulus, latex beads (diameter = 1.01 micrometer). The maximum chemiluminescent intensity increased with bead concentration in the range 0.2--20 x 10(9) beads/ml. This response was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ (1 mM EGTA). (2) Chemiluminescence could also be stimulated by the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 in the presence of extra-cellular calcium. (3) Addition of human serum, as a source of complement, to rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with anti-5'-nucleotidase serum resulted in a rapid stimulation of chemiluminescence, after a lag of about 40 s. (4) The stimulation of chemiluminescence by antibody plus complement was not the result of cell lysis because (i) no significant release of lactate dehydrogenase was detected at the time of the chemiluminescent response (ii) chemiluminescence was associated with the cells and not the surrounding media (iii) cell lysis did not produce chemiluminescence. (5) Chemiluminescence stimulated by antibody plus complement or by beads was inhibited by the 'calmodulin-blocker', trifluoperazine (50% inhibiton with approximately 20--30 microM). (6) Cu2+ (10(-4) M), which can inhibit C9 action, inhibited the rapid rise in chemiluminescence induced by antibody plus complement, but not the bead-induced chemiluminescence. (7) Depletion of C9 from human serum markedly inhibited the complement induced chemiluminescence response. Addition of purified C9 restored the response. (8) It was concluded that formation of the terminal complement attack complex at the surface of rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes induces a Ca2+-dependent chemiluminescence in the cells, in the absence of cell lysis. PMID:7319554

Hallett, M B; Luzio, J P; Campbell, A K

1981-01-01

270

The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance.  

PubMed

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P; Lo, Hui-Chen

2014-01-01

271

The Fruiting Bodies, Submerged Culture Biomass, and Acidic Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannan of Yellow Brain Mushroom Tremella mesenterica Modulate the Immunity of Peripheral Blood Leukocytes and Splenocytes in Rats with Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM), a chronic disease with hyperglycemia and impaired immune function, is increasing worldwide. Progression from impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to type 2 DM has recently become a target for early intervention. The fruiting bodies (FB) and submerged culture mycelium (CM) of Tremella mesenterica, an edible and medicinal mushroom, have been demonstrated to have antihyperglycemic and immunomodulatory activities in type 1 DM rats. Herein, we investigated the effects of acidic polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan (GX) extracted from CM on the immunocyte responses. Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) plus nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) for the induction of IGT, and gavaged daily with vehicle, FB, CM, or GX (1 g/kg/day). Rats injected with saline and gavaged vehicle were used as controls. Two weeks later, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and splenocytes were collected. Ingestion of FB, CM, and GX significantly decreased blood glucose levels in the postprandial period and in oral glucose tolerance test, and partially reversed T-splenocytic proliferation in IGT rats. CM significantly decreased T-helper lymphocytes in the PBLs and B-splenocytes. In addition, FB, CM, and GX significantly reversed the IGT-induced decreases in tumor necrosis factor-? production; GX significantly increased interleukin-6 production in T-lymphocytes in the PBLs and splenocytes; and CM and GX significantly reversed IGT-induced decrease in interferon-? production in T-lymphocytes in the spleen. In conclusion, FB, CM, and acidic polysaccharide GX of T. mesenterica may increase T-cell immunity via the elevation of proinflammatory and T-helper cytokine production in rats with impaired glucose tolerance. PMID:24872934

Hsu, Tai-Hao; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Lin, Fang-Yi; Wasser, Solomon P.; Lo, Hui-Chen

2014-01-01

272

Leukocyte extravasation: chemokine transport and presentation by the endothelium  

Microsoft Academic Search

At sites of inflammation and in normal immune surveillance, chemokines direct leukocyte migration across the endothelium. Many cell types that are extravascular can produce chemokines, and for these\\u000d\\u000amediators to directly elicit leukocyte migration from the blood, they would need to reach the luminal surface of the endothelium. This article reviews the evidence that endothelial cells are active in transcytosing

Angela Patterson; Caroline Schmutz; Brian Ashton

2002-01-01

273

[Combination of a simple hollow fiber system with leukocyte filter for production of leukocyte depleted erythrocyte concentrates and plasma].  

PubMed

Leukocyte-depleted red cell concentrate (RCC) and plasma were separated by a hollow fiber filter system combined with a leukocyte filter without any additional devices. The RCC with 100 ml additive solution had a weight of 329 g; hematocrit was 0.55, free hemoglobin 16 mg/dl; leukocytes were (0.6 +/- 0.6) x 10(9)/l. The plasma (268 g) contained 5.4 g/dl of total protein, and only a few blood cells; clotting factor VIII activity 75%, all satisfying the guidelines. PMID:1284718

Schwarzfischer, G; Heim, M U; Böck, M; Kratzer, M A; Mempel, W

1992-01-01

274

Ontogenetic regulation of leukocyte recruitment in mouse yolk sac vessels  

PubMed Central

In adult mammals, leukocyte recruitment follows a well-defined cascade of adhesion events enabling leukocytes to leave the circulatory system and transmigrate into tissue. Currently, it is unclear whether leukocyte recruitment proceeds in a similar fashion during fetal development. Considering the fact that the incidence of neonatal sepsis increases dramatically with decreasing gestational age in humans, we hypothesized that leukocyte recruitment may be acquired only late during fetal ontogeny. To test this, we developed a fetal intravital microscopy model in pregnant mice and, using LysEGFP (neutrophil reporter) mice, investigated leukocyte recruitment during fetal development. We show that fetal blood neutrophils acquire the ability to roll and adhere on inflamed yolk sac vessels during late fetal development, whereas at earlier embryonic stages (before day E15), rolling and adhesion were essentially absent. Accordingly, flow chamber experiments showed that fetal EGFP+ blood cells underwent efficient adhesion only when they were harvested on or after E15. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis on EGFP+ fetal blood cells revealed that surface expression of CXCR2 and less pronounced P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) begin to increase only late in fetal life. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that inflammation-induced leukocyte recruitment is ontogenetically regulated and enables efficient neutrophil trafficking only during late fetal life. PMID:23525796

Quackenbush, Elizabeth J.; Sushkova, Natalia; Altstätter, Johannes; Nussbaum, Claudia; Schmid, Stephan; Pruenster, Monika; Kurz, Angela; Margraf, Andreas; Steppner, Alina; Schweiger, Natalie; Borsig, Lubor; Boros, Ildiko; Krajewski, Nele; Genzel-Boroviczeny, Orsolya; Jeschke, Udo; Frommhold, David

2013-01-01

275

Towards a computational model of leukocyte adhesion cascade: Leukocyte rolling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recruitment of leukocytes into sites of acute and chronic inflammation is a vital component of the innate immune response in humans and plays an important role in cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and atherosclerosis. Leukocytes extravasate into the inflamed tissue through a multi-step process called "leukocyte adhesion cascade", which involves initial contact of a leukocyte with activated endothelium (tethering), leukocyte rolling, firm adhesion, and transendothelial migration. Recently we developed a fully three-dimensional CFD model of receptor-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelium in a parallel-plate flow chamber. The model treats the leukocyte as a viscoelastic cell with the nucleus located in the intracellular space and cylindrical microvilli distributed over the cell membrane. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion is assumed to be mediated by adhesion molecules expressed on the tips of cell microvilli and on endothelium. We show that the model can predict both shape changes and velocities of rolling leukocytes under physiological flow conditions. Results of this study also indicate that viscosity of the cytoplasm is a critical parameter of leukocyte adhesion, affecting the cell's ability to roll on endothelium. This work is supported by NIH Grant HL- 57446 and NCSA Grant BCS040006 and utilized the NCSA IBM p690.

Khismatullin, Damir

2005-11-01

276

Leukocyte integrin activation.  

PubMed

Certain stages of the immune response require interaction of leukocytes with each other and with non-hematopoietic cells. One of the systems implicated in these interactions involves an integrin, LFA-1 (Lymphocyte Function Antigen-1), expressed by all leukocytes at their cell surface, and a molecule belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily, ICAM-1 (Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1). The avidity of LFA-1 for ICAM-1 is transient. It is modulated both by regulation of ICAM-1 expression and by activation of LFA-1 molecules constitutively expressed on leukocyte membranes. This activation, which induces a conformational change in the molecule, depends on the presence of divalent cations, notably Mg++. This has been demonstrated by using a specific monoclonal antibody, MAb 24. In addition to being a ligand for LFA-1, ICAM-1 is sometimes used as a cell receptor by pathogens such as Plasmodium falciparum, the causative organism of malaria. Very careful study of the binding site of this pathogen using specific antibodies, mutagenesis studies and the construction of a three-dimensional model of the molecule suggests some interesting therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of malaria. PMID:1362459

Bates, P A; Berendt, A; Bennett, R; Cabańas, C; Craig, A; Harvey, J; McDowall, A; Hogg, N

1992-10-01

277

Getting Leukocytes to the Site of Inflammation  

PubMed Central

There is no “response” in either the innate or adaptive immune response unless leukocytes cross blood vessels. They do this through the process of diapedesis, in which the leukocyte moves in ameboid fashion through tightly apposed endothelial borders (paracellular transmigration) and in some cases through the endothelial cell itself (transcellular migration). This review summarizes the steps leading up to diapedesis, then focuses on the molecules and mechanisms responsible for transendothelial migration. Surprisingly, many of the same molecules and mechanisms that regulate paracellular migration also control transcellular migration, including a major role for membrane from the recently described lateral border recycling compartment. A hypothesis that integrates the various known mechanisms of transmigration is proposed. PMID:23345459

Muller, W. A.

2013-01-01

278

Host-pathogen interactions: leukocyte phagocytosis and associated sequelae.  

PubMed

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a critical component of the human innate immune response and are the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. Phagocytosis of invading microbes induces production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PMNs, which facilitates bactericidal activity. In addition to eliminating microorganisms, phagocytosis also accelerates PMN apoptosis, a process critical for resolution of inflammation. Inasmuch as leukocyte phagocytosis and ROS production are key components of the innate immune response, we developed flow cytometric methods to evaluate these processes in human PMNs. In contrast to traditional microscopy-based analyses, the methods described herein provide objective and high throughput measures of host cell-pathogen interactions. Importantly, they can be adapted for use with a number of fluorometric probes, and bacterium and host cell of choice, and each is based upon a common phagocytosis assay system. We also describe methods to measure phagocytosis-induced PMN apoptosis with this assay system. These methods entail detecting surface-exposed phosphatidylserine (early apoptosis), and measuring PMN chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation (late apoptosis). Taken together, these assays provide rapid and accurate assessment of critical PMN processes. PMID:12815296

Voyich, Jovanka M; DeLeo, Frank R

2002-01-01

279

Antirheumatic agents and leukocyte recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most anti-inflammatory agents used in the treatment of joint diseases exert inhibitory effects on leukocyte infiltration. Methotrexate, a disease-modifying drug, and corticosteroids also inhibit leukocyte accumulation during inflammation. However, the mechanisms of action of these different compounds on leukocytes vary and in the case of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) the mechanism(s) may be indirect. No current drug for inflammatory or

Michael J Parnham

1999-01-01

280

Aspirin and salicylate suppress polymorphonuclear apoptosis delay mediated by proinflammatory stimuli.  

PubMed

During inflammation, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) apoptosis can be delayed by different proinflammatory mediators. Classically, it has been accepted that the widely used anti-inflammatory drug acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) exerts its action through inhibition of cyclooxygenases and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis. We hypothesized that another anti-inflammatory action of ASA could be the shortening of PMN survival. We found that at therapeutic concentrations (1-3 mM), ASA and its metabolite salicylate (NaSal), but not indomethacin or ibuprofen, counteracted the prolonged PMN survival mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation. Both salicylates also inhibited interleukin (IL)-1alpha or acidic conditions antiapoptotic activity. Higher concentrations of both drugs had a direct apoptotic effect. Salicylates were not effective when PMN apoptosis delay was induced by granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a NF-kappaB-independent cytokine. Promotion of PMN survival by the combination of IL-1alpha and LPS was also reversed by salicylates, but higher concentrations were required. ASA concentrations that did not trigger PMN death increase the zymosan- or tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated proapoptotic effect. The LPS- and IL-1alpha- but not GM-CSF-mediated antiapoptotic effect was markedly reduced in PMNs from donors who had ingested ASA. Using a thioglycolate-induced peritonitis model, we showed that in ASA- or NaSal-treated mice there was not only a decrease in the number of cells recruited but also an increase in the percentage of apoptotic PMNs as well as an enhancement of phagocytosis compared with controls. Our findings demonstrate that acceleration of PMN apoptosis by turning off the NF-kappaB-mediated survival signals elicited by proinflammatory stimuli is another anti-inflammatory action of ASA and NaSal. PMID:16936242

Negrotto, Soledad; Malaver, Elisa; Alvarez, María Eugenia; Pacienza, Natalia; D'Atri, Lina Paola; Pozner, Roberto Gabriel; Gómez, Ricardo Martín; Schattner, Mirta

2006-11-01

281

The role of JAMA and PECAM-1 in modulating leukocyte infiltration in inflamed and ischemic tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Innate and adaptive immunological re- sponses are accompanied by leukocyte adhesion to the blood-vessel wall and their subsequent infiltra- tion into the underlying tissues. In the majority of the cases, leukocytes cross the endothelium by squeezing through the border of apposed endothe- lial cells, a process that is known as diapedesis. Many data suggest that proteins at endothelial junc- tions

Sussan Nourshargh; Fritz Krombach; Elisabetta Dejana

2006-01-01

282

1222 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MEDICAL IMAGING, VOL. 21, NO. 10, OCTOBER 2002 Tracking Leukocytes In Vivo With Shape and Size  

E-print Network

constrained snake model, we have coupled it with Kalman filter so that during coasting (when the leukocytes (white blood cells) rolling along the inner surface lining of small blood ves- sels called postcapillary venules. Studying the number and velocity of rolling leukocytes is essential to understanding

Acton, Scott

283

Transmigration of polymorphnuclear neutrophils and monocytes through the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier after bacterial infection in vitro  

PubMed Central

Background Bacterial invasion through the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) during bacterial meningitis causes secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines followed by the recruitment of leukocytes into the CNS. In this study, we analyzed the cellular and molecular mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) and monocyte transepithelial transmigration (TM) across the BCSFB after bacterial infection. Methods Using an inverted transwell filter system of human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), we studied leukocyte TM rates, the migration route by immunofluorescence, transmission electron microscopy and focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy, the secretion of cytokines/chemokines by cytokine bead array and posttranslational modification of the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) ? via western blot. Results PMNs showed a significantly increased TM across HIBCPP after infection with wild-type Neisseria meningitidis (MC58). In contrast, a significantly decreased monocyte transmigration rate after bacterial infection of HIBCPP could be observed. Interestingly, in co-culture experiments with PMNs and monocytes, TM of monocytes was significantly enhanced. Analysis of paracellular permeability and transepithelial electrical resistance confirmed an intact barrier function during leukocyte TM. With the help of the different imaging techniques we could provide evidence for para- as well as for transcellular migrating leukocytes. Further analysis of secreted cytokines/chemokines showed a distinct pattern after stimulation and transmigration of PMNs and monocytes. Moreover, the transmembrane glycoprotein SIRP? was deglycosylated in monocytes, but not in PMNs, after bacterial infection. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that PMNs and monoctyes differentially migrate in a human BCSFB model after bacterial infection. Cytokines and chemokines as well as transmembrane proteins such as SIRP? may be involved in this process. PMID:23448224

2013-01-01

284

Rabbit polymorphonuclear granulocyte function during ethanol administration--migration and oxidative responses in a joint with immune complex synovitis.  

PubMed Central

Functional impairments of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) are believed to contribute to hampered inflammation and host defence in alcoholics. We studied effects of i.v. ethanol administration on PMN responses in rabbits during induction of a knee-joint synovitis. The synovitis conferred systemic effects, since chemiluminescent responses of peripheral blood PMN to opsonized zymosan and phorpbol myristate acetate (PMA) increased 6.4- and 17.9-fold, respectively. Chemiluminescent responses of synovial PMN were further amplified. This up-regulation was reduced to 33% in rabbits treated with ethanol when opsonized zymosan was used as the PMN stimulus; in contrast, PMA responses were unaffected. The appearance and migration of PMN to the synovitis joint were normal despite a blood ethanol concentration of 0.5%. Thus, ethanol impaired release of oxygen metabolites from PMN, but not the delivery of cells at an inflammatory site. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7554380

Nilsson, E; Thomsen, P; Ericson, L; Palmblad, J

1995-01-01

285

Amplification of the activity of human leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF) by the generation of a low molecular weight inhibitor of PMN leukocyte chemotaxis.  

PubMed

Leukocyte inhibitory factor (LIF), which was derived from human peripheral blood lymphocytes by stimulation with concanavalin A ad partially purified by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration, inhibited the in vitro spontaneous migration and chemotaxis of human PMN leukocytes as assessed in a Boyden chamber micropore filter assay. The inhibitory activity was attributed to LIF, a principle defined in terms of its inhibition of PMN leukocyte migration from glass capillary tubes since it was preferentially directed to PMN leukocytes as compared to mononuclear leukocytes, exhibited a size comparable to LIF by gel filtration, and was inactivated by diisopropyl fluorophosphate in parallel with LIF. Incubation of PMN leukocytes with LIF released additional inhibitory activity, distinct from LIF, which resembled the neutrophil-immobilizing factor (NIF) by virtue of its approximate m.w. of 4000 by filtration on Sephadex G-25, inactivation by trypsin digestion, and preferential noncytotoxic inhibition of spontaneous migration and chemotaxis of PMN leukocytes as compared to mononuclear leukocytes. Thus LIF inhibits PMN leukocyte migration both by a direct action on the cells and by an amplification pathway that is mediated by low m.w. chemotactic inhibitors similar to NIF. PMID:690441

Goetzl, E J; Rocklin, R E

1978-09-01

286

Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

Goliaei, B.

1980-08-01

287

Oxidative response of polymorphonuclear leucocytes to synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.  

PubMed Central

Only a minority (7/35, 20%) of synovial fluids from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and none from patients with other arthritides stimulated the oxidative response of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). Superoxide anion generation was measured by superoxide dismutase inhibitable reduction of cytochrome c. The same synovial fluids stimulated superoxide release by PMNs regardless of their source, though they elicited a greater response from RA synovial fluid PMNs than from either RA blood PMNs or blood PMNs from normal subjects. The remaining synovial fluids failed to stimulate any of the PMNs, though some (2/10) stimulated PMNs pretreated with cytochalasin B. The stimulatory activity was removed from RA synovial fluids by protein A-Sepharose and eluted with the void volume on gel chromatography. It is considered that immunoglobulin aggregates in some RA synovial fluids may stimulate the oxidative response of PMNs in the joint space but that most do not because these fluids contain either a specific inhibitor or immunoglobulin aggregates of an inappropriate type, or both. PMID:2173500

Dularay, B; Badesha, J S; Dieppe, P A; Elson, C J

1990-01-01

288

In Vitro Leukocyte Thymidine Uptake in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In vitro uptake of thymidine-3H by leukocytes in 0.14 ml of blood was determined in 33 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, in widely varying disease and treatment status. Eight patients (three in complete peripheral remission and five with lymphocytosis) had uptake values within the nor mal range. These patients appeared to have unusually be nign disease, requiring little or

Roberto Lopez Sandoval; Houshang Moayeri; Joseph E. Sokal

289

Reduced platelet-mediated and enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis in experimentally induced diabetes in rats  

SciTech Connect

Studies of fibrinolytic activity in diabetes mellitus have produced conflicting results. This may be a result of methodologic insensitivity or of variable contributions of the different blood components to whole blood fibrinolysis. To explore these two possibilities, the authors used a sensitive solid-phase radiometric assay to examine the fibrinolytic activity of whole blood, platelet-rich plasma, leukocytes, and platelet- and leukocyte-poor plasma prepared from control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes at various times after induction of diabetes. Fibrinolytic activity of whole blood from diabetic rats after 7 days was significantly reduced, and remained reduced after longer durations of diabetes up to 28 days. Platelet-rich plasma from diabetic rats had decreased fibrinolytic activity, which followed the same time course of changes as in whole blood. The platelet contribution to whole blood fibrinolysis was further reduced in vivo after 14 days of diabetes by a reduced whole blood platelet count. In contrast, fibrinolytic activity of leukocytes from diabetic rats became enhanced after 7 days of diabetes. After 49 days of diabetes, the whole blood leukocyte count was reduced, and in vivo would offset the enhanced activity. Plasma fibrinolytic activity was small compared with that of whole blood and was unaltered in diabetic rats. The authors conclude that altered platelet function contributes to decreased fibrinolytic activity of whole blood in diabetic rats, and that this may be partially offset by enhanced leukocyte-mediated fibrinolysis.

Winocour, P.D.; Colwell, J.A.

1985-05-01

290

Lithium dosage and leukocyte counts in psychiatric patients.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate differences in leukocyte counts among patients treated with either lithium alone, antipsychotic medications alone, or a combination of both. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Long-stay psychiatric hospital. PATIENTS: Patients admitted between 1990 and 1993, and treated with lithium for at least 1 week and/or with antipsychotic medication for at least 2 weeks. Excluded from the study were those patients for whom complete blood counts at baseline and during therapy were not available, and those patients whose blood picture could primarily be accounted for by extraneous factors. Included in the study were 38 patients treated with lithium alone, 207 patients receiving antipsychotic medications alone, and 71 patients receiving both. OUTCOME MEASURES: Leukocyte, lymphocyte and granulocyte counts. RESULTS: Patients treated with lithium alone had significantly higher mean leukocyte and granulocyte counts than those treated with antipsychotic medication alone (analysis of variance, p < 0.05). None of the patients receiving lithium alone showed leukopenia. The dosage of lithium was significantly correlated with leukocyte count (r = 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.35, p < 0.001,) and granulocyte count (r = 0.27, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.38, p < 0.001), but not with lymphocyte count (r = 0.06, p = 0.286, 95% CI -0.05 to 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Lithium therapy is associated with higher leukocyte and granulocyte levels in psychiatric patients. This leukocytotic effect of lithium may be dose dependent. PMID:10354655

Oyewumi, L K; McKnight, M; Cernovsky, Z Z

1999-01-01

291

Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona.  

PubMed

Horses are considered accidental hosts for Sarcocystis neurona and they often develop severe neurological disease when infected with this parasite. Schizont stages develop in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause the neurological lesions associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. The present study was done to examine the ability of S. neurona merozoites to penetrate and develop in equine peripheral blood leukocytes. These infected host cells might serve as a possible transport mechanism into the CNS. S. neurona merozoites penetrated equine leukocytes within 5 min of co-culture. Infected leukocytes were usually monocytes. Infected leukocytes were present up to the final day of examination at 3 days. Up to three merozoites were present in an infected monocyte. No development to schizont stages was observed. All stages observed were in the host cell cytoplasm. We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis. PMID:16517080

Lindsay, David S; Mitchell, Sheila M; Yang, Jibing; Dubey, J P; Gogal, Robert M; Witonsky, Sharon G

2006-06-15

292

Precautions and Adverse Reactions during Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... leukocyte reduction), allergic reactions are less common. Fluid overload: Transfusion recipients can receive more fluid than their ... Special Blood Donation Procedures Next: Overview of Iron Overload

293

Production of superoxide ions by leukocytes of the American alligator ( Alligator mississippiensis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to characterize the production of superoxide ions by leukocytes in whole blood of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We used WST-1, a tetrazolium salt which can be reduced to a water-soluble formazan compound with high molar absorptivity at 438 nm, to probe the production of superoxide by alligator leukocytes. Incubation of alligator whole blood with WST-1 resulted

Mark Merchant; Stetson Williams; Ross Hardy

2009-01-01

294

Hydrodynamic forces on a wall-bound leukocyte in small vessels due to red cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the inflammation response, white blood cells (leukocytes) bind to the vessel wall before they transmigrate across the endothelium. The interactions between the wall-adhered leukocyte and flowing red blood cells (erythrocytes) play a critical role in this process. We provide a quantitative investigation of the forces exerted on a wall-bound leukocyte using a simulation tool that is based on a fast O(N N) boundary integral formulation. This permits simulations of red cells that are both realistically flexible and can approach to very close separation distances. The elastic membranes deform substantially but strongly resist surface dilatation. The no-slip condition is enforced both on the leukocyte and the round vessel walls. Vessel diameters from 10 to 20 microns are studied. At these scales the cellular-particulate nature of blood significantly affects the magnitude of the forces that the leukocyte experiences. For a tube hematocrit (cell volume fraction) of 25% and a spherical protrusion with a diameter 0.75 times that of the tube, the average forces are increased by about 40% and the local forces by more than 100% relative to those expected for a blood model homogenized by its effective viscosity. For a constant pressure gradient, the wall-bound leukocyte causes a blockage in the vessel. Different contact angles for the leukocyte as well as different mechanical properties for the erythrocytes are examined.

Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Freund, Jonathan B.

2010-11-01

295

Interstitial leukocyte migration in vivo  

PubMed Central

Rapid leukocyte motility is essential for immunity and host defense. There has been progress in understanding the molecular signals that regulate leukocyte motility both in vitro and in vivo. However, a gap remains in understanding how complex signals are prioritized to result in directed migration, which is critical for both adaptive and innate immune function. Here we focus on interstitial migration and how external cues are translated into intracellular signaling pathways that regulate leukocyte polarity, directional sensing and motility in three-dimensional spaces. PMID:23797028

Lam, Pui-ying; Huttenlocher, Anna

2013-01-01

296

A study of the effect of povidone-iodine on polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis.  

PubMed Central

Studies were made of the effect of povidone-iodine on polymorphonuclear leucocyte chemotaxis. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes were incubated with various concentrations of povidone-iodine and allowed to migrate across a membrane towards a chemotactic agent. Chemotactic movement was found to decrease as the concentration of povidone-iodine rose, 75 micrograms/ml completely inhibiting all movement. A concentration of 10 micrograms/ml of povidone-iodine was found actively to repel the white cells. In vivo studies in mice showed a reduction in polymorphonuclear leucocytes at wound surfaces in the presence of povidone-iodine dry powder spray. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:540106

Connolly, J. C.; Gilmore, O. J.

1979-01-01

297

Hydrodynamic forces on a wall-bound leukocyte due to interactions with flowing red cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of both healthy and pathologically physiological mechanisms sphere-like white blood cells (leukocytes) adhere to the walls of small blood vessels. We use quantitative numerical simulations to compare the forces from flowing red blood cells on a wall-adhered leukocyte to a homogenized model of blood at the same flow conditions. We model the highly flexible red blood cells using a fast O(N N) boundary integral formulation. These elastic membranes deform substantially but strongly resist surface dilatation. They enclose a higher than plasma viscosity hemoglobin solution. The no-slip condition is enforced on the stationary leukocyte as well as the vessel walls. Vessel diameters of 10 to 20 microns are studied. Different hematocrits, leukocyte shapes, and flow conditions are examined. In vessels comparable to the size of the cells, we show that the particulate character of blood significantly affects the magnitude of the forces that the leukocyte experiences, transiently increasing it well above the homogenized-blood prediction: for example, for a tube hematocrit of 25% and a spherical protrusion with a diameter 0.75 that of the tube, the average forces are increased by about 40% and the local forces by more than 100% relative to those expected for a blood model homogenized by its effective viscosity.

Isfahani, Amir H. G.; Freund, Jonathan B.

2011-11-01

298

Programmed Death Ligand 1 on Burkholderia pseudomallei-Infected Human Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils Impairs T Cell Functions.  

PubMed

Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are terminally differentiated cells that are involved in innate immune responses and form an early line of defense against pathogens. More recently, it has been shown that PMNs have immunosuppressive abilities on other immune cells. However, the effect of PMNs on T cell responses during bacterial infection remains to be determined. In this report, we examined the interaction of PMNs and T cells in response to infection with Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of human melioidosis. We observed that CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-? production in response to polyclonal activators is significantly inhibited by uninfected PMNs, and to a greater extent B. pseudomallei-infected PMNs. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a known regulator of T cell activation, is increased in mRNA expression in the blood of patients and upon infection of PMNs in vitro. The increased expression of PD-L1 was correlated with the degree of T cell inhibition in individuals with type 2 diabetes, a major risk factor of melioidosis. In vitro, addition of anti-PD-L1 Abs blocked this inhibitory activity and restored proliferation of CD4(+) T cells and IFN-? production, suggesting that PD-L1 on B. pseudomallei-infected PMNs is a regulatory molecule for the functions of T cells and may be involved in pathogenesis versus control of melioidosis. PMID:25801435

Buddhisa, Surachat; Rinchai, Darawan; Ato, Manabu; Bancroft, Gregory J; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana

2015-05-01

299

Biomaterials differentially regulate Src kinases and phosphoinositide 3-kinase-? in polymorphonuclear leukocyte primary and tertiary granule release.  

PubMed

In the foreign body response, infiltrating PMNs exocytose granule subsets to influence subsequent downstream inflammatory and wound healing events. In previous studies, we found that PMNs cultured on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-containing hydrogels (i.e., PEG and gelatin + PEG hydrogels) had enhanced primary granule release, yet similar tertiary granule release compared with PMNs cultured on polydimethylsiloxane or tissue culture polystyrene. PMN primary granules contain microbicidal proteins and proteases, which can potentially injure bystander cells, degrade the extracellular matrix, and promote inflammation. Here, we sought to understand the mechanism of the enhanced primary granule release from PMNs on PEG hydrogels. We found that primary granule release from PMNs on PEG hydrogels was adhesion mediated and involved Src family kinases and PI3K-?. The addition of gelatin to PEG hydrogels did not further enhance PMN primary granule release. Using stable-isotope dimethyl labeling-based shotgun proteomics, we identified many serum proteins - including Ig gamma constant chain region proteins and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 - that were absorbed/adsorbed in higher quantities on PEG hydrogels than on TCPS, and may be involved in mediating PMN primary granule release. Ultimately, this mechanistic knowledge can be used to direct inflammation and wound healing following biomaterial implantation to promote a more favorable healing response. PMID:25736495

Cohen, Hannah Caitlin; Frost, Dustin C; Lieberthal, Tyler Jacob; Li, Lingjun; Kao, W John

2015-05-01

300

The activation of gold complexes by cyanide produced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. III. The formation of aurocyanide by myeloperoxidase.  

PubMed

There is considerable evidence that the anti-rheumatic gold complexes are activated by their conversion to aurocyanide. In order to understand the mechanism of production of aurocyanide, we investigated the involvement of myeloperoxidase in the reaction. This haem enzyme of neutrophils and monocytes uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidise chloride and thiocyanate to hypochlorous acid and hypothiocyanite, respectively. When aurothiomalate (10 microM) was incubated with thiocyanate (200 microM), hydrogen peroxide (100 microM) and myeloperoxidase (20 nM), it was transformed to a product that was spectrally identical to authentic aurocyanide. Aurothiomalate was quantitatively converted to aurocyanide in about 10 min at pH 6.0 and in 40 min at pH 7.4. Aurocyanide formation occurred after myeloperoxidase had used all the hydrogen peroxide available to produce hypothiocyanite. Thus, the cyanide must have formed from the slow decomposition of hypothiocyanite. The rate of aurocyanide production was increased in the presence of 100 mM chloride, which indicates that hypochlorous acid accelerates the formation of cyanide. Hypochlorous acid (100 to 400 microM) reacted non-enzymatically with thiocyanate (200 microM) and aurothiomalate (10 microM) to produce aurocyanide. Thus, aurocyanide is produced by two processes, involving both the formation of hypothiocyanite and hypochlorous acid. Aurocyanide is an effective inhibitor of the respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes and the proliferation of lymphocytes. Therefore, aurothiomalate may attenuate inflammation by acting as a pro-drug which is reliant on neutrophils and monocytes to produce hypothiocyanite. When the hypothiocyanite decays to hydrogen cyanide, the pro-drug is converted to aurocyanide which then suppresses further oxidant production by these inflammatory cells. PMID:9744567

Graham, G G; Kettle, A J

1998-08-01

301

Functional and metabolic studies of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the canine homologue of congenital Pelger-Huet Anomaly  

E-print Network

or pseudo Pelger-Huet Anomaly may be confused with the congenital form. Cases of pseudo-PHA have been reported in association with myeloproliferative disorders including chronic myeloid leukemia coupled with busulfan therapy, multiple myeloma... with urethane therapy, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia and agnogenic myeloid leukemia where no chemotheraputic agents were used. Other conditions in which a transient occurance of pseudo-PHA cells has been reported include acute enteritis, malaria, influenza...

Browder, Elizabeth Jarratt

1985-01-01

302

Clindamycin at subinhibitory concentrations enhances antibody- and complement-dependent phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed

The influence of subinhibitory concentrations of clindamycin on opsonization and phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus was studied. S. aureus was grown overnight in the presence or absence of one half or one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clindamycin. Radioactively labeled S. aureus was opsonized for various periods of time in different concentrations of normal serum, heated antiserum and serum of patients with agammaglobulinaemia or C3 deficiency. Complement- as well as antibody-dependent phagocytosis of the antibiotic treated S. aureus was significantly enhanced, compared to phagocytosis of the untreated control. Killing experiments showed that clindamycin-treated S. aureus was also better killed by the granulocytes than untreated S. aureus. The mechanism of action is likely to be an increased susceptibility of clindamycin-treated bacteria to antibody- and complement-dependent phagocytosis. PMID:3608624

Veringa, E M; Verhoef, J

1987-01-01

303

Heparan sulphate as a regulator of leukocyte recruitment in inflammation.  

PubMed

A key event in inflammatory disease is the transendothelial recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation to the site of inflammation. Intense research in the past decades indicates that the polyanionic carbohydrate heparan sulphate (HS) modulates multiple steps in the leukocyte recruitment cascade. Leukocyte recruitment is initiated by endothelial cell activation and presentation of chemokines to rolling leukocytes, which, via integrin activation, results in adhesion and diapedesis through the vessel wall. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) immobilize the chemokines on the luminal endothelial cells, rendering them more robust against mechanical or hydrodynamic perturbations. During inflammation, endothelial HSPGs serve as ligands to L-selectin on leukocytes, transport chemokines in a basolateral to apical direction across the endothelium, and present chemokines at the luminal surface of the endothelium to circulating cells. HSPGs also promote chemokine oligomerization, which influences chemokine receptor signaling. Furthermore, proteoglycans of the syndecan family are involved in modulating integrin-mediated tight adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium. Creation of a chemokine gradient by a localized chemokine release influences the speed of leukocyte recruitment from the blood to the tissue by attracting crawling neutrophils to optimal sites for transmigration. The directionality of intraluminal crawling is thought to be influenced by both mechanotactic and haptotactic signals, which are modulated by HS-dependent signaling processes. Finally, diapedesis is influenced by HS regarding transendothelial chemokine gradient formation and integrin- CAM interactions, and further enhanced by heparanase-mediated degradation of the endothelial basement membrane. Overall, the multifunctional role of HS in inflammation marks it as a potential target of glycan-centered therapeutic approaches. PMID:25692849

Kumar, Archana V; Katakam, Sampath K; Urbanowitz, Ann-Kathrin; Gotte, Martin

2015-01-01

304

Imaging leukocytes in vivo with third harmonic generation microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Without a labeling, we demonstrated that lipid granules in leukocytes have distinctive third harmonic generation (THG) contrast. Excited by a 1230nm femtosecond laser, THG signals were generated at a significantly higher level in neutrophils than other mononuclear cells, whereas signals in agranular lymphocytes were one order smaller. These characteristic THG features can also be observed in vivo to trace the newly recruited leukocytes following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Furthermore, using video-rate THG microscopy, we also captured images of blood cells in human capillaries. Quite different from red-blood-cells, every now and then, round and granule rich blood cells with strong THG contrast appeared in circulation. The corresponding volume densities in blood, evaluated from their frequencies of appearance and the velocity of circulation, fall within the physiological range of human white blood cell counts. These results suggested that labeling-free THG imaging may provide timely tracing of leukocyte movement and hematology inspection without disturbing the normal cellular or physiological status.

Tsai, Cheng-Kun; Chen, Chien-Kuo; Chen, Yu-Shing; Wu, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, Tsung-Yuan; Liu, Han-Wen; Yeh, Chiou-Yueh; Lin, Win-Li; Chia, Jean-San; Liu, Tzu-Ming

2013-02-01

305

Lactoferrin-deficient neutrophil polymorphonuclear leucocytes in leukaemias: a semiquantitative and ultrastructural cytochemical study.  

PubMed Central

Semiquantitative analysis of lactoferrin deficiency in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leucocytes in various haematological and non-haematological disease was carried out by scoring polymorphonuclear leucocytes stained for lactoferrin by the immunoperoxidase method. The staining patterns for lactoferrin were classified into four types (0-III) based on the intensity of reaction, and the sum of the ratings of 100 polymorphonuclear leucocytes was considered as "lactoferrin score" with a possible range of 0-300. As a result, significantly low lactoferrin-scores were frequently observed in acute leukaemias and the acute phase of chronic leukaemias. Of 35 cases with leukaemias, lactoferrin-negative polymorphonuclear leucocytes (type 0) were observed in the following cases: eight cases of acute myelogenous leukaemia (8/14), a case of chronic myelogenous leukaemia (1/10) in blast crisis, one of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (1/1), one of acute monocytic leukaemia (1/2), and a case of chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (1/2) in a transitional phase to an acute myelomonocytic leukaemia. In two cases of acute myelogenous leukaemia, in which the majority of polymorphonuclear leucocytes were negative for lactoferrin, ultrastructural cytochemical study revealed total lack of specific granules in these polymorphonuclear leucocytes. This suggests that lactoferrin is localised in the specific granules of neutrophils as has been postulated previously by others. Images PMID:6317719

Miyauchi, J; Watanabe, Y; Enomoto, Y; Takeuchi, K

1983-01-01

306

Altered Mitochondrial Function and Oxidative Stress in Leukocytes of Anorexia Nervosa Patients  

PubMed Central

Context Anorexia nervosa is a common illness among adolescents and is characterised by oxidative stress. Objective The effects of anorexia on mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes from anorexic subjects were evaluated. Design and setting A multi-centre, cross-sectional case-control study was performed. Patients Our study population consisted of 20 anorexic patients and 20 age-matched controls, all of which were Caucasian women. Main outcome measures Anthropometric and metabolic parameters were evaluated in the study population. To assess whether anorexia nervosa affects mitochondrial function and redox state in leukocytes of anorexic patients, we measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione levels, mitochondrial mass, and complex I and III activity in polymorphonuclear cells. Results Mitochondrial function was impaired in the leukocytes of the anorexic patients. This was evident in a decrease in mitochondrial O2 consumption (P<0.05), mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.01) and GSH levels (P<0.05), and an increase in ROS production (P<0.05) with respect to control subjects. Furthermore, a reduction of mitochondrial mass was detected in leukocytes of the anorexic patients (P<0.05), while the activity of mitochondrial complex I (P<0.001), but not that of complex III, was found to be inhibited in the same population. Conclusions Oxidative stress is produced in the leukocytes of anorexic patients and is closely related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Our results lead us to propose that the oxidative stress that occurs in anorexia takes place at mitochondrial complex I. Future research concerning mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress should aim to determine the physiological mechanism involved in this effect and the physiological impact of anorexia. PMID:25254642

Victor, Victor M.; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Saiz-Alarcon, Vanessa; Sangüesa, Maria C.; Rojo-Bofill, Luis; Bańuls, Celia; Falcón, Rosa; Castelló, Raquel; Rojo, Luis; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio

2014-01-01

307

Endothelial signaling in paracellular and transcellular leukocyte transmigration  

PubMed Central

As the primary physical barrier between blood and tissue compartments within the body, blood vessel endothelial cells and integrity of the cell junctions connecting them must be carefully regulated to support leukocyte transendothelial migration only when necessary. Leukocytes utilize two independent routes across the endothelium: the paracellular route involves migration in-between adjacent endothelial cells and requires the transient disassembly of endothelial cell junctions, while the transcellular route occurs directly through an individual endothelial cell, likely requiring the formation of a channel or pore. In this review, I will first summarize the signaling events that are transduced by leukocyte engagement of endothelial cell-surface receptors like ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Some of these signals include activation of GTPases, production of reactive oxygen species, and phosphorylation of target proteins. These signaling pathways converge to cause junctional disruption, cytoskeletal remodeling, and/or the membrane fusion events that are associated with leukocyte transendothelial migration. The review will conclude with a detailed discussion of the newly characterized transmigratory cup structure, and the recent advances made towards understanding the mechanisms of transcellular transendothelial migration. PMID:19273217

Wittchen, Erika S.

2008-01-01

308

An evaluation of the role of leukocytes in the pathogenesis of experimentally induced corneal vascularization.  

PubMed Central

Studies of corneal explants in the hamster cheek pouch chamber have demonstrated that blood vessels invade the cornea only if the tissue is first infiltrated by leukocytes. In view of this observation, a comparative study of the events that precede and accompany corneal vascularization was undertaken in various experimental models. A variety of established methods were used to induce corneal vascularization, including exposure of the cornea to noxious agents, intracorneal injection of antigens into sensitized animals, as well as maintaining animals on diets deficient in vitamin A or riboflavin. In all models studied, the corneal vascularization was a manifestation of the reparative phase of the inflammatory response. A conspicuous leukocytic infiltrate of the cornea preceded and accompanied the corneal vascularization in all of the models. Although the lesions varied in several respects in the different models, all models displayed three phases with regard to vascularization: an early prevascular phase of leukocytic infiltration, a second phase where blood vessels persisted in the cornea in the absence of leukocytes. The latent period that preceded vascularization was directly related to the time of the initial leukocytic infiltration. The models in which a delay occurred in the leukocytic invasion displayed a subsequent delay in the vascular ingrowth. Conversely, in experiments where there was a rapid and extensive leukocytic invasion, there was also an early and enhanced corneal vasoproliferative response. In the various modesl investigated, the sites of the leukocytic infiltration and subsequent vascular ingrowth into the cornea paralleled each other. The data further support the hypotheses that leukocytes are a prerequisite to corneal vascularization and that leukocytes produce one or more factors which stimulate directional vascular growth. Images Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 PMID:1137003

Fromer, C. H.; Klintworth, G. K.

1975-01-01

309

Receptor cleavage and P-selectin-dependent reduction of leukocyte adhesion in the spontaneously hypertensive rat  

PubMed Central

The SHR, a genetic model for hypertension and the metabolic syndrome, has attenuated leukocyte adhesion to the postcapillary endothelium by an unknown mechanism. Based on recent evidence of elevated levels of MMPs in plasma and on microvascular endothelium of the SHR with cleavage of several receptor types, we hypothesize that the reduced leukocyte-endothelial interaction is a result of enhanced proteolytic cleavage of P-selectin on the postcapillary endothelium and PSGL-1 on leukocytes. The attenuated rolling interactions of SHR leukocytes with the endothelium were restored by chronic treatment with a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (CGS) for 24 weeks. The SHR MMP levels, in plasma and mesentery, as well as the systolic blood pressure, decreased significantly with treatment. In the SHR mesentery, labeling of P-selectin in the postcapillary venules by immunohistochemistry demonstrated, on average, a 31% lower extracellular P-selectin density compared with the normotensive WKY. A significantly lower extracellular PSGL-1 density on the membranes of SHR neutrophils compared with the WKY also supported our hypothesis. In vivo stimulation of the mesenteric postcapillary venules with histamine demonstrated that the SHR had an attenuated response, as measured by leukocyte rolling velocity on the endothelium. The reduced P-selectin and PSGL-1 density, on SHR postcapillary endothelium and on SHR leukocytes, respectively, was restored significantly by chronic MMP inhibition. The impaired ability of SHR leukocytes to reduce rolling velocity upon inflammatory stimulation led to fewer firmly adhered leukocytes to the endothelium as a contributor to immune suppression. PMID:22566571

Chen, Angela Y.; Ha, Jessica N.; DeLano, Frank A.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

2012-01-01

310

Initial blood storage experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

1988-01-01

311

A multiscale SPH particle model of the near-wall dynamics of leukocytes in flow.  

PubMed

A novel multiscale Lagrangian particle solver based on SPH is developed with the intended application of leukocyte transport in large arteries. In such arteries, the transport of leukocytes and red blood cells can be divided into two distinct regions: the bulk flow and the near-wall region. In the bulk flow, the transport can be modeled on a continuum basis as the transport of passive scalar concentrations. Whereas in the near-wall region, specific particle tracking of the leukocytes is required and lubrication forces need to be separately taken into account. Because of large separation of spatio-temporal scales involved in the problem, simulations of red blood cells and leukocytes are handled separately. In order to take the exchange of leukocytes between the bulk fluid and the near-wall region into account, solutions are communicated through coupling of conserved quantities at the interface between these regions. Because the particle tracking is limited to those leukocytes lying in the near-wall region only, our approach brings considerable speedup to the simulation of leukocyte circulation in a test geometry of a backward-facing step, which encompasses many flow features observed in vivo. PMID:24009138

Gholami, Babak; Comerford, Andrew; Ellero, Marco

2014-01-01

312

Assessing Leukocyte-endothelial Interactions Under Flow Conditions in an Ex Vivo Autoperfused Microflow Chamber Assay  

PubMed Central

Leukocyte-endothelial interactions are early and critical events in acute and chronic inflammation and can, when dysregulated, mediate tissue injury leading to permanent pathological damage. Existing conventional assays allow the analysis of leukocyte adhesion molecules only after the extraction of leukocytes from the blood. This requires the blood to undergo several steps before peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can be ready for analysis, which in turn can stimulate PBLs influencing the research findings. The autoperfused micro flow chamber assay, however, allows scientists to study early leukocytes functional dysregulation using the systemic flow of a live mouse while having the freedom of manipulating a coated chamber. Through a disease model, the functional expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules can be assessed and quantified in a micro-glass chamber coated with immobilized endothelial adhesion molecules ex vivo. In this model, the blood flows between the right common carotid artery and left external jugular vein of a live mouse under anesthesia, allowing the interaction of native PBLs in the chamber. Real-time experimental analysis is achieved with the assistance of an intravital microscope as well as a Harvard Apparatus pressure device. The application of a flow regulator at the input point of the glass chamber allows comparable physiological flow conditions amongst the experiments. Leukocyte rolling velocity is the main outcome and is measured using the National Institutes of Health open-access software ImageJ. In summary, the autoperfused micro flow chamber assay provides an optimal physiological environment to study leukocytes endothelial interaction and allows researchers to draw accurate conclusions when studying inflammation. PMID:25590688

Connor, Kip M.

2014-01-01

313

Assessing leukocyte-endothelial interactions under flow conditions in an ex vivo autoperfused microflow chamber assay.  

PubMed

Leukocyte-endothelial interactions are early and critical events in acute and chronic inflammation and can, when dysregulated, mediate tissue injury leading to permanent pathological damage. Existing conventional assays allow the analysis of leukocyte adhesion molecules only after the extraction of leukocytes from the blood. This requires the blood to undergo several steps before peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can be ready for analysis, which in turn can stimulate PBLs influencing the research findings. The autoperfused micro flow chamber assay, however, allows scientists to study early leukocytes functional dysregulation using the systemic flow of a live mouse while having the freedom of manipulating a coated chamber. Through a disease model, the functional expression of leukocyte adhesion molecules can be assessed and quantified in a micro-glass chamber coated with immobilized endothelial adhesion molecules ex vivo. In this model, the blood flows between the right common carotid artery and left external jugular vein of a live mouse under anesthesia, allowing the interaction of native PBLs in the chamber. Real-time experimental analysis is achieved with the assistance of an intravital microscope as well as a Harvard Apparatus pressure device. The application of a flow regulator at the input point of the glass chamber allows comparable physiological flow conditions amongst the experiments. Leukocyte rolling velocity is the main outcome and is measured using the National Institutes of Health open-access software ImageJ. In summary, the autoperfused micro flow chamber assay provides an optimal physiological environment to study leukocytes endothelial interaction and allows researchers to draw accurate conclusions when studying inflammation. PMID:25590688

Mulki, Lama; Sweigard, J Harry; Connor, Kip M

2014-01-01

314

Reactivity of cross-reacting monoclonal antibodies with canine leukocytes, platelets and erythrocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A panel of 380 commercially available monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human CD molecules from various sources was tested during the 8th Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigen Workshop (HLDA8) for cross-reactivity on canine peripheral blood leukocytes by flow cytometry. In addition, all mAbs were used to label a 50:50 mixture of platelets and erythrocytes of the same dogs. This testing resulted in

Hans-Joachim Schuberth; Gintare Kucinskiene; Rea-Min Chu; Martin Faldyna

2007-01-01

315

Exogenous Application of Platelet-Leukocyte Gel during Open Subacromial Decompression Contributes to Improved Patient Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Platelet-leukocyte gel (PLG) is being used during various surgical procedures in an attempt to enhance the healing process. We studied the effects of PLG on postoperative recovery of patients undergoing open subacromial decompression (OSD). Methods: PLG was produced from platelet-leukocyte-rich plasma (P-LRP), prepared from a unit of whole blood. Forty patients were included in the study. Self-assessed evaluations, using

P. A. Everts; R. J. J. Devilee; C. Brown Mahoney; A. van Erp; C. J. M. Oosterbos; M. Stellenboom; J. T. A. Knape; A. van Zundert

2008-01-01

316

Hematologically important mutations: leukocyte adhesion deficiency (first update).  

PubMed

Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an immunodeficiency caused by defects in the adhesion of leukocytes (especially neutrophils) to the blood vessel wall. As a result, patients with LAD suffer from severe bacterial infections and impaired wound healing, accompanied by neutrophilia. In LAD-I, mutations are found in ITGB2, the gene that encodes the ? subunit of the ?(2) integrins. This syndrome is characterized directly after birth by delayed separation of the umbilical cord. In the rare LAD-II disease, the fucosylation of selectin ligands is disturbed, caused by mutations in SLC35C1, the gene that encodes a GDP-fucose transporter of the Golgi system. LAD-II patients lack the H and Lewis Le(a) and Le(b) blood group antigens. Finally, in LAD-III (also called LAD-I/variant) the conformational activation of the hematopoietically expressed ? integrins is disturbed, leading to leukocyte and platelet dysfunction. This last syndrome is caused by mutations in FERMT3, encoding the kindlin-3 protein in all blood cells that is involved in the regulation of ? integrin conformation. PMID:22134107

van de Vijver, Edith; Maddalena, Anne; Sanal, Özden; Holland, Steven M; Uzel, Gulbu; Madkaikar, Manisha; de Boer, Martin; van Leeuwen, Karin; Köker, M Yavuz; Parvaneh, Nima; Fischer, Alain; Law, S K Alex; Klein, Nigel; Tezcan, F Ilhan; Unal, Ekrem; Patiroglu, Turkan; Belohradsky, Bernd H; Schwartz, Klaus; Somech, Raz; Kuijpers, Taco W; Roos, Dirk

2012-01-15

317

Leukocyte driven-decidual angiogenesis in early pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Successful pregnancy and long-term, post-natal maternal and offspring cardiac, vascular and metabolic health require key maternal cardiovascular adaptations over gestation. Within the pregnant decidualizing uterus, coordinated vascular, immunological and stromal cell changes occur. Considerable attention has been given to the roles of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in initiating decidual spiral arterial remodeling, a process normally completed by mid-gestation in mice and in humans. However, leukocyte roles in much earlier, region specific, decidual vascular remodeling are now being defined. Interest in immune cell-promoted vascular remodeling is driven by vascular aberrations that are reported in human gestational complications such as infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, preeclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction. Appropriate maternal cardiovascular responses during pregnancy protect mothers and their children from later cardiovascular disease risk elevation. One of the earliest uterine responses to pregnancy in species with hemochorial placentation is stromal cell decidualization, which creates unique niches for angiogenesis and leukocyte recruitment. In early decidua basalis, the aspect of the implantation site that will cradle the developing placenta and provide the major blood vessels to support mature placental functions, leukocytes are greatly enriched and display specialized properties. UNK cells, the most abundant leukocyte subset in early decidua basalis, have angiogenic abilities and are essential for normal early decidual angiogenesis. The regulation of uNK cells and their roles in determining maternal and progeny cardiovascular health over pregnancy and postpartum are discussed. PMID:25066422

Lima, Patricia DA; Zhang, Jianhong; Dunk, Caroline; Lye, Stephen J; Anne Croy, B

2014-01-01

318

Metabolism of leukotriene B4 to dihydro and dihydro-oxo products by porcine leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

Porcine leukocytes contain a novel pathway for the metabolism of leukotriene B4 (LTB4) which results in reduction of the conjugated triene chromophore to a conjugated diene. These cells converted LTB4 to two major metabolites, both of which exhibited maximal absorbance at 230 nm in their UV spectra. These products were purified by high pressure liquid chromatography and identified as 10, 11-dihydro-LTB4 and 10,11-dihydro-12-oxo-LTB4 on the basis of the mass spectra of various derivatives. The position of the double bond of LTB4 which had been reduced was established by cleaving the remaining double bonds of 10, 11-dihydro-LTB4 with ozone followed by oxidation or reduction of the resulting ozonide and analysis of the products by mass spectrometry. Experiments with deuterium-labeled substrate indicated that LTB4 could be directly converted to 10, 11-dihydro-LTB4 without the prior oxidation of either of its hydroxyl groups, as is required for the formation of dihydro metabolites of prostaglandins. Incubation of porcine leukocytes with 10, 11-dihydro-LTB4 and 10, 11-dihydro-12-oxo-LTB4 indicated that these two products can be interconverted and are in equilibrium with one another. The dihydro-oxo metabolite can therefore be formed from 10, 11-dihydro-LTB4, although we have not ruled out the possibility that it is also produced via 12-oxo-LTB4, which could be a transitory intermediate. These results indicate that porcine leukocytes contain a novel reductase/dehydrogenase pathway distinct from the pathway responsible for the metabolism of prostaglandins. This pathway is also different from the pathway in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes which converts 6-trans-isomers of LTB4 to dihydro products, since the latter pathway involves 5-oxo intermediates and results in a shift in the positions of the remaining double bonds.

Powell, W.S.; Gravelle, F.

1989-04-05

319

Spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer induces migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the uterine cavity of the sow.  

PubMed

Seminal plasma (SP) is a complex fluid which exerts biological actions in the female reproductive tract. In pigs, SP elicits endometrial inflammation and consequent immune changes after mating. This study tested whether heparin-binding spermadhesins (HBPs) and the heterodimer of porcine sperm adhesions I and II (PSP-I/PSP-II) in SP recruit different lymphocyte subsets (CD2(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells) or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) to the superficial endometrium or luminal epithelium and lumen, respectively, of oestrous sows. In Experiment 1, endometrial biopsies were taken between 2 and 120 min after infusion of uterine horns with HBPs, PSP-I/PSP-II or saline and evaluated by immunohistochemistry or histology. In Experiment 2, the uterus of oestrous sows was infused with PSP-I/PSP-II or saline to assess PMN numbers in the uterine lumen 3h later. PSP-I/PSP-II elicited CD2+ T cell recruitment from 10 min, and CD8(+) T cells from 60 min after infusion, while HBPs increased CD4(+) T cell recruitment by 120 min. PSP-I/PSP-II but not HBPs induced PMN migration to the surface epithelium by 10 min. PMN numbers were elevated 5-fold by 30 min and 7-fold from 60 min, with PMNs detectable in the lumen from 30 min after infusion. Six-fold more PMNs were collected from the uterine lumen of PSP-I/PSP-II-infused sows compared to controls at 3h after infusion. These data show that PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer in seminal plasma has a predominant role in triggering the recruitment of uterine PMNs and T cells after mating, initiating a cascade of transient and long-lasting immunological events. PMID:19948361

Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Saravia, F; Wallgren, M; Martinez, E A; Sanz, L; Roca, J; Vazquez, J M; Calvete, J J

2010-01-01

320

Visualization of a prosthetic vascular graft due to platelet contamination during /sup 111/Indium-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

A prosthetic axillo-femoral bypass graft was visualized during /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy in a patient referred for possible abdominal abscess. The presence of significant cardiac blood-pool activity raised the possibility that this uptake was due to deposition of contaminating labeled platelets rather than labeled leukocytes. An analysis of a small sample of the patient's blood confirmed that the circulating activity was due to labeled platelets. Increased activity along prosthetic vascular grafts in patients undergoing /sup 111/In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy may be due to adherent platelet, and not indicative of infection.

Oates, E.; Ramberg, K.

1988-09-01

321

Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) leukocytes express estrogen receptor isoforms ER? and ER?2 and are functionally modulated by estrogens  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Estrogens are recognized as modulators of immune responses in mammals and teleosts. While it is known that the effects of estrogens are mediated via leukocyte-specific estrogen receptors (ERs) in humans and mice, leucocyte-specific estrogen receptor expression and the effects of estrogens on this cell population is less explored and poorly understood in teleosts. Here in, we verify that channel catfish (Ictalurus punctaus) leukocytes express ER? and ER?2. Transcripts of these isoforms were detected in tissue-associated leukocyte populations by PCR, but ER?2 was rarely detected in PBLs. Expression of these receptors was temporally regulated in PBLs following polyclonal activation by concanavalin A, lipopolysaccharide or alloantigen based on evaluation by quantitative and end-point PCR. Examination of long-term leukocyte cell lines demonstrated that these receptors are differentially expressed depending on leukocyte lineage and phenotype. Expression of ERs was also temporally dynamic in some leukocyte lineages and may reflect stage of cell maturity. Estrogens affect the responsiveness of channel catfish peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) to mitogens in vitro. Similarly, bactericidal activity and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced respiratory burst was modulated by 17?-estradiol. These actions were blocked by the pure ER antagonist ICI 182780 indicating that response is, in part, mediated via ER?. In summary, estrogen receptors are expressed in channel catfish leukocytes and participate in the regulation of the immune response. This is the first time leukocyte lineage expression has been reported in teleost cell lines.

Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Stafford, James L.; Patińo, Reynaldo; Bengten, Eva; Miller, Norman W.; Blazer, Vicki S.

2014-01-01

322

Periovulatory Leukocyte Infiltration in the Rat Ovary  

PubMed Central

Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare’s serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (?500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (?1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a strong inverse relationship between leukocyte numbers in the ovary and spleen, as well as significant reduction of leukocyte infiltration in the splenectomized rats, were seen, indicating that the spleen may serve as an immediate supplier of leukocytes to the periovulatory ovary. PMID:20591976

Oakley, Oliver R.; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Patrick Lin, Po-Ching; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, CheMyong

2010-01-01

323

Appearance of acute gouty arthritis on indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy  

SciTech Connect

Indium-111-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy was performed on a 66-yr-old male with polyarticular acute gouty arthritis. Images revealed intense labeled leukocyte accumulation in a pattern indistinguishable from septic arthritis, in both knees and ankles, and the metatarsophalangeal joint of both great toes, all of which were involved in the acute gouty attack. Joint aspirate as well as blood cultures were reported as no growth; the patient was treated with intravenous colchicine and ACTH for 10 days with dramatic improvement noted. Labeled leukocyte imaging, repeated 12 days after the initial study, revealed near total resolution of joint abnormalities, concordant with the patient's clinical improvement. This case demonstrates that while acute gouty arthritis is a potential pitfall in labeled leukocyte imaging, in the presence of known gout, it may provide a simple, objective, noninvasive method of evaluating patient response to therapy.

Palestro, C.J.; Vega, A.; Kim, C.K.; Swyer, A.J.; Goldsmith, S.J. (Mt. Sinai Medical Center, New York, NY (USA))

1990-05-01

324

[Visualization of specific leukocyte granules using morin and other fluorochromes].  

PubMed

The visualization of the specific granulation of leukocytes is useful in hematology to identify de cell type in leukemic diseases. The authors employed the acidic fluorochrome morin after testing its high affinity for the fluorescent reaction with morin in human and chicken peripheral blood smears, and in streak smears from rabbit spleen. The best results were obtained with a solution prepared either with 0.10 mg morin per ml of 50 per 100 ethanol, or with a saturated solution of morin in distilled water diluted to one fourth in 25 per 100 ethanol. When observed under blue-violet excited light (436 nm) the acidophilic granules of leukocytes produce a bright yellow fluorescence, while the cell nuclei show a faint greenish fluorescence. As for the mechanism of the reaction, it consists possibly in an interaction between morin and the basic components of the granules. Other acidic fluorochromes, as primulin and hematoxylin, produce similar fluorescent reactions with the acidophilic granules. PMID:6546167

Colman, O D; Molero, M L; Sen, L; Estévez, M E; Stockert, J C

1984-01-01

325

Single and repeated moderate consumption of native or dealcoholized red wine show different effects on antioxidant parameters in blood and DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN68505294  

PubMed Central

Background Red wine (RW) is rich in antioxidant polyphenols that might protect from oxidative stress related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Antioxidant effects after single ingestion of RW or dealcoholized RW (DRW) have been observed in several studies, but results after regular consumption are contradictory. Thus, we examined if single or repeated consumption of moderate amounts of RW or DRW exert antioxidant activity in vivo. Methods Total phenolic content and concentration of other antioxidants in plasma/serum, total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in plasma as well as DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes were measured in healthy non-smokers A) before, 90 and 360 min after ingestion of one glass of RW, DRW or water; B) before and after consumption of one glass of RW or DRW daily for 6 weeks. DNA strand breaks (SB) were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay) in untreated cells and after induction of oxidative stress ex vivo with H2O2 (300 ?M, 20 min). Results Both RW and DRW transiently increased total phenolic content in plasma after single consumption, but only RW lead to a sustained increase if consumed regularly. Plasma antioxidant capacity was not affected by single or regular consumption of RW or DRW. Effects of RW and DRW on DNA SB were conflicting. DNA strand breaks in untreated cells increased after a single dose of RW and DRW, whereas H2O2 induced SB were reduced after DRW. In contrast, regular RW consumption reduced SB in untreated cells but did not affect H2O2 induced SB. Conclusion The results suggest that consumption of both RW and DRW leads to an accumulation of phenolic compounds in plasma without increasing plasma antioxidant capacity. Red wine and DRW seem to affect the occurrence of DNA strand breaks, but this cannot be referred to antioxidant effects. PMID:16287499

Arendt, Bianca M; Ellinger, Sabine; Kekic, Klaudia; Geus, Leonie; Fimmers, Rolf; Spengler, Ulrich; Müller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Goerlich, Roland

2005-01-01

326

Method for the measurement of photonic effects on blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the Department of Biomedical Engineering of Drexel University, the study of the reactivity of human white blood cells (leukocytes) had been undertaken originally for biocompatibility measurements. Acute (jolymorphonuclear) and chronic (mononuclear) inflammatory white blood cells (leukocytes) have been studied for their response to chemoattractant and chemorepellant implantable materials. Further experiments have lead to the enhancement and retardation of this cytotaxis via electromagnetic fields. These techniques are now being adapted to study the photonic effects of leukocytes.

Della Vecchia, Michael A.; Beard, Richard B.; Dai, Xiaoyan; Priezzhev, Alexander V.

1997-05-01

327

Oxaceprol, an atypical inhibitor of inflammation, reduces leukocyte adherence in mouse antigen-induced arthritis.  

PubMed

Oxaceprol (N-acetyl-L-hydroxyproline), an atypical inhibitor of inflammation, is an established drug forjoint disease without serious side-effects. Recent studies have emphasized that oxaceprol has an effect on the microcirculation. Since the exact mechanism of action remains unclear, the aim of our study was to investigate the leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in oxaceprol-treated mice with antigen-induced arthritis (AiA) using intravital microscopy. In our study, Balb/c mice were allocated to 4 groups (n 7, 8, 8, 8): 2 control groups with saline or oxaceprol and 2 groups of arthritic animals which received saline or oxaceprol (100 mg/kg twice a day intraperitoneally). The severity of arthritis was quantified by the transverse knee joint diameter. For the intravital fluorescence microscopy measurements on day 10 after inducing arthritis, the patella tendon was partily resected to visualize the intraarticular synovial tissue of the knee joint. The number of rolling and adherent leukocytes as well as RBC velocity and functional capillary density (FCD) were quantified in synovial microvessels. Furthermore, leukocyte infiltration was determined in the histological sections with an established score. No significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure or functional capillary density were found in any of the groups. However, the leukocyte rolling fraction and number of leukocytes adherent to the endothelium were increased in postcapillary venules of the synovium in arthritic animals (0.16 to 0.31, 78 cells/mm2 to 220 cells/mm2). In animals with AiA treated with oxaceprol, leukocyte adherence and swelling were significantly reduced in comparison to the arthritic animals treated with saline. Furthermore, the histological score showed less leukocyte infiltration in the oxaceprol treated arthritic animals. Thus, oxaceprol reduces leukocyte adherence in vivo and leukocyte infiltration in mouse AiA, indicating an effect on synovial microcirculation. PMID:11480608

Veihelmann, A; Hofbauer, A; Refior, H J; Messmer, K

2001-06-01

328

Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors in human disease pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Combinations of leukocyte attractant ligands and cognate heptahelical receptors specify the systemic recruitment of circulating cells by triggering integrin-dependent adhesion to endothelial cells, supporting extravasation, and directing specific intratissue localization via gradient-driven chemotaxis. Chemoattractant receptors also control leukocyte egress from lymphoid organs and peripheral tissues. In this article, we summarize the fundamental mechanics of leukocyte trafficking, from the evolution of multistep models of leukocyte recruitment and navigation to the regulation of chemoattractant availability and function by atypical heptahelical receptors. To provide a more complete picture of the migratory circuits involved in leukocyte trafficking, we integrate a number of nonchemokine chemoattractant receptors into our discussion. Leukocyte chemoattractant receptors play key roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, allergy, inflammatory disorders, and cancer. We review recent advances in our understanding of chemoattractant receptors in disease pathogenesis, with a focus on genome-wide association studies in humans and the translational implications of mechanistic studies in animal disease models. PMID:25387059

Zabel, Brian A; Rott, Alena; Butcher, Eugene C

2015-01-24

329

21 CFR 864.7660 - Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. 864.7660 Section 864... § 864.7660 Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test. (a) Identification. A leukocyte alkaline phosphatase test is a device used to...

2010-04-01

330

How chemokines invite leukocytes to dance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent activity of the chemokine system is the regulation of leukocyte trafficking. Here we summarize recent findings on the initial steps in chemokine receptor–induced signal transduction in leukocytes. In particular, we discuss the potential influences of the formation of oligomers of ligand and receptor and of coupling between chemokine signals and regulators of the cytoskeleton, such as small GTPases.

Marcus Thelen; Jens V Stein

2008-01-01

331

Leukocyte migration from a fish eye's view  

PubMed Central

Summary In the last five years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has rapidly gained popularity as a model system for studying leukocyte migration and trafficking in vivo. The optical clarity of zebrafish embryos, as well as the potential for genetic manipulation and the development of tools for live imaging, have provided new insight into how leukocytes migrate in response to directional cues in live animals. This Commentary discusses recent progress in our understanding of how leukocytes migrate in vivo, including the role of intracellular signaling through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in both random and directed migration. The importance of leukocyte reverse migration in the resolution of inflammation will also be discussed. Finally, we will highlight how zebrafish models have helped to provide new insight into leukocyte migration and the way in which migration is altered in disease. PMID:23104739

Deng, Qing; Huttenlocher, Anna

2012-01-01

332

Characterization of biodegradable drug delivery vehicles with the adhesive properties of leukocytes II: effect of degradation on targeting activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The site-specific expression of selectins (P- and E-selectin) on endothelial cells of blood vessels during inflammation provides an opportunity for the targeted delivery of anti-inflammatory drugs to sites of chronic inflammation. It is well documented that the selectins mediate the initial interaction (rolling) of leukocytes in an inflamed vessel by binding to carbohydrate-presenting counter-receptors displayed on leukocytes. Previous work in

A. Omolola Eniola; Daniel A Hammer

2005-01-01

333

Augmentation of natural and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity by pure human leukocyte interferon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Augmentation of the cytolytic activity of human natural killer cells and of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity has been attributed to human interferons. With the purification to homogeneity of human leukocyte interferon, it became possible to test directly whether pure interferon could increase the activity of these effector cells. Treatment of purified blood mononuclear cells with pure interferon resulted in substantial increases

Ronald B. Herberman; John R. Ortaldo; Menachem Rubinstein; Sidney Pestka

1981-01-01

334

Appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on indium-111 leukocyte scans: potential diagnostic pitfall  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of hyperostosis frontalis interna on an (/sup 111/In)leukocyte scan is reported. Recognition of the potential for normal accumulation of 111In-labeled white blood cells within this common process involving the skull is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis.

Floyd, J.L.; Jackson, D.E. Jr.; Carretta, R.

1986-04-01

335

Selective reduction of the interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with leukocytes and tumor cells by human plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carboxymethyl-dextran coated magnetic nanoparticles can interact with viable human cells. The interaction of the nanoparticles is cell-type specific. The addition of human plasma led to a dramatic reduction of magnetically separable leukocytes in comparison to tumor cells. We conclude that low plasma concentrations might support an efficient enrichment of circulating epithelial cells from the peripheral blood of tumor patients.

Schwalbe, Manuela; Jörke, Cornelia; Buske, Norbert; Höffken, Klaus; Pachmann, Katharina; Clement, Joachim H.

2005-05-01

336

Regulation of gelatinase B (MMP-9) in leukocytes by plant lectins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stimulatory or inhibitory effects of plant lectins on the production of gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) by mononuclear white blood cells was investigated by substrate zymography. Leukocyte cultures from 24-h old buffy coats were spontaneously activated and produced high levels of gelatinase B. Using such cultures the suppressing activity of the Datura stramonium, Viscum album, Bauhinia purpurea,

Bénédicte Dubois; Willy J Peumans; Els J. M Van Damme; Jo Van Damme; Ghislain Opdenakker

1998-01-01

337

TRAIL-coated leukocytes that kill cancer cells in the circulation  

E-print Network

- based adhesive interactions between cancer cells and the blood vessel wall as facilitating this process). These CTCs can then interact with the receptor-bearing endothelial cell wall under flow in other organsTRAIL-coated leukocytes that kill cancer cells in the circulation Michael J. Mitchell, Elizabeth

Schaffer, Chris B.

338

Microfluidics for in vitro biomimetic shear stress-dependent leukocyte adhesion assays.  

PubMed

Recruitment of leukocytes from blood to tissues is a multi-step process playing a major role in the activation of inflammatory responses. Tethering and rolling of leukocytes along the vessel wall, followed by arrest and transmigration through the endothelium result from chemoattractant-dependent signals, inducing adhesive and migratory events. Shear forces exerted by the blood flow on leukocytes induce rolling via selectin-mediated interactions with endothelial cells and increase the probability of leukocytes to engage their chemokine receptors, facilitating integrin activation and consequent arrest. Flow-derived shear forces generate mechanical stimuli concurring with biochemical signals in the modulation of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In the last few years, a host of in vitro studies have clarified the biochemical adhesion cascade and the role of shear stress in leukocyte extravasation. The limitation of the static environment in Boyden devices has been overcome both by the use of parallel-plate flow chambers and by custom models mimicking the in vivo conditions, along with widespread microfluidic approaches to in vitro modeling. These devices create an in vitro biomimetic environment where the multi-step transmigration process can be imaged and quantified under mechanical and biochemical controlled conditions, including fluid dynamic settings, channel design, materials and surface coatings. This paper reviews the technological solutions recently proposed to model, observe and quantify leukocyte adhesion behavior under shear flow, with a final survey of high-throughput solutions featuring multiple parallel assays as well as thorough and time-saving statistical interpretation of the experimental results. PMID:23200903

Bianchi, Elena; Molteni, Raffaella; Pardi, Ruggero; Dubini, Gabriele

2013-01-18

339

Dynamic changes in circulating leukocytes during the induction of equine laminitis with black walnut extract.  

PubMed

Administration of black walnut heartwood extract (BWHE) via nasogastric tube induces acute laminitis in horses. However, the processes responsible for the development of laminitis, including laminitis induced with BWHE, remain unclear. The results of recent studies indicate that administration of BWHE initiates an inflammatory response in the laminar tissues and that this response may be due to extravasation of activated leukocytes from the circulation. This study examines the effects of BWHE administration on the dynamics of circulating neutrophils and monocytes, and the capacity of blood leukocytes to produce radical oxygen species (ROS) over the time period from administration of BWHE to the development of lameness consistent with Obel grade I laminitis. Individual horses, free of pre-existing musculoskeletal disease, were administered either 6l of BWHE or an equal volume of water at time 0 (T=0). Blood samples were collected prior to dosing and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12h after dosing, or until the onset of Obel grade I laminitis. For each sample, total leukocyte counts were determined followed by collection of buffy coats and removal of erythrocytes by hypotonic lysis. Leukocytes were either fixed for flow cytometric assessment of differential counts or maintained in culture to measure endogenous and phorbol ester-induced production of ROS. At each sample time, the number of cells recovered and the flow cytometric differential counts were compared with corresponding total leukocyte counts determined by the Clinical Pathology laboratory. Horses administered BWHE had a significant reduction in circulating leukocytes at 3-4 h relative to values for horses administered the same volume of water. Horses that developed Obel grade I laminitis had a significant reduction in circulating leukocytes when compared to values for horses administered BWHE that did not become lame. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a consistent decrease in the total number of monocytes obtained from horses that developed laminitis. In these same horses, the endogenous level of ROS production was significantly higher at T=0 than for horses that did not become lame. Furthermore, production of ROS by leukocytes from horses that developed laminitis increased significantly and coincided with the decrease in circulating leukocytes. Collectively, these findings support a role for systemic activation of leukocytes and induction of inflammation by BWHE as a factor in the early pathogenesis of acute laminitis. Because laminitis often develops as a sequel to diseases characterized by systemic inflammatory events, activation and emigration of neutrophils and monocytes may be important factors in the early pathogenesis of laminitis in clinical cases. PMID:16290066

Hurley, David J; Parks, Robert J; Reber, Adrian J; Donovan, Douglas C; Okinaga, Tatsuyuki; Vandenplas, Michel L; Peroni, John F; Moore, James N

2006-04-15

340

Total hip and knee replacement surgery results in changes in leukocyte and endothelial markers  

PubMed Central

Background It is estimated that over 8 million people in the United Kingdom suffer from osteoarthritis. These patients may require orthopaedic surgical intervention to help alleviate their clinical condition. Investigations presented here was to test the hypothesis that total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR) orthopaedic surgery result in changes to leukocyte and endothelial markers thus increasing inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Methods During this 'pilot study', ten test subjects were all scheduled for THR or TKR elective surgery due to osteoarthritis. Leukocyte concentrations were measured using an automated full blood count analyser. Leukocyte CD11b (Mac-1) and CD62L cell surface expression, intracellular production of H2O2 and elastase were measured as markers of leukocyte function. Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were measured as markers of endothelial activation. Results The results obtained during this study demonstrate that THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery result in similar changes of leukocyte and endothelial markers, suggestive of increased inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in a leukocytosis, this being demonstrated by an increase in the total leukocyte concentration following surgery. Evidence of leukocyte activation was demonstrated by a decrease in CD62L expression and an increase in CD11b expression by neutrophils and monocytes respectively. An increase in the intracellular H2O2 production by neutrophils and monocytes and in the leukocyte elastase concentrations was also evident of leukocyte activation following orthopaedic surgery. With respect to endothelial activation, increases in vWF and sICAM-1 concentrations were demonstrated following surgery. Conclusion In general it appeared that most of the leukocyte and endothelial markers measured during these studies peaked between days 1-3 postoperatively. It is proposed that by allowing orthopaedic surgeons access to alternative laboratory markers such as CD11b, H2O2 and elastase, CD62L, vWF and sICAM-1, an accurate assessment of the extent of inflammation due to surgery per se could be made. Ultimately, the leukocyte and endothelial markers assessed during this investigation may have a role in monitoring potential infectious complications that can occur during the postoperative period. PMID:20148137

2010-01-01

341

Interrelationship between oxygen consumption, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide formation in phagocytosing guinea pig polymorphonuclear leucocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an experimental procedure for a simultaneous assay of oxygen consumption, O2- release and H2O2 accumulation at a very early stage of the respiratory burst that is induced by phagocytosis in guinea pig polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The main findings are as follows:(a)The oxygen consumption that is measurable does not correspond to all oxygen that is reduced. The relationship between

DRI Pietro; Bellavite Paolo; Berton Giorgio; Rossi Filippo

1979-01-01

342

Sour cherry seed kernel extract increases heme oxygenase-1 expression and decreases representation of CD3+ TNF-?+ and CD3+IL-8+ subpopulations in peripheral blood leukocyte cultures from type 2 diabetes patients.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates a hypothesis that sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) seed extracts (SCE) modulate CD3+ T lymphocyte activity in ways predictive of potential for uses of SCE in management of inflammatory diseases. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 12 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients and eight healthy control subjects were cultured 24 h with 100 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to increase inflammatory signaling and co-incubated with 0.5-100 µg/ml SCE. Cultures were evaluated by two-color flow cytometry for percent representation of CD3+ IL8+ and CD3+TNF-? cells which express interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-?, (TNF-?+) respectively, and by enzyme-linked immunoassay for lymphocyte-associated heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, known to be induced by SCE). SCE dosage ranges of 0.5-100 µg/ml in cell cultures significantly suppressed LPS-increased CD3+TNF-?+ and CD3+IL8+ representation from all participants (p?

Mahmoud, Fadia F; Al-Awadhi, Rana; Haines, David D; Dashti, Ali; Dashti, Hussain; Al-Ozairi, Ebaa; Bak, Istvan; Tosaki, Arpad

2013-05-01

343

Comparison of In-111-MERC leukocytes with In-111-Oxine leukocytes for abscess detection  

SciTech Connect

This study was done to compare the clinical results of generally accepted Indium-111-oxine (oxine) labeled leukocytes with a relatively newer Indium-111-2-Mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (Merc) labeled leukocytes for the detection of occult abscesses. Of the 74 patients suspected of harboring an occult abscess, autologous leukocytes of 34 patients were labeled with oxine while in 40 patients Merc labeled leukocytes were used. Whole body imaging was performed at 24 hours. Interpretation of the scans was done without the knowledge of the leukocyte label (i.e. oxine vs Merc). The diagnosis was confirmed in each case by either subsequent clinical course, radiographic correlation (CT, US, etc.), surgery pathology, or autopsy. The results presented in this paper indicate that there is no significant difference between the Merc and oxine labeled leukocytes for abscess detection. The ease of labeling and potential availability of Merc as a kit is an advantage.

Intenzo, C.M.; Desai, A.G.; Thakur, M.L.; Park, C.H.

1985-05-01

344

One-carbon metabolism factors and leukocyte telomere length1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Dietary and genetic factors involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway may affect telomere length through DNA methylation and synthesis, but this has not been comprehensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We cross-sectionally examined associations between dietary and genetic factors in the one-carbon metabolism pathway and relative peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length. Design: A total of 1715 participants from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) had measurements of relative telomere length and plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, cysteine, and homocysteine. Food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) measurements were also used for the assessment of folate, choline, methionine, riboflavin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and alcohol intakes. Genotyping was performed on 475 participants with telomere measurements on 29 mostly nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in one-carbon metabolism. Unconditional logistic and linear regression models were used. Results: There were no significant dose-response relations between any plasma- or FFQ-measured dietary factors and relative telomere length in multivariate analyses. For folate, vitamin B-6, and vitamin B-12, results from the use of FFQ data were consistent with plasma-biomarker findings. We showed no significant associations that involved SNPs and relative telomere length after we accounted for the false discovery rate. Conclusion: Our analyses involving plasma and questionnaire measurements of one-carbon metabolism factors show that some key dietary and genetic factors in this metabolic network are not associated with relative peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length. PMID:23446900

Liu, Jason J; Prescott, Jennifer; Giovannucci, Edward; Hankinson, Susan E; Rosner, Bernard

2013-01-01

345

Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes  

SciTech Connect

Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

1981-12-01

346

Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Serum and White Blood Cells of Healthy Subjects Receiving a Single-Dose Extended-Release Regimen versus a 3-Day Immediate-Release Regimen?  

PubMed Central

The pharmacokinetic profiles of azithromycin given as a single-dose regimen (2.0-g extended-release microspheres) were characterized in serum and white blood cells (WBC) and compared with those of a 3-day regimen (a 500-mg immediate-release tablet once daily; total dose, 1.5 g) in an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study of 24 healthy adult subjects. Serial blood samples were collected up to 5 days after the start of dosing for both regimens. Safety assessments were conducted throughout the study. A single 2.0-g dose of azithromycin microspheres achieved significantly higher exposures in serum and WBC during the first 24 h after the start of dosing than a 3-day regimen: an approximately threefold higher area under the curve from time zero to 24 h postdose (AUC0-24) and an approximately twofold higher mean peak concentration on day 1. The single-dose regimen provided total azithromycin exposures in serum and WBC similar to those of the 3-day regimen, as evidenced by the similar AUC0-120 and trough azithromycin concentrations in serum and WBC (mononuclear leukocytes [MNL] and polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNL]). For both regimens, the average total azithromycin exposures in MNL and PMNL were approximately 300- and 600-fold higher than those in serum. Azithromycin concentrations in MNL and PMNL remained above 10 ?g/ml for at least 5 days after the start of dosing for both regimens. This “front-loading” of the dose on day 1 is safely achieved by the extended-release microsphere formulation, which maximizes the drug exposure at the time when the bacterial burden is likely to be highest. PMID:17060516

Liu, Ping; Allaudeen, Hameed; Chandra, Richa; Phillips, Kem; Jungnik, Arvid; Breen, Jeanne D.; Sharma, Amarnath

2007-01-01

347

Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions.

Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

2014-07-01

348

Response of laying hens to feeding low-protein amino acid-supplemented diets under high ambient temperature: performance, egg quality, leukocyte profile, blood lipids, and excreta pH.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to determine whether, by using a low-protein amino acid-supplemented diet, the health status, stress response, and excreta quality could be improved without affecting the productive performance of heat-stressed laying hens. The requirements for egg production, egg mass, and feed conversion ratio were also estimated using second-order equations and broken-line regression. A total of 150 Lohmann Selected Leghorn (LSL-Lite) hens were divided randomly into five groups of 30 with five replicates of six hens. The hens were raised for an 8-week period (52 to 60 weeks) in wire cages situated in high ambient temperature in an open-sided housing system. The five experimental diets (ME; 2,720 kcal/kg) varied according to five crude protein (CP) levels: normal-CP diet (control, 16.5 % CP) and low-CP diets containing 15.0, 13.5, 12.0, or 10.5 % CP. All experimental diets were supplemented with crystalline amino acids at the levels sufficient to meet their requirements. The results showed that under high temperature conditions, all productive performance and egg quality parameters in the birds fed with 15.0, 13.5, and 12.0 % CP diets were similar to those of birds fed with control diet (16.5 % CP), whereas feeding 10.5 % CP diet significantly decreased egg production and egg mass. Estimations of requirements were of 13.93 and 12.77 % CP for egg production, 14.62 and 13.22 % CP for egg mass, and 12.93 and 12.26 % CP for feed conversion ratio using quadratic and broken-line models, respectively. Egg yolk color index, blood triglyceride level, and excreta acidity were also significantly higher in birds fed with 12.0 and 10.5 % CP diets compared with those of control birds. The heterophil to lymphocyte ratio, as a stress indicator, was significantly decreased by 15.0, 13.5, and 12 % CP diets. On the basis of our findings, reducing dietary CP from 16.5 to 12.0 % and supplementing the diets with the essential amino acids showed merit for improving the stress response and excreta quality while maintaining acceptable production performance from laying hens under high ambient temperature conditions. PMID:25056125

Torki, Mehran; Mohebbifar, Ahmad; Ghasemi, Hossein Ali; Zardast, Afshin

2015-05-01

349

Flow cytometric assay of lysosome-activated leukocytes as cellular marker of health status.  

PubMed

Rapid analysis of the lysosomal system state in human peripheral blood leukocytes was carried out by means of flow cytometry of diluted blood supravitally stained with acridine orange. For each of the subjects studied (26 healthy donors, nine donors with a weak cold-like infection and 30 patients with severe wounds), all the leukocytes were distributed into two distinct cell peaks: one with activated (A) and one with inactivated (I) lysosomal apparatus. It is shown here that whereas the mean cell frequency ratio of the former to the latter peak (A/I) of healthy donors was 1.18 (SD = 0.35) and was consistent with a Gaussian distribution, this value was statistically significantly increased in patients with cold-like symptoms (mean = 2.72, SD = 0.59, P < 10(-5), forming a bimodal distribution when pooled with data for healthy donors, and it increased dramatically (up to 40 times) in patients suffering the aftermath of severe wounds. Therefore, this method, needing only a few drops of the patient's blood and taking 10-15 min, can serve as a marker of health status. In addition, we show that activation/inactivation of the lysosomal apparatus of human leukocytes in vivo proceeds in an 'all-or-none' fashion. It will be possible in the future to enhance the technique by means of evaluating the A/I cell frequency ratio for separate leukocyte types. PMID:8424899

Vinogradov, A E; Rosanov, J M; Belocerkovskaya, E A; Shashkov, B V

1993-01-01

350

The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration  

PubMed Central

Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

2014-01-01

351

The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration.  

PubMed

Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell-cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N

2014-03-01

352

Leukocytes in Mammary Development and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Leukocytes, of both the innate and adaptive lineages, are normal cellular components of all tissues. These important cells not only are critical for regulating normal tissue homeostasis, but also are significant paracrine regulators of all physiologic and pathologic tissue repair processes. This article summarizes recent insights regarding the trophic roles of leukocytes at each stage of mammary gland development and during cancer development, with a focus on Murids and humans. PMID:21123394

Coussens, Lisa M.; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

2011-01-01

353

Leukocyte integrins and their ligand interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although critical for cell adhesion and migration during normal immune-mediated reactions, leukocyte integrins are also involved\\u000a in the pathogenesis of diverse clinical conditions including autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. Leukocyte integrins\\u000a therefore have been targets for anti-adhesive therapies to treat the inflammatory disorders. Recently, the therapeutic potential\\u000a of integrin antagonists has been demonstrated in psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. However, current

Young-Min Hyun; Craig T. Lefort; Minsoo Kim

2009-01-01

354

Leukocyte analysis using monoclonal antibodies in human glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte analysis using monoclonal antibodies in human glomerulonephritis. The leukocyte subpopulations were analyzed within both the glomeruli and the interstitium in renal biopsies from 145 patients with various forms of glomerulonephritis. Cells were identified by monoclonal antibodies to leukocyte cell–surface antigens and immunoper-oxidase labelling. Leukocytes, as defined by a monoclonal antibody to the leukocyte common antigen (PHM1), were present in

David H Hooke; David C Gee; Robert C Atkins

1987-01-01

355

Relationship between serum ?-glutamyltransferase level and leukocyte count in Korean children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Elevated ?-glutamyltransferase (GGT) is an important risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases, which may result from chronic low-grade inflammation. Leukocyte count is widely considered a marker of inflammation and is also an independent predictor of cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to determine the relationship between GGT and leukocyte count in a representative sample of Korean children and adolescents. Methods. A nationwide cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the relationship between GGT and leukocyte count in 830 boys and 714 girls (aged 10-18 years), using data from the 2010-2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for high leukocyte count (? 75th percentile) were calculated across GGT quartiles using multiple logistic regression analyses. Results. Leukocyte count gradually increased in accordance with serum GGT quartiles in both boys and girls (all p-values < 0.001). The OR (95% CI) for high leukocyte of the highest GGT quartile was 2.19 (1.05-4.58) for boys and 2.36 (1.13-4.93) for girls after adjusting for age, BMI, blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, physical activity, household income, and residential area. Similarly, these positive associations were observed in multiple logistic regression analysis using log2-transformed serum GGT as a continuous variable. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates a positive relationship between serum GGT and leukocyte count. These findings indicate that serum GGT may be closely related with subclinical low-grade inflammation in children and adolescents. PMID:25598349

Shin, Youn Ho; Kim, Ki Eun; Kim, Kyu-Earn; Lee, Yong-Jae

2015-04-01

356

Leukocyte count, smoking, and lung function.  

PubMed

The interrelation between leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and pulmonary function results was examined in two work populations: 1,826 white male workers in a pulp and paper mill and 1,620 white male workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. These workers took part in epidemiologic health studies that consisted of a medical-occupational questionnaire, spirometric measurements, and leukocyte count. Measurements of the air contaminants in the work environment were also carried out simultaneously by personal and area sampling. No significant increase in the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and lung function abnormalities was found between the exposed and nonexposed workers in each work population. Similarly, no difference in leukocyte count was found between exposed and nonexposed workers. Leukocyte count was found to be significantly higher among current smokers than nonsmokers and former smokers in each population. In both populations, there was an inverse correlation between leukocyte count and one-second forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity of the workers irrespective of the smoking habit. This finding suggests that the leukocyte response to external stimuli may be another determinant of lung function measurements. PMID:6691359

Yeung, M C; Buncio, A D

1984-01-01

357

Glycocalyx protection reduces leukocyte adhesion after ischemia/reperfusion.  

PubMed

Adhesion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to coronary endothelium is a key event for cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury. Adhesion molecules are normally harbored within the glycocalyx, clothing every healthy vascular endothelium, but shed by ischemia/reperfusion. Our aim was to show whether protection of the glycocalyx with either hydrocortisone or antithrombin can reduce postischemic leukocyte adhesion. Isolated guinea pig hearts, perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer, were subjected to 20 min of warm (37 degrees C) no-flow ischemia and consecutive 10 min of reperfusion, either in the absence or presence of hydrocortisone (10 microg/mL) or antithrombin (1 U/mL). An intracoronary bolus of 3 x 10 PMN was applied at the end of reperfusion but without prior contact to the drugs. The sequestration of PMN was calculated from the difference between coronary input and output of cells. Expression of the integrin CD11b on PMN was measured before and after coronary passage. Ischemia/reperfusion induced severe degradation of the glycocalyx (coronary venous syndecan-1 release, 171 +/- 15 ng/g heart vs. basal, 19 +/- 2 ng/g; heparan sulfate, 5.27 +/- 0.28 microg/g vs. basal, 0.26 +/- 0.06 microg/g) and increased PMN adhesion (38.1% +/- 3.5% vs. basal, 11.7% +/- 3.1%). Hydrocortisone and antithrombin both not only reduced glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1 release, 34 +/- 6 ng/g and 26 +/- 5 ng/g; heparan sulfate, 1.96 +/- 0.24 microg/g and 1.28 +/- 0.2 microg/g, respectively), but also PMN adhesion (17.3% +/- 2.2% and 25.4% +/- 3.3%, respectively) after ischemia/reperfusion. Electron microscopy revealed a mostly intact coronary glycocalyx after pretreatment with either drug. Activation of PMN upon coronary passage was not influenced. Preservation of the glycocalyx mitigates postischemic PMN adhesion. Preconditioning with either hydrocortisone or antithrombin should, thus, alleviate vascular leakage, tissue edema, and inflammation. PMID:20634656

Chappell, Daniel; Dörfler, Nina; Jacob, Matthias; Rehm, Markus; Welsch, Ulrich; Conzen, Peter; Becker, Bernhard F

2010-08-01

358

The effect of various Mycoplasma bovis isolates on bovine leukocyte responses.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) contributes to a number of clinical syndromes in cattle; in particular, chronic pneumonia that is poorly responsive to therapy has been increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity, mortality, and financial loss. M. bovis impairs host immune function, but little is known about whether field isolates vary significantly in their effect on immune function. This research tested the hypothesis that different field isolates vary in their ability to suppress cellular metabolism and cellular production of radical oxygen species (ROS) by bovine leukocytes. Total blood leukocytes from 6 cattle were exposed to six field isolates, two diagnostic lab isolates, and two high passage laboratory isolates of M. bovis, and ROS production was measured by oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123). Cellular metabolism was measured by reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). Significant differences in the response to some field isolates were identified. Three field isolates and both diagnostic lab isolates significantly decreased ROS production by leukocytes from multiple cattle, while the high pass laboratory isolates did not. In contrast, MTT reduction was not significantly impaired by any of the M. bovis strains tested. M. bovis impairs ROS production by bovine leukocytes; the magnitude of the effect appears to be isolate-dependent, and is not related to a general impairment of cellular metabolism. Chronic M. bovis infection in some cattle may be related to impaired ability of leukocytes to produce ROS when exposed to M. bovis. PMID:20189247

Wiggins, M C; Woolums, A R; Hurley, D J; Sanchez, S; Ensley, D T; Donovan, D

2011-01-01

359

[Correlation 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy with clinical and laboratory findings].  

PubMed

This study was evaluated relationship 111In-labeled leukocyte scintigraphy and clinical information and laboratory findings in twenty-four patients with bone infection and thirty-five patients with abdominal infection. Fifty-nine scintigrams were retrospectively reviewed and classified into positive or negative results. As the laboratory findings, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at sixty minutes, and peripheral blood leukocyte counts (WBCC) were evaluated. Clinical information such as presence of fever and administration of antibiotics was also compared. No significant relationship between the scintigraphic results and clinical as well as laboratory findings was observed in bone infection patients. CRP levels in positive scintigraphic patients were significantly higher than those in negative scintigraphic patients in the abdominal infection group, otherwise the other indices were not correlated with the scintigraphic results. A few patients with slightly increased CRP (mostly chronic cases) did not show positive scintigrams, suggesting an increased false negative rate of leukocyte scintigraphy in such circumstances. These results suggest that it is inappropriate to determine the application of leukocyte scintigraphy depending on clinical as well as laboratory findings, and leukocyte scintigraphy would yield additional information different from other indices when evaluating inflammatory foci. PMID:8336408

Uchida, Y; Uno, K; Minoshima, S; Kitakata, Y; Arimizu, N

1993-05-01

360

Liver Oxidative Stress after Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury is Leukocyte Dependent in Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Objective(s) There are some reports in recent years indicating that renal ischemia – reperfusion (IR) induces deleterious changes in remote organs such as liver. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leukocytes have a role on the induction of oxidative stress in liver after renal IR. Materials and Methods Inbred mice in IR donor group were subjected to renal IR injury. In sham donor group the procedure was almost the same except that ischemia was not induced. Then, mice were anesthetized and blood was collected. Leukocytes were isolated from donor groups and were then transferred to intact recipient mice (from IR donor mice to IR recipient mice and from sham donor mice to sham recipient mice). Results After 24 hr, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities decreased significantly in recipient mice that received leukocytes from IR donor mice in comparison to recipient mice received leukocytes from sham donor mice. Conclusion These findings indicate that leukocytes are one of the mediators that induce hepatic oxidative stress after renal IR. PMID:23493418

Khastar, Hossein; Kadkhodaee, Mehri; Sadeghipour, Hamid reza; Seifi, Behjat; Hadjati, Jamshid; Najafi, Atefeh; Soleimani, Manoocher

2011-01-01

361

Stimulation of neutrophil leukocyte chemotaxis by a cloned cytolytic enterotoxin of Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

A cytolytic enterotoxin produced by Aeromonas hydrophila, isolate SSU, has been cloned in our laboratory. This enterotoxin lysed rabbit red blood cells, destroyed Chinese hamster ovary cells, caused fluid secretion in rat ligated ileal loops, inhibited the phagocytic function of mouse phagocytes, and was lethal to mice when injected intravenously. In this study, the effect of this cytolytic enterotoxin on the chemotaxis of human leukocytes (cell line RPMI 1788) was examined. This toxin, at concentrations from 92.5 to 370 ng/ml, significantly stimulated the chemotactic activity of human leukocytes in a dose-dependent fashion. The stimulation of leukocyte chemotaxis elicited by cytolytic enterotoxin was abolished when the toxin was neutralized, heated, or exposed to low pH values. This stimulatory effect also was inhibited by various concentrations of pertussis toxin. These results demonstrated that cytolytic enterotoxin may stimulate increased chemotaxis of human leukocytes, and suggest that human leukocytes may possess cytolytic enterotoxin receptors which may be coupled to pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. PMID:1459417

Jin, G F; Chopra, A K; Houston, C W

1992-11-01

362

A novel mutation in leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II/CDGIIc.  

PubMed

Leukocyte adhesion deficiencies (LAD) are autosomal recessive immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by severe and recurrent bacterial infections, impaired wound healing and leukocytosis. Block in different steps in the leukocyte adhesion cascade causes different types of leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, LAD type I, II and III. In LAD type II, the rolling phase of the leukocyte adhesion cascade is affected due to mutations in the specific fucose transporter GFTP (GDP fucose transporter), causing defect in the biosynthesis of selectin ligands on leukocytes. Thus this syndrome is also called congenital disorder of glycosylation IIc (CGDIIc). LAD II/CGDIIc is very rare and has been diagnosed in nine children to date. Fever, leukocytosis, typical dysmorphic features, growth, psychomotor retardation and the Bombay blood group, are characteristic findings in patients. Here, we describe two Turkish siblings with a novel mutation in GFTP. They both have the characteristic features of the syndrome. The older sibling died of severe bacterial pneumonia at the age of 3 years. The younger sibling, diagnosed at the age of 3 months, responded to high dose oral fucose supplementation. Secundum atrial septal defect which was not described in previously reported patients, but present in both of our patients, may primarily related to the defect in fucosylation. PMID:25239688

Cagdas, Deniz; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Kandemir, Nurgün; Tezcan, Ilhan; Etzioni, Amos; Sanal, Özden

2014-11-01

363

The inhibitory effects of antirheumatic drugs on the activity of human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G.  

PubMed

The serine proteinases elastase and cathepsin G from polymorphonuclear granulocytes play a critical role in articular cartilage degradation, not only as proteolytic enzymes able to degrade the extracellular matrix but also by additionally modulating the level of active matrix metalloproteinases, key enzymes of the proteolytic destruction of cartilage during rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of our study was to examine whether anti-inflammatory drugs and selected compounds inhibited elastase and cathepsin G, and also to determine whether it is necessary to use a highly purified elastase preparation to screen drugs for their ability to block the activity of this enzyme. Eglin C and the glycosaminoglycan-peptide complex DAK-16, at concentrations ranging from 10(-9) to 10(-4) M, dose-dependently inhibited elastase and cathepsin G while the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone, sulfinpyrazone and diclofenac-Na required high concentrations to demonstrate some inhibitory effects on the activity of both enzymes. None of the other anti-inflammatory drugs tested at a concentration of 10(-4) M such as acetylsalicylic acid, dexamethasone, indomethacin, ketoprofen, naproxen, oxaceprol, pirprofen and tiaprofenic acid demonstrated any marked inhibitory activity on either of these proteinases. Only a few drugs, when dosed therapeutically, achieved synovial fluid concentrations sufficient to inhibit the activities of both proteinases. The antirheumatic drugs demonstrated similar inhibition profiles in purified or partially purified elastase preparations. Thus the leukocyte extract containing the partially purified elastase and cathepsin G which can be rapidly and easily prepared at low costs appears to be an efficient mean of screening potentially new therapeutic agents for their ability to inhibit leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. PMID:8841833

Steinmeyer, J; Kalbhen, D A

1996-07-01

364

Diagnosing bacterial peritonitis made easy by use of leukocyte esterase dipsticks  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) requires rapid diagnosis for the initiation of antibiotics. Its diagnosis is usually based on manual examination of ascitic fluid (AF) having long reporting time. AF infection is diagnosed when the fluid polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) concentration ?250 cells/mm3. Aims and Objectives: Aim was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of leukocyte esterase (LE) reagent strip for rapid diagnosis of SBP in patients who underwent abdominal paracentesis and to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 103 patients with ascites. Cell count of AF as determined by colorimetric scale of Multistix 10 SG reagent strip was compared with counting chamber method (PMNL count ?250 cells/mm3 was considered positive). Results and Observations: Of the 103 patients SBP was diagnosed in 20 patients, 83 patients were negative for SBP by manual cell count. The sensitivity and specificity of the LE test for detecting neutrocytic SBP taking grade 2 as cut off were 95% and 96.4% respectively, with a positive predictive value of 86.4% and a negative predictive value of 98.8%. Diagnostic accuracy of LE test was 96.1%. Discussion: There was a good correlation between the reagent strip result and PMNL count. The LE strip test is based on the esterase activity of activated granulocytes which reacts with an ester-releasing hydroxyphenylpyrrole causing a colour change in the azo dye of reagent strip. It is a very sensitive and specific method for the prompt detection of elevated PMNL count, and represents a convenient, inexpensive, simple, and bedside method for diagnosis of SBP. A negative LE test result excludes SBP with a high degree of certainty. PMID:25810962

Chugh, Kiran; Agrawal, Yuthika; Goyal, Vipin; Khatri, Vinod; Kumar, Pradeep

2015-01-01

365

Leukocyte telomere length and age at menopause  

PubMed Central

Background Telomere length is a marker of cellular aging that varies by the individual, is inherited, and is highly correlated across somatic cell types within persons. Inter-individual telomere length variability may partly explain differences in reproductive aging rates. We examined whether leukocyte telomere length was associated with menopausal age. Methods We evaluated the relationship between leukocyte telomere length and age at natural menopause in 486 white women aged 65 years or older. We fit linear regression models adjusted for age, income, education, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol intake. We repeated the analysis in women with surgical menopause. We also performed sensitivity analyses excluding women (1) with unilateral oophorectomy, (2) who were nulliparous, or (3) reporting menopausal age <40 years, among other exclusions. Results For every one kilobase (kb) increase in leukocyte telomere length, average age at natural menopause increased by 10.2 months (95% confidence interval= 1.3 to 19.0). There was no association in 179 women reporting surgical menopause. In all but one sensitivity analysis, the association between leukocyte telomere length and age at menopause became stronger. However, when excluding women with menopausal age <40 years, the association decreased to 7.5 months (?0.4 to 15.5). Conclusions Women with the longest leukocyte telomere length underwent menopause three years later than those with the shortest leukocyte telomere length. If artifactual, an association would likely also have been observed in women with surgical menopause. If these results are replicated, leukocyte telomere length may prove to be a useful predictor of age at menopause. PMID:24213145

Gray, Kristen E.; Schiff, Melissa A.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Kimura, Masayuki; Aviv, Abraham; Starr, Jacqueline R.

2014-01-01

366

Heterotropic modulation of selectin affinity by allosteric antibodies affects leukocyte rolling  

PubMed Central

Selectins are a family of adhesion receptors designed for efficient leukocyte tethering to the endothelium under shear. As a key property to resist premature bond disruption, selectin adhesiveness is enhanced by tensile forces that promote the conversion of a bent into an extended conformation of the N-terminal lectin and EGF-like domains. Conformation-specific antibodies have been invaluable in deciphering the activation mechanism of integrins, but similar reagents are not available for selectins. Here we show that the anti-human L-selectin monoclonal antibodies DREG-55 and LAM1.5 but not DREG-56, -200 or LAM1.1 heterotropically modulate adhesion presumably by stabilizing the extended receptor conformation. Force-free affinity assays, flow chamber and microkinetic studies reveal a ligand-specific modulation of L-selectin affinity by DREG-55 mAb, resulting in a dramatic decrease of rolling velocity under flow. Furthermore, secondary tethering of polymorphonuclear cells was blocked by DREG-200 but significantly boosted by DREG-55 mAb. The results emphasize the need for a new classification for selectin antibodies and introduce the new concept of heterotropic modulation of receptor function. PMID:24431230

Riese, Sebastian B; Kuehne, Christian; Tedder, Thomas F; Hallmann, Rupert; Hohenester, Erhard; Buscher, Konrad

2013-01-01

367

Analysis of Physiologic E-Selectin-Mediated Leukocyte Rolling on Microvascular Endothelium  

PubMed Central

E-selectin is a type-1 membrane protein on microvascular endothelial cells that helps initiate recruitment of circulating leukocytes to cutaneous, bone and inflamed tissues. E-selectin expression is constitutive on dermal and bone microvessels and is inducible by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1?/ and TNF-?, on microvessels in inflamed tissues. This lectin receptor mediates weak binding interactions with carbohydrate counter-receptor ligands on circulating leukocytes, which results in a characteristic rolling behavior. Because these interactions precede more stable adhesive events and diapedesis activity, characterization of leukocyte rolling activity and identification of leukocyte E-selectin ligands have been major goals in studies of leukocyte trafficking and inflammation and in the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics (1-5). The intent of this report is to provide a visual, comprehensive description of the most widely-used technology for studying E-selectin E-selectin ligand interactions under physiologic blood flow conditions. Our laboratory in conjunction with the Harvard Skin Disease Research Center uses a state-of-the-art parallel-plate flow chamber apparatus accompanied by digital visualization and new recording software, NIS-Elements. This technology allows us to analyze adhesion events in real time for onscreen visualization as well as record rolling activity in a video format. Cell adhesion parameters, such as rolling frequency, shear resistance and binding/tethering efficiency, are calculated with NIS-Elements software, exported to an Excel spreadsheet and subjected to statistical analysis. In the demonstration presented here, we employed the parallel-plate flow chamber to investigate E-selectin-dependent leukocyte rolling activity on live human bone marrow endothelial cells (hBMEC). Human hematopoietic progenitor KG1a cells, which express a high level of E-selectin ligand, were used as our leukocyte model, while an immortalized hBMEC cell line, HBMEC-60 cells, was used as our endothelial cell model (6). To induce and simulate native E-selectin expression in the flow chamber, HBMEC-60 cells were first activated with IL-1 . Our video presentation showed that parallel-plate flow analysis is a suitable method for studying physiologic E-selectin-mediated leukocyte rolling activities and that functional characterization of leukocyte E-selectin ligand(s) in the flow chamber can be ascertained by implementing protease or glycosidase digestions. PMID:19229187

Wiese, Georg; Barthel, Steven R.; Dimitroff, Charles J.

2009-01-01

368

P2X1 expressed on polymorphonuclear neutrophils and platelets is required for thrombosis in mice  

PubMed Central

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and its metabolite, adenosine, are key regulators of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) functions. PMNs have recently been implicated in the initiation of thrombosis. We investigated the role of ATP and adenosine in PMN activation and recruitment at the site of endothelial injury. Following binding to the injured vessel wall, PMNs are activated and release elastase. The recruitment of PMNs and the subsequent fibrin generation and thrombus formation are strongly affected in mice deficient in the P2X1-ATP receptor and in wild-type (WT) mice treated with CGS 21680, an agonist of the A2A adenosine receptor or NF449, a P2X1 antagonist. Infusion of WT PMNs into P2X1-deficient mice increases fibrin generation but not thrombus formation. Restoration of thrombosis requires infusion of both platelets and PMNs from WT mice. In vitro, ATP activates PMNs, whereas CGS 21680 prevents their binding to activated endothelial cells. These data indicate that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contributes to polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) activation leading to their adhesion at the site of laser-induced endothelial injury, a necessary step leading to the generation of fibrin, and subsequent platelet-dependent thrombus formation. Altogether, our study identifies previously unknown mechanisms by which ATP and adenosine are key molecules involved in thrombosis by regulating the activation state of PMNs. PMID:25150292

Darbousset, Roxane; Delierneux, Céline; Mezouar, Soraya; Hego, Alexandre; Lecut, Christelle; Guillaumat, Isabelle; Riederer, Markus A.; Evans, Richard J.; Dignat-George, Françoise; Panicot-Dubois, Laurence; Oury, Cécile

2014-01-01

369

An Fc-receptor activity of plasma membranes from guinea-pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes.  

PubMed Central

Plasma membranes prepared from guinea-pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes showed an immune-complex-binding activity that corresponded well with the activity in intact cells. The characteristics of this activity were reversible binding, dependence on the Fc portion of antigen-complexed IgG (immunoglobulin G), competition with aggregated IgG and independence from energy metabolism. These results support the conclusion that the binding activity found in the isolated plasma membranes is an Fc-receptor activity of guinea-pig peritoneal polymorphonuclear leucocytes. The activity showed Kd = 6.7 x 10(-8) M-IgG and maximum binding of 17 pmol of IgG/mg of membrane protein when measured with an immune complex of alpha-amylase and homologous guinea-pig anti-(alpha-amylase) IgG. Inhibition of the Fc-receptor activity by a series of various salts indicated the contribution of the hydrophobic interaction to the binding. Inhibitory effects of salts or metal-chelating reagents on the Fc-receptor activity were also observed on superoxide generation by these cells induced by the immune complex, suggesting a role of the Fc receptor as the immune-complex-binding site responsible for the initiation of superoxide generation. PMID:6289800

Tsunawaki, S; Mizuno, D; Kakinuma, K; Kasahara, M

1982-01-01

370

541?Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Background Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) caused by a defect in neutrophil adhesion, characterized by skin ulcers, poor wound healing and recurrent bacterial infection. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used to treat patients with PID, but in LAD is not rutinely used. Treatment consists in prompt antibiotic, G-CSF for chronic ulcers and the only definite therapy is bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We present the case of a child with LAD, who was treated with IVIG with a good response before BMT. Methods We present a case report of a 2 year-old male, second child of consanguineous parents (cousins 1st grade). His sister had omphalitis and umbilical abscess and died at 6 months with candidiasis and perianal infection. There were 6 episodes of infectious diseases from birth to 6 months: At 11 days of life presented with omphalitis. At 2 months, upper respiratory tract infection with poor response to antibiotics. At 4 months he presented with suppurative otitis media, and was transferred to our hospital with suspected immunodeficiency, with neutrophilia (up to 95900). He was treated with IV antibiotics, and after resolution with prophylactic antibiotics. At 6 months had gastroenteritis and 1 week later septic shock. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) was started. Results After IVIG was initiated there were only 6 episodes of infectious diseases from 6 months to 2 years, including in the cord blood stem cell transplantation (CBSCT) period: at 9 months, gastroenteritis; at 15 months balanosposthitis (ecthyma gangrenosum), at 17 months had cellulitis in the hand and buttocks and oral candidiasis. CBSCT was performed on February 2011, at 1 year 11 months, but didn't engraft. He was discharged with prophylactic antibiotics and cyclosporine. At 2 years he had catheter associated sepsis. Currently the patient is receiving monthly IVIG, fluconazol, TMP SMX, Acyclovir and in protocol for BMT and has remained stable. Conclusions IVIG is not routinely used in LAD. In our case, monthly IVIG resulted in improvement with less infectious episodes. We suggest the use of IVIG as an adjuvant tool for the treatment of patients with LAD before BMT.

Oropeza, Said Arablin; Marco Antonio, Yamazaki-Nakashimada

2012-01-01

371

The rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson) granular leukocytes and mast-cells system versus the human one. Cytomorphometrical and cytochemical characters in these two species philogenetically poles apart.  

PubMed

In man, circulating granular leukocytes constitute a cellular system and are able to migrate in the tissues to take part in the immune reactions. This study was to characterize the granular leukocytes and the eventual existence of mast-cells of a low vertebrate, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri R.) in order to compare it with man. The blood smears and tissues sections have been tested whit panoptic methods, cytochemistry and toluidine blue. White blood cell count, leukocytes formula and cytomorphometric characterization was performed using an image analyser. Scanning of tissues sections in order to identify mast-cells has been also performed. In this model the granular leukocytes are all neutrophilic like; no eosinophilic, no basophilic no tissue mast-cells, basically existing in allergic and anaphylactic reactions, were found. PMID:11103851

Passantino, L; Patruno, R; Ranieri, G; Cianciotta, A; Sciscioli, V; Passantino, G F

2000-01-01

372

A Leukocyte Score to Improve Clinical Outcome Predictions in Bacteremic Pneumococcal Pneumonia in Adults  

PubMed Central

Background ?Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (BPP) is associated with high and early mortality. A simple procedure to predict mortality is crucial. Methods ?All adult patients with BPP admitted from 2005 through 2013 to the University Hospital of Dijon, France, were enrolled to study 30-day mortality and associated factors, particularly leukocyte counts. A simple leukocyte score was created by adding 1 point each for neutropenia (<1500 cells/mm3), lymphopenia (<400), and monocytopenia (<200). Results ?One hundred and ninety-two adult patients (mean age, 69 years; standard deviation [SD], 19 years) who had developed and were hospitalized for BPP (58% community-acquired) were included. The 30-day crude mortality rate was 21%. The mean Pneumonia Severity Index score was high at 127.3 (SD = 41.3). Among the 182 patients who had a white blood cell count, 34 (19%) had a high leukocyte score (?2). Multivariate analysis revealed that mortality was significantly associated with a high leukocyte score (odds ratio, 6.28; 95% confidence interval, 2.35–16.78), a high respiratory rate, a low serum bicarbonate level, and an altered mental status (all P < .05). The leukocyte score was not significantly dependent on the previous state of immunosuppression, alcoholism, or viral coinfection, but it did correlate with an acute respiratory distress syndrome and a low serum bicarbonate level. Conclusions ?This new leukocyte score, in combination with the well known predictive factors, seems of interest in predicting the risk of death in BPP. A high score correlated with organ dysfunction and probably reflects the level of immunoparalysis. Its predictive value has to be confirmed in other cohorts. PMID:25734145

Blot, Mathieu; Croisier, Delphine; Péchinot, André; Vagner, Ameline; Putot, Alain; Fillion, Aurélie; Baudouin, Nicolas; Quenot, Jean-Pierre; Charles, Pierre-Emmanuel; Bonniaud, Philippe; Chavanet, Pascal; Piroth, Lionel

2014-01-01

373

Initial Afferent Lymphatic Vessels Controlling Outbound Leukocyte Traffic from Skin to Lymph Nodes  

PubMed Central

Tissue drains fluid and macromolecules through lymphatic vessels (LVs), which are lined by a specialized endothelium that expresses peculiar differentiation proteins, not found in blood vessels (i.e., LYVE-1, Podoplanin, PROX-1, and VEGFR-3). Lymphatic capillaries are characteristically devoid of a continuous basal membrane and are anchored to the ECM by elastic fibers that act as pulling ropes which open the vessel to avoid edema if tissue volume increases, as it occurs upon inflammation. LVs are also crucial for the transit of T lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells from tissue to draining lymph nodes (LN). Importantly, cell traffic control across lymphatic endothelium is differently regulated under resting and inflammatory conditions. Under steady-state non-inflammatory conditions, leukocytes enter into the lymphatic capillaries through basal membrane gaps (portals). This entrance is integrin-independent and seems to be mainly guided by CCL21 chemokine gradients acting on leukocytes expressing CCR7. In contrast, inflammatory processes in lymphatic capillaries involve a plethora of cytokines, chemokines, leukocyte integrins, and other adhesion molecules. Importantly, under inflammation a role for integrins and their ligands becomes apparent and, as a consequence, the number of leukocytes entering the lymphatic capillaries multiplies several-fold. Enhancing transmigration of dendritic cells en route to LN is conceivably useful for vaccination and cancer immunotherapy, whereas interference with such key mechanisms may ameliorate autoimmunity or excessive inflammation. Recent findings illustrate how, transient cell-to-cell interactions between lymphatic endothelial cells and leukocytes contribute to shape the subsequent behavior of leukocytes and condition the LV for subsequent trans-migratory events. PMID:24368908

Teijeira, Alvaro; Rouzaut, Ana; Melero, Ignacio

2013-01-01

374

Triggering of leukocytes by phase contrast in imaging cytometry with scanning fluorescence microscope (SFM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slide-based cytometry (SBC) leads to breakthrough in cytometry of cells in tissues, culture and suspension. Carl Zeiss Imaging Solutions' new automated SFM combines imaging with cytometry. A critical step in image analysis is selection of appropriate triggering signal to detect all objects. Without correct target cell definition analysis is hampered. DNA-staining is among the most common triggering signals. However, the majority of DNA-dyes yield massive spillover into other fluorescence channels limiting their application. By microscopy objects of >5?m diameter can be easily detected by phase-contrast signal (PCS) without any staining. Aim was to establish PCS - triggering for cell identification. Axio Imager.Z1 motorized SFM was used (high-resolution digital camera, AxioCam MRm; AxioVision software: automatic multi-channel scanning, analysis). Leukocytes were stained with FITC (CD4, CD8) and APC (CD3) labelled antibodies in combinations using whole blood method. Samples were scanned in three channels (PCS/FITC/APC). Exposition-times for PCS were set as low as possible; the detection efficiency was verified by fluorescence. CD45-stained leukocytes were counted and compared to the number of PCS detected events. Leukocyte subtyping was compared with other cytometers. In focus the PCS of cells showed ring-form that was not optimal for cell definition. Out of focus PCS allows more effective qualitative and quantitative cell analyses. PCS was an accurate triggering signal for leukocytes enabling cell counting and discrimination of leukocytes from platelets. Leukocyte subpopulation frequencies were comparable to those obtained by other cytometers. In conclusion PCS is a suitable trigger-signal not interfering with fluorescence detection.

Bocsi, József; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Marecka, Monika; Malkusch, Wolf; Tárnok, Attila

2009-02-01

375

Regulation of gelatinase B (MMP-9) in leukocytes by plant lectins.  

PubMed

The stimulatory or inhibitory effects of plant lectins on the production of gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9) by mononuclear white blood cells was investigated by substrate zymography. Leukocyte cultures from 24-h old buffy coats were spontaneously activated and produced high levels of gelatinase B. Using such cultures the suppressing activity of the Datura stramonium, Viscum album, Bauhinia purpurea, Triticum aestivum and Maackia amurensis lectins on gelatinase B induction were demonstrated. When fresh leukocyte preparations from single blood donors were used, low levels of gelatinase B were produced. The induction of gelatinase B was confirmed for concanavalin A and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA-L4). In addition, the Urtica dioica, Calystegia sepium, Convolvulus arvensis and Colchicum autumnale lectins were documented as novel and potent inducers of gelatinase B. Since high circulating gelatinase B levels are associated with specific pathologies, including shock syndromes, the acute toxicity of many lectins might be partially mediated or influenced by gelatinase induction. PMID:9607327

Dubois, B; Peumans, W J; Van Damme, E J; Van Damme, J; Opdenakker, G

1998-05-01

376

Boundary-precise segmentation of nucleus and plasma of leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact segmentation of nucleus and plasma of a white blood cell (leukocyte) is the basis for the creation of an automatic, image based differential white blood cell count(WBC). In this contribution we present an approach for the according segmentation of leukocytes. For a valid classification of the different cell classes, a precise segmentation is essential. Especially concerning immature cells, which can be distinguished from their mature counterparts only by small differences in some features, a segmentation of nucleus and plasma has to be as precise as possible, to extract those differences. Also the problems with adjacent erythrocyte cells and the usage of a LED illumination are considered. The presented approach can be separated into several steps. After preprocessing by a Kuwahara-filter, the cell is localized by a simple thresholding operation, afterwards a fast-marching method for the localization of a rough cell boundary is defined. To retrieve the cell area a shortest-path-algorithm is applied next. The cell boundary found by the fast-marching approach is finally enhanced by a post-processing step. The concluding segmentation of the cell nucleus is done by a threshold operation. An evaluation of the presented method was done on a representative sample set of 80 images recorded with LED illumination and a 63-fold magnification dry objective. The automatically segmented cell images are compared to a manual segmentation of the same dataset using the Dice-coefficient as well as Hausdorff-distance. The results show that our approach is able to handle the different cell classes and that it improves the segmentation quality significantly.

Zerfaß, Thorsten; Rehn, Thomas; Wittenberg, Thomas

2008-03-01

377

3,4-di-deoxyglucosone-3-ene promotes leukocyte apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

3,4-di-deoxyglucosone-3-ene promotes leukocyte apoptosis.BackgroundHeat-sterilized, single-chambered, glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions promote neutrophil apoptosis and impair the peritoneal antibacterial response. It has been proposed that glucose degradation products may be responsible for this effect. However, the precise contribution of individual glucose degradation products had not been addressed.MethodsThe effect of individual glucose degradation products on apoptosis in cultured human neutrophils and peripheral blood

MARINA PENÉLOPE CATALAN; BEATRIZ SANTAMARÍA; ANA REYERO; ARTURO ORTIZ; JESÚS EGIDO; ALBERTO ORTIZ

2005-01-01

378

Maternal Influences on the Transmission of Leukocyte Gene Expression Profiles in Population Samples from Brisbane, Australia  

PubMed Central

Two gene expression profiling studies designed to identify maternal influences on development of the neonate immune system and to address the population structure of the leukocyte transcriptome were carried out in Brisbane, Australia. In the first study, a comparison of 19 leukocyte samples obtained from mothers in the last three weeks of pregnancy with 37 umbilical cord blood samples documented differential expression of 7,382 probes at a false discovery rate of 1%, representing approximately half of the expressed transcriptome. An even larger component of the variation involving 8,432 probes, notably enriched for Vitamin E and methotrexate-responsive genes, distinguished two sets of individuals, with perfect transmission of the two profile types between each of 16 mother-child pairs in the study. A minor profile of variation was found to distinguish the gene expression profiles of obese mothers and children of gestational diabetic mothers from those of children born to obese mothers. The second study was of adult leukocyte profiles from a cross-section of Red Cross blood donors sampled throughout Brisbane. The first two axes in this study are related to the third and fourth axes of variation in the first study and also reflect variation in the abundance of CD4 and CD8 transcripts. One of the profiles associated with the third axis is largely excluded from samples from the central portion of the city. Despite enrichment of insulin signaling and aspects of central metabolism among the differentially expressed genes, there was little correlation between leukocyte expression profiles and body mass index overall. Our data is consistent with the notion that maternal health and cytokine milieu directly impact gene expression in fetal tissues, but that there is likely to be a complex interplay between cultural, genetic, and other environmental factors in the programming of gene expression in leukocytes of newborn children. PMID:21217831

Mason, Elizabeth; Tronc, Graham; Nones, Katia; Matigian, Nick; Kim, Jinhee; Aronow, Bruce J.; Wolfinger, Russell D.; Wells, Christine; Gibson, Greg

2010-01-01

379

Oxidative stress and reduced responsiveness of challenged circulating leukocytes following pulmonary instillation of metal-rich particulate matter in rats  

PubMed Central

Welding fume is an exposure that consists of a mixture of metal-rich particulate matter with gases (ozone, carbon monoxide) and/or vapors (VOCs). Data suggests that welders are immune compromised. Given the inability of pulmonary leukocytes to properly respond to a secondary infection in animal models, the question arose whether the dysfunction persisted systemically. Our aim was to evaluate the circulating leukocyte population in terms of cellular activation, presence of oxidative stress, and functionality after a secondary challenge, following welding fume exposure. Rats were intratracheally instilled (ITI) with PBS or 2 mg of welding fume collected from a stainless steel weld. Rats were sacrificed 4 and 24 h post-exposure and whole blood was collected. Whole blood was used for cellular differential counts, RNA isolation with subsequent microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and secondary stimulation with LPS utilizing TruCulture technology. In addition, mononuclear cells were isolated 24 h post-exposure to measure oxidative stress by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Welding fume exposure had rapid effects on the circulating leukocyte population as identified by relative mRNA expression changes. Instillation of welding fume reduced inflammatory protein production of circulating leukocytes when challenged with the secondary stimulus LPS. The effects were not related to transcription, but were observed in conjunction with oxidative stress. These findings support previous studies of an inadequate pulmonary immune response following a metal-rich exposure and extend those findings showing leukocyte dysfunction occurs systemically. PMID:25123171

2014-01-01

380

Oxidative stress and reduced responsiveness of challenged circulating leukocytes following pulmonary instillation of metal-rich particulate matter in rats.  

PubMed

Welding fume is an exposure that consists of a mixture of metal-rich particulate matter with gases (ozone, carbon monoxide) and/or vapors (VOCs). Data suggests that welders are immune compromised. Given the inability of pulmonary leukocytes to properly respond to a secondary infection in animal models, the question arose whether the dysfunction persisted systemically. Our aim was to evaluate the circulating leukocyte population in terms of cellular activation, presence of oxidative stress, and functionality after a secondary challenge, following welding fume exposure. Rats were intratracheally instilled (ITI) with PBS or 2 mg of welding fume collected from a stainless steel weld. Rats were sacrificed 4 and 24 h post-exposure and whole blood was collected. Whole blood was used for cellular differential counts, RNA isolation with subsequent microarray and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and secondary stimulation with LPS utilizing TruCulture technology. In addition, mononuclear cells were isolated 24 h post-exposure to measure oxidative stress by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Welding fume exposure had rapid effects on the circulating leukocyte population as identified by relative mRNA expression changes. Instillation of welding fume reduced inflammatory protein production of circulating leukocytes when challenged with the secondary stimulus LPS. The effects were not related to transcription, but were observed in conjunction with oxidative stress. These findings support previous studies of an inadequate pulmonary immune response following a metal-rich exposure and extend those findings showing leukocyte dysfunction occurs systemically. PMID:25123171

Erdely, Aaron; Antonini, James M; Young, Shih-Houng; Kashon, Michael L; Gu, Ja K; Hulderman, Tracy; Salmen, Rebecca; Meighan, Terence; Roberts, Jenny R; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C

2014-01-01

381

Functional and Phenotypical Impairment of Polymorphonuclear Cells in Atopic Dermatitis: An Additional Cause for the Known Susceptibility to Infections?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) patients present an high susceptibility to infections. The phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) is mediated by the interactions between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Objective: To investigate functional activity and phenotype of PMNs in AD patients. Methods: In vitro PMN phagocytosis and intracellular killing towards Klebsiella pneumoniae were evaluated in 24 AD patients;

Maria Teresa Fierro; Giuliana Banche; Federica Marenco; Mauro Novelli; Valeria Allizond; Narcisa Mandras; Pierangela Murabito; Chiara Merlino; Pietro Quaglino; Maria Grazia Bernengo; Anna Maria Cuffini

2012-01-01

382

MICROWAVES, HYPERTHERMIA, AND HUMAN LEUKOCYTE FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to microwaves (2450 MHz) affects the function of human leukocytes in the resting state and during antigenic or mitogenic challenge. This publication is a summary report of the construction and calibration of a waveguide...

383

The effect of packed red blood cell storage on arachidonic acid and advanced glycation end-product formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

.\\u000a Introduction:  The transfusion of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is a significant risk to blood recipients. Blood banking procedures permit\\u000a the storage of PRBCs for up to 42 days. Storage of PRBCs can cause polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) activation and the\\u000a development of neutrophil-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury. The aim of our study was to determine if PRBC storage\\u000a has an influence

Lidia ?ysenko; Magdalena Mierzcha?a; Andrzej Gamian; Gra?yna Durek; Andrzej Kübler; Ryszard Koz?owski; Marek ?liwi?ski

2006-01-01

384

Enzyme analysis for Pompe disease in leukocytes; superior results with natural substrate compared with artificial substrates.  

PubMed

Enzyme analysis for Pompe disease in leukocytes has been greatly improved by the introduction of acarbose, a powerful inhibitor of interfering alpha-glucosidases, which are present in granulocytes but not in lymphocytes. Here we show that the application of acarbose in the enzymatic assay employing the artificial substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-D: -glucoside (MU-alphaGlc) is insufficient to clearly distinguish patients from healthy individuals in all cases. Also, the ratios of the activities without/with acarbose only marginally discriminated Pompe patients and healthy individuals. By contrast, when the natural substrate glycogen is used, the activity in leukocytes from patients (n = 82) with Pompe disease is at most 17% of the lowest control value. The use of artificial substrate in an assay with isolated lymphocytes instead of total leukocytes is a poor alternative as blood samples older than one day invariably yield lymphocyte preparations that are contaminated with granulocytes. To diagnose Pompe disease in leukocytes we recommend the use of glycogen as substrate in the presence of acarbose. This assay unequivocally excludes Pompe disease. To also exclude pseudo-deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase caused by the sequence change c.271G>A (p.D91N or GAA2; homozygosity in approximately 1:1000 caucasians), a second assay employing MU-alphaGlc substrate plus acarbose or DNA analysis is required. PMID:19387865

van Diggelen, O P; Oemardien, L F; van der Beek, N A M E; Kroos, M A; Wind, H K; Voznyi, Y V; Burke, D; Jackson, M; Winchester, B G; Reuser, A J J

2009-06-01

385

Modulation of chemokine gradients by apheresis redirects leukocyte trafficking to different compartments during sepsis, studies in a rat model  

PubMed Central

Introduction Prior work suggests that leukocyte trafficking is determined by local chemokine gradients between the nidus of infection and the plasma. We recently demonstrated that therapeutic apheresis can alter immune mediator concentrations in the plasma, protect against organ injury, and improve survival. Here we aimed to determine whether the removal of chemokines from the plasma by apheresis in experimental peritonitis changes chemokine gradients and subsequently enhances leukocyte localization into the infected compartment, and away from healthy tissues. Methods In total, 76 male adult Sprague–Dawley rats weighing 400 g to 600 g were included in this study. Eighteen hours after inducing sepsis by cecal ligation and puncture, we randomized these rats to apheresis or sham treatment for 4 hours. Cytokines, chemokines, and leukocyte counts from blood, peritoneal cavity, and lung were measured. In a separate experiment, we labeled neutrophils from septic donor animals and injected them into either apheresis or sham-treated animals. All numeric data with normal distributions were compared with one-way analysis of variance, and numeric data not normally distributed were compared with the Mann–Whitney U test. Results Apheresis significantly removed plasma cytokines and chemokines, increased peritoneal fluid-to-blood chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1, ligand 2, and C-C motif ligand 2) ratios, and decreased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid-to-blood chemokine ratios, resulting in enhanced leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and improved bacterial clearance, but decreased recruitment into the lung. Apheresis also reduced myeloperoxidase activity and histologic injury in the lung, liver, and kidney. These Labeled donor neutrophils exhibited decreased localization in the lung when infused into apheresis-treated animals. Conclusions Our results support the concept of chemokine gradient control of leukocyte trafficking and demonstrate the efficacy of apheresis to target this mechanism and reduce leukocyte infiltration into the lung. PMID:24992991

2014-01-01

386

Caveolin-1 scaffolding domain promotes leukocyte adhesion by reduced basal endothelial nitric oxide-mediated ICAM-1 phosphorylation in rat mesenteric venules  

PubMed Central

Exogenously applied caveolin-1 scaffolding domain (CAV) has been shown to inhibit inflammatory mediator-induced nitric oxide (NO) production and NO-mediated increases in microvessel permeability. However, the effect of CAV on endothelial basal NO that prevents leukocyte adhesion remains unknown. This study aims to investigate the roles of exogenously applied CAV in endothelial basal NO production, leukocyte adhesion, and adhesion-induced changes in microvessel permeability. Experiments were conducted in individually perfused rat mesenteric venules. Microvessel permeability was determined by measuring hydraulic conductivity (Lp). NO was quantified with fluorescence imaging in DAF-2-loaded vessels. Perfusing venules with CAV inhibited basal NO production without affecting basal Lp. Resuming blood flow in CAV-perfused vessels significantly increased leukocyte adhesion. The firmly adherent leukocytes altered neither basal Lp nor adherens junction integrity. Increases in Lp occurred only upon formyl-Met-Leu-Phe application that induces release of reactive oxygen species from the adherent leukocytes. The application of NO synthase inhibitor showed similar results to CAV, and NO donor abolished CAV-mediated leukocyte adhesion. Immunofluorescence staining showed increases in binding of ICAM-1 to an adhesion-blocking antibody concurrent with a Src-dependent ICAM-1 phosphorylation following CAV perfusion. Pre-perfusing vessels with anti-ICAM-1 blocking antibody or a Src kinase inhibitor attenuated CAV-induced leukocyte adhesion. These results indicate that the application of CAV, in addition to preventing excessive NO-mediated permeability increases, also causes reduction of basal NO and promotes ICAM-1-mediated leukocyte adhesion through Src activation-mediated ICAM-1 phosphorylation. CAV-induced leukocyte adhesion was uncoupled from leukocyte oxidative burst and microvessel barrier function, unless in the presence of a secondary stimulation. PMID:24043249

Xu, Sulei; Zhou, Xueping; Yuan, Dong; Xu, Yanchun

2013-01-01

387

[Phagocytic activity of polymorphonuclear cells in patients with psoriasis vulgaris from the aspect of PUVA therapy].  

PubMed

The authors present results of examining phagocytotic activity of polymorphonuclear (PMN) granulocytes in patients with psoriasis vulgaris from the aspect of applied PUVA-therapy. 100 patients with psoriasis vulgaris were examined and divided into three groups, 20 patients with acute exanthematous form of the disease, 16 patients with chronic stationary form of the disease, and 64 patients with acute phase of the chronic form of the disease. 50 healthy persons made up the control group. Phagocytotic activity of neutrophils was examined by opsonization test, a modified method by Brandt. Phagocytotic index was expressed as a number of ingested particles of yeast germs in 100 PMN. Polymorphonuclears of patients were examined in the autologous and control serum of healthy people. Values of immunoglobulin IgM and IgG as well as values of complement C3 were examined in all patients using the method of laser nephelometry (Behring). All mentioned parameters were determined prior to and after PUVA therapy which was conducted by apparatus: PUVA 4000 and 6001. Results of examination show that the phagocytotic activity of PMN in patients with psoriasis vulgaris is normal and that it does not depend on how skin disorders are spread, on the strength of infiltration, exudation, the length of duration and course of the disease, as well as on applied PUVA-therapy. Reduced phagocytotic activity of PMN was determined only in individual cases, that is in 5 patients not depending on the applied therapy. In one patient hypoimmunoglobulinemia IgM as a probable cause of disturbed phagocytosis was established while in the remaining 4 patients causes of reduced phagocytosis remained unknown. PMID:7739462

Poljacki, M; Suboti?, M; Budakov, M; Jovanovi?, M; Duran, V; Matovi?, L

1994-01-01

388

Combined Effects of Gamma Radiation and High Dietary Iron on Peripheral Leukocyte Distribution and Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both radiation and increased iron stores can independently increase oxidative damage, resulting in protein, lipid and DNA oxidation. Oxidative stress increases the risk of many health problems including cancer, cataracts, and heart disease. This study, a subset of a larger interdisciplinary investigation of the combined effect of iron overload on sensitivity to radiation injury, monitored immune parameters in the peripheral blood of rats subjected to gamma radiation, high dietary iron or both. Specific immune measures consisted of: (1) peripheral leukocyte distribution, (2) plasma cytokine levels and (3) cytokine production profiles following whole blood mitogenic stimulation

Crucian, Brian E.; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2012-01-01

389

Molecular basis of glutathione reductase deficiency in human blood cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hereditary glutathione reductase (GR) de- ficiency was found in only 2 cases when testing more than 15 000 blood samples. We have investigated the blood cells of 2 patients (1a and 1b) in a previously described family suffering from favism and cataract and of a novel patient (2) presenting with severe neonatal jaun- dice. Red blood cells and leukocytes of

Nanne M. Kamerbeek; Rob van Zwieten; Martin de Boer; Gert Morren; Herma Vuil; Natalja Bannink; Carsten Lincke; Koert M. Dolman; Katja Becker; R. Heiner Schirmer; Stephan Gromer; Dirk Roos

390

Use of Gene Expression Profiles in Cells of Peripheral Blood to Identify New Molecular Markers of Acute Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis: Blood leukocytes play a major role in mediating local and systemic inflammation during acute pancreatitis. We hypothesize that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in circulation exhibit unique changes in gene expression and could provide a \\

Kimberly Vanderveen; Richard J. Bold; Martin Bluth; Yin-yao Lin; Hong Zhang; Domenico Viterbo; Michael Zenilman; Nita Ahuja; Yukihiro Yokoyama; Masato Nagino; Koji Oda; Hideki Nishio; Tomoki Ebata; Jason K. Sicklick; Frederic Eckhauser; Peter J. Mazzaglia; Eren Berber; Alexandra Kovach; Mira Milas; Caldwell Esselstyn; Allan E. Siperstein; Edgar J. B. Furnee; Werner A. Draaisma; Ivo A. M. J. Broeders; Andre J. P. M. Smout; Hein G. Gooszen

2008-01-01

391

Oxidation of chloride and thiocyanate by isolated leukocytes.  

PubMed

Peroxidase-catalyzed oxidation of chloride (Cl-) and thiocyanate (SCN-) was studied using neutrophils from human blood and eosinophils and macrophages from rat peritoneal exudates. The aims were to determine whether Cl- or SCN- is preferentially oxidized and whether leukocytes oxidize SCN- to the antimicrobial oxidizing agent hypothiocyanite (OSCN-). Stimulated neutrophils produced H2O2 and secreted myeloperoxidase. Under conditions similar to those in plasma (0.14 M Cl-, 0.02-0.12 mM SCN-), myeloperoxidase catalyzed the oxidation of Cl- to hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which reacted with ammonia and amines to yield chloramines. HOCl and chloramines reacted with SCN- to yield products without oxidizing activity, so that high SCN- blocked accumulation of chloramines in the extracellular medium. Under conditions similar to those in saliva and the surface of the oral mucosa (20 mM Cl-, 0.1-3 mM SCN-), myeloperoxidase catalyzed the oxidation of SCN- to OSCN-, which accumulated in the medium to concentrations of up to 40-70 microM. Sulfonamide compounds increased the yield of stable oxidants to 0.2-0.3 mM by reacting with OSCN- to yield derivatives analogous to chloramines. Stimulated eosinophils produced H2O2 and secreted eosinophil peroxidase, which catalyzed the oxidation of SCN- to OSCN- regardless of Cl- concentration. Stimulated macrophages produced H2O2 but had low peroxidase activity. OSCN- was produced when SCN- was 0.1 mM or higher and myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase, or lactoperoxidase was added. The results indicate that SCN- rather than Cl- may be the physiologic substrate (electron donor) for eosinophil peroxidase and that OSCN- may contribute to leukocyte antimicrobial activity under conditions that favor oxidation of SCN- rather than Cl-. PMID:3015901

Thomas, E L; Fishman, M

1986-07-25

392

Mechanism of the phlogogenic activity of leukocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHOD Experiments were carried out on 60 chinchilla rabbits (2.5-3.5 kg} and 70 Wistar rats (200-250 g} of both sexes. The leukocyte preparations were obtained by the method described previously [5] and injected intradermally into the experimental animals in 0.1 ml physiological saline. The dose of injected material was calculated per mg protein, determined by Lowry's method [14]. The dose

L. V. Koroleva; A. A. Sveshnikov

1969-01-01

393

Quantitation of azoles and echinocandins in compartments of peripheral blood by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A rapid turnaround is a prerequisite of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). For antifungals, this need is still unmet, since hardly any method has been established to simultaneously quantitate concentrations of different antifungal classes. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed allowing quantitation of anidulafungin (ANF), caspofungin (CSF), isavuconazole (ISC), micafungin (MCF), posaconazole (PSC), and voriconazole (VRC). Quantitation was successful with diluted plasma samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and erythrocytes (RBC). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring mode was used with positive electrospray ionization. Cells and calibration standards were extracted with acetonitrile containing internal standard. Internal standards were a CSF derivate for echinocandins and itraconazole for triazoles. Chromatographic separation of the supernatant was achieved by a gradient method facilitating a BetaBasic C4 column. Analytes were quantified in a single 8-min run. Calibration curves were linear and fitted using least squares with a weighting factor of the reciprocal concentration. Limits of detection (ng/ml) were ANF, 8.3; CSF, 31.5; ISC, 1.5; MCF, 97.7; PSC, 3.3; and VRC, 1.4. The lower limits of quantitation (ng/ml) were ANF, 64; CSF, 108; ISC, 4.5; MCF, 160; PSC, 10; and VRC, 4.2. Intraday precisions ranged from 6.3% to 8.8% for azoles and 8.8% to 15.4% for echinocandins. Intraday and interday accuracies (percent bias) of all analytes were within 13.8%. The method was established as standard practice for the quantitation of intracellular antifungal concentrations and optimizes TDM by applying a rapid single method for 6 antifungals. PMID:20176892

Farowski, Fedja; Cornely, Oliver A; Vehreschild, Jörg J; Hartmann, Pia; Bauer, Tim; Steinbach, Angela; Rüping, Maria J G T; Müller, Carsten

2010-05-01

394

Leucine aminopeptidase activity in blood and hemopoietic organs of different vertebrates. A histochemical comparative study.  

PubMed

Leucine aminopeptidase distribution was examined in the cells of peripheral blood and hemopioetic organs of different Vertebrate classes using histoenzymatic methods. Various degrees of staining intensity were observed in leukocytes of the distinct Vertebrates: in particular, leukocytes of fresh water Osteichthyes and Mammals looked strongly positive, whereas leukocytes of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds were barely reactive without great differences among species. The observations should be related to enzyme molecular structure and to kinetics and substrate specificity. PMID:3122509

Nano, R; de Piceis Polver, P; Gerzeli, G

1987-01-01

395

Stress and skin leukocyte trafficking as a dual-stage process  

PubMed Central

Stress responses are known to modulate leukocyte trafficking. In the skin, stress was reported both to enhance and reduce skin immunity, and the chronicity of stress exposure was suggested as a key determining factor. We here propose a dual-stage hypothesis, suggesting that stress, of any duration, reduces skin immunity during its course, while its cessation is potentially followed by a period of enhanced skin immunity. To start testing this hypothesis, rats were subcutaneously implanted with sterile surgical sponges for four-hours, during or after exposure to one of several acute stress paradigms, or to a chronic stress paradigm. Our findings, in both males and females, indicate that numbers of sponge-infiltrating leukocytes, and their specific subsets, were reduced during acute or chronic stress, and increased after stress cessation. Studying potential mediating mechanisms of the reduction in leukocyte numbers during acute stress, we found that neither adrenalectomy nor the administration of beta-adrenergic or glucocorticoid antagonists prevented this reduction. Additionally, administration of corticosterone or epinephrine to adrenalectomized rats did not impact skin leukocyte numbers, whereas, in the blood, these treatments did affect numbers of leukocytes and their specific subsets, as was also reported previously. Overall, our findings support the proposed dual-stage hypothesis, which can be evolutionally rationalized and accounts for most of the apparent inconsistencies in the literature regarding stress and skin immunity. Other aspects of the hypothesis should be tested, also using additional methodologies, and its predictions may bear clinical significance in treatment of skin disorders related to hyper- or hypo-immune function. PMID:21963875

Neeman, Elad; Shaashua, Lee; Benish, Marganit; Page, Gayle G.; Zmora, Oded; Ben-Eliyahu, Shamgar

2011-01-01

396

Automatic leukocyte nucleus segmentation by intuitionistic fuzzy divergence based thresholding.  

PubMed

The paper proposes a robust approach to automatic segmentation of leukocyte's nucleus from microscopic blood smear images under normal as well as noisy environment by employing a new exponential intuitionistic fuzzy divergence based thresholding technique. The algorithm minimizes the divergence between the actual image and the ideally thresholded image to search for the final threshold. A new divergence formula based on exponential intuitionistic fuzzy entropy has been proposed. Further, to increase its noise handling capacity, a neighborhood-based membership function for the image pixels has been designed. The proposed scheme has been applied on 110 normal and 54 leukemia (chronic myelogenous leukemia) affected blood samples. The nucleus segmentation results have been validated by three expert hematologists. The algorithm achieves an average segmentation accuracy of 98.52% in noise-free environment. It beats the competitor algorithms in terms of several other metrics. The proposed scheme with neighborhood based membership function outperforms the competitor algorithms in terms of segmentation accuracy under noisy environment. It achieves 93.90% and 94.93% accuracies for Speckle and Gaussian noises, respectively. The average area under the ROC curves comes out to be 0.9514 in noisy conditions, which proves the robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:24361233

Jati, Arindam; Singh, Garima; Mukherjee, Rashmi; Ghosh, Madhumala; Konar, Amit; Chakraborty, Chandan; Nagar, Atulya K

2014-03-01

397

Cytochemical identification of the leukocytes of torpedoes (Torpedo marmorata Risso and Torpedo ocellata Rafinisque).  

PubMed

The authors subjected peripheral blood smears of Torpedoes to cytochemical analysis of lipids, protein, neutral and acid polysaccahrides and of some enzymatic activities, i.e. adenosine triphosphatase (ATP-ase), acid and alkaline phosphatase, aliesterase and peroxidase. It was found tha