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Biomonitorization of cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel and lead in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva in an occupationally exposed population.  


Heavy metal contamination from occupational origin is a cause for concern because of its potential accumulation in the environment and in living organisms leading to long term toxic effects. This study was aimed to assess Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Pb levels in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva from 178 individuals with occupational exposure to heavy metals. Levels of metal compounds were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. We collected information on occupation, lifestyle habits and food intake by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses for metal ion concentration in whole blood, urine, axillary hair and saliva were adjusted for age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption, lifetime workplace exposure, residence area and food habits. Overall, blood and urine median concentrations found for the five metals analyzed do not exceed biological exposure indexes, so that they are very similar to a non-occupationally exposed population. Toxicokinetic differences may account for the lack of correlations found for metal levels in hair and saliva with those in blood or urine. For those heavy metals showing higher median levels in blood with respect to hair (Cd, Mn and Pb) indicating lesser hair incorporation from blood, the lifetime working experience was inversely correlated with their hair levels. The longer the lifetime working experience in industrial environments, the higher the Mn and Ni concentration in saliva. Axillary hair and saliva may be used as additional and/or alternative samples to blood or urine for biomonitoring hair Mn, and saliva Ni in subjects with occupational exposure. PMID:21211822

Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Márquez, Claudia; Femia, Pedro; Olmedo, Pablo; López-Guarnido, Olga; Pla, Antonio



Network-based approach for analyzing intra- and interfluid metabolite associations in human blood, urine, and saliva.  


Most studies investigating human metabolomics measurements are limited to a single biofluid, most often blood or urine. An organism's biochemical pool, however, comprises complex transboundary relationships, which can only be understood by investigating metabolic interactions and physiological processes spanning multiple parts of the human body. Therefore, we here propose a data-driven network-based approach to generate an integrated picture of metabolomics associations over multiple fluids. We performed an analysis of 2251 metabolites measured in plasma, urine, and saliva, from 374 participants of the Qatar Metabolomics Study on Diabetes (QMDiab). Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) were used to estimate metabolite-metabolite interactions on different subsets of the data set. First, we compared similarities and differences of the metabolome and the association networks between the three fluids. Second, we investigated the cross-talk between the fluids by analyzing correlations occurring between them. Third, we propose a framework for the analysis of medically relevant phenotypes by integrating type 2 diabetes, sex, age, and body mass index into our networks. In conclusion, we present a generic, data-driven network-based approach for structuring and visualizing metabolite correlations within and between multiple body fluids, enabling unbiased interpretation of metabolomics multifluid data. PMID:25434815

Do, Kieu Trinh; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Yousri, Noha A; Theis, Fabian J; Suhre, Karsten; Krumsiek, Jan



Specific antibody detection in serum, urine and saliva samples for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum, saliva and urine samples of 25 clinically and radiologically diagnosed cystic echinoccosis (CE) patients, 25 clinically suspected cases of CE, 15 other parasitic disease controls and 25 healthy controls were evaluated for anti-hydatid antibody response by ELISA. The sensitivity of serum, saliva and urine was found to be 72, 56 and 84%, respectively, while specificity was 76% in all

T. Sunita; M. L. Dubey; Sumeeta Khurana; Nancy Malla



Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.



A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.



Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland  

PubMed Central

Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12?ng/mL and for urine 0.05?ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4?ng/mL and 0.8?ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9?ng/mL and urine 42.3?ng/mL or 53.1??g/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting. PMID:24228246

Pola?ska, Kinga



Nicotine concentrations in urine and saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  

PubMed Central

Nicotine concentrations were measured in saliva and urine samples collected from 82 smokers and 56 non-smokers after a morning at work. Each subject answered a series of questions related to their recent intentional or passive exposure to tobacco smoke. All non-smokers had measurable amounts of nicotine in both saliva and urine. Those non-smokers who reported recent exposure to tobacco smoke had significantly higher nicotine concentrations (p less than 0.001) than those who had not been exposed; their concentrations overlapped those of smokers who had smoked up to three cigarettes before sampling had the greatest influence on nicotine concentrations (r=0.62 for saliva and r=0.51 for urine). Neither the nicotine for yield of cigarettes nor the self-reported degree of inhalation had any significant effect on nicotine concentrations. PMID:6802384

Feyerabend, C; Higenbottam, T; Russell, M A



Analysis of the shedding of three ?-herpesviruses in urine and saliva of children with renal disease.  


Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7) are important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. To elucidate the kinetics of the three ?-herpesviruses in saliva and urine samples were collected serially from children with renal diseases. Twenty children with renal diseases were enrolled in this study. A total of 240 saliva and urine samples were collected monthly from the patients over a 1-year period. Viral DNAs loads were measured by real-time PCR. In 10 CMV seropositive patients CMV DNA was detected rarely in saliva and CMV DNA load was lower than the other two ?-herpesviruses DNA loads. All patients were seropositive for HHV-6B and the virus was detected frequently in saliva. Two of 20 patients were HHV-7 seronegative. High copies of viral DNA were detected continuously in saliva of the HHV-7 seropositive patients. Although neither CMV nor HHV-6B DNA load was different among the three renal diseases, HHV-7 DNA load was different among the diseases (P = 0.039). HHV-6B DNA loads were significantly higher in patients with immunosuppressive treatment compared to those without treatment (P = 0.013). Although CMV DNA was detected in urine samples collected from 5 of 10 CMV seropositive patients, HHV-6B and HHV-7 DNA were detected at relatively low frequencies in urine. No remarkable temporal associations between viral DNA excretion and proteinuria or immunosuppressive treatment were demonstrated. The pattern of viral DNA excretion in saliva and urine were different among the three viruses. No temporal correlation was observed between viral infection and renal diseases. PMID:24132949

Yamamoto, Yasuto; Morooka, Masashi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Ihra, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi



The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.  


Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer, but also during surgery and in intensive care units. The investigation of cell cultures opens up new possibilities for elucidation of the biochemical background of volatile compounds. In future studies, combined investigations of a particular compound with regard to human matrices such as breath, urine, saliva and cell culture investigations will lead to novel scientific progress in the field. PMID:24946087

Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence



Amylase - urine  


... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .


Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting captive and free-ranging cervids (e.g. deer, elk, and moose). The mechanisms of CWD transmission are poorly understood, though bodily fluids are thought to play an important role. Here we report the presence of infectious prions in the urine and saliva of deer with chronic wasting disease (CWD). Prion infectivity was detected by bioassay of concentrated, dialyzed urine and saliva in transgenic mice expressing the cervid PrP gene (Tg[CerPrP] mice). In addition, PrPCWD was detected in pooled and concentrated urine by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of abnormal prion protein in bodily fluids was very low, as indicated by: undetectable PrPCWD levels by traditional assays (western blot, ELISA) and prolonged incubation periods and incomplete TSE attack rates in inoculated Tg(CerPrP) mice (373±3days in 2 of 9 urine-inoculated mice and 342±109 days in 8 of 9 saliva-inoculated mice). These findings help extend our understanding of CWD prion shedding and transmission and portend the detection of infectious prions in body fluids in other prion infections. PMID:19293928

Haley, Nicholas J.; Seelig, Davis M.; Zabel, Mark D.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.



Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.  


Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV. PMID:24799600

Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B



Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.



Gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood after oral ingestion.  


The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood according to gender and to evaluate the determination of ethanol in saliva for evidential sobriety testing. Twenty-four persons, 12 men and 12 women, took part in the experiments. The subjects received ethanol, as neat 40% v/v vodka, in the amount which should lead according to Widmark formula to the blood alcohol concentration equal to 1.0 g/l. Duplicate samples of an unstimulated mixed saliva secretion and venous blood were taken at 15 min intervals timing from the end of consumption, and ethanol concentrations in both specimens were determined by means of gas chromatography. The pharmacokinetic calculations were done using first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten or zero order elimination models. In most cases ethanol reached higher maximal concentration in saliva than in venous blood, and was faster eliminated from saliva. The significant gender differences in the time-concentration profiles were observed. The maximal ethanol concentrations, both in blood and saliva, were lower in women compared to men. In females, ethanol was faster excreted from the body. Both experimental (Cmax) and extrapolated to zero time (C0) maximum ethanol concentrations were lower in females. The apparent volumes of distribution after oral dose for saliva and blood were very close and did not differ statistically. The study shows that the same factor equivalent to volume of distribution should be used in back calculation of alcohol concentration, and saliva alcohol analysis can be treated as independent method to test sobriety. PMID:14581724

Guba?a, Wojciech; Zuba, Dariusz




E-print Network

The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of ethanol in saliva and blood according to gender and to evaluate the determination of ethanol in saliva for evidential sobriety testing. Twenty-four persons, 12 men and 12 women, took part in the experiments. The subjects received ethanol, as neat 40 % v/v vodka, in the amount which should lead according to Widmark formula to the blood alcohol concentration equal to 1.0 g/l. Duplicate samples of an unstimulated mixed saliva secretion and venous blood were taken at 15 min intervals timing from the end of consumption, and ethanol concentrations in both specimens were determined by means of gas chromatography. The pharmacokinetic calculations were done using first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten or zero order elimination models. In most cases ethanol reached higher maximal concentration in saliva than in venous blood, and was faster eliminated from saliva. The significant gender differences in the time-concentration profiles were observed. The maximal ethanol concentrations, both in blood and saliva, were lower in women compared to men. In females, ethanol was faster excreted from the body. Both experimental (C max) and extrapolated to zero time (C 0) maximum ethanol concentrations were lower in females. The apparent volumes of distribution after oral dose for saliva and blood were very close and did not differ statistically. The study shows that the same factor equivalent to volume of distribution should be used in back calculation of alcohol concentration, and saliva alcohol analysis can be treated as independent method to test sobriety.

Pol J. Pharmacol; Dariusz Zuba


Aluminium in the blood and urine of industrially exposed workers.  

PubMed Central

Blood and urine aluminium concentrations were studied in industrially exposed workers using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Welders and workers making aluminium powder and aluminium sulphate had higher concentrations in blood and urine than non-exposed referents. Workers in the electrolytic production of aluminium had higher urine but not blood concentrations than the referents. Thus aluminium was found to be absorbed by all industrially exposed workers. Blood concentrations were lower than those presumably associated with aluminium induced encephalopathy in patients receiving dialysis. PMID:6871119

Sjögren, B; Lundberg, I; Lidums, V



Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.



The Use of Forensic Tests to Distinguish Blowfly Artifacts from Human Blood, Semen, and Saliva.  


This study investigated whether routinely used forensic tests can distinguish 3-day-old or 2-week-old fly artifacts, produced after feeding on human blood, semen, or saliva, from the biological fluid. Hemastix(®) , Hemident(™) , and Hemascein(™) were unable to distinguish blood from artifacts. Hemastix(®) returned false positives from negative controls. ABAcard(®) Hematrace(®) and Hexagon OBTI could distinguish blood from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Phadebas(®) and SALIgAE(®) were unable to distinguish saliva from artifacts. RSID(™) -Saliva was able to distinguish saliva from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Semen tests Seminal Acid Phosphatase, RSID(™) -Semen, and ABAcard(®) p30 were all able to distinguish semen from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. The tests investigated cannot be relied upon to distinguish artifacts from biological fluids. However, if an artifact is identified by its morphology, a positive result may indicate which biological fluid the fly consumed, and this knowledge may prove useful for investigators searching for DNA. PMID:25407611

Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H



Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) in Children (Beyond the Basics)  


... of Washington School of Medicine Deputy Editor Melanie S Kim, MD Melanie S Kim, MD Senior Deputy Editor — UpToDate Deputy Editor — Pediatrics ... and urine tests to evaluate the child's kidney function. The child's blood pressure will also be measured ...


Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry: A single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and\\/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized

Adam S. Ptolemy; Emma Tzioumis; Arjun Thomke; Sami Rifai; Mark Kellogg



Development of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for determination of thiocynate ion in human urine and saliva samples.  


Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAE-ME) procedure coupled with UV-vis spectrophotometric measurement has been developed for determination of thiocyanate ion (SCN(-)) in water and biological fluids samples. The method is based on protonation of SCN(-) ions in acidic medium and extraction of thiocyanic acid into fine droplets of chloroform as an extraction solvent contains rhodamine B (RhB). The RhB was protonated in presence of thiocynanic acid to form highly colored ion-pair complex of [thiocynate][RhBH(+)] in chloroform, which used for subsequent spectrophotometric determination of SCN(-) ions. Experimental parameters for both spectrophotometric reaction and USAE-ME procedure have been optimized. Under optimized conditions the calibration curve for SCN(-) showed good linearity in the range of 38.0-870.0ngmL(-1) (R(2)=0.9967). The limit of detection (S/N=3) and preconcentration factor were 5.0ngmL(-1) and 40, respectively. Relative standard deviation for determination of 200ngmL(-1) of SCN(-) was 2.8% (n=5). The proposed method has been successfully applied for determination of SCN(-) ion in tap water, mineral bottled water and human saliva and urine samples with an average recovery of 99.2%. PMID:23353810

Hashemi, Mahdi; Daryanavard, Seyed Mosayeb; Abdolhosseini, Sana



Fluorescence spectra of blood and urine for cervical cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Vijmasi, Trinka; Govindarajan, Kanaganaj; Rathan Rai, Ram; Atif, Muhammad; Prasad, Saradh; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.



Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel



Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel



Viral Latency in Blood and Saliva of Simian Foamy Virus-Infected Humans  

PubMed Central

Simian foamy viruses (SFV) are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (NHP). SFV actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. We aimed at studying the natural history of SFV infection in human. We have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from Cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla SFV strain. Viral DNA could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) targeting the pol-in region, in most samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (7.1 ± 6.0 SFV DNA copies/105 PBMCs) and saliva (2.4 ± 4.3 SFV DNA copies/105 cells) derived from the hunters. However, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT)-qPCR revealed the absence of SFV viral gene expression in both PBMCs and saliva, suggesting that SFV was latent in the human samples. Our study demonstrates that a latent infection can occur in humans and persist for years, both in PBMCs and saliva. Such a scenario may contribute to the putative lack of secondary human-to-human transmissions of SFV. PMID:24116202

Rua, Rejane; Betsem, Edouard; Gessain, Antoine



The human DNA content in artifacts deposited by the blowfly Lucilia cuprina fed human blood, semen and saliva.  


Adult flies of some species are known to be attracted to crime scenes where they feed on the proteinaceous decomposition products of dead bodies. The flies leave deposits through excretion and regurgitation, and these artifacts often appear morphologically similar to bloodstains. To date, little consideration has been given to the possibility of the fly artifacts containing forensically useful levels of human DNA, or of flies as vectors of human DNA. In the present study, groups of artifacts collected after the adult blowfly Lucilia cuprina fed on biological fluids were examined and found to contain human DNA sufficient for profiling. Random samples from each group of artifacts were then subjected to human DNA profiling. Of the samples analysed, full or partial human DNA profiles were found in 57% of samples deposited by flies after blood meals, 92% after semen meals, 46% after saliva meals, 93% after blood/semen meals, 58% after blood/saliva meals and 95% after semen/saliva meals. DNA from artifacts deposited after flies were fed blood, semen, saliva, blood/semen, blood/saliva or semen/saliva was extracted at various time points up to 750 days, and the human DNA component quantified. The human DNA extracted from blood- and semen-based fly artifacts demonstrated a clear trend in which the amount of DNA extracted increased over the first 400 days, and full human DNA profiles were still obtained 750 days after artifact deposition. Saliva- and blood/saliva-based samples were tested at intervals up to 60 days and generated partial profiles at this final time. Blood/semen- and semen/saliva-based samples generated full profiles at 250 days. The presence of human DNA in fly artifacts has considerable forensic significance. Fly artifacts could potentially compromise crime reconstruction, and/or contaminate DNA evidence, up to at least two years after their deposition. Alternatively, fly artifacts may be a useful source of DNA if an offender has attempted to clean up a crime scene. PMID:24314522

Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, Robert John; van Oorschot, Roland A H



Detection of Tumor Cell-Specific mRNA and Protein in Exosome-Like Microvesicles from Blood and Saliva  

PubMed Central

The discovery of disease-specific biomarkers in oral fluids has revealed a new dimension in molecular diagnostics. Recent studies have reported the mechanistic involvement of tumor cells derived mediators, such as exosomes, in the development of saliva-based mRNA biomarkers. To further our understanding of the origins of disease-induced salivary biomarkers, we here evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-shed secretory lipidic vesicles called exosome-like microvesicles (ELMs) that serve as protective carriers of tissue-specific information, mRNAs, and proteins, throughout the vasculature and bodily fluids. RNA content was analyzed in cell free-saliva and ELM-enriched fractions of saliva. Our data confirmed that the majority of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in saliva were encapsulated within ELMs. Nude mice implanted with human lung cancer H460 cells expressing hCD63-GFP were used to follow the circulation of tumor cell specific protein and mRNA in the form of ELMs in vivo. We were able to identify human GAPDH mRNA in ELMs of blood and saliva of tumor bearing mice using nested RT-qPCR. ELMs positive for hCD63-GFP were detected in the saliva and blood of tumor bearing mice as well as using electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM). Altogether, our results demonstrate that ELMs carry tumor cell–specific mRNA and protein from blood to saliva in a xenografted mouse model of human lung cancer. These results therefore strengthen the link between distal tumor progression and the biomarker discovery of saliva through the ELMs. PMID:25397880

Yang, Jieping; Wei, Fang; Schafer, Christopher; Wong, David T. W.



Home Use Tests: Fecal Occult Blood  


... Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Hepatitis C Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Menopause Fecal Occult Blood Ovulation (Saliva Test) Ovulation (Urine Test) Pregnancy Prothrombin Vaginal pH Fecal Occult Blood What does this test do? ...


Development and validation of a novel derivatization method for the determination of lactate in urine and saliva by liquid chromatography with UV and fluorescence detection.  


We developed a novel and straightforward derivatization method for the determination of lactate by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection in biological matrices as urine and saliva. The derivatization of lactate was achieved employing 9-chloromethyl anthracene (9-CMA) as fluorescence reagent, which has never been previously used to obtain a lactate derivative. Lactate reacts with 9-CMA with high selectivity in a very short time, without requiring extraction procedures from the aqueous solution, and the reaction reaches 70% completion in 30 min. The ester derivative obtained can be easily determined by RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection at 410 nm (? ex=365 nm) and UV detection at 365 nm. The method was also optimized in order to allow for the simultaneous determination of lactate and creatinine for the application to urine samples. The lactate calibration curve was linear in the investigated range 2 × 10(-4)-3 × 10(-2)mM and the limit of detection, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the blank divided by the calibration curve slope, was 50 nM for both fluorescence and UV detection. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability were lower than 5% and 6%, respectively. The method proposed was successfully applied to the analysis of urine and saliva samples. PMID:25159410

Pellegrini, Davide; Onor, Massimo; Degano, Ilaria; Bramanti, Emilia



Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.  


Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and <1% for all biofluids and concentrations tested. Recoveries for caffeine and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention. PMID:20045386

Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark



Determination of nicotine, cotinine, and related alkaloids in human urine and saliva by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine in human urine and saliva was developed. These compounds were analyzed by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Nicotine, cotinine and related alkaloids were separated within 7 min by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Synergi 4u POLAR-RP 80A column and 5 mM ammonium formate/methanol (55/45, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of these compounds. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles with a sample size of 40 microL using a CP-Pora PLOT amine capillary column as the extraction device. The extracted compounds could be desorbed easily from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds in urine and saliva, and the detection limits (S/N=3) were 15-40 pg/mL. The method described here showed 20-46-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (5 microL injection). The within-run and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) were below 4.7% and 11.3% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of urine and saliva samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds spiked into urine and saliva samples were above 83%, and the relative standard deviations were below 7.1%. This method was used to analyze urinary and salivary levels of these compounds in nicotine intake and smoking. PMID:19004590

Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Reiko; Yagi, Katsuharu; Saito, Keita



Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study.  


Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6-15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources. PMID:24756002

Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth



Effect of sample matrix on sensitivity of mercury and methylmercury quantitation in human urine, saliva, and serum using GC-MS.  


A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of monomethylmercury (MMHg) and inorganic mercury (iHg) in human body fluids. The procedure is based on in situ derivatization of MMHg and iHg with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) directly in aqueous solutions followed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The extracted species from spiked human urine, saliva, and serum are separated by capillary gas chromatography and detected by quadrupole MS (GC-MS). The optimization of the HS-SPME conditions like temperature, sample volume, extraction duration, and amount of alkylation agent, was performed in urinary solutions and aqueous solutions similarly buffered. The gas chromatographic conditions like injection temperature, helium flow rate, temperature program, and pressure conditions were also optimized. The recovery was ranged between 85 and 96% for MMHg and 88 and 98% for iHg. The LODs achieved were 10 and 15 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in urine, respectively, 54 and 60 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in saliva, respectively, and 61 and 81 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in serum, respectively. The RSD was ranged between 6.2 and 9.2% for MMHg and 5.0 and 8.2% for iHg. PMID:19021164

Zachariadis, George A; Kapsimali, Dimitra C



Pharmacokinetics of the chlorpyrifos metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in rat saliva.  


Biological monitoring (biomonitoring) to quantify systemic exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) has historically focused on the quantitation of major CPF metabolites in urine. Noninvasive techniques are being advocated as novel means of biomonitoring for a variety of potential toxicants, including pesticides (like CPF), and saliva has been suggested as an ideal body fluid. However, in order to be acceptable, there is a need to understand salivary pharmacokinetics of CPF metabolites in order to extrapolate saliva measurements to whole-body exposures. In this context, in vivo pharmacokinetics of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), the major chemical-specific metabolite of CPF, was quantitatively evaluated in rat saliva. Experimental results suggest that TCPy partitioning from plasma to saliva in rats is relatively constant over a range of varying physiological conditions. TCPy pharmacokinetics was very similar in blood and saliva (area under the curve values were proportional and elimination rates ranged from 0.007 to 0.019 per hour), and saliva/blood TCPy concentration ratios were not affected by TCPy concentration in blood (p = 0.35) or saliva flow rate (p = 0.26). The TCPy concentration in saliva was highly correlated to the amount of unbound TCPy in plasma (r = 0.96), and the amount of TCPy protein binding in plasma was substantial (98.5%). The median saliva/blood concentration ratio (0.049) was integrated as a saliva/blood TCPy partitioning coefficient within an existing physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF. The model was capable of accurately predicting TCPy concentrations in saliva over a range of blood concentrations. These studies suggest that saliva TCPy concentration can be utilized to ascertain CPF exposure. It is envisioned that the PBPK/PD can likewise be used to estimate CPF dosimetry based on the quantitation of TCPy in spot saliva samples obtained from biomonitoring studies. PMID:19920072

Smith, Jordan N; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe; Timchalk, Charles



Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 and human cytomegalovirus in blood and saliva from patients with acute leukemia.  


Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNAs were quantified by real-time PCR assays in blood and saliva obtained from 50 patients with acute leukemia at the time of diagnosis (50 of each matrix), aplasia (65 of each matrix), remission (55 of each matrix), and relapse (20 of each matrix) to evaluate which biological matrix was more suitable to identify a viral reactivation, search for a possible link between HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations, and evaluate the relations between viral loads and count of different leukocyte types in blood. The median HHV-6 loads were 136; 219; 226, and 75 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 193 and 317 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis and remission. In the saliva samples, the HHV-6 loads were 22,165; 15,238; 30,214, and 17,454 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 8,991; 1,461; 2,980, and 4,283 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HHV-6 load in the blood was correlated to the counts of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (R(2) ?=?0.5; P?Saliva appears to be a more sensitive biological matrix than whole blood in the detection of HHV-6 or HCMV reactivations. The HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations were linked only in saliva. J. Med. Virol. 87:451-460, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25163462

Nefzi, Faten; Ben Salem, Nabil Abid; Khelif, Abderrahim; Feki, Salma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès



A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid



Model for validation of radioimmunoassay kit reagents: measurement of follitropin and lutropin in blood and urine  

SciTech Connect

We measured lutropin and follitropin in blood and urine with radioimmunoassay kits from Diagnostic Products Corporation and compared the results with those obtained by use of re agents from the National Institutes of health (NIH) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The urine standard (second IRP-HMG) from WHO, the blood standard (LER-907) from NIH, and the commercial standards all effected similar displacement of trace material when the commercial gonadotropin kit reagents were used. Highly significant correlations were achieved for these hormones in blood or urine on comparing commercial and NIH/WHO reagents. Serial dilutions of urine samples produced similar relative potencies with the commercial reagents. Conversion factors are presented to relate results for LER-907, second IRP, or commercial standards. Commercially available reagents can provide a practical and reliable means of gonadotropin radioimmunoassay in blood or urine.

Santner, S.J.; Santen, R.J.; Kulin, H.E.; Demers, L.M.




EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...


Estimation of Dietary Pb and Cd Intake from Pb and Cd in Blood or Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful trials were made to estimate the dietary daily intake of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) via foods from the levels of\\u000a the metals in blood or urine. In practice, 14 and 15 reports were available for Pb and Cd in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B), urine\\u000a (Pb-U and Cd-U) and 24-h diet duplicates (Pb-D and Cd-D), respectively, from which 68

Masayuki Ikeda; Shinichiro Shimbo; Takao Watanabe; Fumiko Ohashi; Yoshinari Fukui; Sonoko Sakuragi; Jiro Moriguchi



Urine is a better biomarker source than blood especially for kidney diseases.  


Change is the soul of biomarker definition. Changes are more likely to be removed from blood because of homeostasis mechanisms of the body. Therefore, urine is probably a better biomarker source than blood. The road map to the urinary biomarker era is proposed. Researchers are reminded the potential opportunities and risks in their study design. Kidney diseases are emphasized as they produce most significant changes in urine. PMID:25355564

Gao, Youhe



Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study: Monitoring and Elimination of Bioaccumulated Toxic Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited understanding of the toxicokinetics of bioaccumulated toxic elements and their methods of excretion from\\u000a the human body. This study was designed to assess the concentration of various toxic elements in three body fluids: blood,\\u000a urine and sweat. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with\\u000a various health problems) and

Stephen J. Genuis; Detlef Birkholz; Ilia Rodushkin; Sanjay Beesoon



Correlations of Trace Element Levels in the Diet, Blood, Urine, and Feces in the Chinese Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the associations between trace elements in dietary intake and the other three biological media (blood,\\u000a urine, or feces) and inter-element interactions among the latter, we simultaneously collected 72-h diet duplicates, whole\\u000a blood, and 72-h urine and feces from 120 free-living healthy males in China. Correlations among the toxic (cadmium [Cd], lead\\u000a [Pb]), and nutritionally essential (zinc

Ying Wang; Yang-Li Ou; Ya-Qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Qing-Fen Liu; Quan Wu; Ti-Qiang Fan; Lai-Lai Yan; Jing-Yu Wang


Urine - bloody  


... if you have a bleeding disorder. Causes from blood disorders include: Bleeding disorders (such as hemophilia ) Blood clot ... Tests for sickle cell, bleeding problems, and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine ...


Toxic trace element reference levels in blood and urine: influence of gender and lifestyle factors.  


This study is part of the EURO-TERVIHT project (Trace Element Reference Values in Human Tissues) which aims at establishing reference intervals for trace elements in blood, urine and other human tissues. In this study reference intervals (0.05-0.95 fractiles) were estimated for lead in blood (105-529 nmol/l for men, 80-340 nmol/l for women), manganese in blood (100-271 nmol/l) and arsenic in urine (36-541 nmol/l for men, 21-475 nmol/l for women). Upper reference limits (0.95 fractile) were established for chromium in urine (13 nmol/l), nickel in urine (52 nmol/l) and cobalt in urine (23 nmol/l for men, 31 nmol/l for women). The reference group was a Danish subpopulation (n = 189), age 40-70 years. The influence of gender, age, health status parameters, nutrition and various lifestyle factors was investigated. Urinary arsenic and blood lead levels were found to be higher for men than for women. Arsenic levels also increased with age up to 60 years, and then decreased. Alcohol intake lead to increased arsenic levels in urine as well as blood lead levels. Urinary nickel levels were higher in persons frequently eating porridge and porridge oats. PMID:9301099

Kristiansen, J; Christensen, J M; Iversen, B S; Sabbioni, E



Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for the ultrasensitive determination of interleukin-6 in saliva and urine using poly-HRP streptavidin conjugates as labels for signal amplification.  


A novel magnetoimmunosensor design for interleukin-6 (IL-6) which involved the covalent immobilization of anti-IL-6 antibodies onto carboxyl-functionalized magnetic microparticles and a sandwich-type immunoassay with signal amplification using poly-HRP-streptavidin conjugates is reported. All the variables concerning the preparation and the electroanalytical performance of the immunosensor were optimized. The use of poly-HRP-strept conjugates as enzymatic labels instead of conventional HRP-strept allowed enhanced signal-to-blank current ratios to be obtained. A linear calibration plot between the measured steady-state current and the log of IL-6 concentration was achieved in the 1.75 to 500 pg/mL range, which was not feasible when using HRP-strep as label. A limit of detection of 0.39 pg/mL IL-6 was obtained. The anti-IL-6-MB conjugates exhibited an excellent storage stability providing amperometric responses with no significant loss during at least 36 days. The magnetoimmunosensor showed also an excellent selectivity against potentially interfering substances. The immunosensor was used to determine IL-6 in urine samples spiked at three different concentration levels with clinical relevance. Moreover, IL-6 was measured in three different saliva samples corresponding to a periodontitis patient, a smoker volunteer, and a non-smoker volunteer. The obtained results were statistically in agreement with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit. PMID:25081015

Ojeda, I; Moreno-Guzmán, M; González-Cortés, A; Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Pingarrón, J M



Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These results demonstrate a feasibility to rapidly detect Pb in saliva and suggest that saliva may correlate best with plasma Pb concentration.

Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana



Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.



Comparison of human saliva and synthetic histo-blood group antigens usage as ligands in norovirus-like particle binding and blocking assays.  


Blocking of norovirus-like particle binding to their cellular ligands, histo-blood group antigens with immune sera, is considered a surrogate norovirus neutralization assay. We compared human secretor positive saliva and synthetic biotinylated carbohydrates as a source of histo-blood group antigens in binding and blocking assays. Six norovirus capsid-derived virus-like particles belonging to genogroup I (GI-1-2001 and GI-3-2002) and genogroup II (GII-4-1999, GII-4-2010 New Orleans, GII-4-2012 Sydney and GII-12-1998) noroviruses were produced by a recombinant baculovirus expression system and binding profile to saliva type A, B and O and to synthetic antigens (A trimer, B trimer, H type 1, H type 3, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)) was identified. Good correlation between virus-like particle binding to saliva type A and synthetic A trimer (r = 0.66, p < 0.05) and saliva type B and synthetic B trimer (r = 0.75, p < 0.05) was observed. Binding of each norovirus virus-like particle to the selected histo-blood group antigens was blocked by convalescent sera from NoV-infected subjects or type-specific mouse antisera. Our results support the use of either saliva or synthetic antigens in blocking assay to measure the ability of norovirus antisera to block virus-like particle binding to the carbohydrate ligands. PMID:24631874

Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Tamminen, Kirsi; Malm, Maria; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna



Blood and urine fluoride concentrations associated with topical fluoride applications on dog gingiva  

SciTech Connect

The circulatory uptake and urinary excretion of topical fluoride were investigated by applying a sodium fluoride solution containing /sub 18/F for six min to healthy gingiva of four adult dogs. Blood and urine samples were taken a regular intervals. Maximal fluoride in blood represented 0.02-0.05% of the applied dose and occurred four min after completion of the application. By 6.0 h, 0.02-0.06% of the applied dose had been excreted in urine. Preliminary data showed that this represented about 8.8% of the fluoride absorbed through the gingiva.

Hock, J.; Gerber, C.; Rheaume, M.; Hellden, L.




EPA Science Inventory

Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...


Concentration of Wear Products in Hair, Blood, and Urine after Total Hip Replacement  

PubMed Central

Raised levels of cobalt and chromium are found in the blood and urine of patients with metallic total hip replacements. When one of the hip components is made of polyethylene much less metal seems to be released from the joint. The long-term effects of the accumulation of chromium in the body need to be studied further. PMID:4692678

Coleman, R. F.; Herrington, J.; Scales, John T.



Quantification of sulfatides in dried blood and urine spots from metachromatic leukodystrophy patients by liquid chromatography/  

E-print Network

leukodystrophy Tandem mass spectrometry Newborn screening Dried blood spots Lysosomal storage diseases Urine method for newborn screening of lysosomal storage diseases [4,5], application of this approach to MLD lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme arylsulfatase A (ASA) resulting

Gelb, Michael


The Effect of Weight Reduction on the Blood and Urine Measurements of College Wrestlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the weight reduction practices of wrestlers results in kidney and liver problems. To observe the effect of wrestlers' weight reduction, diagnostic tests for kidney and liver problems were done on the blood and urine samples of 22 college wrestlers over the course of a wrestling season. Results obtained after reduction to…

Segurson, Jack


Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman  

E-print Network

Raman spectroscopy Dahu Qi and Andrew J. Berger We report measurements of chemical concentrations in clinical blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber (LCOF) Raman spectroscopy) spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy are all intrinsically reagentless and have been explored for chemical

Berger, Andrew J.


Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system  

PubMed Central

Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar



Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known ?13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (?13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (?13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (?13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the ?13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in the ?13C value of their blood and saliva relative to baseline: blood clot was enriched by 0.27‰; blood serum by 0.50‰ and saliva by 1.12‰. We believe this overall enrichment resulted from a 13C-enriched bulk diet (?13C = - 20.42‰) relative to the subjects free-living diet. Evidence for this derives from inspection of foods within the bulk diet provided, compared to published profiles of the typical American diet. We will discuss possible complicating factors, such as differential absorption and metabolism of the supplements according to solubility and caloric value. These results are encouraging for the development of a ?13C blood serum biomarker that, in the company of other tests, could be used to indicate a change in carbohydrate intake. Bray, G.A., Nielsen, S.J. and Popkin, B.M., 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79: 537-543. Havel, P.J., 2005. Dietary fructose: Implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrition Reviews, 63(5): 133-157. Tilman D., 1998. The greening of the green revolution. Nature, 396:211-212.

Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.



Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform.  


Abstract A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, methodology was developed for measuring a suite of 10 different cytokines in human blood, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and urine using an electrochemiluminescent multiplex Th1/Th2 cytokine immunoassay platform. Measurement distributions and correlations for eight interleukins (IL) (1?, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13), interferon-? (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were evaluated using 90 blood plasma, 77 EBC, and 400 urine samples collected from nominally healthy adults subjects in North Carolina in 2008-2012. The in vivo results show that there is sufficient sensitivity for characterizing all 10 cytokines at levels of 0.05-0.10??g/ml with a dynamic range up to 100?ng/ml across all three of these biological media. The measured in vivo results also show that the duplicate analysis of blood, EBC and urine samples have average estimated fold ranges of 2.21, 3.49, and 2.50, respectively, which are similar to the mean estimated fold range (2.88) for the lowest concentration (0.610??g/ml) from a series of spiked control samples; the cytokine method can be used for all three biological media. Nine out of the 10 cytokines measured in EBC were highly correlated within one another with Spearman ? coefficients ranging from 0.679 to 0.852, while the cytokines measured in blood had a mix of negative and positive correlations, ranging from -0.620 to 0.836. Almost all correlations between EBC and blood were positive. This work also represents the first successful within- and between-person evaluation of ultra trace-level inflammatory markers in blood, EBC, and urine. PMID:25495125

Stiegel, Matthew A; Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R; Morgan, Marsha K; Madden, Michael C



Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid stability and formation in blood and urine.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can cause problems in interpretation of toxicological findings due to its endogenous nature, significant production in tissues after death and potential formation in stored samples. Our study was designed to determine the influence of storage conditions on GHB levels and its possible in vitro formation in blood and urine in cases where no exogenous use of GHB or its precursors was suspected. The samples were prepared by validated method based on liquid-liquid reextraction with adipic acid internal standard and MSTFA derivatization and assayed on a GC-MS operating in EI SIM mode. The first part of the study was performed with pooled blood and urine samples obtained from living and deceased subjects stored with and without NaF (1% w/v) at 4 and -20 degrees C over 8 months. In ante-mortem samples (both blood and urine) no significant GHB production was found. After 4 months of storage, the substantial GHB rise up to 100 mg/Lwas observed in post-mortem blood stored at 4 degrees C without NaF with subsequent gradual decrease in following months. The inhibition of GHB production was apparent during storage in NaF treated frozen blood samples. In post-mortem urine only slight temporary GHB levels were ascertained (up to 8 mg/L). The second part of our study was aimed to analyse 20 individual post-mortem blood samples stored at 4 degrees C for 16-27 days between autopsy and analysis without preservation followed by storage at 4 degrees C with NaF for 4 months. The temporary GHB production with maximum of 28 mg/Lwas detected in some samples. PMID:16857333

Beránková, Katerina; Mutnanská, Katerina; Balíková, Marie



Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in Saliva of Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are widely used in a variety of applications, and the potential exists for significant occupational and environmental exposures. They have been associated with more occupational poisoning cases than any other class of insecticides. One of the best approaches for accurately assessing human dosimetry and determining risk from both occupational and environmental exposure is biomonitoring. Biological matrices such as blood and urine have been routinely used for biomonitoring; however, other matrices such as saliva represent a simple and readily obtainable fluid. As a result, saliva has been suggested as an alternative biological matrix for the evaluation of a broad range of biomarkers such as environmental contaminants, drugs of abuse, hormones, chemotherapeutics, heavy metals, and pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), have been quantified in urine and blood as a biomarker for exposure to OP insecticides. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical approach for detecting and quantitating the levels of TCP in saliva obtained from rats exposed to CPF and to evaluate the potential of saliva as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix. Adult male rats were administered CPF, and blood and saliva were humanely collected for analysis of TCP and CPF. TCP was detected and quantitated in saliva using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Initial results indicate that saliva may be potentially utilized as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix to determine exposure to organophosphate insecticides.

Campbell, James A.; Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Wu, Hong; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Hoppe, Eric W.



Statistical analysis of dietary mineral intake, blood serum, and urine constituents in the occurrence of urolithiasis in sheep  

E-print Network


Lamprecht, William Otto



Extremes of urine osmolality - Lack of effect on red blood cell survival  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were allowed a third of normal water intake for 20 days, and food consumption decreased. The reticulocyte count indicated a suppression of erythropoiesis. Urine osmolality increased from 2,000 mosmol/kg to 3,390 mosmol/kg. Random hemolysis and senescence of a cohort of red blood cell (RBC) previously labeled with (2-(C-14)) glycine was monitored via the production of (C-14)O. Neither hemolysis nor senescence was affected. Following water restriction, the polydipsic rats generated a hypotonic urine. Urine osmolality decreased to 1,300 mosmol/kg for at least 6 days; a reticulocytosis occurred, but RBC survival was unaffected. These results contradict those previously reported, which suggest that RBC survival is influenced by the osmotic stress imposed on the RBC by extremes of urine tonicity. This discrepancy, it is concluded, is due to differences in the methods employed for measuring RBC survival. The random-labeling technique employed previously assumes a steady state between RBC production and destruction. The cohort-labeling technique used here measures hemolysis and senescence independent of changes in RBC production, which is known to be depressed by fasting.

Leon, H. A.; Fleming, J. E.



Blood and urine concentrations of aluminium among workers exposed to aluminium flake powders.  

PubMed Central

In a group of workers exposed to aluminium flake powders, blood and urine concentrations of aluminium were assessed before and after vacation. Another group was investigated after retirement. Workers currently exposed to aluminium flake powders had urinary concentrations of the metal 80-90 times higher than those in occupationally non-exposed referents. The calculated half life for concentrations of aluminium in urine was five to six weeks based on four to five weeks of non-exposure. Among the retired workers the half lives varied from less than one up to eight years and were related to the number of years since retirement. These results indicate that aluminium is retained and stored in several compartments of the body and eliminated from these compartments at different rates. PMID:1998604

Ljunggren, K G; Lidums, V; Sjögren, B



Blood and urine concentrations of aluminium among workers exposed to aluminium flake powders.  


In a group of workers exposed to aluminium flake powders, blood and urine concentrations of aluminium were assessed before and after vacation. Another group was investigated after retirement. Workers currently exposed to aluminium flake powders had urinary concentrations of the metal 80-90 times higher than those in occupationally non-exposed referents. The calculated half life for concentrations of aluminium in urine was five to six weeks based on four to five weeks of non-exposure. Among the retired workers the half lives varied from less than one up to eight years and were related to the number of years since retirement. These results indicate that aluminium is retained and stored in several compartments of the body and eliminated from these compartments at different rates. PMID:1998604

Ljunggren, K G; Lidums, V; Sjögren, B



Repeated measurements of aldicarb in blood and urine in a case of nonfatal poisoning.  


A nonfatal case of poisoning involving aldicarb, an extremely toxic carbamate pesticide, is presented. A 39-year-old female ingested an unknown amount of aldicarb, together with alprazolam and sertraline. On admission to ICU (T0), she displayed marked cholinergic symptoms and a deep coma. The patient was given pralidoxime and atropine. Her condition gradually improved on days 2 and 3 and she was discharged at T0+80 h. Aldicarb was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography on 21 blood and 8 urine samples successively taken during hospitalization. At the same time, serum pseudocholinesterase activity was followed on 21 successive samples. Blood aldicarb level was 3.11 microg/mL at T0 and peaked at T0+3.5 h (3.22 microg/mL), then followed a two-slope decay with a terminal half-life of ca. 20 h. Aldicarb was detected in all urine samples (peak level: 6.95 microg/mL at T0+31.5 h) and was still present at the time of discharge. Serum pseudo-cholinesterase activity remained low (< or = 10% of normal) until the 30th hour then rapidly increased and returned to normal after the 60th hour. The patient's clinical picture closely followed blood aldicarb levels and serum pseudo-cholinesterase activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an aldicarb poisoning documented by repeated measurements of the drug in the intoxicated person. PMID:11936581

Tracqui, A; Flesch, F; Sauder, P; Raul, J S; Géraut, A; Ludes, B; Jaeger, A



Organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and urine of women and newborns living in an agricultural community  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate pesticides are widely used and recent studies suggest associations of in utero exposures with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. Few studies have characterized organophosphate pesticides in human plasma or established how these levels correlate to urinary measurements. We measured organophosphate pesticide metabolites in maternal urine and chlorpyrifos and diazinon in maternal and cord plasma of subjects living in an agricultural area to compare levels in two different biological matrices. We also determined paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotypes (PON1192 and PON1-108) and PON1 substrate-specific activities in mothers and their newborns to examine whether PON1 may affect organophosphate pesticide measurements in blood and urine. Chlorpyrifos levels in plasma ranged from 0-1726 ng/mL and non-zero levels were measured in 70.5% and 87.5% of maternal and cord samples, respectively. Diazinon levels were lower (0-0.5 ng/mL); non-zero levels were found in 33.3% of maternal plasma and 47.3% of cord plasma. Significant associations between organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and metabolite levels in urine were limited to models adjusting for PON1 levels. Increased maternal PON1 levels were associated with decreased odds of chlorpyrifos and diazinon detection (odds ratio(OR): 0.56 and 0.75, respectively). Blood organophosphate pesticide levels of study participants were similar in mothers and newborns and slightly higher than those reported in other populations. However, compared to their mothers, newborns have much lower quantities of the detoxifying PON1 enzyme suggesting that infants may be especially vulnerable to organophosphate pesticide exposures. PMID:22683313

Huen, Karen; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Yousefi, Paul; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina



Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae) in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50- 350 g liveweight, 50% each sex) from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (p<0.05) for PCV (28.6-31.6%), RBC (0.40-0.44 T\\/L), MCV (686-732 fL), hemoglobin (6.41-7.20 g\\/dL), MCH (151-164

José A. Coppo; Norma B. Mussart; Santiago A. Fioranelli


Determination of paroxetine in blood and urine using micellar liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.  


Paroxetine is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for the treatment of depression and related mood disorders. A micellar liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of paroxetine in serum and urine. Detection of paroxetine was carried out using a C18 column and a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate, 6% 1-pentanol at pH 3 (buffer salt 0.01 M NaH2PO4) running under isocratic mode at 1.0 mL/min and electrochemical detection at 0.8 V. The analyte was eluted without interferences in <15 min. The proposed methodology was validated under the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use in matrix in terms of specificity, linearity (r(2) > 0.9999; 0.5-5 ?g/mL range), accuracy (88-97.5%, recovery), repeatability (RSD < 0.54%), intermediate precision (RSD < 0.54%), limit of detection and quantification (0.001 and 0.005 ?g/mL, respectively) and robustness (RSD < 3.63%). Developed method was successfully applied to real blood and urine samples as well as in spiked serum and urine samples. The developed method was specific, rapid, precise, reliable, accurate, inexpensive and then suitable for routine analysis of paroxetine in monitorized samples. PMID:24448669

Agrawal, Nitasha; Marco-Peiró, Sergio; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Durgbanshi, Abhilasha; Bose, Devasish; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Carda-Broch, Samuel



Amiloride lowers blood pressure and attenuates urine plasminogen activation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension.  


In conditions with albuminuria, plasminogen is aberrantly filtered across the glomerular barrier and activated along the tubular system to plasmin. In the collecting duct, plasmin activates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) proteolytically. Hyperactivity of ENaC could link microalbuminuria/proteinuria to resistant hypertension. Amiloride, an ENaC inhibitor, inhibits urokinase-type plasminogen activator. We hypothesized that amiloride (1) reduces blood pressure (BP); (2) attenuates plasminogen-to-plasmin activation; and (3) inhibits urine urokinase-type plasminogen activator in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).In an open-label, non-randomized, 8-week intervention study, a cohort (n = 80) of patients with resistant hypertension and T2DM were included. Amiloride (5 mg/d) was added to previous triple antihypertensive treatment (including a diuretic and an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and increased to 10 mg if BP control was not achieved at 4 weeks. Complete dataset for urine analysis was available in 60 patients. Systolic and diastolic BP measured by ambulatory BP monitoring and office monitoring were significantly reduced. Average daytime BP was reduced by 6.3/3.0 mm Hg. Seven of 80 cases (9%) discontinued amiloride due to hyperkalemia >5.5 mol/L, the most frequent adverse event. Urinary plasmin(ogen) and albumin excretions were significantly reduced after amiloride treatment (P < .0001). Urokinase activity was detectable in macroalbuminuric urine, with a tendency toward reduction in activity after amiloride treatment. Amiloride lowers BP, urine plasminogen excretion and activation, and albumin/creatinine ratio, and is a relevant add-on medication for the treatment of resistant hypertension in patients with T2DM and microalbuminuria. PMID:25492830

Oxlund, Christina S; Buhl, Kristian B; Jacobsen, Ib A; Hansen, Mie R; Gram, Jeppe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Schousboe, Karoline; Tarnow, Lise; Jensen, Boye L



Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China  

PubMed Central

Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 ?g/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132), r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284), r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children. PMID:25419876

Chen, Guixia; Chen, Xiaoxin; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Xingdong; Zeng, Guozhang



A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.  


Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. An understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. This study characterizes a blood meal-induced I. scapularis (Ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (S)), in-house referred to as IxscS-1E1. The hypothesis that ticks use serpins to evade the host's defense response to tick feeding is based on the assumption that tick serpins inhibit functions of protease mediators of the host's anti-tick defense response. Thus, it is significant that consistent with hallmark characteristics of inhibitory serpins, Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant IxscS-1E1 (rIxscS-1E1) can trap thrombin and trypsin in SDS- and heat-stable complexes, and reduce the activity of the two proteases in a dose-responsive manner. Additionally, rIxscS-1E1 also inhibited, but did not apparently form detectable complexes with, cathepsin G and factor Xa. Our data also show that rIxscS-1E1 may not inhibit chymotrypsin, kallikrein, chymase, plasmin, elastase and papain even at a much higher rIxscS-1E1 concentration. Native IxscS-1E1 potentially plays a role(s) in facilitating I. scapularis tick evasion of the host's hemostatic defense as revealed by the ability of rIxscS-1E1 to inhibit adenosine diphosphate- and thrombin-activated platelet aggregation, and delay activated partial prothrombin time and thrombin time plasma clotting in a dose-responsive manner. We conclude that native IxscS-1E1 is part of the tick saliva protein complex that mediates its anti-hemostatic, and potentially inflammatory, functions by inhibiting the actions of thrombin, trypsin and other yet unknown trypsin-like proteases at the tick-host interface. PMID:24583183

Ibelli, Adriana M G; Kim, Tae K; Hill, Creston C; Lewis, Lauren A; Bakshi, Mariam; Miller, Stephanie; Porter, Lindsay; Mulenga, Albert



Analysis of UR-144 and its pyrolysis product in blood and their metabolites in urine.  


UR-144 [(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone] is a synthetic cannabinoid, which has been detected in many herbal blends, resinous samples and powders seized from the Polish drug market since the beginning of 2012. This paper presents the case of intoxication by this substance. A complete picture of the symptoms observed by a witness, paramedics and medical doctors are given. In the analysis of powder residues from the plastic bag seized from the intoxicated person by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), UR-144 and its major pyrolysis product [1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)but-3-en-1-one] were detected. Both substances were also identified in a blood sample collected on admission of the patient to hospital using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS). Blood concentration of UR-144 was 6.1 ng/mL. A urine sample collected at the same time was analyzed by liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The parent substance and its pyrolysis products were not detected in urine, while their five metabolites were found. The experiments allowed the location of derivative groups to be established, and thus elucidate rough structures of the metabolites; a dihydroxylated metabolite of UR-144 and mono-, dihydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites of its pyrolysis product were identified. PMID:24314536

Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz; Seku?a, Karolina



Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.



Repeated Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Fly Saliva Induces Local Expression of Interferon-Inducible Genes Both at the Site of Injection in Mice and in Human Blood  

PubMed Central

During a blood meal, Lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit Leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. In experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic Leishmania species together with saliva. In contrast, pre-immunization with Lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co-inoculation of Lu. intermedia SGS and L. braziliensis. These data highlight potential unique features of both L. braziliensis and Lu. intermedia. In this study, we investigated the genes modulated by Lu. intermedia SGS immunization to understand their potential impact on the subsequent cutaneous immune response following inoculation of both SGS and L. braziliensis. The cellular recruitment and global gene expression profile was analyzed in mice repeatedly inoculated or not with Lu. intermedia. Microarray gene analysis revealed the upregulation of a distinct set of IFN-inducible genes, an immune signature not seen to the same extent in control animals. Of note this INF-inducible gene set was not induced in SGS pre-immunized mice subsequently co-inoculated with SGS and L. braziliensis. These data suggest the parasite prevented the upregulation of this Lu. intermedia saliva-related immune signature. The presence of these IFN-inducible genes was further analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from uninfected human individuals living in a L. braziliensis-endemic region of Brazil thus regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites. PBMCs were cultured in presence or absence of Lu. intermedia SGS. Using qRT-PCR we established that the IFN-inducible genes induced in the skin of SGS pre-immunized mice, were also upregulated by SGS in PBMCs from human individuals regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites, but not in PBMCs of control subjects. These data demonstrate that repeated exposure to Lu. intermedia SGS induces the expression of potentially host-protective IFN-inducible genes. PMID:24421912

Weinkopff, Tiffany; de Oliveira, Camila I.; de Carvalho, Augusto M.; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Muniz, Aline C.; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne



Rapid Antemortem Detection of CWD Prions in Deer Saliva  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

Haley, Nicholas J.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Nalls, Amy V.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A.



Blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and colour vision deficiency in Hindu castes and religious groups of West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.  


The distribution of A1A2B0 and Rh(D) blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and red-green colour blindness among fourteen Hindu caste groups, besides Christian and Muslim populations of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is reported. All the Hindu castes except Brahmin, Kshatriya and Reddy exhibit relatively higher frequency of group B over group A. The subtyping of group A reveals that group A2 records an incidence ranging from 0.98% to 7.78%. The interpopulation chi-square tests for A1A2B0 blood group distribution indicate significant variation between several Hindu castes. The Vysya, Reddy and Adi Andhra castes not only differ from each other but also register significant variation from a majority of other populations. In the ABH saliva secretion also Vysya deviate from all other populations by recording the highest incidence (37.70%) of non-secretors, while the lowest frequency (19.98%) was observed among Kamma. The Rh(D) negative blood group is observed in all Hindu castes and religious groups with an incidence ranging from 1.04% in Vysya to 8.11% in Kamma. All the sixteen populations investigated exhibit prevalence of red-green colour blindness with a relatively higher frequency of deutan type over protan. PMID:7840536

Vijayalakshmi, M; Naidu, J M; Suryanarayana, B



Nanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Exosomes, derived from endocytic membrane vesicles are thought to participate in cell-cell communication and protein and RNA delivery. They are ubiquitous in most body fluids (breast milk, saliva, blood, urine, malignant ascites, amniotic, bronchoalveolar lavage, and synovial fluids). In particular, exosomes secreted in human saliva contain proteins and nucleic acids that could be exploited for diagnostic purposes. To investigate this potential use, we isolated exosomes from human saliva and characterized their structural and transcriptome contents. Methodology Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation and identified by immunoelectron microscopy (EM), flow cytometry, and Western blot with CD63 and Alix antibodies. We then described the morphology, shape, size distribution, and density using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Microarray analysis revealed that 509 mRNA core transcripts are relatively stable and present in the exosomes. Exosomal mRNA stability was determined by detergent lysis with RNase A treatment. In vitro, fluorescently labeled saliva exosomes could communicate with human keratinocytes, transferring their genetic information to human oral keratinocytes to alter gene expression at a new location. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that exosomes shuttle RNA between cells and that the RNAs present in the exosomes may be a possible resource for disease diagnostics. PMID:20052414

Palanisamy, Viswanathan; Sharma, Shivani; Deshpande, Amit; Zhou, Hui; Gimzewski, James; Wong, David T.



[Experimental paroxysmal hemoglobinuria in calves and selected biochemical indicators in the blood and urine].  


When examining diseased calves, sporadically pronounced haemoglobinuria with dark red urine can be observed. In serious cases the clinical picture may be manifold but peculiar; in easy cases, however, when there are no distinct clinical symptoms, a larger scale of examinations is needed to aid differential diagnosis. Eight roughage-fed bulls aged two months, weighing 55-71 kg were used in this experiment. Selected biochemical indices of the mineral, enzymatic, hepatic, energetic and urinary profile were determined in the blood serum and urine of the animals. After the administration of cold water at an amount representing 12% of the animal's body weight, ionogram values were determined. In all indices a positive correlation with hydraemia and a decrease in Na, Cl, Ca, Mg and P levels were observed. Correction of the above levels occurred within 24 hours, with the exception of Na and P concentrations that did not reach starting values. As to the enzymatic profile (AST, ALT, GGT), no pronounced disturbances could be observed. The most profound changes were seen in AST activity that increased in the 5th hour of the experiment. A slight tendency towards hypoproteinaemia was observed to continue even in 24 hours. Hypoglobulinaemia reached its starting value in the 24th hour while simultaneously albumin levels slightly increased. The increasing bilirubin levels reached their maximum in the 5th and 6th hour; correction of the former occurred within 24 hours. The urinary profile revealed polyuria, aciduria, aquaeous urine and haemoglobinuria, the latter reaching its peak between hours 1 and 3 following water administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8236629

Sedovic, M; Nagy, O; Slanina, L



The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 ?g/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 ?g/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ? The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ? Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ? There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ? Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ? Previous data seem to underestimate kidney cadmium at low urinary cadmium.

Akerstrom, Magnus, E-mail: [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)



Brain–blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632



Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido



Use of Cell-Free Circulating Schistosome DNA in Serum, Urine, Semen, and Saliva To Monitor a Case of Refractory Imported Schistosomiasis Hematobia  

PubMed Central

This case of imported refractory schistosomiasis has highlighted the usefulness of cell-free parasite DNA as a diagnostic marker to assess active schistosome infection. In contrast to the rapid disappearance of ova in urine, parasite DNA remained persistent in several other specimen types even after the fourth treatment with praziquantel. This result was consistent with the presence of morphologically intact ova in bladder biopsy samples and with the corresponding symptoms. PMID:23884992

Yasuda, Mitsuko; Yuasa, Jozi; Isaka, Shigeo; Haruki, Kosuke; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Osada, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Chigusa, Yuichi




EPA Science Inventory

This procedure describes the process for collecting and analyzing blood and urine samples. The presence of chemical contaminants in biological specimens such as blood, urine, and hair represent a measure of the internal dose or body burden for a given individual derived from the ...


Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of two calcium-silicate based cements: Portland cement and biodentine.  


This study evaluated the effect of contamination with saliva and blood on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of pure gray Portland cement and Biodentine (Septodont, Allington, UK). A one-way ANOVA showed that contamination caused no significant difference between the cements in bi-axial flexural strength (P> 0.05). However there was a significant difference in setting time (Pblood increased the setting time of both materials. Biodentine was similar in strength to Portland cement, but had a shorter setting time for both contaminated and non-contaminated samples. PMID:24922995

Alhodiry, W; Lyons, M F; Chadwick, R G



Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko




EPA Science Inventory

The kinetics of phenylglucuronide (PG) in blood and urine of spinally-transected rainbow trout were investigated using microdialysis sampling techniques. Trout weighing 0.9 to 1.3 kg were dosed continuously with PG for an additional 48 h. PG could not be detected in expired branc...


Headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographic determination of dinitroaniline herbicides in human blood, urine and environmental water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a unique extraction and sampling technique, and it has been used for separation of volatile organics from water or other simple matrices. In this study, we have used SPME to separate dinitroaniline herbicides from complicated matrices of human urine and blood in order to broaden its application to biomedical analysis. The SPME conditions were optimized for

Fuyu Guan; Kanako Watanabe; Akira Ishii; Hiroshi Seno; Takeshi Kumazawa; Hideki Hattori; Osamu Suzuki



Uric acid - urine  


The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...


Blood, urine and vitreous isopropyl alcohol as biochemical markers in forensic investigations.  


Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is widely used as an industrial solvent and cleaning fluid. After ingestion or absorption, IPA is converted into acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase. However, in ketosis, acetone can be reduced to IPA. The aim of this study was to investigate blood IPA and acetone concentrations in a series of 400 medico-legal autopsies, including cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, hypothermia and alcohol misuse-related deaths, to illustrate the extent of ketosis at the time of death. Vitreous glucose, blood 3-?-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) concentrations were also determined systematically. Additionally, vitreous and urine IPA, acetone, 3HB and AcAc concentrations as well as other biochemical markers, including glycated hemoglobin and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) were also determined in selected cases. The results of this study indicate that ketosis is characterized by the presence of IPA resulting from the acetone metabolism and that IPA can be detected in several substrates. These findings confirm the importance of the systematic determination of IPA and acetone levels that is used to quantify biochemical disturbances and the importance of ketosis at the time of death. PMID:22177827

Palmiere, Cristian; Sporkert, Frank; Werner, Dominique; Bardy, Daniel; Augsburger, Marc; Mangin, Patrice



Electrocatalytic oxidation and selective determination of an opioid analgesic methadone in the presence of acetaminophen at a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: application for human urine, saliva and pharmaceutical samples analysis.  


For the first time, electrocatalytic oxidation and selective determination of methadone (Mtd), as a long-acting opioid, in the presence of acetaminophen (Ac) has been investigated at a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. This simple and sensitive electrochemical sensor was fabricated through the drop-casting of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidations of Ac and Mtd are both individually and simultaneously investigated at the surface of the fMWCNT modified glassy carbon electrode (fMWCNT/MGCE) through using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric studies. The fMWCNT/MGCE offered a considerable enhancement in the anodic peak current of Ac and Mtd associated with separating their overlapping voltammetric responses with potential difference of 290 mV. The catalytic peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry of Ac and Mtd increased linearly with their concentration at the ranges of 0.45-90.0 ?M and 0.5-100.0 ?M, respectively, and the detection limits for Ac and Mtd were sequentially 0.35 ?M and 0.28 ?M. Furthermore, this electrochemical sensor was successfully implemented for the quantitative determination of Ac and Mtd in human urine, saliva and pharmaceutical samples using standard addition method and the obtained results were found to be satisfactory. PMID:23680846

Amiri-Aref, Mohaddeseh; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza



Pharmacologically active peptides in the blood and urine of animals infected with babesia rodhaini and other pathogenic organisms  

PubMed Central

The blood and urine of mice and rats infected with Babesia rodhaini contain substances which stimulate the isolated guinea-pig ileum and rat duodenum. The amount of active material excreted increases as the infection increases. The active substances are stable to boiling with hydrochloric acid but not with alkali; they pass through a cellophane membrane and are soluble in hot ethanol. They are destroyed rapidly by papain and less rapidly by chymotrypsin, but are unaffected by trypsin or pepsin. Their action on smooth muscle is not affected by atropine, eserine, antihistamines, iproniazid, bretylium or by lysergic acid diethylamide. The active substances are probably peptides and there is evidence that the urine contains a mixture of peptides, some of which relax and some of which contract the rat duodenum. Similar active peptides appear in the urine of mice infected with Plasmodium berghei, Trypanosoma rhodesiense, Streptococcus pyogenes and Rift Valley fever virus. PMID:13851100

Goodwin, L. G.; Richards, W. H. G.



The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez



Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure.  


Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227??g/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55??g/l); plasma 78% (0.57??g/l; GSD: 1.84??g/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7??g/l; GSD: 2.48??g/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7??g/l; GSD: 8.6??g/l), 15% for plasma (0.09??g/l; GSD: 0.04??g/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8??g/l; GSD: 6.7??g/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure. PMID:23443239

Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Hedmer, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Nilsson, Leif; Skerfving, Staffan; Bergdahl, Ingvar A



Hydrogen ion secretion by the collecting duct as a determinant of the urine to blood PCO2 gradient in alkaline urine  

SciTech Connect

Several theories have been advanced to explain the elevation in urinary PCO/sub 2/ during bicarbonate loading and include: (a) H+ secretion, (b) countercurrent system for CO/sub 2/, (c) the ampholyte properties of bicarbonate, and (d) mixing of urine of disparate bicarbonate and butter concentrations. In this study microelectrodes were used to measure in situ and equilibrium pH (pHis and pHeq) and PCO/sub 2/ in control and bicarbonate loaded rats before and after infusion of carbonic anhydrase. The disequilibrium pH method (pHdq . pHis - pHeq) was used to demonstrate H+ secretion. Control rats excreting an acid urine (pH . 6.04 +/- 0.06) failed to display a significant disequilibrium pH at the base (BCD), or tip (TCD) of the papillary collecting duct. Urine pH (7.54 +/- 0.12), and urine to blood (U-B) PCO/sub 2/ increased significantly during NaHCO/sub 3/ loading while PCO/sub 2/ at the BCD and TCD also increased (95 +/- 4 and 122 +/- 4). Furthermore, an acid disequilibrium pH was present at both the BCD and TCD (-0.42 +/- 0.04 and -0.36 +/- 0.03) and was obliterated by carbonic anhydrase. Comparison of the PCO/sub 2/ in the BCD or TCD with the adjacent vasa recta revealed similar values (r . 0.97). It is concluded that H+ secretion by the collecting duct into bicarbonate containing fluid with delayed dehydration of H/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, is the most likely determinant of the U-B PCO/sub 2/ in alkaline urine. Similar values for PCO/sub 2/ in the collecting duct and the adjacent vasa recta suggests trapping of CO/sub 2/ in the medullary countercurrent system. The rise in PCO/sub 2/ occurs both along the collecting duct and after exit from the papilla.

DuBose, T.D. Jr.



Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study  

PubMed Central

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef



Optimized siRNA-PEG Conjugates for Extended Blood Circulation and Reduced Urine Excretion in Mice  

PubMed Central

Some of the main concerns with in vivo application of naked small interfering RNA are rapid degradation and urinary excretion resulting in a short plasma half-life. In this study we investigated how conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with variable chain length affects siRNA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The PEG chains were conjugated to chemically stabilized siRNA at the 5' terminal end of the passenger strand using click chemistry. The siRNA conjugate remained functionally active and showed significantly prolonged circulation in the blood stream after intravenous injection. siRNA conjugated with 20kDa PEG (PEG20k-siRNA) was most persistent, approximately 50% PEG20k-siRNA remained 1h post-injection, while the uncoupled siRNA was rapidly removed >90% at 15min. In vivo fluorescent imaging of the living animal showed increased concentration of siRNA in peripheral tissue and delayed urine excretion when coupled to PEG 20k. Biodistribution studies by northern blotting revealed equal distribution of conjugated siRNA in liver, kidney, spleen and lung without significant degradation 24 h post-injection. Our study demonstrates that PEG conjugated siRNA can be applied as a delivery system to improve siRNA bioavailability in vivo and may potentially increase the efficiency of siRNA in therapeutic applications. PMID:23471415

Iversen, Frank; Yang, Chuanxu; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Schaffert, David H.; Kjems, Jørgen; Gao, Shan



Practical and quality-control aspects of multi-element analysis with quadrupole ICP-MS with special attention to urine and whole blood.  


Two screening methods were developed for rapid analysis of a great number of urine and blood samples within the framework of an exposure check of the population after a firework explosion. A total of 56 elements was measured including major elements. Sample preparation consisted of simple dilution. Extensive quality controls were applied including element addition and the use of certified reference materials. Relevant results at levels similar to those found in the literature were obtained for Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl, and Pb in urine and for the same elements except Ni, Sn, Sb, and Ba in blood. However, quadrupole ICP-MS has limitations, mainly related to spectral interferences, for the analysis of urine and blood, and these cause higher detection limits. The general aspects discussed in the paper give it wider applicability than just for analysis of blood and urine-it can for example be used in environmental analysis. PMID:15221184

De Boer, Jan L M; Ritsema, Rob; Piso, Sjoerd; Van Staden, Hans; Van Den Beld, Wilbert



Saliva: diagnostics and therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

For the past two decades, salivary diagnostic approaches have been developed to monitor oral diseases such as periodontal diseases and to assess caries risk. Recently, the combination of emerging biotechnologies and salivary diagnostics has extended the range of saliva-based diagnostics from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system as most compounds found in blood are also present in saliva. Accordingly saliva can reflect the physiological state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional and metabolic variations and provides a source for the monitoring of oral and also systemic health. This review presents the current status of saliva diagnostics and delves into their applications to the discovery of biomarkers for cancer detection and therapeutic applications. Translating scientific findings of nucleic acids, proteins and metabolites in body fluids to clinical applications is a cumbersome and challenging journey. Our research group is pursuing the biology of salivary analytes and the development of technologies in order to detect distinct biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. The avenue of saliva diagnostics incorporating transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic findings will enable us to connect salivary molecular analytes to monitor therapies, therapeutic outcomes, and finally disease progression in cancer. PMID:21122035

Spielmann, Nadine; Wong, David T.



Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect

Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance horses. Our /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay has an I-50 for detomidine of approximately 2 ng/ml. Our assay shows limited cross-reactivity with the pharmacodynamically similar xylazine, but does not cross-react with acepromazine, epinephrine, haloperidol or promazine. The plasma kinetic data from clinical (greater than or equal to 5 mg/horse) as well as sub-clinical doses indicate first-order elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Within the first 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) administration of 30 mg/horse, plasma levels peak at approximately 20 ng/ml and then decline with an apparent plasma half-life of 25 minutes. Diuresis can occur with administration of clinical doses of detomidine and this effect was accounted for in the analysis of urine samples. Using this method, administration of 30 mg/horse can be readily detected in equine urine for up to 8 hours after IV injection. Additionally, doses as low as 0.5 mg/horse can be detected for short periods of time in blood and urine with use of this assay. Utilization of this assay by research scientists and forensic analysts will allow for the establishment of proper guidelines and controls regarding detomidine administration to performance horses and assurance of compliance with these guidelines.

Wood, T.; Tai, C.L.; Taylor, D.G.; Woods, W.E.; Wang, C.J.; Houtz, P.K.; Tai, H.H.; Weckman, T.J.; Yang, J.M.; Sturma, L.



Identification of prostate cancer mRNA markers by averaged differential expression and their detection in biopsies, blood, and urine  

PubMed Central

The advent of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) as a biomarker has enabled early detection of prostate cancer and, hence, improved clinical outcome. However, a low PSA is not a guarantee of disease-free status, and an elevated PSA is frequently associated with a negative biopsy. Therefore, our goal is to identify molecular markers that can detect prostate cancer with greater specificity in body fluids such as urine or blood. We used the RT-PCR differential display method to first identify mRNA transcripts differentially expressed in tumor vs. patient-matched nontumor prostate tissue. This analysis led to the identification of 44 mRNA transcripts that were expressed differentially in some but not all tumor specimens examined. To identify mRNA transcripts that are differentially expressed in most tumor specimens, we turned to differential display of pooled tissue samples, a technique we name averaged differential expression (ADE). We performed differential display of mRNA from patient-matched nontumor vs. tumor tissue, each pooled from 10 patients with various Gleason scores. Differentially expressed mRNA transcripts identified by ADE were fewer in number, but were expressed in a greater percentage of tumors (>75%) than those identified by differential display of mRNA from individual patient samples. Differential expression of these mRNA transcripts was also detected by RT-PCR in mRNA isolated from urine and blood samples of prostate cancer patients. Our findings demonstrate the principle that specific cDNA probes of frequently differentially expressed mRNA transcripts identified by ADE can be used for the detection of prostate cancer in urine and blood samples. PMID:17283334

Bai, V. Uma; Kaseb, Ahmed; Tejwani, Sheela; Divine, George W.; Barrack, Evelyn R.; Menon, Mani; Pardee, Arthur B.; Reddy, G. Prem-Veer



[Saliva cotinine determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode - array detection].  


The use of tobacco is a very serious threat to public health. Reducing the proportion of smokers easily leads to improved health of the general population. Smoking is a proven risk factor for respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer and complications during pregnancy. To verify the level of exposure to tobacco smoke in most patients used a simple test markers of exposure. The most commonly used marker in the evaluation of exposure to tobacco products is cotinine, which is a major metabolite of nicotine contained in tobacco smoke. Biological material most commonly used in this type of study is blood, urine and saliva. In the present study Sarstedt Salivette tubes were used to samples collection. In order to determine the concentration of cotinine in saliva samples analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection after extraction of cotinine from saliva by solid phase extraction. The method was linear of 10 to 400 ng/ml. The limit of detection was the value of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N=3, it amounted to 6 ng/ml, the limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. The intraday repeatability was 8% for lowconcentrations, for high concentrations - 3.7%. Reproducibility interdays for low concentrations was 2.4%, for high concentrations - 4.1%. We analyzed 18 samples of saliva derived from patients smoking volunteers from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences and the Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences. Mean concentrations of cotinine in patients was 240.9 ng/ml of saliva. In this study we demonstrated the usefulness of the saliva cotinine determination method in the assessment of patient exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:23421043

Kulza, Maksymilian; Wo?niak, Anna; Se?czuk-Przyby?owska, Monika; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurha?ska-Flisykowska, Anna; Florek, Ewa



Immunological evaluation of urinary trypsin inhibitors in blood and urine: role of N- & O-linked glycoproteins.  


Urinary trypsin inhibitors (uTi) suppress serine proteases during inflammation. After liberation from proinhibitors (P-alpha-I and I-alpha-I) by the white blood cell (WBC) response, uTi readily pass through the kidneys into urine. A key uTi, bikunin, is attached to O-linked and N-linked glycoconjugates. Recently, uTi inhibitors, called uristatins, were found to lack the O-linked glycoconjugates. Monoclonal antibodies were produced using purified uristatin and screened for binding differences to uristatin, bikunin, P-alpha-I, and I-alpha-I. Antibody-binding patterns were characterized using immunoaffinity binding onto protein-chip surfaces and analysis by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization mass spectrometry (SELDI), using specimens from patients and from purified uTi standards. Antibodies were developed and used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for uTi measurement in urine and plasma specimens. ELISA was performed on specimens from normal, presumed healthy, controls and from patients who had been screened for inflammation using a high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) test and a complete blood count (CBC). Polyclonal antibody against uTi showed cross-reactivity with the Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) and with proinhibitors. Screening of anti-uTi monoclonal antibodies (Mab) revealed antibodies that did not cross-react with either of the above, thus providing a tool to measure both uristatin and bikunin in urine with Mab 3G5 and in plasma with Mab 5D11. The monoclonal antibody 5D11 cross-reacts with specific N-linked glycoconjugates of uristatin present in plasma. In ca 96% of healthy adults, uTi were present at <12 mg/l in urine and <4 mg/l in plasma. We also found that patients with an inflammation and a CRP of >2.0 mg/l had higher urinary concentrations of uTi than the control population in every subject. Free uristatin and bikunin pass readily into urine and are primarily bound to heavy chains that constitute the proinhibitor form in plasma. PMID:17115277

Pugia, Michael J; Jortani, Saeed A; Basu, Manju; Sommer, Ronald; Kuo, Hai-Hang; Murphy, Solomon; Williamson, Doug; Vranish, James; Boyle, Patrick J; Budzinski, Danny; Valdes, Roland; Basu, Subhash C



RBC urine test  


Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...


Validity of urine-blood hydrational measures to assess total body water changes during mountaineering in the sub-Arctic.  


Mountaineering involves high altitude and cold exposure which are each associated with significant levels of dehydration (via altitude-cold diuresis, high energy expenditures, and poor access to water). The purpose of this study was to identify and validate urine and blood indices of dehydration as compared to changes in total body water (which served as the reference standard). Male subjects (n = 10) were studied during a 14 day mountaineering expedition in the sub-Arctic during which they climbed to an altitude of 5245 +/- 229 m (mean +/- SE). Daily activity consisted of approximately 10-15 hours skiing, hiking, and performing mountaineering tasks with heavy loads (> 30 kg). Various measurements were made immediately before ascending (Pre) and after descending (Post) the mountain: body weight (Bw) and composition (%Fat), urine specific gravity (USG), urine protein (UP), plasma electrolytes (K+, Cl-, Na+), plasma proteins (PP), plasma and urinary osmolality (UOsm), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma aldosterone, and total body water (TBW determined via deuterium oxide). Post the expedition significant (p < 0.05) decreases were observed in Bw, and %Fat, while significant increases were found in Na+, K+, USG, UOsm and UP. TBW was slightly reduced, however, changes were non-significant (Pre = 52.9 +/- 1.2 L vs. Post = 52.6 +/- 1.3 L). USG is often used to monitor hydration status in field settings; however, no significant correlations were found between changes in TBW and USG, nor between changes in TBW and other typical urinary indicators of dehydration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7639888

Hackney, A C; Coyne, J T; Pozos, R; Feith, S; Seale, J



Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approach.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is an increasingly popular drug of abuse that causes stimulation, euphoria, anxiolysis or hypnosis, depending on the dose used. Low doses of the drug are used recreationally, and also implicated in drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Because of the unusually steep dose-response curves, accidental GHB overdosing, leading to coma, seizures or death can occur. Being a controlled substance, GHB is often substituted with its non-scheduled precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are rapidly metabolized into GHB in the body. Here we describe an assay for GHB, GBL and BD in blood and/or urine samples. GHB and BD were extracted from diluted 200 microL aliquots of samples with t-butylmethylether (plus internal standard benzyl alcohol) in test tubes preloaded with NaCl. After acidification and centrifugation the solvent phase was transferred to a test tube preloaded with Na(2)SO(4), incubated for 30 min, centrifuged again, and evaporated in vacuum. The residue was mixed with N-methyl-N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) in acetonitrile, and injected into a GC-MS. When analyzing GBL, the salting-out step was omitted, and analysis was performed with a GC-FID apparatus. As revealed by the validation data this procedure is suitable for quantitative determination of GHB and its precursors in blood and/or urine samples. PMID:17658710

Kankaanpää, Aino; Liukkonen, Raija; Ariniemi, Kari



Simultaneous determination of 12 illicit drugs in whole blood and urine by solid phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.  


A rapid and sensitive method based on solid phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methyl-enedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, p-methoxymethamphetamine, ephedrine, N-methylephedrine, cathinone, methcathinone, and ketamine in whole blood and urine was developed and validated. Following solid phase extraction, the analytes were separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH Phenyl column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) under gradient elution using a mobile phase containing of acetonitrile and 0.3% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1) and analyzed by a triplequadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The proposed method was linear for each analyte with correlation coefficients over 0.99. Recovery validation studies showed accuracy bias below 4.4%. Acceptable precision was also obtained with a relative standard deviation below 8.9%. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be adequate for the quantitation of the illicit drugs in whole blood and urine sample and was higher than reported methods. The present method was proved to be reliable and robust for drug screening in forensic toxicological analysis. PMID:24631805

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Li, Hong; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Meng; Jiang, Ye; Zhao, Wen-Song



A simple {sup 197}Hg RNAA procedure for the determination of mercury in urine, blood, and tissue  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has been implicated as a causal agent in such central nervous system diseases as Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s. Consequently, there has been increased interest in the determination of ultra-trace-level mercury in biological matrices, especially in tissue. While such nonnuclear techniques as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry have been employed routinely for mercury determinations in urine and blood, there is a paucity of nonnuclear techniques for the determination of mercury in the low parts-per-billion range in biological tissue. As pointed out by Fardy and Warner, instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) require no blank determinations in contrast to nonnuclear analytical techniques employing digestion and/or chemical operations. Therefore, INAA and RNAA become the obvious choices for determination of ultra-trace levels of mercury in tissue. Most separation methods reported in the literature require different and separate methodologies for mercury determinations in urine, blood, or tissue. The purposes of this study are to develop a single methodology for the determination of low levels of mercury in all biological matrices by RNAA and to optimize parameters necessary for an efficacious trace-level determination. Previously, few studies have taken into account the effects of the Szilard-Chalmers reactions of the radioactivatable analyte within a biological matrix. It also would appear that little attention has been given to the optimum postirradiation carrier concentration of the analyte species necessary. This study discusses these various considerations.

Blotcky, A.J. [VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Rack, E.P.; Meade, A.G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others



Review of Biologic Matrices (Urine, Blood, Hair) as Indicators of Recent or Ongoing Cannabis Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Especially for cannabinoids, analytical procedures for the verification of recent use and generally for the assessment of the extent of drug abuse are of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. For confirmation of abstinence, urine analysis seems to be a useful tool. Serial monitoring of THC-COOH to creatinine ratios can differentiate between recent drug use and residual THC-COOH excretion (THC-COOH\\/creatinine

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea



The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years  

SciTech Connect

Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)



Levels of metals in the blood and specific porphyrins in the urine in children with autism spectrum disorders.  


The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of metals in blood (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg)), as well as the specific porphyrin levels in the urine of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with patients with other neurological disorders. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (N?=?52, average age?=?6.2 years) and a control group of children with other neurological disorders (N?=?22, average age?=?6.6 years), matched in terms of intellectual abilities (Mann-Whitney U?=?565.0, p?=?0.595). Measurement of metals in blood was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry, while the HPLC method via a fluorescence detector was used to test urinary porphyrin levels. Results were compared across groups using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, a generalized linear model was used to establish the impact of group membership on the blood Cu/Zn ratio. In terms of blood levels of metals, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, compared to the control group, ASD group had significantly elevated blood Cu/Zn ratio (Wald ? (2)?=?6.6, df?=?1, p?=?0.010). Additionally, no significant difference between the groups was found in terms of uroporphyrin I, heptacarboxyporphyrin I, hexacarboxyporphyrin and pentacarboxyporphyrin I. However, the levels of coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were lower in the ASD group compared to the controls. Due to observed higher Cu/Zn ratio, it is suggested to test blood levels of Zn and Cu in all autistic children and give them a Zn supplement if needed. PMID:25234471

Macedoni-Lukši?, Marta; Gosar, David; Bjørklund, Geir; Oražem, Jasna; Kodri?, Jana; Lešnik-Musek, Petra; Zupan?i?, Mirjana; France-Štiglic, Alenka; Sešek-Briški, Alenka; Neubauer, David; Osredkar, Joško



Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts were measured by ELISA and hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS--Mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples from coke oven workers varied from 1.11 to 5.53 umol/mol creatinine and 0.14 umol/mol creatinine in the control group. Workers at the top side had the highest values of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts did not correlate with either 1-hydroxypyrene nor length of work at the coke oven plant. But antibody concentration in samples collected in January was predictive of the concentration in samples collected in June. A small non-significant increase in hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts was found in samples from coke oven workers relative to the control group when comparing smokers and nonsmokers separately. CONCLUSION--1-Hydroxypyrene correlates well with exposure groups based on job description. Antibodies to benzo(a)-pyrene DNA adducts was related to people and not exposure. Work at a coke oven plant might lead to increased hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts. PMID:8535495

Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D



Detection of recombinant EPO in blood and urine samples with EPO WGA MAIIA, IEF and SAR-PAGE after microdose injections.  


The misuse of microdoses of performance enhancing drugs like erythropoietin (EPO) constitutes a major challenge in doping analysis. When injected intravenously, the half-life of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) like epoetin alfa, beta, and zeta is only a few hours and hence, the window for direct detection of rhEPO in urine is small. In order to investigate the detection window for rhEPO directly in blood and urine with a combined affinity chromatography and lateral flow immunoassay (EPO WGA MAIIA), we recruited nine healthy people who each received six intravenously injected microdoses (7.5?IU/kg) of NeoRecormon (epoetin beta) over a period of three weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected in the days following the injections and analyzed with EPO WGA MAIIA as well as the current validated methods for rhEPO; isoelectric focusing (IEF) and sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SAR-PAGE). For samples collected 18?h after a microdose, the sensitivity of the EPO WGA MAIIA assay was 100% in plasma and 87.5% in urine samples at the respective 98% specificity threshold levels. In comparison, the sensitivity in plasma and urine was 75% and 100%, respectively, with IEF, and 87.5% in plasma and 100% in urine when analyzed with SAR-PAGE. We conclude that EPO WGA MAIIA is a sensitive assay for the detection of rhEPO, with the potential of being a fast, supplemental screening assay for use in doping analysis. PMID:24190107

Dehnes, Yvette; Shalina, Alexandra; Myrvold, Linda



Carbon isotopes profiles of human whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, urine and feces for biological/biomedical 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry applications.  


Radiocarbon ((14)C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants peferentially incorporate atmospheric (14)CO(2) versus (13)CO(2) versus (12)CO(2), which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope (13)C (?(13)C) and (14)C (F(m)) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100 ?L) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean ?(13)C were ranked low to high as follows: feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. ?(13)C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted ?(13)C by only ±1.0 ‰ ensuring our F(m) measurements were accurate and precise. Mean F(m) were ranked low to high as follows: plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. F(m) in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, (14)C levels (F(m)) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric (14)C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (nonvegetarian), the measured F(m) of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean ± SD), and the F(m) of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric F(m) of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using (14)C as a tracer. PMID:21452856

Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J



Carbon Isotopes Profiles of Human Whole Blood, Plasma, Red Blood Cells, Urine and Feces for Biological/Biomedical 14C-Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Applications  

PubMed Central

Radiocarbon (14C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants preferentially incorporate atmospheric 14CO2, vs 13CO2, vs 12CO2, which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope 13C (?13C) and 14C (Fm) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100?L) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean ?13C were ranked low to high as follows, feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. ?13C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted ?13C by only ± 1.0 ‰ ensuring our Fm measurements were accurate and precise. Mean Fm were ranked low to high as follows, plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. Fm in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, 14C levels (Fm) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric 14C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (non-vegetarian), the measured Fm of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean±SD), the Fm of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric Fm of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using 14C as a tracer. PMID:21452856

Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C.; Kelly, Peter B.; Clifford, Andrew J.



Green and black tea consumption by humans: Impact on polyphenol concentrations in feces, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to determine the effects of green tea, black tea and decaffeinated black tea consumption on urinary and fecal excretions and whole blood and blood serum concentrations of polyphenols. The 56 day study was divided into four randomly arranged experimental periods of 14 days each during which the 10 healthy adult subjects consumed a laboratory

Y. H. He; C. Kies



Phthalate Diesters and Their Metabolites in Human Breast Milk, Blood or Serum, and Urine as Biomarkers of Exposure in Vulnerable Populations  

PubMed Central

Background Phthalates may pose a risk for perinatal developmental effects. An important question relates to the choice of suitable biological matrices for assessing exposure during this period. Objectives This study was designed to measure the concentrations of phthalate diesters or their metabolites in breast milk, blood or serum, and urine and to evaluate their suitability for assessing perinatal exposure to phthalates. Methods In 2001, 2–3 weeks after delivery, 42 Swedish primipara provided breast milk, blood, and urine samples at home. Special care was taken to minimize contamination with phthalates (e.g., use of a special breast milk pump, heat treatment of glassware and needles, addition of phosphoric acid). Results Phthalate diesters and metabolites in milk and blood or serum, if detected, were present at concentrations close to the limit of detection. By contrast, most phthalate metabolites were detectable in urine at concentrations comparable to those from the general population in the United States and in Germany. No correlations existed between urine concentrations and those found in milk or blood/serum for single phthalate metabolites. Our data are at odds with a previous study documenting frequent detection and comparatively high concentrations of phthalate metabolites in Finnish and Danish mothers’ milk. Conclusions Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine are more informative than those in milk or serum. Furthermore, collection of milk or blood may be associated with discomfort and potential technical problems such as contamination (unless oxidative metabolites are measured). Although urine is a suitable matrix for health-related phthalate monitoring, urinary concentrations in nursing mothers cannot be used to estimate exposure to phthalates through milk ingestion by breast-fed infants. PMID:18335100

Högberg, Johan; Hanberg, Annika; Berglund, Marika; Skerfving, Staffan; Remberger, Mikael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Filipsson, Agneta Falk; Jansson, Bo; Johansson, Niklas; Appelgren, Malin; Håkansson, Helen



Analysis of the RNA content of the exosomes derived from blood serum and urine and its potential as biomarkers.  


Exosomes are tiny vesicles (30-150 nm) constantly secreted by all healthy and abnormal cells, and found in abundance in all body fluids. These vesicles, loaded with unique RNA and protein cargo, have a wide range of biological functions, including cell-to-cell communication and signalling. As such, exosomes hold tremendous potential as biomarkers and could lead to the development of minimally invasive diagnostics and next generation therapies within the next few years. Here, we describe the strategies for isolation of exosomes from human blood serum and urine, characterization of their RNA cargo by sequencing, and present the initial data on exosome labelling and uptake tracing in a cell culture model. The value of exosomes for clinical applications is discussed with an emphasis on their potential for diagnosing and treating neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancer. PMID:25135963

Li, Mu; Zeringer, Emily; Barta, Timothy; Schageman, Jeoffrey; Cheng, Angie; Vlassov, Alexander V



Speciation of platinum in blood plasma and urine by micelle-mediated extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.  


A highly sensitive and selective technique for the speciation of platinum by cloud point extraction prior to determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was described. The separation of Pt(II) from Pt(IV) was performed in the presence of 4-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)thiosemicarbazide (HCPTS) as chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The extraction of Pt(II)-HCPTS complex needs temperature higher than the cloud point temperature of Triton X-114 and pH = 7, while Pt(IV) remains in the aqueous phase. The Pt(II) in the surfactant phase was analyzed by GFAAS, and the concentration of Pt(IV) was calculated by subtraction of Pt(II) from total platinum which was directly determined by GFAAS. The effect of pH, concentration of chelating agent, surfactant, and equilibration temperature were investigated. An enrichment factor of 42 was obtained for the preconcentration of Pt(II) with 50 mL solution. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear up to 30 ?gL(-1) with detection limit of 0.08 ?gL(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 1.8%. No considerable interference was observed due to the presence of coexisting anions and cations. The accuracy of the results was verified by analyzing different spiked samples (tap water, blood plasma and urine). The proposed method was applied to the speciation analysis of Pt in blood plasma and urine with satisfactory results. PMID:23669311

Mortada, Wael I; Hassanien, Mohammed M; El-Asmy, Ahmed A



Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years) and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years) nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD). Results Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 ?g/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM)-I level. Median Pb (20 ?g/L) and Hg (0.55 ?g/L) levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein) and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine levels of Cd and blood levels of Hg or Pb played a major role in the genesis of CAD, particularly when compared to well-known biomarkers such as blood pressure, glucose, and lipids. PMID:24868163

Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Mittlböck, Martina; Uhl, Maria; Köhler-Vallant, Birgit; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette



Development of a method for the determination of total bisphenol a at trace levels in human blood and urine and elucidation of factors influencing method accuracy and sensitivity.  


This publication describes a method for the determination of total bisphenol A (BPA and conjugated BPA) following enzyme hydrolysis and is intended as a companion to our previously developed analytical method for the determination of free BPA (the aglycone) in human blood and urine using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry ( 1). That free BPA method provided a means to account for and/or eliminate background contamination and demonstrated accuracy and reproducibility in both matrices fortified with BPA or a surrogate analyte ((13)C BPA) at a low method quantitation limit (MQL) of 0.1-0.2 ng/mL. In contrast to the free BPA method results and based on stringent accuracy, precision and confirmation criteria set for the MQLs of the method developed for total BPA, the MQL achieved in blood was 1.020-2.550 and 0.510-1.020 ng/mL in urine. These data showed higher MQLs than the desired MQLs of 0.5 ng/mL (blood) and 0.2 ng/mL (urine) with increased variability between analyses which demonstrates the importance of generating method validation data with each analysis. In contrast, the MQL achieved for (13)C BPA-G (monoglucuronide as a surrogate analyte in blood was 0.2-0.5 and 0.2 ng/mL in urine illustrating that the method is capable of meeting lower MQL requirements if the contribution from exogenous BPA can be well controlled. This method for the determination total BPA in human blood and urine is intended to be used in conjunction with the free BPA method ( 1) to obtain accurate and complete BPA biomonitoring data to support human exposure assessments. PMID:24567285

Markham, Dan; Waechter, John; Budinsky, Robert; Gries, Wolfgang; Beyer, Dieter; Snyder, Stephanie; Dimond, Stephen; Rajesh, V N; Rao, Narayana; Connolly, Paul; Neeley, Mark; Hentges, Steven



Influence of dietary cation-anion balance on milk, blood, urine, and rumen fluid in lactating dairy cattle.  


Twelve lactating Holstein cows were blocked according to age and milk production into groups of three cows and assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares in a split-plot design with subtreatments. Treatments on each square were four diets formulated to provide -10, 0, +10, or +20 meq/Na + K) -Cl/100 g diet DM. The four balances were achieved on squares 1, 2, and 3 by manipulating Na, K, and Cl, respectively. Actual milk yield was 8.6% higher on +20 than -10 averaged across the three squares. Blood pH and bicarbonate increased linearly with dietary cation-anion balance. Rumen pH increased linearly with dietary cation-anion balance, but fermentation patterns were largely unaffected. Urine pH increased linearly and quadratically with increasing dietary cation-anion balance. Square times balance response differences proved nonsignificant for all parameters except blood bicarbonate and rumen isovalerate, indicating responses could be attributed to the dietary cation-anion balance itself rather than to the effects of a single ion. Regulation of dietary cation-anion balance may become a useful tool for improving the performance of lactating dairy cattle. PMID:3379168

Tucker, W B; Harrison, G A; Hemken, R W



No Saliva, No Taste?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (4th activity on the page), learners test to see if saliva is necessary for food to have taste. Learners dry their tongues with clean paper towels and then taste samples of salt, sugar, crackers, or other dry foods. Use this activity for any lesson on the senses, particularly taste, as well how saliva breaks down chemicals in food.



Effects of intravenous injection of diatrizoate, iohexol or ioxilan on renal size, urine profiles and blood profiles in the rabbit.  


Diatrizoate, iohexol or ioxilan were injected intravenously in 18 rabbits. The contrast medium passage through the kidneys was recorded on digital subtraction images for the first 50 s followed by 100 mm exposures up to 15 min after injection. The renal area was measured planimetrically. Urine profiles (glucose, phosphate, LDH, GGT, NAG), blood profiles (potassium, urea) and the relative clearance of albumin and sodium were followed for 5 days and compared with a control group injected with saline. All kidneys were examined by light and immunofluorescence microscopy. All three contrast media produced excellent arteriograms and urograms. The three different contrast media caused a rapid increase of the kidney area within the first minute, reaching an average maximum of 10 to 12 per cent after 5 min, followed by a gradual decline. Contrary to expectations the increase in renal area was similar for all three contrast media, so hyperosmolality is no likely explanation of this phenomenon. None of the contrast agents caused significant changes in any of the profile components with one exception: the GGT excretion was significantly elevated during the first 24 h after diatrizoate administration as compared with the effect of saline. Light and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed no differences. PMID:3408613

Rygaard, H; Dorph, S; Thomsen, H S; Mygind, T; Nielsen, H; Larsen, S; Skaarup, P; Hemmingsen, L; Holm, J



Does maternal saliva contain fetal DNA usable for prenatal diagnostics?  


Non-invasive molecular analysis of fetal DNA is the diagnostic goal of prenatal medicine. Circulating fetal DNA can be detected in maternal plasma. Recently, it has been detected in the urine of pregnant women. We hypothesize that fetal DNA is present also in maternal saliva and that advances in stabilization and isolation of nucleic acids from saliva enable non-invasive and repeated sampling for prenatal diagnostics. The hypothesis is testable using saliva samples of pregnant women with confirmed male fetuses. Y-specific sequences should be detectable in salivary DNA. Caution must be given to the prevention of contamination. If proved in large studies, the presence of fetal DNA fragments in maternal saliva would enable a wide range of applications in prenatal medicine. PMID:19815350

Vlková, Barbora; Szemes, Tomás; Minárik, Gabriel; Turna, Ján; Celec, Peter



Discovery of Mosquito Saliva MicroRNAs during CHIKV Infection  

PubMed Central

Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18–24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. PMID:25612225

Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan



Life-threatening angioedema of the tongue: the detection of the RNA of B henselae in the saliva of a male patient and his dog as well as of the DNA of three Bartonella species in the blood of the patient.  


Non-hereditary angioedema is a common disease with a prevalence between 5% and 19% and approximately half of the patients experience a swelling of the tongue. We report a case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man with a gross life-threatening angioedema of the tongue, whose attacks occurred every 4 weeks. The most frequent causes of angioedema were excluded. We detected DNA and RNA from Bartonella henselae in the blood and saliva of the patient and in the saliva of the patient's hunting dog. Treatment with azithromycin plus minocycline cleared the blood and saliva of RNA and DNA of Bartonella species, and the patient has been free from angioedema for 1 year. None of the therapy modalities used to treat the hereditary form or ACE or allergy-induced angioedema affect the detrimental course caused by Bartonella species. We therefore suggest that a molecular Bartonella test be included in the analysis of angioedema. PMID:24654245

Lösch, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf



Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato



Development of a cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry-based microplate method for the determination of nitrite in human urine and blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and simple method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of nitrite in human urine and blood has been developed by combination of cloud point extraction (CPE) and microplate assay. The method is based on the Griess reaction and the reaction product is extracted into nonionic surfactant Triton-X114 using CPE technique. In this study, decolorization treatment of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity of nitrite detection. Multi-sample can be simultaneously detected thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. The effects of different operating parameters such as type of decolorizing agent, concentration of surfactant (Triton X-114), addition of (NH4)2SO4, extraction temperature and time, interfering elements were studied and optimum conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 10-400 ng mL-1 of nitrite with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100 ng mL-1 of nitrite was 2.80%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in the urine and blood samples with recoveries of 92.6-101.2%.

Zhao, Jiao; Lu, Yunhui; Fan, Chongyang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling



Trends in occurrence of drugs of abuse in blood and urine of arrested drivers and drug traffickers in the border region of Aachen.  


The region of Aachen is located in a triangle on the German, Dutch and Belgian borders and is heavily exposed to drug traffic, due to the differences in national drug policies. The analysis of toxicological casework in the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Aachen was undertaken for the period 1987-1993, i.e. 6 years before and 1 year after the partial suspension of the border control due to the Maastricht Treaty; 2653 cases were registered, among them 988 automobile drivers. The profile of the casework has changed after the opening of the border: up to 1992 most cases were obtained from the customs. In 1993 the prevalence of police samples was noticed. In the population of drivers, blood samples were only taken in 30% of all the cases. In other cases, concerning mainly motorized drug smugglers, only urine samples or seized drugs have been sent for examination. The urine samples in this group were mostly drug-positive. Drug-smuggling drivers appeared to be a risk-generating group for road traffic safety. The analyses of blood and urine samples revealed multiple drug use in most of the cases. Since 1992, a steep increase in the frequency of cocaine-positive blood samples among drivers was noticed. The results of the study indicate that the abolition of the border control affected the road traffic safety in the region of Aachen. PMID:7875616

Schiwy-Bochat, K H; Bogusz, M; Vega, J A; Althoff, H



Development of a cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry-based microplate method for the determination of nitrite in human urine and blood.  


A novel and simple method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of nitrite in human urine and blood has been developed by combination of cloud point extraction (CPE) and microplate assay. The method is based on the Griess reaction and the reaction product is extracted into nonionic surfactant Triton-X114 using CPE technique. In this study, decolorization treatment of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity of nitrite detection. Multi-sample can be simultaneously detected thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. The effects of different operating parameters such as type of decolorizing agent, concentration of surfactant (Triton X-114), addition of (NH4)2SO4, extraction temperature and time, interfering elements were studied and optimum conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 10-400ngmL(-1) of nitrite with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5ngmL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100ngmL(-1) of nitrite was 2.80%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in the urine and blood samples with recoveries of 92.6-101.2%. PMID:25448978

Zhao, Jiao; Lu, Yunhui; Fan, Chongyang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling



Maple syrup urine disease  


... Persons with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... Plasma amino acid test Urine amino acid test There will be signs of ketosis and excess acid in blood (acidosis).


Urine odor  


Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...


Quantitative analysis of myo-inositol in urine, blood and nutritional supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  


Myo-inositol plays key physiological functions, necessitating development of methodology for quantification in biological matrices. Limitations of current mass spectrometry-based approaches include the need for a derivatisation step and/or sample clean-up. In addition, co-elution of glucose may cause ion suppression of myo-inositol signals, for example in blood or urine samples. We describe an HPLC-MS/MS method using a lead-form resin based column online to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer, which requires minimum sample preparation and no derivatisation. This method allows separation and selective detection of myo-inositol from other inositol stereoisomers. Importantly, inositol was also separated from hexose monosaccharides of the same molecular weight, including glucose, galactose, mannose and fructose. The inter- and intra-assay variability was determined for standard solutions and urine with inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.1% and 3.5% respectively, while intra-assay CV was 2.3% and 3.6%. Urine and blood samples from normal individuals were analysed. PMID:21856255

Leung, Kit-Yi; Mills, Kevin; Burren, Katie A; Copp, Andrew J; Greene, Nicholas D E



Duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects the recovery from a bout of ruminal acidosis: short-chain fatty acid and lactate absorption, saliva production, and blood metabolites.  


This study was conducted to determine if the duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, saliva production, and blood metabolites before, during, and following an induced bout of ruminal acidosis. Sixteen Angus heifers were assigned to 1 of 4 blocks and within block to 1 of 2 treatments designated as long adapted (LA) or short adapted (SA). Long adapted and SA heifers were fed a backgrounding diet [forage:concentrate (F:C) = 60:40] for 33 and 7 d, respectively, and then transitioned over 20 d to a high-grain diet (F:C = 9:91) with the timing of dietary transition staggered such that the LA and SA heifers were fed the high-grain diet for 34 and 8 d, respectively, before inducing ruminal acidosis. Ruminal acidosis was induced by restricting feed to 50% of DMI:BW for 24 h followed by an intraruminal infusion of ground barley at 10% DMI:BW. Heifers were then given their regular diet allocation 1 h after the intraruminal infusion. Data were collected during an 8 d baseline period (BASE), on the day of the acidosis challenge (CHAL), and during 2 consecutive 8 d recovery periods (REC1 and REC2). When pooled across periods, the fractional rates of propionate (42 vs. 34%/h; P = 0.045) and butyrate (45 vs. 36%/h; P = 0.019) absorption, measured using the isolated and washed reticulorumen technique, were greater for LA than SA heifers. Moreover, overall, LA heifers tended to have greater absolute rates of butyrate absorption (94 vs. 79 mmol/h; P = 0.087) and fractional rates of total SCFA absorption (37 vs. 32%/h; P = 0.100). Treatment × period interactions for lactate absorption (P = 0.024) and serum D-lactate concentration (P = 0.003) were detected with LA heifers having greater D-lactate concentrations during CHAL and greater fractional rates of lactate absorption during REC1 than SA. The absolute and fractional absorption of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased between REC1 and REC2, with intermediate values for BASE (P ? 0.05). Although fractional rates of SCFA absorption were low during REC1, saliva production (P = 0.018) increased between BASE and REC1, with intermediate values for REC2. These results suggest that the duration of time that animals are fed a high-grain diet may increase propionate, butyrate, and lactate absorption, and that cattle may decrease SCFA absorption and increase saliva production shortly after an acute bout of ruminal acidosis. PMID:24158368

Schwaiger, T; Beauchemin, K A; Penner, G B



Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review  

PubMed Central

There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of desquamated epithelial cells, microorganisms and remnants of food and drink; it is essential to cleanse and refine the saliva samples to remove any external elements. Immediate processing of the sample is recommended in order to avoid decomposition, where this is not possible, the sample may be stored at -80ºC. Salivary analysis – much the same as blood analysis – aims to identify diverse medication or indications of certain diseases while providing a relatively simple tool for both early diagnosis and monitoring various irregularities. The practicalities of salivary analysis have been studied in fields such as: viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases (like Sjögren’s syndrome and c?liac disease), endocrinopathies (such as Cushing’s syndrome), oncology (early diagnosis of breast, lung and stomach carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma), stress assessment, medication detection and forensic science among others. It is hoped that salivary analysis, with the help of current technological advances, will be valued much more highly in the near future. There still remain contradictory results with respect to analytic markers, which is why further studies into wider-ranging samples are fundamental to prove its viability. Key words:Saliva, biomarkers, early diagnosis. PMID:24558562

Mancheño-Franch, Aisha; Marzal-Gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-Fabuel, Laura



Enhancing the sensitivity of the LC-MS/MS detection of propofol in urine and blood by azo-coupling derivatization.  


Propofol is a low-polarity, volatile molecule that is difficult for an electrospray ion source (ESI) to ionize in either negative ion mode (NIM) or positive ion mode (PIM), which hampers its detection via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The aim of the present study was to use a new derivatization agent to improve ionization efficiency and to develop an efficient liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of propofol in urine and blood, taking advantage of an electrophilic aromatic substitution. An azo-coupling reaction with a diazonium salt from aniline was performed to introduce a protonation site into the molecule. The diazonium salt was generated by aniline in water solution by HCl and sodium nitrite; derivatization was achieved by stirring a mixture of the diazonium salt and propofol in sodium hydroxide solution for 30 min below 5 °C. A liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate was performed to obtain the azo derivative (molecular composition: C18H22ON2; molecular weight: 282 Da) in high yield. The compound provided very high ionization yields in both PIM and NIM ESI, and the protonated or deprotonated molecule gave intense signals. The transitions m/z 283???77, 241 and m/z 281???176, 161 were chosen for the PIM and NIM, respectively, in order to develop quantitative methods of detecting propofol in urine and blood via triple-quadrupole LC-MS/MS. These methods proved to be highly sensitive, with limits of quantification of 0.4 pg/mL and 0.1 ng/mL obtained in the NIM when analyzing 1 mL of urine and 100 ?L of blood, respectively. PMID:24414741

Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Busardò, Francesco P; Bertol, Elisabetta



Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.  


The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33 µg/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03 µg/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49 µg/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7 µg/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P < 0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000 µg/m(3) compared to ?57 µg/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores. PMID:25107450

Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas



Amylase - blood  


Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...


Trace metals in blood and urine of newborn/mother pairs, adolescents and adults of the Flemish population (2007-2011).  


The Flemish Centre for Environment and Health started with human biomonitoring in 2002 (FLEHS I: 2002-2006). The main goal of the second human biomonitoring cycle (FLEHS II: 2007-2011), was to determine mean values for a large number of pollutants in a representative sample of the general Flemish population. Values for Cd and Pb were updated, and a group of previously undetermined metals and metalloids (As, Mn, Cu and Tl) were included in some of the age groups. In this human biomonitoring program, three different age groups of the general Flemish population were monitored: 255 newborns and their mothers, 210 adolescents aged 14-15, and 204 adults between 20 and 40 years old. Trace elements were determined in cord blood and maternal blood of the mothers, in blood and urine of adolescents and in urine of adults. Determinants of life-style and personal factors were taken into account. The levels of trace elements in cord blood and maternal blood were for most elements at the lower end of the range found in literature. For Pb, As and Tl, a strong correlation (respectively r=0.43, 0.55 and 0.33; p<0.05) was found between levels in cord blood (respectively 8.6, 0.54 and 0.017 ?g/L) and maternal blood (11.1, 0.64 and 0.028 ?g/L), indicating that they are transported via the placenta from mother to fetus. The levels found in the adolescents and adults were compared with results from international biomonitoring studies, and were found to be in the same ranges. With the exception of Pb, all trace elements increased with increasing age group population. Finally, the results also showed that the levels of Cd and Pb in blood for this campaign (e.g. for Pb 8.6 and 14.8 ?g/L in neonates and adolescents respectively) were lower compared to the first campaign (e.g. for Pb 14.7 and 21.7 ?g/L in neonates and adolescents respectively), indicating a decrease over time. However, differences in sampling strategies might partially explain this observed trend. PMID:25041848

Baeyens, Willy; Vrijens, Jan; Gao, Yue; Croes, Kim; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Nelen, Vera; Van Den Mieroop, Els; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Leermakers, Martine



GC/MS with post-column switching for large volume injection of headspace samples: sensitive determination of volatile organic compounds in human whole blood and urine.  


When volatile or semivolatile compounds are measured by headspace (HS) gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS), the maximum gas volume to be injected is usually 0.5-1.0 mL; over the volume, the MS detector automatically shuts down due to impairment of the vacuum rate of the MS ionization chamber. To overcome the problem, we modified the gas flow routes of a new type of GC/MS instrument to create a postcolumn switching system, which can eliminate the large volume of gas before introduction of target compounds into the MS ionization chamber. Our HS-GC/MS system enabled injection of as large as 5 mL of HS gas without any disturbance. As the first example analysis, we tried to establish the analysis of naphthalene and p-dichlorobenzene in human whole blood and urine by this method with large volume injection. The limits of detection for both compounds in whole blood and urine were as low as about 10 and 5 pg/mL, respectively. The validation data and actual measurements were also demonstrated. The new GC/MS system has great potential to analyze any type of volatile or semivolatile organic compounds in biological matrixes with very high sensitivity and full automation. PMID:21268608

Watanabe, Kanako; Fujita, Hiroki; Hasegawa, Koutaro; Gonmori, Kunio; Suzuki, Osamu



The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction, esterification and analysis using a precursor ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Specificity and sensitivity were improved by adding a small percentage of sodium octyl sulfate to the liquid matrix, which forms ion pairs with acylcarnitine esters. Acylglycines in urine were specifically detected as a group using a different precursor ion scan function. By forming methyl esters, metabolic profiles of both acylcarnitines and acylglycines were achieved in the same sample loading by application of alternating scan functions. Quantitative analysis of selected metabolites was achieved by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Amino acid profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l plasma and 25 [mu]l whole blood spots using butyl esters and a neutral loss scan function. The quantitative analysis of phenylalanine and tyrosine was achieved in these samples using stable isotope dilution. This capability will facilitate the diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other amino acidemias. These new methods have the requirements of speed, accuracy and capability for automation necessary for large-scale neonatal screening of inborn errors of matabolism.

Millington, David S.; Kodo, Naoki; Terada, Naoto; Roe, Diane; Chace, Donald H.



Myoglobin - urine  


... urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and ... For boys, place the entire penis in the bag and attach the adhesive to the skin. For ...


An evaluation of urine-CCA strip test and fingerprick blood SEA-ELISA for detection of urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Zanzibar.  


To develop better monitoring protocols for detection of urinary schistosomiasis during ongoing control interventions, two commercially available diagnostic tests - the urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) strip and the soluble egg antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SEA-ELISA) - were evaluated for detection of Schistosoma haematobium infections in 150 schoolchildren from Zanzibar. The children originated from five primary schools representative of different levels of disease endemicity across the island; using standard urine filtration assessment with microscopy, mean prevalence of S. haematobium was 30.7% (95% confidence interval (CI)=23.4-38.7%) and a total of 35.3% (95% CI=27.7-43.5%) and 8.0% (95% CI=4.2-13.6%) children presented with micro- and macro-haematuria, respectively. Diagnostic scores of the urine-CCA strip were not satisfactory, a very poor sensitivity of 9% (95% CI=2-21%) was observed, precluding any further consideration. By contrast, the performance of the SEA-ELISA using sera from fingerprick blood was good; a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI=76-96%), a specificity of 70% (95% CI=60-79%), a positive predictive value of 57% (95% CI=45-69%) and a negative predictive value of 90% (95% CI=86-98%) were found. At the unit of the school, a positive linear association between prevalence inferred from parasitological examination and SEA-ELISA methods was found. The SEA-ELISA holds promise as a complementary field-based method for monitoring infection dynamics in schoolchildren over and above standard parasitological methods. PMID:19426665

Stothard, J Russell; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Standley, Claire; Van Dam, Govert J; Knopp, Stefanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Ameri, Haji; Khamis, Alieppo N; Khamis, I Simba; Deelder, André M; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Rollinson, David



Simultaneous determination of ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues (GBL, 1.4-BD, GVL) in whole blood and urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.  


A simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ?-butyrolactone (GBL), 1.4-butanediol (1.4-BD), and ?-valerolactone (GVL) in whole blood from forensic cases. The sample preparation of whole blood involved protein precipitation by acidic methanol. Urine samples were diluted and evaluated in relation to a control at the cutoff concentration. Hexadeutero GHB (GHB-d(6)) was used as the internal standard. Separation was achieved by reversed-phase chromatography, and detection was by MS-MS in MRM mode. The linear range for all compounds was from 1.0 to 100 mg/kg in whole blood with a limit of quantification of about 1 mg/kg. The method was validated with regards to selectivity, recovery, accuracy and precision, and stability. The method is currently applied to investigations on suspected drug-facilitated sexual assaults, driving under the influence of drugs, and general intoxication with these substances. PMID:21219697

Johansen, Sys Stybe; Windberg, Charlotte Norup



Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.



Urine Eggs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In spring, a young man's fancy turns to thoughts of urine-soaked eggs. You heard that right. Here in Dongyang, China, eggs boiled in the urine of 10-year-old boys are a considered a delicacy of spring. ...

Hacker, Randi



Human saliva proteome: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

Griffin, Timothy J.



Obtaining Parotid Saliva Specimens after Major Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at 4 time points on postoperative day 2. Collection

Marion Good; Stephen Wotman; Gene Cranston Anderson; Sukhee Ahn; Xiaomei Cong



[The diagnostic possibilities of saliva].  


Saliva is a clinically informative biological fluid which contains multitude of bio-markers. This characteristic makes it possible to carry out numerous analyzes for developing mode to test patient in situ, express-tests included. The diagnostic by saliva is a new area of more simple application both markers and analyzers that can be useful in diagnostic of diseases of oral cavity, oncological diseases included. The using of saliva expands perspectives for making clinical diagnosis and establishment of dynamics and monitoring of disease. PMID:25069217

Kochurova, E V; Kozlov, S V



Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow  

PubMed Central

Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing ?100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed ?100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows. PMID:25049589

Razzaghi, A.; Aliarabi, H.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Saki, A. A.; Valizadeh, R.; Zamani, P.



Determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) and ?-butyrolactone (GBL) in whole blood and urine samples by UPLC-MSMS.  


The demand of high throughput methods for the determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) as well as for pregabalin is increasing. Here we present two analytical methods using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection for the determination of GHB, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4BD and GBL in whole blood and urine. Using the 96-well formate, the whole blood method is a simple high-throughput method suitable for screening of large sample amounts. With an easy sample preparation for urine including only dilution and filtration of the sample, the method is suitable for fast screening of urine samples. Both methods showed acceptable linearity, acceptable limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The within-day and between-day precisions of all analytes were lower than 10% RSD. The analytes were extracted from matrices with recoveries near 100%, and no major matrix effects were observed. Both methods have been used as routine screening analyses of whole blood and urine samples since January 2010. PMID:22226469

Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Olsen, Kirsten Midtbøen; Strand, Dag Helge



Revised and new reference values for environmental pollutants in urine or blood of children in Germany derived from the German environmental survey on children 2003-2006 (GerES IV).  


Based on the representative data collection of the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV) the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environment Agency has updated the reference values for a comprehensive number of environmental pollutants in blood and urine of children in Germany. Reference values are statistically derived values that indicate the upper margin of background exposure to a given pollutant in a given population at a given time. They can be used as criteria to classify the measured values of individuals or population groups as being "elevated" or "not elevated". Since environmental conditions are changing, reference values are continuously checked and updated if new information becomes available. Therefore, the previously derived reference values for metabolites of pyrethroids (cis-, trans-Cl(2)Ca and 3-PBA: 1, 2, and 2microg/l), of PAH (1-hydroxypyrene: 0.5microg/l), for arsenic in urine (15microg/l), and for PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180 in whole blood (0.3, 0.4, 0.3microg/l) and for DDE (western Germany) in whole blood (0.7microg/l) were confirmed. The following reference values were lowered: lead in blood from 50 to 35microg/l, cadmium in urine from 0.5 to 0.2microg/l, mercury in whole blood from 1.0 to 0.8microg/l, mercury in urine from 0.7 to 0.4microg/l, beta-HCH in whole blood from 0.3 to 0.1microg/l, HCB in whole blood from 0.3 to 0.2microg/l, and DMP in urine from 135 to 75microg/l, and DMTP in urine from 160 to 100microg/l. Based on the extended data set of the GerES IV, the reference value for the sum of PCB 138+153+180 in whole blood of children aged 7 to 14 was raised from 0.9 to 1.0microg/l. The reference value for DEP in urine of children aged 3 to 14 was raised from 16 to 30microg/l. New reference values in urine of children aged 3 to 14 living in Germany were derived for antimony (0.3microg/l), nickel (4.5microg/l), thallium (0.6microg/l), uranium (0.04microg/l), metabolites of organophosphorous compounds (DMDTP, DETP: 10microg/l, 10microg/l) and metabolites of PAH (1-hydroxyphenanthrene: 0.6microg/l; 2/9-hydroxyphenanthrene: 0.4microg/l; 3-hydroxyphenanthrene: 0.5microg/l; 4-hydroxyphenanthrene: 0.2microg/l; Sigma hydroxyphenanthrene (1, 2/9, 3, 4): 1.5microg/l) in urine and for DDE in blood of children aged 7 to 14 years living in eastern Germany (1.4microg/l). If reliable and repeated measurements show a value above the reference value, an environmental hygiene-based search for the causes and sources of this exposure is recommended. After that, it should be checked whether the exposure can be decreased within reasonable bounds. PMID:19589725

Schulz, Christine; Angerer, Jürgen; Ewers, Ulrich; Heudorf, Ursel; Wilhelm, Michael



Catecholamines - urine  


... test results. Some foods can increase catacholamines in your urine. You may need to avoid the follow foods for several days before the test: Coffee Tea Bananas Chocolate Cocoa Citrus fruits Vanilla Many ...


Porphyrins - urine  


Anderson K. The porphyrias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 217. McPherson R, Threatte GA, Pincus MR. Basic examination of urine. ...


Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)



Development of an Integrated Micro-Analytical System for Lead in Saliva and Linkage to a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Describing Lead Saliva Secretion  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical instruments for real-time monitoring of trace metals, such as lead (Pb) utilizing readily available non-invasive fluids like saliva. To interpret saliva results, an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of Pb secretion into the saliva is needed. A portable microfluidics/electrochemical device was developed for the rapid analysis of Pb based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, where a saliva sample flows over an electrode surface, Pb2+ is chemically reduced, accumulated, and the electric potential of the electrode scanned. To evaluate the relationship between saliva and blood Pb, rats were treated with single oral doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg Pb/kg of body weight, and 24 hours later salivation was induced by administering pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist. Blood and saliva were collected and analyzed for Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by the micro-analytical system. The micro-analytical system was slightly less responsive ({approx}75-85%) than ICP-MS, however the response was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ppb suggesting that it can be utilized for the quantitation of salivary Pb. To relate saliva levels to internal dose of Pb (e.g. blood) and to total body burden, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Pb was modified to incorporate a salivary gland compartment. The model was capable of predicting blood and saliva Pb concentration based on a limited data set. These preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that a fully developed, micro-analytical system can be utilized as an important tool for real-time biomonitoring of Pb for both occupational and environmental exposures.




Multiscale modelling of saliva secretion.  


We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca(2+) oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca(2+) waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K(+) channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David



Simultaneous determination of in total 17 opium alkaloids and opioids in blood and urine by fast liquid chromatography–diode-array detection–fluorescence detection, after solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast liquid chromatographic method with tandem diode array–fluorescence detection for the simultaneous determination of in total 17 opium alkaloids and opioids is presented. Blank blood and urine samples (1 ml) were spiked with different concentrations of a standard mixture, as well as with the internal standard, butorphanol (2000 ng\\/ml). After solid-phase extraction, based on weak cation exchange (Bond Elut®

R Dams; T Benijts; W. E Lambert; A. P De Leenheer



Validated method for the simultaneous determination of ? 9THC and ? 9THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and whole blood using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully validated, sensitive and specific method for the extraction and quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-THC (THC-COOH) and for the detection of 11-hydroxy-?9-THC (11-OH THC) in oral fluid, urine and whole blood is presented. Solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) technique were used, with electrospray ionization. Three ions were monitored for THC and THC-COOH and two for 11-OH

Helena Teixeira; Alain Verstraete; Paula Proença; Francisco Corte-Real; Paula Monsanto; Duarte Nuno Vieira



Urine culture - catheterized specimen  


Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...




... mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. What Is Blood and What Does It Do? Two types of ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called ...




... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...


Ketones urine test  


Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ... ketone bodies. A dipstick is dipped in the urine sample. A color change indicates the presence of ...


Identification in human urine and blood of a novel selenium metabolite, Se-methylselenoneine, a potential biomarker of metabolization in mammals of the naturally occurring selenoneine, by HPLC coupled to electrospray hybrid linear ion trap-orbital ion trap MS.  


Speciation analysis of selenium in human urine allowed for the first time the identification of a novel selenium metabolite, Se-methylselenoneine. Despite a concentration at low ppb level, its characterization was achieved after sample purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by the parallel coupling of the bidimensional RP/HILIC chromatography with ICP-MS and ESI-LTQ Orbitrap MS detection. To confirm its biological significance with regards to selenoneine, the recently discovered analog of ergothioneine, and to discard the possibility of sample preparation artifacts, a new method was developed to monitor its actual presence, as well as the occurrence of its sulfur and/or non-methylated analogs, in non-preconcentrated urine and blood samples of non-supplemented humans. It consisted in a HILIC ESI-MS(3) method in high resolution mode (resolution 30?000 at m/z 400) with large isolation width windows for precursor ions. These two particular settings allowed respectively to keep observing the specific mass defect of selenium- and sulfur-containing molecules and to maintain the characteristic selenium pattern in product ions created through MS(n) fragmentations. As a result, all four metabolites were detected in blood and three of them in urine. Moreover, different ratios "methylated/non-methylated" were observed between urine and blood samples, which seemed to indicate their active metabolization. The analytical tool developed here will be of a great importance to further study the occurrence and the potential metabolic role in mammalian organelles, cells and fluids of these very particular and promising redox metabolites. PMID:21331438

Klein, Marlène; Ouerdane, Laurent; Bueno, Maïté; Pannier, Florence



Detection of hydatid-specific antibodies in the serum and urine for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in patients from the Kashmir Valley, India.  


Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is usually made by detecting specific antibodies in serum samples. However, collection of blood samples is difficult and may be hazardous and unsafe. Thus, it is important to assess alternative simple methods of sampling body fluids that give similar results. Saliva and urine have been suggested as possible alternatives to detect specific antibodies for the diagnosis of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published study regarding the detection of CE-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass antibodies (IgG1-4) in urine. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the value of hydatid-specific antibodies of IgG, IgM, IgE and IgG subclass in urine and serum samples for the diagnosis of CE. Serum and urine samples of 41 surgically confirmed patients of CE, 40 patients with other diseases and 16 healthy subjects were included in the study. CE-specific total IgG, IgE and IgG4 in sera and total IgG, IgG4 and IgG1 in the urine of CE patients were the most important specific antibodies for the diagnosis of CE. However, total IgG usually persists for an extended period and has a very high cross-reactivity. The diagnostic sensitivity of hydatid-specific IgM in serum and urine samples was very low and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic marker. There was no significant difference between IgG1 and IgG4 in serum and urine and both showed the best correlation for the diagnosis of CE. These considerations suggest that detection of antibodies in urine could provide a new approach in the diagnosis of CE. PMID:24429044

Chirag, S; Fomda, B A; Khan, A; Malik, A A; Lone, G N; Khan, B A; Zahoor, D



The proteome of human saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

Griffin, Timothy J.



Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie



Is saliva a potential biomarker of arsenic exposure? A case-control study in West Bengal, India.  


Saliva is a biological fluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva and urine samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India who had been previously exposed to high As levels in their drinking water. We found a significant (p < 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (?g day(-1)) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Male participants, smokers, and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with an increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population. The study also advocates that measurement of the forms of As in saliva may additionally provide insight into the internal dose and any individual differences in susceptibility to As exposure. PMID:23461267

Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Saha, Debasree; Iglesias, Mònica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Chatterjee, Debashis



Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

PubMed Central

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena



Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva.  


Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira de; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena



Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)  


... 738–4929 Email: Internet: NIH...Turning Discovery Into Health ® Privacy Statement | Disclaimers | Accessibility | PDF versions require the free ...


Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.



Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  


Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J



Extensional rheology of human saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an oscillatory cross-slot extensional rheometer capable of performing measurements with unprecedentedly\\u000a small volumes of test fluids (?10–100 ?L). This provides the possibility of studying exotic and precious or scarce bio-fluids,\\u000a such as synovial fluid. To test our system, we have looked at a relatively abundant and accessible biological fluid, namely\\u000a human saliva; a complex aqueous mixture of high

Simon J. Haward; Jeff A. Odell; Monica Berry; Tim Hall


White Light Generation in Human Saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.



Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP  

SciTech Connect

The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 ?g/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ? After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ? Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

Kessler, Winfried, E-mail: [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Numtip, Wanwiwa [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany)] [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany); Csanády, György A. [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany) [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München (Germany); Pütz, Christian [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others



Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine provides an alternative to blood plasma as a potential source of disease biomarkers. One urinary biomarker already exploited in clinical studies is aquaporin-2. However, it remains a mystery how aquaporin-2 (an integral membrane protein) and other apical transporters are delivered to the urine. Here we address the hypothesis that these proteins reach the urine through the secretion of exosomes

Trairak Pisitkun; Rong-Fong Shen; Mark A. Knepper



DNA extracted from saliva for methylation studies of psychiatric traits: Evidence tissue specificity and relatedness to brain.  


DNA methylation has become increasingly recognized in the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Because brain tissue is not accessible in living humans, epigenetic studies are most often conducted in blood. Saliva is often collected for genotyping studies but is rarely used to examine DNA methylation because the proportion of epithelial cells and leukocytes varies extensively between individuals. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether saliva DNA is informative for studies of psychiatric disorders. DNA methylation (HumanMethylation450 BeadChip) was assessed in saliva and blood samples from 64 adult African Americans. Analyses were conducted using linear regression adjusted for appropriate covariates, including estimated cellular proportions. DNA methylation from brain tissues (cerebellum, frontal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and superior temporal gyrus) was obtained from a publically available dataset. Saliva and blood methylation was clearly distinguishable though there was positive correlation overall. There was little correlation in CpG sites within relevant candidate genes. Correlated CpG sites were more likely to occur in areas of low CpG density (i.e., CpG shores and open seas). There was more variability in CpG sites from saliva than blood, which may reflect its heterogeneity. Finally, DNA methylation in saliva appeared more similar to patterns from each of the brain regions examined overall than methylation in blood. Thus, this study provides a framework for using DNA methylation from saliva and suggests that DNA methylation of saliva may offer distinct opportunities for epidemiological and longitudinal studies of psychiatric traits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25355443

Smith, Alicia K; Kilaru, Varun; Klengel, Torsten; Mercer, Kristina B; Bradley, Bekh; Conneely, Karen N; Ressler, Kerry J; Binder, Elisabeth B




PubMed Central

Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection. PMID:24553604

Vasconcelos, Camila Oliveira; Coêlho, Zirlane C. Branco; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Teixeira, Clarissa Romero; Pompeu, Margarida M. Lima; Teixeira, Maria Jania



Monitoring the endogenous steroid profile disruption in urine and blood upon nandrolone administration: An efficient and innovative strategy to screen for nandrolone abuse in entire male horses.  


Nandrolone (17?-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one) is amongst the most misused endogenous steroid hormones in entire male horses. The detection of such a substance is challenging with regard to its endogenous presence. The current international threshold level for nandrolone misuse is based on the urinary concentration ratio of 5?-estrane-3?,17?-diol (EAD) to 5(10)-estrene-3?,17?-diol (EED). This ratio, however, can be influenced by a number of factors due to existing intra- and inter-variability standing, respectively, for the variation occurring in endogenous steroids concentration levels in a single subject and the variation in those same concentration levels observed between different subjects. Targeting an efficient detection of nandrolone misuse in entire male horses, an analytical strategy was set up in order to profile a group of endogenous steroids in nandrolone-treated and non-treated equines. Experiment plasma and urine samples were steadily collected over more than three months from a stallion administered with nandrolone laurate (1?mg/kg). Control plasma and urine samples were collected monthly from seven non-treated stallions over a one-year period. A large panel of steroids of interest (n?=?23) were extracted from equine urine and plasma samples using a C18 cartridge. Following a methanolysis step, liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions purifications were performed before derivatization and analysis on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for quantification. Statistical processing of the collected data permitted to establish statistical models capable of discriminating control samples from those collected during the three months following administration. Furthermore, these statistical models succeeded in predicting the compliance status of additional samples collected from racing horses. PMID:23949888

Kaabia, Z; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Popot, M A; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Plou, P; Bonnaire, Y; Le Bizec, B



Obtaining Parotid Saliva Specimens After Major Surgery  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands, in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Collection time was measured with a stopwatch and flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by the minutes. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at four time points on postoperative day 2. Attrition was 9% due to ineligibility after enrollment and one withdrawal. In participating patients (n = 68), there were 272 tests planned and 28% were missing. The reasons were postoperative health problems, hospital discharge, and not wanting to be bothered. When saliva collection attempts were made, three-fourths were successful, but the remainder resulted in “dry mouth.” Milliliters, minutes, and flow rate were calculated with and without those with dry mouth. Mean flow rates were .23 to .33 ml/min excluding those with dry mouth, and .17 to .24 ml/min including those with dry mouth. Saliva variables were correlated with antihypertension medications, opioids, opioid side effects, and length of surgery, but correlations were not found consistently at all four time points. The findings suggest that nurse researchers studying biological markers can successfully collect saliva from postoperative patients if they recognize the difficulties and make efforts to minimize and control for them. PMID:15388908

Good, Marion; Wotman, Stephen; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Ahn, Sukhee; Cong, Xiaomei



The enhancement of arbovirus transmission and disease by mosquito saliva is associated with modulation of the host immune response  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Arthropod-borne viruses have emerged as a major human health concern. Viruses transmitted by mosquitoes are the cause of the most serious and widespread arbovirus diseases worldwide and are ubiquitous in both feral and urban settings. Arboviruses, including dengue and West Nile virus are injected into vertebrates within mosquito saliva during mosquito feeding. Mosquito saliva contains anti-haemostatic, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory molecules that facilitate the acquisition of a blood-meal. Collectively, studies investigating the effects of mosquito saliva on the vertebrate immune response suggest that at high concentrations salivary proteins are immmunosuppressive, whereas lower concentrations modulate the immune response; specifically, TH1 and antiviral cytokines are down-regulated, while TH2 cytokines are unaffected or amplified. As a consequence, mosquito saliva can impair the anti-viral immune response thus affecting viral infectiousness and host survival. Mounting evidence suggests that this is a mechanism whereby arbovirus pathogenicity is enhanced. In a range of disease models, including various hosts, mosquito species, and arthropod-borne viruses, mosquito saliva and/or feeding is associated with a potentiation of virus infection. Compared to arbovirus infection initiated in absence of the mosquito or its saliva, infection including mosquito saliva leads to an increase in virus transmission, host susceptibility, viraemia, disease progression, and mortality. PMID:18342898

Schneider, Bradley S.; Higgs, Stephen



Hyper-excretion of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA in Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anatomical compartments (e.g., the reproductive tract) are reservoirs of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) and potential sites of residual infection in patients receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Viral hyper-excretion relative to blood is a hallmark of reservoirs. To determine whether hyper-excretion can occur in the oral cavity, we compared viral loads in blood plasma and saliva of 67 adults. Salivary viral

D. C. Shugars; L. L. Patton; S. A. Freel; L. R. Gray; R. T. Vollmer; J. J. Eron; S. A. Fiscus



Low blood sugar - newborns  


... is also called neonatal hypoglycemia. It refers to low blood sugar (glucose) in the first few days after birth. ... should continue taking blood tests until the baby's glucose level ... tests: Newborn screening for metabolic disorders Urine tests


[Influence of saliva components on periodontal disease in insulin-dependent diabetics].  


In diabetic patients an increased incidence of periodontal disease has been demonstrated. This study was to elucidate the influence of saliva constituents on periodontal alterations. 31 insulin-dependent type-I diabetics and a control group were submitted to oral examination. During daytime salivary samples were collected at regular intervals for analysis of glucose, sodium, potassium, calcium and the pH values. Additional information on relevant blood values and organic complications were obtained from the diabetic group. The results revealed a significant correlation between the degree of diabetes control and periodontal disease. The saliva concentrations of glucose and potassium were significantly elevated as against the controls. However, no correlation was found between the saliva components and periodontal disease. PMID:1815932

Willershausen-Zönnchen, B; Lemmen, C; Hamm, G



Urine specific gravity test  


This test helps evaluate your body's water balance and urine concentration. ... This test helps check your body's water balance and urine ... and is usually part of a routine urinalysis . As such, the ...


Saliva as a source of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG for enzyme immunoassay in human samples.  


Toxoplasmosis, a highly prevalent disease, is mainly diagnosed by serology. Incidence studies could be feasible in children, but ethical concerns restrict blood sampling in this group. Saliva contains small amounts of crevicular fluid IgG. Dot-ELISA and a protein A IgG capture immunoassay were standardized for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG in paired saliva and serum samples from 20 adult volunteers. A frequency of toxoplasmosis of 19% (95% CI 12-28) was found in 100 saliva samples from university graduates using both assays. Toxoplasmosis immunoassays using saliva IgG are a promising tool for the investigation of the epidemiology of this disease in children and other vulnerable groups. PMID:23848317

Sampaio, B F C; Macre, M S; Meireles, L R; Andrade, H F



The German Environmental Survey 1990\\/1992 (GerES II): reference concentrations of selected environmental pollutants in blood, urine, hair, house dust, drinking water and indoor air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The German Environmental Survey (GerES) is a large-scale, representative population study that has been carried out three times up to now with a time interval of about 7 years. GerES I was performed in 1985\\/1986, GerES IIa in 1990\\/1991 in West Germany, and GerES IIb in 1991\\/1992 in East Germany, the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). In GerES II, blood,




Decision Fusion for Urine Particle Classification in Multispectral Images  

E-print Network

step strategy, the first step is to observe the characteristics of the urine such as color, pH analyzed included crystals, casts and blood cells, and the results obtained show an average classification and morphological characterization of urine particles. Manual microscopic analysis relies on human operators who


Determination of methylphenidate in plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  


Methylphenidate (MPH) is a phenethylamine derivative used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In adults, clinical monitoring of MPH therapy is usually performed by measuring plasma MPH concentrations. In children blood sampling is however undesirable. Saliva may be an alternative matrix for monitoring MPH concentrations with the advantage that it can be obtained non-invasively. Therefore, we developed an analytical method for the quantification of MPH in both plasma and saliva. We present the validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC). In 100 ?L sample, proteins were precipitated with 750 ?L acetonitrile/methanol 84/16 (v/v) containing d9-methylphenidate as the internal standard. Standard curves were prepared over the MPH concentration range of 0.5-100.0 ?g/L. The total analysis time was 45 s. Accuracy and within- and between-run imprecision were in the range of 98-108% and less than 7.0%, respectively. Matrix effects were greater for plasma than saliva with 46% and 8% ionization suppression. The matrix effects were adequately compensated by the use of deuterated MPH as internal standard. MPH significantly degraded in plasma and saliva at room temperature and 5°C. Samples were stable at -20°C for at least 4 weeks. The method was successfully applied for the determination of MPH concentrations in plasma and saliva samples from an adult healthy volunteer. Using protein precipitation and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, this method allows fast, accurate and precise quantification of MPH in both plasma and saliva. PMID:23454305

Seçilir, A; Schrier, L; Bijleveld, Y A; Toersche, J H; Jorjani, S; Burggraaf, J; van Gerven, J; Mathôt, R A A



The role of crude saliva and purified salivary mucins in the inhibition of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1  

PubMed Central

Background Sub-Saharan Africa is the world’s worst HIV-AIDS affected region. More interventions to manage this pandemic are urgently required. Transmission of the virus through an exchange of saliva is rarely known to occur. This project sought to verify statistically previous findings in our laboratory, that crude saliva from uninfected individuals together with its purified mucin components inhibited HIV-1, whilst mucins from infected saliva did not show this inhibition, in an in vitro assay. Methods Saliva was extracted in 4?M guanidinium hydrochloride and proteolytic inhibitors at pH 6.5, followed by the isolation of MUC5B and MUC7 by Sepharose 4B gel filtration and further purification of these mucins by density-gradient ultra-centrifugation in caesium chloride. Agarose gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and amino acid compositional analysis determined the size, purity and identity of the mucins. The inhibitory activity of crude saliva and purified MUC5B and MUC7, from HIV negative (n=20) and HIV positive (n=20) donors, was tested by their incubation with subtype C HIV-1 and subsequent infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PCR was done on tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 DNA to investigate whether any association existed between gene polymorphism and susceptibility to infection. Results There was an inter-individual variation in the amounts of MUC5B and MUC7 in saliva. In contrast to previous studies, crude saliva and purified mucins from both HIV negative and HIV positive individuals inhibited the infection of HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. DNA analysis of the tandem repeat regions of MUC5B and MUC7 revealed no difference between groups. Conclusions Crude saliva and its mucins, MUC5B and MUC7, from both uninfected controls and HIV positive individuals inhibited HIV-1 in an in vitro assay. PMID:22929306



Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.



Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity  

E-print Network

Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity Alain Le Coupanec1 , Divya) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector

Boyer, Edmond


Urine Pretreat Injection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.



The evaluation of the applicability of a high pH mobile phase in ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like hypnotics in urine and blood.  


A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and some metabolites (7-aminoflunitrazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, chlordiazepoxide, chlornordiazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, diazepam, ethylloflazepate, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, N-desmethylflunitrazepam, nitrazepam, N-methylclonazepam (internal standard), nordiazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge. Electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher retention and higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. Considering the benefits of a high pH mobile phase on both chromatography and mass spectrometry, its use should be encouraged. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 ?m, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). The optimized method was fully validated. PMID:22749457

Verplaetse, Ruth; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan



Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for detecting tannin-binding proteins in the saliva of herbivores. The method is simple and requires only small quantities of crude saliva. The saliva of deer, a browsing ruminant, has been compared to that of domestic sheep and cow, which are grazing ruminants. The browser, which normally ingests dietary tannin, produces tannin-binding proteins, while the grazers

Paul J. Austin; Lisa A. Suchar; Charles T. Robbins; Ann E. Hagerman



Steroid Analysis in Saliva: An overview  

PubMed Central

The first report of steroid analysis in saliva was more than thirty years ago. Since that time its popularity has increased due to the attractiveness of non-invasive, repeated and simple stress-free sampling. It has proved a popular sampling fluid for psychobiology, sports medicine, pharmacology and paediatric studies as well as in the area of complementary medicine. In the diagnostic laboratory, salivary progesterone and oestradiol have been used for assessing ovarian function and 17?-OH progesterone for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Salivary cortisol is used for investigating adrenal function and recently there has been considerable interest in the use of bedtime salivary cortisol levels as a screening test for Cushing’s disease. However, there are several caveats on the use of saliva including collection techniques, the variable matrix of saliva, sensitivity, steroid stability, the presence of binding proteins and reference range anomalies. This brief review will attempt to address these issues and provide a balanced approach to steroid analysis in saliva. PMID:17268582

Lewis, John G



A proteomic approach to porcine saliva.  


This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal. PMID:24555893

Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A



Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU): pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status  

PubMed Central

Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes), arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca) salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaPi)), supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB) and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF)), in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote) of oxidative metabolism (OM), without and with variation of markers. Results 1) In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite) were unchanged; 2) upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median) numerous stone parameters differed significant!)', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3) a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4) in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5) also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were negatively correlated, whereas in SF plasma Ca/Pi ratio, PTH and body mass index correlated positively; 6) multivariate regression analysis revealed that PTH, body mass index and nitrate together could explain 22 (p = 0.002) and only 7 (p = 0.06) per cent of variation of plasma Ca/Pi in SF and SB, respectively Conclusions In IRCU a) numerous constituents of fasting urine, plasma, blood and blood pressure change in response to variation of OM biomarkers, suggesting involvement of OM imbalance as factor in functional deterioration of tissue; b) in the majority of patients a positive exponential relationship links urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, presumably to accumulate Ca outside tubular lumen, thereby minimizing intratubular and urinary Ca salt crystallization; c) alteration of interactions of low urine nitrate, PTH and Ca/Pi in plasma may be of importance in formation of new Ca stone and co-regulation of dynamics of blood vasculature; d) overweight, combined with OM-modified renal interstitial environment appears to facilitate these processes, carrying the risk that CaPi mineral develops within or/and close to blood vessel tissue, and spreads towards urothelium. For future research focussing on IRCU pathogenesis studies are recommended on the role of affluent lifestyle mediated renal ischemia, mild hypertensive nephropathy, rise of uric acid precursor oxypurines and uricemia, clarifying also why loss of significance of interrelationships of OM biomarkers with traditional Ca stone risk factors is characteristic for SB patients. OM biomarkers Plasma uric acid - Discussed as scavenger of reactive oxygen species, but also as donator (via the xanthine oxido-reductase reaction) Urinary malonedialdehydc - Accepted as indicator of peroxidation of lipids within biological cell membranes Urinaiy nitrate - Accepted as indicator of vasodilation-mediating nitric oxide production by blood vessel endothelium Urinary malonedialdehyde/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance Urinary nitrate/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of oxidant/antiox



Surface and colloid chemical aspects of saliva particle interactions.  


Sections of flash-frozen saliva particle mixture were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The saliva samples used consisted of 40% by volume parotid and 60% by volume submandibular sublingual fractions. One mL of the saliva was mixed with 0.1 mL of either hydrophilic or hydrophobic particles of 0.9 microns diameter. The micrographs of the saliva and hydrophilic particles mixes showed the multiple spherical particles in the salivary network structures. Micrographs of the saliva and hydrophilic particle mixes showed the presence of few such objects; when observed, the particles were located only in the electron dense part of the salivary structures. PMID:7472729

Glantz, P O; Friberg, S E; Christersson, C E; Baier, R E



Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Urine PCR Evaluation to Diagnose Pulmonary Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Culture and specific staining (including Zeil-Nelson and fluorescent methods) are standard measures for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). These methods are time-consuming and sometimes have a low level of accuracy. In addition, in some cases obtaining samples for smear and culture involves invasive procedures; while in other cases there is no suitable sample for evaluation. Therefore, there is a need for faster and more accurate diagnostic methods. Objectives: The current study investigated the diagnostic value of tuberculosis-polymerase chain reaction (TB-PCR) of urine in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Patients and Methods: This case-control study included; 77 proven pulmonary tuberculosis cases (according to the national TB protocol), and 30 subjects who were completely healthy. The urine samples (50 mL) were mixed with 0.5 mL Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid. DNA extraction and PCR testing were performed on all blood samples using SI 6110 primers. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was also cultivated in the sputum and urine samples of the patients. Results: Results of the current study indicated that 48 (62.3%) patients out of 77 had a positive sputum culture. Urine cultures and acid-fast smears were negative. Urine PCR-TB was positive in 48.0% (37/77) of the patients. The speci?c TBPCR complex was positive in 56.2% (27/48) of the positive cultures and 34.4% (10/29) of the negative culture PTB patients. The control group had negative urine PCR (sensitivity 56.2% and specificity 100%). Conclusions: With regard to the ease of urine sample preparation and the 100% specificity the PCR method, performing urine PCR could be used as a diagnostic aid in PTB cases obtaining sputum samples is problematic. PMID:25147688

Heydari, Ali Akbar; Movahhede Danesh, Masood Reza; Ghazvini, Kiarash



Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  


Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo



Different Host Complement Systems and Their Interactions with Saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) and Leishmania infantum Promastigotes  

PubMed Central

Background Lutzomyia longipalpis is the vector of Leishmania infantum in the New World, and its saliva inhibits classical and alternative human complement system pathways. This inhibition is important in protecting the insect´s midgut from damage by the complement. L. longipalpis is a promiscuous blood feeder and must be protected against its host’s complement. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of salivary complement inhibitors on the sera of different host species, such as dogs, guinea pigs, rats and chickens, at a pH of 7.4 (normal blood pH) and 8.15 (the midgut pH immediately after a blood meal). We also investigated the role of the chicken complement system in Leishmania clearance in the presence and absence of vector saliva. Results The saliva was capable of inhibiting classical pathways in dogs, guinea pigs and rats at both pHs. The alternative pathway was not inhibited except in dogs at a pH of 8.15. The chicken classical pathway was inhibited only by high concentrations of saliva and it was better inhibited by the midgut contents of sand flies. Neither the saliva nor the midgut contents had any effect on the avian alternative pathway. Fowl sera killed L. infantum promastigotes, even at a low concentration (2%), and the addition of L. longipalpis saliva did not protect the parasites. The high body temperature of chickens (40°C) had no effect on Leishmania viability during our assays. Conclusion Salivary inhibitors act in a species-specific manner. It is important to determine their effects in the natural hosts of Leishmania infantum because they act on canid and rodent complements but not on chickens (which do not harbour the parasite). Moreover, we concluded that the avian complement system is the probable mechanism through which chickens eliminate Leishmania and that their high body temperature does not influence this parasite. PMID:24255715

Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Nascimento, Alexandre Alves Sousa; Queiroz, Daniel Costa; Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Araújo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo



Tick saliva increases production of three chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, a histamine-releasing cytokine.  


The effect of Ixodes ricinus tick saliva on the production of various cytokines and chemokines by mouse splenocytes was tested by a cytokine array. We demonstrated a strong upregulation of three chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), thymus-derived chemotactic agent 3 (TCA-3) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2). MCP-1 could be induced by tick saliva itself. While TCA-3 and MIP-2 are engaged in Th2 polarization of the host immune response associated with tick feeding, MCP-1 may act as a histamine release factor, increasing blood flow into the feeding lesion thus facilitating tick engorgement in the late, rapid feeding phase. PMID:25545116

Langhansová, H; Bopp, T; Schmitt, E; Kopecký, J



Evaluation of the Murine Immune Response to Xenopsylla cheopis Flea Saliva and Its Effect on Transmission of Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Arthropod-borne pathogens are transmitted into a unique intradermal microenvironment that includes the saliva of their vectors. Immunomodulatory factors in the saliva can enhance infectivity; however, in some cases the immune response that develops to saliva from prior uninfected bites can inhibit infectivity. Most rodent reservoirs of Yersinia pestis experience fleabites regularly, but the effect this has on the dynamics of flea-borne transmission of plague has never been investigated. We examined the innate and acquired immune response of mice to bites of Xenopsylla cheopis and its effects on Y. pestis transmission and disease progression in both naïve mice and mice chronically exposed to flea bites. Methods/Principal Findings The immune response of C57BL/6 mice to uninfected flea bites was characterized by flow cytometry, histology, and antibody detection methods. In naïve mice, flea bites induced mild inflammation with limited recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the bite site. Infectivity and host response in naïve mice exposed to flea bites followed immediately by intradermal injection of Y. pestis did not differ from that of mice infected with Y. pestis without prior flea feeding. With prolonged exposure, an IgG1 antibody response primarily directed to the predominant component of flea saliva, a family of 36–45 kDa phosphatase-like proteins, occurred in both laboratory mice and wild rats naturally exposed to X. cheopis, but a hypersensitivity response never developed. The incidence and progression of terminal plague following challenge by infective blocked fleas were equivalent in naïve mice and mice sensitized to flea saliva by repeated exposure to flea bites over a 10-week period. Conclusions Unlike what is observed with many other blood-feeding arthropods, the murine immune response to X. cheopis saliva is mild and continued exposure to flea bites leads more to tolerance than to hypersensitivity. The immune response to flea saliva had no detectable effect on Y. pestis transmission or plague pathogenesis in mice. PMID:25255317

Bosio, Christopher F.; Viall, Austin K.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Gardner, Donald; Rood, Michael P.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph



Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens  

PubMed Central

Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto



Potassium urine test  


... levels (hypomagnesemia) Use of non-potassium-sparing diuretics Low urine potassium levels may be due to: Certain medicines, including beta blockers, lithium, trimethoprim, potassium-sparing diuretics, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...


24-hour urine protein  


... area around the urethra. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end), and ... For males, place the entire penis in the bag and attach the adhesive to the skin. For ...


Osmolality urine - series (image)  


... area around the urethra. Open a urine-collection bag (a plastic bag with adhesive paper on one end), and place ... the entire penis can be placed in the bag with the adhesive attached to the skin. For ...


Urine - abnormal color  


... anemia Injury to the kidneys or urinary tract Medication Porphyria Urinary tract disorders that cause bleeding Dark yellow or orange urine can be caused by: B complex vitamins or carotene Medications such as phenazopyridine (used to treat urinary tract ...


Proteomic Analysis of Human Saliva From Lung Cancer Patients Using Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry*  

PubMed Central

Lung cancer is often asymptomatic or causes only nonspecific symptoms in its early stages. Early detection represents one of the most promising approaches to reduce the growing lung cancer burden. Human saliva is an attractive diagnostic fluid because its collection is less invasive than that of tissue or blood. Profiling of proteins in saliva over the course of disease progression could reveal potential biomarkers indicative of oral or systematic diseases, which may be used extensively in future medical diagnostics. There were 72 subjects enrolled in this study for saliva sample collection according to the approved protocol. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis combined with MS was the platform for salivary proteome separation, quantification, and identification from two pooled samples. Candidate proteomic biomarkers were verified and prevalidated by using immunoassay methods. There were 16 candidate protein biomarkers discovered by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and MS. Three proteins were further verified in the discovery sample set, prevalidation sample set, and lung cancer cell lines. The discriminatory power of these candidate biomarkers in lung cancer patients and healthy control subjects can reach 88.5% sensitivity and 92.3% specificity with AUC = 0.90. This preliminary data report demonstrates that proteomic biomarkers are present in human saliva when people develop lung cancer. The discriminatory power of these candidate biomarkers indicate that a simple saliva test might be established for lung cancer clinical screening and detection. PMID:22096114

Xiao, Hua; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Hui; Lee, Jay M.; Garon, Edward B.; Wong, David T. W.



Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva  

PubMed Central

Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota. PMID:22868153

Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Mónica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.



Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra



Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulizer suspensions, aerosolized, size selected (100 to 450 nm) using a differential mobility analyzer, and collected onto gelatin filters. Uranine was used as a particle tracer. The resulting particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The amounts of infectious virus, total virus, and fluorescence in the collected samples were determined by infectivity assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and spectrofluorometry, respectively. For all nebulizer suspensions, the virus content generally followed a particle volume distribution rather than a number distribution. The survival of airborne MS2 was independent of particle size but was strongly affected by the type of nebulizer suspension. Human saliva was found to be much less protective than cell culture medium (i.e., 3% tryptic soy broth) and artificial saliva. These results indicate the need for caution when extrapolating laboratory results, which often use artificial nebulizer suspensions. To better assess the risk of airborne transmission of viral diseases in real-life situations, the use of natural suspensions such as saliva or respiratory mucus is recommended. PMID:24561592

Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Mor, Sunil K.; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y. H.



Ten-minute analysis of drugs and metabolites in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid analysis of drugs in emergency room overdose patients is critical to selecting appropriate medical care. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative to blood plasma analysis for this application. However, current clinical laboratory analysis methods involve extensive sample extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and typically require as much as one hour to perform. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable lab-on-a-chip format, and generally no more than a drop of sample is required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of microg/mL concentrations. Measurements of cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, and several barbiturates are presented.

Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart



A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.  


?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20°C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun



Theories and controversies on urine formation.  


The theories of urine formation developed in the wake of progressing scientific knowledge in renal anatomy and physiology. From the philosophical theories which for a long time swung between vitalism and mechanism, the "scientific revolution" gave a great impulse to morpho/functional unit of kidney. Bowman's secretory hypothesis, as an expression of the vitalistic based theory, describes for the first time many features of the nephron and its blood supply. New insight into the inevitable errors of Bowman led Ludwig to develop the filtration-reabsorption theory, which based its scientific approach on the emerging physics and chemistry theories. The Heidenhain's secretory hypothesis which does not admit the physical filtration in Ludwig's sense, nor the hydrostatic pressure of the blood, even though incomplete and in some part without unequivocal experimental evidence, adds a fragment to the right theory of the urine formation and heralds the modern approach to the renal function of the 20th century. PMID:14736027

Timio, Mario; Saronio, Paolo; Capodicasa, Enrico; Timio, Francesca



Single-point plasma or urine dextromethorphan method for determining CYP3A activity.  


Dextromethorphan is used widely in vivo to phenotype the polymorphically expressed cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6. Also dextromethorphan is N-demethylated in vivo to 3-methoxymorphinan by human CYP3A4/5. The metabolic ratio (MR) of dextromethorphan/3-methoxymorphinan in plasma, saliva and urinary were examined as a possible in vivo probe of CYP3A activity. In limited previous studies, 4 h urinary samples were collected for determining the MR. To evaluate the repeatability and validity of previously reported and other potential phenotyping methods, the MR from urine samples (at various intervals), from plasma and from saliva (at varying time points) were determined after repetitive single doses of immediate-release or repetitive multiple doses of controlled-release dextromethorphan preparations. For the single-dose study, each of 12 subjects received 15 mg of immediate-release dextromethorphan in periods II and I, respectively, with a 1 week washout period. For the multiple dose study, each of 16 subjects received 60 mg controlled release dextromethorphan twice daily for 5 days in periods I and II, respectively, with a 2 week washout period. Dextromethorphan and 3-methoxymorphinan are assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. In the single-dose study, all of the urine MR revealed good repeatabilities for the periods (paired t-test). The urine MR at any time interval of 0-6 h, 0-8 h and 0-12 h correlated significantly with the MR from 0-24 h urine (r>0.8, p<0.05). In the multiple-dose study, all MR revealed good repeatabilities for the two periods (paired t-test). The plasma MR at any time between 0.5 h and 12 h, the saliva MR at 12 h and the urine MR at any interval between 0-2 h, 0-4 h, 0-6 h, 0-8 h, 0-12 h and 0-24 h could predict the MR from AUCtau(ss). In conclusion, the urine sample as 0-6 h, 0-8 h or 0-12 h in the single immediate-release dose (15 mg) or in the multiple controlled-release dose (60 mg) procedure, the saliva sample at 12 h, the urine sample at 0-2 h, 0-4 h, 0-6 h, 0-8 h, 0-12 h, 0-24 h or all plasma-sampling points 0.5-12 h could be used as the dextromethorphan MR for determining the CYP3A activity. PMID:14689465

Kuo, Benjamin Pei-Chung; Hu, Oliver Yoa-Pu; Hsiong, Cheng-Huei; Pao, Li-Heng; Chen, Ting-Shien; Hung, Chi-Feng



The effects of postexercise feeding on saliva antimicrobial proteins.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) drink consumed immediately after endurance exercise on saliva antimicrobial proteins known to be important for host defense. Eleven male runners ran for 2 hr at 75% VO2max on 2 occasions and immediately postexercise were provided, in randomized order, either a placebo solution (CON) or a CHO-PRO solution containing 1.2 g CHO/kg body mass (BM) and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM (CHO-PRO). The solutions were flavor and volume equivalent (12 ml/kg BM). Saliva flow rate, lysozyme, ?-amylase, and secretory (S) IgA concentrations were determined from unstimulated saliva samples collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 30 min until 180 min postexercise. CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a lower saliva flow rate than with CON at 30 and 60 min postexercise. Saliva lysozyme concentration increased immediately postexercise in both trials compared with preexercise (p< .05), and CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a higher saliva lysozyme concentration in the first hour of recovery than with CON (125% greater at 30 min, 94% greater at 60 min; p< .01). Saliva SIgA concentration decreased below preexercise concentrations 90-150 min postexercise (p< .001), with no effect of CHO-PRO. Saliva ?-amylase activity was unaffected by exercise or CHO-PRO refeeding. CHO-PRO refeeding did not alter the secretion rates of any saliva variables during recovery. In conclusion, immediate refeeding with CHO-PRO evoked a greater saliva lysozyme concentration during the first hour of recovery after prolonged exercise than ingestion of placebo but had minimal impact on saliva ?-amylase and SIgA responses. PMID:22693239

Costa, Ricardo J S; Fortes, Matthew B; Richardson, Katharine; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil P



The Human Urine Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.



The human urine metabolome.  


Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S



The Mammalian Urine Concentrating Mechanism: Hypotheses and Uncertainties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney, which can produce a urine that is substantially more concentrated than blood plasma during periods of water deprivation, is one of the enduring mysteries in traditional physiology. Owing to the complex lateral and axial relationships of tubules and vessels, in both the outer and inner medulla, the urine concentrating mechanism may only be fully understood in terms of the kidneyÃÂs three-dimensional functional architecture and its implications for preferential interactions among tubules and vessels.

Anita Layton (Duke University Mathematics); PhD William H. Dantzler (University of Arizona College of Medicine Department of Physiology)



Human saliva-based quantitative monitoring of clarithromycin by flow injection chemiluminescence analysis: a pharmacokinetic study.  


Human saliva quantitative monitoring of clarithromycin (CLA) by chemiluminescence (CL) with flow injection analysis was proposed for the first time, which was based on the quenching effect of CLA on luminol-bovine serum albumin (BSA) CL system with a linear range from 7.5 × 10(-4) to 2.0 ng/ml. This proposed approach, offering a maximum sample throughput of 100 h(-1), was successfully applied to the quantitative monitoring of CLA levels in human saliva during 24 h after a single oral dose of 250 mg intake, with recoveries of 95.2 ? 109.0% and relative standard deviations lower than 6.5 % (N = 7). Results showed that CLA reached maximum concentration of 2.28 ± 0.02 ?g/ml at approximately 3 h, and the total elimination ratio was 99.6 % in 24 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters including absorption rate constant (0.058 ± 0.006 h(-1)), elimination rate constant (0.149 ± 0.009 h(-1)) and elimination half-life time (4.66 ± 0.08 h) were obtained. A comparison of human saliva and urine monitoring was also given. The mechanism study of BSA-CLA interaction revealed the binding of CLA to BSA is an entropy driven and spontaneous process through hydrophobic interaction, with binding constant K BSA-CLA of 4.78 × 10(6) l/mol and the number of binding sites n of 0.82 by flow injection-chemiluminescence model. Molecular docking analysis further showed CLA might be in subdomain IIA of BSA, with K BSA-CLA of 6.82 × 10(5) l/mol and ?G of -33.28 kJ/mol. PMID:24166104

Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua



Nanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes  

E-print Network

Nanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes Viswanathan Palanisamy1 Background: Exosomes, derived from endocytic membrane vesicles are thought to participate in cell, exosomes secreted in human saliva contain proteins and nucleic acids that could be exploited for diagnostic

Gimzewski, James


Detection of antibodies to HIV-1 in serum and saliva.  


In this study we report the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 in paired serum and saliva collected from 118 HIV-1 infected patients and 80 normal controls in Madras, South India. Saliva was collected using Omnisal (R) collection device. All the reactive samples were confirmed by Western blot test (WB), while all the control serum and saliva were negative for HIV-1 antibodies. 107 (90.6%) HIV individual's serum and saliva contained antibodies to HIV-1. When these reactive samples were tested by WB test for confirmation the following results were obtained; 68% HIV individuals' paired serum and saliva were positive; while 9% of serum samples were positive and the saliva specimens were negative on WB. 3% of paired samples showed indeterminate Western blot pattern in contrast to 10% of serum showed full WB pattern while the saliva result was indeterminate. It is suggested that saliva testing may be appropriate for surveillance and epidemiological studies. However, if used for individual HIV diagnosis it is imperative to use a confirmatory test. PMID:12521084

Samuel, N M; Chandrasekaran, A; Paul, S A



Metabolic hormones in saliva: origins and functions  

PubMed Central

The salivary proteome consists of thousands of proteins, which include, among others, hormonal modulators of energy intake and output. Although the functions of this prominent category of hormones in whole body energy metabolism are well characterized, their functions in the oral cavity, whether as a salivary component, or when expressed in taste cells, are less studied and poorly understood. The respective receptors for the majority of salivary metabolic hormones have been also shown to be expressed in salivary glands, taste cells, or other cells in the oral mucosa. This review provides a comprehensive account of the gastrointestinal hormones, adipokines, and neuropeptides identified in saliva, salivary glands, or lingual epithelium, as well as their respective cognate receptors expressed in the oral cavity. Surprisingly, few functions are assigned to salivary metabolic hormones, and these functions are mostly associated with the modulation of taste perception. Because of the well-characterized correlation between impaired oral nutrient sensing and increased energy intake and body mass index, a conceptually provocative point of view is introduced, whereupon it is argued that targeted changes in the composition of saliva could affect whole body metabolism in response to the activation of cognate receptors expressed locally in the oral mucosa. PMID:22994880

Zolotukhin, S.



Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong



Saliva and serum lithium monitoring in hospitalized children.  


Serum and saliva lithium levels are presented for 30 inpatients, ages 5.12 to 11.95 years, diagnosed as having conduct disorder of the undersocialized aggressive type. Maintenance doses of lithium carbonate ranged from 600 mg to 1,500 mg/day. Serum and saliva lithium levels were significantly correlated at optimal dose (r = .78, p less than .001) and overall (r = .83, p less than .001), lending support to the use of saliva lithium levels as an adjunct to serum lithium determinations. However, because saliva/serum lithium ratios reveal wide ranges between subjects, the use of saliva levels is limited, and laboratory assessments should be combined with careful clinical monitoring. PMID:2236463

Spencer, E K; Campbell, M; Adams, P; Perry, R; Choroco, M C; Padron-Gayol, M; Small, A M



Infection with dengue-2 virus alters proteins in naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission. PMID:24886023



Urine collection - infants  


... gave you. You will be given a special bag to collect the urine. It will be a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end, made ... fit over your baby's genital area. Open this bag and place it on the infant. For males, ...


The prediction of saliva swallowing frequency in humans from estimates of salivary flow rate and the volume of saliva swallowed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva swallowing frequency is an important factor in models of oral clearance. It varies widely among individuals, and the basis for that variation has not been established. This study evaluated the use of unstimulated flow rate and the volume of saliva swallowed as predictors of swallowing frequency in 128 first-year dental students. A microphone was placed over the larynx, and

J. D. Rudney; Z. Ji; C. J. Larson



Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)  


... urinate into a cup, a catheter (a narrow, soft tube) may need to be inserted into the bladder to obtain the urine specimen. The skin surrounding the urinary opening has to be cleaned and rinsed just before the urine is collected. In this "clean-catch" method, you or your child cleans the skin around ...


Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.



Microbial Community Profiling of Human Saliva Using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUSand BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

Hasan, Nur A.; Young, Brian A.; Minard-Smith, Angela T.; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M.; Faith, Seth A.; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.



Microbial community profiling of human saliva using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.  


Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUS and BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

Hasan, Nur A; Young, Brian A; Minard-Smith, Angela T; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M; McMillan, Nancy J; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M; Faith, Seth A; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R



Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques  

SciTech Connect

The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))



Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm?1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.



Electrolytic pretreatment of urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.



A preliminary Raman spectroscopic study of urine: diagnosis of breast cancer in animal models.  


Prognosis of breast cancer, the most common cancer in females worldwide, has been shown to improve with early detection. Owing to disadvantages like low sensitivity, specificity, tedious sample preparation, long output times and inter-observer variance of currently available screening/diagnostic tools, rapid and objective alternatives such as Raman spectroscopy (RS) are being extensively explored. Body fluid (serum and saliva) based RS assays have shown promising results in diagnosis of oral, lung and nasopharyngeal cancers. The current study aims to explore the feasibility of breast cancer diagnosis using urine based RS. In this study, spectra were acquired from unprocessed as well as concentrated urine of controls (C) and breast tumor bearing (T) rats and analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA). Classification efficiencies of 80% and 72% using unprocessed urine and 78% and 91% using concentrated urine for C and T rats were achieved. Thus, results suggest the possibility of breast cancer diagnosis using urine based RS. Further, spectra were also acquired from concentrated urine samples collected prior to breast tumor development (TT) in rats and from rats that did not develop tumors despite carcinogen treatment (NTT). Concentrated urine of NTT rats could be classified as 'normal' (C or NTT) with ?83% efficiency whereas concentrated urine from visibly and palpably normal rats that eventually developed tumor (TT rats) could be classified as 'abnormal' (TT or T) with ?72.5% efficiency using PC-LDA. These results suggest the possibility of detecting biochemical changes occurring prior to tumor development using urine based RS. PMID:25429666

Bhattacharjee, T; Khan, A; Maru, G; Ingle, A; Krishna, C Murali



Antibacterial activity of human urine  

PubMed Central

The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

Kaye, Donald



Lipid patterns in the saliva of smoking young adults.  


Salivary lipids are important for the maintenance of oral cavity health. Elevated salivary lipid levels are associated with an increase of caries incidence, plaque development, calculus formation and periodontal disease. However, the regulation of lipid salivary levels is scarcely known. Cigarette smoke is considered a risk factor for oral cavity diseases. We study how cigarette smoke may affect the secretion of salivary lipids. To this purpose, we determine the salivary levels of cholesterol and of glycerolipids in saliva sampled from smokers and non-smokers at various times of day. We observe an increase of glycerophospholipid and a decrease of cholesterol levels in the smokers' saliva collected at 10 p.m. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acids in chief phospholipids of saliva are lower in smokers at 7 a.m. Therefore, for the first time, we demonstrate that cigarette smoke induces variations of saliva lipid pattern in young people even moderately smoking. PMID:21300688

Palmerini, C A; Saccardi, C; Ferracci, F; Arienti, S



Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50 male) with age range of 15 -17 years were randomly selected, divided to four groups. Unstimulated whole saliva specimens were collected at the morning. TAC of saliva was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student’s t-test, by SPSS 13. Results: The level of TAC was significantly higher in the saliva of caries active group relative to the caries free subjects. Statistical analysis for male and female groups showed a statistically significant reduction of TAC level in female group. Conclusion: TAC was higher in caries active group. Thus this result showed that total antioxidant capacity may influence in dental caries and activity can be measured by salivary factors and this may be helpful in preventive dentistry. Key words:Dental caries, saliva, total antioxidant capacity. PMID:23524431

Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Hendi, Seyedeh S.; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas



Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.



Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo



Protein Biomarkers of Periodontitis in Saliva  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5–15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented. PMID:24944840

Taylor, John J.



Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah



Other Causes of Painful Urination  


... douches, vaginal lubricants, soaps, scented toilet paper or contraceptive foams or sponges. If it hurts to urinate after you've used these products, you're probably sensitive to them. Do I need to see a doctor? Yes. Painful urination can ...


Leucine aminopeptidase - urine  


... container when you get up in the morning. Cap the container. Keep it in the refrigerator or ... Cirrhosis Hepatitis Liver cancer Liver ischemia (reduced blood flow to the liver) Liver necrosis (death of live ...


Pregnancy diagnosis in urine of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus).  


Diagnosis of pregnancies is an important management tool for the Iberian lynx Conservation Breeding Program, a program geared to recover the world's most endangered felid. Non-invasive methods such as fecal hormone analyses are not applicable to the lynx, since fecal progestin does not follow the typical pregnancy pattern of felids. Therefore, we aimed to test whether urine can be used as an alternative substance for pregnancy diagnosis in the Iberian lynx. Progesterone immunoreactive metabolites were determined in urine samples of pregnant and non-pregnant females before and during breeding season. Additionally, we used the Witness Relaxin test to determine relaxin in blood and urine. No differences were found in progestin concentrations determined in urine samples collected from pregnant and non-pregnant animals between day 1 and 65 following mating. Although the Witness Relaxin test was positive in serum samples collected from animals between day 32 and 56 of pregnancy, it failed in both fresh and frozen urine samples collected from the same stage of pregnancy. A weak relaxin reaction in urine samples collected from animals between day 29 and 46 of pregnancy was detectable after urines were concentrated by ultrafiltration (>50x). Concentrated samples obtained from non-pregnant and early pregnant animals yielded negative test results. In conclusion, the Witness Relaxin test can be applied for pregnancy diagnosis in Iberian lynx in both serum and concentrated urine samples obtained during the second half of pregnancy. A positive relaxin test indicates an ongoing pregnancy, whereas negative tests must be judged carefully as hormone concentrations might be below detection thresholds. PMID:19013637

Braun, B C; Frank, A; Dehnhard, M; Voigt, C C; Vargas, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K



Effect of pulmonary lymphatic obstruction on rabbit urine flow.  


1. The effects of pulmonary lymphatic obstruction on urine flow, sodium and potassium excretion were examined on anaesthetized, artificially ventilated New Zealand White rabbits. Pulmonary lymphatic obstruction was produced by raising the pressure in a pouch created from the right external jugular vein. The experiments were performed on two groups of rabbits (non-hydrated and hydrated). 2. Pulmonary lymphatic obstruction caused a significant increase in urine flow in both groups of rabbits. After release of the obstruction, the urine flow returned to basal values. Urine flow (ml (10 min)-1) for both groups was initial control, 5.3 +/- 0.9; lymphatic obstruction, 8.9 +/- 1.0; final control, 6.2 +/- 0.7 (means +/- S.E.M.; n = 21, P < 0.025). 3. The increase in urine flow was not accompanied by significant changes in concentration of sodium and potassium in urine. Sodium excretion increased significantly only in the hydrated rabbits. 4. The increase in urine flow was abolished by bilateral cervical vagotomy and by renal nerve sectioning. Cooling the cervical vagi to 8 degrees C also abolished the response. 5. Pulmonary lymphatic obstruction did not produce any significant change in heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, mean right atrial pressure and peak airway pressure. 6. These findings suggest that obstructing the lymph drainage from the lung results in a reflex increase in urine flow. The afferent pathway for this reflex resides in the myelinated fibres of the vagi and the efferent pathway in the renal nerves. The rapidly adapting receptors of the airways are likely to be the receptors involved. PMID:9457656

Ravi, K; Bravo, M; Kappagoda, C T



Saliva transit in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.  


Saliva is an important factor in the neutralization of the acidity of the refluxed material that comes from the stomach to the esophagus. The impairment of saliva transit from oral cavity to distal esophagus may be one of the causes of esophagitis and symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). With the scintigraphic method, the transit of 2?mL of artificial saliva was measured in 30 patients with GERD and 26 controls. The patients with GERD had symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation, a 24-hour pH monitoring with more than 4.2% of the time with pH below four, 26 with erosive esophagitis, and four with non-erosive reflux disease. Fourteen had mild dysphagia for solid foods. Twenty-one patients had normal esophageal manometry, and nine had ineffective esophageal motility. They were 15 men and 15 women, aged 21-61 years, mean 39 years. The control group had 14 men and 12 women, aged 19-61 years, mean 35 years. The subjects swallowed in the sitting and supine position 2?mL of artificial saliva labeled with 18?MBq of (99m) Technetium phytate. The time of saliva transit was measured from oral cavity to esophageal-gastric transition, from proximal esophagus to esophageal-gastric transition, and the transit through proximal, middle, and distal esophageal body. There was no difference between patients and controls in the time for saliva to go from oral cavity to esophageal-gastric transition, and from proximal esophagus to esophageal-gastric transition, in the sitting and supine positions. In distal esophagus in the sitting position, the saliva transit duration was shorter in patients with GERD (3.0 ± 0.8 seconds) than in controls (7.6 ± 1.7 seconds, P = 0.03). In conclusion, the saliva transit from oral cavity to the esophageal-gastric transition in patients with GERD has the same duration than in controls. Saliva transit through the distal esophageal body is faster in patients with GERD than controls. PMID:25082357

Cassiani, R A; Mota, G A; Aprile, L R O; Dantas, R O



Saliva Microbiota Carry Caries-Specific Functional Gene Signatures  

PubMed Central

Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. PMID:24533043

Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; Chen, Zhenggang; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian



Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.  


Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism. PMID:25055816

Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R



Saliva microbiota carry caries-specific functional gene signatures.  


Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. PMID:24533043

Yang, Fang; Ning, Kang; Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; Chen, Zhenggang; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian



Saliva and plasma concentrations of isoniazid and acetylisoniazid in man.  

PubMed Central

1. The pharmacokinetics of isoniazid and acetylisoniazid in plasma and saliva were compared following administration of oral and intravenous doses (200 mg) to healthy volunteers and patients. 2. In the 22 subjects studied after oral administration and the six subjects studied after intravenous administration there was complete phenotypic agreement for both slow (t1/2 greater than 130 min) and fast (t1/2 less than 130 min) acetylators using either saliva or plasma. 3. Acetylator phenotyping based on the t1/2 of INH determined using saliva collected at 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h after a 200 mg oral dose appears to be as reliable as that based on plasma. 4. Salivary isoniazid concentrations may provide a non-invasive alternative to plasma concentrations. PMID:3408638

Hutchings, A D; Monie, R D; Spragg, B P; Routledge, P A



Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio  


... test. Children, and sometimes adults, occasionally have some degree of transient proteinuria without apparent kidney dysfunction and may have a higher excretion of protein into their urine during the day than at night. The doctor may monitor their ...


Saliva as a potential tool for cystic fibrosis diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background Saliva and sweat are modified by cystic fibrosis (CF). In both cases the chloride and sodium ion concentrations for healthy subjects and CF patients differ, this representing a possible alternative tool for CF diagnosis. In this context, the aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of these ions in saliva samples taken from CF patients and healthy subjects. Methods A case–control study was carried out at a university CF center, in which the saliva samples were analyzed on an ABL 835 Radiometer® to determine the ion concentration. Results For the CF patients (n?=?80) the values for the biochemical parameters of chloride, potassium and sodium ion concentration were higher (p?saliva were lower than in the case of healthy subjects (p?saliva samples were higher for CF patients in comparison with healthy subjects. Thus, saliva as a tool for CF diagnosis can be considered a new challenge, and a population study including patients in all age classes needs to be performed, in different countries over the world, to extend the database to include a broad spectrum of information in order to identify normal ion concentration ranges for CF patients according to age, genotype and environment. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: PMID:23510227



Difficulties detecting miRNA-203 in human whole saliva by the use of PCR.  


Objectives: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic disease of the oral mucosa, and according to the WHO also a pre malignant condition. Micro-RNAs are short non coding RNAs capable of regulating mRNA expression. MiRNA:scan be detected in tissue, blood and human whole saliva, HWS, and recently we have shown miR-203 to be up-regulated in tissue from OLP lesions. Study Design: In order to see whether mRNA as well asmiR-203 could be detected also in HWS, saliva from healthy controls and patients with OLP were analysed using two different PCR methods. Results: Results showed low mRNA and miRNAlevels in general in HWS samples, making it hard to generate conclusive results. Conclusions: In order to make HWS a valuable source for different analyses, more sensitive PCR techniques capable of detecting very low levels of mRNAand miRNAas well as more efficient methods for extraction of RNA are needed. PMID:25475777

Lundegard, M; Nylander, K; Danielsson, K



Longistatin in tick saliva blocks advanced glycation end-product receptor activation  

PubMed Central

Ticks are notorious hematophagous ectoparasites and vectors of many deadly pathogens. As an effective vector, ticks must break the strong barrier provided by the skin of their host during feeding, and their saliva contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules that paralyze host defenses. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates immune cell activation at inflammatory sites and is constitutively and highly expressed in skin. Here, we demonstrate that longistatin secreted with saliva of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis binds RAGE and modulates the host immune response. Similar to other RAGE ligands, longistatin specifically bound the RAGE V domain, and stimulated cultured HUVECs adhered to a longistatin-coated surface; this binding was dramatically inhibited by soluble RAGE or RAGE siRNA. Treatment of HUVECs with longistatin prior to stimulation substantially attenuated cellular oxidative stress and prevented NF-?B translocation, thereby reducing adhesion molecule and cytokine production. Recombinant longistatin inhibited RAGE-mediated migration of mouse peritoneal resident cells (mPRCs) and ameliorated inflammation in mouse footpad edema and pneumonia models. Importantly, tick bite upregulated RAGE ligands in skin, and endogenous longistatin attenuated RAGE-mediated inflammation during tick feeding. Our results suggest that longistatin is a RAGE antagonist that suppresses tick bite–associated inflammation, allowing successful blood-meal acquisition from hosts. PMID:25401185

Anisuzzaman; Hatta, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Islam, M. Khyrul; Alim, M. Abdul; Anas, M. Abu; Hasan, M. Mehedi; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tsuji, Naotoshi



Purification of a serine protease and evidence for a protein C activator from the saliva of the tick, Ixodes scapularis  

PubMed Central

The saliva of ticks is critical to their survival as parasites and hematophagous animals. In this study, we have purified an enzyme with trypsin-like activity from the saliva of the tick vector of Lyme Disease, Ixodes scapularis. This enzyme, named as IXOSP (Ixodes scapularis salivary serine protease), is a 29.9 kDa molecule with N-terminus FPxMVxLRIKxR. A BLAST search identified IXOSP as a secreted serine protease (AAY66740) with a conserved catalytic triad His, Asp, and Ser. In vitro studies demonstrated that IXOSP cleaves chromogenic substrates with arginine in the P1 position, by a mechanism inhibited by PMSF or aprotinin. Gene expression studies revealed that IXOSP is expressed at different tick developmental stages, including eggs, and unfed or fed adult tick salivary glands, but not in nymphs or in the midgut. While the physiological substrate for IXOSP remains to be identified, we demonstrated that I. scapularis saliva activate protein C (PC) resulting in the production of activated PC, a potent anticoagulant that also regulates a myriad of inflammatory responses through protease activated receptors. In contrast, the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi, An. albimanus, Aedes aegypti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Phlebotomus ariasi did not activate protein C. These discoveries are discussed in the context of blood coagulation, inflammation and vector-host interactions. PMID:24184517

Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Ribeiro, José M.C.; Mather, Thomas N.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.



Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Problems Urinating in Public (Paruresis)  


... may provide you with some insight into this social anxiety disorder. What is paruresis? Paruresis, often referred to as ... attempts to control the process fail, and associated anxiety with performance ... social invitations to avoid urinating away from home. Paruretics ...


Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich


Novel Serum and Urine Markers for Pediatric Appendicitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the association between two novel biomarkers, calprotectin and leucine-rich alpha glycoprotein-1 (LRG), and appendicitis in children. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study of children 3 to 18 years old presenting to a pediatric emergency department with possible appendicitis. Blood and urine samples were assayed for calprotectin and LRG via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Biomarker levels were compared for subjects with and without appendicitis. Recursive partitioning was used to identify thresholds that predicted appendicitis. Results Of 176 subjects, mean age was 11.6 years (SD ±4.0 years) and 52% were male. Fifty-eight patients (34%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. Median plasma calprotectin, serum LRG, and urine LRG levels were higher in appendicitis versus non-appendicitis (p < 0.008). When stratified by perforation status, median plasma calprotectin and serum LRG levels were higher in non-perforated appendicitis vs. non-appendicitis (p < 0.01). Median serum LRG, urine LRG, and plasma calprotectin levels were higher in perforated appendicitis as compared to non-perforated appendicitis (p < 0.05). Urine calprotectin did not differ among groups. A serum LRG < 40,150 ng/ml, a urine LRG < 42 ng/ml, and a plasma calprotectin < 159 ng/ml, each provided a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100% to identify children at low risk for appendicitis, but with specificities ranging from 23% to 35%. The standard white blood cell (WBC) count achieved 100% sensitivity at a higher specificity than both novel biomarkers. Conclusions Plasma calprotectin and serum/urine LRG are elevated in pediatric appendicitis. No individual marker performed as well as the WBC. PMID:22221321

Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Rai, Alex J.; Cosme, Yohaimi; Liu, Khin; Dayan, Peter S.



A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.



Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

Niaura, Raymond; And Others



Conservation of streptococcal CRISPRs on human skin and saliva  

PubMed Central

Background Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are utilized by bacteria to resist encounters with their viruses. Human body surfaces have numerous bacteria that harbor CRISPRs, and their content can provide clues as to the types and features of viruses they may have encountered. Results We investigated the conservation of CRISPR content from streptococci on skin and saliva of human subjects over 8-weeks to determine whether similarities existed in the CRISPR spacer profiles and whether CRISPR spacers were a stable component of each biogeographic site. Most of the CRISPR sequences identified were unique, but a small proportion of spacers from the skin and saliva of each subject matched spacers derived from previously sequenced loci of S. thermophilus and other streptococci. There were significant proportions of CRISPR spacers conserved over the entire 8-week study period for all subjects, and salivary CRISPR spacers sampled in the mornings showed significantly higher levels of conservation than any other time of day. We also found substantial similarities in the spacer repertoires of the skin and saliva of each subject. Many skin-derived spacers matched salivary viruses, supporting that bacteria of the skin may encounter viruses with similar sequences to those found in the mouth. Despite the similarities between skin and salivary spacer repertoires, the variation present was distinct based on each subject and body site. Conclusions The conservation of CRISPR spacers in the saliva and the skin of human subjects over the time period studied suggests a relative conservation of the bacteria harboring them. PMID:24903519



Plants Can Benefit from Herbivory: Stimulatory Effects of Sheep Saliva on Growth of Leymus chinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Plants and herbivores can evolve beneficial interactions. Growth factors found in animal saliva are probably key factors underlying plant compensatory responses to herbivory. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how animal saliva interacts with herbivory intensities and how saliva can mobilize photosynthate reserves in damaged plants. Methodology/Principal Findings The study examined compensatory responses to herbivory and sheep saliva addition for the grass species Leymus chinensis in three experiments over three years. The first two experiments were conducted in a factorial design with clipping (four levels in 2006 and five in 2007) and two saliva treatment levels. The third experiment examined the mobilization and allocation of stored carbohydrates following clipping and saliva addition treatments. Animal saliva significantly increased tiller number, number of buds, and biomass, however, there was no effect on height. Furthermore, saliva effects were dependent on herbivory intensities, associated with meristem distribution within perennial grass. Animal saliva was found to accelerate hydrolyzation of fructans and accumulation of glucose and fructose. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated a link between saliva and the mobilization of carbohydrates following herbivory, which is an important advance in our understanding of the evolution of plant responses to herbivory. Herbivory intensity dependence of the effects of saliva stresses the significance of optimal grazing management. PMID:22235277

Liu, Jushan; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Bonser, Stephen P.; Sun, Fang; Zhou, Yifa; Gao, Ying; Teng, Xing



Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).  


We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W



Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage. PMID:25087662

Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu



Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test  


... PSA level is considered to be 4.0 ng/ml (nanograms per milliliter of blood). For men ... on your bladder (cystoscopy) or prostate (biopsy) Catheter tube recently placed into your bladder to drain urine ...



PubMed Central

When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from PMID:19273185

Francischetti, Ivo M.B; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J.; Santos, Isabel M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.



What constitutes a normal ante-mortem urine GHB concentration?  


Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is endogenously produced within the central nervous system, however it is also used as a medication for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, sold under the name Zyrem in the United States and Alcover in Europe. It is a very dangerous drug with a very limited safety margin, and is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. The interpretation of post-mortem studies of GHB concentrations is problematic; GHB can be detected in urine and blood from non-GHB users, both before and after death, and concentrations in both matrices may rise with prolonged storage. Because it is produced as a post-mortem artifact, forensically defensible cut-offs for post-mortem blood concentrations have yet to be established. Given the enormous degree of inter and intra-individual variation in GHB production that has been documented, it is unlikely they ever will. The important issue for forensic scientists is whether the detection of GHB in urine, in concentrations above some yet to be determined value, can be used as evidence for drug facilitated assault. In an attempt to see if a cut-off level could be determined we analyzed urine from 39 alcoholics who were being treated with known oral doses of Alcover (group 1), and compared the results with concentrations found in the urine of 30 volunteers who had no exogenous GHB intake (group 2), and 30 urine specimens taken from the alcoholics before they initiated GHB therapy (Alcover treatment group 3). More than one third (36.6%) of subjects being treated with GHB were found to have urinary GHB concentration that fell between 2.75 and 10 microg/mL. The data suggests that caution must be used when applying the currently used cut-off of 10 microg/mL. PMID:19239966

Mari, Francesco; Politi, Lucia; Trignano, Claudia; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Di Padua, Marianna; Bertol, Elisabetta



[Concentration of calcium ions in the saliva and the value of the pH of the saliva in female and male smokers].  


Dental decay is a pathological process of extrasomatic origin which leads to demineralization and proteolytic degradation of hard surfaces of a tooth susceptible to this disease. Saliva composition, including calcium ion concentration and its pH value, is of importance in the development of the carious process. Tobacco smoke contains toxic compounds which negatively influence oral health. The aim of the study was evaluation of the selected saliva components: protein concentration, Ca2+ concentration, pH value both in male and female smokers. The investigated group included 65 patients reporting for the treatment to the Department of Conservative Dentistry of Medical University in Lublin. In the investigated group male smokers constituted 15.38%, female smokers--20.00%, male nicotine abstinents 21.54% and female nicotine abstinent 43.08%. The study included both survey examinations of patients and biochemical examinations of the saliva. Mixed, non-stimulated saliva was used as a material for biochemical examinations. Ca2+ concentration and pH of the saliva were assayed with the use of Rapidlab 348 analyzer. Protein in the saliva was assayed with calorimetric method according to Lowry. Saliva was collected from smokers 10-120 minutes after smoking of several cigarettes. It was stated that Ca2+ and protein concentration as well as pH of the saliva were not correlated with sex and cigarette smoking or non-smoking. PMID:20301903

Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Rogowska, Wanda



Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel



Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.



Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults may occur through saliva.  


Of 742 army recruits tested for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal carriage, 6·6% were positive. Frequent sharing of a drinking glass/bottle was a common, strong and independent risk factor for pneumococcal carriage. Our findings strongly suggest, for the first time, that in young adults, transmission of pneumococci may occur via saliva and this should be considered when conducting an outbreak investigation and carriage studies. PMID:21676361

Levine, H; Zarka, S; Dagan, R; Sela, T; Rozhavski, V; Cohen, D I; Balicer, R D



Zone Electrophoresis of Human Parotid Saliva in Acrylamide Gel  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE zone electrophoresis of human parotid saliva proteins has been carried out with a variety of supporting media, including filter paper, cellulose acetate, agar gel and starch gel, with separations usually of from five to twelve fractions1-8. In a comparative investigation of these media, D'Silva and Ferguson7 obtained their most satisfactory results with a combination of cellulose acetate and starch

T. S. Meyer; B. L. Lamberts



Leaching of 210 Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached\\u000a 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users’ mouth. Leaching\\u000a of 210Po

Umme-Farzana Syed; Abdul Bari; Liaquat Husain



Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40+/-1.7) and postflight (44+/-5) phases. Eighteen control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.



Microfluidic immunoassay for rapid detection of cotinine in saliva.  


A microfluidic immunoassay is successfully developed for rapid analysis of cotinine saliva samples, which is a metabolite of nicotine and is widely used as a biomarker to evaluate the smoking status and exposure to tobacco smoke. The core microfluidic chip is fabricated by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with standard soft lithography. Each chip is capable of eight parallel analyses of cotinine samples. The analyses can be completed within 40 min with 12 ?l sample consumption. The linear detection range is 1?~?250 ng/ml and the minimum detectable concentration is 1 ng/ml respectively. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve established from standard samples is 0.9989. The immunoassay was also validated by real saliva samples, and the results showed good reproducibility and accuracy. All the results were confirmed with traditional ELISA measurements. The result from microfluidic chip device and ELISA kits showed good correspondence, and the correlation coefficients are higher than 0.99. Compared with traditional technique, this microfluidic immunoassay is more economic, rapid, simple and sensitive, perfect for on-site cotinine measurements as well as for the evaluation of the exposure to tobacco smoking. Moreover, this immunoassay has potential to be applied in the analysis of other biomarkers in human saliva samples. PMID:23832621

Cheng, Kaiping; Zhao, Wang; Liu, Sixiu; Sui, Guodong



Changes in saliva protein composition in patients with periodontal disease.  


Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by tissue destruction which is usually diagnosed through clinical and radiographic signs. The detection of changes in the chemical composition of saliva could be used to reflect gingivo-periodontal alterations. The aim of this study was to identify salivary parameters that could identify different stages of the periodontal disease. The study group included 118 adults, 89 of them with mild, moderate or severe chronic periodontitis. The remaining participants comprised the control group. Total saliva was analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used for protein detection and zymography for type IV collagenase identification. Salivary flow rate, pH and buffer capacity showed similar values in all groups. Proteins were augmented in severe periodontitis, as also shown by SDS-PAGE. Hydroxyproline rose significantly in all periodontal groups as secretory Immunoglobulin A significantly diminished compared with the control group. An increase in peroxidase was detected in moderate and severe periodontitis. All salivary samples contained 200-116-92 kDa gelatinases; minor bands at 66-31 kDa were also present in all periodontitis groups. Calcium levels showed significant differences between all periodontitis groups compared with the control group. Quantitative changes in the chemical composition of the saliva of patients with periodontal disease could be of significance in the diagnosis and progression of periodontal disease. PMID:19839486

Koss, Myriam A; Castro, Cecilia E; Salúm, Karina M; López, María E



Comparative urine protein phenotyping using mass spectrometric immunoassay.  


Reported here, human urine samples were analyzed for beta-2-microglobulin (beta2m), transthyretin (TTR), cystatin C, urine protein 1 (UP1), retinol binding protein (RBP), albumin, transferrin, and human neutrophil defensin peptides (HNP) using mass spectrometric immunoassay (MSIA). MSIA is a unique analytical technique, which allows for the generation of distinct protein profiles of specific target proteins from each subject, which may be subsequently used in comparative protein expression profiling between all subjects. Comparative profiling allows for the rapid identification of variations within individual protein expression profiles. Although the majority of analyses performed in this study revealed homology between study participants, roughly one-quarter showed variation in the protein profiles. Some of these observed variants included a point mutation in TTR, absence of wild-type RBP, monomeric forms UP1, a novel beta2m glycated end product and altered HNP ratios. MSIA has been previously used in the analysis of blood proteins, but this study shows how MSIA easily transitions to the analysis, of urine samples. This study displays how qualitative urine protein differentiation is readily achievable with MSIA and is useful in identifying proteomic differences between subjects that might be otherwise overlooked with other analytical techniques due to complexity of the resulting data or insufficient sensitivity. PMID:12716133

Kiernan, Urban A; Tubbs, Kemmons A; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Niederkofler, Eric E; McConnell, Elizabeth; Nelson, Randall W



Detection of Zika Virus in Urine  

PubMed Central

We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections. PMID:25530324

Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille



[Diagnostics of the AB group of AB0(H) system in saliva traces].  


On the basis of the mixed agglutination reaction of the saliva spots, obtained from persons with groups A, B, and AB (extractors) as well as mixtures of saliva obtained from the above subjects in various combinations, were experimentally studied. It was shown to be possible to diagnose the AB group both in the "pure" saliva traces and as an admixture of the AB group saliva to the groups A and B saliva obtained by using the anti-A and anti-B hetero-immune gemagglutinating sera. Our results confirm the previously published opinion on that antigens A and B of the ABse group saliva are positioned in the cis-acting mode, i.e. they are located on one molecule of surface structure of the epithelial (buccal) cell. PMID:14689777

Kolokolova, G P



Probing viscosity of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva by magnetic rotational spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic rotational spectroscopy was employed for rheological analysis of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva. Saliva viscosity of butterflies is 4-5 times greater than that of water and similar to that of 30%-40% sucrose solutions at 25 °C. Hence, viscosity stratification would not be expected when butterflies feed on nectar with 30%-40% sugar concentrations. We did not observe any viscoelastic effects or non-Newtonian behavior of saliva droplets. Thus, butterfly saliva is significantly different rheologically from that of humans, which demonstrates a viscoelastic behavior.

Tokarev, Alexander; Kaufman, Bethany; Gu, Yu; Andrukh, Taras; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.



Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.  


The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways. PMID:20112908

Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui



ABO blood groups in the primate species of Cebidae from the Amazon region.  


The ABO blood groups were determined in blood and saliva collected from 40 Aotus infulatus, 74 Saimiri sciureus, and 96 Cebus apella from the Amazonian region along the Tocantins river. Saliva samples were tested for human ABH antigens by a standard hemagglutination inhibition test. Aotus infulatus showed monomorphism, exhibiting only the B blood group. Saimiri sciureus exhibited the A (67) and AB (7) phenotypes. All four phenotypes have been found in C. apella: O (8), A (52), B (19) and AB (17). The observed distribution was as expected assuming Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The titers of ABH substances varied among the species and phenotypes. The B-like agglutinogen, common to all New World monkey species tested, was detected in the red blood cells. Sera were used to detect naturally occurring antibodies and the results showed discrepancies between serum and saliva phenotypes in all species studied. PMID:12190854

Corvelo, T C O; Schneider, H; Harada, M L



Urine bag as a modern day matula.  


Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin



Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin



On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan



Field evaluation of urine antigen detection for diagnosis of Taenia solium cysticercosis.  


(Neuro)cysticercosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by infection with Taenia solium metacestode larvae. Existing immunodiagnostic techniques detect antibodies and circulating antigens (Ag) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Blood/CSF collection is an invasive procedure associated with blood-borne infections and is often not well accepted by communities. Detection of circulating Ag in urine has been suggested as an alternative, however this has been evaluated in clinical settings only. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the performance of a urine Ag-ELISA under field conditions. Paired serum and urine samples were obtained from participants in endemic areas of Ecuador (n=748) and Zambia (n=690) and were subjected to a monoclonal antibody-based Ag-ELISA. Calculation of positive and negative agreement indices (AI) showed better agreement in the negative direction both for Ecuadorian and Zambian samples (AI of 93.1 and 86.8, respectively). Using a Bayesian approach to determine the test characteristics, similar sensitivities were obtained for serum and urine Ag detection, whereas a decreased specificity was determined for the urine Ag-ELISA with a lower specificity (78.6%) for Zambian samples than for Ecuadorian samples (88.4%). This study indicates a higher specificity for the serum test under field conditions and promotes further research to improve the urine test. PMID:21862093

Mwape, K E; Praet, N; Benitez-Ortiz, W; Muma, J B; Zulu, G; Celi-Erazo, M; Phiri, I K; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, R; Dorny, P; Gabriël, S



A brief review of Rhazes, Avicenna, and Jorjani's views on diagnosis of diseases through urine examination.  


The present survey aims at studying the opinions of three famous medical scholars in history (Rhazes, Avicinna, and Jorjani) on the diagnosis of diseases via urine examination and their compatiblity with modern science. Refering to original authentic sources in traditional medicine, including Al-Hawi (The Virtuous Life), Zakhireh-i Kharazmshahi (Thesaurus of the Shah of Khwarazm), and Al-Canon fi al Tibb (The Canon on Medicine), we compared the ideas of the authors with modern medicine. In traditional medicine, physicians would pay attention to the methods of urine collection and urinary features such as color, consistency, volume, frequency, odor, and foam as the means of diagnosis, all of which still serve as the bases for today's diagnostic approach. Moreover, symptoms of the diagnosis of the disease through urine are consistent in tradition and modern medicine; some examples are blood in the urine (hematuria), decreased urine output (oliguria), change in urine color together with headache (Alport syndrome), diluted urine (tubular dysfunction in reabsorption of water or initial polydipsy), and urinary floor with tiny bubbles (one of the main symptoms of proteinuria). PMID:25001133

Shamsi, Mohsen; Haghverdi, Farshid; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed



Isolation and comparative study of cell-free nucleic acids from human urine.  


Cell-free nucleic acids (NA) from human urine were investigated. Concentrations of DNA and RNA in the urine of healthy people were independent of gender and were in the range of 6 ng/mL to 50 ng/mL and 24 ng/mL to 140 ng/mL, respectively. DNA fragments of 150-400 bp represent the main part of cell-free DNA, along with DNA fragments up to 1,300 bp, which were found in male urine, and DNA fragments up to 19 kbp, which were found in female urine. Analysis of circulating DNA, isolated from blood of breast cancer patients and cell-free DNA isolated from their urine by methylation-specific PCR, demonstrates that the presence of methylated promoters of RASSF1A and RARbeta2 genes in plasma was accompanied by the detection of the same methylated markers in urine. The data obtained demonstrate applicability of cell-free urine DNA in cancer diagnostics. PMID:17108229

Bryzgunova, Olga E; Skvortsova, Tatyana E; Kolesnikova, Elena V; Starikov, Andrey V; Rykova, Elena Yu; Vlassov, Valentin V; Laktionov, Pavel P



Drooling, saliva production, and swallowing in cerebral palsy.  


Fourteen participants (six females, eight males) ranging in age from 7 years 11 months to 18 years 2 months (mean 11y 7mo) with a confirmed diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy (CP) were included in the study. Participants included those who drooled (CP+, n=14); age- and sex-matched children with spastic CP who were dry to mild and never to infrequent droolers (CP-, n=14) as well as typically developing peers (CTRL, n=14) served as controls. Frequency of swallowing was measured by using simultaneous cervical ausculation and videotaping of the head and neck. Saliva production was measured with the Saxon test, a simple gauze-chewing procedure. In addition, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI), Test of Nonverbal Intelligence-3 (TONI-3), dysarthria severity scale, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) scores were obtained for each participant. Both groups of participants with CP tended to swallow less frequently than typically developing participants and tended to produce less saliva than typically developing controls; however, these differences were not statistically significant. No correlation was found between amount of saliva produced and amount drooled (r=0.245). An analysis of variance (ANOVA) conducted on the PEDI functional skills mean scores indicated significant differences between the three groups (F(2,39)=23.522,p<0.0001). Likewise, an ANOVA conducted on the TONI-3 scores revealed statistically significant differences between the three groups (F(2,39)=31.761, p<0.0001). A Spearman's rho correlation indicated that GMFCS scores were not significantly correlated with drooling severity (Spearman's rho correlation=0.3951,p=0.037). Drooling severity was found to be positively correlated with dysarthria severity (Spearman's rho correlation=0.82,p<0.0001). These findings suggest that drooling in patients with CP is related to swallowing difficulties rather than hypersalivation. PMID:15581152

Senner, Jill E; Logemann, Jerilyn; Zecker, Steven; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah



Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.



Blood Components  


Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Components Printable Version Blood Components How can one donation help multiple people? ... blood. The main transfusable blood components include: Whole Blood Whole blood contains red cells, white cells, and ...


[Red discolouration of the urine in a dairy cattle herd as a stock problem].  


After feeding a new batch of rapeseed meal (2.5 kg/cow/day) in the total mixed ration (TMR) of dairy cows on a dairy farm in Bavaria, numerous puddles of reddish fluid were found on the floor of the cubicle housing system. These were caused by a red discolouration of the urine. Directly after urination, the urine was macroscopically yellow and bright; the discolouration developed throughout the consecutive hours. Feed intake was markedly decreased and milk yield was lowered by 10%. No disturbances of the general health and blood key parameters were evident. After feeding two other cows with rapeseed meal of this batch (three times daily 1 kg each), the phenomenon occurred in one animal on the third and fourth days. Further analyses revealed evidence that the discolouration was due to substances which were excreted via the kidney and led to reddish urine after delayed reaction with the oxygen in the air. PMID:22331289

Müller, K; Kamphues, J; Wolf, P; Huchzermeyer, B; Kaske, M



Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations assessed in saliva  

E-print Network

Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone Testosterone Cortisol Progesterone Chewing gum Saliva collection Sugarless chewing gum is a frequently used gum on cortisol, testosterone, and progesterone concentrations measured in saliva samples collected

Schultheiss, Oliver C.


Impact of Prolonged Cannabinoid Excretion in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers’ Blood on Per Se Drugged Driving Laws  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Cannabis is the illicit drug most frequently reported with impaired driving and motor vehicle accidents. Some “per se” laws make it illegal to drive with any amount of drug in the body, while others establish blood, saliva, or urine concentrations above which it is illegal to drive. The persistence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in chronic daily cannabis smokers’ blood is unknown. METHODS Thirty male chronic daily cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days, with daily blood collection. Samples were processed in an ice bath during sample preparation to minimize cannabinoid adsorption onto precipitant material. We quantified THC by 2-dimensional GC-MS. RESULTS Of the 30 participants, 27 were THC-positive on admission, with a median (range) concentration of 1.4 ?g/L (0.3–6.3). THC decreased gradually; only 1 of 11 participants was negative at 26 days, 2 of 5 remained THC-positive (0.3 ?g/L) for 30 days, and 5.0% of participants had THC ?1.0 ?g/L for 12 days. Median 11-hydroxy-THC concentrations were 1.1 ?g/L on admission, with no results ?1.0 ?g/L 24 h later. 11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) detection rates were 96.7% on admission, decreasing slowly to 95.7% and 85.7% on days 8 and 22, respectively; 4 of 5 participants remained THCCOOH positive (0.6–2.7 ?g/L) after 30 days, and 1 remained positive on discharge at 33 days. CONCLUSIONS Cannabinoids can be detected in blood of chronic daily cannabis smokers during a month of sustained abstinence. This is consistent with the time course of persisting neurocognitive impairment reported in recent studies. PMID:23449702

Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Queiroz, Regina H.C.; Huestis, Marilyn A.



Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain



Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.  


Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H



Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry, resulting in more than 40 compounds to be identified in

S. M van Ruth; J. P. Roozen



Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program  

SciTech Connect

A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E/sub 2/) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E/sub 2/ were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E/sub 2/ throughout the stimulated cycles. The ratio of serum to saliva E/sub 2/ was constant throughout the stimulated cycles. The E/sub 2/ concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E/sub 2/ levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E/sub 2/ provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program.

Belkien, L.D.; Bordt, J.; Moeller, P.; Hano, R.; Nieschlag, E.



The development of an artificial saliva for in vitro amalgam corrosion studies.  


Published data, consideration of chemical and physical properties and the requirements of amalgam corrosion testing were used to formulate an artificial saliva. A previously described method was used to determine the relevance of a number of human saliva constituents. Some results of those tests are described. Practical problems are discussed, and necessary further developments outlined. A number of other applications are suggested. PMID:272442

Darvell, B W



Responses of Artemisia frigida Willd. (Compositae) and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. (Poaceae) to sheep saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although studies show that grazing and browsing by herbivores have marked effects on host plants, the mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of sheep saliva on host plant growth. Sheep saliva was manually applied to clipped plants of two different life forms, a semi-shrub, Artemisia frigida Willd., and a herbaceous species, Leymus chinensis

Z. Zhang; S.-P. Wang; G.-M. Jiang; B. Patton; P. Nyren



Computational Prediction of Human Salivary Proteins from Blood Circulation and Application to Diagnostic Biomarker Identification  

PubMed Central

Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer. PMID:24324552

Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying



Saliva of Lygus lineolaris digests double stranded ribonucleic acids.  


The prospects for development of highly specific pesticides based on double stranded ribonucleic acid have been a recent focus of scientific research. Creative applications have been proposed and demonstrated. However, not all insects are sensitive to double stranded RNA (dsRNA) gene knockdown effects; applications in the order Lepidoptera, for example, have met with varied success. Gene knockdown has been demonstrated in several species in the order Hemiptera. In our laboratory, knockdown experiments relied on microinjection of dsRNA into the hemocoel of the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris. Subsequent experiments delivering dsRNA to insects by feeding were repeatedly unsuccessful in demonstrating knockdown, and a hypothesis was formulated that the dsRNA was digested and degraded by the insect prior to contact with the insect cells. Exposure of dsRNA to insect saliva, insect salivary glands, and insect hemolymph was compared with commercial RNAase III. The saliva of L. lineolaris was found to rapidly digest double stranded RNA. RNAase inhibitor did not affect the activity but heat treatment slowed enzymatic activity. PMID:22226823

Allen, Margaret L; Walker, William B



Serum and saliva protein levels in females with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the change in the total protein content between the serum and saliva of female patients with breast cancer and in healthy females. The study was conducted between October 2012 and November 2013. There were 80 females in the present study with 40 breast cancer patients and 40 healthy control subjects, with an age range of 50–70 years. The results of the study showed that the mean value ± standard deviation of the total serum protein in patients with breast cancer was 7.63±0.41 g/dl, whereas in the healthy subjects it was 6.14±1.84 g/dl. The total salivary protein measurement was 0.14±0.07 g/dl and 0.25±0.09 g/dl in the breast cancer and healthy group, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the total serum protein was higher in female patients with breast cancer, whereas the levels in the saliva were lower compared to the healthy female group. The results of the present study indicate that serum protein levels may be used for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25364460




Serum and saliva protein levels in females with breast cancer.  


The aim of the present study was to investigate the change in the total protein content between the serum and saliva of female patients with breast cancer and in healthy females. The study was conducted between October 2012 and November 2013. There were 80 females in the present study with 40 breast cancer patients and 40 healthy control subjects, with an age range of 50-70 years. The results of the study showed that the mean value ± standard deviation of the total serum protein in patients with breast cancer was 7.63±0.41 g/dl, whereas in the healthy subjects it was 6.14±1.84 g/dl. The total salivary protein measurement was 0.14±0.07 g/dl and 0.25±0.09 g/dl in the breast cancer and healthy group, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the total serum protein was higher in female patients with breast cancer, whereas the levels in the saliva were lower compared to the healthy female group. The results of the present study indicate that serum protein levels may be used for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25364460

Al-Muhtaseb, Sabah Isa



Remineralization of Eroded Enamel Lesions by Simulated Saliva In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two simulated saliva (SS) remineralization solutions comprising different calcium-inorganic phosphate (Ca/Pi) ratios on eroded enamel. Methods: 3 mm diameter enamel cores were extracted from bovine teeth, mounted in acrylic rods, ground and polished,and initially demineralized with either 0.3% (120 minutes) or 1.0% (30 minutes) citric acid solutions (pH 3.8). Both sets of initially eroded specimens were evaluated for surface microhardness (N=10) and treated with either 0.3 or 1.6 Ca/Pi ratio SS. Groups were first exposed to a seven-day remineralization period and then were cycled in a three-day regimen consisting daily of three rounds of two-hour plus overnight SS treatments and three 10-minute static immersions in demineralization solution. Specimens were assessed using surface microhardness and scanning electron microscopy. Results: Initial erosion from 0.3% citric acid led to elliptical-shaped pore openings several microns in length and in depth and contrasted significantly with respect to 1% citric acid. The greatest remineralization was observed from the 0.3 Ca/Pi SS, while the 1.6 Ca/Pi SS produced the least. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the nature of remineralization of eroded enamel depends on both initial erosive conditions and the Ca/Pi ratio of simulated saliva. PMID:23136621

Karlinsey, Robert L; Mackey, Allen C; Blanken, Douglas D; Schwandt, Craig S



Saliva microbiomes distinguish caries-active from healthy human populations  

PubMed Central

The etiology of dental caries remains elusive because of our limited understanding of the complex oral microbiomes. The current methodologies have been limited by insufficient depth and breadth of microbial sampling, paucity of data for diseased hosts particularly at the population level, inconsistency of sampled sites and the inability to distinguish the underlying microbial factors. By cross-validating 16S rRNA gene amplicon-based and whole-genome-based deep-sequencing technologies, we report the most in-depth, comprehensive and collaborated view to date of the adult saliva microbiomes in pilot populations of 19 caries-active and 26 healthy human hosts. We found that: first, saliva microbiomes in human population were featured by a vast phylogenetic diversity yet a minimal organismal core; second, caries microbiomes were significantly more variable in community structure whereas the healthy ones were relatively conserved; third, abundance changes of certain taxa such as overabundance of Prevotella Genus distinguished caries microbiota from healthy ones, and furthermore, caries-active and normal individuals carried different arrays of Prevotella species; and finally, no ‘caries-specific' operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected, yet 147 OTUs were ‘caries associated', that is, differentially distributed yet present in both healthy and caries-active populations. These findings underscored the necessity of species- and strain-level resolution for caries prognosis, and were consistent with the ecological hypothesis where the shifts in community structure, instead of the presence or absence of particular groups of microbes, underlie the cariogenesis. PMID:21716312

Yang, Fang; Zeng, Xiaowei; Ning, Kang; Liu, Kuan-Liang; Lo, Chien-Chi; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jie; Wang, Dongmei; Huang, Ranran; Chang, Xingzhi; Chain, Patrick S; Xie, Gary; Ling, Junqi; Xu, Jian



Whole Saliva has a Dual Role on the Adherence of Candida albicans to Polymethylmetacrylate  

PubMed Central

Adhesion of Candida albicans to acrylic of dental prostheses or to salivary macromolecules adsorbed on their surface is believed to be a critical event in the development of denture stomatitis. In previous studies our group has shown that adhesion of C. albicans germ tubes to polystyrene is decreased by saliva whereas C. albicans yeast cells adhesion to the same material is enhanced. The results presented in this study confirm this dual role played by whole saliva, since it decreased the adhesion of germ tubes but increased the adhesion of yeast cells to polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA). These effects mediated by whole saliva do not seem to be related to an inhibition of the germination of C. albicans, since similar levels of filamentation were observed in presence and absence of saliva. These results may give new insights into the conflicting role of saliva in the adhesion of C. albicans to acrylic resins of dental prostheses. PMID:19088875

Elguezabal, N; Maza, J.L.; Dorronsoro, S.; Pontón, J.



Identification of Lactobacillus from the Saliva of Adult Patients with Caries Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been presented as a superior method for the detection of microorganisms in body fluid samples (e.g., blood, saliva, pus, etc.) However, the performance of MALDI-TOF MS in routine identification of caries-related Lactobacillus isolates from saliva of adult patients with caries has not been determined. In the present study, we introduced a new MALDI-TOF MS system for identification of lactobacilli. Saliva samples were collected from 120 subjects with caries. Bacteria were isolated and cultured, and each isolate was identified by both 16S rRNA sequencing and MALDI-TOF MS. The identification results obtained by MALDI-TOF MS were concordant at the genus level with those of conventional 16S rRNA-based sequencing for 88.6% of lactobacilli (62/70) and 95.5% of non-lactobacilli (21/22). Up to 96 results could be obtained in parallel on a single MALDI target, suggesting that this is a reliable high-throughput approach for routine identification of lactobacilli. However, additional reference strains are necessary to increase the sensitivity and specificity of species-level identification. PMID:25166027

Ma, Qingwei; Song, Yeqing; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Xiaoyan; Chen, Feng



Microleakage of two fluoride-releasing sealants when applied following saliva contamination.  


The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage of two fluoride-releasing sealants in saliva contaminated and non-contaminated conditions. Twenty-four human third molars were randomly assigned to two groups: saliva contaminated and saliva non-contaminated teeth. In the contaminated group, the teeth were contaminated with 0.02 ml artificial saliva for 20 seconds and blowed dry afterward. Each group was divided into two subgroups: Group A, a fluoride-releasing resin sealant marketed as Clinpro and Group B, a glass-ionomer sealant marketed as Fuji VII. After sealant application, all the teeth were thermocycled for 2,000 cycles and coated with nail varnish 1.0 mm from the sealed areas. The teeth were stained with 2% methylene blue dye for 24 hours and sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction. Dye penetration (microleakage) was examined with a 25x polarized light microscope and measured by a computerized-calculated method. Data were compared with the Mann-Whitney U test at significance level of p<0.05. A comparison of the two types of sealant revealed microleakage of the glass-ionomer sealant was present but there was no significant difference between the saliva contaminated and saliva non-contaminated teeth. Microleakage of the fluoride-releasing resin sealant was present and was greater among the saliva-contaminated teeth than the saliva non-contaminated teeth. The glass-ionomer sealant had significantly greater microleakage than the fluoride-relasing resin-based sealant in both the saliva-contaminated and saliva non-contaminated teeth. PMID:24437329

Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Surarit, Rudee



Saliva from Obese Individuals Suppresses the Release of Aroma Compounds from Wine  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine) after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O) and 28 normal-weight (N) individuals. Methods and Findings Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. Conclusion Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity. PMID:24465618

Piombino, Paola; Genovese, Alessandro; Esposito, Silvia; Moio, Luigi; Cutolo, Pier Paolo; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Smith, Daniel P.; Owens, Sarah M.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Ercolini, Danilo



Thiamine response in maple syrup urine disease.  


We measured the biochemical response for four patients with maple syrup disease to pharmacologic doses of thiamine, and correlated their response to their branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase activity. We observed a linear correlation between the concentrations of each plasma branched-chain amino acid and its corresponding ketoacid analogue. In addition, the renal tubular reabsorption of branched-chain amino and ketoacids was nearly complete within these physiologic concentrations. Three children responded to thiamine therapy with a reduction in concentration of plasma and urinary branched-chain amino and ketoacids. Each responder had at least 5% activity for branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase in their mononuclear blood cells and in whole cell fibroblasts from cultured skin when compared to the activity in normal control cells. We propose that each child with maple syrup urine disease be assessed for their response to thiamine by quantifying the concentration of branched-chain amino acids in plasma before and after vitamin supplementation. PMID:3903643

Fernhoff, P M; Lubitz, D; Danner, D J; Dembure, P P; Schwartz, H P; Hillman, R; Bier, D M; Elsas, L J



Intake of polyphenol-rich pomegranate pure juice influences urinary glucocorticoids, blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in human volunteers.  


Pomegranate juice (PJ; also known as pomegreat pure juice) provides a rich and varied source of polyphenolic compounds that may offer cardioprotective, anti-atherogenic and antihypertensive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PJ consumption on glucocorticoids levels, blood pressure (BP) and insulin resistance in volunteers at high CVD risk. Subjects (twelve males and sixteen females) participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study (BMI: 26·77 (sd 3·36) kg/m(2); mean age: 50·4 (sd 6·1) years). Volunteers were assessed at baseline, and at weeks 2 and 4 for anthropometry, BP and pulse wave velocity. Cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva were determined by specific ELISA methods, and the cortisol/cortisone ratio was calculated. Fasting blood samples were obtained to assess plasma lipids, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Volunteers consumed 500 ml of PJ or 500 ml of a placebo drink containing a similar amount of energy. Cortisol urinary output was reduced but not significant. However, cortisol/cortisone ratios in urine (P = 0·009) and saliva (P = 0·024) were significantly decreased. Systolic BP decreased from 136·4 (sd 6·3) to 128·9 (sd 5·1) mmHg (P = 0·034), and diastolic BP from 80·3 (sd 4·29) to 75·5 (sd 5·17) mmHg (P = 0·031) after 4 weeks of fruit juice consumption. Pulse wave velocity decreased from 7·5 (sd 0·86) to 7·44 (sd 0·94) m/s (P = 0·035). There was also a significant reduction in fasting plasma insulin from 9·36 (sd 5·8) to 7·53 (sd 4·12) mIU/l (P = 0·025) and of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (from 2·216 (sd 1·43) to 1·82 (sd 1·12), P = 0·028). No significant changes were seen in the placebo arm of the study. These results suggest that PJ consumption can alleviate key cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects that might be due to a reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP, possibly through the inhibition of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity as evidenced by the reduction in the cortisol/cortisone ratio. The reduction in insulin resistance might have therapeutic benefits for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25191556

Tsang, Catherine; Smail, Nacer F; Almoosawi, S; Davidson, I; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S




EPA Science Inventory

The analyses of four organophosphorus pesticide poisoning cases, three of which resulted in death, are reported. The case histories of the subjects, along with the analysis of tissues, urine, and blood for the levels of pesticides and metabolites are given. The pesticides involve...


Pentachlorophenol levels in human urine  

SciTech Connect

Pentachlorophenol is perhaps one of the most persistent and widespread pollutants in existence today. The ubiquitous nature of this molecule and its toxicological properties have aroused the interest of numerous researchers in diverse areas of environmental chemistry, occupational health and safety, and environmental and occupational medicine. Unfortunately, due to the unavailability of data indicative of {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} or background levels of PCP exposure in the general population, researchers have encountered difficulty assessing long-term toxicological effects. It is desirable to be able to determine the minimum level of long-term exposure which will result in an adverse effect to human health. There have been a limited number of studies examining PCP levels in the urine of non-occupationally exposed individuals. In continuation of previous work carried out at our laboratory, we have analyzed a series of urine samples which were collected in the middle of winter as opposed to early in the fall. This work will provide further information regarding background levels of PCP and also determine whether or not there is potentially seasonal variation. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Thompson, T.S.; Treble, R.G. [Saskatchewan Health, Regina (Canada)] [Saskatchewan Health, Regina (Canada)



Pelvic urine composition as a determinant of inner medullary solute concentration and urine osmolarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the question whether solute and water fluxes between pelvic urine and the renal papilla contribute to the medullary accumulation of osmotically active substances and thus to final urine concentration, we measured the osmolarity of urine samples from the papillary tip of rat kidneys during superfusion of the exposed papillae with solutions of widely varying osmotic concentrations. When the

W. Schütz; J. Schnermann



Prostaglandin E2 in tick saliva regulates macrophage cell migration and cytokine profile  

PubMed Central

Background Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that suppress the host’s immune and inflammatory responses by secreting immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory molecules in their saliva. In previous studies we have shown that tick salivary gland extract (SGE) and saliva from Dermacentor variabilis have distinct effects on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated IC-21 macrophage and NIH3T3-L1 fibroblast migration. Since tick saliva contains a high concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent modulator of inflammation, we used a PGE2 receptor antagonist to evaluate the role of PGE2 in the different migratory responses induced by saliva and its impact on macrophage cytokine profile. Methods Adult ticks were fed on female New Zealand white rabbits for 5-8 days. Female ticks were stimulated with dopamine/theophylline to induce salivation and saliva was pooled. Competitive enzyme immunoassays (EIA) were used to measure saliva PGE2 content and the changes in macrophage intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. The effects of tick saliva on macrophage and fibroblast migration were assessed in the absence and presence of the PGE2 receptor antagonist, AH 6809, using blind well chamber assays. A cytokine antibody array was used to examine the effects of tick saliva on macrophage cytokine secretion. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA; Student Newman-Kuels post-test was used for multiple comparisons. Results The saliva-induced increase in PDGF-stimulated macrophage migration was reversed by AH 6809. The inhibition of PDGF-stimulated fibroblast migration by saliva was also antagonist-sensitive. Tick saliva induced macrophages to secrete copious amounts of PGE2, and conditioned medium from these cells caused an AH 6809-sensitive inhibition of stimulated fibroblast migration, showing that macrophages can regulate fibroblast activity. We show that tick saliva decreased the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI) through a PGE2-dependent mechanism mediated by cAMP. Saliva had similar effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages. Conclusions Our data show that ticks utilize salivary PGE2 to subvert the ability of macrophages to secrete pro-inflammatory mediators and recruit fibroblasts to the feeding lesion, therefore inhibiting wound healing. PMID:24025197



Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.



Excretion of free amino acids with the urine as a test for early diagnosis of radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the case of 30 individuals who were subjected to combined radiation therapy for treatment of cancer of the uterus, the excretion of free amino acids with the urine and the change in their level in the blood were studied. The increase in amount of several free amino acids in the urine is an early and sensitive indicator of radiation action on the human organism.

Tyutin, L. A.



Determination of ibuprofen in human plasma and urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


This paper describes a GC/MS method for the determination of ibuprofen in human plasma and urine. Ibuprofen and internal standard naproxen were extracted from plasma and urine by using a liquid-liquid extraction method. Derivatization was carried out using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.05-5.0 and 0.1-10.0 microg/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. Intraday and interday precision (RSD) values for ibuprofen in plasma and urine were less than 6.31%, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 12.00%. The mean recovery of ibuprofen was 89.53% for plasma and 93.73% for urine. The LOD was 0.015 and 0.03 microg/mL and the LOQ was 0.05 and 0.1 microg/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The method was successfully applied to blood samples from three healthy male volunteers who had been given an oral tablet of 600 mg ibuprofen. PMID:24830154

Yilmaz, Bilal; Erdem, Ali Fuat



A rapid and noninvasive method to detect dried saliva stains from human skin using fluorescent spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

Objective: Saliva is one of the vital fluids secreted in human beings. Significant amount of saliva is deposited on the skin during biting, sucking or licking, and can act as an important source in forensic evidence. An enzyme, ? amylase, gives a characteristic emission spectrum at 345–355 nm when excited at 282 nm and this can be identified by using fluorescent spectroscopy and can help in forensic identification. This study describes a rapid method to detect dried saliva on the human skin by fluorescent spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: This study included 10 volunteers, who deposited their own saliva on skin of their ventral forearm by licking and water on the contralateral arm as control. This study was carried out at Central Leather Research Institute, Chennai. Study design: Ten volunteers deposited their own saliva on skin of their ventral forearm by licking. A control sample of water was deposited at the contralateral arm. Each sample was excited at 282 nm and emission spectrum was recorded. Results: The emission spectra of 10 swab samples taken from dried saliva were characterized at the primary peak of 345 to 355 nm whereas the emission spectrum of water as a control was recorded at 362 nm. Conclusion: The presence of emission spectrum at 345–355 nm with excitation at 282 nm proves to be a strong indicator of saliva deposited on human skin. PMID:21731273

Nanda, Kanwar Deep Singh; Ranganathan, K; Umadevi, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth



Sealant Microleakage After Using Nano-Filled Bonding Agents on Saliva-Contaminated Enamel  

PubMed Central

Objective: The efficacy of correctly applied fissure sealants has been revealed in the prevention of caries. Saliva and moisture contamination of the etched enamel surface before sealant placement can decrease the bonding strength of the sealant to the enamel. The aim of this study was to test the new bonding agents containing nano-fillers in order to reduce the negative effect of saliva contamination on the sealant micro leakage. Materials and Methods: Seventy five sound human premolars were randomly assigned to five equal groups as follows: Group A: etching, sealant; Group B: etching, saliva contamination, sealant; Group C: etching, saliva contamination, Single bond, sealant; Group D: etching, saliva contamination, Adper Single bond 2, sealant; Group E: etching, saliva contamination, N Bond, sealant. The samples were thermo-cycled and immersed in basic fuchsine 0.5% by weight. Then, the teeth were sectioned bucco-lingually and parallel to the long axis into two segments. Finally, the length of dye penetration at the sealant-tooth interface was scored according to a four-point scale. Results: Micro-leakage was higher in group B compared to the other groups, while there were no differences among the evaluated dentin adhesives. Conclusion: The use of nano-filled bonding agents as an intermediate layer between the etched enamel and the sealant can reduce sealant micro-leakage after saliva contamination at the level of the uncontaminated enamel. PMID:25512749

Paryab, Mehrsa



A non-invasive assessment of hepatitis B virus carrier status using saliva samples.  


A non-invasive testing method to determine hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier status in pregnant women was evaluated. Paired serum and saliva samples were collected and assessment of hepatitis B markers were performed. Of the 502 women enrolled, 5.6% (28/502) of their sera were found to be positive for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). Assessment of 28 HBsAg seroreactive and 200 HBsAg sero-non-reactive paired saliva samples showed that 17 saliva contained HBsAg. Fourteen of the saliva reactive samples were matched to the serum reactive samples (50% sensitivity); and 3 saliva samples were positive for HBsAg among 200 subjects seronegative for HBsAg (98.5% specificity). Seven of the 28 HBsAg positive sera were found to be reactive for HBV envelope antigen (HBeAg) (25%). One of seven HBeAg seroreactive and 16 HBeAg seronegative paired saliva samples tested were non-reactive for HBeAg. This report found a non-invasive saliva testing method to be a possible alternative approach for determining chronic HBV carrier status if the sensitivity of the test can be improved. PMID:9031406

Richards, A L; Perrault, J G; Caringal, L T; Manaloto, C R; Sie, A; Graham, R; Ramos, R M; Leonardo, J B; Hyams, K C




Microsoft Academic Search

Uric acid, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, total serum protein, cholesterol, triglyceride, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and chloride concentrations in the blood plus pH, bilirubin, ketone, blood, protein and glucose levels in the urine were determined for gray squirrels captured in Jacksonville, Florida. Significant differences were not noted for any of these values when compared by the age or sex of the



Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein  

PubMed Central

We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C23-X7/9-C33-X23/24-C58-C8-C67X7-X75-X23-C99-X15-C115-X10-C126X24/25/33-C150C151-X7-C159-X8-X168-X23/24-C192-X9/10-C202 predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24 h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 h and 48 h tick saliva proteins (TSPs). Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ~160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ~16% and caused ~24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (~44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24 h Ixodes scapularis TSPs specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. PMID:23428900

Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini



Grass-green urine from propofol infusion.  


Green urine from propofol infusion is a benign and rare side effect. The discolouration appears when clearance of propofol exceeds hepatic elimination, and extrahepatic elimination of propofol occurs. This case report presents a 24-year-old male with grass green discolouration of urine based on propofol infusion. PMID:25394533

Pedersen, A B; Kobborg, T K; Larsen, J R



Clinical Significance of Mites in Urine  

PubMed Central

We report a case where a mite egg found in urine caused diagnostic confusion. The possibility of gut or bladder mite infection should be entertained only after repeated identification of mites in urine or stool samples from a symptomatic patient with no other cause for the symptoms and where the possibilities of contamination and spurious infection have been excluded. PMID:16333130

Dini, Leigh A.; Frean, John A.



Genetics Home Reference: Maple syrup urine disease  


... but they still involve developmental delay and other health problems if not treated. How common is maple syrup urine disease? Maple syrup urine disease affects an estimated 1 in 185,000 infants worldwide. The disorder occurs much more frequently in ...


Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...


Source Separation and Treament of Anthropogenic Urine  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: Anthropogenic urine, although only 1% of domestic wastewater flow, is responsible for 50-80% of the nutrients and a substantial portion of the pharmaceuticals and hormones present in the influent to wastewater treatment plants. Source separation and treatment of urine...


Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.



Oral Fluid Based Biomarkers in Periodontal Disease: Part 1. Saliva  

PubMed Central

Traditional clinical measurements such as probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss; plaque index and radiographs used for periodontal diagnosis are often of limited usefulness as they are indicators of previous periodontal disease rather than present disease activity. A literature search was carried out to find out all the available tests that indicate periodontal disease markers in saliva. All major databases were searched to compile the information on published reports between 1999 and 2014. The list of biomarkers available to date is compiled and presented in a table format. Each biomarker is discussed separately based on the available evidence. Based on the evidence, it can be concluded that several sensitive salivary indicators of periodontitis are available to detect the presence, severity and response to treatment. Further studies are warranted to analyze the sensitivity and reliability of these indicators that might help in developing non-invasive tests that could help in the diagnosis of periodontal disease. PMID:25214743

AlMoharib, Hani S; AlMubarak, Abdulrahman; AlRowis, Raed; Geevarghese, Amrita; Preethanath, R S; Anil, Sukumaran



Determination of loperamide in human plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5?m) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50?l sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-?, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated. PMID:25444541

Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; Awad, Riad; Awwad, Ahmad Abu



Biochemical and Immunological Modifications in Saliva of SFINCSS Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of Russian and foreign volunteers and was divided onto 3 parts, 4 persons per each depending on isolation time. All the individuals were isolated days in confined habitat.: 1st group - 240 days; 2nd and 3rd - 110 days each. 1 group members were individually orally instructed on perfect dental care, 2nd group members were given an instruction how to use means for mouth and dental care. 3rd group was only studied but was not given any instruction. Biochemical studies of non-stimulated mixed saliva were done before and after the experiment. protein concentration increased due to increasing of it's density. The urea concentration did not changed. The glucose concentration changes were flexible within norm values before experiment and sufficiently increased after the experiment only in two individuals. Natrium and potassium level was stable and did not differed from normal value before and after the experiment. There was a tendency of decreasing of calcium concentration in volunteers saliva as a result of their long-term isolation. Concentration of non-organic phosphor did not changed. Alanintranspherase (ALT) activity increased 2-3 times in 3 volunteers, aspartataminotranspherase (AST) activity increased in three people. No changes were revealed for alpha-amilase. Content of IgG increased which fact indirectly suggest bacterial overgrowth. No changes in IgA and SIgA were estimated. of urea and glucose didn't changed. The concentration of calcium had a tendency to decrease, no changes for non-organic phosphor, potassium and natrium. However ALT and AST values sufficiently increased as well as IgG concentration. isolation, despite of individual measures of mouth and dental care, and in group of 110-day isolation with no hygienic measures. Significant indices of mouth and dental state in long-term isolation are levels of: protein ALT, AST (cytoplasmatic enzymes), and IgG.

Volozhin, A. I.; Kuznetsov, P. A.; Ilyin, V. K.; Kuzmina, E. M.; Sashkina, T. I.


The role of crude human saliva and purified salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins in the inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 in an inhibition assay  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the continuous shedding of HIV infected blood into the oral cavity and the detectable presence of the AIDS virus at a high frequency, human saliva is reported to inhibit oral transmission of HIV through kissing, dental treatment, biting, and aerosolization. The purpose of this study was to purify salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from crude saliva and determine their anti-HIV-1 activities. Methods Following Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and caesium chloride isopycnic density-gradient ultra-centrifugation, the purity and identity of the mucins was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis respectively. Subsequently an HIV-1 inhibition assay was carried out to determine the anti-HIV-1 activity of the crude saliva and purified salivary mucins by incubating them with subtype D HIV-1 prior to infection of the CD4+ CEM SS cells. Results Western blotting analysis confirmed that the mucin in the void volume is MUC5B and the mucin in the included volume is MUC7. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that both the crude saliva and salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins inhibited HIV-1 activity by 100%. Conclusion Although the mechanism of action is not clear the carbohydrate moieties of the salivary mucins may trap or aggregate the virus and prevent host cell entry. PMID:17125499

Habte, Habtom H; Mall, Anwar S; de Beer, Corena; Lotz, Zoë E; Kahn, Delawir



Immunodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis using urine samples.  


Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is one of the most lethal zoonotic parasitic infections. The diagnosis is based on the combination of the abdominal imaging including CT, MRI and PET, and serology. To develop a new diagnostic tool for AE with urine as samples, mouse-Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) model and then human cases were studied. The antibody levels of urine and serum samples from the infected mice and AE cases were well correlated with each other. The sensitivity and specificity of the method with urine were 91% and 98%, respectively, when IgG4 to crude Em was examined. Comparing with serum samples, the collection of urine is easier and safer and the urine diagnostic tool makes surveys of this silent disease easier. PMID:23872436

Itoh, Makoto; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Ishikawa, Yuji; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Nagaoka, Fumiaki; Ito, Akira



28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...shall have each positive urine test validated to if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for the presence of drugs which the inmate cannot...and a copy of positive urine testing results which the...



10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the remaining urine into Bottle...laboratory for drug and validity testing; and (3...splitting of the urine specimen and...for additional drugs, as permitted...if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...



Exosomes in urine biomarker discovery.  


Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, and they can be isolated in a non-invasive manner. Following the discovery of urinary exosomes in 2004, many studies have been performed using urinary exosomes as a starting material to identify biomarkers in various renal, urogenital, and systemic diseases. Here, we describe the discovery of urinary exosomes and address the issues on the collection, isolation, and normalization of urinary exosomes as well as delineate the systems biology approach to biomarker discovery using urinary exosomes. PMID:25355568

Huebner, Alyssa R; Somparn, Poorichaya; Benjachat, Thitima; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak



Mommy, kiss it and make it well: saliva reconsidered-some reflections on alloantisepsis.  


Human saliva is a two-edged sword. The mouth can infect, and it can also heal. Saliva is a component of the immune system. Many antibacterial factors as well as digestive enzymes are present in sputum, and oxidizing agents abet oral defense mechanisms. The biological equilibrium of the mouth enhances its antimicrobial environment. Saliva cleans the wound by lavage, promoting healing while protecting injured tissues. Awareness of both the adverse and salubrious effects of sputum should inform the treatment of wounds with oral contact. PMID:22643756

Siegel, Irwin M



Dual mechanism of brain injury and novel treatment strategy in maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children commonly suffer metabolic decompensation in the context of catabolic stress associated with non-specific illness. The mechanisms underlying this decompensation and brain injury are poorly understood. Using recently developed mouse models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease, we assessed biochemical, behavioural and neuropathological changes that occurred during encephalopathy in these mice. Here, we show that rapid brain leucine accumulation displaces other essential amino acids resulting in neurotransmitter depletion and disruption of normal brain growth and development. A novel approach of administering norleucine to heterozygous mothers of classic maple syrup urine disease pups reduced branched-chain amino acid accumulation in milk as well as blood and brain of these pups to enhance survival. Similarly, norleucine substantially delayed encephalopathy in intermediate maple syrup urine disease mice placed on a high protein diet that mimics the catabolic stress shown to cause encephalopathy in human maple syrup urine disease. Current findings suggest two converging mechanisms of brain injury in maple syrup urine disease including: (i) neurotransmitter deficiencies and growth restriction associated with branched-chain amino acid accumulation and (ii) energy deprivation through Krebs cycle disruption associated with branched-chain ketoacid accumulation. Both classic and intermediate models appear to be useful to study the mechanism of brain injury and potential treatment strategies for maple syrup urine disease. Norleucine should be further tested as a potential treatment to prevent encephalopathy in children with maple syrup urine disease during catabolic stress. PMID:19293241

Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.



Increase of hepcidin plasma and urine levels is associated with acute proctitis and changes in hemoglobin levels in primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To analyse hepcidin serum and urine levels during radiotherapy for prostate cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In 18 patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer, blood, plasma, and urine samples were taken before and during\\u000a radiotherapy. Complete blood cell count, pro-hepcidin-, ferritin-, transferrin-, IL-1?-, IL-6-, and TNF-? concentration was\\u000a determined. Pro-hepcidin concentration was additionally measured in urine samples. Toxicity was evaluated weekly. Differences\\u000a among tested

Hans Christiansen; Bernhard Saile; Robert M. Hermann; Margret Rave-Fränk; Andrea Hille; Heinz Schmidberger; Clemens F. Hess; Giuliano Ramadori



Blood pressure  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...


Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride Latifa KINANI and Abdelilah CHTAINI*  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

unknown authors


High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) Assay for the Determination of Chlorhexidine in Saliva Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

An HPLC assay for the determination of chlorhexidine in small samples (<1 ?l) of saliva is described. A base deactivated reverse phase C-18 narrow bore column (ODS-B Exsil) was used for the analysis. Saliva samples were collected on Periopaper strips and chlorhexidine was extracted with 0.1 ml mobile phase. The optimal mobile phase comprised 55%v\\/v acetonitrile, 0.2%v\\/v glacial acetic acid,

Natalie J. Medlicott; Don G. Ferry; Ian G. Tucker; Michael J. Rathbone; Doug W. Holborow; David S. Jones



Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Essential for the Survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Human Saliva  

PubMed Central

Since Streptococcus pneumoniae transmits through droplet spread, this respiratory tract pathogen may be able to survive in saliva. Here, we show that saliva supports survival of clinically relevant S. pneumoniae strains for more than 24 h in a capsule-independent manner. Moreover, saliva induced growth of S. pneumoniae in growth-permissive conditions, suggesting that S. pneumoniae is well adapted for uptake of nutrients from this bodily fluid. By using Tn-seq, a method for genome-wide negative selection screening, we identified 147 genes potentially required for growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva, among which genes predicted to be involved in cell envelope biosynthesis, cell transport, amino acid metabolism, and stress response predominated. The Tn-seq findings were validated by testing a panel of directed gene deletion mutants for their ability to survive in saliva under two testing conditions: at room temperature without CO2, representing transmission, and at 37°C with CO2, representing in-host carriage. These validation experiments confirmed that the plsX gene and the amiACDEF and aroDEBC operons, involved in respectively fatty acid metabolism, oligopeptide transport, and biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids play an important role in the growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva at 37°C. In conclusion, this study shows that S. pneumoniae is well-adapted for growth and survival in human saliva and provides a genome-wide list of genes potentially involved in adaptation. This notion supports earlier evidence that S. pneumoniae can use human saliva as a vector for transmission. PMID:24586856

Verhagen, Lilly M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Burghout, Peter; Schraa, Kiki; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Mennens, Svenja; Eleveld, Marc J.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E.; Zomer, Aldert; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.



Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker’s saliva  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

Oguri, Makoto; O’Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.



Saliva vs. plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans: validation of class II drugs of the salivary excretion classification system.  


To study saliva and plasma bioequivalence of metformin in humans, and to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS).Plasma and saliva samples were collected for 12?h after 500?mg oral dosing of metformin to 16 healthy humans. Plasma and saliva pharmacokinetic parameters, 90% confidence intervals and intra-subject variability values were calculated using Kinetica V5. Descriptive statistics and dimensional analysis were calculated by Excel. SimCYP program V13 was used for estimation of effective intestinal permeability.Metformin was subjected to salivary excretion since it falls into class II (Low permeability/High fraction unbound to plasma proteins), with correlation coefficients of 0.95-0.99 between plasma and saliva concentrations. Saliva/plasma concentration ratios were 0.29-0.39. The 90% confidence limits of all parameters failed in both saliva and plasma. Intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than plasma leading to need for higher number of subjects to be used in saliva.Saliva instead of plasma can be used as surrogate for bioequivalence of class II drugs according to SECS when adequate sample size is used. Future work is planned to demonstrate SECS robustness in drugs that fall into class III. PMID:24452520

Idkaidek, N; Arafat, T



Tick saliva inhibits differentiation, maturation and function of murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells  

PubMed Central

Haematophagous arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, tsetse flies, sandflies and ticks have evolved salivary immunomodulatory factors that prevent the vertebrate host from rejecting them meanwhile enhancing pathogen transmission. As dendritic cells (DC) play a major role in host immune responses, we studied the effects of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva on DC differentiation and maturation. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the addition of saliva to bone marrow cells inhibits the differentiation of DC and decreased the population of differentiated immature DC, increasing the levels of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II while not altering the expression of costimulatory (CD40, CD80 and CD86) and adhesion (CD54) molecules. Furthermore, maturation of DC stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of saliva resulted in a lower expression of costimulatory molecules, but did not alter the up-regulation of MHC class II and CD54. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-matured DC cultured with saliva also presented reduced production of interleukin-12, whereas interleukin-10 production was unaltered. Assessment of the function of DC cultured with tick saliva revealed them to be poor stimulators of cytokine production by antigen-specific T cells. Our data indicate a novel modulatory role for the saliva of arthropod vectors at an initial step of the immune response through the inhibition of differentiation and maturation of DC into functional antigen-presenting cells. PMID:15667568

Cavassani, Karen A; Aliberti, Júlio C; Dias, Alexandra R V; Silva, João S; Ferreira, Beatriz R



Orthodontic treatment effects on inflammatory marker profiles in saliva before and after 2 archwire changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodontal tissue changes exerted by external forces in orthodontic treatment allow tooth movement. The changes in periodontal tissues i.e. inflammation can be monitored using gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). GCF is a component of saliva. Saliva could be used to monitor periodontal disease progression. The use of saliva to monitor periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment is still unknown. Therefore, we observed the profiles of inflammatory markers namely creatine kinase ('CK), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of orthodontic patients to evaluate their importance in orthodontic treatment. A total of 21 subjects (13 female and 8 male) participated in this study. Samples were collected from gingival crevicular fluid at three period of archwire changes: baseline (M0), 2 weeks after 0.014" NiTi archwire (M1), and 2 weeks after 0.018" NiTi archwire (M2). All enzyme activities i.e. CK, LDH and AST were measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Griess assay was used to measure nitric oxide level. CK activity, NO level, LDH activity and AST activity in saliva samples did not show significant differences among period of archwire changes. The use of inflammatory marker profiles in saliva may not represent the changes in periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment.

Yamamoto, Zulham; Jaafar, Ikmal Mohamad; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Ariffin, Zaidah Zainal; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal



Measuring nicotine intake in population surveys: comparability of saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine estimates.  


Both plasma and saliva cotinine levels have been reported in surveys of smoking behavior, and it is of interest to know how closely these two measures correspond. Plasma and saliva specimens were gathered from a sample of 605 respondents in the 1998 Health Survey for England and assayed for cotinine by a well-proven gas chromatographic method. Plasma and saliva cotinine concentrations were highly correlated (r=.99). On average, concentrations in saliva were 25% higher than in plasma, and this ratio applied both at the low levels attributable to passive smoking and across the range of active smoking values. The ratio was somewhat lower in younger people than in older people and also varied significantly by body mass index but did not differ by gender. Calculation of the limits of agreement revealed substantial uncertainty in the predicted plasma value corresponding to a given saliva cotinine, and vice versa. For comparisons across subjects, the mean plasma cotinine level corresponding to a mean saliva cotinine level can be estimated with confidence, but at the level of the individual, considerable predictive uncertainty remains. PMID:12791530

Jarvis, Martin J; Primatesta, Paola; Erens, Bob; Feyerabend, Colin; Bryant, Andrew




PubMed Central

O-glycans in saliva and tear isolated from patients suffering from ocular rosacea, a form of inflammatory ocular surface disease, were profiled and their structures were elucidated using high resolution mass spectrometry. We have previously shown that certain structures, particularly sulfated oligosaccharides, increased in the tear and saliva of rosacea patients. In this study, the structures of these glycans were elucidated using primarily tandem mass spectrometry. There were important similarities in the glycan profiles of tears and saliva with the majority of the structures in common. The structures of the most abundant species common to both tear and saliva, which were also the most abundant species in both, were elucidated. For sulfated species, the positions of the sulfate groups were localized. The majority of the structures were new, with the sulfated glycans comprising of mucin core 1 and core 2-typestructures. As both saliva and tear are rich in mucins, it is suggested that the O-glycans are mainly components of mucins. The study further illustrates the strong correspondence between the glycans in the tear and saliva of ocular rosacea patients. PMID:23294139

Ozcan, Sureyya; An, Hyun Joo; Vieira, Ana C.; Park, GunWook; Kim, Jae Han; Mannis, Mark J.; Lebrilla, Carlito B.



Development of an indirect competitive ELISA for the detection of ABO blood group antigens.  


We developed an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of ABO blood group antigens in human samples; in particular for blood stains. ABO blood group antigens conjugated to polyacrylamide were used for immobilized antigen. ABO blood group antigens were extracted from blood stains using a novel method involving pre-incubation with proteinase K (PK), followed by heat treatment. The extracts (analytes) were combined with either anti-A or -B monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and added directly to the antigen-coated wells. The anti-A and -B mAbs were captured by either ABO blood group antigens present in the analyte or by the immobilized blood group antigens. Peroxidase-conjugated anti-mouse IgM antibody was used to detect anti-A and -B mAbs complexed with immobilized blood group antigens, and a colorimetric reaction using o-phenylenediamine/H2O2 used for its measurement. The ELISA developed in this study was able to detect blood group antigens in blood, saliva and blood stains. The detection limit for unknown blood, saliva and blood stain were determined as 1:200, 1:32 and 1:16. Overall the ABO blood grouping ELISA can be used with relative ease for the high throughput screening of biological samples for the detection of ABO blood group antigens. PMID:24637072

Takada, Naoki; Mori, Chikahiro; Iida, Mizuho; Takai, Rie; Takayama, Tomohiro; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Nakamura, Kohei; Takamizawa, Kazuhiro



The anti-transglutaminase auto-antibodies in children’s saliva with a suspect coeliac disease: clinical study  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The coeliac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by an ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Like some other systemic diseases (Crohn’s disease, Sjögren’s syndrome) the celiac disease is able to alter the oral ecosystem and the composition of the saliva. Aim. The aim of this retrospective study has been to examine the incidence of coeliac disease (CD) in paediatric population and to search the presence of anti-transglutaminase auto-antibodies (anti-tTG) in saliva, comparing and quantifying the concentration regard to the serum values of the anti-tTG auto-antibodies, before and after six months from the beginning of the free gluten diet. Materials and Methods. 105 children (G0), aged between 5 and 13 years, belonging to the Paediatric Gastroenterology-Endoscopy Unit of PTV Hospital, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, have been examined for a diagnosis of suspected CD. Results. Of a total of 105 pediatric patients (G0), only the 16.2% (G1) has showed to be positive. About the evaluation of the anti-tTG auto-antibodies in the serum, obtained from the second blood sample (T1), we can observe that 10 (G2) out of 17 children (G1) show positivity and for this reason they have been subjected to a sampling of intestinal villi to confirm the diagnosis of CD; in addition the 6.7% has been resulted positive at the first sampling of serum (T0), but negative to the second one (T1). The incidence of the CD has been resulted to be equal to 9.5%. About the evaluation of anti-tTG in the G1, we can observe that 58.8% of children are “definitely positive” to the salivary anti-tTG, while 11.8% appear to be weakly positive. About the correspondence of serum and salivary anti-tTG in Group G1, we can observe, that children positive to the anti-tTG in the serum have also the anti-tTG in the salivary fluid (sensibility 100%, specificity 71.4%). The results show that the anti-tTG salivary are present in children with CD, even though they have continued to follow the gluten free diet for 6 months. Conclusions. The presence of anti-tTG in the saliva may be considered, an additional and useful diagnostic dental marker for an initial, reproducible, non invasive, inexpensive and highly sensitive screening of CD having a predictive and precocious value compared to anti-tTG contained in the serum, as it has been already demonstrated. PMID:24175054




Selected blood components and urinary B vitamins as related to age and sex of black population in Southwest Mississippi?3  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of age and sex on selected blood components and urinary B vitamins of 304 black persons over 5 years of age from 200 households in Southwest Mississippi were studied. Fasting blood and urine were collected early in the morning. Whole blood was used for the determination of hematocrit, hemoglobin, red blood cells, and white blood cells; the scra

Eunsook T. Koh


Urine Specimens: Tips to Help Children  


... website will be limited. Search Help? Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Share this page: ... child to drink before the office visit can help the child need to urinate when it is ...


Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications  

E-print Network

. Waterless, or no-flush urinals, may help mitigate these effects and offer other advantages, including lower utility charges, improved restroom hygiene, and decreased fixture maintenance. Some notable caveats include possible lack of acceptance by users, odor...

Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.



Systematic variations associated with renal disease uncovered by parallel metabolomics of urine and serum  

PubMed Central

Background Membranous nephropathy is an important glomerular disease characterized by podocyte injury and proteinuria, but no metabolomics research was reported as yet. Here, we performed a parallel metabolomics study, based on human urine and serum, to comprehensively profile systematic metabolic variations, identify differential metabolites, and understand the pathogenic mechanism of membranous nephropathy. Results There were obvious metabolic distinctions between the membranous nephropathy patients with urine protein lower than 3.5 g/24 h (LUPM) and those higher than 3.5 g/24 h (HUPM) by Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) model analysis. In total, 26 urine metabolites and 9 serum metabolites were identified to account for such differences, and the majority of metabolites were significantly increased in HUPM patients for both urines and serums. Combining the results of urine with serum, all differential metabolites were classified to 5 classes. This classification helps globally probe the systematic metabolic alterations before and after blood flowing through kidney. Citric acid and 4 amino acids were markedly increased only in the serum samples of HUPM patients, implying more impaired filtration function of kidneys of HUPM patients than LUPM patients. The dicarboxylic acids, phenolic acids, and cholesterol were significantly elevated only in urines of HUPM patients, suggesting more severe oxidative attacks than LUPM patients. Conclusions Parallel metabolomics of urine and serum revealed the systematic metabolic variations associated with LUPM and HUPM patients, where HUPM patients suffered more severe injury of kidney function and oxidative stresses than LUPM patients. This research exhibited a promising application of parallel metabolomics in renal diseases. PMID:23046838



Tick saliva regulates migration, phagocytosis, and gene expression in the macrophage-like cell line, IC-21.  


We studied the effects of tick saliva on cell migration, cell signaling, phagocytosis, and gene expression in the murine macrophage cell line, IC-21. Saliva increased both basal- and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated migration in IC-21 cells. However, saliva did not affect PDGF-stimulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. Zymosan-mediated interleukin-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK) activity increased when cells were pretreated with saliva. Saliva suppressed phagocytosis of zymosan particles by IC-21 cells. An RT(2) Profiler™ PCR Array revealed that saliva regulates gene expression in a manner consistent with an immune response skewed toward a Th2 reaction, which is characterized by production of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. Our results using IC-21 cells suggest that Dermacentor variabilis has evolved a mechanism for regulating macrophage function, which may contribute to the tick's ability to modulate immune function. PMID:21145320

Kramer, Carolyn D; Poole, Nina M; Coons, Lewis B; Cole, Judith A



[Foam in urine: from Hippocrates to the Medical School of Salerno].  


The formation of persistent little bubbles in urine, similar to those of beer, was noticed since ancient times by the first scholars of uroscopy. The diagnostic interest, rare and uncertain in Hippocrates, has increased over time. The Hippocratic school limited itself to observe the sign without interpreting the pathophysiology and they did not compare it with other clinical signs. Hippocratic texts only expressed an opinion on the severity and prognosis of the pathology which had produced it. Galen does not differ much from the Hippocratic school, however he tries to interpret the cause of the formation of bubbles in urine. Certainly, because of being unfamiliar to the laws of fluids and to the surperficial tension of liquids, he believes that the air contained in the bubbles of the foam in the urine comes from inside the organism. However, he realizes that the foam in urine is formed only when the urine is denser (more viscous).The Byzantine uroscopy, with Theophilus Protospatharius and Stephen of Athens considers the presence of foam quite important. In fact, they state that the bubbles appear in the urine when there is a severe failure of the organism. It is a sign of the attempt of the body to eliminate the bad humours produced in the different zones where digestion takes place. Several authors from the School of Salerno express different opinions on the production of foam in urine. Cofone affirms it derives from the putrefied blood in dense urine and he also uses this sign for diagnostic and prognostic results. Mattheus Archiepiscopus confirms Galens belief that the foam derives from wind bubbles produced in the stomach. The "De Urinis" of Maestro Mauro is strongly influenced by the writings of Constantine the African, who reports the experience of Isaac. The "humani corporis regiones" and the "regiones urine" are described and therefore Mauro tries to localize in which region of the body the bad humours were produced. In particular, the chapter on "De ycteritia" is an exact description of the foam in urine generated by the elimination of bad humours produced in excess by the liver (bile salts). PMID:24777927

Iorio, Luigi; Lamagna, Mario



Blood clotting  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...


Blood Transfusions  


... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood Blood is like the body's transportation system, busy ... his or her body. Continue What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a relatively simple medical ...


Blood Transfusion  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...


Blood Thinners  


If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...


Effect of tick saliva on signalling pathways activated by TLR-2 ligand and Borrelia afzelii in dendritic cells.  


Dendritic cells are a sentinel in defending against pathogens and tick saliva facilitates transmission of tick-borne pathogens by modulating the host immune response. The maturation of dendritic cells is inhibited by tick saliva. To elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition, we tested the impact of Ixodes ricinus tick saliva on signalling pathways activated by Toll-like receptor (TLR-2) ligand and Borrelia afzelii in spleen dendritic cells. The activation of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways was decreased by tick saliva upon both TLR-2 and Borrelia stimulation. Among the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), the activation of extracellular matrix-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) was suppressed by tick saliva, but not p38. In response to spirochaetes, the amount of TNF-? decreased in the presence of tick saliva which was mediated by selective suppression of Erk1/2, NF-?B and Akt as tick saliva mimicked the effect of their specific inhibitors, UO126, IKK-IV and LY294002, respectively. Saliva-induced enhancement of IL-10 was not observed in the presence of specific inhibitor of Protein Kinase A (PKA), H-89, suggesting the involvement of PKA pathway in IL-10 production. Our cumulative data show that tick saliva interferes with several signalling pathways, thus modulating the immune functions of dendritic cells. PMID:22709526

Lieskovska, Jaroslava; Kopecky, J



Proteomic Analysis of Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Saliva: A Comparison between Partially and Fully Engorged Females  

PubMed Central

The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship. PMID:24762651

Terra, Renata Maria Soares; Martins, João Ricardo; Mulenga, Albert; Sherman, Nicholas E.; Fox, Jay W.; Yates, John R.; Termignoni, Carlos; Pinto, Antônio F. M.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara



Blood Disorders  


... called plasma, is made of water, salts and protein. Over half of your blood is plasma. The solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood and ...


False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.  


Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent. PMID:24456228

Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros



Blood sugar test - blood  


... between 70 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) is considered normal. If you had a random ... blood glucose level will be below 125 mg/dL. The examples above show the common measurements for ...


Role of oxidative stress and mitochondria in onset of urinary bladder dysfunction under acute urine retention.  


Acute urine retention is a frequent complication in patients with benign hyperplasia of the prostate gland. According to studies made on experimental animals and people, it is accompanied by the deterioration of the bladder blood supply. This study attempts to explore the relationship of intramural blood flow, production of reactive oxygen species, and functional state of the bladder detrusor in modeling of acute urine retention in rats, as well as the impact of mitochondria-targeted antioxidants (which are supposed to alleviate the effects of oxidative stress induced by experimental ischemia) on these parameters. The study showed beneficial effects of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQR1 in preventing damage of the bladder caused by acute urinary retention, which suggests the therapeutic use of this type of compounds for the treatment of ischemic abnormalities of the urinary bladder. PMID:23848157

Kirpatovsky, V I; Plotnikov, E Y; Mudraya, I S; Golovanov, S A; Drozhzheva, V V; Khromov, R A; Chernikov, D Y; Skulachev, V P; Zorov, D B



Subclinical Reactivation and Shed of Infectious Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have previously detected VZV in healthy astronauts both during spaceflight and shortly after landing. Herein, we show that VZV shed in seropositive astronauts is infectious. A total of 40 saliva samples were obtained from each of the 3 astronauts. From each astronaut, 14 samples were taken 109 to 133 days before liftoff, 1 sample was taken every day during 12 days in space, and one sample was taken for 14 consecutive days beginning the second day after landing. Quantitative PCR was used to detect VZV DNA in saliva. None of 42 preflight saliva samples contained VZV DNA. VZV DNA was detected in saliva from 2 of 3 astronauts. In 1 astronaut, 6 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 120 to 2,500 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 1250 copies of VZV DNA were present on day 2, 45 copies on day 3, and 110 copies on day 5. All samples taken 6 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. In the second astronaut, 5 of 12 samples obtained during space flight contained 18 to 650 copies of VZV DNA per ml; after landing, 560 copies of VZV DNA were present in saliva on day 2, 340 copies on day 4, 45 copies on day 5, and 23 copes on day 6. All samples taken 7 to 15 days after touchdown were negative for VZV DNA. Saliva taken 2 to 6 days after landing from all 3 astronauts was cultured on human fetal lung cells. After one subcultivation, a cytopathic effect developed in cultures inoculated with saliva from the two astronauts whose saliva contained VZV DNA. Both PCR and immunostaining identified the isolates to be VZV and not HSV-1. Importantly, the astronaut in whom no VZV was detected had a history of zoster 9 years earlier. It is possible that a boost in cell-mediated immunity to VZV which is known to develop after zoster protected him from subclinical reactivation. The genotype of the two VZV isolates was determined by VZV ORF22-based PCR/sequencing along with FRET-based PCR assays that target specific nucleotide polymorphisms. Both VZV isolates were found to be the European genotype which also contained a rare MspI restriction enodnuclease site in VZV ORF62 at position 107,252. These findings extend our previous demonstration of VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts by showing that infectious VZV is also present. Thus, like HSV-1 and HSV-2, VZV can reactivate and shed infectious virus in the absence of clinical disease.

Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.



Analysis of age and gender associated N-glycoproteome in human whole saliva  

PubMed Central

Background Glycoproteins comprise a large portion of the salivary proteome and have great potential for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. However, the rate of production and the concentration of whole saliva change with age, gender and physiological states of the human body. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salivary glycoproteome of healthy individuals of different ages and genders is a prerequisite for saliva to have clinical utility. Methods Formerly N-linked glycopeptides were isolated from the pooled whole saliva of six age and gender groups by hydrazide chemistry and hydrophilic affinity methods followed by mass spectrometry identification. Selected physiochemical characteristics of salivary glycoproteins were analyzed, and the salivary glycoproteomes of different age and gender groups were compared based on their glycoprotein components and gene ontology. Results and discussion Among 85?N-glycoproteins identified in healthy human saliva, the majority were acidic proteins with low molecular weight. The numbers of salivary N-glycoproteins increased with age. Fifteen salivary glycoproteins were identified as potential age- or gender-associated glycoproteins, and many of them have functions related to innate immunity against microorganisms and oral cavity protection. Moreover, many salivary glycoproteins have been previously reported as disease related glycoproteins. This study reveals the important role of salivary glycoproteins in the maintenance of oral health and homeostasis and the great potential of saliva for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. PMID:24994967



Diagnostic Efficacy of Saliva For Dengue - A Reality in Near Future? A Piloting Initiative  

PubMed Central

Background: Dengue, a mosquito-transmitted viral infection presents variable symptoms, including death. Due to their increasing incidences, early detection and improved diagnoses of severe cases are of prime importance. Currently, viral antigens and antibodies are detected by traditional serological tests. However, the introduction of oral fluid as an alternative, has led to many researches. Hence, this prompted us to carry out a pilot study to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of saliva in detecting dengue antibody by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Aim and objectives: To evaluate the presence of Dengue antibody in saliva and its sensitivity and specificity through ELISA. Methodology and Results: Twenty seropositive patients and twenty seronegative patients of Dengue were considered individually. Saliva samples collected from these patients were subjected to ELISA test for detection of Dengue antibody. A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% were obtained for making a diagnosis of Dengue infection. Conclusion: Many studies have been conducted by utilizing saliva as a diagnostic tool, especially in western population. Its advantages over venipuncture are many, especially as it is less invasive, safe, less expensive and as it allows large numbers of samples to be collected easily for screening and epidemiological purposes. In a developing tropical country like India, such a diagnostic tool has to be encouraged. Further research necessitates the implementation of saliva as a diagnostic tool. PMID:24783144

Ravi Banavar, Spoorthi; G.S., Vidya



Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim to test the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for indirect measurement of human saliva secretion in response to taste stimuli for potential application to organoleptic testing. We use an NIRS system to measure extracranial hemodynamics (Hb-signals around the temples) of healthy participants when taste stimuli are taken in their mouths. First, the Hb-signals and volume of expelled saliva (stimulated by distilled-water or sucrose-solution intake) are simultaneously measured and large Hb-signal changes in response to the taste stimuli (Hb-responses) are found. Statistical analysis show that both the Hb response and saliva volume are larger for the sucrose solution than for the distilled water with a significant correlation between them (r = 0.81). The effects of swallowing on the Hb-signals are investigated. Similar Hb responses, differing from the sucrose solution and distilled water, are obtained even though the participants swallow the mouth contents. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to identify possible sources of the Hb signals corresponding to salivation. Statistical analysis indicates similar responses in the extracranial regions, mainly around the middle meningeal artery. In conclusion, the identified correlation between extracranial hemodynamics and the saliva volume suggests that NIRS is applicable to the measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.

Sato, Hiroki; Obata, Akiko N.; Moda, Ichiro; Ozaki, Kazutaka; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamamoto, Yukari; Kiguchi, Masashi; Maki, Atsushi; Kubota, Kisou; Koizumi, Hideaki



[Alpha-amylase isoenzymes in serum and saliva of patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa].  


In the serum and saliva of 45 patients with eating disorders and in 30 normal controls, alpha-amylase activity and isoamylase levels were measured. Of the 45 patients evaluated, 12 had restrictive anorexia nervosa, 13 were bulimic anorectics and 20 had bulimia nervosa. In all these groups, the mean alpha-amylase values in serum and saliva were higher than that of the control group. The proportion of pancreatic (P)- and salivary (S)-alpha-amylase isoenzymes in serum were within the normal range for the patient group with restrictive anorexia nervosa, whereas the bulimic anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa patients showed significantly greater increases in S- than P-isoamylase activity. The correlation of the salivary alpha-Amylase isoenzym pattern in serum and saliva pointed to the salivary glands as origin of the elevated salivary isoamylase levels in serum. Hyperamylasemia was found in 10 (25%) of the 45 patients with eating disorders. Three of these patients showed besides an increased S-alpha-amylase activity also pathologically elevated P-alpha-amylase and lipase activity in serum; however there were no abdominal symptoms, laboratory data or ultrasonic signs of pancreatitis. In all patients with eating disorders, the mean concentration and secretion of alpha-amylase in saliva were increased. Swelling of the salivary glands was present in 14 patients. In these cases the percentage of salivary-isoamylase activity in total serum alpha-amylase activity was increased significantly, whereas the alpha-amylase secretion in the resting saliva was decreased. PMID:1950041

Scheutzel, P; Gerlach, U



Chip electrophoresis as a novel approach to measure the polyphenols reactivity toward human saliva.  


Saliva is a biological fluid with a multifunctional role that makes it interesting in terms of research and diagnostic possibilities. In food research, human saliva represented a useful tool by which we measure the tactile sensation elicited by polyphenol-rich beverages called astringency. A method based on SDS-PAGE analysis of saliva before and after the binding reaction with wine polyphenols has been successfully used in previous studies for measuring wine astringency by means of the saliva precipitation index. In this work, chip electrophoresis was used alternatively to SDS-PAGE and results were compared. Chip electrophoresis provides a very good reproducibility for wine and grape astringency. Moreover, this approach is much faster than the conventional SDS-PAGE method requiring several hours for an analysis. Another advantage over traditional gel is lower sample and reagent volume requirements, as well as the lower and less toxic wastes, contributing benefits to health and environment. The application of this novel method allowed, using the principal component analysis, to distinguish grapes and wines according to the saliva precipitation index and structural characteristics determined by the phoroglucinolysis analysis. PMID:25025096

Rinaldi, Alessandra; Iturmendi, Néréa; Gambuti, Angelita; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Moio, Luigi



Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base  

PubMed Central

Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1) the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2) the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO). Results We define the Saliva Ontology (SALO; as a consensus-based controlled vocabulary of terms and relations dedicated to the salivaomics domain and to saliva-related diagnostics following the principles of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry. Conclusions The Saliva Ontology is an ongoing exploratory initiative. The ontology will be used to facilitate salivaomics data retrieval and integration across multiple fields of research together with data analysis and data mining. The ontology will be tested through its ability to serve the annotation ('tagging') of a representative corpus of salivaomics research literature that is to be incorporated into the SKB. PMID:20525291



Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1 fmol/L for DHT, 1 pmol/L for T2, and 66 fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity.

Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-Van; Gugoa??, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette



Proteomic Profiling of Cereal Aphid Saliva Reveals Both Ubiquitous and Adaptive Secreted Proteins  

PubMed Central

The secreted salivary proteins from two cereal aphid species, Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum, were collected from artificial diets and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by searching MS data against the official protein set from the current pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome assembly and revealed 12 and 7 proteins in the saliva of S. avenae and M. dirhodum, respectively. When combined with a comparable dataset from A. pisum, only three individual proteins were common to all the aphid species; two paralogues of the GMC oxidoreductase family (glucose dehydrogenase; GLD) and ACYPI009881, an aphid specific protein previously identified as a putative component of the salivary sheath. Antibodies were designed from translated protein sequences obtained from partial cDNA sequences for ACYPI009881 and both saliva associated GLDs. The antibodies detected all parent proteins in secreted saliva from the three aphid species, but could only detect ACYPI009881, and not saliva associated GLDs, in protein extractions from the salivary glands. This result was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using whole and sectioned salivary glands, and in addition, localised ACYPI009881 to specific cell types within the principal salivary gland. The implications of these findings for the origin of salivary components and the putative role of the proteins identified are discussed in the context of our limited understanding of the functional relationship between aphid saliva and the plants they feed on. The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange and can be accessed under the identifier PXD000113. PMID:23460852

Wilkinson, Tom L.



Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cariogenic bacteria and modulate the disease process. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of salivary sTLR-2 and sCD14 as biomarkers of caries activity and indirect measures of the cariogenic bacterial burden. Methods Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from twenty caries free and twenty caries active children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The concentration of sCD14 and sTLR-2 together with that of the cytokine IL-8 reported to be increased in dental caries was assessed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results While the level of sCD14 and that of IL-8 was equivocal between the two groups, the sTLR-2 concentration in caries active saliva was significantly higher than that in caries free saliva. Conclusions The sTLR-2 in saliva could serve as a potential biomarker for caries activity. PMID:25174416



Saliva Cortisol and Exposure to Aircraft Noise in Six European Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. Objective Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. Method A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 study participants, selected to enhance the contrast in exposure to aircraft noise, saliva cortisol was assessed three times (morning, lunch, and evening) during 1 day. Results We observed an elevation of 6.07 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.32–9.81 nmol/L] in morning saliva cortisol level in women exposed to aircraft noise at an average 24-hr sound level (LAeq,24h) > 60 dB, compared with women exposed to LAeq,24h ? 50 dB, corresponding to an increase of 34%. Employment status appeared to modify the response. We found no association between noise exposure and saliva cortisol levels in men. Conclusions Our results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise increases morning saliva cortisol levels in women, which could be of relevance for noise-related cardiovascular effects. PMID:20049122

Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gösta; Theorell, Töres; Pershagen, Göran; Babisch, Wolfgang; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Houthuijs, Danny; Breugelmans, Oscar; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Antoniotti, Maria Chiara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Davou, Elli; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Järup, Lars



CD24 is a marker of exosomes secreted into urine and amniotic fluid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exosomes are small membrane vesicles that are secreted from a variety of cell types into various body fluids including the blood and urine. These vesicles are thought to play a role in cell–cell interactions. CD24 is a small but extensively glycosylated protein linked to the cell surface by means of a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor. In this study we found that CD24

S Keller; C Rupp; A Stoeck; S Runz; M Fogel; S Lugert; H-D Hager; M S Abdel-Bakky; P Gutwein; P Altevogt



Are They Bloody Guilty? Blood Doping with Simulated Samples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this practice-based lab, students are provided with four Olympic athlete profiles and simulated blood and urine samples to test for illegal substances and blood-doping practices. Throughout the course of the lab, students design and conduct a testing procedure and use their results to determine which athletes won their medals fairly. All of the…

Stuart, Parker E.; Lees, Kelsey D.; Milanick, Mark A.



Determination of catecholamines in plasma and urine.  


For more than 20 years, measurement of catecholamines in plasma and urine in clinical chemistry laboratories has been the cornerstone of the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors deriving from the neural crest such as pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and neuroblastoma (NB), and is still used to assess sympathetic stress function in man and animals. Although assay of catecholamines in urine are still considered the biochemical standard for the diagnosis of NB, they have been progressively abandoned for excluding/confirming PHEOs to the advantage of metanephrines (MNs). Nevertheless, catecholamine determinations are still of interest to improve the biochemical diagnosis of PHEO in difficult cases that usually require a clonidine-suppression test, or to establish whether a patient with PHEO secretes high concentrations of catecholamines in addition to metanephrines. The aim of this chapter is to provide an update about the catecholamine assays in plasma and urine and to show the most common pre-analytical and analytical pitfalls associated with their determination. PMID:24094641

Grouzmann, Eric; Lamine, Faiza



Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.  


Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

Zatzman, M L; South, F E



Integrity of Proteins in Human Saliva after Sterilization by Gamma Irradiation?  

PubMed Central

Microbial contamination of whole human saliva is unwanted for certain in vitro applications, e.g., when utilizing it as a growth substratum for biofilm experiments. The aim of this investigation was to test gamma irradiation for its suitability to sterilize saliva and to investigate the treatment's influence on the composition and integrity of salivary proteins in comparison to filter sterilization. For inhibition of bacterial growth by gamma irradiation, a sterility assurance level of 10?6 was determined to be reached at a dose of 3.5 kGy. At this dose, the integrity of proteins, as measured by fluorescence, circular dichroism, and gel electrophoretic banding pattern, and the enzymatic activities of salivary amylase and lysozyme were virtually unchanged. Filtration reduced the total protein concentration to about half of its original value and decreased lysozyme activity to about 10%. It can be concluded that irradiation is suitable for sterilizing whole saliva in its native form. PMID:21148692

Ruhl, Stefan; Berlenbach, Pereshia; Langenfelder, Sabine; Hörl, Dagmar; Lehn, Norbert; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Schmalz, Gottfried; Durchschlag, Helmut



Incidence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in re-activation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crew members. The shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts will increase during spaceflight. A total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was used to determine shedding patterns before, during, and after spaceflight. EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during (p less than 0.001) or after (p less than 0.01) flight. No significant difference between the in-flight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

Payne, Deborah A.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Pierson, Duane L.



Exosomes from Human Saliva as a Source of microRNA Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the presence of microRNAs within exosomes isolated from human saliva and to optimize and test methods for successful downstream applications. Design Exosomes isolated from fresh and frozen glandular and whole human saliva were used as a source of microRNAs. The presence of microRNAs was validated with TaqMan Real Time PCR and microRNA microarrays. Results We successfully isolated exosomes from human saliva from healthy controls and a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome. MicroRNAs extracted from the exosomal fraction were sufficient for quantitative PCR and microarray profiling. Conclusions The isolation of microRNAs from easily and non-invasively obtained salivary exosomes with subsequent characterization of the microRNA expression patterns is promising for the development of future biomarkers of the diagnosis and prognosis of various salivary gland pathologies. PMID:19627513

Michael, Amanda; Bajracharya, Siddhartha D.; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Zhou, Hua; Star, Robert A.; Illei, Gabor G.; Alevizos, Ilias



Performance of Multiplex Cytokine Assays in Serum and Saliva among Community-Dwelling Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Multiplexing arrays increase the throughput and decrease sample requirements for studies employing multiple biomarkers. The goal of this project was to examine the performance of Multiplex arrays for measuring multiple protein biomarkers in saliva and serum. Specimens from the OsteoPerio ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were used. Participants required the presence of at least 6 teeth and were excluded based on active cancer and certain bone issues but were not selected on any specific condition. Quality control (QC) samples were created from pooled serum and saliva. Twenty protein markers were measured on five multiplexing array panels. Sample pretreatment conditions were optimized for each panel. Recovery, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and imprecision were determined for each analyte. Statistical adjustment at the plate level was used to reduce imprecision estimates and increase the number of usable observations. Sample pre-treatment improved recovery estimates for many analytes. The LLOQ for each analyte agreed with manufacturer specifications except for MMP-1 and MMP-2 which were significantly higher than reported. Following batch adjustment, 17 of 20 biomarkers in serum and 9 of 20 biomarkers in saliva demonstrated acceptable precision, defined as <20% coefficient of variation (<25% at LLOQ). The percentage of cohort samples having levels within the reportable range for each analyte varied from 10% to 100%. The ratio of levels in saliva to serum varied from 1?100 to 28?1. Correlations between saliva and serum were of moderate positive magnitude and significant for CRP, MMP-2, insulin, adiponectin, GM-CSF and IL-5. Multiplex arrays exhibit high levels of analytical imprecision, particularly at the batch level. Careful sample pre-treatment can enhance recovery and reduce imprecision. Following statistical adjustments to reduce batch effects, we identified biomarkers that are of acceptable quality in serum and to a lesser degree in saliva using Multiplex arrays. PMID:23577067

Browne, Richard W.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; LaMonte, Michael J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Falkner, Karen L.; Cekici, Ali; Stephens, Danielle; Genco, Robert J.; Scannapieco, Frank A.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean



Improving Ambulatory Saliva-Sampling Compliance in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. Methods We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring) and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders) improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. Results Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%), F(1,60) ?=?17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%), F(1,60) ?=?0.78, p?=?0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64)?=?8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705)?=?7.38, p?=?0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. Conclusions The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest informing women about objective compliance monitoring but discourage use of acoustical reminders. PMID:24465958

Moeller, Julian; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Loetscher, Katharina Quack; Krastel, Bettina; Meinlschmidt, Gunther



Longitudinal relationships between diet-dependent renal acid load and blood pressure development in healthy children.  


Diets high in sulfur-rich protein and low in fruits and vegetables affect human acid-base balance adversely. Corresponding subclinical forms of metabolic acidosis have been linked to hypertension in adults. We longitudinally examined relations of dietary acid load with blood pressure in 257 healthy prepuberty children with 3 or more parallel 3-day weighed dietary records, 24-h urine, and blood pressure measurements. Urinary net acid excretion and the potential renal acid load (PRAL), determined as the difference of major urinary nonbicarbonate anions and mineral cations, were used to predict dietary acid load. PRAL was also calculated from dietary data. In repeated-measures regression analyses, adjusted for body size and dietary fiber, an intraindividual increase of 10?mEq above the 'usual' net acid excretion or urine PRAL were each significantly related to a 0.6-0.7?mm?Hg increased systolic blood pressure. Differences in urine PRAL among the children also significantly predicted between-person differences in systolic blood pressure. A higher individual net acid excretion or urine PRAL and intraindividual increase in urine PRAL were significantly related to higher diastolic blood pressure. Blood pressure associations were nonsignificant for dietary PRAL and urinary sodium. Thus, in healthy children, renal biomarker analyses reveal an association of proton load with higher blood pressure. Especially for systolic blood pressure, a more alkalizing nutrition may be beneficial for blood pressure development within a given individual. Experimental confirmation of a causal acid load-blood pressure link is required. PMID:24025638

Krupp, Danika; Shi, Lijie; Remer, Thomas



Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad range of metals and chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Noninvasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to

Charles Timchalk; Torka S. Poet; Ahmed A. Kousba; James A. Campbell; Yuehe Lin



Preputial urinary diversion to treat urine soaking during urination in a dog.  


A young dog was presented with a history of adopting an unusual posture to urinate, resulting in urine soaking of the ventral abdomen and caudal forelimbs. The dog was initially treated surgically with cranial advancement of the prepuce, which did not resolve the problem. Further surgery was then successfully carried out to create a more caudal preputial orifice, which angled the penis ventrally when extruded, directing urine away from the body. At follow-up clinical examination, the dog was clinically normal. PMID:19490377

Thomas, E K; Friend, E J; Taylor, A S; Hamilton, M H



Saliva improves Streptococcus mitis protective effect on human gingival fibroblasts in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate.  


This study aimed to investigate the effect of saliva on Streptococcus mitis free cells and on S. mitis/human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) co-culture model, in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA). The bacterial aggregation both in the planktonic phase and on HGFs, as well as the apoptotic and necrotic eukaryotic cells amount were analyzed, in presence of saliva and/or HEMA. The aggregation test revealed a significant saliva aggregation effect on S. mitis strains compared to the untreated sample. No significant differences were recorded in the amount of culturable bacteria in all studied conditions; however, from microscopy images, the saliva/HEMA combining effect induced a significant bacterial aggregation and adhesion on HGFs. HEMA treatment decreased viable eukaryotic cell number with a parallel increment of necrotic cells, but when saliva was added to the co-culture, the viable cells percentage increased to a value comparable to the control sample. PMID:23670604

Di Giulio, Mara; di Giacomo, Viviana; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Bartolomeo, Soraya; Zara, Susi; Pasquantonio, Guido; Cataldi, Amelia; Cellini, Luigina



Electrochemical behaviour of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum dental alloy in artificial salivas: Influence of phosphate ions and mucin components.  


The stability of the Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy immersed in artificial salivas (pH 6.7) was investigated over 24 h. Three artificial salivas have been studied: saline saliva (saliva I); saline saliva buffered with phosphate ions (saliva II) and saliva II plus mucin molecules (saliva III). For all the systems, open circuit potential shift positively over 24 hours of immersion. Data extracted from the steady-state polarization curves demonstrated that the Co-Cr-Mo alloy has higher corrosion potential in saliva III, lower corrosion potential in saliva I and lower initial corrosion resistance in saliva III. After 24 hours of immersion in the artificial salivas, the Co-Cr-Mo alloy presents high corrosion stability, due to the protective action created by the presence of corrosion products. From the analysis of the breakdown potential it was concluded that, the presence of the phosphate ions and mucin promote the oxidation process, inducing the formation of etch pits. Regarding the effect of the mucin concentration in the corrosion behaviour of the Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy, it was observed a negative shift in the corrosion potential, pointing to a cathodic inhibitor role for the mucin molecules. Nevertheless, no correlation between the mucin concentration and corrosion rate was possible to establish. PMID:25585980

de Aguiar, S R M M; Nicolai, M; Almeida, M; Gomes, A



Plasminogen Activator in Saliva of the Vampire Bat Desmodus rotundus  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT was generally accepted that vampire bats were bloodsucking animals until 1932 when Dunn1 observed that these animals use their tongues to lap blood from freely bleeding wounds inflicted by means of razor-sharp superior incisors. This observation was confirmed by Ditmars and Greenhall2 and by many subsequent investigators, and it has been noticed that bites inflicted by vampire bats not

Christine Hawkey



Ultraviolet properties of Australian mammal urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation of predator signals by potential prey is well researched, but relatively little is known about how predators exploit chemical cues (either deliberate signals or waste by-products) produced by their prey. In Finland, the urine of some small rodents ( Microtus spp. and Clethrionomys spp.) is reflective in the ultraviolet range of wavelengths, and diurnal raptors with ultraviolet vision

A. Kellie; S. J. Dain; P. B. Banks



Automated detection of bacteria in urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for detecting the presence of bacteria in urine was developed which utilizes the bioluminescent reaction of adenosine triphosphate with luciferin and luciferase derived from the tails of fireflies. The method was derived from work on extraterrestrial life detection. A device was developed which completely automates the assay process.

Fleig, A. J.; Picciolo, G. L.; Chappelle, E. W.; Kelbaugh, B. N.