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Variation in protein levels obtained from human blood cells and biofluids for platelet, peripheral blood mononuclear cell, plasma, urine and saliva proteomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood cells and biofluid proteomics are emerging as a valuable tool to assess effects of interventions on health and disease.\\u000a This study is aimed to assess the amount and variability of proteins from platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC),\\u000a plasma, urine and saliva from ten healthy volunteers for proteomics analysis, and whether protein yield is affected by prolonged\\u000a fasting. Volunteers

L. Katie Crosley; Susan J. Duthie; Abigael C. Polley; Freek G. Bouwman; Carolin Heim; Francis Mulholland; Graham Horgan; Ian T. Johnson; Edwin C. Mariman; Ruan M. Elliott; Hannelore Daniel; Baukje de Roos



Detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in human saliva and urine: loop-mediated isothermal amplification for malaria diagnosis.  


This study investigated loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) detection of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in urine and saliva of malaria patients. From May to November 2011, 108 febrile patients referred to health centers in Sistan and Baluchestan Province of south-eastern Iran participated in the study. Saliva, urine, and blood samples were analyzed with nested PCR and LAMP targeting the species-specific nucleotide sequence of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rRNA) of P. falciparum and P. vivax and evaluated for diagnostic accuracy by comparison to blood nested PCR assay. When nested PCR of blood is used as standard, microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and urine samples showed sensitivity of 97.2%, 89.4% and 71% and specificity of 100%, 97.3% and 100%, respectively. LAMP sensitivity of blood, saliva, and urine was 95.8%, 47% and 29%, respectively, whereas LAMP specificity of these samples was 100%. Microscopy and nested PCR of saliva and LAMP of blood were comparable to nested PCR of blood (?=0.95, 0.83, and 0.94, respectively), but agreement for nested PCR of urine was moderate (?=0.64) and poor to fair for saliva LAMP and urine LAMP (?=0.38 and 0.23, respectively). LAMP assay showed low sensitivity for detection of Plasmodium DNA in human saliva and urine compared to results with blood and to nested PCR of blood, saliva, and urine. However, considering the advantages of LAMP technology and of saliva and urine sampling, further research into the method is worthwhile. LAMP protocol and precise preparation protocols need to be defined and optimized for template DNA of saliva and urine. PMID:24721227

Ghayour Najafabadi, Zahra; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Akhlaghi, Lame; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Farivar, Leila; Razmjou, Elham



On-site testing of saliva and sweat with Drugwipe and determination of concentrations of drugs of abuse in saliva, plasma and urine of suspected users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential drug users participated voluntarily in a Belgian study on the usefulness of the non-instrumental immunoassay Drugwipe\\u000a (Securetec, Germany) for the screening of cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and cannabinoids in saliva and sweat. If one of the\\u000a screening assays (urine, oral fluid, sweat) showed a positive result, blood and saliva were collected. The on-site Drugwipe\\u000a results were correlated with the Drugwipe

N. Samyn; C. van Haeren



Honey increased saliva, plasma, and urine content of total nitrite concentrations in normal individuals.  


This study investigated effects of oral honey solution on total nitrite, a stable nitric oxide metabolite, in saliva, plasma, and urine samples collected from normal subjects. Fourteen adult healthy volunteers, 25-50 years old, nine males and three females, were enrolled in the study. Total nitrite was estimated in saliva, plasma, and urine after 14 hours of food fasting. Each subject was then asked to drink honey solution (80 g of raw honey dissolved in 250 mL of water). Saliva and blood samples were collected at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution for total nitrite assay, while urine samples were collected after 3 hours for total nitrite assay. The mean total fasting nitrite in saliva was 108 +/- 61.3 micromol/L, which was increased to 130 +/- 62.9, 131.2 +/- 59, and 135.1 +/- 64.3 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively. Plasma total nitrite was 22.41 +/- 16.22 micromol/L before drinking honey, which was increased to 34.71 +/- 18.13, 29.38 +/- 14.29, and 33 +/- 13.09 micromol/L at 1, 2, and 3 hours, respectively, after drinking honey. Urine total nitrite before drinking honey was 75.8 +/- 54.79 micromol/L, which was increased to 107.8 +/- 70.83 micromol/L 3 hours after ingestion of honey solution. Although not statistically significant, honey solution showed a tendency to increase total nitrite concentration in different biological fluids from humans, including saliva, plasma, and urine. PMID:15383235

Al-Waili, Noori S; Boni, Nadir S



Specific antibody detection in serum, urine and saliva samples for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serum, saliva and urine samples of 25 clinically and radiologically diagnosed cystic echinoccosis (CE) patients, 25 clinically suspected cases of CE, 15 other parasitic disease controls and 25 healthy controls were evaluated for anti-hydatid antibody response by ELISA. The sensitivity of serum, saliva and urine was found to be 72, 56 and 84%, respectively, while specificity was 76% in all

T. Sunita; M. L. Dubey; Sumeeta Khurana; Nancy Malla



Determination of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine.  


Cortisol is quantitatively the major glucocorticoid product of the adrenal cortex. The main reason to measure cortisol is to diagnose human diseases characterised by deficiency of adrenal steroid excretion in Addison's disease or overproduction in Cushing's syndrome (CS). In both cases a sensitive, accurate and reproducible assay of cortisol is required. Several methods have been described for the quantitative measurement of cortisol in both serum and urine. The most widely used methods in routine clinical laboratories are immunoassays (IA) and enzyme immunoassays (EIA), luminescence and fluorescence assays, which are available in numerous commercial kits and on automated platforms. However, there remains a number of problems in the so-called direct immunoassays if extraction and prepurification are not carried out before the assay. Recently, more specific chromatographic methods have been introduced, such as high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric assays (LC-MS/MS). The high specificity especially of LC-MS/MS facilitates reliable measurement of cortisol both in plasma, urine and saliva samples. PMID:24275191

Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa



Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland  

PubMed Central

Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000?ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000?ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12?ng/mL and for urine 0.05?ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4?ng/mL and 0.8?ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9?ng/mL and urine 42.3?ng/mL or 53.1??g/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting.

Polanska, Kinga



Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP.

Wu, L.; Tam, V.; Chow, Diana S. L.; Putcha, Lakshmi



Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)  


... without causing any problems. In fact, people might never know they have it unless they get a urine test . Gross hematuria may sound nasty, but it's usually not — in medicine, "gross" is just a word that describes when something is large or happens in bigger amounts. Gross hematuria just means that ...


Radioimmunoassay for the determination of alosetron in human urine and saliva.  


The development of a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the sub-ng ml-1 determination of alosetron, a potent and selective 5HT3 receptor antagonist, in human urine and saliva is described. The antiserum was raised in Soay sheep following primary and booster immunizations with an immunogen prepared by conjugating alosetron-p-azobenzoic acid to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The radioligand consisted of alosetron specifically 125-iodinated on the 2-position of the imidazole group. The mean (+/- standard deviation) theoretical sensitivity (minimum detectable dose corresponding to the imprecision of the zero standard) of the RIA is 3.2 +/- 2.6 pg ml-1 (n = 12) of alosetron in assay diluent (0.1% m/v gelatine-0.05% m/v sodium azide in 0.1 mol l-1 phosphate buffer solution, pH 7.4). The working calibration range using 0.1 ml samples of saliva and 20-fold diluted urine is 0.10-6.40 ng ml-1 of alosetron. Urine samples were diluted prior to assay to overcome adverse matrix effects; consequently, the lower limit of quantification for undiluted urine is 2.0 ng ml-1 of alosetron. Inter- and intra-assay bias and imprecision over the working calibration range were generally < +/- 12% and < 13%, respectively, except at the 0.10 ng ml-1 alosetron level, where the corresponding values were < +/- 17.3% and < 20.2%. The antiserum was free from adverse cross-reactivity with either a synthetic precursor of alosetron or with four major metabolites of the drug.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7872486

Wring, S A; O'Neill, R M; Williams, J L; Birch, H L; Goddard, C P; Andrew, P D; Jenner, W N



Effect of dietary copper on the copper content of urine, parotid saliva, and sweat in humans  

SciTech Connect

Eleven young men were confined to a metabolic research unit to study the effect of the level of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu metabolism. They were fed a constant diet containing the following three levels of dietary Cu: adequate Cu (1.68 mg/d) for 24 days (MP1), low Cu (0.785 mg/d) for 42 days (MP2), and high Cu (7.53 mg/d) for 24 days (MP3). Urine was collected throughout the study and Cu was determined in 6-day pools from the beginning of the study, the end of each MP, and the midpoint of MP2. Parotid saliva was collected near the end of each MP. Sweat was collected from the upper arm and ancillary area of three subjects for 2-day periods near the end of each MP. Urinary Cu averaged 0.34, 0.34 and 0.33 {mu}mol/d for MP 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 0.16 to 0.39 {mu}mol/d. Parotid saliva Cu averaged 13.4, 13.0, and 12.0 nmol/L for MP 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 6.9 to 17.8 nmol/L. Sweat Cu levels were very low and did not appear to be affected by dietary Cu. The limited data suggest that sweat losses would have little effect on Cu balance. Neither urinary nor salivary Cu was affected by dietary Cu or related to indices of Cu status (serum Cu, ceruloplasmin, or erythrocyte superoxide dismutase). Urinary and salivary Cu differed significantly among individuals. Results suggest that urinary, salivary, and sweat Cu do not play a role in regulating Cu retention or affect Cu status of humans.

Turnlund, J.R. (Dept. of Agriculture, Albany, CA (USA))



Analysis of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma, urine and saliva by MEPS-LC-UV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risperidone is currently one of the most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs; its main active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone contributes significantly to the therapeutic effects observed. An original analytical method is presented for the simultaneous analysis of risperidone and the metabolite in plasma, urine and saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an original sample pre-treatment procedure based on micro-extraction by packed

Roberto Mandrioli; Laura Mercolini; Domenico Lateana; Giancarlo Boncompagni; Maria Augusta Raggi



Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.



Determination of ABO blood groups from saliva and saliva stains by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies.  


The detection of A, B and H blood group substances (ABH-BGS) in saliva and in saliva stains has been investigated quantitatively by an indirect ELISA using a horseradish peroxidase conjugate in combination with the use of monoclonal antibodies. Through this method, the reaction specificity to BGS in the saliva was very high and its detection sensitivity was found to be approximately 1,000 times greater than has been achieved in a hemagglutination-inhibition test. The monoclonal anti-A and anti-B reagents reacting with both secretor and non-secretor saliva in a hemagglutination-inhibition test and in this ELISA method were selected from among commercial monoclonal antibodies. However, no monoclonal anti-H reagent was found to react with non-secretor saliva. The BGS level was determined by the use of calibration curves of A, B and H standard BGS from human gastric mucosa and was expressed in units, based on the inhibition titer of the standard BGS. In 230 saliva samples, ABH-BGS were detectable, except for H BGS in non-secretor saliva. The BGS levels in saliva stains experimentally prepared were found to be approximately proportional to the levels in the original saliva. As for actual and aged stains, it was possible to detect BGS in most cigarette butts and in aged stains, however, such detection proved impossible in saliva samples from postage stamp. PMID:2479789

Takizawa, N; Ohba, Y; Mukoyama, R; Komuro, T; Mukoyama, H; Takei, T



Analysis of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma, urine and saliva by MEPS-LC-UV.  


Risperidone is currently one of the most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs; its main active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone contributes significantly to the therapeutic effects observed. An original analytical method is presented for the simultaneous analysis of risperidone and the metabolite in plasma, urine and saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an original sample pre-treatment procedure based on micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). The assays were carried out using a C8 reversed-phase column and a mobile phase composed of 73% (v/v) acidic phosphate buffer (30 mM, pH 3.0) containing 0.23% triethylamine and 27% (v/v) acetonitrile. The UV detector was set at 238 nm and diphenhydramine was used as the internal standard. The sample pre-treatment by MEPS was carried out on a C8 sorbent. The extraction yields values were higher than 92% for risperidone and 90% for 9-hydroxyrisperidone, with RSD for precision always lower than 7.9% for both analytes. Limit of quantification values in the different matrices were 4 ng/mL or lower for risperidone and 6 ng/mL or lower for the metabolite. The method was successfully applied to plasma, urine and saliva samples from psychotic patients undergoing therapy with risperidone, with satisfactory accuracy results (recovery>89%) and no interference from other drugs. Thus, the method seems to be suitable for the therapeutic drug monitoring of schizophrenic patients using the three different biological matrices plasma, urine and saliva. PMID:21183412

Mandrioli, Roberto; Mercolini, Laura; Lateana, Domenico; Boncompagni, Giancarlo; Raggi, Maria Augusta




Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) has shown the feasibility of separation and detection of low- level thiodiglycol-related species in saliva and of nerve agent phosphonic acids in saliva and urine. The analysis of these thiodiglycol-related species and phosphonic acids are of interest since they are specific metabolites of the chemical warfare agents

Timothy L. Hayes; Donald V. Kenny; Laura Hernon-Kenny


Biomonitoring of arsenic in urine and saliva of children playing on playgrounds constructed from chromated copper arsenate-treated wood.  


Children may be exposed to arsenic during contact with structures treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). A high frequency of hand-to-mouth activity may increase their risk of ingesting arsenic. Previous work showed that arsenic concentrations in the hand-wash samples of children playing on CCA playgrounds were four times higher than those playing on non-CCA playgrounds. It is not clear whether playing on CCA playgrounds results in elevated overall exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to perform arsenic biomonitoring in children to determine whether playing on CCA-treated playgrounds substantially contributes to their overall exposure to arsenic. One hundred and twenty five saliva samples from 61 children and 101 urine samples from 45 children were collected after children played on 8 CCA and 8 non-CCA playgrounds. Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted using high performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The arsenic species detected in the urine and saliva samples from children playing on CCA and non-CCA playgrounds were similar. Dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine were the main arsenic species found in urine samples. The sum of inorganic trivalent and pentavalent arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid in urine was 15 +/- 28 microg/L in the CCA group and 12 +/- 23 microg/L in the non-CCA group (p = 0.60). The sum of these species in saliva was 1.1 +/- 2.1 microg/L in the CCA group and 1.4 +/- 1.1 microg/L in the non-CCA group (p = 0.32). These results show that there is no significant difference in the concentration or speciation of arsenic between the samples from children playing on CCA and non-CCA playgrounds. Contact with CCA playgrounds is not likely to significantly contribute to the overall arsenic exposure in children; other sources such as dietary arsenic may be a main contributor to their overall exposure. PMID:20377243

Lew, Kristi; Acker, Jason P; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris



Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift.

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.



Diagnostic values of parasite-specific antibody detections in saliva and urine in comparison with serum in opisthorchiasis.  


Infection by the liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) causes hepatobiliary disease and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA) in endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Measurements of humoral immune response particularly parasite-specific antibodies are useful not only for serodiagnosis but they have been implicated as risk factors of CCA. In this study, we used indirect Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to measure O. viverrini-specific immunoglobulins in serum, urine and saliva and assessed efficacies in diagnosis of opisthorchiasis and evaluated the relationship of antibodies among clinical specimens in a sample population in endemic areas in Khon Kaen, Thailand. By employing the Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) analysis, diagnostic efficacy based upon the area under the curve (AUC) revealed that serum, salivary IgG and IgA performed better than urine for diagnosis of opisthorchiasis. Seropositive cases were found in both parasite egg-negative as well as O. viverrini egg-positive groups. The levels of serum IgG correlated with intensity of O. viverrini infection (P<0.05). Diagnostic sensitivities based on serum and salivary IgG, IgA also positively associated with the intensity of infection. Correlations between serum antibodies and those in saliva were found to be greater in egg-negative than egg-positive individuals for O. viverrini. Our findings indicated a complex interrelation between antibody responses in different clinical specimens triggered by liver fluke infection. More comprehensive examinations are needed to determine the potential utility of salivary antibody detection which, in combination with the conventional fecal examination method, may better assist in the identification of individuals with opisthorchiasis. Furthermore, it may provide a better indicator of the risk of disease, particularly CCA. PMID:21704727

Sawangsoda, Prajak; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Tesana, Smarn; Pinlaor, Somchai; Boonmars, Thidarut; Mairiang, Eimorn; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Duenngai, Kunyarat; Sithithaworn, Paiboon



Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine  

SciTech Connect

Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe



Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS) study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek®) was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml) was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed. Results Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 ?g, range 0.2–52 ?g) than from blood (mean 210 ?g, range 58–577 ?g) and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97%) for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA. Conclusion We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.



Molecularly imprinted polymers as synthetic receptors for the QCM-D-based detection of L-nicotine in diluted saliva and urine samples.  


Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic receptors that are able to specifically bind their target molecules in complex samples, making them a versatile tool in biosensor technology. The combination of MIPs as a recognition element with quartz crystal microbalances (QCM-D with dissipation monitoring) gives a straightforward and sensitive device, which can simultaneously measure frequency and dissipation changes. In this work, bulk-polymerized L-nicotine MIPs were used to test the feasibility of L-nicotine detection in saliva and urine samples. First, L-nicotine-spiked saliva and urine were measured after dilution in demineralized water and 0.1× phosphate-buffered saline solution for proof-of-concept purposes. L-nicotine could indeed be detected specifically in the biologically relevant micromolar concentration range. After successfully testing on spiked samples, saliva was analyzed, which was collected during chewing of either nicotine tablets with different concentrations or of smokeless tobacco. The MIPs in combination with QCM-D were able to distinguish clearly between these samples: This proves the functioning of the concept with saliva, which mediates the oral uptake of nicotine as an alternative to the consumption of cigarettes. PMID:23754330

Alenus, J; Ethirajan, A; Horemans, F; Weustenraed, A; Csipai, P; Gruber, J; Peeters, M; Cleij, T J; Wagner, P



Review: Interpreting Mercury in Blood and Urine of Individual Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of mercury exposure are determined by: (a) chemical form, (b) route of exposure, (c) dose, and (d) patient factors. Patient factors include age, genetics, environmental aspects, and nutritional status, and are responsible for different individual responses to similar doses. When blood and urine are collected to evaluate exposure, the results are influenced by (a) specimen collection, (b) analysis,

Kern L. Nuttall


Absorbing and diffusive properties of blood plasma and urine proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of absorbing and scattering properties of blood and urine plasma proteins is presented. Assessment methods of their spectroscopic parameters, such as extinction, absorption and scattering coefficients, are described. Possibilities for a separate assessment of the albumin and globulin concentrations in biological media are considered.

Guminetsky, S. G.; Pishak, Olga V.; Pishak, Vasyl P.; Grigorishin, P. M.



Developmental validation of RSID-saliva: a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test for the forensic detection of saliva.  


Current methods for forensic identification of saliva generally assay for the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase, an enzyme long associated with human saliva. Here, we describe the Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID-Saliva), a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test that uses two antisalivary amylase monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of salivary amylase, rather than the activity of the enzyme. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva is accurate, reproducible, and highly sensitive for human saliva; RSID-Saliva detects less than 1 microL of saliva. The sensitivity of RSID-Saliva allows investigators to sample a fraction of a questioned stain while retaining the majority for DNA-STR analysis. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva identifies saliva from a variety of materials (e.g., cans, bottles, envelopes, and cigarette-butts) and it does not cross-react with blood, semen, urine, or vaginal fluid. RSID-Saliva is a useful forensic test for determining which evidentiary items contain saliva and thus may yield a DNA profile. PMID:19486436

Old, Jennifer B; Schweers, Brett A; Boonlayangoor, Pravat W; Reich, Karl A



Perchlorate in human blood serum and plasma: Relationship to concentrations in saliva.  


The perchlorate anion (ClO(4)(-),MW=99) is present in food, drinking water, groundwater, and surface waters. Exposure to perchlorate is of concern, due to the ability of the anion to disrupt the function of the thyroid gland, and affect the synthesis of thyroid hormones. In this study, liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been optimized to analyze for perchlorate in blood sera and plasma samples from 84 US donors. In addition, 15 volunteers provided saliva and serum samples concurrently, to enable assessment of the ratio of perchlorate in these two matrices. Recoveries of perchlorate from fortified blanks and from serum/plasma samples were between 92% and 97%. Replicate analysis of blood-matrix spikes had a relative standard deviation (RSD) of <3%, and the relative percent difference (RPD) of repeat analysis of samples was <4%. Perchlorate concentrations in serum and plasma ranged from below the limit of quantitation (0.05ngmL(-1)) to a maximum of 7.7ngmL(-1). Perchlorate concentrations in serum and plasma were log-normally distributed. The mean and median concentrations of perchlorate in 84 serum and plasma samples were 0.32 and 0.17ngmL(-1), respectively. No significant difference existed in perchlorate concentrations between serum and plasma. Analysis of paired saliva and serum samples showed a significant positive correlation for log-normalized perchlorate concentrations (r(2)=0.60) and perchlorate concentrations themselves (r(2)=0.86). The mean saliva:serum concentration ratio of perchlorate was 14:1 (after exclusion of two pairs of outliers). This is the first report to provide measurement data for perchlorate in blood sera and plasma of populations in the US. PMID:19564037

Oldi, John F; Kannan, Kurunthachalam



Applicability of two commercially available kits for forensic identification of saliva stains.  


The RSID-saliva test and the SALIgAE-saliva test are two recently developed forensic saliva detection kits. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and the specificity of the two test kits with the Phadebas amylase test by analyzing amylases from various sources including human, animals, plants, and micro-organism. The data demonstrate that the RSID-saliva test and the SALIgAE-saliva test offer higher sensitivity and specificity for the detection of saliva than the Phadebas amylase test. The detection limits of the RSID-saliva test, the SALIgAE-saliva test, and the Phadebas amylase test equate to 10, 4, and 1000 nL, respectively for human saliva. The RSID-saliva test and the SALIgAE-saliva test were further evaluated by analyzing semen, vaginal secretion, breast milk, blood, urine, sweat, and feces. The results of the two tests are in good agreement. The two tests reacted with urine, breast milk, and feces, but not with semen, vaginal secretion, blood, and sweat. PMID:18637870

Pang, Benjamin C M; Cheung, Bobbie K K



Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion.  


The collection of blood, its storage as red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and its reinjection is prohibited; until now, the practice cannot be reliably detected. A recent innovation-the haematological module of the athlete's biological passport-can provide authorities with indications towards autologous blood transfusion. In situations where a given athlete has been exposed to altitude, heat stress, sickness, etc, additional evidence may be needed to establish beyond any reasonable doubt that a blood transfusion may actually have occurred. Additional evidence may be obtained from at least three different approaches using parameters related to blood and urine matrices.Genomics applied to mRNA or miRNA is one of the most promising analytical tools. Proteomics of changes associated with RBC membranes may reveal the presence of cells stored for some time, as can an abnormal pattern of size distribution of aged cells. In urine, high concentrations of metabolites of plasticisers originating from the blood storing bags strongly suggest a recent blood transfusion. We emphasise the usefulness of simultaneously obtaining and then analysing blood and urine for complementary evidence of autologous blood transfusion ('blood doping'). PMID:24764552

Segura, J; Lundby, C



NMR metabolomics of human blood and urine in disease research.  


This paper reviews the main applications of NMR metabolomics of blood and urine in disease research, over the last 5 years. The broad range of disease types addressed attests the increasing interest within the academic and medical communities to explore the recognised potential of metabolomics to (1) provide insight into underlying disease pathogenesis and (2) unveil new metabolic markers for disease diagnosis and follow up. Importantly, most recent studies reveal an increasing awareness of possible limitations and pitfalls of the metabolomics approach, together with efforts for improved study design and statistical validation, which are crucial requisites for the sound development of NMR metabolomics and its progress into the clinical setting. PMID:24854435

Duarte, Iola F; Diaz, Sílvia O; Gil, Ana M



The saliva proteome of the blood-feeding insect Triatoma infestans is rich in platelet-aggregation inhibitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saliva of the bloodsucking bug Triatoma infestans vector of Chagas disease contains an anti-hemostatic molecular cocktail that prevents coagulation, vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in a vertebrate prey. In order to characterize T. infestans saliva proteome, we separated the secreted saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 200 salivary proteins were detected on the 2-DE map, mainly in the alkaline region. By nanoLC-MS/MS analysis using a LTQ-Orbitrap equipment followed by a combination of conventional and sequence-similarity searches, we identified 58 main protein spots. Most of such proteins possess potential blood-feeding associated functions, particularly anti-platelet aggregation proteins belonging to lipocalin and apyrase families. The saliva protein composition indicates a highly specific molecular mechanism of early response to platelet aggregation. This first proteome analysis of the T. infestans secreted saliva provides a basis for a better understanding of this fluid protein composition highly directed to counterpart hemostasis of the prey, thus promoting the bug's blood-feeding.

Charneau, Sébastien; Junqueira, Magno; Costa, Camila M.; Pires, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Ellen S.; Bussacos, Ana C.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Ricart, Carlos André O.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.



Detection of hemagglutinins in dried saliva stains and their potential use in blood typing.  


Since 1928, hemagglutinins have been known to exist in saliva; however, they have not been utilized as evidence in criminal investigations because in the past, techniques for measuring them have not been sufficiently sensitive. In this paper we describe improved techniques for detecting salivary hemagglutinins and report initial results obtained with these methods. The stability of salivary hemagglutinins at several different temperatures was examined in liquid samples and in dried stains on filter paper, cigarette butts, and envelope flaps. Our observations indicate that salivary hemagglutinins may be sufficiently stable, over periods of one to several days at ambient room temperatures, to be of value to forensic science investigators. The results of the hemagglutinin assay are not affected by the age or sex of the sample donor. Because salivary hemagglutinins can be used to determine ABO blood type, analyses of this kind can serve as an important confirmatory test which the forensic serologist can use in conjunction with salivary agglutinogen determinations. PMID:3385376

Harrington, J J; Martin, R; Kobilinsky, L



Determination of manganese in blood and urine by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  


A method for the determination of manganese in blood and urine is described. A chelate fo manganese with cupferron is extracted with methylisobutylketone and determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The method is directly applicable to urine but the determination of manganese in blood required a preliminary digestion step. With the use of internal standards, this technique allows the determination of manganese concentrations of the order of 1 mug/1 of urine or 1 mug/100 ml whole blood. PMID:1000867

Buchet, J P; Lauwerys, R; Roels, H; De Vos, C



Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood  

PubMed Central

Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults.

Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Ieda M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.



Urine Tests (For Parents)  


... If either the urine dipstick test or the microscopic test shows white blood cells, red blood cells, ... ON THIS TOPIC Urine Test: Calcium Urine Test: Protein Urine Test: Routine Culture Urine Test: Creatinine Urine ...


Urine and Urination  


Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to ...


Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.



Application of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for measuring chemicals in saliva of synthetic leather workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva is of interest as a diagnostic aid for oral and systemic diseases, to monitor therapeutic drugs, and detect illicit drug abuse. It is also attractive for biological monitoring of exposure to hazardous solvents. The major advantage of this indicator over other biological monitoring targets is that the saliva is noninvasive and less confidential in comparison with blood and urine.

Ven-Shing Wang; Ming-Yen Lu



Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.  


Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids. PMID:19458135

Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V




EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...


Analyzing alcohol in breath, blood, saliva, and urine for forensic purposes: Taiwanese population  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to better understand the metabolism\\/distribution characteristics of alcohol in Taiwanese population. It is anticipated that the data hereby obtained will be helpful to the result interpretation of the breath alcohol testing currently adopted in Taiwan. A series of cross analyses were conducted on 84 (56 males and 28 females) healthy Taiwanese volunteers aged 20-61. The conversion

Yun-Seng Giang; Sheng-Meng Wang; Ming-Chang Lee


PCR applications in identification of saliva samples exposed to different conditions (streptococci detection based).  


Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples) were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen) and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples) included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples). DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan). Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius. PMID:24494527

Ali, M M; Shokry, D A; Zaghloul, H S; Rashed, L A; Nada, M G



Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study: Monitoring and Elimination of Bioaccumulated Toxic Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited understanding of the toxicokinetics of bioaccumulated toxic elements and their methods of excretion from\\u000a the human body. This study was designed to assess the concentration of various toxic elements in three body fluids: blood,\\u000a urine and sweat. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with\\u000a various health problems) and

Stephen J. Genuis; Detlef Birkholz; Ilia Rodushkin; Sanjay Beesoon



Determination of endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels in antemortem urine and blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid’s (GHB’s) natural presence in the body has made the interpretation of its levels a challenging task for the forensic toxicologist. This study was designed to measure endogenous GHB levels in antemortem urine and blood samples. The range detected in urine was from 34 to 575?g\\/dl and in blood from 17 to 151?g\\/dl. The results indicate that the concentration

Albert A. Elian



Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities.

Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.



Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

Maugh, Thomas H., II



Stable RNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains revealed from whole genome expression analysis of time-wise degraded samples  

PubMed Central

Human body fluids such as blood and saliva represent the most common source of biological material found at a crime scene. Reliable tissue identification in forensic science can reveal significant insights into crime scene reconstruction and can thus contribute toward solving crimes. Limitations of existing presumptive tests for body fluid identification in forensics, which are usually based on chemoluminescence or protein analysis, are expected to be overcome by RNA-based methods, provided that stable RNA markers with tissue-specific expression patterns are available. To generate sets of stable RNA markers for reliable identification of blood and saliva stains we (1) performed whole-genome gene expression analyses on a series of time-wise degraded blood and saliva stain samples using the Affymetrix U133 plus2 GeneChip, (2) consulted expression databases to obtain additional information on tissue specificity, and (3) confirmed expression patterns of the most promising candidate genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction including additional forensically relevant tissues such as semen and vaginal secretion. Overall, we identified nine stable mRNA markers for blood and five stable mRNA markers for saliva detection showing tissue-specific expression signals in stains aged up to 180 days of age, expectedly older. Although, all of the markers were able to differentiate blood/saliva from semen samples, none of them could differentiate vaginal secretion because of the complex nature of vaginal secretion and the biological similarity of buccal and vaginal mucosa. We propose the use of these 14 stable mRNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains in future forensic practice. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00414-007-0182-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Zubakov, Dmitry; Hanekamp, Eline; Kokshoorn, Mieke; van IJcken, Wilfred



Effect of Alcohol Withdrawl on Glutathione S-transferase, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Amylase in Blood and Saliva of Alcohol-Dependent Males  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Alcohol biomarkers help in the early detection of alcoholism and its complications. There is a paucity of studies in India on the salivary markers of systemic diseases in general and on salivary alcohol biomarkers in particular. Objectives: The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of alcohol withdrawal on the antioxidants and amylase in blood and saliva, and at finding the correlation between the blood and the salivary parameters in alcoholics. Methods: Sixty alcohol-dependent males who were in the age group of 30 – 70 years, who were admitted to the Deaddiction Centre for alcohol withdrawal treatment for one month, were the subjects of this study; age-matched healthy individuals were the controls. In the blood and saliva samples, the activities of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) and amylase and the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were assayed. Results: The alcohol-dependent subjects showed significantly lower GST and amylase activities and the TAC in blood and saliva as compared to those in the controls (P<0.001). The alcohol withdrawal caused a significant increase in the GST and amylase activities and the TAC to near-control values. In the alcohol-dependent subjects, there was a significant correlation between the values in blood and saliva with respect to GST and TAC. Conclusions: Alcoholism causes an impaired antioxidant capacity and a decreased secretion of amylase, which is ameliorated due to the alcohol withdrawal regimen . The strong correlation between blood and saliva with respect to the antioxidants suggests the potential future use of saliva as a laboratory tool in clinical medicine.

Peter, Neethumol; Chiramel, Kevin J.; A.R., Shivashankara



A pharmacokinetic study of ethyl glucuronide in blood and urine: Applications to forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pharmacokinetic study investigated the kinetics of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in blood and urine during the whole time course of absorption and elimination. There are few previous studies on the kinetics of EtG in blood, and we wanted to evaluate whether such knowledge could yield valuable information regarding the time of ethanol ingestion in forensic cases,

Gudrun Høiseth; Jean Paul Bernard; Ritva Karinen; Lene Johnsen; Anders Helander; Asbjørg S. Christophersen; Jørg Mørland



Comparison of human saliva and synthetic histo-blood group antigens usage as ligands in norovirus-like particle binding and blocking assays.  


Blocking of norovirus-like particle binding to their cellular ligands, histo-blood group antigens with immune sera, is considered a surrogate norovirus neutralization assay. We compared human secretor positive saliva and synthetic biotinylated carbohydrates as a source of histo-blood group antigens in binding and blocking assays. Six norovirus capsid-derived virus-like particles belonging to genogroup I (GI-1-2001 and GI-3-2002) and genogroup II (GII-4-1999, GII-4-2010 New Orleans, GII-4-2012 Sydney and GII-12-1998) noroviruses were produced by a recombinant baculovirus expression system and binding profile to saliva type A, B and O and to synthetic antigens (A trimer, B trimer, H type 1, H type 3, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)) was identified. Good correlation between virus-like particle binding to saliva type A and synthetic A trimer (r = 0.66, p < 0.05) and saliva type B and synthetic B trimer (r = 0.75, p < 0.05) was observed. Binding of each norovirus virus-like particle to the selected histo-blood group antigens was blocked by convalescent sera from NoV-infected subjects or type-specific mouse antisera. Our results support the use of either saliva or synthetic antigens in blocking assay to measure the ability of norovirus antisera to block virus-like particle binding to the carbohydrate ligands. PMID:24631874

Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Tamminen, Kirsi; Malm, Maria; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna



Porphyrins - urine  


Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body including hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be found in urine. A urine porphyrins ...


Determination of azide in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


A sensitive and simple method for determining azide in blood and urine using an extractive alkylation technique was devised. This inorganic anion was alkylated with pentafluorobenzyl bromide using tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride as the phase-transfer catalyst. 1,3,5-Tribromobenzene was used as an internal standard. The obtained derivative was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the negative ion chemical ionization mode with isobutane as the reagent gas. The calibration curves for azide were linear over the concentration range from 1 to 200 nmol/mL in blood and urine, and the lower limit of detection was 0.5 nmol/mL for blood and urine. The accuracy and precision of the method were evaluated, and the coefficients of variation were found to be lower than 10%. PMID:10999348

Kage, S; Kudo, K; Ikeda, N



The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.



Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system  

PubMed Central

Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface.

Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar



Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known ?13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (?13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (?13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (?13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the ?13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in the ?13C value of their blood and saliva relative to baseline: blood clot was enriched by 0.27‰; blood serum by 0.50‰ and saliva by 1.12‰. We believe this overall enrichment resulted from a 13C-enriched bulk diet (?13C = - 20.42‰) relative to the subjects free-living diet. Evidence for this derives from inspection of foods within the bulk diet provided, compared to published profiles of the typical American diet. We will discuss possible complicating factors, such as differential absorption and metabolism of the supplements according to solubility and caloric value. These results are encouraging for the development of a ?13C blood serum biomarker that, in the company of other tests, could be used to indicate a change in carbohydrate intake. Bray, G.A., Nielsen, S.J. and Popkin, B.M., 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79: 537-543. Havel, P.J., 2005. Dietary fructose: Implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrition Reviews, 63(5): 133-157. Tilman D., 1998. The greening of the green revolution. Nature, 396:211-212.

Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.



Blood and urine samples as useful sources for the direct detection of tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to assess the utility of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in blood and urine for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). We prospectively evaluated the usefulness of PCR performed in blood and urine samples from patients with proved or probable TB compared with a control group of patients. The PCR technique was performed using

María J. Rebollo; Dolores Folgueira; Elia Palenque; C. Díaz-Pedroche; Carlos Lumbreras; José M. Aguado



alpha-Ketoglutaric Acid and Pyruvic Acid in Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid and Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DETERMINATIONS of alpha-ketoglutaric acid and pyruvic acid in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine have been carried out using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone method.1 The keto-acid hydrazones were separated, either by paper electrophoresis or by paper chromatography.

E. Zelnicek




EPA Science Inventory

To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...



EPA Science Inventory

Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...


Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under conditions of degradation was examined in urine samples of nine volunteers\\u000a and in post-mortem tissue (liver, skeletal muscle) and blood taken from seven corpses at autopsies. Analysis was performed\\u000a via LC-MS\\/MS. EtG concentrations in urine samples ranged from 2.5 to 296.5 mg\\/l. When stored at 4°C in airtight test tubes,\\u000a EtG concentrations remained relatively

Haiko Schloegl; Sebastian Dresen; Karin Spaczynski; Mylène Stoertzel; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann



[Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].  


The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold increase in the concentration of lead and 10-fold elevation of arsenic level in all groups of smelters in comparison to the control group. The highest cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations were observed in blood and urine of smoking smelters. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood of smoking persons from control group in comparison to the non-smoking persons from this group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. Occupational exposure to heavy metals resulted in an increase of AAP activity in blood and urine of all groups of smelters in comparison to corresponding control groups. The highest value of AAP was observed in serum and urine of smoking smelters. Tobacco smoke also increases the AAP activity the blood and urine of smoking smelters and control group compared to the non-smoking smelters and nonsmoking control group, appropriate. The study was shown that occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco. PMID:21360924

Bizo?, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina



[Saliva as an alternative diagnostic material in determination of hormone--advantages and limitations].  


Saliva can be an excellent alternative diagnostic material in determination of hormone concentration substituting the routinely used serum, plasma and urine. Particularly useful is the measurement of nonconjugated steroid hormones and cyclic amines (melatonin), the concentration of which is not dependent on saliva production, and correlates well with hormone concentration in blood. In routine laboratory diagnostic saliva is mainly used for multiple measurement of hormone concentration (establishing of diurnal cycle, monitoring the function of endocrine system with dynamic tests ex. Synacthen and dexamethasone), monitoring the concentration and metabolism of hormones used as a drugs (hormone replacement therapy) or when the determination of free (bioactive) fraction of hormone is required. Noninvasive saliva collection at patient's home, which does not need medical staff assistance, may reduce the costs of hormonal diagnostics in specialty clinics and hospitals. PMID:22026276

Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew P; Kondracka, Agnieszka



[Chemiluminescence of blood and urine in children with pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis].  


It was established during the study of blood serum and urine chemiluminescence in 57 children with pyelonephritis and in 38 children with glomerulonephritis that in the active disease stage, the intensity of overfaint luminescence rises as a result of lipid peroxidation (LPO) activation, accumulation of lipid hydroperoxides and oxygen-containing radicals. Four types of the kinetic curves of urine chemiluminescence were identified. They characterize the correlation between LPO activation and the level of antiradical defence in patients suffering from pyelo- and glomerulonephritis. The measurement of urine chemiluminescence in patients afflicted with pyelonephritis and glomerulonephritis may be one of the criteria for administering drugs possessing antiradical and antioxidant activity and can also be used in the control over the treatment efficacy. PMID:2628909

Ma?dannik, V G; Afonina, G B; Bordonos, V G; Bagdasarova, I V



Saliva and wound healing.  


Oral wounds heal faster and with less scar formation than skin wounds. One of the key factors involved is saliva, which promotes wound healing in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, thus improving the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. In addition, saliva contains several proteins which play a role in the different stages of wound healing. Saliva contains substantial amounts of tissue factor, which dramatically accelerates blood clotting. Subsequently, epidermal growth factor in saliva promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells. Secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor inhibits the tissue-degrading activity of enzymes like elastase and trypsin. Absence of this protease inhibitor delays oral wound healing. Salivary histatins in vitro promote wound closure by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration, but do not stimulate cell proliferation. A synthetic cyclic variant of histatin exhibits a 1,000-fold higher activity than linear histatin, which makes this cyclic variant a promising agent for the development of a new wound healing medication. Conclusively, recognition of the many roles salivary proteins play in wound healing makes saliva a promising source for the development of new drugs involved in tissue regeneration. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24862594

Brand, Henk S; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Veerman, Enno C I



Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in Saliva of Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are widely used in a variety of applications, and the potential exists for significant occupational and environmental exposures. They have been associated with more occupational poisoning cases than any other class of insecticides. One of the best approaches for accurately assessing human dosimetry and determining risk from both occupational and environmental exposure is biomonitoring. Biological matrices such as blood and urine have been routinely used for biomonitoring; however, other matrices such as saliva represent a simple and readily obtainable fluid. As a result, saliva has been suggested as an alternative biological matrix for the evaluation of a broad range of biomarkers such as environmental contaminants, drugs of abuse, hormones, chemotherapeutics, heavy metals, and pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), have been quantified in urine and blood as a biomarker for exposure to OP insecticides. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical approach for detecting and quantitating the levels of TCP in saliva obtained from rats exposed to CPF and to evaluate the potential of saliva as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix. Adult male rats were administered CPF, and blood and saliva were humanely collected for analysis of TCP and CPF. TCP was detected and quantitated in saliva using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Initial results indicate that saliva may be potentially utilized as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix to determine exposure to organophosphate insecticides.

Campbell, James A.; Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Wu, Hong; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Hoppe, Eric W.



Rapid oxalate determination in blood and synthetic urine using a newly developed oxometer.  


Blood and urine oxalate determinations have been limited to the laboratory setting because of complex sample storage and processing methods as well as the need for color spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. We hypothesized that glucometer test strips, impregnated with glucose oxidase and dyes that measure secondary hydrogen peroxide production, could be infused with oxalate oxidase and produce enhanced color changes in the presence of oxalate. By increasing the amount of sodium oxalate in fresh blood, we found that glucometer-measured oxalate increased on a linear scale. In addition, oxalate levels in synthetic urine could be measured using a visual scale, suggesting that strip dwell time or oxalate/oxalate oxidase concentrations could be manipulated to enhance optimal sensitivity. Although further testing is necessary, this simple, first-generation oxometer may eventually allow point of care testing in the home or office, empowering patients with oxalate-based medical conditions and giving healthcare providers real-time oxalate feedback. PMID:22973856

Canales, Benjamin K; Richards, Nigel G; Peck, Ammon B



The History of Saliva Based Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

t is probably surprising for most people to learn that saliva has been used in diagnostics for more than two thousand years. Ancient doctors of traditional Chinese medicine have concluded that saliva and blood are 'brothers' in the body and they come from the same origin. It is believed that changes in saliva are indicative of the wellness of the

Zhanzhi Hu


Detection of Darbepoetin Alfa Misuse in Urine and Blood: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

MORKEBERG, J., C. LUNDBY, G. NISSEN-LIE, T. K. NIELSEN, P. HEMMERSBACH, and R. DAMSGAARD. Detection of Darbepoetin Alfa Misuse in Urine and Blood: A Preliminary Investigation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1742-1747, 2007. Introduction: Darbepoetin alfa is a modified erythropoietin (EPO) molecule with a longer serum half-life than recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Because the detection period



Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or medicaments in blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews procedures for the determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or medicaments in blood and urine. Papers published from 1991 to early 1997 were taken into consideration. Gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic procedures with different detectors (e.g., mass spectrometer or diode array) were considered as well as the seldom used thin-layer chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Enantioselective

Thomas Kraemer; Hans H Maurer



[Indicators of blood coagulation and fibrinolytic activity of the urine in children with calculous pyelonephritis].  


Parameters of hemocoagulation and fibrinolysis in the blood and urine were studied in 108 children with calculous pyelonephritis. Fibrinolytic inhibition and signs of hypercoagulation were noted. Changes in coagulation were found to be corresponding to the activity of the disease. The changes were mostly pronounced in the urinary fibrinolytic activity, with almost zero levels in those with bilateral nephrolithiasis accompanied by renal dysfunction. Fibrinolytic and anticoagulatory medication was found to be mandatory for the aforementioned patients. PMID:2771569

Kanatbaeva, A B; Mazhitova, R T; Mustafina, S M



Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.  


A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 ?g/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication. PMID:21219705

Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C



Application of ICP-OES to the determination of barium in blood and urine in clinical and forensic analysis.  


Exposure to barium (Ba) mostly occurs in the workplace or from drinking water, but it may sometimes be due to accidental or intentional intoxication. This paper presents a reliable, sensitive method for the determination of Ba in blood and urine: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion of samples. The overall procedure was checked using Seronorm Whole Blood L-2, Trace Elements Urine and spiked blood and urine samples (0.5-10 µg/mL of Ba). The accuracy of the whole procedure (relative error) was 4% (blood) and 7% (urine); the recovery was 76-104% (blood) and 85-101% (urine). The limits of detection and quantification (Ba ? = 455.403 nm) were 0.11 and 0.4 µg/L of Ba, respectively; precision (relative standard deviation) was below 6% at the level of 15 µg/L of Ba for blood. This method was applied to a case of the poisoning of a man who had been exposed at the workplace for over two years to powdered BaCO3, and who suffered from paralysis and heart disorders. The concentrations of Ba, in ?g/L, were 160 (blood), 460 (serum) and 1,458 (urine) upon his admission to the hospital, and 6.1 (blood) and 4.9 (urine) after 11 months (reference values: 3.34 ± 2.20 µg/L of Ba for blood and 4.43 ± 4.60 µg/L of Ba for urine). PMID:23471954

Lech, Teresa



The Effect of Nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) Helicopter Flying on Pilot Blood and Urine Biochemicals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Selected blood and urine chemistries were compared in helicopter pilots flying alternately nap-of-the-earth (NOE) and routine flight profiles. The NOE flights resulted in significantly higher urinary catecholamine excretion (P less than .05), serum uric a...

D. B. Anderson R. J. McNeil M. L. Pitts D. A. Perez-Poveda



Extremes of urine osmolality - Lack of effect on red blood cell survival  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were allowed a third of normal water intake for 20 days, and food consumption decreased. The reticulocyte count indicated a suppression of erythropoiesis. Urine osmolality increased from 2,000 mosmol/kg to 3,390 mosmol/kg. Random hemolysis and senescence of a cohort of red blood cell (RBC) previously labeled with (2-(C-14)) glycine was monitored via the production of (C-14)O. Neither hemolysis nor senescence was affected. Following water restriction, the polydipsic rats generated a hypotonic urine. Urine osmolality decreased to 1,300 mosmol/kg for at least 6 days; a reticulocytosis occurred, but RBC survival was unaffected. These results contradict those previously reported, which suggest that RBC survival is influenced by the osmotic stress imposed on the RBC by extremes of urine tonicity. This discrepancy, it is concluded, is due to differences in the methods employed for measuring RBC survival. The random-labeling technique employed previously assumes a steady state between RBC production and destruction. The cohort-labeling technique used here measures hemolysis and senescence independent of changes in RBC production, which is known to be depressed by fasting.

Leon, H. A.; Fleming, J. E.



Alcohol saliva strip test.  


Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has been put forward for the detection of alcohol in saliva for blood alcohol concentration (BAC). PMID:24783167

Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy



Alcohol Saliva Strip Test  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is a factor in many categories of injury. Alcohol intoxication is frequently associated with injuries from falls, fires, drowning, overdoses, physical and sexual abusements, occupational accidents, traffic accidents and domestic violence. In many instances, for forensic purpose, it may be necessary to establish whether the patients have consumed alcohol that would have been the reason for the injury/accidents. Combining rapidity and reliability, alcohol saliva strip test (AST) has been put forward for the detection of alcohol in saliva for blood alcohol concentration (BAC).

Thokala, Madhusudhana Rao; Dorankula, Shyam Prasad Reddy; Muddana, Keertrthi; Velidandla, Surekha Reddy



Relationship of cadmium levels among blood, urine, and diet in a general population  

SciTech Connect

It has been established that the diet is the major source of exposure to cadmium (Cd) among the general population, and that cigarette smoking will be an additional source of non-occupational exposure to this metal. From the viewpoint of evaluation, it was stated that Cd in blood should be considered primarily as an indicator of recent exposure, while urinary Cd mainly reflects Cd body burden when Cd exposure is low and kidney impairment is absent, but may be influenced by current Cd exposure when Cd exposure is intense. Although a few experimental studies have been reported on the quantitative relation among the indicators of Cd exposure, report which establish and evaluate the correlations among these parameters in a general population are scarce. The present study was initiated to examine the relation of the Cd level in blood (Cd-B) with the Cd intake through diet (Cd-D) and the excretion of Cd into urine (Cd-U) among those with no known exposure to Cd. The Cd-U was examined both in terms of the level in the spot urine (Cd-Us) and as the amount in the 24-hr urine sample (Cd-U24).

Watanabe, T.; Abe, H.; Kido, K.; Ikeda, M.



Determination of tetrahydrozoline in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  


Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is widely used for the symptomatic relief of conjunctival and nasal congestion; however, intentional or unintentional high doses can result in toxicity manifested by hypotension, tachycardia, and CNS depression. The detection of the drug in blood and urine is helpful in the diagnosis and management of a toxic patient. For the analysis, plasma, serum, or urine is added to a tube containing alkaline buffer and organic extraction solvents, and tetrahydrozoline from the sample is extracted into the organic phase by gentle mixing. After centrifugation, the upper organic solvent layer containing the drug is removed and dried under stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue is reconstituted in a hexane-ethanol mixture and analyzed using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitation of the drug is done by comparing responses of unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring. Naphazoline is used as an internal standard. PMID:20077102

Peat, Judy; Garg, Uttam



Closer correlation of cadmium in urine than that of cadmium in blood with tubular dysfunction markers in urine among general women populations in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  The objectives of the present study are to investigate whether cadmium in blood (Cd-B) and cadmium in urine (Cd-U) correlate\\u000a with each other irrespective of age among general populations and which one of Cd-B or Cd-U correlates more closely with three\\u000a renal tubular dysfunction markers in urine of ?1-microglobulin (?1-MG-U), ?2-microglobulin (?2-MG-U) and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAG-U).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data on two exposure markers

Masayuki Ikeda; Fumiko Ohashi; Yoshinari Fukui; Sonoko Sakuragi; Jiro Moriguchi



Blood and urine physiological values in farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana (Anura: Ranidae) in Argentina  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 302 samples of healthy farm-cultured Rana catesbeiana specimens (9-21 months-old, 50- 350 g liveweight, 50% each sex) from the north-east of Argentina, were analyzed through spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, densitometry, refractometry and microscopy in order to obtain blood and urine normal values. Confidence intervals (p<0.05) for PCV (28.6-31.6%), RBC (0.40-0.44 T\\/L), MCV (686-732 fL), hemoglobin (6.41-7.20 g\\/dL), MCH (151-164

José A. Coppo; Norma B. Mussart; Santiago A. Fioranelli


A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.  


Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. An understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. This study characterizes a blood meal-induced I. scapularis (Ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (S)), in-house referred to as IxscS-1E1. The hypothesis that ticks use serpins to evade the host's defense response to tick feeding is based on the assumption that tick serpins inhibit functions of protease mediators of the host's anti-tick defense response. Thus, it is significant that consistent with hallmark characteristics of inhibitory serpins, Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant IxscS-1E1 (rIxscS-1E1) can trap thrombin and trypsin in SDS- and heat-stable complexes, and reduce the activity of the two proteases in a dose-responsive manner. Additionally, rIxscS-1E1 also inhibited, but did not apparently form detectable complexes with, cathepsin G and factor Xa. Our data also show that rIxscS-1E1 may not inhibit chymotrypsin, kallikrein, chymase, plasmin, elastase and papain even at a much higher rIxscS-1E1 concentration. Native IxscS-1E1 potentially plays a role(s) in facilitating I. scapularis tick evasion of the host's hemostatic defense as revealed by the ability of rIxscS-1E1 to inhibit adenosine diphosphate- and thrombin-activated platelet aggregation, and delay activated partial prothrombin time and thrombin time plasma clotting in a dose-responsive manner. We conclude that native IxscS-1E1 is part of the tick saliva protein complex that mediates its anti-hemostatic, and potentially inflammatory, functions by inhibiting the actions of thrombin, trypsin and other yet unknown trypsin-like proteases at the tick-host interface. PMID:24583183

Ibelli, Adriana M G; Kim, Tae K; Hill, Creston C; Lewis, Lauren A; Bakshi, Mariam; Miller, Stephanie; Porter, Lindsay; Mulenga, Albert



Revised and new reference values for some trace elements in blood and urine for human biomonitoring in environmental medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference values for environmental pollutants related to the German population are established continuously by the Human Biomonitoring Commission of the German Federal Environmental Agency. The reference values for arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and platinum in blood or urine were derived from the German Environmental Survey 1998 (adults aged 18 – 69 years). The reference value for lead in blood was

Michael Wilhelm; Ulrich Ewers; Christine Schulz



Nanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes  

PubMed Central

Background Exosomes, derived from endocytic membrane vesicles are thought to participate in cell-cell communication and protein and RNA delivery. They are ubiquitous in most body fluids (breast milk, saliva, blood, urine, malignant ascites, amniotic, bronchoalveolar lavage, and synovial fluids). In particular, exosomes secreted in human saliva contain proteins and nucleic acids that could be exploited for diagnostic purposes. To investigate this potential use, we isolated exosomes from human saliva and characterized their structural and transcriptome contents. Methodology Exosomes were purified by differential ultracentrifugation and identified by immunoelectron microscopy (EM), flow cytometry, and Western blot with CD63 and Alix antibodies. We then described the morphology, shape, size distribution, and density using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Microarray analysis revealed that 509 mRNA core transcripts are relatively stable and present in the exosomes. Exosomal mRNA stability was determined by detergent lysis with RNase A treatment. In vitro, fluorescently labeled saliva exosomes could communicate with human keratinocytes, transferring their genetic information to human oral keratinocytes to alter gene expression at a new location. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that exosomes shuttle RNA between cells and that the RNAs present in the exosomes may be a possible resource for disease diagnostics.

Palanisamy, Viswanathan; Sharma, Shivani; Deshpande, Amit; Zhou, Hui; Gimzewski, James; Wong, David T.



Is Platinum Present in Blood and Urine from Treatment Givers during Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy?  

PubMed Central

Background. In selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) originating from colorectal cancer (CRC) the high dosage of oxaliplatin (460?mg/m2) is recommended for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), which may be a health risk to those administering the drug. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of platinum (Pt) exposure for the two main people handling and administering the cytotoxic agent during HIPEC. Methods. Samples of blood and urine were collected from one male surgeon and one female perfusionist during oxaliplatin-based HIPEC treatment with open abdomen coliseum technique on six consecutive patients with PC from CRC. Results. All blood samples analysed were below the detection limit of <0.05?nmol/L Pt, and the urine samples were all below the detection limit of <0.03?nmol/L Pt. Conclusions. There appears to be little or no risk of Pt exposure during HIPEC when the recommended protective garment is used and the safety considerations are followed.

Naslund Andreasson, Sara; Anundi, Helena; Thoren, Sig-Britt; Ehrsson, Hans; Mahteme, Haile



An assessment of contemporary atomic spectroscopic techniques for the determination of lead in blood and urine matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation and validation of a number of clinical reference materials for the determination of lead in blood and urine is described. Four candidate blood lead reference materials (Lots, 047-050), and four candidate urine lead reference materials (Lots, 034, 035, 037 and 038), containing physiologically-bound lead at clinically relevant concentrations, were circulated to up to 21 selected laboratories specializing in this analysis. Results from two interlaboratory studies were used to establish certified values and uncertainty estimates for these reference materials. These data also provided an assessment of current laboratory techniques for the measurement of lead in blood and urine. For the blood lead measurements, four laboratories used electrothermal atomization AAS, three used anodic stripping voltammetry and one used both ETAAS and ICP-MS. For the urine lead measurements, 11 laboratories used ETAAS (most with Zeeman background correction) and 10 used ICP-MS. Certified blood lead concentrations, ±S.D., ranged from 5.9±0.4 ?g/dl (0.28±0.02 ?mol/l) to 76.0±2.2 ?g/dl (3.67±0.11 ?mol/l) and urine lead concentrations ranged from 98±5 ?g/l (0.47±0.02 ?mol/l) to 641±36 ?g/l (3.09±0.17 ?mol/l). The highest concentration blood lead material was subjected to multiple analyses using ETAAS over an extended time period. The data indicate that more stringent internal quality control practices are necessary to improve long-term precision. While the certification of blood lead materials was accomplished in a manner consistent with established practices, the urine lead materials proved more troublesome, particularly at concentrations above 600 ?g/l (2.90 ?mol/l).

Parsons, Patrick J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Verostek, Mary Frances



Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder affecting people worldwide, which require constant monitoring of their glucose levels. Commonly employed procedures include collection of blood or urine samples causing discomfort to the patients. Hence the need for an alternative non invasive technique is required to monitor glucose levels. Saliva present in the oral cavity not only maintains the health of the oral cavity but plays a important role in diagnosis of cancers of the oral cavity, periodontal diseases, HIV, heart diseases etc. The aim of the present study was undertaken to correlate the glucose levels in saliva and blood of diabetic and healthy non diabetic individuals and to determine the efficacy of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Materials & Methods: A total of 30 individuals of which 20 patients were diabetic patients and on medication and 10 patients were healthy non diabetic individuals were included in the study. Blood and saliva were collected under resting conditions and were subjected to glucose estimation. Results: Salivary and blood glucose concentrations were determined in non diabetic healthy individuals (n=10) and Type II Diabetes mellitus patients (n=20). Glycosylated haemoglobin A1c was also determined in both Type II diabetic patients and Control group and a significant correlation (r=0.73) and (r=0.46) was found between HbA1c and serum glucose concentrations in diabetic and control group respectively. A significant correlation (r=0.54) and (r=0.45) was found between fasting blood glucose and fasting salivary glucose for diabetic group and control group respectively. A positive correlation (r=0.39) and (r=0.38) was found between fasting salivary glucose and HbA1c for diabetic and control group respectively. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the saliva can be used in the assessment of the blood glucose concentration in diabetes mellitus patients. How to cite the article: Satish BN, Srikala P, Maharudrappa B, Awanti M, Kumar P, Hugar D. Saliva: A tool in assessing glucose levels in Diabetes Mellitus. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):114-7.

Satish, B N V S; Srikala, P; Maharudrappa, B; Awanti, Sharanabasappa M; Kumar, Prashant; Hugar, Deepa



Saliva and wound healing.  


Wounds in the oral cavity heal faster and with less scarring than wounds in other parts of the body. One of the factors implicated in this phenomenon is the presence of saliva, which promotes the healing of oral wounds in several ways. Saliva creates a humid environment, which improves the survival and functioning of inflammatory cells that are crucial for wound healing. Furthermore, saliva contains a variety of proteins that play a role in the various stages of the intraoral wound healing. Tissue factor, present in salivary exosomes, accelerates the clotting of blood dramatically. The subsequent proliferation of epithelial cells is promoted by growth factors in saliva, especially epidermal growth factor. The importance of secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor is demonstrated by the observation that in the absence of this salivary protein, oral wound healing is considerably delayed. Members of the salivary histatin family promote wound closure in vitro by enhancing cell spreading and cell migration. Cell proliferation is not enhanced by histatin. Cyclization of histatin increased its biological activity approximately 1,000-fold compared to linear histatin. These studies suggest that histatins could potentially be used for the development of new wound healing medications. PMID:23878824

Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I



Blood, urine, and breath levels after rapid intravenous infusion of ethanol.  


A re-evaluation of alcohol as an intravenous anaesthetic provided an opportunity of studying the changes in venous blood, urine, and breath levels under controlled conditions. Twelve volunteer patients were given 0.8 g./kg. in 8% w/v solution over four to six minutes. Despite standardization of technique there was a great variation in the peak urinary concentration and also some variation in the time at which urinary level exceeded that of blood, but this latter always occurred within 30 minutes of infusion. From one hour after infusion there was a constant mean rate of decline of both venous and urinary concentrations. While urinary/venous blood ratios varied greatly they remained fairly constant in each individual patient. The average ratio (1.35) was similar to that of other published papers. With a modification of gearing (58:1 to 67:1) the standard Ethanographe gave good correlation of breath with venous blood concentrations at low levels when patients were able to operate the machine themselves. At high levels, however, with a two-minute period of rebreathing in the unconscious patient, the correlation was poor. PMID:5454356

Dundee, J W; Knox, J W; Isaac, M



Use of Cell-Free Circulating Schistosome DNA in Serum, Urine, Semen, and Saliva To Monitor a Case of Refractory Imported Schistosomiasis Hematobia  

PubMed Central

This case of imported refractory schistosomiasis has highlighted the usefulness of cell-free parasite DNA as a diagnostic marker to assess active schistosome infection. In contrast to the rapid disappearance of ova in urine, parasite DNA remained persistent in several other specimen types even after the fourth treatment with praziquantel. This result was consistent with the presence of morphologically intact ova in bladder biopsy samples and with the corresponding symptoms.

Yasuda, Mitsuko; Yuasa, Jozi; Isaka, Shigeo; Haruki, Kosuke; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Osada, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Chigusa, Yuichi



[Experimental paroxysmal hemoglobinuria in calves and selected biochemical indicators in the blood and urine].  


When examining diseased calves, sporadically pronounced haemoglobinuria with dark red urine can be observed. In serious cases the clinical picture may be manifold but peculiar; in easy cases, however, when there are no distinct clinical symptoms, a larger scale of examinations is needed to aid differential diagnosis. Eight roughage-fed bulls aged two months, weighing 55-71 kg were used in this experiment. Selected biochemical indices of the mineral, enzymatic, hepatic, energetic and urinary profile were determined in the blood serum and urine of the animals. After the administration of cold water at an amount representing 12% of the animal's body weight, ionogram values were determined. In all indices a positive correlation with hydraemia and a decrease in Na, Cl, Ca, Mg and P levels were observed. Correction of the above levels occurred within 24 hours, with the exception of Na and P concentrations that did not reach starting values. As to the enzymatic profile (AST, ALT, GGT), no pronounced disturbances could be observed. The most profound changes were seen in AST activity that increased in the 5th hour of the experiment. A slight tendency towards hypoproteinaemia was observed to continue even in 24 hours. Hypoglobulinaemia reached its starting value in the 24th hour while simultaneously albumin levels slightly increased. The increasing bilirubin levels reached their maximum in the 5th and 6th hour; correction of the former occurred within 24 hours. The urinary profile revealed polyuria, aciduria, aquaeous urine and haemoglobinuria, the latter reaching its peak between hours 1 and 3 following water administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8236629

Sedovic, M; Nagy, O; Slanina, L



Effect of saliva and blood contamination on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of two calcium-silicate based cements: Portland cement and biodentine.  


This study evaluated the effect of contamination with saliva and blood on the bi-axial flexural strength and setting time of pure gray Portland cement and Biodentine (Septodont, Allington, UK). A one-way ANOVA showed that contamination caused no significant difference between the cements in bi-axial flexural strength (P> 0.05). However there was a significant difference in setting time (Pblood increased the setting time of both materials. Biodentine was similar in strength to Portland cement, but had a shorter setting time for both contaminated and non-contaminated samples. PMID:24922995

Alhodiry, W; Lyons, M F; Chadwick, R G



Glucocorticoid measurements in health and disease--metabolic implications and the potential of 24-h urine analyses.  


For examination of glucocorticoid metabolism and identification of hyper and hypocortisolism, various measurements and diagnostic tools are available. After a brief overview of the physiology of glucocorticoid secretion and glucocorticoid actions, the currently used measurements for blood, saliva, and urine samples and the corresponding physiological and metabolic implications are critically reviewed. A special emphasis is placed on the potential of 24-h urine analyses to assess not only glucocorticoid secretion, but also functional glucocorticoid activity. PMID:18289099

Remer, Thomas; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Wudy, Stefan A



Detection of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites in blood, urine, and brains of infected mice.  

PubMed Central

Different techniques for identifying Toxoplasma gondii were compared. PCR was used to amplify part of the major surface antigen P30 gene of T. gondii. Amplified-DNA detection with the DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR-DEIA) was more sensitive than ethidium bromide staining after agarose gel electrophoresis and as sensitive as nested PCR. PCR-DEIA, using common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, avoids agarose gel electrophoresis for the identification of amplified products. T. gondii can also be detected with equal sensitivity in infected fibroblasts, but only after at least 8 days of cell culture. PCR-DEIA is thus recommended because of its sensitivity and convenience for detecting early parasitemia in the surveillance of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and immunocompromised hosts. The courses of infection in mice infected with two strains of T. gondii were compared. Tachyzoites of the virulent strain T. gondii RH, killing the host in 4 days, were identified in urine specimens and blood samples of mice 24 to 94 h after inoculation but not in brains, but no antibodies were detected. After intraperitoneal inoculation with cysts of the low-level virulence Beverley strain of T. gondii, parasites were identified in blood samples 4 days later and up to 17 days (but not in urine specimens) and in the brain from day 6 through day 525. By ELISA, high antibody titers were found from day 11 to day 525, with parasitemia preceding the appearance of antibodies. The usefulness of PCR-DEIA tests in conjunction with the search for circulating antibodies for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in humans is discussed.

Nguyen, T D; de Kesel, M; Bigaignon, G; Hoet, P; Pazzaglia, G; Lammens, M; Delmee, M



Brain-blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders.



Poor histological lesions in IgA nephropathy may be reflected in blood and urine peptide profiling  

PubMed Central

Background IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, leading to renal failure in 15% to 40% of cases. IgAN is diagnosed by renal biopsy, an invasive method that is not risk-free. We used blood and urine peptide profiles as a noninvasive method of linking IgAN-associated changes with histological lesions by Oxford classification. Methods We prospectively studied 19 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and 14 healthy subjects from 2006 to 2009, excluding subjects with crescentic glomerulonephritis and collecting clinical and biochemical data at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up (24 months). Histological lesions were evaluated by Oxford classification. Proteomic analysis was performed by combining magnetic bead (MB) technology and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to obtain peptide profiles. Doubling of serum creatinine was considered a variable of poor renal prognosis. Results We identified 55 peptides—13 in serum, 26 in plasma, and 16 in urine—that differentiated IgAN patients from healthy subjects. A significant association was noted between serum/plasma and urine peptides and histological findings—ie, tubulointerstitial damage, segmental glomerulosclerosis, and endocapillary injury. We also identified 3 peptides—corresponding to bradykinin, uromodulin, and alpha-1-antitrypsin—that were associated with severity of lesions, such as tubulointerstitial damage and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Moreover, blood peptides with m/z 2953, 5337, 9287, and 9289 and urine peptides with m/z 1769, 1898, 1913, 1945, 2491, 2756, 2977, 3004, 3389, and 4752 correlated significantly with poor renal function. Conclusions In patients with IgAN, the use of noninvasive approaches, such as blood and urine proteomics, can provide valuable information beyond that of standard diagnostic techniques, allowing us to identify blood and urine peptide profiles that are associated with poor histological lesions in IgAN patients.



Electrocatalytic oxidation and selective determination of an opioid analgesic methadone in the presence of acetaminophen at a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: application for human urine, saliva and pharmaceutical samples analysis.  


For the first time, electrocatalytic oxidation and selective determination of methadone (Mtd), as a long-acting opioid, in the presence of acetaminophen (Ac) has been investigated at a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. This simple and sensitive electrochemical sensor was fabricated through the drop-casting of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidations of Ac and Mtd are both individually and simultaneously investigated at the surface of the fMWCNT modified glassy carbon electrode (fMWCNT/MGCE) through using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric studies. The fMWCNT/MGCE offered a considerable enhancement in the anodic peak current of Ac and Mtd associated with separating their overlapping voltammetric responses with potential difference of 290 mV. The catalytic peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry of Ac and Mtd increased linearly with their concentration at the ranges of 0.45-90.0 ?M and 0.5-100.0 ?M, respectively, and the detection limits for Ac and Mtd were sequentially 0.35 ?M and 0.28 ?M. Furthermore, this electrochemical sensor was successfully implemented for the quantitative determination of Ac and Mtd in human urine, saliva and pharmaceutical samples using standard addition method and the obtained results were found to be satisfactory. PMID:23680846

Amiri-Aref, Mohaddeseh; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza



Recovery of a Catalase-Negative Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain in Blood and Urine Cultures from a Patient with Pyelonephritis ?  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 60-year-old patient with bilateral nephrolithiasis. A catalase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strain was recovered from both urine and blood cultures. Although rare, isolates of catalase-negative Staphylococcus spp., including Staphylococcus aureus, have been reported. Here, we describe the first report of a catalase-negative S. epidermidis strain.

Kallstrom, George; Chang, Tom; Albertson, Marc; Morilla, Daniel; Fisher, Mark A.; Eberly, Bardwell



Recovery of a catalase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strain in blood and urine cultures from a patient with pyelonephritis.  


This report describes a 60-year-old patient with bilateral nephrolithiasis. A catalase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strain was recovered from both urine and blood cultures. Although rare, isolates of catalase-negative Staphylococcus spp., including Staphylococcus aureus, have been reported. Here, we describe the first report of a catalase-negative S. epidermidis strain. PMID:21900516

Kallstrom, George; Chang, Tom; Albertson, Marc; Morilla, Daniel; Fisher, Mark A; Eberly, Bardwell




EPA Science Inventory

The kinetics of phenylglucuronide (PG) in blood and urine of spinally-transected rainbow trout were investigated using microdialysis sampling techniques. Trout weighing 0.9 to 1.3 kg were dosed continuously with PG for an additional 48 h. PG could not be detected in expired branc...


Preliminary investigation of using volatile organic compounds from human expired air, blood and urine for locating entrapped people in earthquakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary investigation on the possibility of using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determination of expired air, blood and urine, for the early location of entrapped people in earthquakes, has been carried out. A group of 15 healthy subjects has been sampled. The identification of a common “core” of substances might provide indications of human presence that can be used for

M. Statheropoulos; E. Sianos; A. Agapiou; A. Georgiadou; A. Pappa; N. Tzamtzis; H. Giotaki; C. Papageorgiou; D. Kolostoumbis



Summary of: Relationship between mercury levels in blood and urine and complaints of chronic mercury toxicity from amalgam restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To determine whether patients complaining of oral and medical symptoms perceived to be associated with chronic mercury toxicity have elevated mercury levels in their blood and urine.Methods The study group in this audit were 56 patients presenting to an oral medicine unit with complaints perceived to be related to chronic mercury toxicity. Their symptoms and co-morbidity were charted and

S. Porter



Relationship between mercury levels in blood and urine and complaints of chronic mercury toxicity from amalgam restorations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To determine whether patients complaining of oral and medical symptoms perceived to be associated with chronic mercury toxicity have elevated mercury levels in their blood and urine.Methods The study group in this audit were 56 patients presenting to an oral medicine unit with complaints perceived to be related to chronic mercury toxicity. Their symptoms and co-morbidity were charted and

J. Eyeson; I. House; Y. H. Yang; K. A. A. S. Warnakulasuriya



Routine clinical determination of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and thallium in urine and whole blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the measurement of As, Cd, Pb, and Tl in urine or whole blood, judicious choices of internal standard elements for matrix correction and the development of a refined isobaric arsenic correction are necessary to produce accurate ICP-MS results. Ga and Rh are chosen as internal standards for As and Cd respectively. Bi is better for the correction of Pb

David E. Nixon; Thomas P. Moyer



Diurnal blood and urine glucose and acetone bodies in labile juvenile diabetics on one — and two-injection insulin therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Diurnal levels of blood and urine glucose and acetone bodies were studied in 13 labile juvenile diabetics to see whether the control of diabetes could be improved by giving insulin twice instead of once daily. Lente insulin was used in most patients for one-injection therapy, and the biphasic Rapitard insulin (Novo) for two-injection therapy. Blood specimens were obtained six times

Hans K. Åkerblom; Hilkka Hiekkala



Detection of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A in human urine and blood serum by LC-MS/MS.  


Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (Delta9-THCA-A) is the precursor of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta9-THC) in hemp plants. During smoking, the non-psychoactive Delta9-THCA-A is converted to Delta9-THC, the main psychoactive component of marihuana and hashish. Although the decarboxylation of Delta9-THCA-A to Delta9-THC was assumed to be complete--which means that no Delta9-THCA-A should be detectable in urine and blood serum of cannabis consumers--we found Delta9-THCA-A in the urine and blood serum samples collected from police controls of drivers suspected for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). For LC-MS/MS analysis, urine and blood serum samples were prepared by solid-phase extraction. Analysis was performed with a phenylhexyl column using gradient elution with acetonitrile. For detection of Delta9-THCA-A, the mass spectrometer (MS) (SCIEX API 365 triple-quadrupole MS with TurboIonSpray source) was operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the following transitions: m/z357 --> 313, m/z357 --> 245 and m/z357 --> 191. Delta9-THCA-A could be detected in the urine and blood serum samples of several cannabis consumers in concentrations of up to 10.8 ng/ml in urine and 14.8 ng/ml in serum. The concentration of Delta9-THCA-A was below the Delta9-THC concentration in most serum samples, resulting in molar ratios of Delta9-THCA-A/Delta9-THC of approximately 5.0-18.6%. Only in one case, where a short elapsed time between the last intake and blood sampling is assumed, the molar ratio was 18.6% in the serum. This indicates differences in elimination kinetics, which need to be investigated in detail. PMID:17219606

Jung, Julia; Kempf, Juergen; Mahler, Hellmut; Weinmann, Wolfgang



Morphine to codeine concentration ratio in blood and urine as a marker of illicit heroin use in forensic autopsy samples.  


A morphine to codeine ratio greater than unity (M/C>1) has been suggested as an indicator of heroin use in living individuals. The aim of this study was to examine the morphine to codeine ratio in a large population (N=2438) of forensically examined autopsy cases positive for 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) and/or morphine in blood and/or urine. Blood and urine concentrations of 6-MAM, morphine and codeine were examined using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS methods. In 6-MAM positive samples, the M/C ratio was greater than unity in 98% (N=917) of the blood samples and 96% (N=665) of the urine samples. Stratification of 6-MAM negative cases by M/C above or below unity revealed similarities in morphine and codeine concentrations in cases where M/C>1 and 6-MAM positive cases. Median blood and urine morphine concentrations were 8-10 times greater than codeine for both groups. Similarly to 6-MAM positive cases, 25-44 year-old men prevailed in the M/C>1 group. In comparison to cases where M/C ? 1, the M/C ratio was a hundred times higher in both 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The range of morphine concentration between the lowest and the highest quintile of codeine in M/C>1 cases was similar to that in 6-MAM positive cases. This range was much higher than for M/C ? 1 cases. Moreover, linear regression analyses, adjusted for age and gender, revealed a strong positive association between morphine and codeine in 6-MAM positive and M/C>1 cases. The M/C ratio appeared to be a good marker of heroin use in post-mortem cases. Both blood and urine M/C>1 can be used to separate heroin users from other cases positive for morphine and codeine. PMID:22137531

Konstantinova, Svetlana V; Normann, Per T; Arnestad, Marianne; Karinen, Ritva; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg



Testing for drugs of abuse in saliva and sweat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, PCP, alcohol and nicotine in saliva and sweat is reviewed, with emphasis on forensic applications. The short window of detection and lower levels of drugs present compared to levels found in urine limits the applications of sweat and saliva screening for drug use determination. However, these matrices may be applicable for

David A. Kidwell; Janel C. Holland; Sotiris Athanaselis



The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions.

Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez



Catecholamines - urine  


Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)


Quantitative analysis of 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone in blood and urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in a fatal case.  


We report here the quantitative analysis of cathinone-type designer drug 3,4-dimethylmethcathinone (3,4-DMMC) in blood and urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in a fatal case. Abuse of 3,4-DMMC is widespread and a global issue. However, to date, there have been no reports of 3,4-DMMC-related deaths. We encountered a death in which 3,4-DMMC was thought to play a causative role, and successfully identified this designer drug from biological samples by using LC-MS/MS and QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extraction method. For standard samples, detection of 3,4-DMMC in human blood and urine samples in the calibration range (5-400 ng/mL) was successful with recoveries of 85.9-89.4% (blood) and 95.8-101% (urine), limits of detection of 1.03 (blood) and 1.37 ng/mL (urine) and limits of quantification of 5.00 (blood) and 5.38 ng/mL (urine). The concentrations of 3,4-DMMC in blood (external iliac vein) and urine in the case were 27 mg/L and 7.6 mg/L, respectively. Some metabolites, including 3,4-dimethylcathione (DMC) and ?-ketone reduced metabolites (?-OH-DMMC and ?-OH-DMC), were detected in both blood and urine. PMID:24780695

Usui, Kiyotaka; Aramaki, Tomomi; Hashiyada, Masaki; Hayashizaki, Yoshie; Funayama, Masato



Optimized siRNA-PEG Conjugates for Extended Blood Circulation and Reduced Urine Excretion in Mice  

PubMed Central

Some of the main concerns with in vivo application of naked small interfering RNA are rapid degradation and urinary excretion resulting in a short plasma half-life. In this study we investigated how conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with variable chain length affects siRNA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The PEG chains were conjugated to chemically stabilized siRNA at the 5' terminal end of the passenger strand using click chemistry. The siRNA conjugate remained functionally active and showed significantly prolonged circulation in the blood stream after intravenous injection. siRNA conjugated with 20kDa PEG (PEG20k-siRNA) was most persistent, approximately 50% PEG20k-siRNA remained 1h post-injection, while the uncoupled siRNA was rapidly removed >90% at 15min. In vivo fluorescent imaging of the living animal showed increased concentration of siRNA in peripheral tissue and delayed urine excretion when coupled to PEG 20k. Biodistribution studies by northern blotting revealed equal distribution of conjugated siRNA in liver, kidney, spleen and lung without significant degradation 24 h post-injection. Our study demonstrates that PEG conjugated siRNA can be applied as a delivery system to improve siRNA bioavailability in vivo and may potentially increase the efficiency of siRNA in therapeutic applications.

Iversen, Frank; Yang, Chuanxu; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Schaffert, David H.; Kjems, J?rgen; Gao, Shan



Investigation of lead concentrations in whole blood, plasma and urine as biomarkers for biological monitoring of lead exposure.  


Lead in blood is a major concept in biomonitoring of exposure but investigations of its alternatives are scarce. The aim of the study was to describe different lead biomarkers' variances, day-to-day and between individuals, estimating their fraction of the total variance. Repeated sampling of whole blood, plasma and urine were conducted for 48 lead-exposed men and 20 individuals under normal environmental lead exposure, in total 603 measurements. For lead workers, the fraction of the total variance attributed to differences between individuals was 91% for whole-blood lead (geometric mean 227??g/l; geometric standard deviation (GSD): 1.55??g/l); plasma 78% (0.57??g/l; GSD: 1.84??g/l); density-adjusted urine 82%; and unadjusted urine 75% (23.7??g/l; GSD: 2.48??g/l). For the individuals under normal lead exposure, the corresponding fractions were 95% of the total variance for whole blood (20.7??g/l; GSD: 8.6??g/l), 15% for plasma (0.09??g/l; GSD: 0.04??g/l), 87% for creatinine-adjusted urine and 34% for unadjusted (10.8??g/l; GSD: 6.7??g/l). Lead concentration in whole blood is the biomarker with the best ability to discriminate between individuals with different mean concentration. Urinary and plasma lead also performed acceptably in lead workers, but at low exposures plasma lead was too imprecise. Urinary adjustments appear not to increase the between-individual fraction of the total variance among lead workers but among those with normal lead exposure. PMID:23443239

Sommar, Johan Nilsson; Hedmer, Maria; Lundh, Thomas; Nilsson, Leif; Skerfving, Staffan; Bergdahl, Ingvar A



Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.



Cadmium in blood and urine related to present and past exposure. A study of workers in an alkaline battery factory.  

PubMed Central

Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations together with cadmium in air concentrations from the breathing zone of 18 male workers in an alkaline battery factory were determined at regular intervals for 11 consecutive weeks. Nine of the workers examined were smokers and nine non-smokers. Smokers and non-smokers did not differ in age or years of employment. Cadmium in air concentrations varied, but no definite trend was observed. The concentrations of cadmium in the blood and urine were found to be stable. Exposure to airborne cadmium was identical for smokers and non-smokers but average cadmium concentrations in the blood and urine of smokers were approximately twice as high as those in non-smokers. For the whole group, urinary cadmium was significantly correlated with years of employment, but no correlation was found between blood cadmium concentrations and exposure. For non-smokers, the correlation between cadmium in blood and years of employment was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). This finding indicated that blood concentrations of cadmium reflect body burden in non-smokers at current low exposure levels.

Hassler, E; Lind, B; Piscator, M



Occurrence of Keto-Acids in Blood Serum and Urine of Cattle in Comparison with Man, Horse, Sheep and Dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN connexion with metabolic disorders occurring in cows, such as parturient paresis and acetonæmia, an investigation concerning the keto-acids occurring in blood serum and urine was started. Several authors have carried out work in this field concerning man. Keto-acids are converted into 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazones, after which they are separated by means of paper chromatography. The 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazones are reduced by hydrogen

C. J. G. van der Horst



Low-volume, high-sensitivity assay for cadmium in blood and urine using conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  

SciTech Connect

An assay for cadmium in whole blood and urine using deuterium background-correction electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (D2-ETAAS) was developed. Cadmium (in a 1- to 2-ml sample) was bound to 15 mg anion-exchange resin, interfering ions were removed in a 2-ml Bio-Spin column, and cadmium was extracted into 100 {mu}l 1 M nitric acid for analysis. Cadmium in the sample extract was concentrated 7-fold for blood and 10-fold for urine over the starting material. These steps produced cadmium atomic absorption traces with high signal to background ratios and allowed analysis against aqueous standards. At {approx}0.1 ng Cd/ml, mean intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11-12%. Cadmium recovery for 0.1 to 0.6 ng added cadmium was 107{+-}4% for blood and 94{+-}4% for urine (mean{+-}SE, n=3). The mean detection limit (mean + 3x SD of blank) was 0.008 ng/ml for blood and 0.003 ng/ml for urine. Samples from 'unexposed' animals including humans ranged from 0.051{+-}0.000 to 0.229{+-}0.035 ng/ml. Values were approximately 10-fold lower than those obtained by the method of Stoeppler and Brandt using Zeeman background-correction ETAAS. This new high-sensitivity, low-volume assay will be useful for epidemiological studies, even those involving children, and will provide a means to help determine the contribution of cadmium to disease incidence in the general population.

Cerny, E. A.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Biosciences Division



Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the\\u000a sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed\\u000a the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0?4 h) between blood collection and processing

Patrizia Bernini; Ivano Bertini; Claudio Luchinat; Paola Nincheri; Samuele Staderini; Paola Turano



Urine - abnormal color  


The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...


Determination of lead in urine and whole blood by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


A stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method is described for the determination of lead (Pb) in urine and whole blood. The use of lithium bis(trifluoroethyl)dithiocarbamate Pb(FDEDTC) as a chelating agent showed strong memory effect, restricting the range of Pb isotope ratios that can be measured in unknown samples. To overcome this carryover problem, we further derivatized the Pb(FDEDTC)2 chelate with 4-fluorophenyl magnesium bromide to form Pb(FC6H4)4. The sequential analyses of solutions of natural Pb and enriched 204Pb with Pb(FC6H4)4 chelate by GC-MS demonstrated no observable memory effect. Precision and accuracy of Pb isotope ratio measurements with Pb(FC6H4)4 were established, and the isotope dilution GC-MS method was validated by determining Pb concentrations in urine standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, urine and blood reference materials from the New York State Department of Health, and blood Pb survey samples from the College of American Pathologists. PMID:8044988

Aggarwal, S K; Kinter, M; Herold, D A



High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative analysis of a synthetic copolymer with antitumor activity (copovithane) and methylamine in human blood plasma and urine.  


A method for the determination of a synthetic polymeric compound with antitumor activity (copovithane) and methylamine in blood plasma and urine is described. Copovithane is prepared by radical polymerisation of a diurethane with N-vinylpyrrolidone. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatography of the methylamine hydrochloride which arises during the hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of the parent substance. The methylamine hydrochloride is converted to the trinitrobenzenesulphonyl derivative for the purpose of chromatographic detection. The limit of determination for copovithane in blood plasma is 1.2 mg/l and in urine 1.5 mg/day. The determination limit for methylamine in blood plasma is 0.2 mg/l and in urine 0.3 mg/day. The imprecision is dependent on the sample, and amounts to +/- 6.8% for blood plasma and +/- 6.4% for urine. PMID:6863446

Wingender, W



Protein urine test  


... diseased, proteins appear in the urine, even if blood protein levels are normal. ... not a cause for concern. Larger amounts of protein in the urine may be ... caused by pregnancy ( preeclampsia ) Urinary tract problems, ...


In vivo analysis of cadmium in battery workers versus measurements of blood, urine, and workplace air.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To measure in vivo the cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex (kidney-Cd) and in superficial liver tissue (liver-Cd) of nickel cadmium battery workers, and to compare the results with other commonly used estimates of cadmium exposure (current concentrations of cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd)) or repeated measurements of cadmium in workplace air (CumAir-Cd). METHODS: The study comprised 30 workers with a range of duration of exposure of 11-51 years. 13 subjects were currently employed, whereas the other 17 had a median period without occupational exposure of eight years before the measurements. The in vivo measurements were made with an x ray fluorescence technique permitting average detection limits of 30 and 3 micrograms cadmium per g tissue in kidney and liver, respectively. RESULTS: 19 of 30 (63%) people had kidney-Cd and 13 of 27 (48%) had liver-Cd above the detection limits. Kidney-Cd ranged from non-detectable to 350 micrograms/g and liver-Cd from non-detectable to 80 micrograms/g. The median kidney-Cd and liver-Cd were 55 micrograms/g and 3 micrograms/g, respectively. Kidney-Cd correlated significantly with B-Cd (r, 0.49) and U-Cd (r, 0.70), whereas liver-Cd correlated significantly with U-Cd (r, 0.58). Neither kidney-Cd nor liver-Cd correlated with the CumAir-Cd. The prevalence of beta 2-microglobulinurea increased with increased liver-Cd. CONCLUSIONS: Current U-Cd can be used to predict the kidney-Cd and liver-Cd measured in vivo. In vivo measurements of kidney-Cd and liver-Cd were not shown to correlate with the individual cadmium exposure estimates, obtained by integration of the cadmium concentration in workplace air. There may be several reasons for this, including uncertainties in the estimate of the individual cumulative exposures as well as in the in vivo measurements. There was a suggestion of a relation between liver-Cd and tubular proteinuria.

Borjesson, J; Bellander, T; Jarup, L; Elinder, C G; Mattsson, S



Within- and between-subject variations in pharmacokinetic parameters of ethanol by analysis of breath, venous blood and urine  

PubMed Central

Aims To evaluate the prerequisites for using ethanol dilution to estimate total body water, we studied the within- and between-subject variation in the parameter estimates of a two-compartment model for ethanol pharmacokinetics with parallel Michaelis-Menten and first-order renal elimination. Because sampling of breath might be preferable in some clinical situations the parameter estimates derived from breath and venous blood were compared. Methods On two occasions, ethanol 0.4 g kg?1 was given by intravenous infusion to 16 volunteers after they had fasted overnight. The proposed model was fitted by means of nonlinear regression to concentration-time data measured in the breath, venous blood and urine during 360 min. The model contained six parameters: Vmax and Km (Michaelis-Menten elimination constants), CLd (intercompartmental distribution parameter), VC and VT (volumes of the central and tissue compartment, respectively) and CLR (renal clearance). The volume of distribution, Vss, was calculated as the sum of VC and VT. Results The mean ± total s.d. of the parameter estimates derived from blood data were Vmax 95 ± 25 mg min?1, Km 27 ± 19 mg l?1, CLd 809 ± 232 ml min?1, VC 14.5 ± 4.3 l, VT 21.2 ± 4.4 l, CLR 3.6 ± 2.0 ml min?1 and Vss 35.8 ± 4.3 l. The variation within subjects amounted to 3%, 9%, 21%, 21%, 17%, 26% and 2%, respectively, of the total variation. Breath samples were associated with a similar or lower variation than blood, both within and between subjects. About 1.5% of the infused ethanol was recovered in the urine. Conclusions The low within-subject variation of the key parameter Vss (only 2%) suggests that ethanol dilution analysed by the pharmacokinetic model applied here may be used as an index of the total body water. Breath samples yielded at least as good reproducibility in the model parameters as venous blood.

Norberg, A; Gabrielsson, J; Jones, A W; Hahn, R G



Diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by detection of viral DNA in dried blood spots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The reference method of cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolation from urine or saliva is not a feasible routine technique for all newborns, and laboratory diagnosis of this infection would be useful both for epidemiological purposes and to enable prompt institution of adequate measures to identify and correct late sequelae. Extraction and amplification of viral DNA from dried blood spots (DBS) collected

Maria Barbi; Sandro Binda; Valeria Primache; Cristina Luraschi; Carlo Corbetta



RBC urine test  


Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...


[Determination of glucose, proteins, blood and leucocytes in urines: evaluation of automated analyzer Aution Max AX 4280].  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the automated urine test strip analyzer Aution Max AX 4280 which uses strips able to measure 12 urinary parameters. For precision study, we considered glucose, protein, blood, leukocytes, nitrite, and pH and the four first were compared with usual methods: chemical measurement or microscopic examination. Reproducibility of the semi quantitative results was determined as the proportion of results falling into the same concentration range. Within-run reproducibility assessed using urine specimens were between 83% and 96%. Between day on quality controlled materials, it was higher (96%), and leukocytes were shared between two classes 250 and 500 cells/microL. For glucose and proteins, linearity was good and comparison with quantitative methods yielded high correlation. The false negative fraction was low and there was no false positive results. For blood, fraction of false positive was 7.5% for 0.3 mg/L of hemoglobin compared with microscopic analysis and false negative fraction was 1.3%. For leukocytes, false positive fraction was 4%, false negative one was 7.8%. These results, values for sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value, predictive negative value permitted to determine the cut-off values to realize second levels analysis: proteins are measured from 0.30 g/L, glucose from 2.8 mmol/L, microscopic urinalysis was performed from hemoglobin more than 0.3 mg/L and leukocytes more than 25 cells/microL. PMID:16330380

Steinmetz, J; Henny, J; Gueguen, R



Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine.  


Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine, which must be improved in order to advance curing the parasitic disease malaria. A key problem also lies in that pharmacokinetic studies not always are performed in patient groups that may benefit most of the treatment such as children, pregnancy and lower-weight ethnic populations. Here we review the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After LC separation, the preferred detection tool is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) but other detection methods have been used e.g. UV, fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Major trends for sample preparation of the different groups of antimalarials for each matrix and its detection have been summarized. Finally, the main problems that the researchers have dealt with are highlighted. This information will aid analytical chemists in the development of novel methods for determining existing antimalarials and upcoming new drugs. PMID:24911547

Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Styrishave, Bjarne; Björklund, Erland



A simple {sup 197}Hg RNAA procedure for the determination of mercury in urine, blood, and tissue  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has been implicated as a causal agent in such central nervous system diseases as Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s. Consequently, there has been increased interest in the determination of ultra-trace-level mercury in biological matrices, especially in tissue. While such nonnuclear techniques as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry have been employed routinely for mercury determinations in urine and blood, there is a paucity of nonnuclear techniques for the determination of mercury in the low parts-per-billion range in biological tissue. As pointed out by Fardy and Warner, instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) require no blank determinations in contrast to nonnuclear analytical techniques employing digestion and/or chemical operations. Therefore, INAA and RNAA become the obvious choices for determination of ultra-trace levels of mercury in tissue. Most separation methods reported in the literature require different and separate methodologies for mercury determinations in urine, blood, or tissue. The purposes of this study are to develop a single methodology for the determination of low levels of mercury in all biological matrices by RNAA and to optimize parameters necessary for an efficacious trace-level determination. Previously, few studies have taken into account the effects of the Szilard-Chalmers reactions of the radioactivatable analyte within a biological matrix. It also would appear that little attention has been given to the optimum postirradiation carrier concentration of the analyte species necessary. This study discusses these various considerations.

Blotcky, A.J. [VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Rack, E.P.; Meade, A.G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others



Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones



Review of Biologic Matrices (Urine, Blood, Hair) as Indicators of Recent or Ongoing Cannabis Use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Especially for cannabinoids, analytical procedures for the verification of recent use and generally for the assessment of the extent of drug abuse are of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. For confirmation of abstinence, urine analysis seems to be a useful tool. Serial monitoring of THC-COOH to creatinine ratios can differentiate between recent drug use and residual THC-COOH excretion (THC-COOH\\/creatinine

Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea



Validation and application of a highly specific and sensitive ELISA for the estimation of cortisone in saliva, urine and in vitro cell-culture media by using a novel antibody.  


It is generally acknowledged that local tissue concentrations of cortisol and cortisone are modulated by site-specific actions of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) isoenzymes 1 and 2. Cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol is produced by 11?HSD type 2. To assess 11?-HSD types 1 and 2 activities, the cortisol/cortisone ratio has to be accurately determined. Immunoassays to measure cortisone levels are not widely available and tend to lack specificity. The aim of this project was to develop a highly specific and sensitive ELISA method for the estimation of free cortisone levels in urine, saliva and in vitro media samples without chromatographic separation. Antibodies against cortisone were raised in rabbits using cortisone-3-CMO-KLH as immunogen. HRP-goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugate was used as enzyme tracer. Cross-reactivities of the untreated cortisone antiserum with major interfering steroids were minimal except for cortisol (3.15%). However, following an immune-affinity purification of the antibodies using CNBr-activated sepharose-cortisol-3-CMO-BSA, cross-reactivity of the purified cortisone antibody with cortisol was reduced to 0.27%. The minimum detection limit of cortisone ELISA was 28 pg/mL (77.7 pM). The validity of the cortisone ELISA was confirmed by the excellent correlation obtained before and after an HPLC fractionation step (Y=1.09X-0.21, R2=0.98). Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision were 5.5-11.7% and 8.7-12.8% CV, respectively. Using this assay, salivary cortisone levels showed a circadian rhythm in men and women (11.2±7.3 nM at 08.00 h and 5.1±3.6 nM at 18.00 h), and the levels were reduced following liquorice ingestion. In media of adrenocortical H295 cell line incubations, basal cortisone levels were 4.24±0.22 nM that increased to 8.6±1.2 nM post forskolin treatment. Urinary free cortisone excretion levels in healthy subjects were 56.66±36.9 nmol/day. In human volunteers following ingestion of green coffee bean extract for 2 weeks, urinary free cortisol excretion reduced significantly from 66.67±22.3 to 42.66±17.5 nmol/day (p=0.02) and the cortisol/cortisone ratio from 2.04±1.33 to 1.49±1.13, p=0.05. In conclusion, a simple and highly specific and sensitive ELISA has been developed and applied to estimate cortisone levels in biological fluids and culture media. PMID:22429925

Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Baghdadi, Hussam H S; Howie, Forbes; Mason, J Ian



Science behind human saliva  

PubMed Central

Saliva is a complex fluid, which influences oral health through specific and nonspecific physical and chemical properties. The importance of saliva in our everyday activities and the medicinal properties it possesses are often taken for granted. However, when disruptions in the quality or quantity of saliva do occur in an individual, it is likely that he or she will experience detrimental effects on oral and systemic health. Often head and neck radiotherapy has serious and detrimental side effects on the oral cavity including the loss of salivary gland function and a persistent complaint of a dry mouth (xerostomia). Thus, saliva has a myriad of beneficial functions that are essential to our well-being. Although saliva has been extensively investigated as a medium, few laboratories have studied saliva in the context of its role in maintaining oral and general health.

Tiwari, Manjul



Lithium and sodium in blood plasma and urine of fish and mammals of Lake Baikal  

SciTech Connect

The lithium concentration in body fluids was measured by the massspectrometric technique of isotope dilution in certain species of fish and seals, and also in water from Lake Baikal. The concentration of lithium in the urine of all studied animals was higher than that of sodium in plasma. Appreciable differences were found between Li/sup +/ and Na/sup +/ ions in the exchange between organism and environment in Lake Baikal fish: The Li/Na ratio in plasma was 10- and 100-fold lower than in water. Discrimination between these ions occurred both during their entry into the body (transport through bills) and during their elimination via the kidneys.

Putintseva, V.A.; Fleishman, D.G.



Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts were measured by ELISA and hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS--Mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples from coke oven workers varied from 1.11 to 5.53 umol/mol creatinine and 0.14 umol/mol creatinine in the control group. Workers at the top side had the highest values of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts did not correlate with either 1-hydroxypyrene nor length of work at the coke oven plant. But antibody concentration in samples collected in January was predictive of the concentration in samples collected in June. A small non-significant increase in hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts was found in samples from coke oven workers relative to the control group when comparing smokers and nonsmokers separately. CONCLUSION--1-Hydroxypyrene correlates well with exposure groups based on job description. Antibodies to benzo(a)-pyrene DNA adducts was related to people and not exposure. Work at a coke oven plant might lead to increased hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts.

Ovreb?, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D



Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.  


A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. PMID:24794066

Lukasik-G??bocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Han?, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Bara?kiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Micha?; Zieli?ska-Psuja, Barbara



[Urokinase as a blood and urine plasminogen activator in chronic glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis].  


To estimate the individual role of the plasminogen activators (PA) urokinase (u-PA) and tissue (t-PA) in the development of two renal diseases (the nephrotic forms of chronic glomerulonephritis (CGN) and amyloidosis, the baseline plasma and urine levels of u-PA and t-PA antigens, their functional activity (FPAA), and changes in these parameters were determined after protein loading test (0.7 g/kg). In healthy individuals and patients with amyloidosis, the baseline FPAA changes from 0 to the maximum were caused only by the alterations of u-PA levels, in those with CGN, they were induced by the changes in the content of u-PA and t-AP antigens. The functional loading test revealed PA reserves solely in patients having a high baseline FPAA for both nephropathies: u-PA in amyloidosis and t-PA in CGN. In all the patients, the urine levels of u-PA antigens were 20-40 times more than those of t-PA antigens and 5-6 times less than those plasma u-PA. The findings suggest that urokinase may be regarded as the major plasminogen activator involved in CGN and amyloidosis. PMID:10204025

Andreenko, G V; Poliantseva, L R; Podorol'skaia, L V; Bumblite, I D



Detection of recombinant EPO in blood and urine samples with EPO WGA MAIIA, IEF and SAR-PAGE after microdose injections.  


The misuse of microdoses of performance enhancing drugs like erythropoietin (EPO) constitutes a major challenge in doping analysis. When injected intravenously, the half-life of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) like epoetin alfa, beta, and zeta is only a few hours and hence, the window for direct detection of rhEPO in urine is small. In order to investigate the detection window for rhEPO directly in blood and urine with a combined affinity chromatography and lateral flow immunoassay (EPO WGA MAIIA), we recruited nine healthy people who each received six intravenously injected microdoses (7.5?IU/kg) of NeoRecormon (epoetin beta) over a period of three weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected in the days following the injections and analyzed with EPO WGA MAIIA as well as the current validated methods for rhEPO; isoelectric focusing (IEF) and sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SAR-PAGE). For samples collected 18?h after a microdose, the sensitivity of the EPO WGA MAIIA assay was 100% in plasma and 87.5% in urine samples at the respective 98% specificity threshold levels. In comparison, the sensitivity in plasma and urine was 75% and 100%, respectively, with IEF, and 87.5% in plasma and 100% in urine when analyzed with SAR-PAGE. We conclude that EPO WGA MAIIA is a sensitive assay for the detection of rhEPO, with the potential of being a fast, supplemental screening assay for use in doping analysis. PMID:24190107

Dehnes, Yvette; Shalina, Alexandra; Myrvold, Linda



Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (<15min) preparation of lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:24491523

Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee



Comparison of direct and indirect alcohol markers with PEth in blood and urine in alcohol dependent inpatients during detoxication.  


The importance of direct and indirect alcohol markers to evaluate alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly recognized. While some markers are used to prove abstinence from ethanol, other markers are suitable for detection of alcohol misuse. Phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth) is ranked among the latter. There is only little information about the correlation between PEth and other currently used markers (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, carbohydrate deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and methanol) and about their decline during detoxification. To get more information, 18 alcohol-dependent patients in withdrawal therapy were monitored for these parameters in blood and urine for up to 19 days. There was no correlation between the different markers. PEth showed a rapid decrease at the beginning of the intervention, a slow decline after the first few days, and could still be detected after 19 days of abstinence from ethanol. PMID:23274938

Winkler, M; Skopp, G; Alt, A; Miltner, E; Jochum, Th; Daenhardt, C; Sporkert, F; Gnann, H; Weinmann, W; Thierauf, A



Effect of selenium supplementation on blood status and milk, urine, and fecal excretion in pregnant and lactating camel.  


Ten pregnant female camels divided into two groups received, after a 2-week adaptation period, an oral selenium (Se) supplementation (0 and 2 mg, respectively) under sodium selenite form for 6 months from the three last months of gestation up to the three first months of lactation. Feed intake was assessed daily. Blood samples and body weight were taken on a biweekly basis, both in dams and their camel calves after parturition. Feces and urine samples were collected monthly and milk on a biweekly basis. The Se concentration in serum increased significantly in the supplemented group and was threefold higher than the concentration compared to the control group, respectively, 305.9 +/- 103.3 and 109.3 +/- 33.1 ng/mL. The selenium concentration increased in similar proportion in milk (86.4 +/- 39.1 ng/mL in the control group vs 167.1 +/- 97.3 ng/mL in treated group), in urine, and feces. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity varied between 18.1 +/- 8.7 IU/g hemoglobin (Hb) in control group and 47.5 +/- 25.6 IU/g Hb in treated group but decreased after parturition in both groups. Vitamin E did not change significantly and was, on average, 1.17 +/- 0.72 and 1.14 +/- 0.89 ng/mL in the control and treated groups, respectively. Significant correlations were reported between serum Se, milk Se, GSH-Px, and fecal and urinary excretion or concentration. Blood values in camel calves were similar to those of the dams. The results seemed to confirm the sensitivity of camel to Se supplementation with an important increase of selenium in serum and milk. PMID:18972072

Seboussi, Rabiha; Faye, Bernard; Askar, Mustafa; Hassan, Khalil; Alhadrami, Ghaleb



Studies of Mercury Content of Indoor Air, Blood and Urine in Clinical and Medical Dental Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 4 patient groups comprising in total 96 persons (37 assistants, 29 dentists in private practice, 10 assistant dentists and students from the Ambulant Clinic for Dental Maintenance and Paradontology and 20 control persons) whole blood samples and sponta...

M. Hamm



Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores.  

PubMed Central

We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7

Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Jameson, C W; Patison, N; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Pederson, D



Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.



Determination of Aplidin ®, a marine-derived anticancer drug, in human plasma, whole blood and urine by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and highly specific liquid chromatographic method with electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC–ESI–MS\\/MS) is reported for the determination in human plasma, whole blood and urine of Aplidin® (APL), a novel depsipeptide derived from the tunicate Aplidium albicans with a potent cytotoxic activity under investigation in clinical studies. Didemnin B was used as internal standard and, after protein

Nicola Celli; Barbara Mariani; Francesco Di Carlo; Massimo Zucchetti; Luis Lopez-Lazaro; Maurizio D’Incalci; Domenico Rotilio



Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years) and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years) nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD). Results Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 ?g/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM)-I level. Median Pb (20 ?g/L) and Hg (0.55 ?g/L) levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein) and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine levels of Cd and blood levels of Hg or Pb played a major role in the genesis of CAD, particularly when compared to well-known biomarkers such as blood pressure, glucose, and lipids.

Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Mittlbock, Martina; Uhl, Maria; Kohler-Vallant, Birgit; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette



High-throughput analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine with online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


An automated online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method for the analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nucleodur Sphinx RP column with an LC gradient (a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile), ensuring the elution of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, PMA, and ephedrine within 11 min. The method was fully validated, according to international guidelines, using only 100 and 50 microL of blood and urine, respectively. The method showed an excellent intra- and interassay precision (relative standard deviation < 11.2% and bias < 13%) for two external quality control samples (QC) for both matrices and three and two 'in house' QCs for blood and urine, respectively. Responses were linear over the investigated range (r(2) > 0.99, 2.5-400 microg/L for blood and 25-1000 microg/L for urine). Limits of quantification were determined to be 2.5 and 25 microg/L for blood and urine, respectively. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 microg/L for blood and 0.25 to 2.5 microg/L for urine, depending on the compound. Furthermore, the analytes and the processed samples were demonstrated to be stable (in the autosampler for at least 72 h and after three freeze/thaw cycles), and no disturbing matrix effects were observed for all compounds. Moreover, no carryover was observed after the analysis of high concentration samples (15,000 microg/L). The method was subsequently applied to authentic blood and urine samples obtained from forensic cases, which covered a broad range of concentrations. The validation results and actual sample analyses demonstrated that this method is rugged, precise, accurate, and well-suited for routine analysis as more than 72 samples are analyzed non-stop in 24 h with minimum sample handling. The combination of the high-throughput online SPE and the well-known sensitivity and selectivity assured by MS-MS resulted in the elimination of the bottleneck associated with the sample preparation requirements and provided increased sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. PMID:20040132

Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Wille, Sarah M R; Samyn, Nele; Wood, Michelle; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; De Boeck, Gert



Genomic targets in saliva.  


Saliva, the most accessible and noninvasive biofluid of our body, harbors a wide spectrum of biological analytes informative for clinical diagnostic applications. While proteomic constituents are a logical first choice as salivary diagnostic analytes, genomic targets have emerged as highly informative and discriminatory. This awareness, coupled with the ability to harness genomic information by high-throughput technology platforms such as genome-wide microarrays, ideally positions salivary genomic targets for exploring the value of saliva for detection of specific disease states and augmenting the diagnostic and discriminatory value of the saliva proteome for clinical applications. Buccal cells and saliva have been used as sources of genomic DNA for a variety of clinical and forensic applications. For discovery of disease targets in saliva, the recent realization that there is a transcriptome in saliva presented an additional target for oral diagnostics. All healthy subjects evaluated have approximately 3,000 different mRNA molecules in their saliva. Almost 200 of these salivary mRNAs are present in all subjects. Exploration of the clinical utility of the salivary transcriptome in oral cancer subjects shows that four salivary mRNAs (OAZ, SAT, IL8, and IL1b) collectively have a discriminatory power of 91% sensitivity and specificity for oral cancer detection. Data are also now in place to validate the presence of unique diagnostic panels of salivary mRNAs in subjects with Sjögren's disease. PMID:17435127

Zimmermann, Bernhard G; Park, Noh Jin; Wong, David T



Pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and its metabolites in human blood, bile, and urine.  


Two patients were treated with CPT-11 for colorectal cancer and had a percutaneous biliary catheter for extrahepatic biliary obstruction. The first patient was treated with CPT-11 according to the 100-mg/m2 weekly therapeutic schedule, and the second patient was treated every 3 weeks, with a dose of 350 mg/m2 being given at the first course, after which it was decreased to 300 mg/m2 for the following courses. In plasma, the active identified metabolite of CPT-11, SN-38, occurred mainly in the form of a glucuronide conjugate. CPT-11 was mainly excreted in bile and urine as CPT-11. The cumulative biliary and urinary excretion of CPT-11 and its metabolites (SN-38 and SN-38 glucuronide conjugate) over a period of up to 48 h ranged from 25% (100 mg/m2 weekly) to 50% (300 mg/m2 every 3 weeks). This means that CPT-11 can be excreted under other, not yet identified metabolite forms. PMID:7720181

Lokiec, F; Canal, P; Gay, C; Chatelut, E; Armand, J P; Roché, H; Bugat, R; Gonçalvès, E; Mathieu-Boué, A



Frequent Urination  


... to urinate even more frequently. Many pregnant women leak some urine when coughing, laughing, sneezing or exercising. ... urinate. It may also force some urine to leak out, particularly if the muscles around the urethra ...


Bilirubin - urine  


Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...


Urine chemistry  


Chemistry - urine ... For this test, a clean-catch (midstream) urine sample is needed. For more information, see: Urine collection - clean catch . Some tests require that you collect all of your urine for 24 ...


Use of Saliva for Early Dengue Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe necessity of a venous blood collection in all dengue diagnostic assays and the high cost of tests that are available for testing during the viraemic period hinder early detection of dengue cases and thus could delay cluster management. This study reports the utility of saliva in an assay that detects dengue virus (DENV)–specific immunoglobulin A (Ig A) early in

Grace Yap; Bijon Kumar Sil; Lee-Ching Ng



Determination of total chromium in whole blood, blood components, bone, and urine by fast furnace program electrothermal atomization AAS and using neither analyte isoformation nor background correction.  


Fast furnace program (total furnace time < 45 s) electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometric (ETA-AAS) determinations of total Cr in several clinical materials were carried out in conventional (DABC) and transverse (ZEBC) heated graphite atomizers. Before spectrometric determination, test portions of the samples were diluted at different ratios in appropriate solvents: (a) whole blood (WB), blood plasma (BP), blood serum (BS), and red blood cells (RBC), 1 + 4 in 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100; (b) urine (U), 1 + 4 in 0.1% (v/v) Triton X-100 + 0.01 mol/L nitric acid; and (c) bone (B) specimens and the certified reference materials after microwave mineralization, 1 + 9 in 0.01 mol/L nitric acid. The refractoriness of Cr allowed pyrolysis at a high temperature (approximately 1650 degrees C). As a consequence, two facts arose: first, isoformation was unnecessary; and second, background correction, independent of use of continuum source (DABC design) or Zeeman effect (ZEBC design) correction, was not required. For these reasons, the fast furnace program ETA-AAS analyses were simply done by automatic injection of 10-microL aliquots of the diluted test portions (or aqueous Cr standards) into either pyrolytic graphite-coated graphite tubes (DABC design; wall atomization performed) or pyrolytic graphite-coated graphite tubes with integrated pyrolytic graphite platforms (ZEBC design; integrated platform atomization performed), using neither analyte isoformation nor background correction; wall atomization in coated tubes was preferred. Under these experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3 sigma, micrograms/L Cr) and the characteristic masses (pg of Cr) were 0.03 and 2.7 (DABC design) and 0.2 and 5.0 (ZEBC design), respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7802253

Granadillo, V A; Parra de Machado, L; Romero, R A



Rapid Detection of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum in Saliva of Children with Acute Uncomplicated Malaria  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of malaria in biological fluids other than blood using non-invasive, rapid diagnostic techniques provides a valuable approach in case management and epidemiological studies of malaria. Rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in saliva samples from 130 of 144 children with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection was evaluated using Optimal-IT dipsticks. Genotyping of parasites was also performed in saliva and blood samples from a cohort of patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-blood, whole-saliva, or supernatant of spun saliva samples was 97.2%, 77.9%, and 48.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-saliva samples was significantly higher than in supernatant of spun saliva samples (P < 0.0005). Mutant T76 allele was detectable in 60% and 57% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. This finding shows rapid detection of pLDH in patient saliva.

Gbotosho, Grace O.; Happi, Christian T.; Folarin, Onikepe; Keyamo, Ochuko; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Oduola, Ayoade M. J.



Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  


The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L



Potentials of ion trap collisional spectrometry for liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry determination of buprenorphine and nor-buprenorphine in urine, blood and hair samples.  


A liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed for the analysis of buprenorphine (BUP) and nor-buprenorphine (NBUP) in biological fluids. Analytes are isolated from urine and blood, after addition of d4-buprenorphine (d4-BUP) as internal standard, by solid-phase extraction. Preparation of hair involves external decontamination, mechanical pulverization, overnight incubation in acidic medium, and neutralization prior to extraction. Enzymatic hydrolysis with beta-glucuronidase may be performed to distinguish between free and total BUP. Chromatographic separation is accomplished by gradient elution on a cyanopropyl 2.1 x 150 mm column. Positive ion ESI and MS analyses are carried out in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The use of this mass analyzer allows effective collisional experiments to be performed on ESI-generated MH+ species. Abundant product ions are produced, which can be monitored together with precursor ions without losing sensitivity. Thus, assay selectivity is definitely increased with respect to LC/ESI-MS/MS methods in which only precursor ions are monitored. The method has good linearity (calibration curves were linear in the range 0.1-10 ng/mL in urine and blood, in the range 10-160 pg/mg in hair) and limits of detection of 0.05 ng/mL for both BUP and NBUP in blood and urine samples, of 4 pg/mg for both analytes in hair. Both intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy were satisfactory at three concentrations studied: relative standard deviations were <13.7% in urine, <17.3% in blood, <17.8% in hair; percent deviation of the mean from the true value was always <10.5% in urine and blood, <16.1% in hair. The method can be used to determine both analytes in the urine and hair of drug addicts on replacement therapy, and in post-mortem blood specimens when there is suspicion of drug-related death. PMID:16550495

Favretto, Donata; Frison, Giampietro; Vogliardi, Susanna; Ferrara, Santo Davide



Leukocyte esterase urine test  


Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs associated with infection. ... A clean-catch urine sample is preferred. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting ...


Target Analysis of GHB, GBL, 1.4BD and GVL in Whole Blood and Urine by LC\\/MS\\/MS and Application to a Forensic Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A LC\\/MS\\/MS application for identification and quantification of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), 1.4-butanediol (1.4-BD) and gamma-valerolactone (GVL) in biological samples from forensic cases is developed. Sample preparation is a simple protein precipitation (whole blood) or dilution (urine). Chromatographic separation is achieved on a Zorbax SB C18 column and detection by a tandem mass spectrometer in MRM mode. The linear range

Sys Stybe Johansen; Charlotte Norup Windberg


Distribution of Copper, Iron, and Zinc in Biological Samples (Scalp Hair, Serum, Blood, and Urine) of Pakistani Viral Hepatitis (A–E) Patients and Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to compare the level of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in biological samples (serum,\\u000a blood, urine, and scalp hair) of patients suffering from different viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, and E; n?=?521) of both gender age ranged 31–45 years. For comparative study, 255 age-matched control subjects, of both genders residing\\u000a in

Nida Fatima Kolachi; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Hassan Imran Afridi; Naveed Kazi; Ghulam Abbas Kandhro; Abdul Qadir Shah; Jameel Ahmed Baig; Sham Kumar Wadhwa; Sumaira Khan; Faheem Shah; Mohammad Khan Jamali; Mohammad Balal Arain


Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato



[Saliva and wound healing].  


The oral mucosa is frequently exposed to mechanical forces, which may result in tissue damage. Saliva contributes to the repair of the oral mucosa in several ways. In the first place, it creates a humid environment to improve the function of inflammatory cells. During the last few years, it has been shown that saliva also contains a large number of proteins with a role in wound healing. Saliva contains growth factors, especially Epidermal Growth FACTOR, which promotes the proliferation of epithelial cells. Trefoil factor 3 and histatin promote the process of wound closure. The importance of Secretory Leucocyte Protease Inhibitor is demonstrated by the fact that in the absence of this salivary protein, oral wound healing is considerably delayed. Understanding these salivary proteins opens the way for the development of new wound healing medications. PMID:21661245

Veerman, E C I; Oudhoff, M J; Brand, H S



Micro extraction to quantitate spermidine and spermine in human urine and blood by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  


Spermidine and its derivative, spermine, are basic compounds with unique roles in physiological function. This study used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) to monitor these analytes in human urine and blood. The MALDI-TOF MS is also suitable when a high-throughput analytical method is required. Unlike liquid chromatography (LC)-MS, MALDI-TOF MS does not require a mobile phase in sample separation and generates very little organic waste. Micro liquid-liquid extraction was also performed to minimize the use of organic solvents in this study. After alkalization step, biosamples were prepared by adding a small volume (20?L) of organic solvent to concentrate, and purify the spermidine and spermine contained in the urine and blood samples. A suitable extraction protocol was developed after optimizing various conditions associated with extraction efficiency. The proposed method was then successfully used to monitor these compounds in human urine (mean value<1?g/mL) and blood (mean value>1?g/mL). PMID:24373773

Lu, Chi-Yu; Su, Huai-Hsin; Chen, Yen-Ling; Tseng, Wei-Lung



A novel rapid genotyping technique for Collie eye anomaly: SYBR Green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method applicable to blood and saliva specimens on Flinders Technology Associates filter paper.  


Collie eye anomaly (CEA) is a canine inherited ocular disease that shows a wide variety of manifestations and severity of clinical lesions. Recently, a CEA-associated mutation was reported, and a DNA test that uses conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has now become available. The objective of the current study was to develop a novel rapid genotyping technique by using SYBR Green-based real-time PCR for future large-scale surveys as a key part in the strategy to eradicate CEA by selective breeding. First, a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for genotyping of CEA was developed and evaluated by using purified DNA samples from normal, carrier, and affected Border Collies in which genotypes had previously been determined by conventional PCR. This real-time PCR assay demonstrated appropriate amplifications in all genotypes, and the results were consistent with those of conventional PCR. Second, the availability of Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA card) as DNA templates for the real-time PCR assay was evaluated by using blood and saliva specimens to determine suitability for CEA screening. DNA-containing solution prepared from a disc of blood- or saliva-spotted FTA cards was available directly as templates for the real-time PCR assay when the volume of solution was 2.5% of the PCR mixture. In conclusion, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR combined with FTA cards is a rapid genotyping technique for CEA that can markedly shorten the overall time required for genotyping as well as simplify the sample preparation. Therefore, this newly developed technique suits large-scale screening in breeding populations of Collie-related breeds. PMID:20807925

Chang, Hye-Sook; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Arai, Toshiro; Yamato, Osamu



Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review  

PubMed Central

There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of desquamated epithelial cells, microorganisms and remnants of food and drink; it is essential to cleanse and refine the saliva samples to remove any external elements. Immediate processing of the sample is recommended in order to avoid decomposition, where this is not possible, the sample may be stored at -80ºC. Salivary analysis – much the same as blood analysis – aims to identify diverse medication or indications of certain diseases while providing a relatively simple tool for both early diagnosis and monitoring various irregularities. The practicalities of salivary analysis have been studied in fields such as: viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases (like Sjögren’s syndrome and c?liac disease), endocrinopathies (such as Cushing’s syndrome), oncology (early diagnosis of breast, lung and stomach carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma), stress assessment, medication detection and forensic science among others. It is hoped that salivary analysis, with the help of current technological advances, will be valued much more highly in the near future. There still remain contradictory results with respect to analytic markers, which is why further studies into wider-ranging samples are fundamental to prove its viability. Key words:Saliva, biomarkers, early diagnosis.

Mancheno-Franch, Aisha; Marzal-Gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-Fabuel, Laura



Quantitative analysis of myo-inositol in urine, blood and nutritional supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Myo-inositol plays key physiological functions, necessitating development of methodology for quantification in biological matrices. Limitations of current mass spectrometry-based approaches include the need for a derivatisation step and/or sample clean-up. In addition, co-elution of glucose may cause ion suppression of myo-inositol signals, for example in blood or urine samples. We describe an HPLC-MS/MS method using a lead-form resin based column online to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer, which requires minimum sample preparation and no derivatisation. This method allows separation and selective detection of myo-inositol from other inositol stereoisomers. Importantly, inositol was also separated from hexose monosaccharides of the same molecular weight, including glucose, galactose, mannose and fructose. The inter- and intra-assay variability was determined for standard solutions and urine with inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.1% and 3.5% respectively, while intra-assay CV was 2.3% and 3.6%. Urine and blood samples from normal individuals were analysed.

Leung, Kit-Yi; Mills, Kevin; Burren, Katie A.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.



Urine melanin  


Thormahlen's test; Melanin - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. ... this substance that it shows up in the urine. ... Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may ... measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...


Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.  


The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction. PMID:23912828

Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro



Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in saliva Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in saliva Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in saliva Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in saliva Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin using salivary drug concentration when administered alone or in combination with rifampicin (R), isoniazid (H) and pyrazinamide (Z) and also to assess the saliva to plasma concentration ratio. Material and Methods: Twelve healthy male volunteers were investigated on four different occa- sions with an interval of at least one week between occasions. They

A. K. Hemanth Kumar; P. Gurumurthy


Enhancing the sensitivity of the LC-MS/MS detection of propofol in urine and blood by azo-coupling derivatization.  


Propofol is a low-polarity, volatile molecule that is difficult for an electrospray ion source (ESI) to ionize in either negative ion mode (NIM) or positive ion mode (PIM), which hampers its detection via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The aim of the present study was to use a new derivatization agent to improve ionization efficiency and to develop an efficient liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of propofol in urine and blood, taking advantage of an electrophilic aromatic substitution. An azo-coupling reaction with a diazonium salt from aniline was performed to introduce a protonation site into the molecule. The diazonium salt was generated by aniline in water solution by HCl and sodium nitrite; derivatization was achieved by stirring a mixture of the diazonium salt and propofol in sodium hydroxide solution for 30 min below 5 °C. A liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate was performed to obtain the azo derivative (molecular composition: C18H22ON2; molecular weight: 282 Da) in high yield. The compound provided very high ionization yields in both PIM and NIM ESI, and the protonated or deprotonated molecule gave intense signals. The transitions m/z 283???77, 241 and m/z 281???176, 161 were chosen for the PIM and NIM, respectively, in order to develop quantitative methods of detecting propofol in urine and blood via triple-quadrupole LC-MS/MS. These methods proved to be highly sensitive, with limits of quantification of 0.4 pg/mL and 0.1 ng/mL obtained in the NIM when analyzing 1 mL of urine and 100 ?L of blood, respectively. PMID:24414741

Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Busardò, Francesco P; Bertol, Elisabetta



Dried saliva spot as a sampling technique for saliva samples.  


For the first time, dried saliva spot (DSS) was used as a sampling technique for saliva samples. In the DSS technique 50 ?L of saliva was collected on filter paper and the saliva was then extracted with an organic solvent. The local anesthetic lidocaine was used as a model compound, which was determined in the DSS using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results obtained for the determination of lidocaine in saliva using DSS were compared with those from a previous study using a microextraction by packed sorbent syringe as the sampling method for saliva. This study shows that DSS can be used for the analysis of saliva samples. The method is promising and very easy in terms of sampling and extraction procedures. The results from this study are in good agreement with those from our previous work on the determination of lidocaine in saliva. DSS can open a new dimension in the saliva handling process in terms of sampling, storing and transport. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24861757

Abdel-Rehim, Abbi; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed



Biomonitoring of 20 trace elements in blood and urine of occupationally exposed workers by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  


A sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn in whole blood and urine was designed. Microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid was used for blood samples. Urine samples were analyzed after 1/50 (v/v) dilution with 5% (v/v) nitric acid. For beryllium the necessity of medium resolution mode (R=4000) was shown. Method validation was performed using blood and urine reference materials and by analyzing of spiked samples. For the designed method relative standard deviation (RSD) for the concentration range 0.01-1.0 ?g/L was 5-10%. RSD did not exceed 3% when trace elements concentrations were above 1.0 ?g/L. Method detection limits (3?): Ag 0.7 ng/L, Al 16 ng/L, As 3.4 ng/L, Ba 0.02 ng/L, Be 1.5 ng/L, Cd 7.7 ng/L, Co 1.0 ng/L, Cr 2.8 ng/L, Cs 9.8 ng/L, Cu 27 ng/L, Fe 1.1 ng/L, Mn 1.8 ng/L, Ni 17 ng/L, Pb 13 ng/L, Se 0.07 ng/L, Sr 5.7 ng/L, Tl 0.2 ng/L, U 0.1 ng/L, V 0.7 ng/L and Zn 1.2 ng/L. A developed method was applied for trace element biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers of a beryllium processing enterprise. For preliminary risk assessment technological surface dust had been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Based upon results of 50 blood and 40 urine samples analyses occupational exposure evaluation was performed. Exposure risks were found not to exceed acceptable ranges. Possible health hazards were found for Be and also Al, Cr, Mn. Occupational health and safety recommendations for the biomonitored enterprise medical care unit were issued as a result of the current investigation. PMID:24148471

Ivanenko, N B; Ivanenko, A A; Solovyev, N D; Zeimal', A E; Navolotskii, D V; Drobyshev, E J



Comparison of the Staph-Ident System with a Conventional Method for Species Identification of Urine and Blood Isolates of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci  

PubMed Central

The Staph-Ident system (Analytab Products) for species identification of coagulase-negative staphylococci was compared with the conventional method of Kloos and Schleifer (21). A total of 101 clinical isolates from urine cultures and 95 clinical isolates from blood cultures were studied: overall agreement between the two methods was 86%. We concluded that the Staph-Ident system is a practical test for most clinical microbiology laboratories and that results obtained from this rapid test are comparable to those obtained from the more cumbersome conventional method. Additional investigations are needed to determine the clinical relevance of such species identification.

Aldridge, Kenneth E.; Stratton, Charles W.; Patterson, Lyndell S.; Evans, Martin E.; Hodges, Rondy L.



SPME–GC analysis of THC in saliva samples collected with “EPITOPE” device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we examined the presence of cannabinoids in saliva samples obtained from 24 drug-abusers. The saliva specimens were collected by “EPITOPE” system and the subsequent elution of samples was achieved by centrifugation. The resulting ultrafiltrates have been directly sampled with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC\\/MS. Saliva sampling is less invasive than collection of blood.

N Fucci; N De Giovanni; M Chiarotti; S Scarlata



Influence of replacement of chloride by sulphate upon urine excretion and glomerular filtration rate in blood perfused isolated dog kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubular reabsorption was inhibited in isolated dog kidneys by the progressive substitution of plasma chloride by sulphate. In the absence of antidiuretic hormone activity, urine output remained unchanged owing to an equivalent decrease in glomerular filtration rate. This equilibrium was demonstrated under conditions of “saline natriuresis” and was not disturbed by furosemide. Although the impairment of glomerular filtration rate was

A. Nizet; H. Thoumsin; J. Thoumsin-Moons; J. L. Collard



Bioinformatics advances in saliva diagnostics  

PubMed Central

There is a need recognized by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research and the National Cancer Institute to advance basic, translational and clinical saliva research. The goal of the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is to create a data management system and web resource constructed to support human salivaomics research. To maximize the utility of the SKB for retrieval, integration and analysis of data, we have developed the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart. This article reviews the informatics advances in saliva diagnostics made possible by the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart.

Ai, Ji-Ye; Smith, Barry; Wong, David TW



Urine Metanephrines  


... Urine Metanephrines, Total and Fractionated Related tests: Catecholamines , Plasma Free Metanephrines , VMA At a Glance Test Sample ... be ordered by itself or along with a plasma metanephrines test . Plasma and urine catecholamines testing may ...


Evaluation of status of trace and toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of normal and anemic children of two age groups.  


Anemia affects a substantial portion of the world's population, provoking severe health problems as well as important economic losses to the region in which this condition is found. This study was designed to compare the levels of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of anemic children (n = 132) with age range 1-5 and 6-10 years of both genders. For a comparative study, 134 non-anemic age- and sex-matched children as control subjects, residing in the same city, were selected. The metals in the biological samples were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The proposed method was validated using certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The results indicated significantly lower levels of iron, copper, and zinc in the biological samples as compared to the control children of both genders (p = 0.01-0.008). The mean values of lead and cadmium were significantly high in all three biological samples of anemic children as compared to non-anemic children of both age groups (p = 0.005-0.001). The ratios of essential metal to toxic metals in the biological samples of anemic children of both age groups were significantly lower than that of controls. Deficiency of essential trace metals and high level of toxic metals may play a role in the development of anemia in the subjects under study. PMID:20526751

Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar



[The functional activity of plasminogen activators in the blood plasma and urine of patients with lupus nephritis].  


A fibrin plate technique was employed to study functional activity of plasminogen activators in plasma and urine (FAAP, FAAU), activity of antiactivator in plasma (AAAP), urokinase urine activity (UUA) in 35 lupus nephritis (LN) patients. The latter comprise 3 groups by the disease severity: 22 patients with active LN attended by urinary syndrome (group 1), 7 patients with LN associated with nephrotic syndrome (group 2), 6 patients with rapidly progressing LN (group 3). Control groups included 5 SLE patients with unaffected kidneys and 25 healthy subjects. FAAP proved heterogeneous both in SLE and healthy subjects. SLE patients with progressive LN had diminishing FAAP which was accompanied by growing AAAP. The latter reached maximal values in groups 2 and 3. UUA declined with LN aggravation. The relation of low FAAP in LN patients to affection of vascular endothelium and binding of plasminogen activators with the inhibitors to form inactive complexes is considered. PMID:7940365

Poliantseva, L R; Tareeva, I E; Bobkova, I N; Podorol'skaia, L V; Andreenko, G V



Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio  


... may also vary. Creatinine, a byproduct of muscle metabolism, is normally excreted into the urine at a ... exercise, blood in the urine, urinary tract infection , dehydration , and some drugs. ^ Back to top Ask a ...


Validation and quality control of ELISAs for the use with human saliva samples.  


Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have proven to be a powerful tool for fast and reliable sample analysis, in both clinical diagnostics and in research. Most assays are now available for use with a range of different analytical fluids, including serum, plasma or urine. In recent years, saliva has drawn attention as a potentially valuable diagnostic fluid; however few ELISAs have been validated for use with saliva, or their validation is often incomplete. Saliva has a number of different physical characteristics than, for example, cell culture medium or serum and assuming an ELISA which works well with serum samples will also do so with saliva potentially could lead to erroneous data and conclusions. In this report, we provide a detailed protocol to validate any ELISA for use with saliva samples and show the results of validation procedures for 13 ELISAs for using saliva. Our findings suggest that the majority of ELISAs work reliably with saliva, even if the assay was not specifically designed for this biological fluid. However, we also report a few cases where recovery or intra-and inter-assay variations were unexpectedly high, emphasising the importance of performing a validation procedure for each assay before using it with saliva to ensure accurate and reliable data. PMID:22306358

Jaedicke, Katrin M; Taylor, John J; Preshaw, Philip M



Time-integrated measurement of corticosteroids in saliva by oral diffusion sink technology.  


Saliva, as a medium for assessing adrenocortical function in humans, has many advantages and a few distinct disadvantages. Interpretation of measurements of saliva cortisol is complicated by the contamination of saliva by steroid-binding proteins from blood plasma, enzyme activity in the salivary gland that converts cortisol to cortisone, and the amplification in saliva of the episodic fluctuations in systemic cortisol concentrations. We describe a new measurement technology that rejects artifacts from contamination of saliva by plasma protein, provides for measurement of both cortisol and cortisone, and integrates episodic fluctuations in concentration over a period of hours. This oral diffusion sink technology may greatly enhance the reliable interpretation of corticosteroid concentrations measured in saliva. PMID:1855286

Wade, S E; Haegele, A D



A general screening and confirmation approach to the analysis of designer tryptamines and phenethylamines in blood and urine using GC-EI-MS and HPLC-electrospray-MS.  


Recent additions of designer tryptamines and phenethylamines to the Drug Enforcement Administration's schedule of controlled substances necessitate analytical procedures for their detection and quantitation. As specific immunoassays are not currently available and cross-reactivities with existing assays are unknown, a screening method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed. The method was capable of measuring the pentafluoropropionic derivatives of a-methyltryptamine (AMT), N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-beta-phenethylamine (2CB), N,N-dipropyltryptamine (DPT), 2,5-dimethyl-4-N-propylthio-beta-phenethylamine (2C-T-7), and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-DiPT). Separation was optimized to allow tentative identification of metabolites, which display common electron impact ionization fragmentation patterns. The screening method gave limits of detection between 5 and 10 ng/mL and demonstrated linearity between 50 and 1000 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to blood and urine samples in suspected AMT intoxications. Confirmation of 5-MeO-DiPT in one of the subjects' urine was achieved using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Quantitation by selected ion monitoring (SIM) yielded a urinary concentration of 229 ng/mL. The method was linear from 25 to 1500 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The limit of detection was 5 ng/mL in urine on the LC-MS. Two additional peaks were observed and presumed to be metabolic products reported previously as 5-methoxy-N-isopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-iPT) and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine-N'-oxide (5-MeO-DiPT-N-oxide). PMID:15516287

Vorce, Shawn P; Sklerov, Jason H



Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.



Metabolism of Vitamin D3-3H in Human Subjects: Distribution in Blood, Bile, Feces, and Urine*  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D3-3H has been administered intravenously to seven normal subjects, three patients with biliary fistulas, and four patients with cirrhosis. Plasma D3-3H half-times normally ranged from 20 to 30 hours. in vivo evidence that a metabolic transformation of vitamin D occurs was obtained, and a polar biologically active vitamin D metabolite was isolated from plasma. Urinary radioactivity averaged 2.4% of the administered dose for the 48-hour period after infusion, and all the excreted radioactivity represented chemically altered metabolites of vitamin D. The metabolites in urine were mainly water-soluble, with 26% in conjugated form. From 3 to 6% of the injected radioactivity was excreted in the bile of subjects with T-tube drainage and 5% in the feces of patients having no T-tube. The pattern of fecal and biliary radioactivity suggested that the passage of vitamin D and its metabolites from bile into the intestine represents an essential stage for the fecal excretion of vitamin D metabolites in man. Abnormally slow plasma disappearance of vitamin D3-3H in patients with cirrhosis was associated with a significant decrease in the quantity and rate of glucuronide metabolite excretion in the urine.

Avioli, Louis V.; Lee, Sook Won; McDonald, Joseph E.; Lund, Judith; DeLuca, Hector F.



Whole-saliva Proteolysis and Its Impact on Salivary Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins—histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1—was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes.

Thomadaki, K.; Helmerhorst, E.J.; Tian, N.; Sun, X.; Siqueira, W.L.; Walt, D.R.; Oppenheim, F.G.



Whole-saliva proteolysis and its impact on salivary diagnostics.  


There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins-histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1-was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21917601

Thomadaki, K; Helmerhorst, E J; Tian, N; Sun, X; Siqueira, W L; Walt, D R; Oppenheim, F G



Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) measurement by GC-MS in blood, urine and gastric contents, following an acute intoxication in Belgium.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, sodium oxybate) is a compound related to neuromodulator gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), emerging as a recreational drug of abuse and as a rape drug. GHB-related emergencies have dramatically increased in the 1990s, but a decrease is observed since 2000. We describe the case of an acute GHB intoxication in a 28-year-old male who fell unconscious after ingestion of a mouthful of an unknown beverage, and required medical support for 2 days. A cocaine abuse was also detected by preliminary toxicological screening, but the clinical presentation was not typical of cocaine intoxication. A simple liquid-liquid extraction was used for quantitation of GHB, followed by disilyl-derivatization and analysis in selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using GHB-d6 as internal standard. High concentrations of GHB were detected in urine (3020 mg/L) and gastric contents (71487 mg/L) at admission. After a 6-hours delay, GHB was still present in urine at 2324 mg/L and in blood at 43 mg/L. The clinical symptoms of cocaine intoxication were diminished by GHB consumption, and the cerebral scan was modified. Attention must thus be paid to acute intoxications with surprising clinical symptoms, and GHB has probably to be added to the preliminary toxicological screening. Data available regarding GHB are briefly reviewed, and our results are compared with previously published reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication. PMID:18714853

Bodson, Q; Denooz, R; Serpe, P; Charlier, C



Identification of nanobacteria in human arthritic synovial fluid by method validated in human blood and urine using 200 nm model nanoparticles.  


Earlier we introduced a biosensor for the identification of nanobacteria in water drops. Here, we generalize its principle and apply it to identify nanobacteria in synovial fluid from a patient with osteoarthritis. Results indicate the prevalence of nanobacteria in the synovial fluid. The identification method is applicable to body fluids such as unfiltered human blood and urine, is independent of culturing procedures, and permits for a rapid detection of nanoparticles in liquid drops. In view of increasing clinical evidence on a contribution of nanobacteria in disease, their reported detection in HIV-infected people in South Africa, laboratory experiments indicating the excretion of viable (i.e., propagating) nanobacteria from humans via urine, the use of human excreta in agricultural irrigation, models predicting an injection of nanoaerosols contained in irrigation water enriched with human excreta into the atmosphere, and the identification of nanobacteria in the terrestrial atmosphere, promote the identification method described in this work to an important tool to monitor nanobacteria in body fluids and environmental samples. PMID:18522113

Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Zhu, Dan; Sommer, Andrei P



Simultaneous determination of ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues (GBL, 1.4-BD, GVL) in whole blood and urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.  


A simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ?-butyrolactone (GBL), 1.4-butanediol (1.4-BD), and ?-valerolactone (GVL) in whole blood from forensic cases. The sample preparation of whole blood involved protein precipitation by acidic methanol. Urine samples were diluted and evaluated in relation to a control at the cutoff concentration. Hexadeutero GHB (GHB-d(6)) was used as the internal standard. Separation was achieved by reversed-phase chromatography, and detection was by MS-MS in MRM mode. The linear range for all compounds was from 1.0 to 100 mg/kg in whole blood with a limit of quantification of about 1 mg/kg. The method was validated with regards to selectivity, recovery, accuracy and precision, and stability. The method is currently applied to investigations on suspected drug-facilitated sexual assaults, driving under the influence of drugs, and general intoxication with these substances. PMID:21219697

Johansen, Sys Stybe; Windberg, Charlotte Norup



Development of a method for the determination of bisphenol A at trace concentrations in human blood and urine and elucidation of factors influencing method accuracy and sensitivity.  


Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical used to make polymers including some used in food contact applications. Virtually complete presystemic clearance of orally administered BPA occurs in humans by metabolism to BPA-glucuronide (BPA-G), but some biomonitoring studies report low concentrations of free (parent) BPA in human blood and urine. Trace contamination of BPA from exogenous sources or hydrolysis of BPA-G to free BPA, either during or after biomonitoring specimen collection, may have contributed to the reported concentrations of free BPA. An analytical method for the determination of free BPA in human blood and urine was developed and validated in two independent laboratories, using the latest generation of high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry instrumentation to ensure the desired high sensitivity and selectivity. The method was designed to account for and/or eliminate background contamination from all sources and demonstrated that contamination could occur from devices used for specimen collection or storage, as well as other sources. The method employed an internal standard (BPA-d(8)) and demonstrated accuracy and reproducibility in both matrices fortified with BPA or a surrogate analyte ((13)C-BPA) at a low quantitation limit (0.1-0.2 ng/mL). For validation, five replicate samples were analyzed to evaluate reproducibility. Importantly, it was demonstrated that the conditions of the method did not result in the hydrolysis of BPA-G to free BPA, another possible source of error in BPA analysis. Application of the principles defined by this method will be critical to assure valid analytical results in any future biomonitoring studies. PMID:20663281

Markham, Dan Alan; Waechter, John M; Wimber, Martina; Rao, Narayana; Connolly, Paul; Chuang, Jane Chen; Hentges, Steven; Shiotsuka, Ronald N; Dimond, Stephen; Chappelle, Anne H



Determination of Aconitum alkaloids in blood and urine samples. I. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation, solid-phase extraction and mass spectrometric confirmation.  


Determination of four toxic Aconitum alkaloids, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine and jesaconitine, in blood and urine samples has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with ultraviolet absorbance detection, solid-phase extraction and mass spectrometry (MS). These alkaloids were hydrolyzed rapidly in alkaline solution (half lives (t1/2)five months) and were unstable in solutions of methanol and ethanol (t1/2blood samples spiked with more than 50 ng ml(-1) of alkaloids, but were not detectable from urine samples spiked with 5 microg ml(-1) of alkaloids because of severe sample interference. PMID:9174271

Ohta, H; Seto, Y; Tsunoda, N



A Comparison of Saliva Testing to Urinalysis in an Arrestee Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past studies have concluded that individuals under criminal justice supervision often underreport their recent use of illicit drugs. To address this underreporting, objective biological measures, such as urine, saliva, and hair testing, have been used to gain better estimates of illegal drug use. While urinalysis is generally recognized as the reference standard, a method recently introduced in nonlaboratory settings for

George S. Yacoubian; Eric D. Wish; Deanna M. Pérez




EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It pro...



EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It pro...


Application of a new analytical method using gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the azide ion to human blood and urine samples of an actual case  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have established a practical and reliable method to identify and quantify the azide ion in human whole blood and human urine by transforming the ion into pentafluorobenzyl azide (PFBN3). PFBN3 was simply derived from a reaction of the ion with an excess amount of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFBBr). The excess amount of PFBBr was removed from the products by its

Michio Kikuchi; Mitsuru Sato; Tatsuro Ito; Masao Honda



Diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease by determination of l-valine, l-isoleucine, l-leucine and l-phenylalanine in neonatal blood spots by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method was developed for the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) by the determination of l-valine, l-leucine, l-isoleucine and l-phenylalanine in dried blood spots of newborns by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The four amino acids were extracted from blood samples by methanol and derivatized by n-butanol and trifluroacetic anhydride under optimum reaction conditions. The corresponding single derivatives

Chunhui Deng; Yonghui Deng



Saliva tannin interactions.  


Many plant foods contain tannins, compounds that bind proteins, such as mammalian enzymes. Although described as tasteless, tannins can be detected orally by their astringency. However, the actual mechanism of oral detection and the effect of tannins on mastication and swallowing have been little investigated. Here, we show from in vitro tests that tannic acid, a common standard in tests used to detect tannins, significantly reduces the lubricating qualities of human saliva both by decreasing its viscosity and increasing friction, both factors lending support to the notion that astringency is a tactile phenomenon. From the literature, it is clear that this effect depends on the presence of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP). In a mammalian context, ingestion of tannin-rich foods in a species with salivary PRP will be signalled by interference with bolus formation during mastication while the increase in friction may also be detectable and lead to increased tooth wear if the signal is ignored. In a human context, cross-cultural preferences for tannin-rich beverages such as tea, coffee and red wine at the end of meals may be explained by reduction in adhesion of food particles to the oral mucosa allowing their rapid oral clearance. PMID:11106991

Prinz, J F; Lucas, P W



Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow  

PubMed Central

Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing ?100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed ?100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows.

Razzaghi, A.; Aliarabi, H.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Saki, A. A.; Valizadeh, R.; Zamani, P.



Distribution of copper, iron, and zinc in biological samples (scalp hair, serum, blood, and urine) of Pakistani viral hepatitis (A-E) patients and controls.  


The aim of the present study was to compare the level of copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in biological samples (serum, blood, urine, and scalp hair) of patients suffering from different viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, and E; n = 521) of both gender age ranged 31-45 years. For comparative study, 255 age-matched control subjects, of both genders residing in the same city were selected as referents. The elements in the biological samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked by using certified reference materials (CRMs) and with those values obtained by conventional wet acid digestion method on same CRMs. The results of this study showed that the mean values of Cu and Fe were higher in blood, sera, and scalp hair samples of hepatitis patients, while Zn level was found to be lower than age-matched control subjects. The urinary levels of these elements were found to be higher in the hepatitis patients than in the age-matched healthy controls (p < 0.05). These results are consistent with literature-reported data, confirming that the deficiency of zinc and hepatic iron and copper overload can directly cause lipid peroxidation and eventually hepatic damage. PMID:20872092

Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Khan, Sumaira; Shah, Faheem; Jamali, Mohammad Khan; Arain, Mohammad Balal



Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. Objective Using a murine model, we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. Methods C57BL/6NRJ male mice were infected with the ZH548 strain of RVFV via intraperitoneal or intradermal route, or via bites from RVFV-exposed mosquitoes. The virus titers in mosquitoes and mouse organs were determined by plaque assays. Findings After intraperitoneal injection, RVFV infection primarily resulted in liver damage. In contrast, RVFV infection via intradermal injection caused both liver and neurological symptoms and this route best mimicked the natural infection by mosquitoes. Co-injections of RVFV with salivary gland extract or saliva via intradermal route increased the mortality rates of mice, as well as the virus titers measured in several organs and in the blood. Furthermore, the blood cell counts of infected mice were altered compared to those of uninfected mice. Interpretation Different routes of infection determine the pattern in which the virus spreads and the organs it targets. Aedes saliva significantly increases the pathogenicity of RVFV.

Le Coupanec, Alain; Babin, Divya; Fiette, Laurence; Jouvion, Gregory; Ave, Patrick; Misse, Dorothee; Bouloy, Michele; Choumet, Valerie



Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)



Development of an Integrated Micro-Analytical System for Lead in Saliva and Linkage to a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Describing Lead Saliva Secretion  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical instruments for real-time monitoring of trace metals, such as lead (Pb) utilizing readily available non-invasive fluids like saliva. To interpret saliva results, an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of Pb secretion into the saliva is needed. A portable microfluidics/electrochemical device was developed for the rapid analysis of Pb based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, where a saliva sample flows over an electrode surface, Pb2+ is chemically reduced, accumulated, and the electric potential of the electrode scanned. To evaluate the relationship between saliva and blood Pb, rats were treated with single oral doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg Pb/kg of body weight, and 24 hours later salivation was induced by administering pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist. Blood and saliva were collected and analyzed for Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by the micro-analytical system. The micro-analytical system was slightly less responsive ({approx}75-85%) than ICP-MS, however the response was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ppb suggesting that it can be utilized for the quantitation of salivary Pb. To relate saliva levels to internal dose of Pb (e.g. blood) and to total body burden, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Pb was modified to incorporate a salivary gland compartment. The model was capable of predicting blood and saliva Pb concentration based on a limited data set. These preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that a fully developed, micro-analytical system can be utilized as an important tool for real-time biomonitoring of Pb for both occupational and environmental exposures.




LC-ESI-MS/MS on an ion trap for the determination of LSD, iso-LSD, nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD in blood, urine and vitreous humor.  


A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its epimer iso-LSD, and its main metabolites nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in blood, urine, and, for the first time, vitreous humor samples. The method is based on liquid/liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry detection in an ion trap mass spectrometer, in positive ion electrospray ionization conditions. Five microliter of sample are injected and analysis time is 12 min. The method is specific, selective and sensitive, and achieves limits of quantification of 20 pg/ml for both LSD and nor-LSD in blood, urine, and vitreous humor. No significant interfering substance or ion suppression was identified for LSD, iso-LSD, and nor-LSD. The interassay reproducibilities for LSD at 20 pg/ml and 2 ng/ml in urine were 8.3 and 5.6%, respectively. Within-run precision using control samples at 20 pg/ml and 2 ng/ml was 6.9 and 3.9%. Mean recoveries of two concentrations spiked into drug free samples were in the range 60-107% in blood, 50-105% in urine, and 65-105% in vitreous humor. The method was successfully applied to the forensic determination of postmortem LSD levels in the biological fluids of a multi drug abuser; for the first time, LSD could be detected in vitreous humor. PMID:16496170

Favretto, Donata; Frison, Giampietro; Maietti, Sergio; Ferrara, Santo Davide



Determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) and ?-butyrolactone (GBL) in whole blood and urine samples by UPLC-MSMS.  


The demand of high throughput methods for the determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) as well as for pregabalin is increasing. Here we present two analytical methods using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection for the determination of GHB, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4BD and GBL in whole blood and urine. Using the 96-well formate, the whole blood method is a simple high-throughput method suitable for screening of large sample amounts. With an easy sample preparation for urine including only dilution and filtration of the sample, the method is suitable for fast screening of urine samples. Both methods showed acceptable linearity, acceptable limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The within-day and between-day precisions of all analytes were lower than 10% RSD. The analytes were extracted from matrices with recoveries near 100%, and no major matrix effects were observed. Both methods have been used as routine screening analyses of whole blood and urine samples since January 2010. PMID:22226469

Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Olsen, Kirsten Midtbøen; Strand, Dag Helge



Relationship of BK Polyoma Virus (BKV) in the Urine with Hemorrhagic Cystitis and Renal Function in Recipients of T Cell-Depleted Peripheral Blood and Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantations.  


Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at significant risk for BK virus (BKV) reactivation, hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), and renal dysfunction. We prospectively monitored 98 patients who had received HSCT by serial BKV PCR in the urine through day (D) +100 to analyze the relationship between BK viruria and HC, serum creatinine (Cr), and creatinine clearance (CrCl) through D +180 or death. Patients, median age 52 years (range, 20 to 73), received T cell-depleted (50%) or cord blood allografts (21%). Median pre-HSCT BKV IgG titers were 1:10,240. Incremental increase in BKV IgG titers correlated with developing BK viruria ? 10(7) copies/mL. By D +100, 53 (54%) patients had BK viruria. BKV load in the urine increased at engraftment and persisted throughout D +100. HC developed in 10 patients (10%); 7 of 10 with BK viruria. In competing risk analyses, BK viruria ? 10(7) copies/mL, older age, cytomegalovirus reactivation, and foscarnet use were risk factors for HC. Cr and CrCl at 2, 3, and 6 months after HSCT were similar between patients with and without BK viruria. PMID:24769326

Lee, Yeon Joo; Zheng, Junting; Kolitsopoulos, Yovanna; Chung, Dick; Amigues, Isabelle; Son, Tammy; Choo, Kathleen; Hester, Jeff; Giralt, Sergio A; Glezerman, Ilya G; Jakubowski, Ann A; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A




EPA Science Inventory

To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...



EPA Science Inventory

To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...



EPA Science Inventory

Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...


Determination of five di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate metabolites in urine by UPLC-MS/MS, markers of blood transfusion misuse in sports.  


Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the most commonly used plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride, which is found in a large variety of products, including most of the bags used for blood storage because of its protective role on erythrocytes survival. DEHP metabolites have been recently proposed as markers of the misuse of blood transfusion in athletes. In this study, a method to quantify the main five DEHP metabolites in urine has been developed: mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl)phthalate (2cx-MMHP). The method involved an enzymatic hydrolysis with ?-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli followed by an acidic extraction with ethyl acetate. The hydrolysed extracts were analysed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Isotope labelled MEHP, MEOHP and 5cx-MEPP were used as internal standards. Analysis of all the metabolites was achieved in a total run time of 10min, using a C(18) column and a mobile phase containing deionized water and acetonitrile with formic acid, with gradient elution at a flow-rate of 0.6mLmin(-1). Detection of the compounds was performed by multiple reaction monitoring, using electrospray ionization in positive and negative ion modes. The method was validated for quantitative purposes. Extraction recoveries were greater than 90% and the limits of quantitation ranged from 1.2 to 2.6ngmL(-1). Intra-day precisions were better than 8% for all metabolites while inter-assay precisions were better than 12%. Concentrations of DEHP metabolites were measured in a control group (n=30, subjects reflecting the common environmental DEHP exposure), and in sportsmen (n=464), to evaluate population distribution exposure to DEHP. Additionally, threshold concentrations indicating outliers of common exposure for DEHP metabolites are proposed. PMID:23040990

Monfort, Núria; Ventura, Rosa; Balcells, Georgina; Segura, Jordi



Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells  

PubMed Central

Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-? in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL)-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL)-8 were observed after TNF-? stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.



High-performance liquid chromatography of alpha-keto acids in human saliva.  


alpha-Keto acids in human mixed saliva collected without stimulation were analysed by reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several alpha-keto acids were found in saliva and their concentrations were: alpha-ketoglutaric acid (KGA), 221 +/- 142; pyruvic acid (PA), 7490 +/- 5600; alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIVA), 61 +/- 23; alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA), 137 +/- 79; alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMVA), 41 +/- 19 nmol/dl (mean +/- SD, n = 40). Their levels proved to be lower than those in plasma, except that of PA. Their concentrations in saliva showed individual variation compared with those in blood. PMID:6581765

Tsuchiya, H; Hashizume, I; Tokunaga, T; Tatsumi, M; Takagi, N; Hayashi, T



Proteomics of saliva: personal experience  

PubMed Central

Summary The salivary proteome is a complex protein mixture resulting from the activity of salivary glands with the contribution of other components that form the oral environment such as oral tissues and micro-organisms. For diagnosis purposes, saliva collection has the great advantage of being an easy and non-invasive technique. Human saliva proteomics have proven to be a novel approach in the search for protein biomarkers for detection of different local and systemic diseases. Currently, more than 1400 salivary proteins have been identified. In the last few years, our research group has extensively studied the salivary proteomics in order to analyse the salivary composition, investigating the major families of proteins present in human and mammalian saliva, the post-translational modifications, the different contributions of glands, the physiological and pathological modifications of saliva. The aim of this report is to present our personal experience in salivary proteomics. In conclusion, salivary proteome analysis represents an important field both for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases and could be considered a novel approach to prevention of various pathological conditions.

Scarano, E; Fiorita, A; Picciotti, PM; Passali, GC; Calo, L; Cabras, T; Inzitari, R; Fanali, C; Messana, I; Castagnola, M; Paludetti, G



Tsetse Fly Saliva Accelerates the Onset of Trypanosoma brucei Infection in a Mouse Model Associated with a Reduced Host Inflammatory Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors that transmit African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause human sleeping sickness and veterinary infections in the African continent. These blood-feeding dipteran insects deposit saliva at the feeding site that enables the blood-feeding process. Here we demonstrate that tsetse fly saliva also accelerates the onset of a Trypanosoma brucei infection. This effect was associated

Guy Caljon; Jan Van Den Abbeele; B. Stijlemans; M. Coosemans; P. De Baetselier; S. Magez



Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies.

Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie



Comparison of two assays for detection of HIV antibodies in saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of HIV antibodies was screened in 241 paired samples of serum and saliva from seronegative subjects with risk factors for human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection (n=99), asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-seropositive patients (n=104) and healthy blood donors (n=38) as negative controls, in order to assess the reliability of two saliva tests for the detection of HIV antibodies. These

P. Martinez; R. Ortiz de Lejarazu; J. M. Eiros; E. Perlado; M. Flores; M. A. Pozo; A. Rodríguez-Torres



Isolation and detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA from cerebral spinal fluid, synovial fluid, blood, urine, and ticks using the Roche MagNA Pure system and real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Roche MagNA Pure automated nucleic acid extraction system was tested for its ability to extract Borrelia burgdorferi DNA from a diverse set of spiked specimen types including blood, cerebral spinal fluid, synovial fluid, urine and ticks. A method comparison between MagNA Pure automated extraction and manual extraction, using either QIAamp columns or phenol\\/chloroform extraction, showed equivalent detection sensitivities for

Maurice M. Exner; Michael A. Lewinski



Comparison of tunable bandpass reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with conventional inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of heavy metals in whole blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Dynamic Reaction Cell™ inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (DRC-ICP-MS) was evaluated for the determination of arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and thallium in urine and whole blood. Reaction cell conditions were evaluated for suppression of ArCl+ and CaCl+ polyatomic interferences. The reaction gas was 5% hydrogen in argon. Lead, cadmium, mercury, and thallium were determined with the reaction cell vented.

David E. Nixon; Kenneth R. Neubauer; Steven J. Eckdahl; John A. Butz; Mary F. Burritt



Effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of intensive treatment and teaching programmes for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Moscow—blood glucose versus urine glucose self-monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a prospective controlled trial the effects of a 5-day in-patient treatment and teaching programme for Type 1 (insulin-dependent)\\u000a diabetes mellitus on metabolic control and health care costs were studied in Moscow. Two different intervention programmes\\u000a were compared, one based upon urine glucose self-monitoring (UGSM, n = 61) and one using blood glucose selfmonitoring (BGSM, n = 60). Follow-up was

E. G. Starostina; M. Antsiferov; G. R. Galstyan; Ch. Trautner; V. Jörgens; U. Bott; I. Mühlhauser; M. Berger; I. I. Dedov



Penetration of ciprofloxacin into parotid gland tissue and parotid saliva.  


The penetration of 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinoline carboxylic acid (ciprofloxacin, Bay o 9867, Ciprobay) into parotid gland tissue and parotid saliva of the rat after intravenous administration (6 mg/kg body weight) was studied. 2 h after bolus injection ciprofloxacin mean levels in parotid gland tissue (0.60 mg/l) nearly reached 2-fold mean blood levels (0.36 mg/l). In parotid saliva the mean concentration of the gyrase inhibitor (0.20 mg/l) was lower than in blood, however, still high enough to be effective against the pathogens which most often cause inflammation of the parotid gland. PMID:3675673

Maier, H; Sziegoleit, A; Merck, S



Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

PubMed Central

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva.

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Goncalves; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira; Barcinski, Marcello Andre; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena



Chloride - urine test  


The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...


HCG in urine  


Beta-HCG - urine; Human chorionic gonadotropin - urine ... urine is the most concentrated and has enough HCG to be detected. ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test ...


Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.



Extensional rheology of human saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an oscillatory cross-slot extensional rheometer capable of performing measurements with unprecedentedly\\u000a small volumes of test fluids (?10–100 ?L). This provides the possibility of studying exotic and precious or scarce bio-fluids,\\u000a such as synovial fluid. To test our system, we have looked at a relatively abundant and accessible biological fluid, namely\\u000a human saliva; a complex aqueous mixture of high

Simon J. Haward; Jeff A. Odell; Monica Berry; Tim Hall




... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...


Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  


Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J



Development of a non-invasive biomonitoring approach to determine exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos in rat saliva.  


Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10, or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). Saliva and blood were then collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 h post-dosing, and were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichloropyridinol (TCP). Trichloropyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP was 6 ng/L (in water). Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggests that the electrochemical immunoassay has adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. However, to validate this approach, further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. These initial findings suggest that the utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to CPF. PMID:17118418

Timchalk, Charles; Campbell, James A; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A



Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.



Lithium-induced impairment of urine acidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lithium-induced impairment of urine acidifcation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the means by which lithium induced a disorder of urine acidification. Rats infused with hydrochloric acid (1 mEq\\/kg) developed acute metabolic acidosis (blood pH = 7.32; bicarbonate, 18 mEq\\/liter) with a urine pH of approximately 5.85. The addition of lithium chloride (4 mEq\\/kg i.p.) caused an increase

Janet M Roscoe; Marc B Goldstein; Mitchell L Halperin; Douglas R Wilson; Bobby J Stinebaugh



Determination of saliva trough levels for monitoring voriconazole therapy in immunocompromised children and adults.  


To evaluate the reliability and practical use of saliva for therapeutic drug monitoring of the antifungal agent voriconazole in immunocompromised patients, a paired-sample study was conducted. Plasma and saliva trough levels were measured in seven children and nine adults who required treatment for the prevention or therapy of systemic fungal infections. The pediatric patients received a voriconazole dosage of 7 mg/kg intravenously twice a day. Adults were treated with two loading doses of 6 mg/kg intravenously followed by a maintenance dose of 4 mg/kg intravenously twice a day. Based on 104 paired plasma/saliva specimens, we found a significant correlation between the voriconazole concentrations in blood and saliva (r > 0.95). The median saliva/plasma voriconazole concentration ratio was 0.34 in children and 0.40 in adults. Intra- and interpatient variability in the saliva/plasma ratios were 22% and 23% in children and 16% and 24% in adults, respectively. Thirty-three percent of plasma trough levels were below 1.0 microg/mL or above 6.0 microg/mL and occurred in six pediatric and four adult patients. Monitoring of salivary concentrations proved to be a realistic alternative in patients when blood drawing is difficult. Especially in therapeutic drug monitoring, an easier sample collection being noninvasive and painless is more acceptable to patients, particularly children. PMID:20216120

Michael, Claudia; Bierbach, Uta; Frenzel, Katrin; Lange, Thoralf; Basara, Nadezda; Niederwieser, Dietger; Mauz-Körholz, Christine; Preiss, Rainer



Immunohistochemical study on the localization of the epitope defined by a human saliva-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A novel mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C) has been developed which recognizes the core portion of the protein carrying ABO(H) blood group antigens in human saliva. This proved to be specific for human saliva using immunochemical investigations such as enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, Ouchterlony method and counter-immunoelectrophoresis. By licht and electron microscope studies with immunohistochemical techniques using this human saliva-Specific P4-5C

T. Ohshima; T. Nagano; A. Kimura; F. Matsumura; K. Sodesaki; T. Tsuji; H. Maeda



NT-ProBNP Levels in Saliva and Its Clinical Relevance to Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Current blood based diagnostic assays to detect heart failure (HF) have large intra-individual and inter-individual variations which have made it difficult to determine whether the changes in the analyte levels reflect an actual change in disease activity. Human saliva mirrors the body’s health and well being and ?20% of proteins that are present in blood are also found in saliva. Saliva has numerous advantages over blood as a diagnostic fluid which allows for a non-invasive, simple, and safe sample collection. The aim of our study was to develop an immunoassay to detect NT-proBNP in saliva and to determine if there is a correlation with blood levels. Methods Saliva samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n?=?40) who had no underlying heart conditions and HF patients (n?=?45) at rest. Samples were stored at ?80°C until analysis. A customised homogeneous sandwich AlphaLISA(R) immunoassay was used to quantify NT-proBNP levels in saliva. Results Our NT-proBNP immunoassay was validated against a commercial Roche assay on plasma samples collected from HF patients (n?=?37) and the correlation was r2?=?0.78 (p<0.01, y?=?1.705× +1910.8). The median salivary NT-proBNP levels in the healthy and HF participants were <16 pg/mL and 76.8 pg/mL, respectively. The salivary NT-proBNP immunoassay showed a clinical sensitivity of 82.2% and specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.3%, with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.6%. Conclusion We have firstly demonstrated that NT-proBNP can be detected in saliva and that the levels were higher in heart failure patients compared with healthy control subjects. Further studies will be needed to demonstrate the clinical relevance of salivary NT-proBNP in unselected, previously undiagnosed populations.

Foo, Jared Yong Yang; Wan, Yunxia; Kostner, Karam; Arivalagan, Alicia; Atherton, John; Cooper-White, Justin; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie



Serum and saliva sex hormone levels in !Kung San men.  


Serum concentrations of testosterone (Tser), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol 17 beta (E2), and free testosterone in saliva (Tsal) were determined by means of the radioimmunoassay method in 114 !Kung San men living in the Bushmanland district of Namibia. The healthy men (mean age 26.4 years) were asked about their dietary habits over the last two months and their acute alcohol intake during the 24 hours preceding the blood and saliva sampling. Although the sex hormone status of the !Kung lies within the range of normal men reported for Caucasoid samples, both Tser and Tsal exhibit relatively low concentrations in comparison to the great majority of published mean values. On the other hand, comparatively high DHT levels point to an elevated 5 alpha-reduction of testosterone to DHT in our sample. Estradiol concentrations show no deviation from normal values reported elsewhere for healthy young men. Different dietary habits of the !Kung lead to significant differences in their sex hormone status: both levels of Tsal and the androgen ratio Tsal/Tser decrease with increasing supplement of the traditional hunter-gatherer diet with domestic and Western food products. The amount of alcohol consumed during the day before the blood and saliva sampling shows a significant effect on the DHT metabolism, and the shorter the time after drinking, the greater decrease of DHT and DHT/E2 can be observed. PMID:1951659

Christiansen, K H



Evaluation of Tamm-Horsfall protein and uroplakin III for forensic identification of urine.  


In this study, Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), a major component of urinary protein, and uroplakin III (UPIII), a transmembrane protein widely regarded as a urothelium-specific marker, were evaluated for forensic identification of urine by ELISA and/or immunohistochemistry. THP was detected in urine, but not in plasma, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid, or sweat by the simple ELISA method developed in this study. In addition, most aged urine stains showed positive results. The urine specificity of THP was confirmed by gene expression analysis. Therefore, as reported previously, ELISA detection of THP can be used as a presumptive test for urine identification. UPIII was specific for immunohistochemical staining of cells in centrifuged precipitate of urine. However, ELISA and RT-PCR for UPIII were not specific for urine. UPIII may be applicable for forensic urine identification by immunohistochemistry. PMID:20202065

Akutsu, Tomoko; Ikegaya, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Ken; Fukushima, Hisayo; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi



The action of Amblyomma cajennense tick saliva in compounds of the hemostatic system and cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines.  


Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that secrete anticoagulant molecules to maintain the fluidity of the blood during its feeding. Tick saliva has many compounds with biological activities that interact directly with host systems, such as blood clotting, platelet aggregation, cell death, among others. Some reports show that there are proteins with anticancer properties in tick saliva. This paper reports some of the biological roles of the Amblyomma cajennense tick saliva, including Factor Xa and thrombin inhibition, action on platelet aggregation, and also preliminary cytotoxic effects on tumor cell lines. The crude saliva was tested in the coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation systems. The protein profile of the crude saliva was examined through anion exchange chromatography performed in a FPLC system. The chromatography separated seven protein fractions (Pools I to VII), which biological activities were evaluated. Moreover, the cytotoxic effects of the crude saliva were evaluated on SK-MEL-28 (melanoma cells) and MIA PaCa-2 (pancreas adenocarcinoma cells) using the MTT assay, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. The crude saliva was able to induce cell death on both cancer cells lines, and, interestingly, the cytotoxic effects were not observed on human fibroblasts, which were used as control. The present work opens perspectives for the characterization and development of new molecules involved in the hemostatic system and in cancer control. PMID:21723081

Simons, Simone Michaela; Júnior, Paulo Luiz de Sá; Faria, Fernanda; Batista, Isabel de Fátima Correia; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa



Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA in Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid of HCV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

The search for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Here we quantitatively determined HCV RNA in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of anti-HCV-positive patients. Most patients (14 of 18; 78%) whose saliva specimens were negative had HCV RNA in their GCF. Most patients (20 of 26; 77%) had higher HCV RNA levels in their GCF than in their saliva. Although there was not a statistically significant correlation between the serum viral load and HCV level in saliva or GCF, patients with low serum HCV loads were less likely to have detectable HCV in their saliva. These findings have important implications for medical personnel and suggest that epidemiological studies designed to understand the significance of the oral route of transmission of HCV are warranted.

Suzuki, Tetsuro; Omata, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Tazuko; Miyasaka, Takahiro; Arai, Chiaki; Maeda, Munehiro; Matsuno, Tomonori; Miyamura, Tatsuo



Clean catch urine sample  


Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... If possible, collect the sample when urine has been in your bladder for 2 to 3 hours. You will use a special kit to collect the urine. It will ...


Tick saliva is a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis.  


We report for the first time that saliva of the hard tick and Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Saliva (< or = 1:500 dilutions) or salivary gland (0.1-0.5 pairs/assay) dose-dependently inhibits microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) proliferation. Inhibition was also detected with the saliva of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus but not with the salivary gland of Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cimex lectularius. Inhibition of MVEC proliferation by I. Scapularis saliva was accompanied by a change in cell shape (shrinkage of the cytoplasm with loss of cell-cell interactions) and apoptosis which was estimated by expression of phosphatidylserine using the Apopercentage dye, and by a typical pattern of chromatin margination, condensation, and fragmentation as revealed by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258. The effect of saliva appears to be mediated by endothelial cell alpha5beta1 integrin, because monoclonal antibodies against this but not alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, alpha9beta1, or alpha2beta1 integrins remarkably block its effect. In addition, SDS/PAGE shows that saliva specifically degrades purified alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta5 or alphavbeta3 integrins. Incubation of saliva with EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, but not phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), inhibits saliva-dependent degradation of purified alpha5beta1 integrin, suggesting that a metalloprotease is responsible for the activity. Finally, saliva at < or = 1:1,000 dilutions blocks sprouting formation from chick embryo aorta implanted in Matrigel, an in vitro model of angiogenesis. These findings introduce the concept that tick saliva is a negative modulator of angiogenesis-dependent wound healing and tissue repair, therefore allowing ticks to feed for days. Inhibition of angiogenesis was hitherto an unidentified biologic property of the saliva of any blood-sucking arthropod studied so far. Its presence in tick saliva may be regarded as an additional source of angiogenesis inhibitors with potential applications for the study of both vector and vascular biology. PMID:16113800

Francischetti, Ivo M B; Mather, Thomas N; Ribeiro, José M C



Saliva collection by using filter paper for measuring cortisol levels in dogs.  


Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of noninvasive evaluation of cortisol in saliva of dogs. In experiment 1, we measured the cortisol concentration in the filter paper on which 250-?L cortisol solutions had been quantitatively pipetted and in filter papers dipped in cortisol solution. In experiment 2, we collected the blood and saliva of dogs 3 times at 30-min intervals and compared the cortisol concentrations to examine whether the dynamics of cortisol in the blood and saliva are similar. The results of experiments 1 and 2 showed that the cortisol concentration can be quantitatively measured with this method and that the dynamics of cortisol concentration in the plasma and saliva collected by using filter paper are not different (P = 0.14 for experiment 1 and P = 0.51 for experiment 2). In experiment 3, to investigate the factors related to inducing stress in dogs by using the filter-paper method of collecting saliva, we compared the cortisol concentrations at 0 and 30 min after collecting the saliva of pet dogs. The dog owners completed a survey on their dogs, providing basic information and reporting the collection of their dog's saliva. We found that the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose owners spent >2 min collecting saliva (P = 0.005), suggesting that prompt collection of saliva is necessary for accurate assessment of cortisol without induction of a stress response. In addition, the cortisol concentrations increased significantly in dogs whose teeth were not regularly brushed (P = 0.04), suggesting that regular teeth brushing mitigates the effect of the collection process on cortisol concentrations in the saliva, with minimal stress to the dogs. In experiment 4, we measured cortisol concentrations in pet dogs accustomed to having their teeth brushed by their owners, before and after interaction with their owners, to assess whether brushing induces stress in dogs. We detected that the cortisol concentrations significantly decreased after human-dog interaction (P = 0.008), suggesting that this method does not induce stress in dogs. Our study indicates that the method of saliva collection by using filter paper is effective in measuring the cortisol concentrations to evaluate stress, although certain steps are required to enhance accuracy. PMID:24140070

Oyama, D; Hyodo, M; Doi, H; Kurachi, T; Takata, M; Koyama, S; Satoh, T; Watanabe, G



Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque  

PubMed Central

Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found.



Glucose urine test  


Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...


Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four adults undergoing long-term par- enteral nutrition (TPN) were treated either with or without in- travenous taurine for ? 24 mo. Statistical comparisons were carried out in eight patients randomly assigned to receive intra- venous taurine, usually 10 mg. kg ? . d ', and 10 patients not receiving taurine. Compared with normal adults, baseline plasma taunne and urine taurine-creatinine

Joel D Kopple; Nancy E Vinton; Stewart A Laidlaw; Marvin E Ament


Monoclonal Antibody-Based Time-Resolved Fluorescence Immunoassays for Daidzein, Genistein, and Equol in Blood and Urine: Application to the Isoheart Intervention Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Time-resolved fluorescence immunoas- says (TR-FIAs) for phytoestrogens in biological samples are an alternative to mass spectrometric methods. These immunoassays were used to test urine and plasma samples from individuals in a dietary intervention trial aimed at determining the efficacy of dietary isoflavones in reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in post- menopausal women. Methods: We established murine monoclonal

Duncan C. S. Talbot; Richard M. Ogborne; Tony Dadd; Herman Adlercreutz; Geoff Barnard; Susanne Bugel; Fortune Kohen; Sandra Marlin; Jerry Piron; Aedin Cassidy; Jonathan Powell


The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions  

PubMed Central

Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.

Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frederic; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.



Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP  

SciTech Connect

The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 ?g/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ? After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ? Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

Kessler, Winfried, E-mail: [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Numtip, Wanwiwa [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany)] [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany); Csanády, György A. [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany) [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München (Germany); Pütz, Christian [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others



Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine provides an alternative to blood plasma as a potential source of disease biomarkers. One urinary biomarker already exploited in clinical studies is aquaporin-2. However, it remains a mystery how aquaporin-2 (an integral membrane protein) and other apical transporters are delivered to the urine. Here we address the hypothesis that these proteins reach the urine through the secretion of exosomes

Trairak Pisitkun; Rong-Fong Shen; Mark A. Knepper




PubMed Central

Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection.

Vasconcelos, Camila Oliveira; Coelho, Zirlane C. Branco; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Teixeira, Clarissa Romero; Pompeu, Margarida M. Lima; Teixeira, Maria Jania



Element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community. VI. Review of elements in blood, plasma and urine and a critical evaluation of reference values for the United Kingdom population.  


Reference values for the concentration of elements in whole blood for the UK population are presented together with estimates for concentrations in plasma and urine. The blood data, when compared with other values obtained for Belgium, Denmark and Italy, obtained through the EURO-Terviht programme of the European Union, together with data from other countries, indicate similar concentrations. The data provide a basis for identifying the expected levels for the non-occupational exposed population against which differences attributable to various states of well-being, morbidity and mortality can be evaluated. However, it is also apparent that significant differences do exist which are related to geography and diet. In order to consider these differences, further improvements in the determination of elements in human tissues and fluids are required. Particular attention should be paid to that proportion of an element in the environment which is bioavailable together with its toxicity. PMID:7839124

Hamilton, E I; Sabbioni, E; Van der Venne, M T



Application of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for measuring chemicals in saliva of synthetic leather workers.  


Saliva is of interest as a diagnostic aid for oral and systemic diseases, to monitor therapeutic drugs, and detect illicit drug abuse. It is also attractive for biological monitoring of exposure to hazardous solvents. The major advantage of this indicator over other biological monitoring targets is that the saliva is noninvasive and less confidential in comparison with blood and urine. Salivary analysis is generally acceptable by study subjects and can be applied to investigation of a wide variety of compounds. However, very few studies have been conducted on the saliva matrix to monitor exposure to hazardous solvents. The aim of this study is to establish an analytical method, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), by which the saliva matrix can be monitored for multiple compounds with various polarities, such as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) (common solvents used in synthetic leather manufacture), as well as acetone (ACE) and N-methyl formamide (NMF) (metabolites of IPA and DMF, respectively). We studied this technique as an alternative biological monitoring method for investigating exposure to hazardous solvents. A Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS 75 microm) fiber coating was employed for this study, and various extraction and desorption parameters were evaluated. The extraction efficiency and reproducibility of analyses was improved by pre-incubation. The limits of detection were 0.004, 0.003, 0.006, 0.05, and 0.10 microg/mL for ACE, MEK, IPA, DMF, and NMF, respectively. Method validation was performed on standards spiked in blank saliva, and a correlation was made between HS-SPME and traditional solvent pretreatment methods. It was found that correlation coefficients (r) were greater than 0.996 for each analyte, with no significant differences (p>0.05) between two methods. However, the SPME method achieved lower limits of detection, with good accuracy (recovery 95.3-109.2%) and precision (1.17-8.22% CV) for both intra- and inter-assay, when quality control samples were analyzed for all five compounds. The partition coefficient for each compound between the headspace of the saliva sample and the CAR/PDMS fiber coating was 90.9, 170.1, 36.4, 3.70 and 0.92 for ACE, MEK, IPA, DMF and NMF, respectively. Real sample analyses were performed on workers in a synthetic leather factory. In summary, the SPME method is a highly versatile and flexible technique for chemical measurement, and we demonstrate its application for monitoring biological exposure to hazardous solvents. Saliva monitoring using sensitive SPME approaches for determining workplace exposure should prove useful as an alternative exposure monitoring method. PMID:19036646

Wang, Ven-Shing; Lu, Ming-Yen



Vascular Response to Graded Angiotensin II Infusion in Offspring Subjected to High-Salt Drinking Water during Pregnancy: The Effect of Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Urine Output, Endothelial Permeability, and Gender  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Rennin-angiotensin system and salt diet play important roles in blood pressure control. We hypothesized that the high-salt intake during pregnancy influences the degree of angiotensin-dependent control of the blood pressure in adult offspring. Methods. Female Wistar rats in two groups (A and B) were subjected to drink tap and salt water, respectively, during pregnancy. The offspring were divided into four groups as male and female offspring from group A (groups 1 and 2) and from group B (groups 3 and 4). In anesthetized matured offspring mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate and urine output were measured in response to angiotensin II (AngII) (0-1000?ng/kg/min, iv) infusion. Results. An increase in MAP was detected in mothers with salt drinking water (P < 0.05). The body weight increased and kidney weight decreased significantly in male offspring from group 3 in comparison to group 1 (P < 0.05). MAP and urine volume in response to AngII infusion increased in group 3 (P < 0.05). These findings were not observed in female rats. Conclusion. Salt overloading during pregnancy had long-term effects on kidney weight and increased sex-dependent response to AngII infusion in offspring (adult) that may reveal the important role of diet during pregnancy in AngII receptors.

Pezeshki, Zahra; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh



Obtaining Parotid Saliva Specimens After Major Surgery  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a standard method of collecting saliva from postoperative patients. Saliva was collected from patients following major abdominal surgery from both parotid glands, in intraoral cups and measured in milliliters. Collection time was measured with a stopwatch and flow rate was calculated by dividing the amount in milliliters by the minutes. Trained research nurses stimulated saliva production with lemon juice and collected saliva at four time points on postoperative day 2. Attrition was 9% due to ineligibility after enrollment and one withdrawal. In participating patients (n = 68), there were 272 tests planned and 28% were missing. The reasons were postoperative health problems, hospital discharge, and not wanting to be bothered. When saliva collection attempts were made, three-fourths were successful, but the remainder resulted in “dry mouth.” Milliliters, minutes, and flow rate were calculated with and without those with dry mouth. Mean flow rates were .23 to .33 ml/min excluding those with dry mouth, and .17 to .24 ml/min including those with dry mouth. Saliva variables were correlated with antihypertension medications, opioids, opioid side effects, and length of surgery, but correlations were not found consistently at all four time points. The findings suggest that nurse researchers studying biological markers can successfully collect saliva from postoperative patients if they recognize the difficulties and make efforts to minimize and control for them.

Good, Marion; Wotman, Stephen; Anderson, Gene Cranston; Ahn, Sukhee; Cong, Xiaomei



Microbial ethanol production in postmortem urine sample.  


We present a case in which postmortem blood ethanol concentration was 0.02?g/kg and acetone concentration was 0.51?g/kg, while urine ethanol concentration was 6.0?g/kg and acetone concentration was 0.63?g/kg. In the urine sample, sodium fluoride was not added. The urinary ethanol concentration continued to increase without any remarkable increase of isopropanol concentration and external contamination was excluded. Species of bacteria and yeasts, including Candida glabrata, were isolated from urine and blood samples. A few days after the collection of samples, we received the information that the patient was diabetic and did not receive insulin therapy regularly. To prevent postmortem microbial ethanol production and incorrect diagnosis of the cause of death, it is necessary to add sodium fluoride to blood and urine samples collected from diabetic patients. PMID:23812407

Sutlovic, Davorka; Nestic, Marina; Kovacic, Zdravko; Gusic, Stjepan; Mlinarek, Tajana; Salamunic, Ilza; Sardelic, Sanda



Progesterone metabolism in human saliva in vitro.  


Human salivary glands are known to be able to metabolize progesterone as well as other steroid hormones. The rate of progesterone metabolism in the salivary glands is so low that it is not thought to affect salivary progesterone concentrations. On the other hand it is usually recommended that saliva should be frozen quickly after the collection to prevent any kind of metabolism in saliva. When saliva is collected at home e.g. delayed freezing or partial thawing during to transport to laboratory may create circumstances where progesterone metabolism may occur. However, it is not known to which extent progesterone metabolism continues in saliva and whether this continued metabolism of progesterone affects salivary hormone levels. Paraffin-stimulated salivary samples were collected from female (N = 6) and male (N = 6) dental students and perimenopausal women (N = 8). The salivary samples were incubated with 14C-progesterone for 2 h at 37 degrees C in a shaking water bath. Metabolites were analyzed using thin-layer chromatography and autoradiography and quantified by liquid scintillation counting. Human saliva was found to be able to metabolize progesterone, but its metabolic activity was very low, 9.3 and 6.8 pmol/ml/h in young adults and perimenopausal women, respectively. Metabolic activity was higher in whole saliva than in the corresponding activities of the supernatant or sonicated fraction of the same saliva. The supernatant fraction, which was thought to be mainly representative of glandular saliva, was metabolically least active. The polar metabolites of progesterone predominated in all incubations. The metabolic activity of saliva is probably mainly due to its cellular content and the contribution of this activity to salivary progesterone concentrations is not significant. PMID:10529009

Laine, M A; Ojanotko, A O



Urine output - decreased  


Decreased urine output means that you produce less than 500 milliliters of urine in 24 hours. ... A large decrease in urine output may be a sign of a serious, or even life-threatening, condition. However, urine output can usually be restored ...


Unsatisfactory Performance of Flow Cytometer UF-100 and Urine Strips in Predicting Outcome of Urine Cultures  

PubMed Central

UF-100 flow cytometer and urine strip results were cross-interpreted to predict culture outcomes. The best negative predictive value was obtained with bacteria at ?1,000/?l, white blood cells at ?20/?l, or leukocyte esterase positivity. Nine of 24 false negatives were clinically significant. Thus, UF-100 and urine strip results do not accurately predict the outcome of cultures.

Zaman, Zahur; Roggeman, Sylvie; Verhaegen, Jan



Inhibitory activity in saliva of cell-to-cell transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in vitro: evaluation of saliva as an alternative source of transmission.  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is known to be transmitted vertically through breastfeeding and horizontally by blood transfusion and sexual contact. Our intervention study has suggested the presence of additional alternative maternal transmission pathways. To explore the possibility of transmission through saliva, we used PCR to quantify the HTLV-1 provirus in saliva samples from 18 carrier mothers and 10 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The provirus was detected in 60 and 90%, respectively, of the samples, with estimated copy numbers in the range of 10 to 10(4)/ml. However, the saliva, regardless of the presence or absence of antibodies to the virus, showed a strong tendency to inhibit the cell-to-cell transmission of HTLV-1 in vitro, as examined by a syncytium inhibition assay. The natural inhibitory activity in saliva of seronegative volunteers was heat sensitive, and most of the activity was recovered by ultrafiltration in the fraction of macromolecules with a molecular weight of more than 100,000. In addition to this natural activity, saliva of HTLV-1-infected individuals contained immunoglobulin G molecules capable of neutralizing syncytium formation. These results strongly suggested that HTLV-1-infected cells in the carriers' saliva, which contains neutralizing antibodies in addition to the natural activity inhibiting cell-to-cell viral infection, barely transmit the virus. Transmission of HTLV-1 through the saliva would thus seem to be rare, if it occurs at all.

Yamamoto, T; Terada, K; Nishida, N; Moriuchi, R; Shirabe, S; Nakamura, T; Tsuji, Y; Miyamoto, T; Katamine, S



Correlation of Hepatitis C Antibody Levels in Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva of Hepatitis C Seropositive Hemodialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

Search for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Our aim was to compare the prevalence of HCV antibody (HCV Ab) levels in saliva, and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of HCV seropositive hemodialysis patients. Serum, saliva and GCF samples were collected from thirty-nine patients. Samples were analyzed for HCV Ab using the Ortho HCV 3.0 SAVe enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HCH Ab levels in saliva and GCF of all HCV-seropositive patients were statistically compared. Reported here are the results of the study designed to determine the correlation between HCV-RNA positivity in serum and the detection of antibodies in GCF and saliva. One hundred percent (100%) of the 39 patients have antibodies to HCV in their serum, 15.4% have antibodies to HCV in GCF, and saliva found out. HCV Ab seropositivity in GCF and saliva was significantly correlated (kappa = 0.462; P < .001). This study supports the concept that GCF may be a significant source of HCV in saliva.

Ac?kgoz, Gokhan; Cengiz, Murat Inanc; Keskiner, Ilker; Ac?kgoz, Sereften; Can, Murat; Ac?kgoz, Aydan



Monitoring the endogenous steroid profile disruption in urine and blood upon nandrolone administration: An efficient and innovative strategy to screen for nandrolone abuse in entire male horses.  


Nandrolone (17?-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one) is amongst the most misused endogenous steroid hormones in entire male horses. The detection of such a substance is challenging with regard to its endogenous presence. The current international threshold level for nandrolone misuse is based on the urinary concentration ratio of 5?-estrane-3?,17?-diol (EAD) to 5(10)-estrene-3?,17?-diol (EED). This ratio, however, can be influenced by a number of factors due to existing intra- and inter-variability standing, respectively, for the variation occurring in endogenous steroids concentration levels in a single subject and the variation in those same concentration levels observed between different subjects. Targeting an efficient detection of nandrolone misuse in entire male horses, an analytical strategy was set up in order to profile a group of endogenous steroids in nandrolone-treated and non-treated equines. Experiment plasma and urine samples were steadily collected over more than three months from a stallion administered with nandrolone laurate (1?mg/kg). Control plasma and urine samples were collected monthly from seven non-treated stallions over a one-year period. A large panel of steroids of interest (n?=?23) were extracted from equine urine and plasma samples using a C18 cartridge. Following a methanolysis step, liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions purifications were performed before derivatization and analysis on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for quantification. Statistical processing of the collected data permitted to establish statistical models capable of discriminating control samples from those collected during the three months following administration. Furthermore, these statistical models succeeded in predicting the compliance status of additional samples collected from racing horses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23949888

Kaabia, Z; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Popot, M A; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Plou, P; Bonnaire, Y; Le Bizec, B



Purple urine bag syndrome with acidic urine.  


Purple discoloration of a urinary catheter bag is very rare. This phenomenon is known as the purple urine bag syndrome. It is associated with urinary tract infections occurring in catheterized patients, generally elderly females with significant co-morbidities and constipation. The urine is usually alkaline. We present a unique case of this rare and interesting phenomenon occurring in acidic urine and discuss the pathophysiology. PMID:18514009

Chung, Shiu-Dong; Liao, Chun-Hou; Sun, Hsu-Dong



The effects of gum chewing, four oral hygiene procedures, and two saliva collection techniques, on the output of bacteria into human whole saliva.  


Six healthy dentate individuals collected a 5-min sample of unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and dilutions were plated out on blood agar and grown anaerobically for 48 h. The output of bacteria into saliva (counts/min) was calculated as the product of counts/ml and ml/min. The individuals repeated the collections at intervals of up to 7 h after (1) rinsing with water, (2) eating a meal plus tooth brushing, (3) a thorough dental prophylaxis, or (4) tongue brushing and scraping. They also collected saliva at intervals while chewing gum for 20 min, as did 10 individuals who chewed gum for 2 h. The original six individuals also collected UWS under "drooling" (no oral movements) and "spitting" conditions. Six edentulous individuals not wearing their dentures collected UWS before and after a water rinse. With the four oral hygiene procedures, bacterial outputs fell initially and then rose again, but a repeated-measures ANOVA revealed no significant differences in the effects of the four procedures. Gum chewing caused initial marked increases in the outputs of bacterial and epithelial cells, but these fell with time and reached a plateau after about 10 min at outputs above those in UWS. Samples collected by spitting contained up to 14 times more bacteria than those collected by drooling. Bacterial output by edentulous individuals did not differ from that in those with teeth. It is concluded that bacteria from the teeth and gingival crevices normally make only a small contribution to those in saliva, that various oral hygiene procedures have similar effects on bacterial output into saliva, and that saliva collection conditions should be standardized and specified. PMID:11369317

Dawes, C; Tsang, R W; Suelzle, T



Content of Some Trace Elements (Copper, Manganese, Cobalt and Zinc) in the Blood, Cerebrospinal Fluid and Urine of Healthy and Myopathic Persons.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The content of copper, manganese, cobalt and zinc in the blood of myopathic patients was lowered in comparison with normal. It was noted that the level of manganese and cobalt in the blood of patients drops parallelly with the expressiveness of muscular a...

M. G. Kirienko



How You Can Help Medical Research: Donating Your Blood, Tissue, and Other Samples  


... your consent plays a role. People from all backgrounds and communities donate samples What Are Samples? Samples ( ... saliva, and urine. Who Donates? People from all backgrounds and communities donate samples. Why Should I Donate? ...


[The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva].  


Ethanol diffuses rapidly into saliva during the drinking, and immediately after its salivary concentration is temporarily much higher than in plasma. Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands. After alcohol intake, the level of acetaldehyde in saliva strikingly exceeds the level in systemic blood. From saliva, acetaldehyde and ethanol easily reach all local tissues. Damage to the oral tissues seems to be ascribed mostly to the action of acetaldehyde, although some acute effects depend on a direct action of ethanol and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). It is known that the oral mucosal surface is the home of numerous normal flora microorganisms and is the portal of entry for the majority of pathogens. The oral cavity and salivary antimicrobial immune defense systems eliminate pathogens and prevent massive overgrowth of microorganisms. An oral defense system participate in the protection of not only oral tissues, but also in the protection of upper digestive and respiratory tracts, against a number of microbial pathogens. Saliva plays the role in the oral cavity lubrication, maintenance of mucosal and tooth integrity, esophageal physiology, digestion and gastric cytoprotection. As alcohol abuse affects the structure and function of oral cavity mucosa, salivary glands and saliva, the maintenance of oral and general health under normal conditions is seriously impaired during the drinking. The severe tissue damage occurs in particular when alcohol abuse coincides with smoking. PMID:21542250

Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof



Acute one-cigarette smoking decreases ghrelin hormone in saliva: a pilot study.  


Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers. PMID:24808912

Kaabi, Yahia A; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A



Acute One-Cigarette Smoking Decreases Ghrelin Hormone in Saliva: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers.

Kaabi, Yahia A.; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A.



Development and validation of an analytical method for determination of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in rat blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode.  


We have developed a highly selective and sensitive method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization for measuring 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in rat blood and urine. Samples were adsorbed on silica gel, extracted with ethyl acetate, and derivatized by chemical derivatization with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride. For quantification, matrix-based calibration curves and 3-MCPD-d (5), as an isotope-labeled internal standard, were used. The relative recoveries of 3-MCPD were between 80 and 110% in most cases and the relative standard deviations were typically less than 10%, with some exceptions. The limit of quantification of the method was found to be about 2 ng/mL. In conclusion, a valuable, robust, and sensitive method for detection of 3-MCPD is now available for biokinetics studies. PMID:20640896

Berger-Preiss, Edith; Gerling, Susanne; Apel, Elisabeth; Lampen, Alfonso; Creutzenberg, Otto



Diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease by determination of L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine in neonatal blood spots by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


A novel method was developed for the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) by the determination of L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and L-phenylalanine in dried blood spots of newborns by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The four amino acids were extracted from blood samples by methanol and derivatized by n-butanol and trifluroacetic anhydride under optimum reaction conditions. The corresponding single derivatives of the four amino acids were obtained under the optimum conditions. Their contents in blood samples were analyzed quantitatively by measurement of their derivatives by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring mode. MSUD can be diagnosed on the basis of the ratio of the total content of L-leucine and L-isoleucine to that of L-phenylalanine. The present method only took a short time to perform and required minimal sample preparation, which provided low detection limits and a relative standard deviation of less than 5.0%. The derivatization reactions of the four amino acids, L-valine, L-isoleucine, L-leucine and L-phenylalanine, with n-butanol and trifluroacetic anhydride were investigated and the optimum reaction conditions, including reaction time and temperature, were obtained and used for the determination of the amino acids in plasma samples. PMID:12860033

Deng, Chunhui; Deng, Yonghui



Comparison of modern techniques for saliva screening.  


Saliva stains present a unique challenge in the forensic setting, often challenging the analyst to weigh the value of presumptive indication of the fluid versus the potential for DNA analysis to yield identification information. There are many situations in which determining the presence of a body fluid is probative and further corroborates DNA evidence. That said, even a minute portion of sample consumed by a screening test could mean the difference between a full, partial, or null profile obtained through DNA analysis. The basis of presumptive testing or screening of saliva has historically been based on the presence of amylase, a component found in relatively high concentrations in human saliva versus other body fluids and substances. Though the current available methods for the screening of saliva in a forensic application have grown in number, the popularity of these methods seemingly has not. This study attempts to identify a specific and sensitive saliva screening test by comparing three modern techniques--the recently released SALIgAE, Phadebas, and starch-iodine mini-centrifuge test--on the basis of sensitivity, specificity, mixtures, and simulated casework samples while also considering sample consumption. The Phadebas method for presumptive saliva testing detected dilutions of neat saliva down to 1:200 versus considerably less sensitive results with SALIgAE and the starch-iodine mini-centrifuge test. Utilizing a screening test with a high degree of sensitivity, such as Phadebas, allows an analyst to gain a maximum amount of information in the form of body fluid indication and DNA results because of the consumption of a small portion of sample. PMID:18503523

Myers, Jarrah R; Adkins, William K



Quantification of branched-chain amino acids in blood spots and plasma by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease.  


Individuals with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have an inherited metabolic disorder resulting in a deficiency in the branched-chain keto-acid dehydrogenase complex. As a result, these individuals have elevated concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids valine, isoluecine, allo-isoleucine, and leucine. MSUD presents in the first few days of life and progression may lead to irreversible intellectual disability, coma, cerebral edema, and death. However, early diagnosis and intervention can mitigate or eliminate many of the potential adverse effects. Consequently, it is important to develop techniques to screen for MSUD. We have developed an LC-MS/MS assay for the diagnosis of MSUD. The method is amenable to high-throughput formats due to the minimal sample prep required. The assay was shown to be robust, precise, and accurate. Finally, we identified and addressed some of the problems associated with working with bloodspots and implemented satisfactory approaches to overcoming these problems. PMID:21328532

Sowell, John; Pollard, Laura; Wood, Tim



Urine sample (image)  


A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean the head ... water and rinse well. A small amount of urine should initially fall into the toilet bowl before ...


Anti-Sdx: a "new" auto-agglutinin related to the Sda blood group.  


Two examples of a "new" IgM saline-agglutinating auto-antibody are described. The antibodies bind complement, have the ability to cause in vivo hemolysis, and are most active at room temperature at a pH of about 6.5. Despite tests on more than 5,000 people, no nonreactive cell sample has been found. The reactive antigen is not denatured by neuraminidase, papain, or ficin, and is present on i adult red blood cells. The antibodies appear to be slightly inhibited by human saliva and milk, and more convincingly inhibited by urine from Sd(a+) persons. They are not inhibited by urine from Sd(a-) persons, but are strongly inhibited by guinea pig urine. The serologic characteristics indicate a relationship to the Sda blood group and the auto-antibody has been named antiSdx. Sdx antigen is present on red blood cells from some higher primates and is absent from rabbit, rhesus monkey, dog and sheep cells. PMID:7355457

Marsh, W L; Johnson, C L; Oyen, R; Nichols, M E; DiNapoli, J; Young, H; Brassel, J; Cusumano, I; Bazaz, G R; Haber, J M; Wolf, C F



24-hour urine copper test  


The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in a urine sample. ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect ...


Amylase levels in semen and saliva stains.  


Amylase levels were determined for 148 semen samples and 20 saliva samples as well as for their corresponding stains. The effect of aging on the detectability of amylase activity in these stains was also investigated. The Phadebas amylase test was used for the quantitative assay of amylase. High levels of amylase in fluid saliva resulted in high levels being detected in saliva stains. Lower levels present in most seminal fluids produce little or no detectable amounts of amylase in stains. Interpretations are made as to the possible sources of amylase activity found in stains from laboratory casework based on both the amylase concentration and the elapsed time between collection and analysis. The evidential value of the presence or absence of amylase activity in casework stains is also discussed. PMID:2423634

Auvdel, M J



Effects of radiotherapy on human parotid saliva  

SciTech Connect

Changes in parotide salivary function, as determined by flow rate and protein secretion, were measured in 31 cancer patients given radiotherapy to the head and neck. After the first week of treatment, a 50% decrease in salivary flow rate and a 60% decrease in protein secretion rate were observed. Salivary function remained at or below these levels during the next 3 week of treatment. Proteins in saliva were affected unequally, with the family of glycoproteins exhibiting greater sensitivity than amylase. Chromatography or irradiated (60 Gy) and unirradiated whole parotid saliva suggests that the observed alterations in salivary protein may be due to radiation effects on protein synthesis rather than on the proteins themselves.

Mossman, K.L.; Shatzman, A.R.; Chencharick, J.D.



A high performance liquid chromatographic assay of Mefloquine in saliva after a single oral dose in healthy adult Africans  

PubMed Central

Background Mefloquine-artesunate is a formulation of artemisinin based combination therapy (ACT) recommended by the World Health Organization and historically the first ACT used clinically. The use of ACT demands constant monitoring of therapeutic efficacies and drug levels, in order to ensure that optimum drug exposure is achieved and detect reduced susceptibility to these drugs. Quantification of anti-malarial drugs in biological fluids other than blood would provide a more readily applicable method of therapeutic drug monitoring in developing endemic countries. Efforts in this study were devoted to the development of a simple, field applicable, non-invasive method for assay of mefloquine in saliva. Methods A high performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection at 220 nm for assaying mefloquine in saliva was developed and validated by comparing mefloquine concentrations in saliva and plasma samples from four healthy volunteers who received single oral dose of mefloquine. Verapamil was used as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Hypersil ODS column. Results Extraction recoveries of mefloquine in plasma or saliva were 76-86% or 83-93% respectively. Limit of quantification of mefloquine was 20 ng/ml. Agreement between salivary and plasma mefloquine concentrations was satisfactory (r = 0.88, p < 0.001). Saliva:plasma concentrations ratio was 0.42. Conclusion Disposition of mefloquine in saliva paralleled that in plasma, making salivary quantification of mefloquine potentially useful in therapeutic drug monitoring.



Response to Rodent Saliva by Two Species of Rodentiophagous Snakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) responded with higher rates of tongue flicking to rodent saliva than to water. Both materials were presented on cotton-tipped applicators touched gently to the snakes' lips. Rattlesnakes also struck more frequently at applicators bearing saliva than at control applicators. Since rodents frequently lick themselves during bouts of grooming behavior, saliva

David Chiszar; William Lukas; Hobart M. Smith



Rates of antimicrobial resistance among common bacterial pathogens causing respiratory, blood, urine, and skin and soft tissue infections in pediatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial resistance patterns among the principal bacterial pathogens from infections of the respiratory tract, blood, skin and soft tissue, and urinary tract of pediatric patients from the USA, Canada, Germany, France, and Italy were studied using the The Surveillance Network (TSN) database. Among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from respiratory tract infections, the prevalence of high-level penicillin resistance (MIC=2 µg\\/ml) ranged from 1.1

M. E. Jones; J. A. Karlowsky; D. C. Draghi; C. Thornsberry; D. F. Sahm; J. S. Bradley



Members of the Salivary Gland Surface Protein (SGS) Family Are Major Immunogenic Components of Mosquito Saliva*  

PubMed Central

Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies.

King, Jonas G.; Vernick, Kenneth D.; Hillyer, Julian F.



A proteomic approach to porcine saliva.  


This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal. PMID:24555893

Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A



Caries-Protective Factors in Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva influences caries attack mainly by its rate of flow and by its content of fluoride. The salivary flow rate influences to a high degree the rate of oral and salivary clearance of bacterial substrates included in foods and snacks. This influence is site-dependent. The basal salivary fluoride concentration is low, about 1 ?mol\\/L, independent of salivary flow rate, and

F. Lagerlöf; A. OLIVEBY



Arsenic Speciation Analysis in Human Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Determination of arsenic species in sa- liva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure and studying arsenic metabolism. Arsenic speciation in saliva has not been reported previously. METHODS: Weseparatedarsenicspeciesinsalivausingliq- uidchromatography(LC)andquantifiedthembyinduc- tively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We further confirmed the identities of arsenic species by LC coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. These methods were successfully applied to

Chungang Yuan; Xiufen Lu; Nicole Oro; Zhongwen Wang; Yajuan Xia; Timothy J. Wade; Judy Mumford; X. Chris Le


Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.



Purple urine bag syndrome.  


The purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare condition associated with chronic urinary catheterization. It is characterized by the purple discoloration of the urine, collecting bag, and tubing. A number of factors are involved, but not always present, in its development including female sex, urinary tract infection, constipation, indicanuria, and alkaline urine. Despite multiple theories that involve the complex tryptophan metabolism to the tubing dye, the cause remains elusive. The syndrome resolves usually after treatment of urinary tract infection or changing of the collecting bag. We present a case of a patient with purple urine bag syndrome and a pertinent literature review. PMID:16032624

Vallejo-Manzur, Federico; Mireles-Cabodevila, Eduardo; Varon, Joseph



Urine Pretreat Injection System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.



Proposal of Noninvasive Liver Function Measurement Method via Saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors studied the correlation between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and salivary ALT activity using ten healthy young adults and ten liver disease patients. Firstly, in order to establish the experimental conditions, we investigated the influence of occult blood and salivary secretion rate on the salivary ALT activity using healthy subjects. Then, simultaneous analysis of the serum and salivary ALT activities were conducted to investigate the correlation using the twenty subjects. As the results, although salivary ALT activity was as low as one third of serum ALT activity, the presence of salivary ALT activity was confirmed in healthy young adults whose saliva was not contaminated with serum. The salivary ALT activity of liver disease patients showed higher values than that of healthy young adults. In other word, if a threshold of salivary ALT activity was established, healthy young adults could be distinguished from liver disease patients.

Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kawabata, Yuji; Hatakeyama, Toyomasa; Kashii, Yoshiro


Simulating the pharmacokinetics of tabletized ambroxol using the dynamics of drug distribution in saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics of ambrogexal (generic) and ambroxol (INN) tablets were investigated in 18 healthy volunteers after peroral\\u000a administration in a single dose of 60 mg. The levels of ambroxol hydrochloride in saliva were significantly higher (statistically\\u000a reliable) than those in the blood plasma for the first 1.5 hours after administration due to features of the drug absorption\\u000a in the gastrointestinal

S. N. Kondratenko; A. K. Starodubtsev; I. V. Zolkina; G. A. Belyakova



The evaluation of the applicability of a high pH mobile phase in ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like hypnotics in urine and blood.  


A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and some metabolites (7-aminoflunitrazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, chlordiazepoxide, chlornordiazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, diazepam, ethylloflazepate, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, N-desmethylflunitrazepam, nitrazepam, N-methylclonazepam (internal standard), nordiazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge. Electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher retention and higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. Considering the benefits of a high pH mobile phase on both chromatography and mass spectrometry, its use should be encouraged. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 ?m, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). The optimized method was fully validated. PMID:22749457

Verplaetse, Ruth; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan



Urine Pretreat Injection System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for p...



Citric acid urine test  


Urine - citric acid test ... to discontinue drugs that may interfere with the test. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. However, the ... performed while you are eating regularly. Ask your health care ...


Different Host Complement Systems and Their Interactions with Saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) and Leishmania infantum Promastigotes  

PubMed Central

Background Lutzomyia longipalpis is the vector of Leishmania infantum in the New World, and its saliva inhibits classical and alternative human complement system pathways. This inhibition is important in protecting the insect´s midgut from damage by the complement. L. longipalpis is a promiscuous blood feeder and must be protected against its host’s complement. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of salivary complement inhibitors on the sera of different host species, such as dogs, guinea pigs, rats and chickens, at a pH of 7.4 (normal blood pH) and 8.15 (the midgut pH immediately after a blood meal). We also investigated the role of the chicken complement system in Leishmania clearance in the presence and absence of vector saliva. Results The saliva was capable of inhibiting classical pathways in dogs, guinea pigs and rats at both pHs. The alternative pathway was not inhibited except in dogs at a pH of 8.15. The chicken classical pathway was inhibited only by high concentrations of saliva and it was better inhibited by the midgut contents of sand flies. Neither the saliva nor the midgut contents had any effect on the avian alternative pathway. Fowl sera killed L. infantum promastigotes, even at a low concentration (2%), and the addition of L. longipalpis saliva did not protect the parasites. The high body temperature of chickens (40°C) had no effect on Leishmania viability during our assays. Conclusion Salivary inhibitors act in a species-specific manner. It is important to determine their effects in the natural hosts of Leishmania infantum because they act on canid and rodent complements but not on chickens (which do not harbour the parasite). Moreover, we concluded that the avian complement system is the probable mechanism through which chickens eliminate Leishmania and that their high body temperature does not influence this parasite.

Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Nascimento, Alexandre Alves Sousa; Queiroz, Daniel Costa; Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horacio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo



Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Urine Monitoring System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.



Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU): pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status  

PubMed Central

Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes), arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca) salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaPi)), supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB) and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF)), in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote) of oxidative metabolism (OM), without and with variation of markers. Results 1) In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite) were unchanged; 2) upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median) numerous stone parameters differed significant!)', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3) a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4) in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5) also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were negatively correlated, whereas in SF plasma Ca/Pi ratio, PTH and body mass index correlated positively; 6) multivariate regression analysis revealed that PTH, body mass index and nitrate together could explain 22 (p = 0.002) and only 7 (p = 0.06) per cent of variation of plasma Ca/Pi in SF and SB, respectively Conclusions In IRCU a) numerous constituents of fasting urine, plasma, blood and blood pressure change in response to variation of OM biomarkers, suggesting involvement of OM imbalance as factor in functional deterioration of tissue; b) in the majority of patients a positive exponential relationship links urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, presumably to accumulate Ca outside tubular lumen, thereby minimizing intratubular and urinary Ca salt crystallization; c) alteration of interactions of low urine nitrate, PTH and Ca/Pi in plasma may be of importance in formation of new Ca stone and co-regulation of dynamics of blood vasculature; d) overweight, combined with OM-modified renal interstitial environment appears to facilitate these processes, carrying the risk that CaPi mineral develops within or/and close to blood vessel tissue, and spreads towards urothelium. For future research focussing on IRCU pathogenesis studies are recommended on the role of affluent lifestyle mediated renal ischemia, mild hypertensive nephropathy, rise of uric acid precursor oxypurines and uricemia, clarifying also why loss of significance of interrelationships of OM biomarkers with traditional Ca stone risk factors is characteristic for SB patients. OM biomarkers Plasma uric acid - Discussed as scavenger of reactive oxygen species, but also as donator (via the xanthine oxido-reductase reaction) Urinary malonedialdehydc - Accepted as indicator of peroxidation of lipids within biological cell membranes Urinaiy nitrate - Accepted as indicator of vasodilation-mediating nitric oxide production by blood vessel endothelium Urinary malonedialdehyde/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance Urinary nitrate/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of oxidant/antiox



Complexity of the human whole saliva proteome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent characterization of the whole saliva proteome led to contradictory pictures concerning the complexity of its proteome.\\u000a In this work, 110 proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry allowing the identification of 10 accessions previously not\\u000a detected on protein two-dimensional maps, including myosin heavy chain (fast skeletal muscle, IIA and IIB), phosphatidylethanolamine\\u000a binding protein, secretory actin-binding protein precursor and triosephosphate isomerase.

C. Hirtz; F. Chevalier; D. Centeno; J. C. Egea; M. Rossignol; N. Sommerer; Deville de Périère



The physiological role of hormones in saliva.  


The assessment of hormones in saliva has gained wide acceptance in clinical endocrinology. To date, there is no hypothesis as to why some hormones can be found in saliva, while others cannot, and whether there is a physiological consequence of this fact. A number of carefully performed studies give examples of important physiological hormonal activity in saliva. Steroids, such as androgens, act as pheromones in olfactory communication of various mammalian species, such as facilitating mating behavior in swine or serving as odor cues for rodent nestlings. Salivary peptide hormones, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), and amines such as melatonin, are involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and in the promotion of cell proliferation, and contribute to a rapid wound healing in the oropharyngeal epithelia. Current data provide evidence of the involvement of salivary cytokines, such as interleukin-8 and leptin, in tumorgenesis in the oral cavity and the salivary glands. The tumor tissues express and release significantly more of these cytokines than healthy glands. Consequently, the assessment of salivary hormone profiles may provide promising targets for diagnostic tumor markers. PMID:19554609

Gröschl, Michael



Detection of potential markers for systemic disease in saliva of pigs by proteomics: a pilot study.  


Animals with different health status have been studied in order to extend the knowledge about protein composition of porcine saliva samples and to discover potential salivary markers for systemic disease in porcine production. Clinical examination of animals was performed at farm level where 10 healthy pigs and 10 animals with evident clinical signs of disease were randomly selected. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and afterwards animals were humanely sacrificed to perform a complete necropsy. Levels of two acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and C-reactive protein, were used to identify possible active infections of the animals. Moreover, serological analysis, to the main porcine infectious diseases in the area, was performed. Salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for the identification of specific proteins. A total of 58 spots out of 75 were successfully identified by MS, which correspond to 20 unique proteins. Two different approaches were used to perform a statistical comparison of saliva protein patterns from healthy and diseased animals using the relative spot volume (% spot volume/total volume of all spot in the gel, approach "A") or taking also into account the total protein content of each saliva sample (?g of spot/mL of saliva, approach "B"). Both analyses showed three proteins in common that are differentially regulated between states. However, approach B was selected for biomarker searching since it gave an estimation of protein concentration and showed differential expression of proteins between both health states in a total of 10 proteins, which were up-regulated in disease. Mass spectrometric analysis identified those proteins as salivary lipocalin, lipocalin 1, double headed protease inhibitor protein, adenosine deaminase, haptoglobin, albumin fragments, S100-A8, S100-A9, S100-A12 and pancreatic alpha amylase. These proteins could be considered as potential salivary markers of disease. PMID:23177629

Gutiérrez, A M; Nöbauer, K; Soler, L; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Gemeiner, M; Cerón, J J; Miller, I



Measurement control program 092: Mercury in urine: Artificial urine versus natural urine external control solutions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to determine if any significant differences exist between the use of artificial urine vs. natural urine in the preparation of external control samples for Measurement Control Program Number 092, Mercury in Urine. Artificial ...

A. F. Volesky



The ?-test: Rapid Cell-free CD4 Enumeration Using Whole Saliva  

PubMed Central

There is an urgent need for affordable CD4 enumeration to monitor HIV disease. CD4 enumeration is out of reach in resource-limited regions due to the time and temperature restrictions, technical sophistication, and cost of reagents, in particular monoclonal antibodies to measure CD4 on blood cells, the only currently acceptable method. A commonly used cost-saving and time-saving laboratory strategy is to calculate, rather than measure certain blood values. For example, LDL levels are calculated using the measured levels of total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides1. Thus, identification of cell-free correlates that directly regulate the number of CD4+ T cells could provide an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts due to the physiological relevance of the correlates. The number of stem cells that enter blood and are destined to become circulating CD4+ T cells is determined by the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 due to their influence on locomotion2. The process of stem cell locomotion into blood is additionally regulated by cell surface human leukocyte elastase (HLECS) and the HLECS-reactive active ?1proteinase inhibitor (?1PI, ?1antitrypsin, SerpinA1)3. In HIV-1 disease, ?1PI is inactivated due to disease processes 4. In the early asymptomatic categories of HIV-1 disease, active ?1PI was found to be below normal in 100% of untreated HIV-1 patients (median=12 ?M, and to achieve normal levels during the symptomatic categories4, 5. This pattern has been attributed to immune inactivation, not to insufficient synthesis, proteolytic inactivation, or oxygenation. We observed that in HIV-1 subjects with >220 CD4 cells/?l, CD4 counts were correlated with serum levels of active ?1PI (r2=0.93, p<0.0001, n=26) and inactive ?1PI (r2=0.91, p<0.0001, n=26) 5. Administration of ?1PI to HIV-1 infected and uninfected subjects resulted in dramatic increases in CD4 counts suggesting ?1PI participates in regulating the number of CD4+ T cells in blood 3. With stimulation, whole saliva contains sufficient serous exudate (plasma containing proteinaceous material that passes through blood vessel walls into saliva) to allow measurement of active ?1PI and the correlation of this measurement is evidence that it is an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts. Briefly, sialogogues such as chewing gum or citric acid stimulate the exudation of serum into whole mouth saliva. After stimulating serum exudation, the activity of serum ?1PI in saliva is measured by its capacity to inhibit elastase activity. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) is a readily available inexpensive source of elastase. PPE binds to ?1PI forming a one-to-one complex that prevents PPE from cleaving its specific substrates, one of which is the colorimetric peptide, succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Ala-p-nitroanilide (SA3NA). Incubating saliva with a saturating concentration of PPE for 10 min at room temperature allows the binding of PPE to all the active ?1PI in saliva. The resulting inhibition of PPE by active ?1PI can be measured by adding the PPE substrate SA3NA. (Figure 1). Although CD4 counts are measured in terms of blood volume (CD4 cells/?l), the concentration of ?1PI in saliva is related to the concentration of serum in saliva, not to volume of saliva since volume can vary considerably during the day and person to person6. However, virtually all the protein in saliva is due to serum content, and the protein content of saliva is measurable7. Thus, active ?1PI in saliva is calculated as a ratio to saliva protein content and is termed the ?1PI Index. Results presented herein demonstrate that the ?1PI Index provides an accurate and precise physiologic method for calculating CD4 counts.

Bristow, Cynthia L.; Babayeva, Mariya A.; Modarresi, Rozbeh; McArthur, Carole P.; Kumar, Santosh; Awasom, Charles; Ayuk, Leo; Njinda, Annette; Achu, Paul; Winston, Ronald



Endocannabinoids Measurement in Human Saliva as Potential Biomarker of Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and of its role in the regulation of energy balance has significantly advanced our understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes. New knowledge on the role of this system in humans has been acquired by measuring blood endocannabinoids. Here we explored endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines in saliva and verified their changes in relation to body weight status and in response to a meal or to body weight loss. Methodology/Principal Findings Fasting plasma and salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were measured through liquid mass spectrometry in 12 normal weight and 12 obese, insulin-resistant subjects. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were evaluated in the same cohort before and after the consumption of a meal. Changes in salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines after body weight loss were investigated in a second group of 12 obese subjects following a 12-weeks lifestyle intervention program. The levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes regulating the metabolism of endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines and of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor, alongside endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines content, were assessed in human salivary glands. The endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA), and the N-acylethanolamines (oleoylethanolamide, OEA and palmitoylethanolamide, PEA) were quantifiable in saliva and their levels were significantly higher in obese than in normal weight subjects. Fasting salivary AEA and OEA directly correlated with BMI, waist circumference and fasting insulin. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines did not change in response to a meal. CB1 receptors, ligands and enzymes were expressed in the salivary glands. Finally, a body weight loss of 5.3% obtained after a 12-weeks lifestyle program significantly decreased salivary AEA levels. Conclusions/Significance Endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines are quantifiable in saliva and their levels correlate with obesity but not with feeding status. Body weight loss significantly decreases salivary AEA, which might represent a useful biomarker in obesity.

Tabarin, Antoine; Clark, Samantha; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Cota, Daniela



Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  


Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1mL/min/1.73m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo



Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva  

PubMed Central

Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota.

Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Monica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.



Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium.  


Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulizer suspensions, aerosolized, size selected (100 to 450 nm) using a differential mobility analyzer, and collected onto gelatin filters. Uranine was used as a particle tracer. The resulting particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The amounts of infectious virus, total virus, and fluorescence in the collected samples were determined by infectivity assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and spectrofluorometry, respectively. For all nebulizer suspensions, the virus content generally followed a particle volume distribution rather than a number distribution. The survival of airborne MS2 was independent of particle size but was strongly affected by the type of nebulizer suspension. Human saliva was found to be much less protective than cell culture medium (i.e., 3% tryptic soy broth) and artificial saliva. These results indicate the need for caution when extrapolating laboratory results, which often use artificial nebulizer suspensions. To better assess the risk of airborne transmission of viral diseases in real-life situations, the use of natural suspensions such as saliva or respiratory mucus is recommended. PMID:24561592

Zuo, Zhili; Kuehn, Thomas H; Bekele, Aschalew Z; Mor, Sunil K; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M; Raynor, Peter C; Pui, David Y H



Association of Lipids with Proteins and Glycoproteins in Human Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of lipids in the fractions of parotid and submandibular saliva following Bio-Gel A-50 column chromatography was measured. Over 50% of the total lipids of submandibular saliva was found in the fraction which contained mainly the high-molecular-weight glycoprotein. This fraction also contained most of the glycolipids, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and cholesterol. In the parotid saliva, the fraction containing

B. L. Slomiany; H. Witas; V. L. N. Murty; A. Slomiany; I. D. Mandel



Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Saliva  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for on-site and real-time biomonitoring of lead (Pb) from both occupational and environmental exposures. Saliva is an appealing matrix since it is easily obtainable, and therefore a potential substitute for blood since there is a reasonably good correlation between Pb levels in both blood and saliva. The microanalytical system is based on stripping voltammetry of Pb at the microelectrochemical cell having a flow injection/flow-onto design. Samples that contain as little as 1% saliva can cause electrode fouling, resulting in significantly reduced responsiveness, irreproducible quantitations, and the need for frequent electrode regeneration. In addition, incomplete Pb release from salivary protein can also yield a lower Pb response than expected. This paper evaluates the extent of in vitro Pb-protein binding and the optimal pre-treatment for releasing Pb from the saliva samples. Even in 50% by volume of rat saliva, the electrode fouling was not observed, due to the appropriate sample pretreatment (with 1.0 M acid, followed by centrifugation at the RCF of 15200?g) and the constant flow of the sample and acidic carrier that prevented passivation by the protein. The system offered a linear response over a low Pb range (1-10 ppb), low detection limit (1 ppb), excellent reproducibility (5% RSD), and reliability. It also yielded the same Pb concentrations in unknown samples as did the ICP-MS. These encouraging results suggest that the microanalytical system represents an important analytical advancement for real-time non-invasive (i.e., saliva) biomonitoring of Pb.

Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Dean A.; Lin, Yuehe



Salivating for Knowledge: Potential Pharmacological Agents in Tick Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joppe Hovius and colleagues review anticoagulant and immunosuppressive proteins present in tick saliva, and discuss how immunologically targeting such molecules could prevent transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

Joppe W. R. Hovius; Marcel Levi; Erol Fikrig



Urinating more at night  


... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...


Electrolytic Pretreatment of Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum all...



Ten-minute analysis of drugs and metabolites in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid analysis of drugs in emergency room overdose patients is critical to selecting appropriate medical care. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative to blood plasma analysis for this application. However, current clinical laboratory analysis methods involve extensive sample extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and typically require as much as one hour to perform. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable lab-on-a-chip format, and generally no more than a drop of sample is required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of microg/mL concentrations. Measurements of cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, and several barbiturates are presented.

Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart



Detection of Novel Polyomaviruses, TSPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, HPyV9 and MWPyV in Feces, Urine, Blood, Respiratory Swabs and Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Eight novel human polyomaviruses have been discovered since 2007. Prevalence rates and tissue tropism for the most recent members HPyV 6, 7, 9, TSPyV and MWPyV are largely unknown. We used real-time PCR to determine the presence of HPyV 6, 7, 9, TSPyV and MWPyV in feces (n?=?263), urine (n?=?189), blood (n?=?161), respiratory swabs (n?=?1385) and cerebrospinal fluid (n?=?171) from both healthy control children and children and adults undergoing diagnostic testing. Whole genome sequencing was able to be performed on 9 MWPyV positive specimens. Novel polyomaviruses were only detected in respiratory swabs and feces, with no detections of HPyV 9 in any sample type. MWPyV was found to be the most prevalent novel polyomavirus, being detected in 18 (1.5%) respiratory specimens from symptomatic patients, 16 (9.8%) respiratory sample from healthy control children, 11 (5.9%) fecal specimens from patient suffering gastrointestinal illness, and in 13 (15.3%) of feces from healthy control children. MWPyV was found only in respiratory and fecal specimens from children, the oldest being 9 years old. HPyV 6, 7, 9 and TSPyV were also detected in respiratory specimens and fecal specimens at low prevalence (<1.3%). The majority of these detections were found in immunocompromised patients. Our findings suggest that MWPyV can result in a subclinical infection, persistent or intermittent shedding, particularly in young children. The other novel polyomaviruses were also found in respiratory and fecal specimens, but at lower prevalence and most commonly in immunocompromised individuals.

Rockett, Rebecca J.; Sloots, Theo P.; Bowes, Sharleen; O'Neill, Nicholas; Ye, Suifang; Robson, Jenny; Whiley, David M.; Lambert, Stephen B.; Wang, David; Nissen, Michael D.; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn



Cholesterol content of human parotid saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free and esterifed cholesterol were determined in parotid fluid collected from 19 individuals by encapsulation of Stenson's\\u000a duct in the oral 16.7±7.1 (SD) ?g\\/100 ml and cholesterol esters averaged 13.2±8.0 (SD) ?g\\/100 ml. Two assays are described\\u000a for the measurement of cholesterol in parotid saliva. Lipophilic material was extracted with ether-ethanol (3?1). In assay\\u000a 1, the solid residue of the

Gert M. Jacobsohn; Raf Ael J. Montiel



Forensic body fluid identification: the Raman spectroscopic signature of saliva.  


The potential use of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci.,Int., 2008, 181, e1-e5). However, those experiments were performed using only one sample of each body fluid and did not investigate the potential for spectral variations among different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a single human saliva sample as well as among samples from multiple donors. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human saliva samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. Principal component analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry saliva is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The major chemical components known to be present in saliva were used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of saliva was also addressed. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry saliva in a quantitative way. The combination of these three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for saliva. This proof of concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be saliva during forensic analysis. PMID:20174703

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K



Analysis of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions are important for the maintenance of oral mucosal wetness. Salivary proteins and glycoproteins are the major components of the oral mucosal film, which functions as a moisture retainer and a protective barrier. Here, the correlations between the amounts of residual saliva and minor salivary gland secretions and their protein concentrations were investigated in

Sun-Hee Won; Hong-Seop Kho; Young-Ku Kim; Sung-Chang Chung; Sung-Woo Lee



Human saliva-based quantitative monitoring of clarithromycin by flow injection chemiluminescence analysis: a pharmacokinetic study.  


Human saliva quantitative monitoring of clarithromycin (CLA) by chemiluminescence (CL) with flow injection analysis was proposed for the first time, which was based on the quenching effect of CLA on luminol-bovine serum albumin (BSA) CL system with a linear range from 7.5 × 10(-4) to 2.0 ng/ml. This proposed approach, offering a maximum sample throughput of 100 h(-1), was successfully applied to the quantitative monitoring of CLA levels in human saliva during 24 h after a single oral dose of 250 mg intake, with recoveries of 95.2 ? 109.0% and relative standard deviations lower than 6.5 % (N = 7). Results showed that CLA reached maximum concentration of 2.28 ± 0.02 ?g/ml at approximately 3 h, and the total elimination ratio was 99.6 % in 24 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters including absorption rate constant (0.058 ± 0.006 h(-1)), elimination rate constant (0.149 ± 0.009 h(-1)) and elimination half-life time (4.66 ± 0.08 h) were obtained. A comparison of human saliva and urine monitoring was also given. The mechanism study of BSA-CLA interaction revealed the binding of CLA to BSA is an entropy driven and spontaneous process through hydrophobic interaction, with binding constant K BSA-CLA of 4.78 × 10(6) l/mol and the number of binding sites n of 0.82 by flow injection-chemiluminescence model. Molecular docking analysis further showed CLA might be in subdomain IIA of BSA, with K BSA-CLA of 6.82 × 10(5) l/mol and ?G of -33.28 kJ/mol. PMID:24166104

Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua



Metabolic hormones in saliva: origins and functions  

PubMed Central

The salivary proteome consists of thousands of proteins, which include, among others, hormonal modulators of energy intake and output. Although the functions of this prominent category of hormones in whole body energy metabolism are well characterized, their functions in the oral cavity, whether as a salivary component, or when expressed in taste cells, are less studied and poorly understood. The respective receptors for the majority of salivary metabolic hormones have been also shown to be expressed in salivary glands, taste cells, or other cells in the oral mucosa. This review provides a comprehensive account of the gastrointestinal hormones, adipokines, and neuropeptides identified in saliva, salivary glands, or lingual epithelium, as well as their respective cognate receptors expressed in the oral cavity. Surprisingly, few functions are assigned to salivary metabolic hormones, and these functions are mostly associated with the modulation of taste perception. Because of the well-characterized correlation between impaired oral nutrient sensing and increased energy intake and body mass index, a conceptually provocative point of view is introduced, whereupon it is argued that targeted changes in the composition of saliva could affect whole body metabolism in response to the activation of cognate receptors expressed locally in the oral mucosa.

Zolotukhin, S.



Current development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics.  


Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care. PMID:20737986

Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J; Floriano, Pierre N; Miller, Craig S; Ebersole, Jeffrey L; Weigum, Shannon E; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W



Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care.

Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W.



Human saliva exposure modulates bone cell performance in vitro.  


Various situations encountered by a clinician during the daily routine including surgical periodontitis therapy, dental implant insertion, or tooth extraction involve the contact of saliva with the jaw bone. However, there are only sparse data concerning the influence of saliva on bone cells. Saliva specimens were incorporated within culture medium and administered to murine MC3T3 osteoblasts, of which the morphology (REM), proliferation (EZ4U), and differentiation (qRT-PCR, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix calcification) were assessed. Simultaneously, the composition of saliva media was analyzed with respect to the content of lactoferrin, activities of classical salivary enzymes, and the ability to provoke inflammatory cytokine production (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in MC3T3 osteoblasts. The morphology, proliferation, and expression of differentiation-associated genes were seriously handicapped by saliva contact. Saliva-touched cells exhibited less alkaline phosphatase but normal levels of extracellular matrix mineralization. Saliva-containing culture media featured physiological activities of salivary enzymes and considerable amounts of lactoferrin but almost completely lacked salivary alkaline phosphatase and unspecific proteases. Upon saliva incubation, MC3T3 osteoblasts did not release noteworthy levels of interleukin-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although saliva is generally considered to vitalize oral tissues, this study reveals that it harms osteoblast-like cells more due to the presence of salivary enzymes than by triggering of inflammation. This issue is clinically relevant because it broadens the understanding of the bone cell fate within the rather complex cosmos of the oral cavity thereby providing a basis for clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. It seems to be reasonable to restrict the contact period between saliva and bone. PMID:21246386

Proksch, Susanne; Steinberg, Thorsten; Keller, Constantin; Wolkewitz, Martin; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Finkenzeller, Guenter; Hannig, Christian; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali



Purple urine bag syndrome.  


Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare disorder where the plastic urinary catheter bag and tubing turn purple. The discolouration is due to the presence of indigo and indirubin pigments which are metabolites of tryptophan. It is associated with urinary tract infection. Bacteria that produce sulphatase and phosphatase are involved in the formation of these pigments. Purple urine bag syndrome is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, compared to urinary tract infection without this phenomenon. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in a 68-year-old woman. PMID:19495508

Pillai, B P; Chong, V H; Yong, A M



Proteomic identification of host and parasite biomarkers in saliva from patients with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria cases attributed to Plasmodium falciparum account for approximately 600,000 deaths yearly, mainly in African children. The gold standard method to diagnose malaria requires the visualization of the parasite in blood. The role of non-invasive diagnostic methods to diagnose malaria remains unclear. Methods A protocol was optimized to deplete highly abundant proteins from saliva to improve the dynamic range of the proteins identified and assess their suitability as candidate biomarkers of malaria infection. A starch-based amylase depletion strategy was used in combination with four different lectins to deplete glycoproteins (Concanavalin A and Aleuria aurantia for N-linked glycoproteins; jacalin and peanut agglutinin for O-linked glycoproteins). A proteomic analysis of depleted saliva samples was performed in 17 children with fever and a positive–malaria slide and compared with that of 17 malaria-negative children with fever. Results The proteomic signature of malaria-positive patients revealed a strong up-regulation of erythrocyte-derived and inflammatory proteins. Three P. falciparum proteins, PFL0480w, PF08_0054 and PFI0875w, were identified in malaria patients and not in controls. Aleuria aurantia and jacalin showed the best results for parasite protein identification. Conclusions This study shows that saliva is a suitable clinical specimen for biomarker discovery. Parasite proteins and several potential biomarkers were identified in patients with malaria but not in patients with other causes of fever. The diagnostic performance of these markers should be addressed prospectively.



Infection with dengue-2 virus alters proteins in naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission.



Anti-complement activity in the saliva of phlebotomine sand flies and other haematophagous insects.  


The saliva of haematophagous insects has a series of pharmacological activities which may favour blood feeding. In the present study, an inhibitory effect on the complement system was observed in salivary extracts obtained from the phlebotomine sand flies Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. migonei. Saliva from Lu. longipalpis was capable of inhibiting both the classical and alternative pathways, while that from Lu. migonei acted only on the former. Other haematophagous insect species were screened for inhibition of the classical pathway. The triatomine bugs Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma brasiliensis and Rhodnius prolixus were also able to inhibit the classical pathway whereas the mosquito Aedes aegyti and flea Ctenocephalides felis were not. The activity of Lu. longipalpis saliva on the classical pathway was partially characterized. The inhibitor is a protein of Mr 10000-30000 Da, which is very resistant to denaturation by heat. The inhibition of the complement system by phlebotomine sand flies may have a role in the transmission of Leishmania to the vertebrate hosts. The inhibitor molecule is thus a promising component of a vaccine to target salivary immunomodulators. PMID:12885192

Cavalcante, R R; Pereira, M H; Gontijo, N F



Specificity, sensitivity, and operability of RSID™-urine for forensic identification of urine: comparison with ELISA for Tamm-Horsfall protein.  


In this study, the specificity, sensitivity, and operability of RSID™-Urine, a new immunochromatographic test for urine identification, was evaluated and compared with ELISA detection of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP). Urine was successfully identified among other body fluids using RSID™-Urine and ELISA detection of THP. The detection limit of RSID™-Urine equated to 0.5 ?L of urine; although the sensitivity of RSID™-Urine may be lower than that of ELISA detection of THP, it is thought to be sufficient for application to casework samples. However, results from RSID™-Urine must be interpreted with caution when the sample may have been contaminated with blood or vaginal fluid, because this might inhibit urine detection. The RSID™-Urine assay can be performed in just 15 min by dropping the extracted sample onto the test cassette. Therefore, RSID™-Urine should be an effective tool for the forensic identification of urine, in addition to ELISA detection of THP. PMID:22563762

Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi



Urine drug screen  


... have no access to your personal items or water. In this environment, you cannot dilute the sample, nor can you use someone else's urine for the test. This test ... hands with soap and water. Dry your hands with a clean towel. Men ...


Urine Blockage in Newborns  


... 10 to 12 weeks after conception. However, the mother’s placenta continues to do most of the work until the last few weeks of the pregnancy. Wastes and extra water are removed from the baby’s body through the umbilical cord. The ... womb [ Top ] What causes urine blockage in newborns? ...


Purple urine bag syndrome.  


Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is rare disease entity, occurs predominantly in constipated women, chronically catheterized and associated with bacterial urinary infections that produce sulphatase/phosphatase. The etiology is due to indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) or to their mixture that becomes purple. We present a case report of this rare phenomenon occurring in an 86-year-old woman. PMID:24479059

Al Montasir, Ahmed; Al Mustaque, Ahmed



Detection of Nitric Oxide and Its Derivatives in Human Mixed Saliva and Acidified Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate is secreted into the human oral cavity as a salivary component. The nitrate is transformed to nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) by oral bacteria. NO is oxidized by O2 producing NO2 and N2O3 and also by O2? producing ONOO?. Salivary peroxidase can oxidize nitrite and NO to NO2 or its equivalent in the oral cavity. Nitrite dissolved in saliva

Umeo Takahama; Sachiko Hirota; Oniki Takayuki



Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques  

SciTech Connect

The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))



Microbial Community Profiling of Human Saliva Using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUSand BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples.

Hasan, Nur A.; Young, Brian A.; Minard-Smith, Angela T.; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M.; Faith, Seth A.; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.



Microbial community profiling of human saliva using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.  


Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUS and BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

Hasan, Nur A; Young, Brian A; Minard-Smith, Angela T; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M; McMillan, Nancy J; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M; Faith, Seth A; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R



Detection of nitric oxide and its derivatives in human mixed saliva and acidified saliva.  


Nitrate is secreted into the human oral cavity as a salivary component. The nitrate is transformed to nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) by oral bacteria. NO is oxidized by O(2) producing NO(2) and N(2)O(3) and also by O(2)(-) producing ONOO(-). Salivary peroxidase can oxidize nitrite and NO to NO(2) or its equivalent in the oral cavity. Nitrite dissolved in saliva is mixed with gastric juice, generating nitrous acid that is transformed to NO and NO(2) via N(2)O(3) by self-decomposition. In addition, nitrous acid can react with ascorbic acid and phenolics producing NO and with H(2)O(2) producing ONOOH. This chapter deals with the detection of reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS), especially NO, N(2)O(3), NO(2), and ONOO(-)/ONOOH, in mixed whole saliva and acidified saliva using fluorescent probes and spin-trapping reagents. It is also shown that measurements of nitration and oxygen consumption are useful in studying the formation and scavenging of RNOS in the aforementioned systems. PMID:18423231

Takahama, Umeo; Hirota, Sachiko; Takayuki, Oniki



HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.  


Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel



Substantiation of an artificial saliva formulated for use in a masticatory apparatus.  


The aim of this work was to substantiate artificial saliva prepared for use in a masticator apparatus. Mastication's goal is to produce a viscous and plastic food bolus where these properties authorize a safe swallow. Apart from its biochemical contribution, saliva is mainly used in this kind of apparatus to provide a viscous component to the bolus. Artificial saliva was prepared with water and minerals, and completed with mucin and amylase. Different physico-chemical conditions were applied and the resultant viscosity was compared to that of human saliva. Mechanically- or chemically-stimulated salivas of ten healthy subjects were collected. Viscosity was measured with a capillary viscometer in response to changes in measurement's temperature, air exposure or pH. The effects of circadian saliva collection and the stimulation type on viscosity of human saliva were also studied. Viscosity of artificial and human salivas was comparable. An increase in the measurement's temperature or a 30 min-exposure of saliva to air led to a significant decrease in viscosity of both types of saliva. Amylase in artificial saliva did not change viscosity. The viscosity of human saliva displayed important subject variability as well as a dependence on the stimulation type of saliva production. This work allowed a useful evaluation of the formulated artificial saliva. It exhibited similar viscosity as the natural saliva in response to different methodological conditions. Therefore the proposed artificial saliva satisfies the major requirement of viscosity for a use in the masticator apparatus designed to prepare a food bolus. PMID:22988786

Roger-Leroi, V; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Woda, A; Marchand, M; Peyron, M A



New Insights on the Inflammatory Role of Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva in Leishmaniasis  

PubMed Central

When an haematophagous sand fly vector insect bites a vertebrate host, it introduces its mouthparts into the skin and lacerates blood vessels, forming a hemorrhagic pool which constitutes an intricate environment of cell interactions. In this scenario, the initial performance of host, parasite, and vector “authors” will heavily influence the course of Leishmania infection. Recent advances in vector-parasite-host interaction have elucidated “co-authors” and “new roles” not yet described. We review here the stimulatory role of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva leading to inflammation and try to connect them in an early context of Leishmania infection.

Prates, Deboraci Brito; Araujo-Santos, Theo; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; Borges, Valeria Matos



The Medicinal Use of Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral intake of freshly voided morning urine has been recommended for many diseases such as viral or bacterial infections. Symptoms reported during the first days of oral intake of urine include nausea, vomiting, headache, palpitations, diarrhea or fever. Several substances in the urine are believed to be important for oral intake such as urea, uric acid, cytokines, hormones or urokinase.

Walter H. Hörl



CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload  

PubMed Central

Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories.

Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagace-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee



Amino acid profile of saliva from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma using high performance liquid chromatography.  


Oral cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and it is the eighth most common cause of cancer death. Cancer cells utilize more glucose and amino acids than their benign counterparts. Diagnosis of disease via the analysis of saliva is potentially valuable, as the collection of fluid is associated with fewer compliance problems than the collection of blood. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the comprehensive amino acid profiling of saliva by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The study group comprised 16 subjects, of whom eight were classified as having well-differentiated oral squamous (OSCC) cell carcinoma (Group I) and eight were classified as having moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (Group II). Eight healthy individuals comprised the control group (Group III). The results showed increased salivary levels of all the amino acids in both groups of OSCC patients (Groups I and II) when compared with healthy controls (Group III). Hence, our study showed higher levels of all amino acids in the saliva of OSCC patients than in the saliva of healthy controls. The increased levels may serve as a "diagnostic and prognostic marker" for oral squamous cell carcinoma and for further detection of metastatic spread. PMID:23047040

Reddy, Indira; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Chandrasekar, Thiruvengadam



Human saliva as a source of anti-malarial antibodies to examine population exposure to Plasmodium falciparum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Antibody responses to malaria antigens reflect exposure to parasites, and seroprevalence correlates with malaria transmission\\u000a intensity. Antibodies are routinely measured in sera or on dried blood spots but a non-invasive method would provide extra\\u000a utility in sampling general populations. Saliva is already in use in the detection of plasma-derived IgM and IgG to viral\\u000a infections. In this study, antibodies to

Patricia Tabernero Estévez; Judith Satoguina; Davis C Nwakanma; Sheila West; David J Conway; Chris J Drakeley



Forensic identification of urine using the DMAC test: a method validation study.  


Forensic scientists may sometimes be asked to identify the presence of urine in cases such as harassment, rape or murder. One popular presumptive test method uses para-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC), favoured because it is simple, rapid and safe. This paper confirms that DMAC reacts with urea rather than creatinine, ammonia or uric acid. Sensitivity studies found that the 0.1% w/v DMAC solution currently used for urine identification detects levels of urea found in other body fluids, potentially resulting in false positives. A 0.05% w/v solution was found to be more appropriate in terms of sensitivity to urea however the test is still not specific for urine, giving positive reactions with a number of body fluids (saliva, semen, sweat and vaginal material) and other substances (foot lotion, hair removal cream and broccoli). PMID:22583500

Ong, Sandy Y; Wain, Adrian; Groombridge, Linda; Grimes, Eileen



Changes of proteins induced by anticoagulants can be more sensitively detected in urine than in plasma.  


The most fundamental property of biomarkers is change. But changes are hard to maintain in plasma since it is strictly controlled by homeostatic mechanisms of the body. There is no homeostatic mechanism for urine. Besides, urine is partly a filtration of blood, and systematic information can be reflected in urine. We hypothesize that change of blood can be reflected in urine more sensitively. Here we introduce the interference into the blood by two anticoagulants heparin or argatroban. Plasma and urine proteins were profiled by LC-MS/MS and then validated by Western blot in totally six SD female rats before and after the drug treatments. In argatroban treated group, with exactly the same experimental procedure and the same cutoff value for both plasma and urine proteins, 62 proteins changed in urine, only one of which changed in plasma. In heparin treated group, 27 proteins changed in urine but only three other proteins changed in plasma. Both LC-MS/MS and Western blot analyses demonstrated drug-induced increases in transferrin and hemopexin levels in urine but not in plasma. Our data indicates that urine may serve as a source for more sensitive detection of protein biomarkers than plasma. PMID:24907934

Li, MengLin; Zhao, MinDi; Gao, YouHe




Microsoft Academic Search

In previous work, synthetic urine was used as a readily available proxy for real urine for determining the factors which affect the recovery of struvite from urine. Based on these findings with synthetic urine, we recovered struvite from real urine and, thus, showed that a) the synthetic urine served as an adequate model for determining the processes which affect struvite

E. Tilley; J. Atwater; D. Mavinic



Saliva metabolomics by NMR for the evaluation of sport performance.  


The paper reports preliminary results of a study in order to verify that saliva is a bio-fluid sensitive to metabolite variations due to stress and fatigue in soccer athletes, and possibly, to identify potential markers of test of performance. Saliva samples of fourteen professional soccer players were collected before and after the stressful physical activity of the level 1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test and, also, physiological parameters were evaluated. The NMR spectra of saliva offer a metabolites profiling which was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis as a blind test. The results of NMR pre and post test shows that it was possible to cluster the best and the worst performing athletes and that the role of the actual player may be diagnosed by a different cluster of metabolites profile. Thus saliva can be considered a biofluid metabolically sensitive to the induced physical stress and, in the future, deeper investigated to monitor the performances in athletes. PMID:24176749

Santone, C; Dinallo, V; Paci, M; D'Ottavio, S; Barbato, G; Bernardini, S



Saliva Is Effective in Screening for CMV Infection in Newborns  


... 496-7243 Saliva is effective in screening for CMV infection in newborns, says NIH-funded research Swabbing ... used to quickly and effectively screen for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, a leading cause of hearing loss in ...


Electrolytic pretreatment of urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.



Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.



Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress.  


Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120?min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2?hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H



Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.



Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50 male) with age range of 15 -17 years were randomly selected, divided to four groups. Unstimulated whole saliva specimens were collected at the morning. TAC of saliva was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student’s t-test, by SPSS 13. Results: The level of TAC was significantly higher in the saliva of caries active group relative to the caries free subjects. Statistical analysis for male and female groups showed a statistically significant reduction of TAC level in female group. Conclusion: TAC was higher in caries active group. Thus this result showed that total antioxidant capacity may influence in dental caries and activity can be measured by salivary factors and this may be helpful in preventive dentistry. Key words:Dental caries, saliva, total antioxidant capacity.

Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Hendi, Seyedeh S.; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas



The demand control model and circadian saliva cortisol variations in a Swedish population based sample (The PART study)  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies of the relationship between job strain and blood or saliva cortisol levels have been small and based on selected occupational groups. Our aim was to examine the association between job strain and saliva cortisol levels in a population-based study in which a number of potential confounders could be adjusted for. Methods The material derives from a population-based study in Stockholm on mental health and its potential determinants. Two data collections were performed three years apart with more than 8500 subjects responding to a questionnaire in both waves. In this paper our analyses are based on 529 individuals who held a job, participated in both waves as well as in an interview linked to the second wave. They gave saliva samples at awakening, half an hour later, at lunchtime and before going to bed on a weekday in close connection with the interview. Job control and job demands were assessed from the questionnaire in the second wave. Mixed models were used to analyse the association between the demand control model and saliva cortisol. Results Women in low strain jobs (high control and low demands) had significantly lower cortisol levels half an hour after awakening than women in high strain (low control and high demands), active (high control and high demands) or passive jobs (low control and low demands). There were no significant differences between the groups during other parts of the day and furthermore there was no difference between the job strain, active and passive groups. For men, no differences were found between demand control groups. Conclusion This population-based study, on a relatively large sample, weakly support the hypothesis that the demand control model is associated with saliva cortisol concentrations.

Alderling, Magnus; Theorell, Tores; de la Torre, Bartolome; Lundberg, Ingvar



Protein Biomarkers of Periodontitis in Saliva  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5–15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented.

Taylor, John J.



Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population.

Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo



UF1000 i™ flow cytometry is an effective screening method for urine specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate the UF-1000i™ (UF) flow cytometer to count urine constituents including bacteria. The objective was to screen urine samples and determine what white blood cell (WBC) and\\/or bacteria screening criteria would minimize the number of specimens cultured yet ensuring that all true positives were cultured. UF screening and culture on CHROMagar™ Orientation (CO) medium were

Kamran Kadkhoda; Kanchana Manickam; Pat DeGagne; Pat Sokolowski; Paulette Pang; Nick Kontzie; Michelle Alfa



Analysis of the human urine endogenous peptides by nanoparticle extraction and mass spectrometry identification.  


Peptides in urine are excreted by kidney from the blood and tissues, which are composed of a large amount of hormones, cytokines, regulatory factors and the metabolized fragments of proteins. The peptide distribution in urine will reflect the physiological and pathophysiological processes in body. In past, limited information was reported about the composition of the peptides in urine. One possible reason is that the peptides in urine are fairly low abundant and there are high concentrations of salts and organic metabolites in the urine. In this report, we extracted the peptides from human urine by highly ordered mesoporous silica particles with the pore size of 2nm, which will exclude the high molecular weight proteins over 12kDa. The extracted peptides were then separated into fractions according to their molecular weight by size exclusion chromatography. Each of the fractions was further analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and ?RPLC-MS/MS. Totally, 193 peptides were identified by two-dimensional SEC/?RPLC-MS/MS analysis. By analyzing the progenitor protein of the peptides; we found that two-thirds of the proteins differed from the reported urine proteome database, and the high abundant proteins in urine proteome were less detected in the urine peptidome. The developed extraction and separation methods were efficient for the profiling of the endogenous peptides in human urine. The peptidome in human urine was complementary to the human urinary proteome and may provide an emerging field for biomarker discovery. PMID:24856401

Yang, Xiaomin; Hu, Lianghai; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa



Absence of mutagenicity in the urine of autopsy service workers exposed to formaldehyde: factors influencing mutagenicity testing of urine.  


Hospital autopsy service workers and a matched control group were studied using a battery of genetic monitoring tests performed on samples of blood, semen and urine. The results of the analysis of urine for mutagens are described in this report. The participants in the study were matched with the controls for sex, age and their use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. Information was collected on general health, usage of medications and any exposure which might affect the outcome of the study. Individuals were sampled three times at approximately two month intervals. Time weighed average exposures to formaldehyde in the work areas were estimated at 0.61 to 1.32 ppm. Additionally, studies were carried out which examined various parameters affecting the testing of human urine samples for mutagenicity. No increase in mutagenicity was seen in the autopsy workers as compared to the control group. One individual who was receiving metronidazole and one control who smoked two packs of cigarettes per day had significantly mutagenic urine. A large proportion of the exposed individuals had toxic urine while only two of the control individuals had similar toxic urine. The material responsible for the toxicity has been isolated and purified but does not appear to be related to the formaldehyde exposure. Studies on the parameters affecting mutagenicity testing of urine with Salmonella typhimurium suggest that in the plate incorporation assay, TA100, but not TA98, can be affected by exogenous histidine. Furthermore, with the conditions employed in this study, 3 to 4% of labeled histidine added to urine samples was retained by the XAD-2 and subsequently eluted in the urine concentrate. Urinary histidine levels of unconcentrated samples ranged from 112 to 2614 nmol per ml (mean 994 nmol per ml) and the amount of histidine present correlated with the corresponding increases in histidine revertants with strain TA100. PMID:4066051

Connor, T H; Ward, J B; Legator, M S



Streptococcus pneumoniae in Saliva of Dutch Primary School Children  

PubMed Central

While nasopharyngeal sampling is the gold standard for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, historically seen, saliva sampling also seems highly sensitive for pneumococcal detection. We investigated S. pneumoniae carriage in saliva from fifty schoolchildren by conventional and molecular methods. Saliva was first culture-enriched for pneumococci, after which, DNA was extracted from all bacterial growth and tested by quantitative-PCR (qPCR) for pneumococcus-specific genes lytA and piaA. Next, serotype composition of the samples was determined by serotype-specific qPCRs, conventional-PCRs (cPCR) and sequencing of cPCR amplicons. Although only 2 (4%) of 50 samples were positive by conventional diagnostic culture, 44 (88%) were positive for pneumococci by qPCR. In total, we detected the presence of at least 81 pneumococcal strains representing 20 serotypes in samples from 44 carriers with 23 carriers (52%) positive for multiple (up to 6) serotypes. The number of serotypes detected per sample correlated with pneumococcal abundance. This study shows that saliva could be used as a tool for future pneumococcal surveillance studies. Furthermore, high rates of pneumococcal carriage and co-carriage of multiple pneumococcal strains together with a large number of serotypes in circulation suggests a ubiquitous presence of S. pneumoniae in saliva of school-aged children. Our results also suggest that factors promoting pneumococcal carriage within individual hosts may weaken competitive interactions between S. pneumoniae strains.

Wyllie, Anne L.; Chu, Mei Ling J. N.; Schellens, Marielle H. B.; van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Jody; Jansen, Marc D.; van der Ende, Arie; Bogaert, Debby; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Trzcinski, Krzysztof



Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics  

PubMed Central

At present, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics typically provide a binary indication of health status (e.g., home pregnancy test strip). Before anticipatory use of diagnostics for assessment of complex diseases becomes widespread, development of sophisticated bioassays capable of quantitatively measuring disease biomarkers is necessary. Successful translation of new bioassays into clinical settings demands the ability to monitor both the onset and progression of disease. Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument. Our microfluidic method facilitates hands-free saliva analysis by integrating sample pretreatment (filtering, enrichment, mixing) with electrophoretic immunoassays to quickly measure analyte concentrations in minimally pretreated saliva samples. Using 20 ?l of saliva, we demonstrate rapid (<10 min) measurement of the collagen-cleaving enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in saliva from healthy and periodontally diseased subjects. In addition to physiologically measurable indicators of periodontal disease, conventional measurements of salivary MMP-8 were used to validate the microfluidic assays described in this proof-of-principle study. The microchip-based POC diagnostic demonstrated is applicable to rapid, reliable measurement of proteinaceous disease biomarkers in biological fluids.

Herr, Amy E.; Hatch, Anson V.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Tran, Huu M.; Brennan, James S.; Giannobile, William V.; Singh, Anup K.



Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases  

PubMed Central

The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future.

Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T.



Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah



Urine cup for collection of urine from cows.  


A urine cup for continuous and complete collection of urine from cows was constructed from Plastisol, cotton webb strapping, Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected], snap-fasteners, denim patches, weather stripping, and vacuum hose. The urine cup was made from Plastisol using a heated lead mold. It was large enough to enclose a 9 cm x 6 cm area around the vulva of a cow and was attached by strapping and Velcro Brand touch fasteners [corrected] to patches glued to the rump. Urine cups were used repeatedly and provided for long-term collection of urine from cows, eliminating the need for indwelling catheters. Applications include long-term nutrient balance, radioisotope, and metabolism studies. PMID:3170866

Fellner, V; Weiss, M F; Belo, A T; Belyea, R L; Martz, F A; Orma, A H



Coyote estrous urine volatiles.  


Samples of female coyote urine were taken once or twice each week during the winter and spring for two years. Headspace analysis was employed with Tenax GC trapping and GC-MS. Tenax trapping was started in less than 1 hr after sampling, and mild conditions were used to minimize losses of highly volatile and labile compounds. Thirty-four compounds were identified. They include sulfur compounds, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and one alcohol. The principal constituent is methyl 3-methylbut-3-enyl sulfide, which usually comprised 50% or more of the total volatiles observed. The concentration of many constituents varied widely. This appeared to be quasiperiodic for five of the constituents, with a period of a few weeks, and with pronounced maxima at the peak of estrus. Apparently these compounds are 3-methyltetrahydrothiophene, methyl 3-methylbutyl sulfide, octanal, dodecanal, and bis(3-methylbut-3-enyl) disulfide. One or more of these compounds may have pheromonal activity in coyote relationships. PMID:24276012

Schultz, T H; Flath, R A; Stern, D J; Mon, T R; Teranishi, R; Kruse, S M; Butler, B; Howard, W E



Leucine aminopeptidase - urine  


... in liver cells and cells of the small intestine. This test is used measure how much of ... several conditions: Cholestasis Cirrhosis Hepatitis Liver cancer Liver ischemia (reduced blood flow to the liver) Liver necrosis ( ...


Saliva as a potential tool for cystic fibrosis diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background Saliva and sweat are modified by cystic fibrosis (CF). In both cases the chloride and sodium ion concentrations for healthy subjects and CF patients differ, this representing a possible alternative tool for CF diagnosis. In this context, the aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of these ions in saliva samples taken from CF patients and healthy subjects. Methods A case–control study was carried out at a university CF center, in which the saliva samples were analyzed on an ABL 835 Radiometer® to determine the ion concentration. Results For the CF patients (n?=?80) the values for the biochemical parameters of chloride, potassium and sodium ion concentration were higher (p?saliva were lower than in the case of healthy subjects (p?saliva samples were higher for CF patients in comparison with healthy subjects. Thus, saliva as a tool for CF diagnosis can be considered a new challenge, and a population study including patients in all age classes needs to be performed, in different countries over the world, to extend the database to include a broad spectrum of information in order to identify normal ion concentration ranges for CF patients according to age, genotype and environment. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:



An improved measurement of progesterone in saliva and clinical applications.  


Measurement of progesterone in saliva offers several advantages when compared to assays of serum progesterone, especially when ovarian activity is being assessed. Most published methods for the determination of progesterone in saliva are based on assays developed in research centers, which employ "in-house" reagents that are critically dependent on supplies of highly selected antisera. In this report, the adaptation of a readily available commercial progesterone "kit", the Pantex Immunodirect Progesterone (125I) is described for the measurement of salivary progesterone. A single extraction step was added, however, to improve assay performance and to ensure that total salivary progesterone was measured. PMID:3087267

Weidenheim, K M; Anderson, C J; Sgoutas, D S; Mitchell, D E



Lectin-Like Constituents of Foods Which React with Components of Serum, Saliva, and Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that many foods contain lectins which can interact with components of human saliva and S. mutans cells. Because of their potential to influence host-parasite interactions in the mouth and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal canal, these reactions warrant further study. Images

Gibbons, R. J.; Dankers, I.



[Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) associated with strong alkaline urine].  


Mechanisms for purple discoloration of the plastic urine bag in purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) were investigated. Activities of bacterial indoxyl sulfatase catalyzing the conversion of indoxyl sulfate to indigo (or indirubin) were detected in strong alkaline liquid media but not in normal ones. These enzyme activities were particularly high in simple and combined cultures of Proteus mirabilis and/or Klebsiella pneumoniae. These results suggest that occurrence of PUBS is associated with strong alkaline urine as well as urinary tract infections induced by some species of bacteria with indoxyl sulfatase. PMID:8294766

Umeki, S



Effect of storage conditions on the extraction of PCR-quality genomic DNA from saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies since it can be collected in a painless and non-invasive manner. We sought to determine whether different storage conditions of saliva samples impact our ability to extract genomic DNA that is of sufficient quality for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methods: Saliva was collected from

Daniel P. K Ng; David Koh; Serena G. L Choo; Vivian Ng; Qiuyun Fu



Dental Amalgam Fillings and the Amount of Organic Mercury in Human Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied differences in the amounts of organic and inorganic mercury in saliva samples between amalgam and nonamalgam human study groups. The amount of organic and inorganic mercury in whole saliva was measured in 187 adult study subjects. The mercury contents were determined by cold–vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The amount of organic and inorganic mercury in paraffin–stimulated saliva was significantly

J. Leistevuo; T. Leistevuo; H. Helenius; L. Pyy; M. Österblad; P. Huovinen; J. Tenovuo



Saliva Protein Binding to Layers of Oral Streptococci in vitro and in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a system for measuring saliva protein binding to oral streptococci. Enamel chips with layers of Streptococcus gordonii Blackburn or Streptococcus oralis 10557 were incubated in vitro with whole saliva from eight persons. Blackburn bound significantly more amylase than 10557; no strain differences were seen for lysozyme or lactoferrin. There were significant correlations between saliva and bound amylase

J. D. Rudney; Z. Ji; C. J. Larson; W. F. Liljemark; K. L. Hickey



Simultaneous culture of saliva and jejunal aspirate in the investigation of small bowel bacterial overgrowth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both saliva and jejunal aspirate were cultured from 22 patients with suspected small bowel bacterial overgrowth and from eight controls. Large numbers of organisms (greater than 10(6)\\/ml) were recovered from the jejunal aspirate of 16 subjects, in five of whom the same organisms were present in similar relative proportions in the saliva, suggesting contamination of the sample with saliva, while

B W Worsley; I Cobden; E M Cooke; J G Shoesmith; A T Axon



[Pastel in the urine bag].  


Purple urine bag syndrome is a relatively unknown phenomenon in which the urine bag and the collector of chronically catheterized patients turn purple or blue. It affects predominantly women, and is mainly reported in elderly patients. The mechanism seems to be related to the appearance in the urine of two compounds that have been identified as indigo (blue) and indirubin (red) which bind to the urine bag and the collector. Several associated factors are usually mentioned such as constipation, alkaline urine, bed rest, institutionalization or cognitive impairment. They are risk factor of this phenomenon. On the other hand, an infection or a urinary bacterial colonization is necessary and high bacterial counts seem to be the critical step in the development of the purple urine bag syndrome. We report on two cases of purple urine bag syndrome observed in two patients being treated in a long-term care unit. Both of whom were diagnosed with indwelling urinary bacterial colonization, with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa respectively. PMID:22414392

Cantaloube, Lucie; Lebaudy, Cécile; Hermabessière, Sophie; Rolland, Yves



Dual effect of Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva on Leishmania braziliensis infection is mediated by distinct saliva-induced cellular recruitment into BALB/c mice ear  

PubMed Central

Background Leishmania parasites are transmitted to their vertebrate hosts by infected Phlebotomine sand flies during the blood meal of the flies. Sand fly saliva is known to enhance Leishmania spp. infection, while pre-exposure to saliva protects mice against parasitic infections. In this study, we investigated the initial inflammatory leucocyte composition induced by one or three inocula of salivary gland extract (SGE) from Lutzomyia longipalpis in the presence or absence of Leishmania braziliensis. Results We demonstrated that inoculating SGE once (SGE-1X) or three times (SGE-3X), which represented a co-inoculation or a pre-exposure to saliva, respectively, resulted in different cellular infiltrate profiles. Whereas SGE-1X led to the recruitment of all leucocytes subtypes including CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD25+ T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils, the immune cell profile in the SGE-3X group differed dramatically, as CD4+ T cells, CD4+CD25+ T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and neutrophils were decreased and CD8+ T cells were increased. The SGE-1X group did not show differences in the ear lesion size; however, the SGE-1X group harbored a higher number of parasites. On the other hand, the SGE-3X group demonstrated a protective effect against parasitic disease, as the parasite burden was lower even in the earlier stages of the infection, a period in which the SGE-1X group presented with larger and more severe lesions. These effects were also reflected in the cytokine profiles of both groups. Whereas the SGE-1X group presented with a substantial increase in IL-10 production, the SGE-3X group showed an increase in IFN-? production in the draining lymph nodes. Analysis of the inflammatory cell populations present within the ear lesions, the SGE-1X group showed an increase in CD4+FOXP3+ cells, whereas the CD4+FOXP3+ population was reduced in the SGE-3X group. Moreover, CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells producing IFN-? were highly detected in the ears of the SGE-3X mice prior to infection. In addition, upon treatment of SGE-3X mice with anti-IFN-? monoclonal antibody, we observed a decrease in the protective effect of SGE-3X against L. braziliensis infection. Conclusions These results indicate that different inocula of Lutzomyia longipalpis salivary gland extract can markedly modify the cellular immune response, which is reflected in the pattern of susceptibility or resistance to Leishmania braziliensis infection.



Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection  


CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus (CMV) ... Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is very common. The infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact Urine Most ...


Influence of time, toothpaste and saliva in the retention of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes  

PubMed Central

Objectives The intraoral transmission of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species seems to be facilitated by contaminated toothbrushes and other oral hygiene devices. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the in vitro retention and survival rate of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes. The impacts of human saliva and antimicrobial toothpaste on these parameters were further evaluated. Material and Methods Part I: Four toothbrushes (Colgate 360°, Curaprox CS5460 ultra soft, elmex InterX, Trisa Flexible Head3) were contaminated by S. mutans DSM 20523 or S. sanguinis DSM 20068 suspensions for three minutes. Bacteria were removed from the toothbrushes after either three minutes (T0) or 24 hours (T24) of dry storage and grown on Columbia blood agar plates for the quantification of colony-forming units (CFUs). Part II: The effects of saliva from a caries-active or a caries-inactive person and of toothpaste containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate were also tested. Results Part I: After three minutes of dry storage, approximately one percent of the bacteria were still detectable on the toothbrushes. After 24 hours, S. sanguinis exhibited a more pronounced decrease in viable cell numbers compared with S. mutans but the differences were not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p>0.05). Part II: The addition of human saliva from a caries-active or caries-inactive person slightly increased the retention of both streptococcal species at T0. The use of toothpaste had no influence on the amount of viable streptococci at T0, but it reduced the microbial load after 24 hours of storage. There were only slight nonsignificant differences (p>0.05) between the four toothbrushes. Conclusions In vitro bacterial retention and survival of S. sanguinis and S. mutans on different toothbrushes occurred. Within the limitations of this study, the use of human saliva or an antimicrobial toothpaste did not lead to significant differences in the microbial load on toothbrushes.

SCHMIDT, Julia Caroline; BUX, Miriam; FILIPUZZI-JENNY, Elisabeth; KULIK, Eva Maria; WALTIMO, Tuomas; WEIGER, Roland; WALTER, Clemens



Influence of time, toothpaste and saliva in the retention of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes.  


Objectives: The intraoral transmission of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species seems to be facilitated by contaminated toothbrushes and other oral hygiene devices. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the in vitro retention and survival rate of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes. The impacts of human saliva and antimicrobial toothpaste on these parameters were further evaluated. Material and Methods: Part I: Four toothbrushes (Colgate 360°, Curaprox CS5460 ultra soft, elmex InterX, Trisa Flexible Head3) were contaminated by S. mutans DSM 20523 or S. sanguinis DSM 20068 suspensions for three minutes. Bacteria were removed from the toothbrushes after either three minutes (T0) or 24 hours (T24) of dry storage and grown on Columbia blood agar plates for the quantification of colony-forming units (CFUs). Part II: The effects of saliva from a caries-active or a caries-inactive person and of toothpaste containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate were also tested. Results: Part I: After three minutes of dry storage, approximately one percent of the bacteria were still detectable on the toothbrushes. After 24 hours, S. sanguinis exhibited a more pronounced decrease in viable cell numbers compared with S. mutans but the differences were not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p>0.05). Part II: The addition of human saliva from a caries-active or caries-inactive person slightly increased the retention of both streptococcal species at T0. The use of toothpaste had no influence on the amount of viable streptococci at T0, but it reduced the microbial load after 24 hours of storage. There were only slight nonsignificant differences (p>0.05) between the four toothbrushes. Conclusions: In vitro bacterial retention and survival of S. sanguinis and S. mutans on different toothbrushes occurred. Within the limitations of this study, the use of human saliva or an antimicrobial toothpaste did not lead to significant differences in the microbial load on toothbrushes. PMID:25025554

Schmidt, Julia Caroline; Bux, Miriam; Filipuzzi-Jenny, Elisabeth; Kulik, Eva Maria; Waltimo, Tuomas; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens



Cross-contamination potential of saliva ejectors used in dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been postulated that evacuation systems used in dentistry could be a source of cross-contamination between patients through backflow of bacteria dislodged from the saliva ejector tubings. The bacterial microflora associated with these systems was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microbiological cultures. The potential for backflow was investigated by a study of pressure differentials in evacuation system

J. Barbeau; L. ten Bokum; C. Gauthier; A. P. Prévost



Conservation of streptococcal CRISPRs on human skin and saliva  

PubMed Central

Background Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are utilized by bacteria to resist encounters with their viruses. Human body surfaces have numerous bacteria that harbor CRISPRs, and their content can provide clues as to the types and features of viruses they may have encountered. Results We investigated the conservation of CRISPR content from streptococci on skin and saliva of human subjects over 8-weeks to determine whether similarities existed in the CRISPR spacer profiles and whether CRISPR spacers were a stable component of each biogeographic site. Most of the CRISPR sequences identified were unique, but a small proportion of spacers from the skin and saliva of each subject matched spacers derived from previously sequenced loci of S. thermophilus and other streptococci. There were significant proportions of CRISPR spacers conserved over the entire 8-week study period for all subjects, and salivary CRISPR spacers sampled in the mornings showed significantly higher levels of conservation than any other time of day. We also found substantial similarities in the spacer repertoires of the skin and saliva of each subject. Many skin-derived spacers matched salivary viruses, supporting that bacteria of the skin may encounter viruses with similar sequences to those found in the mouth. Despite the similarities between skin and salivary spacer repertoires, the variation present was distinct based on each subject and body site. Conclusions The conservation of CRISPR spacers in the saliva and the skin of human subjects over the time period studied suggests a relative conservation of the bacteria harboring them.



Genetic protein polymrophisms in human saliva: An interpretive review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this review is to summarize recent progress in the field of genetic protein polymorphisms found in human saliva since 1972. Prior to 1972 most of the investigations were related to amylase. The genetics of salivary amylase will not be considered here, since it has recently been thoroughly reviewed elsewhere (Merritt and Karn, 1977). In this review, special

Edwin A. Azen



Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich


Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.



Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)  

PubMed Central

We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4).

Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W.



28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550...MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine...



28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550...MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) § 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine...



Risk assessment of welders using analysis of eight metals by ICP-MS in blood and urine and DNA damage evaluation by the comet and micronucleus assays; influence of XRCC1 and XRCC3 polymorphisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the present study were to assess the occupa- tional risk of welders using analysis of metals in biological fluids, DNA damage evaluation by complementary geno- toxic endpoints and the incidence of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. A biomonitoring study was conducted that included biometrology (blood and urinary con- centrations of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel,

G. Iarmarcovai; I. Sari-Minodier; F. Chaspoul; C. Botta; M. De Meo; T. Orsiere; J. L. Berge ´-Lefranc; P. Gallice; A. Botta



Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of aliskiren in saliva and its application to a clinical trial with healthy volunteers.  


Although serum and plasma are the biological fluids of choice for pharmacokinetic determination of drugs in adults, it is desirable to elucidate noninvasive methods which can be used for investigations in vulnerable groups such as children. If the drug properties grant sufficient penetration of the drug from blood into saliva, the latter is a useful matrix for noninvasive investigations. Concerning the known physicochemical properties, the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren is one of the substances of which saliva concentrations could substitute blood concentrations for pharmacokinetic investigations in children. Therefore, a reliable bioanalytical method was successfully developed and validated according to the criteria of current international bioanalytical guidelines to enable the comparison of blood and saliva concentrations of aliskiren. After purification of the fluid by solid-phase extraction the chromatographic separation was conducted by using Xselect™ C18 CSH columns. Applying a mobile phase gradient of acidified methanol and acidified water at a flow rate of 0.4ml/min the column effluent was monitored during a total run time of 7.5min by tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. Running in positive mode the following transitions were investigated: 552.2-436.2m/z for aliskiren and 425.3-351.2m/z for benazepril (internal standard). Calibration curves were constructed in the range of 0.586-1200ng/ml and were analyzed utilizing 1/x(2) weighted linear regression. Intra-run and inter-run precision were 3.8-8.1% and 3.4-8.9%. The method provides selectivity, linearity and accuracy. The validated method was then applied to determine aliskiren concentrations in saliva and blood of three healthy volunteers after oral administration of 300mg aliskiren. PMID:24739274

Burckhardt, Bjoern B; Tins, Jutta; Laeer, Stephanie



Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.




PubMed Central

When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from

Francischetti, Ivo M.B; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J.; Santos, Isabel M.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.



Detection of manipulation in doping control urine sample collection: a multidisciplinary approach to determine identical urine samples.  


Manipulation of urine sampling in sports drug testing is considered a violation of anti-doping rules and is consequently sanctioned by regulatory authorities. In 2003, three identical urine specimens were provided by three different athletes, and the identity of all urine samples was detected and substantiated using numerous analytical strategies including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with steroid and metabolite profiling, gas chromatography-nitrogen/phosphorus detector analysis, high-performance liquid chromatography-UV fingerprinting, and DNA-STR (short tandem repeat) analysis. None of the respective athletes was the donor of the urine provided for doping analysis, which proved to be a urine sample collected from other unidentified individual(s). Samples were considered suspicious based on identical steroid profiles, one of the most important parameters for specimen individualization in sports drug testing. A database containing 14,224 urinary steroid profiles of athletes was screened for specific values of 4 characteristic parameters (ratios of testosterone/epitestosterone, androsterone/etiocholanolone, androsterone/testosterone, and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol/5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol) and only the three suspicious samples matched all criteria. Further metabolite profiling regarding indicated medications and high-performance liquid chromatography-UV fingerprinting substantiated the assumption of manipulation. DNA-STR analyses unequivocally confirmed that the 3 urine samples were from the same individual and not from the athletes who provided DNA from either buccal cell material or blood specimens. This supportive evidence led to punishment of all three athletes according to the rules of the World Anti-Doping Agency. Application of a new multidisciplinary strategy employing common and new doping control assays enables the detection of urine substitution in sports drug testing. PMID:17260133

Thevis, Mario; Geyer, Hans; Mareck, Ute; Sigmund, Gerd; Henke, Jürgen; Henke, Lotte; Schänzer, Wilhelm



Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both techniques provide information predominantly on the low molecular weight proteome (<15 kDa). There have been several reports that colorectal cancer is associated with changes in the serum proteome that are detectable by SELDI and we hypothesised that proteomic changes would also be detectable in urine. Results We collected urine from 67 patients with colorectal cancer and 72 non-cancer control subjects, diluted to a constant protein concentration and generated MALDI and SELDI spectra. The intensities of 19 peaks differed significantly between cancer and non-cancer patients by both t-tests and after adjusting for confounders using multiple linear regressions. Logistic regression classifiers based on peak intensities identified colorectal cancer with up to 78% sensitivity at 87% specificity. We identified and independently quantified 3 of the discriminatory peaks using synthetic stable isotope peptides (an 1885 Da fragment of fibrinogen and hepcidin-20) or ELISA (?2-microglobulin). Conclusion Changes in the urine proteome may aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer.

Ward, Douglas G; Nyangoma, Stephen; Joy, Howard; Hamilton, Emma; Wei, Wenbin; Tselepis, Chris; Steven, Neil; Wakelam, Michael JO; Johnson, Philip J; Ismail, Tariq; Martin, Ashley



Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel



Aphid Gel Saliva: Sheath Structure, Protein Composition and Secretory Dependence on Stylet-Tip Milieu  

PubMed Central

In order to separate and analyze saliva types secreted during stylet propagation and feeding, aphids were fed on artificial diets. Gel saliva was deposited as chains of droplets onto Parafilm membranes covering the diets into which watery saliva was secreted. Saliva compounds collected from the diet fluid were separated by SDS-PAGE, while non-soluble gel saliva deposits were processed in a novel manner prior to protein separation by SDS-PAGE. Soluble (watery saliva) and non-soluble (gel saliva) protein fractions were significantly different. To test the effect of the stylet milieu on saliva secretion, aphids were fed on various diets. Hardening of gel saliva is strongly oxygen-dependent, probably owing to formation of sulfide bridges by oxidation of sulphydryl groups. Surface texture of gel saliva deposits is less pronounced under low-oxygen conditions and disappears in dithiothreitol containing diet. Using diets mimicking sieve-element sap and cell-wall fluid respectively showed that the soluble protein fraction was almost exclusively secreted in sieve elements while non-soluble fraction was preferentially secreted at cell wall conditions. This indicates that aphids are able to adapt salivary secretion in dependence of the stylet milieu.

Will, Torsten; Steckbauer, Kathrin; Hardt, Martin; van Bel, Aart J. E.



Inhibition of HIV-1 IIIB and clinical isolates by human parotid, submandibular, sublingual and palatine saliva.  


Human saliva is known to possess components that decrease the HIV-1 infectivity in vitro. The mechanism of how these components inhibit the infectivity is still not clear on the molecular level. The purpose of this study was to discriminate between serous and mucous components with respect to inhibitory capacity and site of action. We have used total saliva and saliva from the major (sero)mucous glands: submandibular gland, sublingual glands, and glands in the palate, in comparison with the serous parotid glands. HIV-1 IIIB and primary variants were incubated with saliva, and inhibition of HIV-1-infection was determined by analysing the cytopathic effect on MT-2 cells. Mucous saliva, as well as serous saliva, contained high molecular weight components that reduced HIV-1-infectivity, at least partially by entrapment of the virus particles. Lower molecular weight components in all types of saliva possessed strong HIV-1 neutralizing capacity. Using pro-viral DNA synthesis by reverse transcription as a discrimination point in the replication cycle, the results indicated that part of the saliva samples acted before, but others after, this point. In conclusion, saliva inhibits HIV-1-infection by the action of high molecular weight components in combination with low molecular weight components from serous as well as mucous saliva, affecting different stages of the infection cycle. PMID:12013559

Bolscher, Jan G M; Nazmi, Kamran; Ran, Leonie J; van Engelenburg, Frank A C; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V



Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in the saliva of dairy cows: a pilot study.  


Johne's disease (JD) is a production limiting, intestinal disease of ruminants that is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Transmission of MAP occurs predominately through feces, colostrum and milk. Since other intestinal bacteria can be found in saliva, it possible that saliva might serve as a previously overlooked route of MAP transmission. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether MAP is present in the saliva of cows. Methods were validated using MAP K10 spiked saliva samples of cows from a voluntary JD control program level 4 herd and applied to saliva and fecal samples of cows from a known infected herd. The matched pairs of saliva and feces were analyzed for MAP with PCR and culture. Fourteen of the twenty-six sampled cows were saliva positive by conventional PCR. The fecal samples of 10 and 6 cows were positive by realtime PCR and MAP culture, respectively. Overall there was a poor agreement between saliva and fecal PCR results for MAP (kappa 0.24). This is the first study that detected MAP in the saliva of cows. The finding needs further investigation to identify the source of MAP in saliva and to quantify the role of this newly identified route of MAP emission for the transmission of MAP infections on farm. PMID:23517764

Sorge, Ulrike Silvia; Kurnick, Susanna; Sreevatsan, Srinand



Human Antibody Response to Anopheles Saliva for Comparing the Efficacy of Three Malaria Vector Control Methods in Balombo, Angola  

PubMed Central

Human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles whole saliva, used as biomarker of Anopheles exposure, was investigated over a period of two years (2008–2009), in children between 2 to 9 years old, before and after the introduction of three different malaria vector control methods; deltamethrin treated long lasting impregnated nets (LLIN) and insecticide treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) - Zero Fly®) (ITPS-ZF), deltamethrin impregnated Durable (Wall) Lining (ITPS-DL – Zerovector®) alone, and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with lambdacyhalothrin alone. These different vector control methods resulted in considerable decreases in all three entomological (82.4%), parasitological (54.8%) and immunological criteria analyzed. The highest reductions in the number of Anopheles collected and number of positive blood smears, respectively 82.1% and 58.3%, were found in Capango and Canjala where LLIN and ITPS-ZF were implemented. The immunological data based on the level of anti-saliva IgG Ab in children of all villages dropped significantly from 2008 to 2009, except in Chissequele. These results indicated that these three vector control methods significantly reduced malaria infections amongst the children studied and IRS significantly reduced the human-Anopheles contact. The number of Anopheles, positive blood smears, and the levels of anti-saliva IgG Ab were most reduced when LLIN and ITPS-ZF were used in combination, compared to the use of one vector control method alone, either ITPS-DL or IRS. Therefore, as a combination of two vector control methods is significantly more effective than one control method only, this control strategy should be further developed at a more global scale.

Brosseau, Laura; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Besnard, Patrick; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Le Mire, Jacques; Mouchet, Francois; Remoue, Franck; Allan, Richard; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Manguin, Sylvie



Alteration of saliva and serum concentrations of manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead among career welders  

PubMed Central

Human saliva offers a unique noninvasive approach for populational study. Purposes of this study were to investigate the feasibility of using saliva manganese (Mn) concentration as a biomarker of Mn exposure among career welders and to study the variations of Mn, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in saliva as affected by the welding profession. Forty-nine male welders, of whom 28 were in the low exposed group and 21 in the high exposed group, were recruited. Control subjects were 33 military soldiers without metal exposure. Ambient Mn levels in breathing zones were 0.01, 0.24 and 2.21 mg/m3for control, low, and high exposed groups, respectively. Saliva samples were collected to quantify metals by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Saliva concentrations of Mn and Cu were significantly higher in welders than in controls (p < 0.01); the variation in saliva levels appeared likely to be associated with airborne Mn levels among study populations. Saliva levels of Zn were significantly lower in welders than in controls (p < 0.05), while Cd and Pb levels in saliva were unchanged. Significant associations were observed between saliva and serum for Mn (r = 0.575, p < 0.05) and Cu (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). Moreover, saliva Mn concentrations were higher among welders with 5–10 years of employment than those with less than 5 years of employment. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between saliva Mn and Cu and between saliva Mn and Zn. Taken together, these data suggest that Mn concentrations in saliva appear reflective of welders’ exposure to airborne Mn and their years of welding experience. respectively. Elevated Mn levels among welders may alter the homeostasis of Cu and Zn.

Wang, Dixin; Du, Xuqin; Zheng, Wei



Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

SciTech Connect

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)



Boophilus microplus: its saliva contains microphilin, a small thrombin inhibitor.  


Saliva of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus contains two thrombin inhibitors, BmAP and microphilin. This work presents the purification and characterization of microphilin. It was purified from the saliva by gel filtration, ultrafiltration through a 3 kDa cut-off membrane and affinity chromatography in a thrombin-Sepharose column. Analysis by mass spectrometry showed a molecular mass of 1770 Da. Microphilin is the smallest salivary thrombin inhibitor peptide known to date. It inhibits fibrinocoagulation and thrombin-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 5.5 microM, is temperature resistant and its inhibitory activity was abolished by protease K treatment. Microphilin did not inhibit the amidolytic activity of the enzyme upon a small chromogenic substrate, but inhibited the hydrolysis of a substrate that binds both catalytic site and exosite I. Therefore, we propose that microphilin blocks thrombin at exosite I. PMID:16600217

Ciprandi, Alessandra; de Oliveira, Simone Kobe; Masuda, Aoi; Horn, Fabiana; Termignoni, Carlos



Antipyrine clearance in children from single saliva samples.  


The saliva clearance of antipyrine was measured in 18 children from four samples taken about 9, 13, 22 and 25 h after ingestion of 20 mg kg-1. Antipyrine clearance determined from each of the samples using a volume of distribution estimated from age (A) and body weight (BW) and height (BH) (V = 1.535 X A + 0.339 X BW + 0.300 X BH - 35.63 (1] correlated closely with clearance determined from the total elimination curve (r greater than 0.94). Random variation and systematic deviation were minimal when the 22 h sample was used for clearance determination (r = 0.98, P less than 0.001, regression curve slope = 1.00, intercept = 0.58 and residual variance = 4.02). The one-sample method for determination of antipyrine saliva clearance is non-invasive, easy to perform and acceptable to children. PMID:4005107

Loft, S; Haxholdt, O; Døssing, M



Cross-contamination potential of saliva ejectors used in dentistry.  


It has been postulated that evacuation systems used in dentistry could be a source of cross-contamination between patients through backflow of bacteria dislodged from the saliva ejector tubings. The bacterial microflora associated with these systems was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and microbiological cultures. The potential for backflow was investigated by a study of pressure differentials in evacuation system tubing and by the presence of bacteria in backflow samples. Evacuation lines were coated with microbial biofilms in which microcolonies of Gram-positive cocci and Gram-negative bacilli predominated, embedded in an extensive polysaccharide matrix. Most bacteria were metabolically active. Occasionally, buccal material such as collagen, fibrin and eukaryotic cell debris was observed. In other experiments, flow reversal was detected several times during saliva ejector use though each of these events was brief (less than 0.1 s). Aspiration of saliva, or occlusion of the mouthpiece opening by the oral mucosa, were the major factors leading to backflow episodes. Bacteria associated with backflow were found in almost 25% assays, with counts ranging from 1-300 cfu/occurrence. The majority of the bacteria isolated from biofilm or backflow samples were staphylococci, micrococci and non-fermentive Gram-negative rods. Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated from backflow fluids. No oral streptococci could be recovered from biofilms in the tubing beyond 15 min from the last saliva ejector use however, suggesting that these species did not survive in the biofilms. These data suggest, although without direct proof of cross-contamination, the possible existence of an infectious risk associated with oral evacuation systems, as potential pathogens may be shed from tubing biofilms following backflow. Even if the risk of cross-contamination between patients is considered to be low, the necessity for regular disinfection of these systems must be stressed, since biofilms can serve as a reservoir for pathogens or harbor potentially infectious material. PMID:9868623

Barbeau, J; ten Bokum, L; Gauthier, C; Prévost, A P



Transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults may occur through saliva.  


Of 742 army recruits tested for pneumococcal nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal carriage, 6·6% were positive. Frequent sharing of a drinking glass/bottle was a common, strong and independent risk factor for pneumococcal carriage. Our findings strongly suggest, for the first time, that in young adults, transmission of pneumococci may occur via saliva and this should be considered when conducting an outbreak investigation and carriage studies. PMID:21676361

Levine, H; Zarka, S; Dagan, R; Sela, T; Rozhavski, V; Cohen, D I; Balicer, R D



Risk assessment of welders using analysis of eight metals by ICP-MS in blood and urine and DNA damage evaluation by the comet and micronucleus assays; influence of XRCC1 and XRCC3 polymorphisms.  


The aims of the present study were to assess the occupational risk of welders using analysis of metals in biological fluids, DNA damage evaluation by complementary genotoxic endpoints and the incidence of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. A biomonitoring study was conducted that included biometrology (blood and urinary concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, zinc by ICP-MS), comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays in peripheral lymphocytes and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 (p.Arg399Gln) and XRCC3 (p.Thr241Met). This study included 60 male welders divided into two groups: group 1 working without any collective protection device and group 2 equipped with smoke extraction systems. A control group (n = 30) was also included in the study. Higher chromium, lead and nickel blood and urinary concentrations were detected in the two groups of welders compared to controls. Statistically differences between welders of group 1 and group 2 were found for blood concentration of cobalt and urinary concentrations of aluminium, chromium, lead and nickel. The alkaline comet assay revealed that welders had a significant increase of OTMchi2 distribution at the end of a work week compared to the beginning; a significant induction of DNA strand breaks at the end of the week was observed in 20 welders out of 30. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay showed that welders of group 1 had a higher frequency of chromosomal damage than controls. The XRCC1 variant allele coding Gln amino acid at position 399 was found to be associated with a higher number of DNA breaks as revealed by the comet assay. Increased metal concentrations in biological fluids, DNA breaks and chromosomal damage in lymphocytes emphasized the need to develop safety programmes for welders. PMID:16234265

Iarmarcovai, G; Sari-Minodier, I; Chaspoul, F; Botta, C; De Méo, M; Orsière, T; Bergé-Lefranc, J L; Gallice, P; Botta, A



Antiplatelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) activity in the saliva of ixodid ticks is linked with their long mouthparts.  


The saliva of blood-feeding arthropods modulates their vertebrate hosts' haemostatic, inflammatory and immune responses to facilitate blood feeding. In a previous study, we showed that salivary gland products from ixodid tick species also manipulate the wound-healing response by targeting at least four different mammalian growth factors: transforming growth factor ?1, hepatocyte growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 2 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). In addition, species that showed PDGF-binding activity also inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and induced changes in cell morphology accompanied by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we show a correlation between the length of the tick hypostome, the sclerotized feeding tube of the mouthparts inserted into the host's skin and anti-PDGF activity. This apparent link between hypostome length, and hence the potential depth of skin damage, and PDGF-binding activity was not apparent for the other growth factors or for other cytokines important in wound healing (keratinocyte growth factor, interleukin 6 and stromal cell-derived factor 1). However, PDGF-binding activity was no longer correlated with anti-cell activities, indicating that an additional as yet unidentified activity in tick saliva may affect cellular changes in wound repair. PMID:24102426

Slovák, M; Štibrániová, I; Hajnická, V; Nuttall, P A



Evaluation of amylase testing as a tool for saliva screening of crime scene trace swabs.  


Amylase testing has been used as a presumptive test for crime scene saliva for over three decades, mainly to locate saliva stains on surfaces. We have developed a saliva screening application for crime scene trace swabs, utilising an amylase sensitive paper (Phadebas(®) Forensic Press test). Positive results were obtained for all tested dried saliva stains (0.5-32 ?L) with high or intermediate amylase activity (840 and 290 kU/L). Results were typically obtained within 5 min, and all samples that produced DNA profiles were positive. However, salivary amylase activities, as well as DNA concentrations, vary significantly between individuals. We show that there is no correlation between amylase activity and amount of DNA in fresh saliva. Even so, a positive amylase result indicates presence of saliva, and thereby presence of DNA. Amylase testing may be useful for screening in investigations where the number of DNA analyses is limited due to cost, e.g., in volume crime. PMID:20457099

Hedman, Johannes; Dalin, Erik; Rasmusson, Birgitta; Ansell, Ricky