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Validation of SPE-HPLC determination of 1,4-benzodiazepines and metabolites in blood plasma, urine, and saliva.  


A simple, sensitive, selective, and reproducible RP-HPLC method with DAD detection at 240 nm was developed for the determination of six 1,4-benzodiazepines: bromazepam (BRZ), clonazepam (CLZ), diazepam (DZP), flunitrazepam (FNZ), lorazepam (LRZ), alprazolam (APZ); and two metabolites: alpha-hydroxyalprazolam (HALZ) and alpha-hydroxytriazolam (HTZL) in human plasma, urine, and saliva, using colchicine as internal standard, after SPE using Nexus Varian cartridges. Separation was performed on a Kromasil C(8) (250 mm x 5 mm, 5 microm) analytical column with a gradient mobile phase containing methanol, ACN and 0.05 M ammonium acetate. Linearity was held within the range 0.3-20.0 ng/microL, with coefficients of determination (r(2)) better than 0.997. The within- and between-day assay RSD at 2, 4, 8 ng/microL ranged from 0.03 to 4.7% and 0.5 to 7.0%, respectively in standards, from 1.3 to 7.9% and 3.3 to 7.3%, respectively in plasma, from 2.1 to 6.0% and 2.1 to 7.8%, respectively in urine and at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 ng/microL ranged from 2.22 to 5.8% and 2.2 to 8.1%, respectively, in saliva. The mean relative recoveries were 96.3-108.6, 96.0-108.2, 94.3-107.1, 97.0-107.0% in within-day assay and 96.8-107.7, 94.6-107.6, 93.2-105.8, 96.0-108.6 in between-day assay for standard, plasma, urine, and saliva, respectively. The LOD and LOQ were 0.02-0.47 and 0.07-1.57 ng/microL, respectively. PMID:19003810

Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Samanidou, Victoria F; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N



[Proposal of psychomotor skill assessment tests for drivers and a protocol for sampling and testing of saliva, blood and urine when there is reason to suspect involvement of substances with alcohol-like effect].  


The paper proposes tests to assess psychomotor impairment in drivers suspected of using substances acting similarly to alcohol. The authors also present a proposal for the protocol to be used in sampling and testing of saliva, blood and urine when psychoactive substance abuse has been suspected. A detailed procedure is based on the joined experience of German, U.S. and Polish police from Gdansk. The purpose of the appendix is to help police officers to perform and document tests confirming psychomotor impairment, as well as to provide the basis for saliva, urine and blood analysis. PMID:23650844

Wiergowski, Marek; Jankowski, Zbigniew; Tomczak, Ewa; Anand, Jacek Sein; Zió?kowski, Rafa?; Staniszewski, Janusz


Hepatitis B Antigen in Saliva, Urine, and Stool.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of hepatitis B patients, asymptomatic hepatitis B antigen (HB sub sAg) carriers, and control subjects was conducted to determine the relationship between antigenemia and antigen excretion in saliva, urine, and stool. Radioimmunoassay was used to ...

G. R. Irwin A. M. Allen W. H. Bancroft J. J. Karwacki H. L. Brown



On-site testing of saliva and sweat with Drugwipe and determination of concentrations of drugs of abuse in saliva, plasma and urine of suspected users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential drug users participated voluntarily in a Belgian study on the usefulness of the non-instrumental immunoassay Drugwipe\\u000a (Securetec, Germany) for the screening of cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and cannabinoids in saliva and sweat. If one of the\\u000a screening assays (urine, oral fluid, sweat) showed a positive result, blood and saliva were collected. The on-site Drugwipe\\u000a results were correlated with the Drugwipe

N. Samyn; C. van Haeren



Hepatitis B antigen in saliva, urine, and stool.  

PubMed Central

A survey of hepatitis B patients, asymptomatic hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) carriers, and control subjects was conducted to determine the relationship between antigenemia and antigen excretion in saliva, urine, and stool. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect HBsAg. Specificity-confirmed HBsAg was detected in the saliva of 6 (30%) of 20 antigenemic patients, 1 (5%) of 20 nonantigenemic patients, 14 (34%) of 41 carriers, and 0 of 112 controls. HBsAg was detected in urine only after 100-fold concentration of first-morning specimens. Specificity-confirmed HBsAg was present in the urine of 7 (16%) of 43 carriers; unconfirmed HBsAg was found in the urine of 5 (13%) of 38 patients and 5 (5%) of 112 controls. Unconfirmed HBsAg was detected in concentrated stool specimens from 5 (46%) of 11 patients and 3 of 8 carriers and controls. Longitudinally collected specimens from antigenemic subjects showed no consistent patterns of antigen excretion.

Irwin, G R; Allen, A M; Bancroft, W H; Karwacki, J J; Brown, H L; Pinkerton, R H; Willhight, M; Top, F H



[Excretion of nitrates with saliva and urine and nitrite excretion with saliva in patients with chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer].  


The study assessed excretion of nitrates in urine and saliva and that of nitrites with saliva of patients suffering gastric and duodenal ulcer. In both study groups, a positive correlation was established between nitrate concentration in saliva, on the one hand, and that in urine, and nitrite level in urine, on the other. The groups failed to show a difference in nitrate concentrations in either urine or saliva. Since retention of nitrates in the body of chronic gastritis patients held as precancer of the stomach proved no higher than that in patients with duodenal ulcer, the authors cast doubt on endogenous nitroso compounds as a cause of gastric cancer in cases of chronic gastritis. PMID:1887643

Rooma, M Ia; Khe?nla, Iu Ia; Piarn, Kh M; Kann, E M



Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.



[Progesterone and pregnanediol-glucuronid concentrations in saliva, milk and urine of female alpacas and their application in pregnancy diagnosis].  


The objective of the present study was the measurement of the pregnancy associated hormones progesterone (P4) and pregnanediol-glucuronide (PdG) in saliva, milk and urine of alpacas and their potential use in pregnancy diagnosis. Sample of blood, saliva, milk and urine were obtained from 36 female alpacas before mating and throughout the pregnancy. Concentrations of P4 and PdG were determined using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Pregnancy was checked by ultrasonography at any sampling time. The milk samples were also tested using a commercial on-farm progesterone kit which was designed for dairy cattle. EIA-Concentrations of P4 in blood, milk and urine and urine PdG concentrations were significantly higher in pregnant than in not pregnant alpacas. There was no difference in concentrations of P4 or PdG in saliva. The accuracy of the progesterone kit was 90% for diagnosis of pregnancy and 69% for non-pregnancy. However, 70% of the false positive results also showed relatively high P4 milk concentrations in the EIA. Values of P4 in blood and PdG in urine are comparable to previous reports in alpacas and therefore can be confirmed as an indicator for pregnancy. Saliva seems unsuitable in pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas, whereas milk seems to be an adequate alternative. The use of milk and urine would simplify the pregnancy diagnosis in alpacas since in contrast to the current methods (e. g. blood progesterone) the owners can take the samples. The avoidance of blood sampling results in a considerable stress reduction for the animals. P4 measurement in milk and PdG measurement in urine are good alternatives in pregnancy diagnosis during the first month of pregnancy, when a trans-abdominal ultrasonographic examination is not yet reliable. However, since high values of P4 and PdG only show the presence of active luteal tissue and therefore are indirect markers of pregnancy the diagnosis should be confirmed using ultrasound later in pregnancy. PMID:21141281

Volkery, Janine; Wittek, Thomas; Sobiraj, Axel; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almuth


Concentrations of Phthalate Metabolites in Milk, Urine, Saliva, and Serum of Lactating North Carolina Women  

PubMed Central

Background Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment, but concentrations in multiple media from breast-feeding U.S. women have not been evaluated. Objectives The objective of this study was to accurately measure and compare the concentrations of oxidative monoester phthalate metabolites in milk and surrogate fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) of 33 lactating North Carolina women. Methods We analyzed serum, saliva, urine, and milk for the oxidative phthalate metabolites mono(3-carboxypropyl) phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate using isotope-dilution high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy. Because only urine lacks esterases, we analyzed it for the hydrolytic phthalate monoesters. Results We detected phthalate metabolites in few milk (< 10%) and saliva samples. MECPP was detected in > 80% of serum samples, but other metabolites were less common (3–22%). Seven of the 10 urinary metabolites were detectable in ? 85% of samples. Monoethyl phthalate had the highest mean concentration in urine. Metabolite concentrations differed by body fluid (urine > serum > milk and saliva). Questionnaire data suggest that frequent nail polish use, immunoglobulin A, and fasting serum glucose and triglyceride levels were increased among women with higher concentrations of urinary and/or serum phthalate metabolites; motor vehicle age was inversely correlated with certain urinary phthalate concentrations. Conclusions Our data suggest that phthalate metabolites are most frequently detected in urine of lactating women and are less often detected in serum, milk, or saliva. Urinary phthalate concentrations reflect maternal exposure and do not represent the concentrations of oxidative metabolites in other body fluids, especially milk.

Hines, Erin P.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Silva, Manori J.; Mendola, Pauline; Fenton, Suzanne E.



Human exposure to antimony. III Contents in some human excreted biofluids (urine, milk, saliva)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human are exposed to antimony through a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. Even though the real value of the approach is still uncertain, it has become common practice to use excreted biofluids (i.e., urine, milk, saliva, etc.) to diagnose pollutant exposure due to the non-invasive nature of sampling these fluids. In this third review of the series on human




Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease affecting captive and free-ranging cervids (e.g. deer, elk, and moose). The mechanisms of CWD transmission are poorly understood, though bodily fluids are thought to play an important role. Here we report the presence of infectious prions in the urine and saliva of deer with chronic wasting disease (CWD). Prion infectivity was detected by bioassay of concentrated, dialyzed urine and saliva in transgenic mice expressing the cervid PrP gene (Tg[CerPrP] mice). In addition, PrPCWD was detected in pooled and concentrated urine by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). The concentration of abnormal prion protein in bodily fluids was very low, as indicated by: undetectable PrPCWD levels by traditional assays (western blot, ELISA) and prolonged incubation periods and incomplete TSE attack rates in inoculated Tg(CerPrP) mice (373±3days in 2 of 9 urine-inoculated mice and 342±109 days in 8 of 9 saliva-inoculated mice). These findings help extend our understanding of CWD prion shedding and transmission and portend the detection of infectious prions in body fluids in other prion infections.

Haley, Nicholas J.; Seelig, Davis M.; Zabel, Mark D.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.



An overview of the use of urine, hair, sweat and saliva to detect drug use.  


This paper provides a brief overview of qualitative drug testing procedures using urine, hair, saliva and sweat specimens. Issues related to collection, analysis and interpretation of each specimen as well as their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The biological detection of drug use involves a screening test which, if positive, is followed by a confirmatory test. Urine is the most widely used specimen in the detection of drugs. Urinalysis offers an intermediate window of detection (1-3 days). Hair analysis offers the largest window of detection (7-100+ days). Saliva analysis may be useful in determining very recent drug use (1-36 hours). The analysis of sweat may be useful for continuous monitoring of drug use (1-14 days). Drug testing has become a fast, convenient process with the development of point-of-collection drug testing devices. PMID:15370028

Dolan, Kate; Rouen, David; Kimber, Jo



Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)  


... tissue blood clots blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia sickle cell disease—an inherited disorder in which ... disease blood clots blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia sickle cell disease When blood is visible in ...


The correspondence between saliva and breath estimates of blood alcohol concentration: advantages and limitations of the saliva method.  


Increased awareness of the devastating effects of alcohol misuse on our highways, workplaces and families, as well as on the individual, has resulted in increased social pressure to enforce driving-while-intoxicated laws and to develop educational, prevention and treatment programs. One aspect of this movement is to develop improved sobriety testing to ensure that laws are properly and fairly enforced and that there is compliance with abstinence in treatment. Although sophisticated blood and breath testing devices are available, field tests suggest that saliva alcohol tests based on alcohol-oxidase methodology offer advantages in portability, ease of administration, and cost and time efficiency. We evaluated the validity and reliability of a simple saliva test, based on the enzymatic oxidation of alcohol by alcohol oxidase, for estimating blood alcohol concentration. Ten subjects consumed various doses of alcohol and multiple saliva samples were obtained using alcohol sensitive saliva strips that change color in proportion to the concentration of alcohol. The reflectance values of reacted saliva strips were read by meter and estimates of blood alcohol concentration in the range of 10-90 mg/dl were compared to simultaneous estimates obtained from breath analysis using a Breathalyzer Model 900A. We also examined how alcohol levels changed over time in alcohol reacted saliva strips. The results of regression analysis indicated that the saliva strips and the Breathalyzer gave reasonably close estimates (r = 0.89-.90) of blood alcohol concentration. Correlation coefficents for the values of saliva samples read by meter measured at 10 minutes and at 18 days after collection ranged from .90 to 1.00, showing high test-retest reliability despite storage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8355496

Bates, M E; Brick, J; White, H R



Cross-reactivity of cat and dog allergen extracts. RAST inhibition studies with special reference to the allergenic activity in saliva and urine.  


The commercial cat and dog allergen extracts are traditionally prepared from pelt, fur or dander. However, there is increased evidence of the allergenicity of saliva and urine of the animals. We have investigated 25 asthmatic children with a positive cat and/or dog RAST result. All 20 subjects with a positive cat RAST gave a positive skin prick test result to cat saliva, cat urine and cat hair. Analogously, all 20 subjects with a positive dog RAST had a positive skin reaction to dog saliva, urine and dander. In RAST inhibition experiments with dog and cat allergen discs, dog saliva appeared to be at least as potent as a commercial dog dander and hair extract, while cat saliva was less potent than the respective commercial extract. Both dog and cat salivas were clearly more potent than the respective urine. Significant cross-reactivity was observed between cat hair and dog dander in the RAST inhibition, whereas saliva and urine were shown to be more species-specific. An experimental dog dander preparation had about the same specificity as, and even higher allergenic activity than, that of dog saliva or urine. Our results suggest that saliva actually may be the best source of cat and dog allergen preparations. The importance of urine warrants further investigation. PMID:6852948

Viander, M; Valovirta, E; Vanto, T; Koivikko, A



Direct STR amplification from whole blood and blood- or saliva-spotted FTA without DNA purification.  


The DNA purification step has been thought to be essential for typing of STR DNA. However, this process is time-consuming, and there is a risk of unexpected cross-contamination during purification. We report a new method for direct short tandem repeat (STR) amplification using a newly developed direct PCR buffer, AnyDirect, which can amplify STR loci from whole blood and blood- or saliva-spotted FTA cards without DNA purification. The autosomal and Y chromosomal STR loci were analyzed for whole blood and blood or saliva spots of random individuals, followed by comparison of the results with those of corresponding purified DNA. The results from whole blood and blood spots showed perfect concordance with those from purified DNA without allele or locus drop-out. However, in the case of saliva spots, no amplification or locus drop-out was observed in some of the samples, which offers a topic for further study. Additionally, some commercial hot-start DNA polymerases other than AmpliTaq Gold DNA polymerase were also found to be compatible with this buffer system. Therefore, this direct PCR buffer was demonstrated to be useful for fast forensic DNA analysis or criminal DNA databases for which there is no need to store DNA samples. PMID:18366565

Park, Su Jeong; Kim, Jong Yeol; Yang, Young Geun; Lee, Seung Hwan



49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations? No, other types of alcohol tests (e,g., blood and urine) are not authorized for testing done under this part. Only saliva or breath for screening...



Factors determining the passage of drugs from blood into saliva.  

PubMed Central

1. Following single oral dosing of ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, erythromycin estolate, clindamycin and rifampicin to six normal volunteers, antibacterial activity was measured at 1, 3 and 6 h in serum, gingival fluid and minor gland saliva from all subjects and in parotid and submandiabular saliva from three. 2. pH values of all gingival fluid and saliva specimens were noted. 3. Partition coefficients between n-octanol and water were measured for erythromycin, clindamycin and rifampicin. Published data were used for ampicillin, cephalexin and tetracycline. 4. All antibiotics, but particularly rifampicin, were detected in gingival fluid. Only rifampicin and to a lesser degree, clindamycin were present in the other salivary constituents. 5. In studies of secretion of drugs in saliva, both the physico-chemical characteristics of the drugs and the physiological differences between individual salivary components should be considered. 6. Parotid saliva samples are likely to be of greatest value.

Stephen, K W; McCrossan, J; Mackenzie, D; Macfarlane, C B; Speirs, C F



Genotyping Performance between Saliva and Blood-Derived Genomic DNAs on the DMET Array: A Comparison  

PubMed Central

The Affymetrix Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) microarray is the first assay to offer a large representation of SNPs conferring genetic diversity across known pharmacokinetic markers. As a convenient and painless alternative to blood, saliva samples have been reported to work well for genotyping on the high density SNP arrays, but no reports to date have examined this application for saliva-derived DNA on the DMET platform. Genomic DNA extractions from saliva samples produced an ample quantity of genomic DNA for DMET arrays, however when human amplifiable DNA was measured, it was determined that a large percentage of this DNA was from bacteria or fungi. A mean of 37.3% human amplifiable DNA was determined for saliva-derived DNAs, which results in a significant decrease in the genotyping call rate (88.8%) when compared with blood-derived DNAs (99.1%). More interestingly, the percentage of human amplifiable DNA correlated with a higher genotyping call rate, and almost all samples with more than 31.3% human DNA produced a genotyping call rate of at least 96%. SNP genotyping results for saliva derived DNA (n?=?39) illustrated a 98.7% concordance when compared with blood DNA. In conclusion, when compared with blood DNA and tested on the DMET array, saliva-derived DNA provided adequate genotyping quality with a significant lower number of SNP calls. Saliva-derived DNA does perform very well if it contains greater than 31.3% human amplifiable DNA.

Nelson, Kelly; Bohlen, Krista; Lynch, Christophina; Huizenga, Patty; Kittlelsrud, Julie; Soundy, Timothy J.; Davies, Gareth E.



Paper-based microfluidic devices for analysis of clinically relevant analytes present in urine and saliva.  


We report the use of paper-based microfluidic devices fabricated from a novel polymer blend for the monitoring of urinary ketones, glucose, and salivary nitrite. Paper-based devices were fabricated via photolithography in less than 3 min and were immediately ready for use for these diagnostically relevant assays. Patterned channels on filter paper as small as 90 microm wide with barriers as narrow as 250 microm could be reliably patterned to permit and block fluid wicking, respectively. Colorimetric assays for ketones and nitrite were adapted from the dipstick format to this paper microfluidic chip for the quantification of acetoacetate in artificial urine, as well as nitrite in artificial saliva. Glucose assays were based on those previously demonstrated (Martinez et al., Angew Chem Int Ed 8:1318-1320, 1; Martinez et al., Anal Chem 10:3699-3707, 2; Martinez et al., Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 50:19606-19611, 3; Lu et al., Electrophoresis 9:1497-1500, 4; Abe et al., Anal Chem 18:6928-6934, 5). Reagents were spotted on the detection pad of the paper device and allowed to dry prior to spotting of samples. The ketone test was a two-step reaction requiring a derivitization step between the sample spotting pad and the detection pad, thus for the first time, confirming the ability of these paper devices to perform online multi-step chemical reactions. Following the spotting of the reagents and sample solution onto the paper device and subsequent drying, color images of the paper chips were recorded using a flatbed scanner, and images were converted to CMYK format in Adobe Photoshop CS4 where the intensity of the color change was quantified using the same software. The limit of detection (LOD) for acetoacetate in artificial urine was 0.5 mM, while the LOD for salivary nitrite was 5 microM, placing both of these analytes within the clinically relevant range for these assays. Calibration curves for urinary ketone (5 to 16 mM) and salivary nitrite (5 to 2,000 microM) were generated. The time of device fabrication to the time of test results was about 25 min. PMID:20425107

Klasner, Scott A; Price, Alexander K; Hoeman, Kurt W; Wilson, Rashaun S; Bell, Kayla J; Culbertson, Christopher T



Analysis of risperidone and 9-hydroxyrisperidone in human plasma, urine and saliva by MEPS-LC-UV.  


Risperidone is currently one of the most frequently prescribed atypical antipsychotic drugs; its main active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone contributes significantly to the therapeutic effects observed. An original analytical method is presented for the simultaneous analysis of risperidone and the metabolite in plasma, urine and saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an original sample pre-treatment procedure based on micro-extraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). The assays were carried out using a C8 reversed-phase column and a mobile phase composed of 73% (v/v) acidic phosphate buffer (30 mM, pH 3.0) containing 0.23% triethylamine and 27% (v/v) acetonitrile. The UV detector was set at 238 nm and diphenhydramine was used as the internal standard. The sample pre-treatment by MEPS was carried out on a C8 sorbent. The extraction yields values were higher than 92% for risperidone and 90% for 9-hydroxyrisperidone, with RSD for precision always lower than 7.9% for both analytes. Limit of quantification values in the different matrices were 4 ng/mL or lower for risperidone and 6 ng/mL or lower for the metabolite. The method was successfully applied to plasma, urine and saliva samples from psychotic patients undergoing therapy with risperidone, with satisfactory accuracy results (recovery>89%) and no interference from other drugs. Thus, the method seems to be suitable for the therapeutic drug monitoring of schizophrenic patients using the three different biological matrices plasma, urine and saliva. PMID:21183412

Mandrioli, Roberto; Mercolini, Laura; Lateana, Domenico; Boncompagni, Giancarlo; Raggi, Maria Augusta




Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive method based on high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS\\/MS) has shown the feasibility of separation and detection of low- level thiodiglycol-related species in saliva and of nerve agent phosphonic acids in saliva and urine. The analysis of these thiodiglycol-related species and phosphonic acids are of interest since they are specific metabolites of the chemical warfare agents

Timothy L. Hayes; Donald V. Kenny; Laura Hernon-Kenny


Immunological and molecular detection of human immunodeficiency virus in saliva, and comparison with blood testing.  


In order to test the detection feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in saliva, a three-method blind screening analysis was conducted. Sixty-eight individuals were studied, comprising 34 HIV carriers and 34 noncarriers (controls) of matched gender and age. An oral examination preceded saliva and blood sampling of studied individuals. All samples were tested blind for HIV by using two immunological methods [Oraquick-compatible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a fluorescent immunoenzymatic method (ELFA)], confirmed by western blotting, and a simple molecular method (polymerase chain reaction amplification of a relatively constant viral DNA region), confirmed by DNA hydridization. Compared with the controls, about twice as many HIV carriers had oral health problems, including periodontal disease. ELFA resulted in 33/34 positives and 34/34 negatives in saliva, while it detected 34/34 positives and 34/34 negatives in blood. ELISA performed even better, with correct assignment of all positives and negatives in both saliva and blood. The PCR method, at three annealing temperatures, surprisingly detected all positive samples, while it gave no false-positive result. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HIV in saliva may achieve accuracy of 97.1-100%, comparable with that in blood. Furthermore, this study suggests that a highly accurate molecular method of HIV detection may be feasible, although the studied carriers had rather homogeneous characteristics. PMID:16776764

Yapijakis, Christos; Panis, Vassilis; Koufaliotis, Nikos; Yfanti, Georgia; Karachalios, Stefanos; Roumeliotou, Anastasia; Mantzavinos, Zacharias



Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naive and Saliva-Immunized Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected) and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. Methods Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. Results The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%). A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. Conclusion This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen transmission.

Choumet, Valerie; Attout, Tarik; Chartier, Loic; Khun, Huot; Sautereau, Jean; Robbe-Vincent, Annie; Brey, Paul; Huerre, Michel; Bain, Odile



Nanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExosomes, derived from endocytic membrane vesicles are thought to participate in cell-cell communication and protein and RNA delivery. They are ubiquitous in most body fluids (breast milk, saliva, blood, urine, malignant ascites, amniotic, bronchoalveolar lavage, and synovial fluids). In particular, exosomes secreted in human saliva contain proteins and nucleic acids that could be exploited for diagnostic purposes. To investigate this

Viswanathan Palanisamy; Shivani Sharma; Amit Deshpande; Hui Zhou; James Gimzewski; David T. Wong; Immo A. Hansen



Diagnostic values of parasite-specific antibody detections in saliva and urine in comparison with serum in opisthorchiasis.  


Infection by the liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) causes hepatobiliary disease and bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma, CCA) in endemic areas in Southeast Asia. Measurements of humoral immune response particularly parasite-specific antibodies are useful not only for serodiagnosis but they have been implicated as risk factors of CCA. In this study, we used indirect Enzyme Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) to measure O. viverrini-specific immunoglobulins in serum, urine and saliva and assessed efficacies in diagnosis of opisthorchiasis and evaluated the relationship of antibodies among clinical specimens in a sample population in endemic areas in Khon Kaen, Thailand. By employing the Receiver Operation Characteristics (ROC) analysis, diagnostic efficacy based upon the area under the curve (AUC) revealed that serum, salivary IgG and IgA performed better than urine for diagnosis of opisthorchiasis. Seropositive cases were found in both parasite egg-negative as well as O. viverrini egg-positive groups. The levels of serum IgG correlated with intensity of O. viverrini infection (P<0.05). Diagnostic sensitivities based on serum and salivary IgG, IgA also positively associated with the intensity of infection. Correlations between serum antibodies and those in saliva were found to be greater in egg-negative than egg-positive individuals for O. viverrini. Our findings indicated a complex interrelation between antibody responses in different clinical specimens triggered by liver fluke infection. More comprehensive examinations are needed to determine the potential utility of salivary antibody detection which, in combination with the conventional fecal examination method, may better assist in the identification of individuals with opisthorchiasis. Furthermore, it may provide a better indicator of the risk of disease, particularly CCA. PMID:21704727

Sawangsoda, Prajak; Sithithaworn, Jiraporn; Tesana, Smarn; Pinlaor, Somchai; Boonmars, Thidarut; Mairiang, Eimorn; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Duenngai, Kunyarat; Sithithaworn, Paiboon



Simultaneous assay of cocaine, heroin and metabolites in hair, plasma, saliva and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


As part of an ongoing research program on the development of drug detection methodology, we developed an assay for the simultaneous measurement of cocaine, heroin and metabolites in plasma, saliva, urine and hair by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The analytes that could be measured by this assay were the following: anhydroecgonine methyl ester; ecgonine methyl ester;. ecgonine ethyl ester; cocaine; cocaethylene; benzoylecgonine; cocaethylene; norcocaethylene; benzoylnorecgonine; codeine; morphine; norcodeine; 6-acetylmorphine; normorphine; and heroin. Liquid specimens were diluted, filtered and then extracted by SPE. Additional handling steps were necessary for the analysis of hair samples. An initial wash procedure was utilized to remove surface contaminants. Washed hair samples were extracted with methanol overnight at 40 degrees C. Both wash and extract fractions were collected, evaporated and purified by SPE. All extracts were evaporated, derivatized with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS) and analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection (LOD) for cocaine, heroin and metabolites in biological specimens was approximately 1 ng/ml with the exception of norcodeine, normorphine and benzoylnorecgonine (LOD = 5 ng/ml). The LOD for cocaine, heroin and metabolites in hair was approximately 0.1 ng/mg of hair with the exception of norcodeine (LOD = 0.3 ng/mg) and normorphine and benzoylnorecgonine (LOD = 0.5 ng/mg). Coefficients of variation ranged from 3 to 26.5% in the hair assay. This assay has been successfully utilized in research on the disposition of cocaine, heroin and metabolites in hair, plasma, saliva and urine and in treatment studies. PMID:7866518

Wang, W L; Darwin, W D; Cone, E J



Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing trend for incorporation of biological sample collection within clinical trials requires sample collection procedures which are convenient and acceptable for both patients and clinicians. This study investigated the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer Chemotherapy (PGSNPS) study. Paired blood and saliva samples were collected from 79 study participants. The Oragene DNA Self-Collection kit (DNAgenotek®) was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva. DNA from EDTA blood samples (median volume 8 ml) was extracted by Gen-Probe, Livingstone, UK. DNA yields, standard measures of DNA quality, genotype call rates and genotype concordance between paired, duplicated samples were assessed. Results Total DNA yields were lower from saliva (mean 24 ?g, range 0.2–52 ?g) than from blood (mean 210 ?g, range 58–577 ?g) and a 2-fold difference remained after adjusting for the volume of biological material collected. Protein contamination and DNA fragmentation measures were greater in saliva DNA. 78/79 saliva samples yielded sufficient DNA for use on Illumina Beadchip arrays and using Taqman assays. Four samples were randomly selected for genotyping in duplicate on the Illumina Beadchip arrays. All samples were genotyped using Taqman assays. DNA quality, as assessed by genotype call rates and genotype concordance between matched pairs of DNA was high (>97%) for each measure in both blood and saliva-derived DNA. Conclusion We conclude that DNA from saliva and blood samples is comparable when genotyping using either Taqman assays or genome-wide chip arrays. Saliva sampling has the potential to increase participant recruitment within clinical trials, as well as reducing the resources and organisation required for multicentre sample collection.



Recovery and stability of RNA in vaginal swabs and blood, semen, and saliva stains.  


RNA expression patterns, including the presence and relative abundance of particular mRNA species, provide cell and tissue specific information that could be used for body fluid identification. In this report, we address perceived concerns on the stability, and hence recoverability, of RNA in forensic samples. Stains were prepared from blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions and exposed to a range of environmental conditions from 1 to 547 days. The persistence and stability of RNA within each type of body fluid stain were determined by quantitation of total RNA, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using eight different mRNA transcripts from selected housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. The results demonstrate that RNA can be recovered from biological stains in sufficient quantity and quality for mRNA analysis. On average, several hundred nanograms of total RNA was recovered from 50-microL-sized blood and saliva stains, 1 microg from a 50-microL semen stain and nearly 70 microg from a whole vaginal swab. Messenger RNA is detectable in some samples stored at room temperature for at least 547 days. The environmental samples that were protected from direct rain impact exhibited housekeeping and tissue specific mRNA recoverability up to 7 days (saliva and semen), 30 days (blood), or 180 days (vaginal swab). Additionally, rain had a detrimental effect on the recoverability of blood (3 days), saliva (1 day), semen (7 days), and vaginal secretions (3 days) specific transcripts, with one of the mRNA species (the semen marker PRM2) not being detectable after 1 day. PMID:18298493

Setzer, Mindy; Juusola, Jane; Ballantyne, Jack



A micromethod for the determination of fluoride in blood plasma and saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple and accurate technique for the determination of fluoride (F?) in capillary-sampled blood is presented. The method is based on the known addition-slope determination technique using the fluoride electrode is required. A standard deviation of 1.3–5.6% in the range 300–10 ng F\\/ml was given by 259 duplicate determinations on human plasma. Measurements of parotid saliva showed that it

Jan Ekstrand



Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry: A single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and\\/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized

Adam S. Ptolemy; Emma Tzioumis; Arjun Thomke; Sami Rifai; Mark Kellogg



Absorbing and diffusive properties of blood plasma and urine proteins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of absorbing and scattering properties of blood and urine plasma proteins is presented. Assessment methods of their spectroscopic parameters, such as extinction, absorption and scattering coefficients, are described. Possibilities for a separate assessment of the albumin and globulin concentrations in biological media are considered.

Guminetsky, S. G.; Pishak, Olga V.; Pishak, V. P.; Grigorishin, P. M.



Review: Interpreting Mercury in Blood and Urine of Individual Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of mercury exposure are determined by: (a) chemical form, (b) route of exposure, (c) dose, and (d) patient factors. Patient factors include age, genetics, environmental aspects, and nutritional status, and are responsible for different individual responses to similar doses. When blood and urine are collected to evaluate exposure, the results are influenced by (a) specimen collection, (b) analysis,

Kern L. Nuttall


Investigation of whole blood and urine monoamines in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of serotonin (5-HT), dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) were determined in the whole blood and urine of 23 children with autism and compared to those of normal children. Very significant group effects (low whole blood 5-HT, high urinary 5-HT and high NE+E in autism) and age effects (urinary 5-HT and DA decrease with age) were found. Moreover,

Josiane Hérault; Joëlle Martineau; Anne Perrot-Beaugerie; Jacqueline Jouve; Hervé Tournade; Catherine Barthelemy; Gilbert Lelord; Jean-Pierre Muh



Viral Latency in Blood and Saliva of Simian Foamy Virus-Infected Humans  

PubMed Central

Simian foamy viruses (SFV) are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (NHP). SFV actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. We aimed at studying the natural history of SFV infection in human. We have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from Cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla SFV strain. Viral DNA could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) targeting the pol-in region, in most samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (7.1 ± 6.0 SFV DNA copies/105 PBMCs) and saliva (2.4 ± 4.3 SFV DNA copies/105 cells) derived from the hunters. However, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT)-qPCR revealed the absence of SFV viral gene expression in both PBMCs and saliva, suggesting that SFV was latent in the human samples. Our study demonstrates that a latent infection can occur in humans and persist for years, both in PBMCs and saliva. Such a scenario may contribute to the putative lack of secondary human-to-human transmissions of SFV.

Rua, Rejane; Betsem, Edouard; Gessain, Antoine



Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for

A. Bennett; V. Hayssen



49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted...these regulations? No, other types of alcohol tests (e,g., blood and urine) are not authorized for...



49 CFR 40.277 - Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted under these regulations?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Alcohol Testing § 40.277 Are alcohol tests other than saliva or breath permitted...these regulations? No, other types of alcohol tests (e,g., blood and urine) are not authorized for...



Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel



Fluorescence spectra of blood and urine for cervical cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Vijmasi, Trinka; Govindarajan, Kanaganaj; Rathan Rai, Ram; Atif, Muhammad; Prasad, Saradh; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.



Blood and urine iodine levels in patients with gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there is any relationship between gastric cancer and iodine concentrations\\u000a in blood and urine in the northeast Anatolia region, where iodine deficiency is common. A total of 56 patients, diagnosed\\u000a as gastric cancer and 25 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The methods used were based on the Sandell-Kolthoff\\u000a reaction. The

Mine Gulaboglu; Leyla Yildiz; Mustafa Gul; Fehmi Celebi; Kemal Peker



Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.  


Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and <1% for all biofluids and concentrations tested. Recoveries for caffeine and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention. PMID:20045386

Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark



Rapid analysis of benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and cocaethylene in urine, serum, and saliva by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An isocratic high-performance liquid-chromatographic (HPLC) procedure with diode-array detection has been developed for the\\u000a determination of benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and cocaethylene in urine, serum, and saliva. After solid-phase extraction with\\u000a mixed-mode extraction cartridges the three solutes are separated, in less than 20 min, by HPLC on a Supelcosil ABZ+column\\u000a with 17?83 (v\\/v) acetonitrile-0.04 M phosphate buffer, pH 2.3, as mobile phase.

C. Foulon; M.-C. Menet; N. Manuel; C. Pham-Huy; H. Galons; J.-R. Claude; F. Guyon



Determination of nicotine, cotinine, and related alkaloids in human urine and saliva by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine in human urine and saliva was developed. These compounds were analyzed by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Nicotine, cotinine and related alkaloids were separated within 7 min by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Synergi 4u POLAR-RP 80A column and 5 mM ammonium formate/methanol (55/45, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of these compounds. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles with a sample size of 40 microL using a CP-Pora PLOT amine capillary column as the extraction device. The extracted compounds could be desorbed easily from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds in urine and saliva, and the detection limits (S/N=3) were 15-40 pg/mL. The method described here showed 20-46-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (5 microL injection). The within-run and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) were below 4.7% and 11.3% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of urine and saliva samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds spiked into urine and saliva samples were above 83%, and the relative standard deviations were below 7.1%. This method was used to analyze urinary and salivary levels of these compounds in nicotine intake and smoking. PMID:19004590

Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Reiko; Yagi, Katsuharu; Saito, Keita



Relationships Between Immunoreactive Estrone and Estradiol in Milk, Blood, and Urine of Dairy Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantities of immunoreactive estrone and estradiol in blood plasma, urine, and milk were measured during the estrous cycle and pregnancy of cows. The ob- jectives were to develop a radio}mmtmo- assay procedure for quantifying estro- gen in milk and urine and to compare changes in milk estrogen with those in blood plasma and urine. Concentrations of estrone and estradiol in

E. L. Monk; R. E. Erb; T. A. Mollett



Comparison of whole-genome DNA methylation patterns in whole blood, saliva, and lymphoblastoid cell lines.  


Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, that underlie neuropsychiatric conditions have become a promising area of research. Most commonly used DNA sources in such studies are peripheral (whole) blood (WB), saliva (SL), and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs); thus, the question of the consistency of DNA methylation patterns in those cells is of particular interest. To investigate this question we performed comparative analyses of methylation patterns in WB, SL, and LCLs derived from the same individuals, using Illumina HumanMethylation27 BeadChip arrays. Our results showed that DNA methylation patterns in SL are relatively consistent with those in WB, whereas the patterns in LCLs are similarly distinct from both WB and SL. The results indicated that due to multiple random and directed changes in DNA methylation throughout cell culturing, LCLs are not a reliable source of DNA for epigenetic studies and should be used with caution when investigating epigenetic mechanisms underlying biological processes. PMID:23269419

Thompson, Tara M; Sharfi, Duaa; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Naumova, Oksana Yu; Grigorenko, Elena L



Headspace and direct immersion solid phase microextraction procedures for selenite determination in urine, saliva and milk by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  


Two solid phase microextraction modes were investigated and compared for their performance on the determination of selenites in various biological liquids like human urine and saliva and various types of milk. Using sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) as ethylating reagent, selenites are converted in situ to volatile diethylselenides (DESe) in aqueous medium. The derivative is collected in situ by solid phase microextraction (SPME) using a silica fiber coated with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) either from the headspace (HS-SPME) or directly from the liquid phase (LP-SPME) and finally determined by capillary GC/MS. Under optimum conditions of SPME, the GC separation was also optimized. Between the two examined microextraction techniques, direct immersion of the PDMS fiber in the liquid phase was proved less satisfactory. In contrast, the headspace procedure appears to be more efficient. The quantification of selenites was achieved in SIM mode with good analytical performance. A non-fat milk powder certified reference material was analyzed to evaluate the accuracy of the method. The overall precision of the method was ranged between 6.2% and 9.7%. Detection limits achieved were 0.05microgL(-1) for human urine, 0.08microgL(-1) for saliva and 0.03-0.06microgL(-1) in various milk matrices. PMID:19733132

Kapsimali, D C; Zachariadis, G A



Effect of sample matrix on sensitivity of mercury and methylmercury quantitation in human urine, saliva, and serum using GC-MS.  


A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of monomethylmercury (MMHg) and inorganic mercury (iHg) in human body fluids. The procedure is based on in situ derivatization of MMHg and iHg with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) directly in aqueous solutions followed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The extracted species from spiked human urine, saliva, and serum are separated by capillary gas chromatography and detected by quadrupole MS (GC-MS). The optimization of the HS-SPME conditions like temperature, sample volume, extraction duration, and amount of alkylation agent, was performed in urinary solutions and aqueous solutions similarly buffered. The gas chromatographic conditions like injection temperature, helium flow rate, temperature program, and pressure conditions were also optimized. The recovery was ranged between 85 and 96% for MMHg and 88 and 98% for iHg. The LODs achieved were 10 and 15 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in urine, respectively, 54 and 60 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in saliva, respectively, and 61 and 81 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in serum, respectively. The RSD was ranged between 6.2 and 9.2% for MMHg and 5.0 and 8.2% for iHg. PMID:19021164

Zachariadis, George A; Kapsimali, Dimitra C



Quantitative PCR analysis of blood- and saliva-specific microRNA markers following solid-phase DNA extraction.  


The use of mRNA for the identification of body fluids is of particular interest in forensic science, and increasing support has been demonstrated for the use of microRNA (miRNA) analysis. MiRNA is more stable than mRNA and has been shown to be differentially expressed in body fluids. No studies involving miRNA analysis from previously extracted DNA samples have yet been reported. The aim of this experiment was to determine if it was possible to conduct miRNA analysis on samples that were previously extracted using standard DNA extraction. Blood and saliva samples were extracted using DNA and RNA kits, followed by cDNA synthesis, and then underwent quantitative PCR analysis. A direct comparison of ?Ct values shows a larger abundance of miRNA following DNA extraction as opposed to total RNA extraction for both blood- and saliva-specific markers. By carrying out a comparison between the amounts of said markers, it could be seen that the expression of the blood-specific marker was higher in blood than in saliva, and vice versa for the saliva-specific marker. The results obtained could have a profound impact on cases for which the sample has already undergone DNA extraction, such as in cold cases. PMID:23333269

Omelia, Emma J; Uchimoto, Mari L; Williams, Graham



Selenium Levels in Human Blood, Urine, and Hair in Response to Exposure via Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-wa...

J. L. Valentine H. K. Kang G. H. Spivey



Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan  

PubMed Central

The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 ?g/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 ?g/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 ?g/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 ?g/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 ?g/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance.

Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung



Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine.  


Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities. CIT can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin also known for its nephrotoxicity, and this raises concern regarding possible combined effects. But, in contrast to OTA, data on CIT contamination in foods for human consumption are scarce, and CIT biomonitoring has not been conducted so far due a lack of suitable methods for human specimen. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to develop sensitive methods for the analysis of CIT in human blood and urine to investigate human exposure. To this end, we assessed different methods of sample preparation and instrumental analysis for these matrices. Clean-up of blood plasma by protein precipitation followed by LC-MS/MS-based analysis allowed robust detection of CIT (LOD 0.07 ng/mL, LOQ 0.15 ng/mL). For urine, sample clean-up by an immunoaffinity column (CitriTest(®)) proved to be clearly superior to SPE with RP(18) material for subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. For CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT), the LOD and LOQ determined by external calibration curves in matrix were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL for CIT, and those for HO-CIT were 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL urine. The newly developed method was applied in a small pilot study: CIT was present in all plasma samples from 8 German adults, at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 0.26 ng/mL. The molar (nM) concentrations of CIT are similar to those measured for OTA in these samples as a result of dietary mycotoxin intake. CIT was detected in 8/10 urines (from 4 adults and 6 infants) in a range of 0.16-0.79 ng/mL, and HO-CIT was present in 5/10 samples at similar concentrations. Thus, CIT is excreted in urine as parent compound and also as metabolite. These first results in humans point to the need for further studies on CIT exposure. PMID:23354378

Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Muñoz, Katherine; Degen, Gisela H



Relationship Between ?-Hydroxybutyrate and Acetoacetate Plus Acetone Contents of Blood and Urine of the Ruminant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of the blood plasma, whole blood, and urine ketones was made under normal conditions and in various states of hyperketonemia and ketonuria. The rela- tionship of blood level of a given ketone fraction to urine concentration and total excretion of that ketone fraction was best expressed as a log-log equation for both the acetoacetie acid plus acetone fraction and

L. A. Menahan; W. B. Holtmann; L. H. Schultz; W. G. Hoekstra



Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements...

M. B. Wise R. H. Ilgner M. R. Guerin



Determination of manganese in blood and urine by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  


A method for the determination of manganese in blood and urine is described. A chelate fo manganese with cupferron is extracted with methylisobutylketone and determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The method is directly applicable to urine but the determination of manganese in blood required a preliminary digestion step. With the use of internal standards, this technique allows the determination of manganese concentrations of the order of 1 mug/1 of urine or 1 mug/100 ml whole blood. PMID:1000867

Buchet, J P; Lauwerys, R; Roels, H; De Vos, C



Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood  

PubMed Central

Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults.

Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Ieda M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.



Simultaneous determination of the tobacco smoke uptake parameters nicotine, cotinine and thiocyanate in urine, saliva and hair, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for characterisation of smoking status of recently exposed subjects.  


A method using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) for the simultaneous determination of the smoke uptake parameters thiocyanate, nicotine and cotinine in human tissues is reported. Nicotine, cotinine and thiocyanate, in combination with a phase-transfer catalyst, were extracted from urine, saliva and hair into dichloromethane (DCM). Thiocyanate was alkylated in the DCM-layer to form a pentafluorobenzyl derivative. The biochemical markers in DCM were directly injected into the GC system and separated on a DB-1MS column using a 9.4 min temperature program. The method was validated in urine and saliva between the limits of quantitation (1.0-15 microg ml(-1) thiocyanate, 0.010-3.0 microg ml(-1) nicotine and cotinine in urine, 0.010-1.0 microg ml(-1) nicotine and cotinine in saliva). The calibration curves were found to be linear (r > 0.996), the within- and between-day accuracy's were 83-120%, the repeatability coefficients of variation were 3-20% and the limits of detection were 0.060 ng ml(-1) thiocyanate and 0.60 ng ml(-1) nicotine and cotinine. The results of the analysis of the biomarkers in the urine of 44 volunteers were used to develop a predictive model for smoking status, using discriminant analysis. The classification model correctly classified 93.2% of cross-validated grouped cases. Saliva samples were used to confirm the results of the classification method. PMID:12894819

Toraño, Javier Sastre; van Kan, Hendrikus J M



Implementation and Prototype Testing of a Microprocessor System for Automated Blood and Urine Test Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hospitals analyze millions of blood and urine specimen annually. The Veteran's Administration (VA) Hospitals make extensive use of Technicon Sequential Multiple Analyzer (SMA) units for blood and urine analysis. The SMA 12/60 and SMA 6/60 units can perfor...

D. P. Powers



Determination of lead in blood and urine by SPME/GC.  


Lead is the most frequently quantitated toxic metal in biological matrixes. In this paper, a method is described for lead determination in whole blood and urine using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) gas chromatography. Lead ion is first derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate to form tetraethyllead, which is then extracted from the headspace over the sample by SPME. The analytical procedure was optimized for coating selection, pH, extraction time, and effect of salt. The relative standard deviation was less then 10% for both urine and blood samples. The limit of detection was 3 and 4 ppb; the limit of quantification is 5 and 10 ppb for urine and blood samples, respectively. Good linearity was found for both urine and blood samples when PDMS coating was used. The standard addition method was used for quantitation. Certified urine and blood samples were analyzed, and good accuracy was obtained. PMID:10450149

Yu, X; Yuan, H; Górecki, T; Pawliszyn, J



Collection of blood, saliva, and buccal cell samples in a pilot study on the Danish nurse cohort: comparison of the response rate and quality of genomic DNA.  


In this study, we compared the response rates of blood, saliva, and buccal cell samples in a pilot study on the Danish nurse cohort and examined the quantity and quality of the purified genomic DNA. Our data show that only 31% of the requested participants delivered a blood sample, whereas 72%, 80%, and 76% delivered a saliva sample, buccal cell sample via mouth swabs, or buccal cell sample on FTA card, respectively. Analysis of purified genomic DNA by NanoDrop and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that blood and saliva samples resulted in DNA with the best quality, whereas the DNA quality from buccal cells was low. Genotype and PCR analysis showed that DNA from 100% of the blood samples and 72% to 84% of the saliva samples could be genotyped or amplified, whereas none of the DNA from FTA cards and only 23% of the DNA from mouth swabs could be amplified and none of the DNA from swabs and 94% of the DNA from FTA cards could be genotyped. Our study shows that the response rate of self-collection saliva samples and buccal cell samples were much higher than the response rate of blood samples in our group of Danish nurses. However, only the quality of genomic DNA from saliva samples was comparable with blood samples as accessed by purity, genotyping, and PCR amplification. We conclude that the use of saliva samples is a good alternative to blood samples to obtain genomic DNA of high quality and it will increase the response rate considerably in epidemiologic studies. PMID:17932355

Hansen, Thomas V O; Simonsen, Mette K; Nielsen, Finn C; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen



Lower Blood Pressure Goal Benefits African Americans with Chronic Kidney Disease and Protein in the Urine  


... About NKUDIC : Research Updates : Kidney Disease Winter 2011 Kidney Disease Research Updates Winter 2011 Lower Blood Pressure Goal Benefits African Americans with Chronic Kidney Disease and Protein in the Urine On average, a ...


Blood and urine catecholamine concentrations after implantation of artificial heart.  


Plasma and urine epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were measured before and after implantation of an artificial heart in 20 calves and before and after thoracotomy in 3 control calves. All animals had similar preoperative plasma and urine catecholamine concentrations. During the first 4 postoperative days, plasma and urine epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were markedly elevated in all animals. However, calves with an artificial heart had significantly higher concentrations than control calves. Thereafter, catecholamine levels in control animals returned to preoperative levels, whereas epinephrine concentrations in artificial heart recipients remained elevated for 2 weeks and norepinephrine concentrations remained elevated for over a month. Two artifical heart recipeints survived longer than 2 months and had normal plasma and urine catecholamine concentrations from day 32 until a few days before being put to death. Although the mechanism in unclear, these findings suggest that early artificial heart function is associated with a significant metabolic stress which slowly disappears or becomes tolerable after one month. PMID:1263555

Stanley, T H; Kennard, L; Isern-Amaral, J; Olsen, D; Lunn, J



Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study: Monitoring and Elimination of Bioaccumulated Toxic Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited understanding of the toxicokinetics of bioaccumulated toxic elements and their methods of excretion from\\u000a the human body. This study was designed to assess the concentration of various toxic elements in three body fluids: blood,\\u000a urine and sweat. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with\\u000a various health problems) and

Stephen J. Genuis; Detlef Birkholz; Ilia Rodushkin; Sanjay Beesoon



Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities.

Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.



Urine Test Strips to Exclude Cerebral Spinal Fluid Blood.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Determining the presence or absence of red blood cells (RBC) or their breakdown products in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is essential for the evaluation of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in headache patients. Current methodology for finding blood in the CSF i...

C. Hejamanowski R. A. Marshall



A specific ELISA method for determining chloroquine in urine or dried blood spots*  

PubMed Central

Reported is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that has been optimized and validated for the determination of chloroquine in urine or dried blood spots. The assay employs antisera raised in sheep to a chloroquine derivative conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and chloroquine conjugated to porcine thyroglobulin adsorbed onto the wells of a microtitration plate. The competitive binding of the antiserum to the wells was monitored using an alkaline-phosphatase-conjugated second antibody and a specific substrate. The assay exhibits no cross-reactivity with known chloroquine metabolites, other antimalarials, and commonly used drugs. The method was used to determine chloroquine in dried blood spot extracts and urine from a patient who was receiving a prescribed prophylactic chloroquine regimen. The drug was detected in the urine for 17 weeks and in the dried blood spots for 4 weeks after termination of the therapy.

Rowell, V.; Rowell, F. J.; Baker, A.; Laurie, D.; Sidki, A. M.



Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA.

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.



Analysis of Paired Serum, Urine and Filter Paper Blood Specimens for Presence of Filarial Antigen by Immunoradiometric Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired serum, urine, and finger-prick whole blood dried on filter paper were analyzed by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for filarial antigen using Brugia malayi-specific rabbit antibody. Nine sera and 6 urines from the 10 paired serum-urine samples obtained from individuals with microfilaremia contained IRMA detectable filarial antigen. In contrast, all serum and urine specimens from patients with chronic infections, endemic and

G. B. K. S. Prasad; B. C. Harinath; R. G. Hamilton



Measurement of 5-methoxypsoralen and 8-methoxypsoralen in saliva of PUVA patients as a noninvasive, clinically relevant alternative to monitoring in blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a Background: Monitoring of psoralen concentration and time-course in PUVA patients is vital for efficient PUVA therapy. Blood sampling\\u000a is invasive and labour-intensive and thus unsuited for routine use and repeat measurements over the course of therapy. Objective: Psoralen pharmacokinetics in saliva were investigated and validated as a noninvasive, simple and biologically relevant alternative\\u000a to measurements in blood. Methods: The

Sarah E. Shephard; Marianne Zogg; Günter Burg; Renato G. Panizzon



Association between IL1B (+3954) polymorphisms and IL-1? levels in blood and saliva, together with acute graft-versus-host disease.  


Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is associated with morbidity and mortality in the recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants (allo-HSCTs). Interleukin-1? (IL-1?) is a potent inflammatory mediator involved in different inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of IL1B gene polymorphism in recipients and donors in cases in which acute GVHD (aGVHD) has been reported and the impact of this gene polymorphism on the level of cytokines in the blood and saliva. Fifty-eight consecutive allo-HSCT recipients and their donors were prospectively studied. Saliva and/or blood samples were obtained from the recipients and donors to identify the IL1B gene polymorphism, and cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA. Samples were collected weekly from 7 days before transplantation (day -7) to 100 days after allo-HSCT (day+100), for a total of 16 weeks or until death. aGVHD occurred in 27 individuals evaluated. A significant association was identified between the IL1B polymorphism in the donor and aGVHD development in the corresponding recipients.?However, no significant association was detected between the IL1B polymorphism in recipients and the development of aGVHD. In the recipients who were diagnosed with aGVHD, the level of IL-1? in the saliva and blood were increased. In the saliva, IL-1? levels increased progressively from the time before the diagnosis of aGVHD until weeks after the diagnosis, whereas in the blood, IL-1? peak levels could be observed within the time allotted for diagnosis, followed by a decrease in the levels. In addition, we observed a significant association between the IL1B genotype of the recipient (CC) and high IL-1? levels in the saliva at week 13. In conclusion, IL-1? could be considered a useful predictor of aGVHD development. PMID:23659674

Resende, Renata Gonçalves; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; de Souza, Leandro Napier; Silva, Maria Elisa Souza; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Correia-Silva, Jeane de Fátima



[Amino acids and their metabolites in blood and urine of children with minimal cerebral dysfunction].  


The following changes were found in children in the minimal cerebral dysfunction: the hypoaminoacidemia and hypoaminoaciduria with decrease of glutamate and aspartate, their amides, methionine and serine in the blood and urine; decrease of lysine, taurine, tyrosine, catecholamines and serotonin in the blood; increase of GABA and glycine in the blood; increase of xanthurenate, proline and cysteine in the urine. The ratio excitatory/inhibitory mediatory amino acids decreased significantly. The ratio essential/nonessential amino acids and concentrations of amino acids, transporting by x-AG, beta and A/ASC systems, decrease in the blood; majority of transporting systems in the kidney functions augmently. Disturbances of amino acids metabolism disappear or decrease in successful treatment. PMID:10205830

Kolesnichenko, L S; Kulinski?, V I; Gorina, A S


The Effect of Weight Reduction on the Blood and Urine Measurements of College Wrestlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been suggested that the weight reduction practices of wrestlers results in kidney and liver problems. To observe the effect of wrestlers' weight reduction, diagnostic tests for kidney and liver problems were done on the blood and urine samples of 22 college wrestlers over the course of a wrestling season. Results obtained after reduction…

Segurson, Jack



EPA Science Inventory

To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...


Concentration of Wear Products in Hair, Blood, and Urine after Total Hip Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raised levels of cobalt and chromium are found in the blood and urine of patients with metallic total hip replacements. When one of the hip components is made of polyethylene much less metal seems to be released from the joint. The long-term effects of the accumulation of chromium in the body need to be studied further.

R. F. Coleman; J. Herrington; John T. Scales



Impact of Consumption of Freshwater Fish on Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood, Urine, and Alveolar Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exposure to methylmercury occurs mainly via consumption of fish. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of freshwater fish consumption on mercury levels in hair, blood, urine, and end-exhaled air. Twenty subjects without dental amalgam fillings were recruited from sport-fishing societies. They ranged in age from 61 to 87 yr. Six individuals ate freshwater fish at

Cecilia Johnsson; Andrejs Schütz; Gerd Sällsten




EPA Science Inventory

The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...


A highly efficient method for determination of allantoin in ruminal digesta, ovine urine and blood serum by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive HPLC method for direct determination of allantoin in ruminal digesta, urine and blood serum of sheep is described. Blood serum and urine samples were diluted 1:3 with deionized water. Separation and quantification of allantoin was achieved using three long Nova Pac C 18-co- lumns (Waters) and UV detection at 205 and 215 nm. The low coefficient of variation

M. Czauderna; J. Kowalczyk; K. M. Nied?wiedzka


Trihalomethane Concentrations in Swimmers' and Bath Attendants' Blood and Urine after Swimming or Working in Indoor Swimming Pools  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of working or swimming in indoor swimming pools on the concentrations of four trihalomethanes (haloforms) in blood and urine was investigated. Different groups (bath attendants, agonistic swimmers, normal swimmers, sampling person) were compared. The proportions of trihalomethanes in blood and urine correlated roughly with those in water and ambient air. Higher levels of physical activity were correlated with

Karl Cammann; Karl Hübner



Occurrence of ethanol and other drugs in blood and urine specimens from female victims of alleged sexual assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of toxicological analysis of blood and urine specimens from 1806 female victims of alleged non-consensual sexual activity are reported. After making contact with the police authorities, the victims were examined by a physician for injuries and biological specimens were taken for forensic toxicology and other purposes (e.g. DNA). Urine if available or otherwise on an aliquot of blood after

Alan Wayne Jones; Fredrik C. Kugelberg; Anita Holmgren; Johan Ahlner



High levels of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in saliva and peripheral blood from Ugandan mother-child pairs.  


In Africa, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with Burkitt lymphoma. We measured levels of EBV DNA in saliva and buffy coats from 233 asymptomatic Ugandan children with sickle cell disease and their mothers by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. EBV DNA was detected in saliva from 90% of the children (median [interquartile range [IQR

Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Walters, Michael; Engels, Eric A; Bakaki, Paul M; Ndugwa, Christopher M; Owor, Anchilla M; Goedert, James J; Whitby, Denise; Biggar, Robert J



Oral acetazolamide in the assessment of (urine-blood) P CO 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine-blood (U-B)Pco2 difference in children is usually assessed following urine alkalinization with oral sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Since oral NaHCO3 is often poorly tolerated by children, we compared oral acetazolamide with oral NaHCO3 in a study of (U-B)Pco2. In the first phase of the study 14 children and adolescents aged 11.1±3.7 years (mean±SD) were studied. Eight participants had normal kidney function

Uri Alon; Stanley Hellerstein; Bradley A. Warady



Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under conditions of degradation was examined in urine samples of nine volunteers\\u000a and in post-mortem tissue (liver, skeletal muscle) and blood taken from seven corpses at autopsies. Analysis was performed\\u000a via LC-MS\\/MS. EtG concentrations in urine samples ranged from 2.5 to 296.5 mg\\/l. When stored at 4°C in airtight test tubes,\\u000a EtG concentrations remained relatively

Haiko Schloegl; Sebastian Dresen; Karin Spaczynski; Mylène Stoertzel; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann



The History of Saliva Based Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

t is probably surprising for most people to learn that saliva has been used in diagnostics for more than two thousand years. Ancient doctors of traditional Chinese medicine have concluded that saliva and blood are 'brothers' in the body and they come from the same origin. It is believed that changes in saliva are indicative of the wellness of the

Zhanzhi Hu


The relationship of blood- and urine-boron to boron exposure in borax-workers and usefulness of urine-boron as an exposure marker.  

PubMed Central

Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 microgram/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 micrograms/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform. Personal air samplers of two types were used: one, the 37-mm closed-face, two-piece cassette to estimate total dust and the other, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler to estimate inspirable particulate mass. Under the conditions of this study, the IOM air sampler more nearly estimated human exposure as measured by blood- and urine-boron levels than did the sampler that measured total dust.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Culver, B D; Shen, P T; Taylor, T H; Lee-Feldstein, A; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, P L



Stable RNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains revealed from whole genome expression analysis of time-wise degraded samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human body fluids such as blood and saliva represent the most common source of biological material found at a crime scene.\\u000a Reliable tissue identification in forensic science can reveal significant insights into crime scene reconstruction and can\\u000a thus contribute toward solving crimes. Limitations of existing presumptive tests for body fluid identification in forensics,\\u000a which are usually based on chemoluminescence or

Dmitry Zubakov; Eline Hanekamp; Mieke Kokshoorn; Wilfred van IJcken; Manfred Kayser



Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in Saliva of Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are widely used in a variety of applications, and the potential exists for significant occupational and environmental exposures. They have been associated with more occupational poisoning cases than any other class of insecticides. One of the best approaches for accurately assessing human dosimetry and determining risk from both occupational and environmental exposure is biomonitoring. Biological matrices such as blood and urine have been routinely used for biomonitoring; however, other matrices such as saliva represent a simple and readily obtainable fluid. As a result, saliva has been suggested as an alternative biological matrix for the evaluation of a broad range of biomarkers such as environmental contaminants, drugs of abuse, hormones, chemotherapeutics, heavy metals, and pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), have been quantified in urine and blood as a biomarker for exposure to OP insecticides. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical approach for detecting and quantitating the levels of TCP in saliva obtained from rats exposed to CPF and to evaluate the potential of saliva as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix. Adult male rats were administered CPF, and blood and saliva were humanely collected for analysis of TCP and CPF. TCP was detected and quantitated in saliva using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Initial results indicate that saliva may be potentially utilized as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix to determine exposure to organophosphate insecticides.

Campbell, James A.; Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Wu, Hong; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Hoppe, Eric W.



Excessive Saliva  


... Rabies (a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals) Syphilis (a bacterial infection usually spread by sexual contact) Tuberculosis (an infectious disease that affects your lungs) Causes of a decreased ability to ...


Tonsillar application of killed Streptococcus mutans induces specific antibodies in rabbit saliva and blood plasma without inducing a cross-reacting antibody to human cardiac muscle.  


When Streptococcus mutans cells are injected into the skeletal muscle of rabbits, an antibody against human cardiac muscle, as well as an anti-S. mutans antibody, is induced in blood plasma. Our previous study showed that when sheep erythrocytes are applied to palatine tonsils, an antibody against the applied cells is induced both in blood plasma and saliva. This antibody has no activity against cardiac muscle. It is not clear, however, if S. mutans application to the tonsils evokes an antibody response against cardiac muscle. In this study, we immunized rabbits against S. mutans or Streptococcus sobrinus by tonsillar application or by intramuscular injection every 3 days for 6 weeks. Tonsillar applications of formalin-killed cells of S. mutans induced saliva immunoglobulin A (IgA) and blood plasma IgG to the applied cells. In contrast, intramuscular injection of such cells induced only blood plasma IgG. When the route of immunization was intramuscular injection, antibodies in blood plasma cross-reacted with cardiac muscle. By enzyme-immunohistochemistry and Ouchterlony immunodiffusion tests, no cross-reaction to cardiac muscle was observed with the antibody in saliva or in blood plasma after the tonsillar applications. Western blotting of the S. mutans antigen showed that blood plasma from rabbits injected with S. mutans reacted with antigens of 46, 52, 62, and 85 kDa, while that from rabbits subjected to tonsillar application of S. mutans did not react with these bands. Similar results were obtained for S. sobrinus applications. Thus, tonsillar applications of mutants group streptococci induce antibodies differing in antigen specificity and do not induce any cross-reacting antibody to cardiac muscle. PMID:9353033

Fukuizumi, T; Inoue, H; Tsujisawa, T; Uchiyama, C



Rapid oxalate determination in blood and synthetic urine using a newly developed oxometer.  


Blood and urine oxalate determinations have been limited to the laboratory setting because of complex sample storage and processing methods as well as the need for color spectrophotometry and ion chromatography. We hypothesized that glucometer test strips, impregnated with glucose oxidase and dyes that measure secondary hydrogen peroxide production, could be infused with oxalate oxidase and produce enhanced color changes in the presence of oxalate. By increasing the amount of sodium oxalate in fresh blood, we found that glucometer-measured oxalate increased on a linear scale. In addition, oxalate levels in synthetic urine could be measured using a visual scale, suggesting that strip dwell time or oxalate/oxalate oxidase concentrations could be manipulated to enhance optimal sensitivity. Although further testing is necessary, this simple, first-generation oxometer may eventually allow point of care testing in the home or office, empowering patients with oxalate-based medical conditions and giving healthcare providers real-time oxalate feedback. PMID:22973856

Canales, Benjamin K; Richards, Nigel G; Peck, Ammon B



Determination of Cr(III) in urine, blood serum and hair using flow injection chemiluminescence analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow injection (FI) chemiluminescence method for the determination of Cr(III) in blood serum, urine and hair samples is\\u000a reported. It is based on the chromium-catalyzed light emission from the luminol oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. The apparatus\\u000a consists of an FI system with a flow cell formed by a coiled transparent tube suitable for chemiluminescence detection. The\\u000a specificity of the

R. Escobar; M. S. García-Domínguez; A. Guiraúm; F. F. de la Rosa



Assessment of blood and urine lead levels of some pregnant women residing in Lagos, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of lead in blood (BLL) and lead in urine (ULL) of some non-occupationally exposed, nonsmoking 214 pregnant Nigerian\\u000a women, aged 17 to 49 years, and resident in Lagos was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry with control subjects\\u000a consisting of 113 nonpregnant women. From results, the mean BLL and ULL (?g\\/dL) for pregnant women (59.5 ± 2.1; 29.4 ± 1.1)

Iheoma M. Adekunle; Joseph A. Ogundele; Olusegun Oguntoke; Oluseyi A. Akinloye



Simultaneous analysis of cardiac glycosides in blood and urine by thermoresponsive LC-MS-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new thermoresponsive polymer separation column was applied to simultaneous analysis of four cardiac glycosides (CGs) being\\u000a widely used for the treatment of arrhythmias and heart failure in human blood and urine. This column is composed of an N-isopropylacrylamide polymer, the surface of which undergoes a reversible alteration from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by changing\\u000a temperature. The chromatographic separation and retention

Sanae Kanno; Kanako Watanabe; Itaru Yamagishi; Seishiro Hirano; Kayoko Minakata; Kunio Gonmori; Osamu Suzuki



Detection of Darbepoetin Alfa Misuse in Urine and Blood: A Preliminary Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

MORKEBERG, J., C. LUNDBY, G. NISSEN-LIE, T. K. NIELSEN, P. HEMMERSBACH, and R. DAMSGAARD. Detection of Darbepoetin Alfa Misuse in Urine and Blood: A Preliminary Investigation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1742-1747, 2007. Introduction: Darbepoetin alfa is a modified erythropoietin (EPO) molecule with a longer serum half-life than recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Because the detection period



Biological monitoring of pyrethroids in blood and pyrethroid metabolites in urine: applications and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to perform biological monitoring of subjects who are occupationally exposed to pyrethroids. The study group consisted of 30 pest control operators exposed to cyfluthrin, cypermethrin or permethrin. After exposure, 24-h urine samples were collected and 20 ml of blood was drawn. The pyrethroid metabolites cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid and fluorophenoxybenzoic acid were

Gabriele Leng; Karl-Heinz Kühn; Helga Idel



Urine\\/blood ratios of ethanol in deaths attributed to acute alcohol poisoning and chronic alcoholism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of ethanol were determined in femoral venous blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) and the UAC\\/BAC ratios were evaluated for a large case series of forensic autopsies in which the primary cause of death was either acute alcohol poisoning (N=628) or chronic alcoholism (N=647). In alcohol poisoning deaths both UAC and BAC were higher by about 2g\\/l compared with

A. W. Jones; P. Holmgren



Determination of aromatic hydrocarbons and their metabolites in human blood and urine.  


Methods for the biological monitoring of aromatic hydrocarbons and their metabolites in the human blood and urine are reviewed. For the determination of the unchanged aromatic hydrocarbon in blood, gas chromatographic head-space analysis is recommended. The metabolites can be monitored by photometric, thin-layer chromatographic, high-performance liquid chromatographic and gas chromatographic methods. For the assessment of health risks caused by aromatic hydrocarbons, reference values and occupational limit values, expressed as biological tolerance values and biological exposure indices, have to be considered. PMID:1400824

Angerer, J; Hörsch, B



Application of ICP-OES to the determination of barium in blood and urine in clinical and forensic analysis.  


Exposure to barium (Ba) mostly occurs in the workplace or from drinking water, but it may sometimes be due to accidental or intentional intoxication. This paper presents a reliable, sensitive method for the determination of Ba in blood and urine: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion of samples. The overall procedure was checked using Seronorm Whole Blood L-2, Trace Elements Urine and spiked blood and urine samples (0.5-10 µg/mL of Ba). The accuracy of the whole procedure (relative error) was 4% (blood) and 7% (urine); the recovery was 76-104% (blood) and 85-101% (urine). The limits of detection and quantification (Ba ? = 455.403 nm) were 0.11 and 0.4 µg/L of Ba, respectively; precision (relative standard deviation) was below 6% at the level of 15 µg/L of Ba for blood. This method was applied to a case of the poisoning of a man who had been exposed at the workplace for over two years to powdered BaCO3, and who suffered from paralysis and heart disorders. The concentrations of Ba, in ?g/L, were 160 (blood), 460 (serum) and 1,458 (urine) upon his admission to the hospital, and 6.1 (blood) and 4.9 (urine) after 11 months (reference values: 3.34 ± 2.20 µg/L of Ba for blood and 4.43 ± 4.60 µg/L of Ba for urine). PMID:23471954

Lech, Teresa



Blood and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children, adults, and pregnant women from china: partitioning between blood and urine and maternal and fetal cord blood.  


Limited information exists on exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) by children, adults, and pregnant women in China. In the present study, we determined BPA concentrations in whole blood collected from 10 children (1-5 years), 40 women (30 pregnant and 10 nonpregnant), and 30 fetuses (i.e., cord blood). Further, to evaluate the relationship between urinary and blood BPA concentrations, paired specimens of blood and urine (n = 50 pairs) were collected from an adult population. BPA was found in 46% of all blood samples analyzed, with a geometric mean (GM) concentration of 0.19 ng/mL. BPA was found in 84% of urine samples from adults, with a GM concentration of 1.01 ng/mL [0.48 ?g/g creatinine (Cr)]. Gender and age were not good predictors of blood BPA concentrations. However, we did find that the creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA concentrations in females were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentrations found in males and that the blood BPA concentrations in children were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentrations found in adults. Among all adults, unadjusted urinary BPA concentrations (i.e., volume-based) were inversely (r = -0.312, p < 0.05) correlated with age when an outlier value (8.70 ng/mL) was excluded from analysis. Concentrations of BPA in urine (creatinine-adjusted) and blood were significantly correlated (r = 0.571, p < 0.01), with concentrations measured in urine approximately an order of magnitude higher than the concentrations found in blood. The mean and GM values for ratios of concentration of BPA between blood and urine were 0.109 and 0.057, respectively. The ratio of mean concentrations of BPA between cord blood and maternal blood was 0.108. On the basis of urinary BPA levels, we estimated the total daily intake (EDI) of BPA by Chinese adults. The mean (range) EDIs of BPA by adult males and females in China were 0.041 (<0.005-0.224) and 0.048 (<0.005-0.151) ug/kg bw/day, respectively. The pregnant women who underwent intravenous drug administration immediately before delivery had significantly higher concentrations of BPA in their blood than did those who did not receive intravenous drug administration. This is the first study to document the occurrence of and human exposure to BPA by pregnant women and fetuses from China. PMID:23506159

Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Kannan, Kurunthachalam



Impact of consumption of freshwater fish on mercury levels in hair, blood, urine, and alveolar air.  


Human exposure to methylmercury occurs mainly via consumption of fish. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of freshwater fish consumption on mercury levels in hair, blood, urine, and end-exhaled air. Twenty subjects without dental amalgam fillings were recruited from sport-fishing societies. They ranged in age from 61 to 87 yr. Six individuals ate freshwater fish at least once a week and were categorized as high consumers. Eight individuals were classified as medium consumers and ate freshwater fish at least once a month but less than once a week. Six individuals were categorized as low consumers and had not eaten freshwater fish in the past 3 mo. Among the high consumers, median concentrations of mercury were 8.6 microg/L in blood, 2.4 microg/g in hair, 10 pg/L in end-exhaled air, and 1.1 microg/g creatinine in urine. The relationship between freshwater fish consumption and mercury was significant in all biological media. The high-consumption group had much higher mercury levels in blood (9-fold), hair (7-fold), alveolar air (3-fold), and urine (15-fold) than the low-consumption group. The latter finding may be explained by demethylation of methylmercury in the body. The ratio between mercury concentration in blood and hair was 1:270. This implies that the typical blood-hair ratio of 1:250, specified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990, is valid also for exposure to low amounts of methylmercury. PMID:15762551

Johnsson, Cecilia; Schütz, Andrejs; Sällsten, Gerd



A stationary cold vapor method for atomic absorption measurement of mercury in blood and urine used for exposure screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is provided for rapid, accurate flameless atomic absorption Hg determinations in blood and urine used for exposure screening of mercury. Instead of the conventional apparatus requiring separate reduction and absorption containers, a one-piece reduction-absorption cell was fitted on the burner mount of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A five mL aliquot of the digested urine or blood sample was




Detection of cannabis in oral fluid (saliva) and forehead wipes (sweat) from impaired drivers.  


Saliva and sweat have been presented as two alternative matrices for the establishment of drug abuse. The noninvasive collection of a saliva or sweat sample, which is relatively easy to perform and can be achieved under close supervision, is one of the most important benefits in a driving-under-the-influence situation. Moreover, the presence of certain analytes in saliva is a better indication of recent use than when the drug is detected in urine, so there is a higher probability that the subject is experiencing pharmacological effects at the time of sampling. We developed an original procedure using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to test for delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, in oral fluid and forehead wipes, collected with Sarstedt Salivettes and cosmetic pads, respectively. Blood, urine, oral fluid, and forehead wipes were simultaneously collected from 198 injured drivers admitted to an Emergency Hospital in Strasbourg, France. Of the 22 subjects positive for 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) in urine, 14 and 16 were positive for THC in oral fluid (1 to 103 ng/Salivette) and forehead wipe (4 to 152 ng/pad), respectively. 11-Hydroxy-THC and THCCOOH were not detected in these body fluids. Two main limitations of saliva and sweat are apparent: the amount of matrix collected is smaller when compared to urine, and the levels of drugs are higher in urine than in saliva and sweat. A current limitation in the use of these specimens for roadside testing is the absence of a suitable immunoassay that detects the parent compound in sufficiently low concentrations. PMID:11043659

Kintz, P; Cirimele, V; Ludes, B



Determination of tetrahydrozoline in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  


Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is widely used for the symptomatic relief of conjunctival and nasal congestion; however, intentional or unintentional high doses can result in toxicity manifested by hypotension, tachycardia, and CNS depression. The detection of the drug in blood and urine is helpful in the diagnosis and management of a toxic patient. For the analysis, plasma, serum, or urine is added to a tube containing alkaline buffer and organic extraction solvents, and tetrahydrozoline from the sample is extracted into the organic phase by gentle mixing. After centrifugation, the upper organic solvent layer containing the drug is removed and dried under stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue is reconstituted in a hexane-ethanol mixture and analyzed using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitation of the drug is done by comparing responses of unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring. Naphazoline is used as an internal standard. PMID:20077102

Peat, Judy; Garg, Uttam



Rapid Antemortem Detection of CWD Prions in Deer Saliva.  


Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

Henderson, Davin M; Manca, Matteo; Haley, Nicholas J; Denkers, Nathaniel D; Nalls, Amy V; Mathiason, Candace K; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A



Quantification of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in conscious mice using serial blood and urine spots.  


In vivo studies of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in (genetically modified) conscious mice are hampered by limitations of blood and urine sample sizes. We developed and validated methods to quantify stable isotope dilution and incorporation in small blood and urine samples spotted onto filter paper. Blood glucose and urinary paracetamol-glucuronic acid were extracted from filter paper spots reproducibly and with high yield. Fractional isotopomer distributions of glucose and paracetamol-glucuronic acid when extracted from filter paper spots were almost identical to those isolated from the original body fluids. Rates of infusion of labeled compounds could be adjusted without perturbing hepatic glucose metabolism. This approach was used in mice to find the optimal metabolic condition for the study of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. In fed mice, no isotopic steady state was observed during a 6-h label-infusion experiment. In 9-h-fasted mice, isotopic steady state was reached after 3 h of label infusion and important parameters in hepatic glucose metabolism could be calculated. The rate of de novo glucose-6-phosphate synthesis was 143 +/- 17 micromol kg(-1) min(-1) and partitioning to plasma glucose was 79.0 +/- 5.2%. In 24-h-fasted mice, abrupt changes were noticed in whole body and in hepatic glucose metabolism at the end of the experiment. PMID:14705774

van Dijk, Theo H; Boer, Theo S; Havinga, Rick; Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan



Repeated measurements of aldicarb in blood and urine in a case of nonfatal poisoning.  


A nonfatal case of poisoning involving aldicarb, an extremely toxic carbamate pesticide, is presented. A 39-year-old female ingested an unknown amount of aldicarb, together with alprazolam and sertraline. On admission to ICU (T0), she displayed marked cholinergic symptoms and a deep coma. The patient was given pralidoxime and atropine. Her condition gradually improved on days 2 and 3 and she was discharged at T0+80 h. Aldicarb was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography on 21 blood and 8 urine samples successively taken during hospitalization. At the same time, serum pseudocholinesterase activity was followed on 21 successive samples. Blood aldicarb level was 3.11 microg/mL at T0 and peaked at T0+3.5 h (3.22 microg/mL), then followed a two-slope decay with a terminal half-life of ca. 20 h. Aldicarb was detected in all urine samples (peak level: 6.95 microg/mL at T0+31.5 h) and was still present at the time of discharge. Serum pseudo-cholinesterase activity remained low (< or = 10% of normal) until the 30th hour then rapidly increased and returned to normal after the 60th hour. The patient's clinical picture closely followed blood aldicarb levels and serum pseudo-cholinesterase activities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an aldicarb poisoning documented by repeated measurements of the drug in the intoxicated person. PMID:11936581

Tracqui, A; Flesch, F; Sauder, P; Raul, J S; Géraut, A; Ludes, B; Jaeger, A



Reduction in blood and urine glucose levels in streptozotocin and alloxan diabetes by phenazine methosulfate.  


The purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the ability of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) to improve the streptozotocin (STZ) and alloxan induced diabetic condition in vivo as determined by changes in blood and urine glucose levels and by alteration in the secretion of insulin by isolated islets. STZ and alloxan diabetes was induced in male albino rats (200-250 g body weight). A single injection of PMS (6.0 mg/kg) or nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) simultaneously with diabetic doses of either STZ or alloxan caused a significant reduction in blood and urine glucose levels three days after the injection. The reduction in glycemic levels was greater with PMS than with nicotinamide. Daily PMS (0.5 mg/kg) injection, initiated 5, 10, 20 or 30 days after the development of STZ- and alloxan-diabetes, caused a significant decrease in blood and urine glucose levels and also increased body weight determined 60 days after STZ or alloxan administration. These effects were observed even if the injections were initiated 20 or 30 days after the onset of the diabetic syndrome. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion was significantly inhibited by pre-incubation of isolated islets for one hour at 37 degrees C with either STZ or alloxan. However, insulin secretion was induced by PMS in the STZ or alloxan pretreated islets. Nicotinamide neither protected nor induced insulin secretion under similar conditions. The level of insulin secretion induced by PMS whether in the normal islets or in islets previously exposed to the B-cytotoxic agents were comparable in quantity to glucose (17 mM)-stimulated insulin secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2533444

Akpan, J O


Organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and urine of women and newborns living in an agricultural community.  


Organophosphate pesticides are widely used and recent studies suggest associations of in utero exposures with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. Few studies have characterized organophosphate pesticides in human plasma or established how these levels correlate to urinary measurements. We measured organophosphate pesticide metabolites in maternal urine and chlorpyrifos and diazinon in maternal and cord plasma of subjects living in an agricultural area to compare levels in two different biological matrices. We also determined paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotypes (PON1(192) and PON1(-108)) and PON1 substrate-specific activities in mothers and their newborns to examine whether PON1 may affect organophosphate pesticide measurements in blood and urine. Chlorpyrifos levels in plasma ranged from 0-1,726 ng/mL and non-zero levels were measured in 70.5% and 87.5% of maternal and cord samples, respectively. Diazinon levels were lower (0-0.5 ng/mL); non-zero levels were found in 33.3% of maternal plasma and 47.3% of cord plasma. Significant associations between organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and metabolite levels in urine were limited to models adjusting for PON1 levels. Increased maternal PON1 levels were associated with decreased odds of chlorpyrifos and diazinon detection (odds ratio(OR): 0.56 and 0.75, respectively). Blood organophosphate pesticide levels of study participants were similar in mothers and newborns and slightly higher than those reported in other populations. However, compared to their mothers, newborns have much lower quantities of the detoxifying PON1 enzyme suggesting that infants may be especially vulnerable to organophosphate pesticide exposures. PMID:22683313

Huen, Karen; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Yousefi, Paul; Boyd Barr, Dana; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina



Blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and colour vision deficiency in Hindu castes and religious groups of West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.  


The distribution of A1A2B0 and Rh(D) blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and red-green colour blindness among fourteen Hindu caste groups, besides Christian and Muslim populations of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is reported. All the Hindu castes except Brahmin, Kshatriya and Reddy exhibit relatively higher frequency of group B over group A. The subtyping of group A reveals that group A2 records an incidence ranging from 0.98% to 7.78%. The interpopulation chi-square tests for A1A2B0 blood group distribution indicate significant variation between several Hindu castes. The Vysya, Reddy and Adi Andhra castes not only differ from each other but also register significant variation from a majority of other populations. In the ABH saliva secretion also Vysya deviate from all other populations by recording the highest incidence (37.70%) of non-secretors, while the lowest frequency (19.98%) was observed among Kamma. The Rh(D) negative blood group is observed in all Hindu castes and religious groups with an incidence ranging from 1.04% in Vysya to 8.11% in Kamma. All the sixteen populations investigated exhibit prevalence of red-green colour blindness with a relatively higher frequency of deutan type over protan. PMID:7840536

Vijayalakshmi, M; Naidu, J M; Suryanarayana, B



Parallel analysis of stimulants in saliva and urine by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry: Perspectives for “in competition” anti-doping analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulants are banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) if used “in competition”. Being the analysis of stimulants presently carried out on urine samples only, it might be useful, for a better interpretation of analytical data, to discriminate between an early intake of the substance and an administration specifically aimed to improve the sport performance. The purpose of the study

Sabina Strano-Rossi; Cristiana Colamonici; Francesco Botrè



Isoflavones in urine, saliva, and blood of infants: data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavone levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional and partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children's exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. A total of 166

Yang Cao; Antonia M Calafat; Daniel R Doerge; David M Umbach; Judy C Bernbaum; Nathan C Twaddle; Xiaoyun Ye; Walter J Rogan



Synergistic effects of cigarette smoke and saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of Cigarette Smoke on the human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of stimulated or non-stimulated saliva in an in vitro model. Methods and Materials: Ten healthy volunteers in the age range of 21 to 29 were selected and samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes and saliva (whole and

Yalda Nozad-Mojaver; Maysam Mirzaee; Abdullah Jafarzadeh


Modest Salt Reduction Reduces Blood Pressure and Urine Protein Excretion in Black Hypertensives A Randomized Control Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

High blood pressure and proteinuria are the major risk factors for cardiovascular and renal disease. In black individuals, there is an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure, and kidney disease. There are no controlled studies of the effects of reducing salt intake on blood pressure and urine protein excretion in black individuals. Therefore, the aim of our study was

Pauline A. Swift; Nirmala D. Markandu; Giuseppe A. Sagnella; Feng J. He; Graham A. MacGregor



Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine. IUPAC Commission of Toxicology.  


This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist scientists worldwide to produce comparable data which will be useful on a regional, national and international scale. The guidelines are directed to the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. These include the most important elements measured for their occupational or clinical significance, and serve as examples of principles that will guide development of methods for other elements in the future. PMID:8829133

Cornelis, R; Heinzow, B; Herber, R F; Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M; Sabbioni, E; Templeton, D M; Thomassen, Y; Vahter, M; Vesterberg, O



High blood and urine levels of cadmium in phosphate workers: A preliminary investigation  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary study is described in which blood and urine levels of cadmium are determined in phosphate fertilizer workers exposed to phosphate dust. Control samples were taken from non-smokers who did not eat oysters regularly and who had eaten none for at least four weeks prior to the study. A cross section of phosphate workers was sampled. Various blends of phosphate fertilizers were analyzed. Analysis was by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that levels in fertilizers ranged from 42-147 ppm. The mean whole blood level of phosphate workers was 7.21 + or - 2.05 ng/ml and 0.92 + or - 0.18 ng/ml in controls. The mean urine level of phosphate workers was 5.24 + or - 0.53 ng/ml compared to 0.54 + or - 0.20 ng/ml for controls. No immediate symptoms of acute or subacute cadmium intoxication were observed but high levels indicate a need for studies to elucidate any long-term effects of exposure to cadmium-containing phosphate dust. 3 tables (JMT)

Sharma, R.P.



Use of cell-free circulating schistosome DNA in serum, urine, semen, and saliva to monitor a case of refractory imported schistosomiasis hematobia.  


This case of imported refractory schistosomiasis has highlighted the usefulness of cell-free parasite DNA as a diagnostic marker to assess active schistosome infection. In contrast to the rapid disappearance of ova in urine, parasite DNA remained persistent in several other specimen types even after the fourth treatment with praziquantel. This result was consistent with the presence of morphologically intact ova in bladder biopsy samples and with the corresponding symptoms. PMID:23884992

Kato-Hayashi, Naoko; Yasuda, Mitsuko; Yuasa, Jozi; Isaka, Shigeo; Haruki, Kosuke; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Osada, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Chigusa, Yuichi



Relationship of oral disease to the presence of cytomegalovirus DNA in the saliva of AIDS patients.  


Cytomegalovirus is an important pathogen in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus. In this study a thorough oral examination was done and blood and urine cultures for cytomegalovirus were obtained from a group of 31 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with CD4 lymphocyte counts less than 150 cells/mm3. Whole saliva was also collected for detection of cytomegalovirus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) via the polymerase chain reaction. The presence of cytomegalovirus DNA in the saliva specimens was not related to the presence of cytomegalovirus in the urine, which suggests a local source of cytomegalovirus from salivary gland and kidney parenchyma. There was also a strong statistical relationship between salivary cytomegalovirus DNA and xerostomia (p = 0.0004), which suggests that cytomegalovirus may be a cause of salivary gland dysfunction in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with low CD4 counts. PMID:7614180

Greenberg, M S; Dubin, G; Stewart, J C; Cumming, C G; MacGregor, R R; Friedman, H M



Blood plasma and saliva levels of magnesium and other bivalent cations in patients with parotid gland tumors.  


The plasma and saliva cations in parotid malignant tumors of stages II-III were studied in 31 patients before surgical therapy and in 27 control group volunteers. The magnesium (t-Mg), calcium (t-Ca), copper (t-Cu) and zinc (t-Zn) concentrations in plasma were determined, and t-Mg and t-Ca in saliva. Our results showed that salivary and plasma t-Mg concentrations were significantly higher in patients with parotid malignant tumors in comparison to control group (saliva: 0.25 +/- 0.04 mmol/L versus 0.14 +/- 0.03/L, p < 0.01; plasma: 1.05 +/- 0.06 mmol/L versus 0.86 +/- 0.05 mmol/L, p < 0.05). The t-Ca plasma concentrations were lower for patients with parotid malignant tumors by 20-22% in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). Plasma and salivary t-Mg/t-Ca molar ratios are respectively 0.38 and 0.12 for control group, and respectively 0.61 and 0.31 for patients with parotid gland tumors. The t-Zn plasma concentration for patients with parotid malignant tumors (0.017 +/- 0.010 mmol/L) was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in comparison to control group (0.024 +/- 0.011 mmol/L). Plasma t-Cu/t-Zn molar ratio is respectively 0.68 for control group and 1.12 for patients with parotid gland tumors. The mechanism responsible for the increase of salivary magnesium as a consequence of the development of tumoral tissue needs to be clarified. PMID:18271496

Gr?dinaru, Irina; Ghiciuc, Cristina-Mihaela; Popescu, Eugenia; Nechifor, Cristina; Mândreci, Ioan; Nechifor, Mihai



Electrocatalytic oxidation and selective determination of an opioid analgesic methadone in the presence of acetaminophen at a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes: application for human urine, saliva and pharmaceutical samples analysis.  


For the first time, electrocatalytic oxidation and selective determination of methadone (Mtd), as a long-acting opioid, in the presence of acetaminophen (Ac) has been investigated at a glassy carbon electrode modified with functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes. This simple and sensitive electrochemical sensor was fabricated through the drop-casting of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (fMWCNT) on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidations of Ac and Mtd are both individually and simultaneously investigated at the surface of the fMWCNT modified glassy carbon electrode (fMWCNT/MGCE) through using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetric studies. The fMWCNT/MGCE offered a considerable enhancement in the anodic peak current of Ac and Mtd associated with separating their overlapping voltammetric responses with potential difference of 290 mV. The catalytic peak currents obtained from differential pulse voltammetry of Ac and Mtd increased linearly with their concentration at the ranges of 0.45-90.0 ?M and 0.5-100.0 ?M, respectively, and the detection limits for Ac and Mtd were sequentially 0.35 ?M and 0.28 ?M. Furthermore, this electrochemical sensor was successfully implemented for the quantitative determination of Ac and Mtd in human urine, saliva and pharmaceutical samples using standard addition method and the obtained results were found to be satisfactory. PMID:23680846

Amiri-Aref, Mohaddeseh; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Ojani, Reza



An electrochemical biosensor for the direct detection of oxytetracycline in mouse blood serum and urine.  


Oxytetracycline (OTC), a broad-spectrum antibiotic, has been extensively used as a food additive for livestock. Its extensive use has greatly increased the risk of chronic drug abuse and has also increased the risk of the resulting diseases. Therefore, in light of this emerging situation, the detection of OTC in both food and livestock is very important to reduce the risks and for diagnosis purposes . In this work, we have proposed an electrochemical aptasensor to quantify OTC. The biosensor shows considerable sensitivity and selectivity, and it can be easily operated and regenerated. Furthermore, for the first time, we have shown that an electrochemical aptasensor can be directly used to detect OTC in mouse blood serum and urine. This biosensor has the potential to aid in the analysis of residual OTC levels, as well as providing more pharmacokinetic information in the future. PMID:23381199

Zheng, Dianyuan; Zhu, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xuejun; Bo, Bing; Yin, Yongmei; Li, Genxi



Porphyrin profiles in blood and urine as a biomarker for exposure to various arsenic species.  


A sensitive method using HPLC with fluorescence detection has been established for the measurement of porphyrins in biological materials. The assay recoveries were 88.0+/-1.8% for protoporphyrin IX in the blood, and ranged from 98.3+/-2.7% to 111.1+/-7.4% for various porphyrins in the urine. This method was employed to investigate the altered porphyrin profiles in rats after a single dose of various arsenicals including soluble sodium arsenate and sodium arsenite, and the relatively insoluble calcium arsenite, calcium arsenate and arsenic-contaminated soils at dose rates of 5 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg body weight. Porphyrin concentrations increased within 2448 hr after the arsenic treatment in blood and urine. Protoporphyrin IX is the predominant porphyrin in the blood. In rats administered 5 mg As(III)/kg body weight, protoporphyrin IX concentration elevated to 123% of the control values in rats, 24 hr after the treatment. Higher increases were recorded in the urinary protoporphyrin IX (253% at 24 hr; 397% on day 2), uroporphyrin (121% at 24 hr; 208% on day 2) and coproporphyrin III (391% at 24 hr; 304% on day 2), while there was no significant increase (109% on day 3) observed in the urinary coproporphyrin I excretion. In rats administered 5 mg As(V)/kg, urinary excretion of protoporphyrin LX, uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin III and coproporphyrin I elevated to the maximum levels by 48 hr with the corresponding percentage values compared to the control being 177%, 158%, 224% and 143%, respectively. In rats dosed with 5 mg As(III)/kg, the increases (expressed as % of the control values) of protoporphyrin IX in the blood were in the order: sodium arsenite (144%) > sodium arsenate (125%) > calcium arsenite (123%) > calcium arsenate. In contrast, there was no significant increase of protoporphyrin IX, when the six arsenic-contaminated cattle dip soils and nine copper chrome arsenate (CCA-contaminated) soils were administered to the rats. Probable explanations are discussed. PMID:11929043

Ng, Jack C; Qi, Lixia; Moore, Michael R



Monitoring of occupational exposure to tetrachloroethene by analysis for unmetabolized tetrachloroethene in blood and urine in comparison with urinalysis for trichloroacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study was initiated to examine a quantitative relationship between tetrachloroethene (TETRA) in blood and urine\\u000a with TETRA in air, and to compare TETRA in blood or urine with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in urine as exposure markers. Methods: In total, 44?workers (exposed to TETRA during automated, continuous cloth-degreasing operations), and ten non-exposed subjects\\u000a volunteered to participate in the

K. Furuki; H. Ukai; S. Okamoto; S. Takada; T. Kawai; Y. Miyama; K. Mitsuyoshi; Z.-W. Zhang; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda



Trace and major elements in whole blood, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and urine of patients with Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. Quantifications of Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Si and Zn were performed in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 26 patients affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD) and 13 age-matched controls to ascertain the potential role of biological fluids as markers for this pathology. Analyses were performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Sector Field

G. Forte; B. Bocca; O. Senofonte; F. Petrucci; L. Brusa; P. Stanzione; S. Zannino; N. Violante; A. Alimonti; G. Sancesario



Diagnosis of Diabetes in a Diabetic Patient's Urine and Blood Using a Combination Electrode with a Ubiquitous Handheld Analyzer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose assay was conducted on untreated diabetic patient's urine and blood using a combination electrode (CE) whose sensor was interfaced with a newly constructed handheld voltammetry. The CE was prepared using the com- mon graphite pencil as a working electrode, handmade reference electrode, and platinum counter electrode, which were combined into one electrode system. The CE was optimized through cyclic

Suw Y. Ly



Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko



Evaluation of the One-Step™ ELISA kit for the detection of buprenorphine in urine, blood, and hair specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay involving microtiter plates was recently proposed by International Diagnostic Systems corporation (IDS) to screen for buprenorphine in human serum. The performance of the kit led us to investigate its applicability in other biological matrices such as urine or blood, and also hair specimens. Low concentrations of buprenorphine were detected with the ELISA test and confirmed by

V Cirimele; S Etienne; M Villain; B Ludes; P Kintz



Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals. Analysis of human fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals are detailed in this book which surveys and evaluates methods and procedures to identify and quantitative chemical constituents in human tissues and body fluids, including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath. The book details attempts to determine 1) the feasibility of correlating preferred methods with specific tissues or fluids

L. Sheldon; M. Umana; J. Bursey; W. Gutknecht; R. Handy; P. Hyldburg; L. Michael; A. Moseley; J. Raymer; D. Smith



Testing for drugs of abuse in saliva and sweat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, PCP, alcohol and nicotine in saliva and sweat is reviewed, with emphasis on forensic applications. The short window of detection and lower levels of drugs present compared to levels found in urine limits the applications of sweat and saliva screening for drug use determination. However, these matrices may be applicable for

David A. Kidwell; Janel C. Holland; Sotiris Athanaselis



Human C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) in blood and urine — Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay method and its clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A double-antibody radioimmunoassay method, using synthetic human connecting peptide as an immunizing antigen and standard, was evaluated for clinical assay of blood and urine samples. Normal fasting blood connecting peptide immunoreacivity (CPR) was 2.45±0.96 ng\\/ml, increasing promptly after a 50 g oral glucose load, but somewhat slower than insulin. Molar concentration of CPR exceeded that of insulin. CPR responses to

T. Kuzuya; A. Matsuda; T. Saito; S. Yoshida



Predicting the phenylalanine blood concentration from urine analyses. An approach to noninvasive monitoring of patients with phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The need for regular blood-drawing in the management of chronic metabolic disorders may negatively influence the compliance\\u000a of patients and their parents; noninvasive analytical procedures could well alleviate this burden. Using data obtained in\\u000a six adult probands with phenylketonuria, we evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive prediction of phenylalanine blood concentrations\\u000a from analysis of phenylalanine and creatinine in urine. Cross-validated regression

U. Langenbeck; F. Baum; A. Mench-Hoinowski; H. Luthe; A. W. Behbehani



Hydrogen ion secretion by the collecting duct as a determinant of the urine to blood PCO2 gradient in alkaline urine  

SciTech Connect

Several theories have been advanced to explain the elevation in urinary PCO/sub 2/ during bicarbonate loading and include: (a) H+ secretion, (b) countercurrent system for CO/sub 2/, (c) the ampholyte properties of bicarbonate, and (d) mixing of urine of disparate bicarbonate and butter concentrations. In this study microelectrodes were used to measure in situ and equilibrium pH (pHis and pHeq) and PCO/sub 2/ in control and bicarbonate loaded rats before and after infusion of carbonic anhydrase. The disequilibrium pH method (pHdq . pHis - pHeq) was used to demonstrate H+ secretion. Control rats excreting an acid urine (pH . 6.04 +/- 0.06) failed to display a significant disequilibrium pH at the base (BCD), or tip (TCD) of the papillary collecting duct. Urine pH (7.54 +/- 0.12), and urine to blood (U-B) PCO/sub 2/ increased significantly during NaHCO/sub 3/ loading while PCO/sub 2/ at the BCD and TCD also increased (95 +/- 4 and 122 +/- 4). Furthermore, an acid disequilibrium pH was present at both the BCD and TCD (-0.42 +/- 0.04 and -0.36 +/- 0.03) and was obliterated by carbonic anhydrase. Comparison of the PCO/sub 2/ in the BCD or TCD with the adjacent vasa recta revealed similar values (r . 0.97). It is concluded that H+ secretion by the collecting duct into bicarbonate containing fluid with delayed dehydration of H/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, is the most likely determinant of the U-B PCO/sub 2/ in alkaline urine. Similar values for PCO/sub 2/ in the collecting duct and the adjacent vasa recta suggests trapping of CO/sub 2/ in the medullary countercurrent system. The rise in PCO/sub 2/ occurs both along the collecting duct and after exit from the papilla.

DuBose, T.D. Jr.



Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study  

PubMed Central

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body.

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef



Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.  


Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

Genuis, Stephen J; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef



[The diagnostic value of determining the level of acetaldehyde in blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid].  


The contents of acetaldehyde (AA) in biological fluids obtained from the dead with the confirmed lethality causes, i.e. ischemic heart disease (IHD), alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACMP) and mechanical traumas (MT), were examined on an actual forensic-medical material (AFMM). 14 death cases of males, aged 18 to 45, were studied. The method of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC), or rather its variation of vaporphase analysis, was used to state the presence and to assess the concentration of acetaldehyde. The results revealed differences between concentrations of acetaldehyde in the examined groups depending on the presence or absence of alcoholemia. Thus, the AA concentrations were found in trace quantities in the MT group free of alcoholic intoxication; while, when it was present in this group, the concentrations went up several-fold. A higher AA content was typical of the ACMP group in all examined subjects both with and without alcoholic intoxication. The final study results are suggestive of that the AA determination in blood, urine and liquor by GLC could be used, within the forensic medical practice, in assessing a severity degree of alcoholic intoxication while establishing the lethal outcome cause due to chronic pathologies and MT. PMID:12939843

Morozov, Iu E; Vasil'eva, E V; Mammadov, V K; Salomatin, E M


Saliva: diagnostics and therapeutic perspectives  

PubMed Central

For the past two decades, salivary diagnostic approaches have been developed to monitor oral diseases such as periodontal diseases and to assess caries risk. Recently, the combination of emerging biotechnologies and salivary diagnostics has extended the range of saliva-based diagnostics from the oral cavity to the whole physiological system as most compounds found in blood are also present in saliva. Accordingly saliva can reflect the physiological state of the body, including emotional, endocrinal, nutritional and metabolic variations and provides a source for the monitoring of oral and also systemic health. This review presents the current status of saliva diagnostics and delves into their applications to the discovery of biomarkers for cancer detection and therapeutic applications. Translating scientific findings of nucleic acids, proteins and metabolites in body fluids to clinical applications is a cumbersome and challenging journey. Our research group is pursuing the biology of salivary analytes and the development of technologies in order to detect distinct biomarkers with high sensitivity and specificity. The avenue of saliva diagnostics incorporating transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic findings will enable us to connect salivary molecular analytes to monitor therapies, therapeutic outcomes, and finally disease progression in cancer.

Spielmann, Nadine; Wong, David T.



Copper, Zinc, and selenium in human blood and urine after injection of sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of a single dose of intravenously administered sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate\\u000a (DMPS) on the essential elements copper, zinc, and selenium in human blood and urine. The possible role of dental amalgam\\u000a was also addressed. Eighty individuals, divided in four groups according to the presence or absence of dental amalgam fillings\\u000a and symptoms self-related to such fillings, were

Paul Johan Høl; Jan Sverre Vamnes; Nils Roar Gjerdet; Rune Eide; Rolf Isrenn



Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an ¹²⁵I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance

T. Wood; C. L. Tai; D. G. Taylor; W. E. Woods; C. J. Wang; P. K. Houtz; H. H. Tai; T. J. Weckman; J. M. Yang; L. Sturma



Standard operating procedures for pre-analytical handling of blood and urine for metabolomic studies and biobanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1H NMR metabolic profiling of urine, serum and plasma has been used to monitor the impact of the pre-analytical steps on the\\u000a sample quality and stability in order to propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for deposition in biobanks. We analyzed\\u000a the quality of serum and plasma samples as a function of the elapsed time (t = 0?4 h) between blood collection and processing

Patrizia Bernini; Ivano Bertini; Claudio Luchinat; Paola Nincheri; Samuele Staderini; Paola Turano



Breath, urine, and blood measurements as biological exposure indices of short-term inhalation exposure to methanol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to their transient nature, short-term exposures can be difficult to detect and quantify using conventional monitoring\\u000a techniques. Biological monitoring may be capable of registering such exposures and may also be used to estimate important\\u000a toxicological parameters. This paper investigates relationships between methanol concentrations in the blood, urine, and breath\\u000a of volunteers exposed to methanol vapor at 800?ppm for periods

Stuart A. Batterman; Alfred Franzblau; James B. D'Arcy; Nicholas E. Sargent; Kenneth B. Gross; Richard M. Schreck



Prion transmission in blood and urine: What are the implications for recombinant and urinary-derived gonadotrophins?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is emerging that suggests that the protease-resistant isoform (PrPsc) of the normal cellular prion protein (PrPc) can be detected in the blood and urine of animals and humans with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). The production of the human menopausal and recombinant gonadotrophin preparations for use in ovarian stimulation protocols in fertility treatment is one area where the pharmaceutical industry

Herwig Reichl; A. Balen; C. A. M. Jansen



Determination of zoledronic acid in human urine and blood plasma using liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry.  


A new method for the analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-imidazol-1-yl-phosphonoethyl phosphoric acid (zoledronic acid) in urine and blood samples has been developed. It consists of a derivatisation of the bisphosphonate with trimethylsilyl diazomethane under multiple methylester formation. The formed derivative can, in contrast to the non-derivatised analyte, easily be separated by reversed phase liquid chromatography due to its reduced polarity. Detection is performed by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. For calibration purposes, a deuterated internal standard has been synthesised in a three-step synthesis starting with d(4)-imidazole. For human urine, the limit of detection (LOD) is 1.2x10(-7) mol/L, limit of quantification (LOQ) is 3.75×10(-7) mol/L in the MRM mode. For human blood plasma, a LOD of 1×10(-7) mol/L and a LOQ of 2.5×10(-7) mol/L were determined. The linear dynamic range comprised 3.5 decades starting at the limit of quantification. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of spiked urine and blood plasma samples as well as samples from two osteoporosis patients. PMID:21684820

Veldboer, Katrin; Vielhaber, Torsten; Ahrens, Helmut; Hardes, Jendrik; Streitbürger, Arne; Karst, Uwe



Preliminary investigation of using volatile organic compounds from human expired air, blood and urine for locating entrapped people in earthquakes.  


A preliminary investigation on the possibility of using volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determination of expired air, blood and urine, for the early location of entrapped people in earthquakes, has been carried out. A group of 15 healthy subjects has been sampled. The identification of a common "core" of substances might provide indications of human presence that can be used for the development of a real time field analytical method for the on site detection of entrapped people. Expired air samples have been analyzed by thermal desorption GC/MS and VOCs from blood and urine by headspace SPME-GC/MS. Acetone was the only compound found common in all three matrices. Isoprene was found in both expired air and blood samples. Acetone and isoprene along with a number of saturated hydrocarbons were among the major constituents identified in expired air analysis. Various ketones (2-pentanone, 4-heptanone, 2-butanone) were also determined over urine specimens. Using the techniques and methods of field analytical chemistry and technology appears to be the proper approach for applying the results of the present study in real situations. PMID:15996539

Statheropoulos, M; Sianos, E; Agapiou, A; Georgiadou, A; Pappa, A; Tzamtzis, N; Giotaki, H; Papageorgiou, C; Kolostoumbis, D



Analysis of detomidine in horse blood, plasma and urine samples utilizing a sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method.  


Chemical ionization- and electron impact ionization-selective ion monitoring provided a simple and sensitive method for measuring detomidine (Domosedan), a potent sedative-analgesic drug for horses and cattle. Chemical ionization was at least 10 times more sensitive than electron impact ionization. By using propranolol as an internal standard, we found that the recovery of detomidine from the extraction procedure used in this study was greater than 75% for plasma, whole blood, or urine samples. Approximately 68% of detomidine was bound to plasma protein and 53% was bound to red blood cells. PMID:3680434

Singh, A K; Mishra, U; Ashraf, M; Abdennebi, E H; Granley, K; Dombrovskis, D; Hewetson, D; Stowe, C M



Longitudinal Study of Methylmercury and Inorganic Mercury in Blood and Urine of Pregnant and Lactating Women, as Well as in Umbilical Cord Blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) and mercury vapor (Hg0) in pregnant women and their newborns in Stockholm. The women were followed for 15 months post delivery. MeHg, inorganic Hg (I-Hg), and total Hg (T-Hg) in maternal and cord blood were determined by automated alkaline solubilization\\/reduction and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. T-Hg in urine was determined by inductively

Marie Vahter; Agneta Åkesson; Birger Lind; Ulla Björs; Andrejs Schütz; Marika Berglund



Comparison of a microtiter plate system to Southern blot for detection of human herpesvirus 8 DNA amplified from blood and saliva.  


The recent discovery of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) as the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has led to the interest in the development of PCR for this virus that is accurate, rapid, and convenient. We developed a sensitive PCR assay for HHV-8 with microtiter plate detection of amplimers. DNA was purified from white blood cells and saliva from HIV-infected men with and without Kaposi's sarcoma and one-step PCR was undertaken with primer sets specific for the N-terminal region of the glycoprotein B gene and open reading frame (orf) 26 of HHV-8. PCR was performed on 40 clinical specimens, followed by Southern blot and microtiter plate detection of amplimers. Results from the two methods of detection were nearly identical. Sensitivity for both methods based on serial dilution of a known standard was five to ten copies of HHV-8 per 400 ng of cellular DNA. In conclusion, microtiter plate detection of HHV-8 PCR amplimers is as sensitive and specific as Southern blot with much faster turnaround time at comparable cost, and utilizes common laboratory equipment. PMID:12609686

Stamey, F R; DeLeon-Carnes, M; Patel, M M; Pellett, P E; Dollard, S C



Considering the effect of stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis of blood and saliva specific microRNA markers upon mixed body fluid stains.  


Forensic RNA analysis is gathering pace with reports of messenger RNA analysis being used in case work, and with microRNA being increasingly researched. Such techniques address a fundamental issue in body fluid identification, namely increased specificity over existing chemical tests, and the incorporation of additional body fluids such as vaginal material. The use of RNA analysis will be of particular value to sex offences, where there can be a mixture of multiple body fluids from different people. The aim of this study was to determine whether microRNA based body fluid identification tests can be applied to mixed body fluid samples. Blood and saliva were acquired from volunteers and underwent total RNA extraction. Mixed samples were prepared using a range of ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Each mixed sample then underwent a blood-saliva differentiation test developed in-house, which includes stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis. Aliquots following mixture preparation also underwent standard STR analysis, utilising Quantiplex and Next Generation Multiplex kits. Data relating to the development of an in-house blood-saliva differentiation test is presented, in which it has been demonstrated that such a test has a lower limit of detection than the enzymatic equivalent. It has been shown that not only is it possible to determine the presence of more than one body fluid, it is also possible to determine the major body fluid contributor as well as the minor contributor. PMID:23768313

Uchimoto, Mari L; Beasley, Emma; Coult, Natalie; Omelia, Emma J; World, Damian; Williams, Graham



[Screening saliva].  


Oral Fluids (OF) are a complex mixture including components deriving from, salivary glands, blood, nasal and bronchial secretions, mucosal lining cells and microbiota. Therefore, OF as a mirror of the body, were suggested as an important diagnostic fluid for the detection of both, oral and systemic diseases. OF as diagnostic fluids have several advantages; their collection is easy, inexpensive and noninvasive, they are suitable for home use and for epidemiology researches, they are easy to store and ship, do not clot and enable fast detection. OF based diagnostics research accomplished a great advance during the last decade. This is mainly due to biotechnology improvements such as 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis, quantitative Mass Spectrometry and bioinformatics systems. These technologies enabled the detection of more than 3000 proteins in oral fluids, as well as the establishment of a panel of biomarkers to different human pathological conditions (i.e. periodontitis, Sjögren's Syndrome, oral cancer, pancreatic cancer etc). However, this diagnostic field has several drawbacks, mainly due to oral fluids variance composition, blood contamination as a result of gingivitis or mucosal injuries, the lack of a single established collection protocol and the presence of high abundant components in OF. This article summarizes the current research, and provides an outlook toward the foundation of this unique body fluid as a major player in the diagnostic field. PMID:24020242

Deutsch, O; Palmon, A; Aframian, D J



Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay  

SciTech Connect

Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance horses. Our /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay has an I-50 for detomidine of approximately 2 ng/ml. Our assay shows limited cross-reactivity with the pharmacodynamically similar xylazine, but does not cross-react with acepromazine, epinephrine, haloperidol or promazine. The plasma kinetic data from clinical (greater than or equal to 5 mg/horse) as well as sub-clinical doses indicate first-order elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Within the first 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) administration of 30 mg/horse, plasma levels peak at approximately 20 ng/ml and then decline with an apparent plasma half-life of 25 minutes. Diuresis can occur with administration of clinical doses of detomidine and this effect was accounted for in the analysis of urine samples. Using this method, administration of 30 mg/horse can be readily detected in equine urine for up to 8 hours after IV injection. Additionally, doses as low as 0.5 mg/horse can be detected for short periods of time in blood and urine with use of this assay. Utilization of this assay by research scientists and forensic analysts will allow for the establishment of proper guidelines and controls regarding detomidine administration to performance horses and assurance of compliance with these guidelines.

Wood, T.; Tai, C.L.; Taylor, D.G.; Woods, W.E.; Wang, C.J.; Houtz, P.K.; Tai, H.H.; Weckman, T.J.; Yang, J.M.; Sturma, L.



Determination of glyphosate and AMPA in blood and urine from humans: about 13 cases of acute intoxication.  


Acute intoxications after ingesting glyphosate are observed in suicidal or accidental cases. Despite low potential toxicity of this herbicide, a number of fatalities and severe outcomes are reported. Indeed, some authors have described the clinical features associated with blood and urine concentrations following intoxication. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical feature and determinate the utility of the glyphosate concentration in blood and urine and the dose taken for predicting clinical outcomes. In 13 glyphosate poisoning cases treated in our laboratory within 7 years period from 2002 to 2009, we registered clinical observations and collected blood and urine samples to HPLC-MS-MS analysis. We classified our patients by the intoxication severity using simple clinical criteria. We obtained clinical observations from 10 patients and the others three patients were treated in forensic cases. Among the 10 patients, one was asymptomatic, 5 had mild to moderate poisoning and 2 had severe poisoning. There were 6 deaths whose 3 were forensic cases. The most common symptoms were oropharyngeal ulceration (5/10), nausea and vomiting (3/10). The main altered biological parameters were high lactate (3/10) and acidosis (7/10). We also noted respiratory distress (3/10), cardiac arrhythmia (4/10), hyperkaleamia, impaired renal function (2/10), hepatic toxicity (1/10) and altered consciousness (3/10). In fatalities, the common symptoms were cardiovascular shock, cardiorespiratory arrest, haemodynamic disturbance, intravascular disseminated coagulation and multiple organ failure. Blood glyphosate concentrations had a mean value of 61 mg/L (range 0.6-150 mg/L) and 4146 mg/L (range 690-7480 mg/L) respectively in mild-moderate intoxication and fatal cases. In the severe intoxication case for which blood has been sampled, the blood glyphosate concentration was found at 838 mg/L. Death was most of the time associated with larger taken dose (500 mL in one patient) and high blood glyphosate concentrations. To predict clinical outcomes and to guide treatment support in patients who ingested glyphosate, blood concentrations of this compound and the taken dose have been useful. PMID:23291146

Zouaoui, K; Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Moesch, C; Lachâtre, G



Metals in blood and urine, and thyroid function among adults in the United States 2007-2008.  


The thyroid is integral to regulation of development and metabolism. Certain metals have been shown to affect thyroid function in occupationally exposed persons, but few studies have been conducted in the general population. This study evaluates the association between biomarkers of metal exposure and thyroid hormones in the US population. Analyses included adults participating in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with no history of thyroid disease or use of thyroid medications, and with data on metals in blood (lead, cadmium and mercury) and urine (lead, cadmium, mercury, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, tungsten and uranium), and thyroid hormones (TSH, free and total T3 and T4) in serum (N=1587). Multivariate linear regression was used to model the association between thyroid hormone levels, and metals in either urine (creatinine-adjusted) or blood. Metal concentrations were considered as both continuous and categorical variables. Models were adjusted for: age, sex, race, BMI, serum lipids, serum cotinine, pregnancy and menopausal status, and use of selected medications. Few participants (<5%) had free T3, free T4, or TSH levels outside the reference range. However, 9.2% (SE=1.2%) had low T3 and 9.4% (SE=1.1%) had low T4. Metals were detected in nearly all blood and urine samples, with the highest levels seen for urinary molybdenum (median 42.5?g/L). When including all blood metals, mercury was associated with decreases in T3 and T4, while cadmium was associated with decreased TSH. Urinary cadmium was associated with increases in both T3 and T4 (models including all metals measured in urine). Urinary thallium and barium were associated with decreased T4 (both) and T3 (barium). For TSH, cesium was associated with decreased, and tungsten with increased levels. Given the high prevalence of exposure to metals, associations of the size reported here could indicate an appreciable contribution of metals exposure to the prevalence of thyroid disorders. These findings indicate the importance of further research to further examine these relationships. PMID:23044211

Yorita Christensen, Krista L



Lithium and sodium in blood plasma and urine of fish and mammals of Lake Baikal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lithium concentration in body fluids was measured by the massspectrometric technique of isotope dilution in certain species of fish and seals, and also in water from Lake Baikal. The concentration of lithium in the urine of all studied animals was higher than that of sodium in plasma. Appreciable differences were found between Li\\/sup +\\/ and Na\\/sup +\\/ ions in

V. A. Putintseva; D. G. Fleishman



Validity of urine-blood hydrational measures to assess total body water changes during mountaineering in the sub-Arctic.  


Mountaineering involves high altitude and cold exposure which are each associated with significant levels of dehydration (via altitude-cold diuresis, high energy expenditures, and poor access to water). The purpose of this study was to identify and validate urine and blood indices of dehydration as compared to changes in total body water (which served as the reference standard). Male subjects (n = 10) were studied during a 14 day mountaineering expedition in the sub-Arctic during which they climbed to an altitude of 5245 +/- 229 m (mean +/- SE). Daily activity consisted of approximately 10-15 hours skiing, hiking, and performing mountaineering tasks with heavy loads (> 30 kg). Various measurements were made immediately before ascending (Pre) and after descending (Post) the mountain: body weight (Bw) and composition (%Fat), urine specific gravity (USG), urine protein (UP), plasma electrolytes (K+, Cl-, Na+), plasma proteins (PP), plasma and urinary osmolality (UOsm), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma aldosterone, and total body water (TBW determined via deuterium oxide). Post the expedition significant (p < 0.05) decreases were observed in Bw, and %Fat, while significant increases were found in Na+, K+, USG, UOsm and UP. TBW was slightly reduced, however, changes were non-significant (Pre = 52.9 +/- 1.2 L vs. Post = 52.6 +/- 1.3 L). USG is often used to monitor hydration status in field settings; however, no significant correlations were found between changes in TBW and USG, nor between changes in TBW and other typical urinary indicators of dehydration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7639888

Hackney, A C; Coyne, J T; Pozos, R; Feith, S; Seale, J



Observation of steady state in blood and urine following human ingestion of hexavalent chromium in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The uptake and elimination of Cr(VI) in a male volunteer who ingested 2 L/d of water containing 2 mg/L for 17 consecutive days was measured. Total chromium was measured in urine, plasma, and red blood cells (RBCs) for 4 d prior to and 2 wk after dosing (34 d total). The estimated bioavailability (2%) and the plasma elimination half-life (36 h) were consistent with our previous studies of Cr(VI) ingestion in humans. Steady-state chromium concentrations in urine and blood were achieved after 7 d of Cr(VI) ingestion. Both plasma and redblood cell (RBC) chromium concentrations returned rapidly to background levels within a few days after cessation of dosing. Since the concentration of chromium in the RBC should not decrease quickly if the chromium had entered the RBC as Cr(VI), these data support our prior work suggesting that concentrations of 10 mg Cr(VI)/L or less in drinking water of exposed humans appears to be completely reduced to Cr(III) prior to systemic distribution. Clinical chemistry data indicate that no toxicity occurred. 21 refs., 3 figs.

Paustenbach, D.J. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Alameda, CA (United States); Hays, S.M.; Brien, B.A. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others



A simple {sup 197}Hg RNAA procedure for the determination of mercury in urine, blood, and tissue  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has been implicated as a causal agent in such central nervous system diseases as Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s. Consequently, there has been increased interest in the determination of ultra-trace-level mercury in biological matrices, especially in tissue. While such nonnuclear techniques as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry have been employed routinely for mercury determinations in urine and blood, there is a paucity of nonnuclear techniques for the determination of mercury in the low parts-per-billion range in biological tissue. As pointed out by Fardy and Warner, instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) require no blank determinations in contrast to nonnuclear analytical techniques employing digestion and/or chemical operations. Therefore, INAA and RNAA become the obvious choices for determination of ultra-trace levels of mercury in tissue. Most separation methods reported in the literature require different and separate methodologies for mercury determinations in urine, blood, or tissue. The purposes of this study are to develop a single methodology for the determination of low levels of mercury in all biological matrices by RNAA and to optimize parameters necessary for an efficacious trace-level determination. Previously, few studies have taken into account the effects of the Szilard-Chalmers reactions of the radioactivatable analyte within a biological matrix. It also would appear that little attention has been given to the optimum postirradiation carrier concentration of the analyte species necessary. This study discusses these various considerations.

Blotcky, A.J. [VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Rack, E.P.; Meade, A.G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others



Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings.  


The toxicological consequences of exposure to mercury (Hg) from dental amalgam fillings is a matter of debate in several countries. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on Hg concentrations in saliva and feces before and after removal of dental amalgam fillings. In addition Hg concentrations in urine, blood, and plasma were determined. Ten subjects had all amalgam fillings removed at one dental session. Before removal, the median Hg concentration in feces was more than 10 times higher than in samples from an amalgam free reference group consisting of 10 individuals (2.7 vs 0.23 mumol Hg/kg dry weight, p < 0.001). A considerable increase of the Hg concentration in feces 2 days after amalgam removal (median 280 mumol Hg/kg dry weight) was followed by a significant decrease. Sixty days after removal the median Hg concentration was still slightly higher than in samples from the reference group. In plasma, the median Hg concentration was 4 nmol/liter at baseline. Two days after removal the median Hg concentration in plasma was increased to 5 nmol/liter and declined subsequently to 1.3 nmol/liter by Day 60. In saliva, there was an exponential decline in the Hg concentration during the first 2 weeks after amalgam removal (t 1/2 = 1.8 days). It was concluded that amalgam fillings are a significant source of Hg in saliva and feces. Hg levels in all media decrease considerably after amalgam removal. The uptake of amalgam mercury in the GI tract in conjunction with removal of amalgam fillings seems to be low. PMID:9169079

Björkman, L; Sandborgh-Englund, G; Ekstrand, J



Method for detection of bromine in urine using liquid chemistry dry chemistry test pads and lateral flow  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention is in the field of toxicology and clinical diagnostics. More specifically, this invention provides a single dry chemistry, liquid chemistry, or lateral flow dry chemistry combination test device for use in the detection of adulteration by the addition of bromine(s) to a specimen submitted for Drugs of Abuse (DAU) testing and clinical diagnostic purposes in aqueous fluids, including urine, saliva, serum, blood, sweat extracts, and liquid homogenates of hair.

Smith; Jack V. (Asheville, NC)



Increased blood and urine copper after residential exposure to copper naphthenate  

SciTech Connect

Despite widespread industrial use of copper naphthenate, there are no reports of the relationship of copper naphthenate and copper absorption in humans or animals. We report a family of three individuals who lived in a home where copper naphthenate was sprayed on the inner foundation. Subsequently, these individuals developed non-specific complaints. In two of these individuals, serum copper levels were elevated when first measured months after copper naphthenate was sprayed in the home. A gradual decline over several years in urine and serum copper levels was observed in the individual who maintained follow-up. It is not known if symptoms reflected exposure to naphthenate, the solvent vehicle, volatilized copper, or the stress of exposure to a malodorous compound perceived as toxic. Exposure to copper naphthenate may be another cause of an elevated serum and urine copper level but the interpretation of these levels as normal' or toxic' requires additional study for clarification. This report suggests the need for further study of the absorption and relative toxicity of copper naphthenate.

Bluhm, R.E.; Welch, L.; Branch, R.A. (Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN (United States))



Comparison of internal dose measures of solvents in breath, blood and urine and genotoxic changes in aircraft maintenance personnel.  


Solvents and fuels are in widespread use both in civilian and military populations. 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), xylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methylene chloride are found in a variety of compounds including degreasing agents, paints, coatings, pesticides and paint strippers. Toluene and xylene are also found in fuels, which are complex mixtures of hundreds of agents. The purpose of this investigation was twofold. The first was to determine the optimum medium to measure internal dose of solvents comparing blood, urine and breath. The second was to determine if low level exposures were associated with genotoxic changes after a short-term exposure of fifteen or thirty weeks. To accomplish the first goal a pilot study was initiated involving eight volunteers who worked in aircraft maintenance including sheet metal, painting and assembly mechanic jobs. Industrial hygiene measurements were evaluated over 30 working days. Breath, blood and a 24-hour urine sample were collected twice to compare internal dose parameters. To achieve the second goal, 58 newly hired subjects were monitored prior to exposure and over 30 weeks to determine if there were genotoxic changes as a result of solvent and/or fuel exposure as measured by sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN). Exposure groups included workers involved in sheet metal (fuel cell) activities, painting, fueling operations and flight line. Results of the pilot study demonstrated that industrial hygiene air samples and internal breath measures taken on the same day were highly correlated for measuring TCA (r = 0.93) and toluene (r = 0.90) but was not as well correlated for the other compounds. Breath measures were more sensitive for measuring low level exposure than were either analytes in blood or 24-hour urine samples; these latter two measures were usually below the limit of detection. A small but statistically significant increase in the frequency of SCEs occurred after 30 weeks of exposure for sheet metal workers (p = 0.003) and for painters (p = 0.05). The MN frequency in the sheet metal workers initially showed a significant increase by 15 weeks, but by 30 weeks had decreased. Chance occurrence of exposures to other occupational or non-occupational agents can not be eliminated as a cause of the genotoxic results since between 58 and 93 total analytes could be found in the breath of some aircraft maintenance personnel. PMID:10189578

Lemasters, G K; Lockey, J E; Olsen, D M; Selevan, S G; Tabor, M W; Livingston, G K; New, G R




Microsoft Academic Search

In its normal medium of sea water the blood of Pachygrapsus may be slightly hypo-osmotic (Jones, 1941 ; Robertson, 1953) . In a dilute sea water the blood concentration declines somewhat but is maintained higher than the concentration of the medium (Jones, 1941 ) and this hyper-osmotic regulation permits the crab to enter regions of brackish water. In a more



The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years  

SciTech Connect

Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)



Carbon Isotopes Profiles of Human Whole Blood, Plasma, Red Blood Cells, Urine and Feces for Biological/Biomedical 14C-Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Applications  

PubMed Central

Radiocarbon (14C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants preferentially incorporate atmospheric 14CO2, vs 13CO2, vs 12CO2, which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope 13C (?13C) and 14C (Fm) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100?L) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean ?13C were ranked low to high as follows, feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. ?13C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted ?13C by only ± 1.0 ‰ ensuring our Fm measurements were accurate and precise. Mean Fm were ranked low to high as follows, plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. Fm in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, 14C levels (Fm) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric 14C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (non-vegetarian), the measured Fm of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean±SD), the Fm of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric Fm of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using 14C as a tracer.

Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C.; Kelly, Peter B.; Clifford, Andrew J.



Flavoxate and 3-methylflavone-8-carboxylic acid. Assay methods in blood and urine, plasma-red cells repartition and stability.  


The following assay methods for pharmacokinetic studies on flavoxate (F) and on its main metabolite, i.e. 3-methylflavone-8-carboxylic acid (A), are described. 1. Spectrophotometry for the assay of F and of A in plasma, 2. TLC-Spectrodensitometry and GLC for the assay of A in urine after acid hydrolysis, 3. TLC-Spectrodensitometry for determining the F : A ratio in plasma or in urine. It was found that F hydrolyzes into A. This process depends on the pH and on the medium. In water, at pH 5.0, F is stable, while in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 the semi-hydrolysis time is 60 min. In a solution with bovine serum albumin, in rat, rabbit, dog or human plasma the semi-hydrolysis times are between 5 and 60 min. Finally the plasma-red cells repartitions of F and of A were studied in vitro in rat, rabbit, dog and human blood and found between 0.8 and 2.0 for F and between 2.1 and 4.6 for A. PMID:1048

Cova, A; Setnikar, I



Elimination of matrix and spectral interferences in the measurement of lead and cadmium in urine and blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurement of lead and cadmium in blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction (D2-AAS) is prone to severe matrix and spectral interferences. The authors overcame these effects by coating the L'vov platform with ammonium molybdate, reducing the atomization time, introducing a post-atomization cooling step, carefully selecting ashing and atomization temperatures, and using an appropriate procedure for matrix modification. To determine Pb and Cd in blood and urine, they used matrix-matched calibration curves. With the proposed procedure for sample preparation, both Pb and Cd in whole blood can be determined in the same diluted sample. Results obtained by D2-AAS correlate closely with those by Zeeman-corrected AAS. Detection limits (mean blank + 3 SDblank) for Pb in urine and blood were 4 micrograms/L. For cadmium, the detection limits were 0.4 and 0.1 micrograms/L for urine and blood analysis, respectively. Between-run CVs were less than 5.0%.

D'Haese, P.C.; Lamberts, L.V.; Liang, L.; Van de Vyver, F.L.; De Broe, M.E. (University of Antwerp, Department of Nephrology-Hypertension (Belgium))



Speciation of platinum in blood plasma and urine by micelle-mediated extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.  


A highly sensitive and selective technique for the speciation of platinum by cloud point extraction prior to determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was described. The separation of Pt(II) from Pt(IV) was performed in the presence of 4-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)thiosemicarbazide (HCPTS) as chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The extraction of Pt(II)-HCPTS complex needs temperature higher than the cloud point temperature of Triton X-114 and pH=7, while Pt(IV) remains in the aqueous phase. The Pt(II) in the surfactant phase was analyzed by GFAAS, and the concentration of Pt(IV) was calculated by subtraction of Pt(II) from total platinum which was directly determined by GFAAS. The effect of pH, concentration of chelating agent, surfactant, and equilibration temperature were investigated. An enrichment factor of 42 was obtained for the preconcentration of Pt(II) with 50mL solution. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear up to 30?gL(-1) with detection limit of 0.08?gL(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 1.8%. No considerable interference was observed due to the presence of coexisting anions and cations. The accuracy of the results was verified by analyzing different spiked samples (tap water, blood plasma and urine). The proposed method was applied to the speciation analysis of Pt in blood plasma and urine with satisfactory results. PMID:23669311

Mortada, Wael I; Hassanien, Mohammed M; El-Asmy, Ahmed A



Effect of selenium supplementation on blood status and milk, urine, and fecal excretion in pregnant and lactating camel.  


Ten pregnant female camels divided into two groups received, after a 2-week adaptation period, an oral selenium (Se) supplementation (0 and 2 mg, respectively) under sodium selenite form for 6 months from the three last months of gestation up to the three first months of lactation. Feed intake was assessed daily. Blood samples and body weight were taken on a biweekly basis, both in dams and their camel calves after parturition. Feces and urine samples were collected monthly and milk on a biweekly basis. The Se concentration in serum increased significantly in the supplemented group and was threefold higher than the concentration compared to the control group, respectively, 305.9 +/- 103.3 and 109.3 +/- 33.1 ng/mL. The selenium concentration increased in similar proportion in milk (86.4 +/- 39.1 ng/mL in the control group vs 167.1 +/- 97.3 ng/mL in treated group), in urine, and feces. The glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity varied between 18.1 +/- 8.7 IU/g hemoglobin (Hb) in control group and 47.5 +/- 25.6 IU/g Hb in treated group but decreased after parturition in both groups. Vitamin E did not change significantly and was, on average, 1.17 +/- 0.72 and 1.14 +/- 0.89 ng/mL in the control and treated groups, respectively. Significant correlations were reported between serum Se, milk Se, GSH-Px, and fecal and urinary excretion or concentration. Blood values in camel calves were similar to those of the dams. The results seemed to confirm the sensitivity of camel to Se supplementation with an important increase of selenium in serum and milk. PMID:18972072

Seboussi, Rabiha; Faye, Bernard; Askar, Mustafa; Hassan, Khalil; Alhadrami, Ghaleb



Selenocompounds in juvenile white sturgeon: evaluating blood, tissue, and urine selenium concentrations after a single oral dose.  


Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for all vertebrates, however, at environmental relevant levels, it is a potent toxin. In the San Francisco Bay-Delta, white sturgeon, an ancient Chondrostean fish of high ecological and economic value, is at risk to Se exposure. The present study is the first to examine the uptake, distribution, and excretion of various selenocompounds in white sturgeon. A combined technique of stomach intubation, dorsal aorta cannulation, and urinary catheterization was utilized, in this study, to characterize the short-term effects of Se in the forms of sodium-selenate (Selenate), sodium-selenite (Selenite), selenocystine (SeCys), l-selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylseleno-l-cysteine (MSeCys), and selenoyeast (SeYeast). An ecologically relevant dose of Se (?500 ?g/kg body weight) was intubated into groups of 5 juvenile white sturgeon. Blood and urine samples were repeatedly collected over the 48 h post intubation period and fish were sacrificed for Se tissue concentration and distribution at 48 h. The tissue concentration and distribution, blood concentrations, and urinary elimination of Se significantly differ (p ? 0.05) among forms. In general, organic selenocompounds maintain higher blood concentrations, with SeMeCys maintaining the highest area under the curve (66.3 ± 8.7 and 9.3 ± 1.0 ?g h/ml) and maximum Se concentration in blood (2.3 ± 0.2 and 0.4 ± 0.2 ?g/ml) in both the protein and non-protein bound fractions, respectively. Selenate, however, did not result in significant increase of Se concentration, compared with the control, in the protein-bound blood fraction. Regardless of source, Se is preferentially distributed into metabolically active tissues, with the SeMet treated fish achieving the highest concentration in most tissues. In contrast, Selenite has very similar blood concentrations and tissue distribution profile to SeCys and SeYeast. From blood and tissue Se concentrations, Selenate is not stored in blood, but taken up rapidly by the liver and white muscle. Urinary elimination of Se is form dependent and peaks between 3 and 12 h post intubation. A basic understanding of the overall Se absorption, distribution, and elimination is provided through monitoring tissue Se concentrations, however, conclusions regarding to the dynamics and the specific processes of Se metabolism can only be inferred, in the absence of kinetic information. PMID:22226619

Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Wang, Wei-Fang; Deng, Dong-Fang; Fadel, James G; Hung, Silas S O



Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.  


Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:20465865

Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R



Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of low levels of dichloroacetic acid and its metabolites in blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a contaminant found in treated drinking water due to chlorination. DCA has been shown to be a complete hepatocarcinogen in both mice and rats. In this study we developed a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to simultaneously detect DCA and its metabolites, oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid and glycolic acid in blood and urine

L Narayanan; A. P Moghaddam; A. G Taylor; G. L Sudberry; J. W Fisher



Evaluation of Dietary Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows Based on Urea Concentrations in Blood, Urine and Milk, and on Urinary Concentration of Purine Derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on urea in blood, urine and milk, and on the urinary purine derivatives and creatinine in dairy cows, were studied. Diurnal variation in urinary concentration of urea, allantoin and creatinine was also studied. A total of 24 multiparous lactating dairy cows were selected from a production experiment and divided into two

Horacio Leandro Gonda; Jan Erik Lindberg



Hydroxyproline in Blood and Urine: Indication of Collagen Metabolism. - The Determination of D- and L-C-14 Amino Acids in the Presence of Their Metabolites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study of hydroxyproline degradation in patients with renal insufficiency was expected to produce parameters for the kidney function. C-14 was measured in blood plasma and urine samples of patients previously injected with a DL-2-C-14-hydroxyproline do...

C. J. A. Vandenhamer W. Hart



Serum Vitamins and Heavy Metals in Blood and Urine, and the Correlations among Them in Parkinson’s Disease Patients in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Some heavy metals are suspected to be pathogenic and some vitamins protective against Parkinson’s disease (PD), and the interaction between heavy metals and vitamins could be associated with the pathophysiology of PD. Methods: Subjects comprised PD patients and sex- and age-matched controls recruited from an outpatient clinic in China. Morning blood and urine samples were used to measure concentrations

Tetsuhito Fukushima; Xiaodong Tan; Yunwen Luo; Hideyuki Kanda



Extraction and analysis of flunitrazepam\\/7-aminoflunitrazepam in blood and urine by LC–PDA and GC–MS using butyl SPE columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forensic toxicology community has recognized flunitrazepam and its metabolite (7-aminoflunitrazepam) as compounds of concern for several years. In this procedure, the analytes were extracted from whole blood and urine onto single mode solid phase cartridges (butyl) using nitrazepam as an internal standard. The columns were washed with distilled water and hexane. All three compounds were eluted from the sorbent

Jeffery Hackett; Albert A. Elian



Blood, urine and vitreous isopropyl alcohol as biochemical markers in forensic investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is widely used as an industrial solvent and cleaning fluid. After ingestion or absorption, IPA is converted into acetone by alcohol dehydrogenase. However, in ketosis, acetone can be reduced to IPA. The aim of this study was to investigate blood IPA and acetone concentrations in a series of 400 medico-legal autopsies, including cases of diabetic ketoacidosis, hypothermia

Cristian Palmiere; Frank Sporkert; Dominique Werner; Daniel Bardy; Marc Augsburger; Patrice Mangin


Rapid Detection of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum in Saliva of Children with Acute Uncomplicated Malaria  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of malaria in biological fluids other than blood using non-invasive, rapid diagnostic techniques provides a valuable approach in case management and epidemiological studies of malaria. Rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in saliva samples from 130 of 144 children with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection was evaluated using Optimal-IT dipsticks. Genotyping of parasites was also performed in saliva and blood samples from a cohort of patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-blood, whole-saliva, or supernatant of spun saliva samples was 97.2%, 77.9%, and 48.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-saliva samples was significantly higher than in supernatant of spun saliva samples (P < 0.0005). Mutant T76 allele was detectable in 60% and 57% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. This finding shows rapid detection of pLDH in patient saliva.

Gbotosho, Grace O.; Happi, Christian T.; Folarin, Onikepe; Keyamo, Ochuko; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Oduola, Ayoade M. J.



Profiles of Great Lakes critical pollutants: a sentinel analysis of human blood and urine. The Great Lakes Consortium.  


To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan (n = 10), Lake Huron (n = 11), and Lake Erie (n = 11). Serum was analyzed for 8 polychlorinated dioxin congeners, 10 polychlorinated furan congeners, 4 coplanar and 32 other polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 11 persistent chlorinated pesticides. Whole blood was analyzed for mercury and lead. Urine samples were analyzed for 10 nonpersistent pesticides (or their metabolites) and 5 metals. One individual was excluded from statistical analysis because of an unusual exposure to selected analytes. Overall, the sample (n = 31) consumed, on average, 49 GL sport fish meals per year for a mean of 33 years. On average, the general population in the GL basin consume 6 meals of GL sport fish per year. The mean tissue levels of most persistent, bioaccumulative compounds also found in GL sport fish ranged from less than a twofold increase to that of PCB 126, which was eight times the selected background levels found in the general population. The overall mean total toxic equivalent for dioxins, furans, and coplanar PCBs were greater than selected background levels in the general population (dioxins, 1.8 times; furans, 2.4 times; and coplanar PCBs, 9.6 times). The nonpersistent pesticides and most metals were not identified in unusual concentrations. A contaminant pattern among lake subgroups was evident. Lake Erie sport fish consumers had consistently lower contaminant concentrations than consumers of sport fish from Lake Michigan and Huron. These interlake differences are consistent with contaminant patterns seen in sport fish tissue from the respective lakes; GL sport fish consumption was the most likely explanation for observed contaminant levels among this sample. Frequent consumers of sport fish proved to be effective sentinels for identifying sport fish contaminants of concern. In the larger study to follow, serum samples will be tested for PCBs (congener specific and coplanar), DDE, dioxin, and furans. PMID:9560354

Anderson, H A; Falk, C; Hanrahan, L; Olson, J; Burse, V W; Needham, L; Paschal, D; Patterson, D; Hill, R H



Profiles of Great Lakes critical pollutants: a sentinel analysis of human blood and urine. The Great Lakes Consortium.  

PubMed Central

To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan (n = 10), Lake Huron (n = 11), and Lake Erie (n = 11). Serum was analyzed for 8 polychlorinated dioxin congeners, 10 polychlorinated furan congeners, 4 coplanar and 32 other polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 11 persistent chlorinated pesticides. Whole blood was analyzed for mercury and lead. Urine samples were analyzed for 10 nonpersistent pesticides (or their metabolites) and 5 metals. One individual was excluded from statistical analysis because of an unusual exposure to selected analytes. Overall, the sample (n = 31) consumed, on average, 49 GL sport fish meals per year for a mean of 33 years. On average, the general population in the GL basin consume 6 meals of GL sport fish per year. The mean tissue levels of most persistent, bioaccumulative compounds also found in GL sport fish ranged from less than a twofold increase to that of PCB 126, which was eight times the selected background levels found in the general population. The overall mean total toxic equivalent for dioxins, furans, and coplanar PCBs were greater than selected background levels in the general population (dioxins, 1.8 times; furans, 2.4 times; and coplanar PCBs, 9.6 times). The nonpersistent pesticides and most metals were not identified in unusual concentrations. A contaminant pattern among lake subgroups was evident. Lake Erie sport fish consumers had consistently lower contaminant concentrations than consumers of sport fish from Lake Michigan and Huron. These interlake differences are consistent with contaminant patterns seen in sport fish tissue from the respective lakes; GL sport fish consumption was the most likely explanation for observed contaminant levels among this sample. Frequent consumers of sport fish proved to be effective sentinels for identifying sport fish contaminants of concern. In the larger study to follow, serum samples will be tested for PCBs (congener specific and coplanar), DDE, dioxin, and furans.

Anderson, H A; Falk, C; Hanrahan, L; Olson, J; Burse, V W; Needham, L; Paschal, D; Patterson, D; Hill, R H



Differences in trace metal concentrations (co, cu, fe, mn, zn, cd, and ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.  


High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard



Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mørland, Jørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg


Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  


The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L



Human Saliva Proteome and Transcriptome  

PubMed Central

This paper tests the hypothesis that salivary proteins and their counterpart mRNAs co-exist in human whole saliva. Global profiling of human saliva proteomes and transcriptomes by mass spectrometry (MS) and expression microarray technologies, respectively, revealed many similarities between saliva proteins and mRNAs. Of the function-known proteins identified in saliva, from 61 to 70% were also found present as mRNA transcripts. For genes not detected at both protein and mRNA levels, we made further efforts to determine if the counterpart is present. Of 19 selected genes detected only at the protein level, the mRNAs of 13 (68%) genes were found in saliva by RT-PCR. In contrast, of many mRNAs detected only by microarrays, their protein products were found in saliva, as reported previously by other investigators. The saliva transcriptome may provide preliminary insights into the boundary of the saliva proteome.

Hu, S.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Xie, Y.; Tjon, K.; Wolinsky, L.; Loo, R.R.O.; Loo, J.A.; Wong, D.T.



DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene levels in children (in blood and urine samples) from Chiapas and Oaxaca, Mexico.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene exposure levels of children living in communities located in southeastern Mexico. The study communities were Lacanja and Victoria in Chiapas state and Ventanilla in Oaxaca state. Children living in Lacanja had total blood DDT levels (mean?±?SD, 29,039.6?±?11,261.4 ng/g lipid) that were significantly higher than those of children in Victoria (10,220.5?±?7,893.1 ng/g lipid) and Ventanilla (11,659.7?±?6,683.7 ng/g lipid). With respect to the 1-hydroxypyrene levels in urine samples, the levels in Lacanja (4.8?±?4.1 ?g/L or 4.5?±?3.9 ?mol/mol creatinine) and Victoria (4.6?±?3.8 ?g/L or 3.9?±?3.0 ?mol/mol Cr) were significantly higher than levels found in Ventanilla (3.6?±?1.4 ?g/L or 2.5?±?0.5 ?mol/mol Cr). In conclusion, our data indicate high levels of exposure in children living in the communities studied in this work. The evidence found in this study could be further used as a trigger to revisit local policies on environmental exposures. PMID:23709263

Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio; Ruvalcaba-Aranda, Selene; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier



Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals. Analysis of human fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals are detailed in this book which surveys and evaluates methods and procedures to identify and quantitative chemical constituents in human tissues and body fluids, including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath. The book details attempts to determine 1) the feasibility of correlating preferred methods with specific tissues or fluids and/or with readily identifiable chemical characteristics, and 2) which biological matrices serve as the best indicators of past or present exposure to chemical constituents of concern. The methods studied have been evaluated of their ease and rapidly, as well as cost, accuracy and precision. Target compounds studied were those inorganic and organic chemicals basically of current or previous concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Information provided for the methods evaluated includes sections regarding various types of instrumentation and sample preparation. Sections on method/analyte correlation suggest physical or chemical properties which might be used to predict the applicability of a given analytical method to the analysis of that chemical in a specific biological matrix.

Sheldon, L.; Umana, M.; Bursey, J.; Gutknecht, W.; Handy, R.; Hyldburg, P.; Michael, L.; Moseley, A.; Raymer, J.; Smith, D.



Predictors, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, of all-cause mortality among institutionalized individuals with intellectual disability.  


As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were examined among institutionalized people with ID. This retrospective cohort study involved 316 participants (191 males, 125 females; mean age, 36.5 ± 10.5 years) at a public facility for people with ID in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. During the follow-up from the examination day in 1984-1992 through December 31, 2007 (mean follow-up, 18.6 years), 44 deaths occurred. Mean age at death was 47.1 ± 10.0 years (range, 22.3-65.3 years). Early deaths within three years (n = 4) were treated as censored cases. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of all-cause mortality. Sex- and age-adjusted analysis (p<0.15) revealed positive associations with mortality for high serum cholesterol, high thymol turbidity test (TTT), and glucosuria and negative associations with mortality for high serum albumin, high uric acid, high potassium, high calcium, and high systolic blood pressure. Multivariate analysis revealed that male sex (HR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.59-10.59), high serum cholesterol (1.01; 1.00-1.02), high serum TTT (1.21; 1.03-1.41), and epilepsy significantly increased the mortality risk. The results indicate that the predictors of life expectancy for people with ID included both factors that are shared with healthy people (male sex, high serum cholesterol) and factors specific to people with disabilities (high serum TTT and epilepsy). PMID:23123878

Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko



Comparison study of the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in human blood and urine  

SciTech Connect

Although exposure to DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl1)1,1,1,-trichloroethane) is not normally associated with fatality or chronic adverse effects to human life, it is a known hazard to the ecosystem. Blood levels of DDT and some of its derivatives have been used to assess extent of exposure or the body load of DDT in humans. In experimental studies, ingestion of DDT has been associated with reduced liver stores of vitamin A, and increased serum levels of vitamin A. The same study also revealed a significant correlation of vitamin A and DDE serum levels. Generally an increase in excreted 17-B-hydroxycortisone has been associated with DDT exposure. Increased excretion of 6-B-hydroxycortisol has been noted in workers who were involved in the formulation of DDT. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in humans. The indices which were compared are serum vitamin A and DDE levels and urinary 17-B-hydroxycortisol.

Nhachi, C.F.B.; Loewenson, R. (Univ. of Zimbabwe (South Africa))



Saliva Stimulation and Caries Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective role of saliva is demonstrated by the rampant caries seen in human subjects with marked salivary hypofunction, and in desalivated animals. In normal cases, however, the relationship between saliva flow and coronal or root caries experience is doubtful, and to examine the concept that stimulation of saliva might have protective effects against caries, one must look beyond a

W. M. Edgar; S. M. Higham; R. H. Manning



A novel rapid genotyping technique for Collie eye anomaly: SYBR Green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method applicable to blood and saliva specimens on Flinders Technology Associates filter paper.  


Collie eye anomaly (CEA) is a canine inherited ocular disease that shows a wide variety of manifestations and severity of clinical lesions. Recently, a CEA-associated mutation was reported, and a DNA test that uses conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has now become available. The objective of the current study was to develop a novel rapid genotyping technique by using SYBR Green-based real-time PCR for future large-scale surveys as a key part in the strategy to eradicate CEA by selective breeding. First, a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for genotyping of CEA was developed and evaluated by using purified DNA samples from normal, carrier, and affected Border Collies in which genotypes had previously been determined by conventional PCR. This real-time PCR assay demonstrated appropriate amplifications in all genotypes, and the results were consistent with those of conventional PCR. Second, the availability of Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA card) as DNA templates for the real-time PCR assay was evaluated by using blood and saliva specimens to determine suitability for CEA screening. DNA-containing solution prepared from a disc of blood- or saliva-spotted FTA cards was available directly as templates for the real-time PCR assay when the volume of solution was 2.5% of the PCR mixture. In conclusion, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR combined with FTA cards is a rapid genotyping technique for CEA that can markedly shorten the overall time required for genotyping as well as simplify the sample preparation. Therefore, this newly developed technique suits large-scale screening in breeding populations of Collie-related breeds. PMID:20807925

Chang, Hye-Sook; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Arai, Toshiro; Yamato, Osamu



Urine Tests (For Parents)  


... number and variety of red and white blood cells the presence of bacteria or other organisms the presence of substances, such as glucose, that usually shouldn't be found in the urine the pH, which shows how acidic or basic the urine ...


[Relationship between the ionic composition of blood and urine and the salinity of the external environment of the crab Hemigrapsus sanguineus].  


Studies have been made on the dependence of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium concentrations of the blood and urine on the salinity of the external milieu in the crab H. sanguineus. Effective regulation of sodium and potasssium balance at low salinities was found. Within the salinity range investigated, magnesium level in the blood is maintained at lower level as compared to that in the environment. At low salinities, regulation of potassium and sodium concentrations in the blood is monitored by extrarenal mechanisms. Uber high salinity conditions, regulation of magnesium and potassium concentrations in the blood is accomplished at the expense of the activity of antennal glands. Calcium concentration in the blood is regulated by extra-renal mechanisms. The antennal glands affect regulation of calcium balance. PMID:899386

Busev, V M; Semen'kov, P G; Mishchenko, T Ia



Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and widely used solid-phase extraction procedure (United Chemical Technologies Method Handbook) was applied for the GC-MS identification and quantitation of cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (COCE), and m-hydroxy- benzoylecgonine (HBE) in blood, urine, and milk. The method which utilizes BSTFA as a derivatizing agent yielded abundant diagnostic ions with high m\\/z values.Linear quantitative response curves were generated for

Imad K. Abukhalaf; Bryan A. Parks; Natalia A. Silvestrov; Daniel A. von Deutsch; Ashraf Mozayani; Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein



Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato



Quantitative analysis of myo-inositol in urine, blood and nutritional supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myo-inositol plays key physiological functions, necessitating development of methodology for quantification in biological matrices. Limitations of current mass spectrometry-based approaches include the need for a derivatisation step and\\/or sample clean-up. In addition, co-elution of glucose may cause ion suppression of myo-inositol signals, for example in blood or urine samples. We describe an HPLC–MS\\/MS method using a lead-form resin based column

Kit-Yi Leung; Kevin Mills; Katie A. Burren; Andrew J. Copp; Nicholas D. E. Greene



The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction,

David S. Millington; Naoki Kodo; Naoto Terada; Diane Roe; Donald H. Chace



Evaluation of Status of Trace and Toxic Metals in Biological Samples (Scalp Hair, Blood, and Urine) of Normal and Anemic Children of Two Age Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anemia affects a substantial portion of the world’s population, provoking severe health problems as well as important economic\\u000a losses to the region in which this condition is found. This study was designed to compare the levels of essential trace and\\u000a toxic elements in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of anemic children (n = 132) with age range 1–5 and

Faheem Shah; Tasneem Gul Kazi; Hassan Imran Afridi; Naveed Kazi; Jameel Ahmed Baig; Abdul Qadir Shah; Sumaira Khan; Nida Fatima Kolachi; Sham Kumar Wadhwa



Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.  


The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure on production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QCW) of a steel mill, all male subjects aged 25-55 years. In this investigation, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) from these steel mill workers in relation to controlled unexposed healthy subjects of the same age group. After pre-treatment with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, the samples were digested via a microwave oven, and for comparison purposes, the same samples were digested by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The samples digested were subjected to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors, such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), accuracy and precision, were studied. Quality control for these procedures was established with certified sample of human hair, urine and whole blood. The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices. PMID:17533809

Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Gul H; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Shar, Ghulam Q; Sarfaraz, Raja A



A review of the effect of the psychosocial working environment on physiological changes in blood and urine.  


The aim of the present survey was to provide a literary review of current knowledge of the possible association between the psychosocial working environment and relevant physiological parameters measured in blood and urine. Literature databases (PubMed, Toxline, Biosis and Embase) were screened using the key words job, work-related and stress in combination with selected physiological parameters. In total, 51 work place studies investigated the associations between the psychosocial working environment and physiological changes, of which 20 were longitudinal studies and 12 population-based studies. The studied exposures in work place/population-based studies included: job demands (26/8 studies), job control (24/10 studies), social support and/or leadership behaviour (12/3 studies), effort-reward imbalance (three/one studies), occupational changes (four studies), shift work (eight studies), traumatic events (one study) and other (five studies). The physiological responses were catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) (14 studies), cortisol (28 studies), cholesterol (23 studies), glycated haemoglobinA(1c) (six studies), testosterone (nine studies), oestrogens (three studies), dehydroepiandrosterone (six studies), prolactin (14 studies), melatonin (one study), thyroxin (one study), immunoglobulin (Ig) A (five studies), IgG (four studies), IgM (one study) and fibrinogen (eight studies). In general, fibrinogen and catabolic indicators, defined as energy releasing, were increased, whereas the anabolic indicators defined as constructive building up energy resources were decreased when the psychosocial working environment was perceived as poor. In conclusion, in this review the association between an adverse psychosocial working environment and HbA(1c), testosterone and fibrinogen in serum was found to be a robust and potential candidate for a physiological effect of the psychosocial working environment. Further, urinary catecholamines appear to reflect the effects of shift work and monotonous work. PMID:19563453

Hansen, Ase M; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Rugulies, Reiner; Garde, Anne H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E



Biomarkers of primary dysmenorrhea and herbal formula intervention: an exploratory metabonomics study of blood plasma and urine.  


Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), a common clinical endocrine disorder affecting young women, is associated with endocrinopathy and metabolic abnormalities. Although some physiological and pathological function parameters have been investigated, little information about the changes of small metabolites in biofluids has been reported, which may cause poor diagnosis and treatment for PDM. The Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Formula (XFSWF) is a Chinese herbal formula used to treat PDM for hundreds of years. The aim of this study was to establish the metabolic profile of PDM and investigate the action mechanism of XFSWF effect. In this cross-sectional study of 25 patients with PDM and 12 healthy controls, contents of small molecular endogenous metabolites in blood plasma and urine samples were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS) and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ/MS) based techniques and analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. The levels of LPCs including lypso (16?:?1), lysoPC(20?:?4), lysoPC(18?:?2), lysoPC(16?:?0), lysoPC(18?:?1), lysoPC(10?:?1), estrone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, myristoylglycine and palmitoylglycine increased significantly (p < 0.05) in PDM, while the levels of phytosphingosine, dihydrocortisol and sphingosine decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the healthy controls. These significant perturbations are involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism, as well as steroid hormone biosynthesis. The metabolic deviations recovered to the normal level after XFSWF intervention. The results demonstrated that biofluids metabonomics was a powerful tool in clinical diagnosis and treatment of PDM for providing information on changes in metabolites and neural, endocrinal and immune pathways. XFSWF can be used for the treatment of PDM cases, especially for those adolescents who do not desire a contraceptive method, to reduce the risk of secondary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23111557

Liu, Pei; Duan, Jinao; Wang, Peijuan; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Tang, Yuping; Tang, Zongxiang



Development of a validated LC-MS/MS method for determination of doxofylline on rat dried blood spots and urine: application to pharmacokinetics.  


A rapid and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of doxofylline on rat dried blood spots and urine was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse phase C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m), using 20 mM ammonium acetate (pH adjusted to 3.5 with trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile (75:25 v/v) as a mobile phase at 25 °C. LC-MS detection was performed with selective ion monitoring using target ions at m/z 267 and m/z 195 for doxofylline and caffeine used as internal standard respectively. The calibration curve showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 1-5000 ng/mL. The effect of hematocrit on extraction of doxofylline from DBS was evaluated. The mean recoveries of doxofylline from DBS and urine were 93.46 and 89.86% respectively. The intra and inter-day precisions were less than 4.28% in DBS as well as urine. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.24 and 0.84 ng/mL in DBS and 0.28 and 1.00 ng/mL in urine samples respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of doxofylline in rats. PMID:23501441

Rao, R Nageswara; Prasad, K Guru; Naidu, Ch Gangu; Saida, Shaik; Agwane, Sachin B



Blood in Urine (Hematuria)  


... sectional images of the inside of the body; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which uses a magnetic field and radio waves instead of X-rays ... et al. Assessment of hematuria. Medical Clinics of North America. 2011;95:153. Sandhu KS, et al. ...


Saliva, diagnostics, and dentistry.  


Saliva, a scientific and clinical entity familiar to every oral health researcher and dental practitioner, has emerged as a translational and clinical commodity that has reached national visibility at the National Institutes of Health and the President's Office of Science and Technology. "Detecting dozens of diseases in a sample of saliva" was issued by President Obama as one of the 14 Grand Challenges for biomedical research in the 21(st) Century (National Economic Council, 2010). In addition, NIH's 2011 Government Performance Report Act (GPRA) listed 10 initiatives in the high-risk long-term category (Collins, 2011). The mandate is to determine the efficacy of using salivary diagnostics to monitor health and diagnose at least one systemic disease by 2013. The stage is set for the scientific community to capture these national and global opportunities to advance and substantiate the scientific foundation of salivary diagnostics to meet these goals. A specific calling is to the oral, dental, and craniofacial health community. Three areas will be highlighted in this paper: the concept of high-impact diagnostics, the role of dentists in diagnostics, and, finally, an infrastructure currently being developed in the United Kingdom--The UK Biobank--which will have an impact on the translational and clinical utilizations of saliva. PMID:21917745

Urdea, M S; Neuwald, P D; Greenberg, B L; Glick, M; Galloway, J; Williams, D; Wong, D T W



Neither Mosquito Saliva nor Immunity to Saliva Has a Detectable Effect on the Infectivity of Plasmodium Sporozoites Injected into Mice? †  

PubMed Central

Malaria infection is initiated when a female Anopheles mosquito probing for blood injects saliva, together with sporozoites, into the skin of its mammalian host. Prior studies had suggested that saliva may enhance sporozoite infectivity. Using rodent malaria models (Plasmodium berghei and P. yoelii), we were unable to show that saliva had any detectable effect on sporozoite infectivity. This is encouraging for plans to immunize humans with washed, attenuated P. falciparum sporozoites because many individuals develop cutaneous, hypersensitivity reactions to mosquito saliva after repeated exposure. If washed sporozoites have no appreciable loss of infectivity, they likely do not have decreased immunogenicity; thus, vaccinees are unlikely to develop cutaneous reactions against mosquito saliva during attempted immunization with such sporozoites. Earlier studies also suggested that repeated prior exposure to mosquito saliva reduces infectivity of sporozoites injected by mosquitoes into sensitized hosts. However, our own studies show that prior exposure of mice to saliva had no detectable effect on numbers of sporozoites delivered by infected mosquitoes, the rate of disappearance of these sporozoites from the skin or infectivity of the sporozoites. Under natural conditions, sporozoites are delivered both to individuals who may exhibit cutaneous hypersensitivity to mosquito bite and to others who may have not yet developed such reactivity. It was tempting to hypothesize that differences in responsiveness to mosquito bite by different individuals might modulate the infectivity of sporozoites delivered into a milieu of changes induced by cutaneous hypersensitivity. Our results with rodent malaria models, however, were unable to support such a hypothesis.

Kebaier, Chahnaz; Voza, Tatiana; Vanderberg, Jerome



Bioinformatics advances in saliva diagnostics  

PubMed Central

There is a need recognized by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research and the National Cancer Institute to advance basic, translational and clinical saliva research. The goal of the Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is to create a data management system and web resource constructed to support human salivaomics research. To maximize the utility of the SKB for retrieval, integration and analysis of data, we have developed the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart. This article reviews the informatics advances in saliva diagnostics made possible by the Saliva Ontology and SDxMart.

Ai, Ji-Ye; Smith, Barry; Wong, David TW



Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva  

SciTech Connect

The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. (Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey))



Shedding of feline leukemia virus RNA in saliva is a consistent feature in viremic cats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the shedding pattern of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) RNA in saliva, and to correlate it with the proviral load in whole blood, viral load in plasma, levels of p27 in saliva and plasma, the isolation of infectious FeLV from saliva, and the titers of FeLV-specific antibodies of the IgG and IgA isotypes.

M. A. Gomes-Keller; R. Tandon; E. Gönczi; M. L. Meli; R. Hofmann-Lehmann; H. Lutz



Baden-Wuerttemberg Environmental Health Survey (BW-EHS) from 1996 to 2003: toxic metals in blood and urine of children.  


The environmental health surveillance system in the Federal State of Baden-Wuerttemberg (South Germany), among others, was implemented to monitor pollutant exposures and their temporal and regional trends in children at the age of about 10 years. The investigations were performed in two larger cities, one small city and one rural area. Between 1996 and 2003, in total 5470 children were investigated in consideration of environmental health parameters in four cross-sectional studies. The data presented here cover the results of the determination of the internal load with toxic metals. The median values observed in the investigation in 2002/03 were: 4.6 microg/l urine for arsenic, less than 0.2 microg/l urine for mercury, 20.7 microg/l blood for lead, and 0.25 microg/l blood for cadmium. From 1996 to 2003, mercury concentrations showed a substantial decrease (-0.027 microg/l/year) and lead levels also decreased (-0.25 microg/l/year), whereas arsenic and cadmium levels did not change significantly over time. There was no consistent difference in the mean internal load of the metals between the four investigation areas. Important factors influencing the measured concentrations were consumption of fish in the last 48 h, which had an impact on arsenic (factor 2), and amalgam fillings, which accounted for an increase in mercury (factor 4.6). In the 2002/03 study period, levels above the limit of health concern for children (German HBM values) were found in about 0.5% of the lead measurements (maximum value 180 microg/l blood) and in about 0.2% of the mercury measurements (maximum value 8.2 microg/l urine). In conclusion, this environmental health survey generates objective data on secular trends and regional differences and provides insight into probable sources of toxic metal exposure in children. PMID:17353148

Link, Bernhard; Gabrio, Thomas; Piechotowski, Isolde; Zöllner, Iris; Schwenk, Michael



HCG in urine  


... Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.


Whole Blood Optical Biosensor  

PubMed Central

The future of rapid point-of-care diagnostics depends on the development of cheap, noncomplex, and easily integrated systems to analyze biological samples directly from the patient (eg. blood, urine, saliva). A key concern in diagnostic biosensing is signal differentiation between non-specifically bound material and the specific capture of target molecules. This is a particular challenge for optical detection devices in analyzing complex biological samples. Here we demonstrate a porous silicon (PSi) label-free optical biosensor that has intrinsic size-exclusion filtering capabilities which enhances signal differentiation. We present the first demonstration of highly repeatable, specific detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum and whole blood samples over a typical physiological range using the PSi material as both a biosensor substrate and filter.

Bonanno, Lisa M.; DeLouise, Lisa A.



Urination - painful  


... such as yeast or other infections of the vulva and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: ... in the urine ? Are there any rashes or itching in the genital area? What medications are you ...


Sodium - urine  


The sodium urine test measures the amount of salt (sodium) in a urine sample. Sodium can also ... L/day), depending on how much fluid and salt you consume. The examples above are common measurements ...


Effect of sand fly saliva on Leishmania uptake by murine macrophages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leishmania promastigotes are introduced into the skin by blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies. In the vertebrate host, promastigotes invade macrophages, transform into amastigotes and multiply intracellularly. Sand fly saliva was shown to enhance the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions by inhibiting some immune functions of the host macrophages. This study demonstrates that sand fly saliva promotes parasite survival and proliferation. First,

Roni Zer; Isabela Yaroslavski; Laura Rosen; Alon Warburg



Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE) Detected in Abnormally High Concentrations in Postmortem Blood and Urine from Two Persons Found Dead Inside a Car Containing a Gasoline Spill.  


Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. PMID:23879346

Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S



Effect of sand fly saliva on Leishmania uptake by murine macrophages.  


Leishmania promastigotes are introduced into the skin by blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies. In the vertebrate host, promastigotes invade macrophages, transform into amastigotes and multiply intracellularly. Sand fly saliva was shown to enhance the development of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions by inhibiting some immune functions of the host macrophages. This study demonstrates that sand fly saliva promotes parasite survival and proliferation. First, macrophages gravitated towards increasing concentrations of sand fly saliva in vitro. Secondly, saliva increased the percentage of macrophages that became infected with Leishmania promastigotes and exacerbated the parasite load in these cells. Thus, during natural transmission, saliva probably reduces the exposure of promastigotes to the immune system by attracting macrophages to the parasite inoculation site and by accelerating the entry of promastigotes into macrophages. Saliva may also enhance lesion development by shortening the generation time of dividing intracellular amastigotes. PMID:11403772

Zer, R; Yaroslavski, I; Rosen, L; Warburg, A



The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction, esterification and analysis using a precursor ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Specificity and sensitivity were improved by adding a small percentage of sodium octyl sulfate to the liquid matrix, which forms ion pairs with acylcarnitine esters. Acylglycines in urine were specifically detected as a group using a different precursor ion scan function. By forming methyl esters, metabolic profiles of both acylcarnitines and acylglycines were achieved in the same sample loading by application of alternating scan functions. Quantitative analysis of selected metabolites was achieved by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Amino acid profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l plasma and 25 [mu]l whole blood spots using butyl esters and a neutral loss scan function. The quantitative analysis of phenylalanine and tyrosine was achieved in these samples using stable isotope dilution. This capability will facilitate the diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other amino acidemias. These new methods have the requirements of speed, accuracy and capability for automation necessary for large-scale neonatal screening of inborn errors of matabolism.

Millington, David S.; Kodo, Naoki; Terada, Naoto; Roe, Diane; Chace, Donald H.



Collecting saliva samples by mail.  


Collecting saliva samples by mail can serve numerous purposes in epidemiologic research. The objectives of this study were to assess what proportion of participants in a mail survey would provide a saliva sample and whether incentives could improve participation. In 1995, 2,994 students, faculty, and staff members of Geneva University, Geneva, Switzerland, were randomized to receive, together with a mailed questionnaire about smoking, a saliva vial, a ballpoint pen, the offer of a lottery, or any combination of these. After one mailing and a reminder letter, response rates were 52% among those who had been requested to provide saliva and 63% among controls (p < 0.001). In the former group, most respondents (98%) provided a saliva sample. Incentives improved participation only among those who were asked to provide saliva (lottery: +11% response, p = 0.003; pen: +6% response, p = 0.1). The final participation, after up to three reminders, was 76% overall. The authors conclude that while the collection of saliva samples by mail is feasible it tends to decrease response rates. PMID:9457003

Etter, J F; Perneger, T V; Ronchi, A



[Assessment of the exposure of pest control operators to organophosphorus pesticides. Organophosphorus pesticides in blood and alkyl phosphate metabolites in urine].  


Pest control operators usually spray pesticides in small areas such as a kitchen in a restaurant and are exposed to various pesticides, especially those of the organophosphorus (OP) type. In order to evaluate their occupational exposure to OP pesticides during the work, OP pesticides in blood and alkyl phosphate metabolites in urine of these operators were analyzed and the relationship between pesticide exposure and analytical results were studied. OP pesticides in blood were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (FPD-GC) after separation of phospholipid in blood with silicagel column chromatography. OP pesticides were not detected in any blood samples (the limit of detection was 1 ng/ml). Dimethylphosphate (DMP) and dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), being urinary metabolites of OP pesticides, were analyzed by FPD-GC after benzyl derivatization. This method eliminated interfering peaks in gas chromatograms. The ratio of two isomeric derivatives of DMTP was found to be constant. Both DMP and DMTP of the exposed group were significantly higher than those of the non-exposed group, DMP being higher than DMTP. The ratio of DMP to DMTP in the fenitrothion-dichlorvos-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the fenitrothion-exposed group. It was considered that the ratio might reflect a result of pesticide exposure. The urinary metabolites of OP pesticides tended to become lower with the lapse of time since the last exposure. However, small amounts were detected in a few samples even 5 days after the last exposure. PMID:6482065

Saito, I; Hisanaga, N; Takeuchi, Y; Ono, Y; Iwata, M; Masuda, K; Gotoh, M; Matsumoto, T; Fukaya, Y; Okutani, H



Structural studies of human saliva.  


Samples of mixed saliva and of parotid and sublingual/submandibular saliva fractions from four donors were subjected to instantaneous solidification in liquid nitrogen followed by sectioning in a microtome/cryostat. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, Alcian blue, Oil-red-O, or Sudan Black B and then examined at the light-microscopic level. In all the sectioned samples several previously never described features were observed, the most pronounced of which were a loose overall network structure and collections of lipoid droplets often in a loose arrangement. In the mixed saliva sample sections many of the microorganism-like structures were observed in large bunches associated with epithelial cells and densely staining saliva components. The present method was tested in a series of experiments for possible errors. PMID:2470232

Glantz, P O; Natiella, J R; Vaughan, C D; Meyer, A E; Baier, R E



Metabolism of Vitamin D3-3H in Human Subjects: Distribution in Blood, Bile, Feces, and Urine*  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D3-3H has been administered intravenously to seven normal subjects, three patients with biliary fistulas, and four patients with cirrhosis. Plasma D3-3H half-times normally ranged from 20 to 30 hours. in vivo evidence that a metabolic transformation of vitamin D occurs was obtained, and a polar biologically active vitamin D metabolite was isolated from plasma. Urinary radioactivity averaged 2.4% of the administered dose for the 48-hour period after infusion, and all the excreted radioactivity represented chemically altered metabolites of vitamin D. The metabolites in urine were mainly water-soluble, with 26% in conjugated form. From 3 to 6% of the injected radioactivity was excreted in the bile of subjects with T-tube drainage and 5% in the feces of patients having no T-tube. The pattern of fecal and biliary radioactivity suggested that the passage of vitamin D and its metabolites from bile into the intestine represents an essential stage for the fecal excretion of vitamin D metabolites in man. Abnormally slow plasma disappearance of vitamin D3-3H in patients with cirrhosis was associated with a significant decrease in the quantity and rate of glucuronide metabolite excretion in the urine.

Avioli, Louis V.; Lee, Sook Won; McDonald, Joseph E.; Lund, Judith; DeLuca, Hector F.



Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main advantage of collecting saliva cortisol as opposed to plasma cortisol is that it is non-invasive and therefore it is now widely used in stress measurement studies on farm animals and dogs. Although a plasma cortisol response to handling associated with blood collection generally occurs at 3 min from the commencement of handling, there is no information in the

A. J Kobelt; P. H Hemsworth; J. L Barnett; K. L Butler



Saliva electrolytes as a useful tool for anaerobic threshold determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine the anaerobic threshold by analysis of changes in saliva composition during an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Thirteen healthy males underwent a submaximal test with an initial load of 50 W and load increases of 50 W per 3 min, until capillary blood lactate exceeded 4 mmol · l–1.

Jose L. Chicharro; Julio C. Legido; Julian Alvarez; Luis Serratosa; Fernando Bandres; Carmen Gamella



Urination - difficulty with flow  


... urination, cloudy urine, and a sense of urgency (strong, sudden urge to urinate). Pay close attention to ... residual urine volume and to get urine for culture (a catheterized urine specimen ) Cystometrography Transrectal ultrasound of ...


Quantitation of total 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  


Marijuana, which is made from crushing the leaves, flowers, and sometimes the stems of the plant Cannabis sativa, contains more than 30 cannabinoids. The major psychoactive cannabinoid is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The major metabolite of THC, 11-nor-delta 9-carboxy-tetrahydrocannabionol (THC-COOH), is excreted in the urine primarily as a glucuronide conjugate and is commonly analyzed in biological specimens for detecting marijuana usage. The procedure described here involves the addition of deuterated internal standard THC-COOH-d9 into the sample followed by hydrolysis of conjugated THC-COOH by alkali. THC-COOH is extracted from urine or blood using liquid-liquid extraction followed by preparation of its trimethylsilyl derivatives. The analysis of derivatized THC-COOH is performed using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Quantification of the drug in a sample is achieved by comparing the responses of the unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring. PMID:20077066

Frazee, C Clinton; Kiscoan, Michael; Garg, Uttam



Extraction and analysis of flunitrazepam/7-aminoflunitrazepam in blood and urine by LC-PDA and GC-MS using butyl SPE columns.  


The forensic toxicology community has recognized flunitrazepam and its metabolite (7-aminoflunitrazepam) as compounds of concern for several years. In this procedure, the analytes were extracted from whole blood and urine onto single mode solid phase cartridges (butyl) using nitrazepam as an internal standard. The columns were washed with distilled water and hexane. All three compounds were eluted from the sorbent using an ethyl acetate-methanol solvent mixture. After collection and evaporation of the solvent, the residue was dissolved in A, 0.1% (v/v) aqueous trifluoroacetic acid for HPLC-PDA analysis or B, ethyl acetate for derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride (PFPA) for analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (selected ion monitoring, SIM). A limit of quantitation for this method using HPLC-PDA was found to be 5 and 1.0 ng mL(-1) by SIM. PMID:15955650

Hackett, Jeffery; Elian, Albert A



Quantification of D-dimer levels in human saliva.  


Background: Plasma D-dimer tests are currently used to exclude deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Human saliva has numerous advantages over blood as a diagnostic sample. The aims of our study were to develop a reliable immunoassay to detect D-dimer levels in saliva, and to determine the correlation between salivary and blood D-dimer levels. Results/methodology: Saliva and blood samples were collected from 40 healthy volunteers. We developed a AlphaLISA(®) immunoassay with acceptable analytical performances to quantify D-dimer levels in the samples. The median salivary D-dimer levels were 138.1 ng/ml (morning) and 140.7 ng/ml (afternoon), and the plasma levels were 75.0 ng/ml. Salivary D-dimer levels did not correlate with plasma levels (p = 0.61). Conclusion: For the first time, we have quantified D-dimer levels and found twofold increase in saliva (p < 0.05) than in plasma. Further studies are required to demonstrate the clinical relevance/utility of salivary D-dimer in patients with confirmed deep vein thrombosis and/or pulmonary embolism. PMID:24053240

Zhang, Xi; Wan, Yunxia; Cooper-White, Justin; Dimeski, Goce; Atherton, John; Punyadeera, Chamindie




EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pr...



EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It pro...



EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It pro...



EPA Science Inventory

In New Zealand a species of oyster (Ostrea lutaria) consumed widely contains on an average 5 micro g Cd/g wet weight. In this study the cadmium intake and blood and urinary cadmium levels in a group of 78 people with a known high oyster consumption has been investigated. A second...


Development of an Integrated Micro-Analytical System for Lead in Saliva and Linkage to a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Describing Lead Saliva Secretion  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical instruments for real-time monitoring of trace metals, such as lead (Pb) utilizing readily available non-invasive fluids like saliva. To interpret saliva results, an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of Pb secretion into the saliva is needed. A portable microfluidics/electrochemical device was developed for the rapid analysis of Pb based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, where a saliva sample flows over an electrode surface, Pb2+ is chemically reduced, accumulated, and the electric potential of the electrode scanned. To evaluate the relationship between saliva and blood Pb, rats were treated with single oral doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg Pb/kg of body weight, and 24 hours later salivation was induced by administering pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist. Blood and saliva were collected and analyzed for Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by the micro-analytical system. The micro-analytical system was slightly less responsive ({approx}75-85%) than ICP-MS, however the response was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ppb suggesting that it can be utilized for the quantitation of salivary Pb. To relate saliva levels to internal dose of Pb (e.g. blood) and to total body burden, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Pb was modified to incorporate a salivary gland compartment. The model was capable of predicting blood and saliva Pb concentration based on a limited data set. These preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that a fully developed, micro-analytical system can be utilized as an important tool for real-time biomonitoring of Pb for both occupational and environmental exposures.




Headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of hydroxylic methyl-derivatized and volatile organic compounds in blood and urine.  


A novel headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ITEX-GC-MS) approach was developed for broad-scale analysis of low molecular weight organic compounds in blood and/or urine. One sample was analyzed following in-vial derivatization with dimethyl sulfate for ethylene glycol (EG), glycolic acid (GA), formic acid (FA), other hydroxylic compounds, and another sample for underivatized volatile organic compounds. Tenax adsorbent resin was used in the microtrap, and a porous layer, open tubular GC capillary column was used for separation. MS was operated in the full-scan mode, identification was based on the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System, and quantification was based on extracted ions. The limits of quantification for EG, GA, and FA in blood were 10, 50, and 30 mg/L, respectively, and the expanded uncertainties of measurement were 20%, 16%, and 14%, respectively. The procedure allowed for the first time the inclusion of EG and GA as their methyl derivatives within a quantitative HS analysis. The ITEX method described here was more sensitive for analysis of volatile organic compounds than the corresponding static headspace analysis as demonstrated for 11 representative compounds. PMID:20406534

Rasanen, Ilpo; Viinamäki, Jenni; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka



Urine culture  


... lab to determine which, if any, bacteria or yeast are present in the urine. This takes 24 - ... positive" or abnormal test is when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means ...


Sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of low levels of dichloroacetic acid and its metabolites in blood and urine.  


Dichloroacetic acid (DCA) is a contaminant found in treated drinking water due to chlorination. DCA has been shown to be a complete hepatocarcinogen in both mice and rats. In this study we developed a rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to simultaneously detect DCA and its metabolites, oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid and glycolic acid in blood and urine samples of animals sub-chronically administered with DCA (2 g/l) in drinking water. Both urine and plasma samples were treated minimally before HPLC analysis. Separation and detection of DCA and its metabolites were achieved using an anion-exchange column and a conductivity detector. The mobile phase consisted of an initial concentration of 0.01 mM sodium hydroxide in 40% methanol followed by a linear gradient from 0.01 mM to 60 mM sodium hydroxide in 40% methanol for 30 min. The lower detection limit for DCA and each of its three major metabolites was 0.05 microg/ml. DCA and its metabolites gave a linear response range from 0.05 to 100 microg/ml. Plasma DCA was also analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), and the results obtained correlated with those from the HPLC method (correlation coefficient=0.999). While available HPLC techniques offer sensitive procedures to detect either glycolic acid or oxalic acid, the described HPLC method has the unique advantage of determining simultaneously the parent compound (DCA) and its three major metabolites (oxalic acid, glyoxylic acid and glycolic acid) in biological samples, without complex sample preparation. PMID:10410952

Narayanan, L; Moghaddam, A P; Taylor, A G; Sudberry, G L; Fisher, J W



Serum and saliva adrenocortical hormones in obese diabetic men during submaximal exercise.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate serum and saliva adrenocortical hormones and their relationships at rest and during submaximal exercise and recovery in 9 obese diabetic middle-aged men (BMI: 35.2 ± 1.6 kg/m (2)). Blood and saliva samples were taken at rest, every 10 min of a 30-min cycling exercise at 70% of maximal heart rate, and after 10 min of recovery in order to analyze cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Serum and saliva cortisol increased significantly during recovery (p<0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the rest, exercise, and recovery DHEA-S and DHEA concentrations. A strong correlation was found at rest between both serum and saliva cortisol (r=0.72, p<0.001) and DHEA-S and DHEA (r=0.93, p<0.001). Serum DHEA-S and saliva DHEA remained strongly correlated during and after the submaximal exercise (r=0.81, p<0.001), whereas a weaker but still significant relationship was observed between serum and saliva cortisol during and after the exercise (r=0.52, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that saliva adrenocortical hormones, and especially saliva DHEA, may offer a practical surrogate for serum concentrations during both rest and exercise in obese diabetic men. PMID:20925016

Baillot, A; Vibarel-Rebot, N; Thomasson, R; Jollin, L; Amiot, V; Emy, P; Collomp, K



Origin of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in duct saliva from the dog submandibular gland was increased after cyclic AMP was administered intravenously in vivo. Isoproterenol increased the level of cyclic AMP in plasma and saliva in vivo and in salivary gland slices in vitro, but increased the level only slightly in saliva in a perfused dog submaxillary gland.

Takao Kanamori; Toshiharu Nagatsu; Shosei Matsumoto




EPA Science Inventory

Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...


The demand control model and circadian saliva cortisol variations in a Swedish population based sample (The PART study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the relationship between job strain and blood or saliva cortisol levels have been small and based on selected occupational groups. Our aim was to examine the association between job strain and saliva cortisol levels in a population-based study in which a number of potential confounders could be adjusted for. METHODS: The material derives from a population-based

Magnus Alderling; Töres Theorell; Bartolomé de la Torre; Ingvar Lundberg



Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA in Saliva and Gingival Crevicular Fluid of HCV-Infected Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in body fluids other than blood is important when assessing possible nonparenteral routes of viral transmission. However, the role of oral fluids in HCV transmission remains controversial. Here we quantitatively determined HCV RNA in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of anti-HCV-positive patients. Most patients (14 of 18; 78%) whose saliva specimens were

Tetsuro Suzuki; Kazuhiko Omata; Tazuko Satoh; Takahiro Miyasaka; Chiaki Arai; Munehiro Maeda; Tomonori Matsuno; Tatsuo Miyamura


The proteome of human saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

Griffin, Timothy J.



Proteomics of saliva: personal experience  

PubMed Central

Summary The salivary proteome is a complex protein mixture resulting from the activity of salivary glands with the contribution of other components that form the oral environment such as oral tissues and micro-organisms. For diagnosis purposes, saliva collection has the great advantage of being an easy and non-invasive technique. Human saliva proteomics have proven to be a novel approach in the search for protein biomarkers for detection of different local and systemic diseases. Currently, more than 1400 salivary proteins have been identified. In the last few years, our research group has extensively studied the salivary proteomics in order to analyse the salivary composition, investigating the major families of proteins present in human and mammalian saliva, the post-translational modifications, the different contributions of glands, the physiological and pathological modifications of saliva. The aim of this report is to present our personal experience in salivary proteomics. In conclusion, salivary proteome analysis represents an important field both for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases and could be considered a novel approach to prevention of various pathological conditions.

Scarano, E; Fiorita, A; Picciotti, PM; Passali, GC; Calo, L; Cabras, T; Inzitari, R; Fanali, C; Messana, I; Castagnola, M; Paludetti, G



Ixodes scapularis saliva mitigates inflammatory cytokine secretion during Anaplasma phagocytophilum stimulation of immune cells  

PubMed Central

Background Ixodes scapularis saliva enables the transmission of infectious agents to the mammalian host due to its immunomodulatory, anesthetic and anti-coagulant properties. However, how I. scapularis saliva influences host cytokine secretion in the presence of the obligate intracellular rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum remains elusive. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) were stimulated with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and A. phagocytophilum. Cytokine secretion was measured in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were also stimulated with Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-? in the presence and absence of I. scapularis saliva and interleukin (IL)-8 was measured. Results I. scapularis saliva inhibits inflammatory cytokine secretion by macrophages during stimulation of Toll-like (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) signaling pathways. The effect of I. scapularis saliva on immune cells is not restricted to murine macrophages because decreasing levels of interleukin (IL)-8 were observed after TNF-? stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. I. scapularis saliva also mitigates pro-inflammatory cytokine response by murine macrophages during challenge with A. phagocytophilum. Conclusions These findings suggest that I. scapularis may inhibit inflammatory cytokine secretion during rickettsial transmission at the vector-host interface.



High-performance liquid chromatography of alpha-keto acids in human saliva.  


alpha-Keto acids in human mixed saliva collected without stimulation were analysed by reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Several alpha-keto acids were found in saliva and their concentrations were: alpha-ketoglutaric acid (KGA), 221 +/- 142; pyruvic acid (PA), 7490 +/- 5600; alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIVA), 61 +/- 23; alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA), 137 +/- 79; alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMVA), 41 +/- 19 nmol/dl (mean +/- SD, n = 40). Their levels proved to be lower than those in plasma, except that of PA. Their concentrations in saliva showed individual variation compared with those in blood. PMID:6581765

Tsuchiya, H; Hashizume, I; Tokunaga, T; Tatsumi, M; Takagi, N; Hayashi, T



Immunomodulators in tick saliva and their benefits.  


Ticks are significant bloodsucking ectoparasites. Apart from causing blood loss and host skin damage, ticks are important vectors of tick-borne pathogens that cause disease in humans and animals as well as significant economic loss. For biological success, ticks evolved these substances with immunomodulatory activities capable of inhibiting host defence reactions (haemostasis, inflammation and immunity reactions), and which have a radical significance for their survival. The resulting feeding site represents a favourable environment and many pathogens began exploiting ticks to facilitate their transmission to the host. The structural-functional relationships of some salivary compounds have been outlined; however research on tick sialomas indicates that further extensive exploration is required on the subject. Also, tick saliva is a complex pharmacological component with great therapeutic potential for the treatment for some diseases. PMID:23600877

Stibrániová, I; Lahová, M; Bartíková, P



Simultaneous determination of epinephrine and norepinephrine in human blood plasma and urine samples using nanotubes modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode.  


The simultaneous determination of catecholamines - epinephrine and norepinephrine by square wave voltammetry (SWV) at physiological pH 7.2 is reported using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (MWNT/EPPGE). A broad bump at ? 250 mV is appeared for the oxidation of epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) at bare EPPGE whereas at MWNT/EPPGE two well-separated peaks at ? 150 and ? 215 mV are appeared for the oxidation of EP and NE, respectively. The oxidation peak current of both the neurotransmitters also increased significantly along with the negative shift of peak potentials using MWNT/EPPGE. The oxidation of both compounds occurred in a pH dependent, 2e and 2H(+) process and the electrode reaction followed diffusion controlled pathway. Linear calibration curves were obtained for epinephrine and norepinephrine in the range 0.5-100 nM with limits of detection 0.15 × 10(-9) and 0.90 × 10(-10)M, respectively. The developed protocol is implemented for the simultaneous determination of epinephrine and norepinephrine in blood plasma and urine samples of smokers as well as in athletes. PMID:21315901

Goyal, Rajendra N; Bishnoi, Sunita



Urine - bloody  


... from blood disorders include: Bleeding disorders (such as hemophilia ) Blood clot in the kidneys Blood thinning medications (such as aspirin or warfarin) Sickle cell disease Thrombocytopenia ( low numbers of platelets )


Tsetse Fly Saliva Accelerates the Onset of Trypanosoma brucei Infection in a Mouse Model Associated with a Reduced Host Inflammatory Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tsetse flies (Glossina sp.) are the vectors that transmit African trypanosomes, protozoan parasites that cause human sleeping sickness and veterinary infections in the African continent. These blood-feeding dipteran insects deposit saliva at the feeding site that enables the blood-feeding process. Here we demonstrate that tsetse fly saliva also accelerates the onset of a Trypanosoma brucei infection. This effect was associated

Guy Caljon; Jan Van Den Abbeele; B. Stijlemans; M. Coosemans; P. De Baetselier; S. Magez



Dehydration decreases saliva antimicrobial proteins important for mucosal immunity.  


The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of exercise-induced dehydration and subsequent overnight fluid restriction on saliva antimicrobial proteins important for host defence (secretory IgA (SIgA), ?-amylase, and lysozyme). On two randomized occasions, 13 participants exercised in the heat, either without fluid intake to evoke progressive body mass losses (BML) of 1%, 2%, and 3% with subsequent overnight fluid restriction until 0800 h in the following morning (DEH) or with fluids to offset losses (CON). Participants in the DEH trial rehydrated from 0800 h until 1100 h on day 2. BML, plasma osmolality (Posm), and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed as hydration indices. Unstimulated saliva samples were assessed for flow rate (SFR), SIgA, ?-amylase, and lysozyme concentrations. Posm and USG increased during dehydration and remained elevated after overnight fluid restriction (BML = 3.5% ± 0.3%, Posm = 297 ± 6 mosmol·kg?¹, and USG = 1.026 ± 0.002; P < 0.001). Dehydration decreased SFR (67% at 3% BML, 70% at 0800 h; P < 0.01) and increased SIgA concentration, with no effect on SIgA secretion rate. SFR and SIgA responses remained unchanged in the CON trial. Dehydration did not affect ?-amylase or lysozyme concentration but decreased secretion rates of ?-amylase (44% at 3% BML, 78% at 0800 h; P < 0.01) and lysozyme (46% at 3% BML, 61% at 0800 h; P < 0.01), which were lower than in CON at these time points (P < 0.05). Rehydration returned all saliva variables to baseline. In conclusion, modest dehydration (~3% BML) decreased SFR, ?-amylase, and lysozyme secretion rates. Whether the observed magnitude of decrease in saliva AMPs during dehydration compromises host defence remains to be shown. PMID:22686429

Fortes, Matthew B; Diment, Bethany C; Di Felice, Umberto; Walsh, Neil P



Is saliva a potential biomarker of arsenic exposure? A case-control study in West Bengal, India.  


Saliva is a biological fluid that has not been used extensively as a biomonitoring tool in epidemiological studies. This study presents the arsenic (As) concentrations in saliva and urine samples collected from populations of West Bengal, India who had been previously exposed to high As levels in their drinking water. We found a significant (p < 0.05) association between the Log transformed Daily Ingestion of As (?g day(-1)) and the As concentration in saliva (r = 0.68). Additionally, As concentration of saliva and urine also had a significant positive correlation (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Male participants, smokers, and cases of skin lesion were independently and significantly associated with an increase in salivary As. Thus our findings show that saliva is a useful biomarker of As exposure in the study population. The study also advocates that measurement of the forms of As in saliva may additionally provide insight into the internal dose and any individual differences in susceptibility to As exposure. PMID:23461267

Bhowmick, Subhamoy; Halder, Dipti; Kundu, Amit Kumar; Saha, Debasree; Iglesias, Mònica; Nriagu, Jerome; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Chatterjee, Debashis



Detection of Bartonella henselae in domestic cats' saliva  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Bartonella species are being recognized as increasingly important bacterial pathogens in veterinary and human medicine. These organisms can be transmitted by an arthropod vector or alternatively by animal scratches or bites. The objectives of this study were to identify contamination of cat's saliva and nail with B. henselae as a causative role to infect human in a sample of the cat population in Iran. Materials and Methods Blood, saliva and nail samples were collected from 140 domestic cats (stray and pet) from Tehran and Shahrekord and analyzed for the presence of B. henselae with cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing. Results In this study B. henselae was detected in 10.9% of saliva samples (12/110) from pet cats. B. henselae was not detected in nail samples of pet cats (n=110), and in any feral cats’ saliva and nail samples (n=30). Conclusion Our data suggest that pet cats are more likely than stray cats to infect human with B. henselae after a bite and also stray cats can play a role as a reservoir for this bacteria. This is the first report that investigates the presence of B. henselae in cats oral cavity in Iran.

Oskouizadeh, K; Zahraei-Salehi, T; Aledavood, SJ



Array-Based Whole-Genome Survey of Dog Saliva DNA Yields High Quality SNP Data  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association scans for genetic loci underlying both Mendelian and complex traits are increasingly common in canine genetics research. However, the demand for high-quality DNA for use on such platforms creates challenges for traditional blood sample ascertainment. Though the use of saliva as a means of collecting DNA is common in human studies, alternate means of DNA collection for canine research have instead been limited to buccal swabs, from which dog DNA is of insufficient quality and yield for use on most high-throughput array-based systems. We thus investigated an animal-based saliva collection method for ease of use and quality of DNA obtained and tested the performance of saliva-extracted canine DNA on genome-wide genotyping arrays. Methodology/Principal Findings Overall, we found that saliva sample collection using this method was efficient. Extractions yielded high concentrations (?125 ng/ul) of high-quality DNA that performed equally well as blood-extracted DNA on the Illumina Infinium canine genotyping platform, with average call rates >99%. Concordance rates between genotype calls of saliva- versus blood-extracted DNA samples from the same individual were also >99%. Additionally, in silico calling of copy number variants was successfully performed and verified by PCR. Conclusions/Significance Our findings validate the use of saliva-obtained samples for genome-wide association studies in canines, highlighting an alternative means of collecting samples in a convenient and non-invasive manner.

Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Erdman, Carolyn A.; Hamilton, Steven P.



Extensional rheology of human saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an oscillatory cross-slot extensional rheometer capable of performing measurements with unprecedentedly\\u000a small volumes of test fluids (?10–100 ?L). This provides the possibility of studying exotic and precious or scarce bio-fluids,\\u000a such as synovial fluid. To test our system, we have looked at a relatively abundant and accessible biological fluid, namely\\u000a human saliva; a complex aqueous mixture of high

Simon J. Haward; Jeff A. Odell; Monica Berry; Tim Hall


LC-ESI-MS\\/MS on an ion trap for the determination of LSD, iso LSD, nor LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxyLSD in blood, urine and vitreous humor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its epimer iso-LSD, and its main metabolites nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in blood, urine, and, for the first time, vitreous humor samples. The method is based on liquid\\/liquid\\u000a extraction and liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry detection in an ion trap mass spectrometer, in positive ion\\u000a electrospray ionization

Donata Favretto; Giampietro Frison; Sergio Maietti; Santo Davide Ferrara



Validated method for the simultaneous determination of ? 9THC and ? 9THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and whole blood using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully validated, sensitive and specific method for the extraction and quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-THC (THC-COOH) and for the detection of 11-hydroxy-?9-THC (11-OH THC) in oral fluid, urine and whole blood is presented. Solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) technique were used, with electrospray ionization. Three ions were monitored for THC and THC-COOH and two for 11-OH

Helena Teixeira; Alain Verstraete; Paula Proença; Francisco Corte-Real; Paula Monsanto; Duarte Nuno Vieira



Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of pharmacologically active substances in urine and blood samples by use of a continuous solid-phase extraction system and microwave-assisted derivatization.  


A sensitive method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine 22 pharmacologically active substances (frequently used in the treatment of human and animal's diseases) including analgesics, antibacterials, anti-epileptics, antiseptics, ?-blockers, hormones, lipid regulators and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in blood and urine samples. Samples were subjected to continuous solid-phase extraction in a sorbent column (Oasis HLB), and then the target analytes were eluted with ethyl acetate and derivatized in a household microwave oven at 350 W for 3 min. Finally, these products were determined in a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. The analyte detection limits thus obtained ranged from 0.2 to 1.3 ng L?¹ for urine samples and 0.8-5.6 ng L?¹ for blood samples. Recoveries from both blood and urine ranged from 85 to 102%, and within-day and between-day relative standard deviations were all less than 7.5%. The proposed method offers advantages in reduction of the exposure danger to toxic solvents used in conventional sample pretreatment, simplicity of the extraction processes, rapidity, and sensitivity enhancement. The method was successfully used to quantify pharmacologically active substances in human and animal (lamb, veal and pig) blood and urine. The hormones estrone and 17?-estradiol were detected in virtually all samples, and so were other analytes such as acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and triclosan in human samples, and florfenicol, pyrimethamine and phenylbutazone in animal samples. PMID:22391330

Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo



Saliva sampling in global clinical studies: the impact of low sampling volume on performance of DNA in downstream genotyping experiments.  


BACKGROUND: The collection of viable DNA samples is an essential element of any genetics research programme. Biological samples for DNA purification are now routinely collected in many studies with a variety of sampling methods available. Initial observation in this study suggested a reduced genotyping success rate of some saliva derived DNA samples when compared to blood derived DNA samples prompting further investigation. METHODS: Genotyping success rate was investigated to assess the suitability of using saliva samples in future safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics experiments. The Oragene(R) OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva from 1468 subjects enrolled in global clinical studies. Statistical analysis evaluated the impact of saliva sample volume of collection on the quality, yield, concentration and performance of saliva DNA in genotyping assays. RESULTS: Across 13 global clinical studies that utilized the Oragene(R) OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit there was variability in the volume of saliva sample collection with ~31% of participants providing 0.5 mL of saliva, rather than the recommended 2 mL. While the majority of saliva DNA samples provided high quality genotype data, collection of 0.5 mL volumes of saliva contributed to DNA samples being significantly less likely to pass genotyping quality control standards. Assessment of DNA sample characteristics that may influence genotyping outcomes indicated that saliva sample volume, DNA purity and turbidity were independently associated with sample genotype pass rate, but that saliva collection volume had the greatest effect. CONCLUSION: When employing saliva sampling to obtain DNA, it is important to encourage all study participants to provide sufficient sample to minimize potential loss of data in downstream genotyping experiments. PMID:23759220

Pulford, David J; Mosteller, Michael; Briley, J David; Johansson, Kelley W; Nelsen, Anita J



High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of 3'-hydroxy-5'-(4-isobutyl-1-piperazinyl)benzoxazinorifamycin (KRM-1648) and its deacetyl metabolite in plasma, whole blood, urine and tissue samples in rats.  


A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of 3'-hydroxy-5'-(4-isobutyl-1-piperazinyl)benzoxazinorifamycin (KRM-1648, I), a new rifamycin derivative, and its 25-deacetyl metabolite (KRM-1671, II) in plasma, whole blood, tissues and urine from rats. I and II were coextracted with an internal standard from each sample matrix by solid-phase extraction (Bond Elut). Plasma and urine were directly loaded onto Bond Elut, while whole blood and tissues were homogenized and extracted with methanol or dichloromethane-chloroform prior to Bond Elut extraction. The extracts were chromatographed on Shim-pack CLC-ODS(M) using acetonitrile-0.02 M citrate buffer containing 0.1 M sodium perchlorate (2:1, v/v), and peaks were detected at 643 nm. The validation data showed that the assays for I and II in plasma, whole blood, tissues and urine were selective, accurate and reproducible. PMID:8205245

Hosoe, K; Konishi, E; Hidaka, T; Yamane, T; Yamashita, K; Ohashi, T



Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.



Urine 24-hour volume  


Urine volume; 24-hour urine collection ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in ... urine in a special container for the next 24 hours. On day 2, urinate into the container ...


Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.



Immunohistochemical study on the localization of the epitope defined by a human saliva-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A novel mouse monoclonal antibody (P4-5C) has been developed which recognizes the core portion of the protein carrying ABO(H) blood group antigens in human saliva. This proved to be specific for human saliva using immunochemical investigations such as enzymelinked immunosorbent assay, Ouchterlony method and counter-immunoelectrophoresis. By licht and electron microscope studies with immunohistochemical techniques using this human saliva-Specific P4-5C

T. Ohshima; T. Nagano; A. Kimura; F. Matsumura; K. Sodesaki; T. Tsuji; H. Maeda



NT-ProBNP Levels in Saliva and Its Clinical Relevance to Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Current blood based diagnostic assays to detect heart failure (HF) have large intra-individual and inter-individual variations which have made it difficult to determine whether the changes in the analyte levels reflect an actual change in disease activity. Human saliva mirrors the body’s health and well being and ?20% of proteins that are present in blood are also found in saliva. Saliva has numerous advantages over blood as a diagnostic fluid which allows for a non-invasive, simple, and safe sample collection. The aim of our study was to develop an immunoassay to detect NT-proBNP in saliva and to determine if there is a correlation with blood levels. Methods Saliva samples were collected from healthy volunteers (n?=?40) who had no underlying heart conditions and HF patients (n?=?45) at rest. Samples were stored at ?80°C until analysis. A customised homogeneous sandwich AlphaLISA(R) immunoassay was used to quantify NT-proBNP levels in saliva. Results Our NT-proBNP immunoassay was validated against a commercial Roche assay on plasma samples collected from HF patients (n?=?37) and the correlation was r2?=?0.78 (p<0.01, y?=?1.705× +1910.8). The median salivary NT-proBNP levels in the healthy and HF participants were <16 pg/mL and 76.8 pg/mL, respectively. The salivary NT-proBNP immunoassay showed a clinical sensitivity of 82.2% and specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 83.3%, with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 90.6%. Conclusion We have firstly demonstrated that NT-proBNP can be detected in saliva and that the levels were higher in heart failure patients compared with healthy control subjects. Further studies will be needed to demonstrate the clinical relevance of salivary NT-proBNP in unselected, previously undiagnosed populations.

Foo, Jared Yong Yang; Wan, Yunxia; Kostner, Karam; Arivalagan, Alicia; Atherton, John; Cooper-White, Justin; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie



Comprehensive defensin assay for saliva.  


Defensins are highly basic cationic peptides that are important components of the innate and adaptive immune response pathways. In addition, these peptides are involved in CD8+ T cell response to HIV-1, increased pulmonary infection risk among cystic fibrosis patients, upregulated levels of HNP-5 for patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and monitoring HNP-3 levels as a tumor classification scheme for cutaneous T cell lymphomas, and have promise in the pharmaceutical field as a new class of antibiotics. Here we present a parallel assay for the alpha (HNP1-3) and beta (HBD1-2) classes of defensins in saliva that are naturally observed in the concentration range of 1 ng/mL to 10 microg/mL. The method utilizes solid phase extraction of saliva samples combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantitate defensin targets. The approach involves limited sample manipulation and is easily amenable to automation. The saliva samples analyzed are derived from a large cohort study focused on examining the role of polymorphisms in genes of innate and adaptive immunity in modulating the response to vaccination for two gastrointestinal tract infections: typhoid and cholera. The alpha-defensin levels observed range from 1 to 10 microg/mL and correlate well with known active concentrations against a wide variety of pathogens. The observed concentration range for beta-defensins was between the detection limit and 33 ng/mL and had a sensitivity level that was comparable to immunoassay-based detection. This method is easily adapted for use in a clinical immunology setting and can be modified for other biological matrixes. This assay will facilitate examination of the production, secretion, and regulation of defensin peptides in a direct fashion to coordinate levels of these compounds with gender, age, response to vaccination, gene copy number, and oral health. PMID:19072583

Gardner, Michael S; Rowland, Megan D; Siu, Amy Y; Bundy, Jonathan L; Wagener, Diane K; Stephenson, James L



Analysis of Cocaine, Heroin, and their Metabolites in Saliva.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Methods have been developed to analyze for cocaine, heroin and their metabolites in human saliva and the results compared to urinalysis. Analysis of 26 samples showed that 14 positive by urinalysis and 16 positive by saliva analysis. Thus, saliva testing ...

D. A. Kidwell



Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva.  


A rapid specific radioimmunoassay for progesterone in mixed, unstimulated saliva is described. Column chromatography is not necessary. One single extraction with petroleum ether provides a fractional recovery of 75-95%. The assay sensitivity is 9 pg progesterone/tube. The intra- and interassay variation for low, medium, and highly concentrated progesterone pools is 13.1-9.5 and 17.4-13.9%, respectively. Analytical recovery documents excellent correlation between expected and detected progesterone concentrations (r = 0.994). Data from salivary progesterone of a regularly menstruating girl and of a patient with XO Turner's syndrome are provided. PMID:6852777

Sorgo, W; Manella, B; Zachmann, M





... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...


Tick saliva is a potent inhibitor of endothelial cell proliferation and angiogenesis.  


We report for the first time that saliva of the hard tick and Lyme disease vector, Ixodes scapularis, is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Saliva (< or = 1:500 dilutions) or salivary gland (0.1-0.5 pairs/assay) dose-dependently inhibits microvascular endothelial cell (MVEC) proliferation. Inhibition was also detected with the saliva of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus but not with the salivary gland of Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Phlebotomus papatasi, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Cimex lectularius. Inhibition of MVEC proliferation by I. Scapularis saliva was accompanied by a change in cell shape (shrinkage of the cytoplasm with loss of cell-cell interactions) and apoptosis which was estimated by expression of phosphatidylserine using the Apopercentage dye, and by a typical pattern of chromatin margination, condensation, and fragmentation as revealed by nuclear staining with Hoechst 33258. The effect of saliva appears to be mediated by endothelial cell alpha5beta1 integrin, because monoclonal antibodies against this but not alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, alpha9beta1, or alpha2beta1 integrins remarkably block its effect. In addition, SDS/PAGE shows that saliva specifically degrades purified alpha5beta1 but not alphavbeta5 or alphavbeta3 integrins. Incubation of saliva with EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline, but not phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), inhibits saliva-dependent degradation of purified alpha5beta1 integrin, suggesting that a metalloprotease is responsible for the activity. Finally, saliva at < or = 1:1,000 dilutions blocks sprouting formation from chick embryo aorta implanted in Matrigel, an in vitro model of angiogenesis. These findings introduce the concept that tick saliva is a negative modulator of angiogenesis-dependent wound healing and tissue repair, therefore allowing ticks to feed for days. Inhibition of angiogenesis was hitherto an unidentified biologic property of the saliva of any blood-sucking arthropod studied so far. Its presence in tick saliva may be regarded as an additional source of angiogenesis inhibitors with potential applications for the study of both vector and vascular biology. PMID:16113800

Francischetti, Ivo M B; Mather, Thomas N; Ribeiro, José M C



Fluoride bioavailability in saliva and plaque  

PubMed Central

Background Different fluoride formulations may have different effects on caries prevention. It was the aim of this clinical study to assess the fluoride content, provided by NaF compared to amine fluoride, in saliva and plaque. Methods Eight trained volunteers brushed their teeth in the morning for 3 minutes with either NaF or amine fluoride, and saliva and 3-day-plaque-regrowth was collected at 5 time intervals during 6 hours after tooth brushing. The amount of collected saliva and plaque was measured, and the fluoride content was analysed using a fluoride sensitive electrode. All subjects repeated all study cycles 5 times, and 3 cycles per subject underwent statistical analysis using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results Immediately after brushing the fluoride concentration in saliva increased rapidly and dropped to the baseline level after 360 minutes. No difference was found between NaF and amine fluoride. All plaque fluoride levels were elevated after 30 minutes until 120 minutes after tooth brushing, and decreasing after 360 minutes to baseline. According to the highly individual profile of fluoride in saliva and plaque, both levels of bioavailability correlated for the first 30 minutes, and the fluoride content of saliva and plaque was back to baseline after 6 hours. Conclusions Fluoride levels in saliva and plaque are interindividually highly variable. However, no significant difference in bioavailability between NaF and amine fluoride, in saliva, or in plaque was found.



Paralytic activity of lysophosphatidylcholine from saliva of the waterbug Belostoma anurum.  


Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is a major bioactive lipid that is enzymatically generated by phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)). Previously, we showed that LPC is present in the saliva of the blood-sucking hemipteran Rhodnius prolixus and modulates cell-signaling pathways involved in vascular biology, which aids blood feeding. Here, we show that the saliva of the predator insect Belostoma anurum contains a large number of lipids with LPC accounting for 25% of the total phospholipids. A PLA(2) enzyme likely to be involved in LPC generation was characterized. The activity of this enzyme is 5-fold higher in Belostoma saliva than in other studied hemipterans, suggesting a close association with the predator feeding habits of this insect. Belostoma employs extra-oral digestion, which allows for ingestion of larger prey than itself, including small vertebrates such as amphibians and fish. Therefore, prey immobilization during digestion is essential, and we show here that Belostoma saliva and B. anurum saliva purified LPC have paralytic activity in zebrafish. This is the first evidence that lysophospholipids might play an important role in prey immobilization, in addition to contributing to blood feeding, and might have been an evolutionary acquisition that occurred long before the appearance of hematophagy in this animal group. PMID:20833923

Silva-Cardoso, Lívia; Caccin, Paola; Magnabosco, Anna; Patrón, Maria; Targino, Mariane; Fuly, André; Oliveira, Giselle A; Pereira, Marcos H; do Carmo, Maria das Graças T; Souza, Amanda S; Silva-Neto, Mário A C; Montecucco, Cesare; Atella, Georgia C



The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions.  


Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P; Witkowska, H Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T; Yates, John R; Fisher, Susan J



The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions  

PubMed Central

Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets.

Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frederic; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.



Oral and systemic health correlates of HIV-1 shedding in saliva.  


The relationship among oral and systemic health and HIV shedding in saliva is not well-understood. We hypothesized that oral and systemic health are associated with HIV shedding in saliva of HIV-infected women. Saliva from 127 participants enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) was collected at repeated visits over a 5½-year study period (October 1998 through March 2004) and was evaluated for HIV-1 RNA. Demographic, lifestyle, and systemic and oral health characteristics were evaluated as possible correlates of salivary HIV-1 shedding. Multivariate models showed significantly increased risk of HIV-1 shedding in saliva as blood levels of CD4 cell counts decreased (p < 0.0001) and HIV RNA increased (p < 0.0001). Diabetes (p = 0.002) and a high proportion of gingival bleeding sites (p = 0.01) were associated with increased likelihood, while anti-retroviral therapy (p = 0.0003) and higher levels of stimulated saliva flow rates (p = 0.02) were associated with a lower likelihood of HIV-1 RNA shedding in saliva. PMID:20671205

Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R; Kono, N; Kumar, S K S; Nowicki, M; Alves, M; Mack, W J



Tick saliva inhibits dendritic cell migration, maturation, and function while promoting development of Th2 responses.  


Similarly to other blood-feeding arthropods, ticks have evolved immunosuppressive mechanisms enabling them to overcome the host immune system. Although the immunomodulatory effect of tick saliva on several cell populations of the immune system has been extensively studied, little is known about its impact on dendritic cells (DCs). We have examined the effect of Ixodes ricinus tick saliva on DC function in vitro and in vivo. Exposure of DCs to tick saliva in vitro resulted in impaired maturation, upon CD40 or TLR9, TLR3 and TLR7 ligation, as well as reduced Ag presentation capacity. Administration of tick saliva in vivo significantly inhibited maturation and early migration of DCs from inflamed skin to draining lymph nodes, and decreased the capacity of lymph node DCs to present soluble Ag to specific T cells. Moreover, saliva-exposed DCs failed to induce efficient Th1 and Th17 polarization and promoted development of Th2 responses. Our data reveal a complex inhibitory effect exerted by tick saliva on DC function. Given the role of DCs as the key instigators of adaptive immune responses, alteration of their function might represent a major mechanism of tick-mediated immune evasion. PMID:18424740

Skallová, Anna; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Ampenberger, Franziska; Kopf, Manfred; Kopecky, Jan



Synergistic effect of cigarette smoke and saliva on lymphocytes—the mediatory role of volatile aldehydes and redox active iron and the possible implications for oral cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is most induced by exposure of the oral epithelial cells to tobacco products such as cigarette smoke. This exposure always occurs in the presence of saliva and presumably is induced by free radicals. To explore the effects of CS on cells in the presence of saliva, we used peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and exposed them

Erez Hasnis; Abraham Z. Reznick; Shimon Pollack; Yfat Klein; Rafael M. Nagler



Correlation of paired toxic plasma and saliva paracetamol concentrations following deliberate self-poisoning with paracetamol  

PubMed Central

AIMS Paracetamol is commonly used in deliberate self poisoning (DSP) and requires blood sampling to refine risk assessment. We aimed to test the agreement between plasma and saliva paracetamol concentrations in the toxic range in DSP. METHODS Contemporaneous paired plasma and saliva paracetamol concentrations were measured. Saliva was collected using a Sarstedt Salivette® device and the concentration was measured using a colorimetric method. RESULTS Fifty-six patients (44, 78% female) median age 26 years (IQR 20–41) were enrolled. The median reported paracetamol ingestion was 10 g (IQR 6–14). Specimens were collected at a median of 4 h (IQR 4–5.3) post ingestion. The median plasma and saliva paracetamol concentrations were 29 mg l?1 (IQR 8–110) and 38 mg l?1 (IQR 10–105) respectively [mean difference 8 mg l?1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2, 14]. Lin's concordance correlation was 0.97 (95% CI 0.96, 0.98). There were 15 patients who were treated with N-acetylcysteine. Their median reported paracetamol ingestion was 14 g (IQR 10–23) and samples were collected at a median of 4 h post ingestion. The median plasma and saliva paracetamol concentrations were 167 mg l?1 (IQR 110–200) and 170 mg l?1 (IQR 103–210) respectively (mean difference 15 mg l?1, 95% CI ?4, 35). Lin's concordance correlation was 0.94 (95% CI 0.88, 0.99). No patient needing treatment would have been missed using saliva concentrations only. CONCLUSIONS The agreement between the indications for treatment of paracetamol DSP based on plasma and saliva paracetamol concentrations extends into the toxic range, but with slightly lower agreement. Saliva may hold promise as a non-invasive method to risk stratify paracetamol poisoning.

Soderstrom, Jessamine H; Fatovich, Daniel M; Mandelt, Christine; Vasikaran, Sam; McCoubrie, David L; Daly, Frank F; Burrows, Sally A



Measurement of platinum in saliva of patients treated with cisplatin.  


A procedure for the measurement of platinum (Pt) in the saliva of patients treated with cisplatin has been developed. The saliva is collected and solubilized in hyamine hydroxide before analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using assay by standard additions. The method has an analytical detection limit of 0.025 microgram/mL and is precise, with coefficients of variation of 3-10.0% over a range of 0.05-2.0 micrograms/mL. Platinum was measured in saliva collected during an 8-h infusion of cisplatin from five patients, at the end of a 30-min infusion in nine, and 24 and 48 h later from a further 15 patients, all of whom were treated with cisplatin for squamous cell carcinoma of the neck. The platinum concentration in saliva taken at the end of a 30-min infusion was 0.27 +/- 0.23 microgram/mL (mean +/- 1 SD) but was below the detection limit of 0.025 microgram/mL at 24 and 48 h. After an 8-h infusion the salivary Pt was significantly less (0.12 +/- 0.04 microgram/mL; P < 0.05). The plasma Pt concentrations after 30-min and 8-h infusions were 2.98 +/- 1.03 and 2.54 +/- 0.59 micrograms/mL, respectively, and were not significantly different. The results indicate higher concentrations of free platinum in plasma after 30 min compared with an 8-h infusion. The monitoring of salivary concentrations of platinum may therefore provide a non-invasive way to study the unbound fraction of cisplatin in blood and facilitate optimization of cisplatin treatment. PMID:10505218

Holding, J D; Lindup, W E; Roberts, N B; Salvatori, P; Stell, P M



Development and validation of an analytical method for determination of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in rat blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a highly selective and sensitive method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical\\u000a ionization for measuring 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in rat blood and urine. Samples were adsorbed on silica gel, extracted\\u000a with ethyl acetate, and derivatized by chemical derivatization with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride. For quantification,\\u000a matrix-based calibration curves and 3-MCPD-d\\u000a 5, as an isotope-labeled internal standard, were used.

Edith Berger-Preiß; Susanne Gerling; Elisabeth Apel; Alfonso Lampen; Otto Creutzenberg



Acetylcarnitine in the Blood and Urine of the Mouse after Injection of L-Carnitine and Several O-Acyl-L-Carnitines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Urinary metabolites of L- or D-carnitine or those of O-acetyl-L-carnitines were studied by thin layer chromatography. Differences observed between acetylcarnitine: carnitine ratios in 2 hour urine can be attributed to the accumulation of L-carnitine in ti...

H. Seim E. Strack



An evaluation of urine-CCA strip test and fingerprick blood SEA-ELISA for detection of urinary schistosomiasis in schoolchildren in Zanzibar  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop better monitoring protocols for detection of urinary schistosomiasis during ongoing control interventions, two commercially available diagnostic tests – the urine-circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) strip and the soluble egg antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SEA-ELISA) – were evaluated for detection of Schistosoma haematobium infections in 150 schoolchildren from Zanzibar. The children originated from five primary schools representative of different levels

J. Russell Stothard; Jose C. Sousa-Figueiredo; Claire Standley; Govert J. Van Dam; Stefanie Knopp; Jürg Utzinger; Haji Ameri; Alieppo N. Khamis; I. Simba Khamis; André M. Deelder; Khalfan A. Mohammed; David Rollinson



Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine provides an alternative to blood plasma as a potential source of disease biomarkers. One urinary biomarker already exploited in clinical studies is aquaporin-2. However, it remains a mystery how aquaporin-2 (an integral membrane protein) and other apical transporters are delivered to the urine. Here we address the hypothesis that these proteins reach the urine through the secretion of exosomes

Trairak Pisitkun; Rong-Fong Shen; Mark A. Knepper



Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system  

PubMed Central

Saliva provides a useful and non-invasive alternative to blood for many biomedical diagnostic assays. The level of the hormone cortisol in blood and saliva is related to the level of stress. We present here the development of a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system for detection of cortisol in saliva. Cortisol-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to develop a competition assay with a 6-channel portable SPR biosensor designed in our laboratory. The detection limit of cortisol in laboratory buffers was 0.36 ng/ml (1.0 nM). An in-line filter based on diffusion through a hollow fiber hydrophilic membrane served to separate small molecules from the complex macromolecular matrix of saliva prior to introduction to the sensor surface. The filtering flow cell provided in-line separation of small molecules from salivary mucins and other large molecules with only a 29% reduction of signal compared with direct flow of the same concentration of analyte over the sensor surface. A standard curve for detection of cortisol in saliva was generated with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/ml (3.6 nM), sufficiently sensitive for clinical use. The system will also be useful for a wide range of applications where small molecular weight analytes are found in complex matrices.

Stevens, Richard C.; Soelberg, Scott D.; Near, Steve; Furlong, Clement E.



An inhibitor of phospholipase D in saliva  

PubMed Central

1. Bovine, dog and human saliva contain substances which inhibit the soluble phospholipase D present in grass leaf or celery stalk. 2. The inhibitor in bovine saliva is of high molecular weight and exhibits considerable stability to heat, acids and alkalis. 3. The inhibitor has been purified free from salivary mucoprotein. 4. It is suggested that the inhibitor could protect the upper alimentary tract of a herbage-eating animal from the necrotic action of phospholipase D.

Dawson, Rex M. C.; Hemington, Norma



Dapsone in Saliva and Plasma of Man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of dapsone (DDS) and its metabolite, monoacetyl dapsone (MADDS) were measured in plasma and saliva samples collected concurrently from volunteers receiving a 50-mg oral dose of DDS. A liquid chromatographic technique was employed to separate the compounds from each other and from endogenous materials. Fluorescence detection provided limit sensitivities to 0.1 ng\\/ml of sample. Saliva levels of DDS were

J. H. Peters; G. R. Gordon; R. H. Gelber



Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of phenylbutyrate, phenylacetate benzoate and their corresponding metabolites phenylacetylglutamine and hippurate in blood and urine.  


Inborn errors of urea metabolism result in hyperammonemia. Treatment of urea cycle disorders can effectively lower plasma ammonium levels and results in survival in the majority of patients. Available medications for treating urea cycle disorders include sodium benzoate (BA), sodium phenylacetate (PAA), and sodium phenylbutyrate (PBA) and are given to provide alternate routes for disposition of waste nitrogen excretion. In this study, we develop and validate a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, phenylbutyric acid, phenylacetylglutamine, and hippuric acid in plasma and urine from children with inborn errors of urea synthesis. Plasma extracts and diluted urine samples were injected on a reverse-phase column and identified and quantified by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) in negative ion mode. Deuterated analogues served as internal standards. Analysis time was 7 min. Assay precision, accuracy, and linearity and sample stability were determined using enriched samples. Quantification limits of the method were 100 ng/ml (0.3-0.8 ?mol/L) for all analytes, and recoveries were >90%. Inter- and intraday relative standard deviations were <10%. Our newly developed LC-MS/MS represents a robust, sensitive, and rapid method that allows simultaneous determination of the five compounds in plasma and urine. PMID:20694517

Laryea, Maurice D; Herebian, Diran; Meissner, Thomas; Mayatepek, Ertan



Bismuth toxicity in man II. Review of bismuth blood and urine levels in patients after administration of therapeutic bismuth formulations in relation to the problem of bismuth toxicity in man.  


A survey of the leterature on bismuth toxicity in man in relation to blood level data, has revealed the necessity of distinguishing between lipid soluble and water soluble organic complexes of bismuth on the one hand and the simple inorganic salts of bismuth on the other hand. A characteristic feature of the former, illustrated by the water soluble bismuth complex triglycollamate, is the high bismuth levels (due to absorption of the complex as such) and the nephrotoxic properties of the compound in man. Bismuth absorption after administration of the simple inorganic salts of bismuth is postulated to occur in the form of ionic bismuth as such, low bismuth levels being characteristic features of such compounds. Bismuth blood and urine levels obtained from patients after administration of a new anti-ulcer drug (Bicitropeptide) in a well controlled clinical trial are discussed and suggest that that this bismuth containing drug behaves pharmacologically in a manner similar to the inorganic bismuth salts in man, low bismuth blood levels and the absence of toxic side effects being conspicuous features of the drug. Based on these considerations, it is proposed that the pharmacologically active bismuth compounds be divided into four different groups depending on structure, stability and solubility. The question as to what constitutes a "toxic bismuth blood level" can only be discussed in relation to the new proposed sub-division of bismuth compounds and is only meaningful if the term is defined to relate only to ionic bismuth (presumably bound to a large extent to blood proteins). Based on information gleaned from the literature and blood level values reported in the clinical trial referred to, it is suggested that bismuth blood level values below 50 micrograms/ml are highly unlikely to be associated with meaningful toxicity in man. Finally, attention is drawn to the reversibility of bismuth toxicity in man as reported by many authors irrespective of the type of bismuth compound concerned. PMID:392661

Serfontein, W J; Mekel, R



Ingestion of saliva during carbohydrate feeding by Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera; Psychodidae).  


The aim of this study was to obtain experimental evidence that phlebotomine saliva is actually ingested during the carbohydrate ingestion phase (before and after blood digestion). The ingestion of carbohydrate was simulated as it occurs in the field by offering the insects balls of cotton soaked in sucrose, sucrose crystals or orange juice cells. The results obtained here showed that ingestion occurred under each condition investigated, as indicated by the presence of apyrase, an enzyme used as a marker to detect saliva in the insect gut and/or carbohydrate sources. Saliva ingestion by phlebotomine during the carbohydrate ingestion phase is important to explain how it could promote starch digestion and to trigger Leishmania promastigotes to follow a differentiation pathway as proposed previously by some authors. PMID:16699714

Cavalcante, Reginaldo R; Pereira, Marcos H; Freitas, Jorge M; Gontijo, Nelder de F



Comparison of modern techniques for saliva screening.  


Saliva stains present a unique challenge in the forensic setting, often challenging the analyst to weigh the value of presumptive indication of the fluid versus the potential for DNA analysis to yield identification information. There are many situations in which determining the presence of a body fluid is probative and further corroborates DNA evidence. That said, even a minute portion of sample consumed by a screening test could mean the difference between a full, partial, or null profile obtained through DNA analysis. The basis of presumptive testing or screening of saliva has historically been based on the presence of amylase, a component found in relatively high concentrations in human saliva versus other body fluids and substances. Though the current available methods for the screening of saliva in a forensic application have grown in number, the popularity of these methods seemingly has not. This study attempts to identify a specific and sensitive saliva screening test by comparing three modern techniques--the recently released SALIgAE, Phadebas, and starch-iodine mini-centrifuge test--on the basis of sensitivity, specificity, mixtures, and simulated casework samples while also considering sample consumption. The Phadebas method for presumptive saliva testing detected dilutions of neat saliva down to 1:200 versus considerably less sensitive results with SALIgAE and the starch-iodine mini-centrifuge test. Utilizing a screening test with a high degree of sensitivity, such as Phadebas, allows an analyst to gain a maximum amount of information in the form of body fluid indication and DNA results because of the consumption of a small portion of sample. PMID:18503523

Myers, Jarrah R; Adkins, William K



IP10 detection in urine is associated with lung diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: blood cytokines and chemokines have been proposed as biomarkers for tuberculosis (TB). Recently, some immune mediators found in the urine of patients with renal dysfunctions have also been suggested as potential biomarkers. Finding biomarkers for TB in urine would present several advantages over blood in terms of collection and safety. The objective of this study was to investigate the

Angela Cannas; Ludovica Calvo; Teresa Chiacchio; Gilda Cuzzi; Valentina Vanini; Francesco N Lauria; Luigia Pucci; Enrico Girardi; Delia Goletti



Direct Detection of Drugs of Abuse in Whole Hemolysed Postmortem Blood and Qualitative Measurement in EDTA - Plasma using the CEDIA DAU Urine Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct and simple detection of a broad spectrum of drugs in whole hemolysed postmortem blood (Part A) and the possibility of qualitative measurement in serum and whole blood using the cloned enzyme donor immu- noassay technique (CEDIA) (Part B) is described. We measured the samples for the presence of amphetamines (AMP), barbiturates (BARB), benzodiazepines (BENZ), cannabinoids, cocaine, LSD, methadone

B. Kottenhahn; G. Drasch; G. Roider; B. Hofbauer


Development and validation of an analytical method for determination of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in rat blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode.  


We have developed a highly selective and sensitive method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization for measuring 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in rat blood and urine. Samples were adsorbed on silica gel, extracted with ethyl acetate, and derivatized by chemical derivatization with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride. For quantification, matrix-based calibration curves and 3-MCPD-d (5), as an isotope-labeled internal standard, were used. The relative recoveries of 3-MCPD were between 80 and 110% in most cases and the relative standard deviations were typically less than 10%, with some exceptions. The limit of quantification of the method was found to be about 2 ng/mL. In conclusion, a valuable, robust, and sensitive method for detection of 3-MCPD is now available for biokinetics studies. PMID:20640896

Berger-Preiss, Edith; Gerling, Susanne; Apel, Elisabeth; Lampen, Alfonso; Creutzenberg, Otto



[Persistent hematuria after embolization for hemorrhagic complication following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: value of the study of red blood cell volume in urine].  


Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is associated with a high risk of complications, particularly bleeding, which makes it a potentially invasive technique. Management of haemorrhagic complications sometimes requires the use of embolization. Recurrence after embolization can occur as a result of revascularization or recanalization of vessels, but post-embolization infarction can also lead to persistent haematuria. The authors report the clinical case of a 36-year-old patient presenting with recurrence of severe haematuria after two successive highly selective embolizations. Analysis of the mean corpuscular volume of red cells in the urine confirmed the parenchymal and non-vascular origin of the bleeding, corresponding to a post-embolization syndrome. This analysis therefore constitutes a simple way to avoid repeated embolization or surgical exploration. PMID:12940203

Demey, Alexis; Colomb, Frédéric; Pebeyre, Bruno; Raffaelli, Charles; Garcia, Grégory; Toubol, Jacques; Chevallier, Daniel; Amiel, Jean



Quantitation of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and cocaethylene in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  


Cocaine, a stimulant, is a commonly abused drug. Cocaine and its metabolites are measured in various biological specimens for clinical and forensic purposes. Urine or plasma or serum is spiked with deuterated internal standards cocaine-d3, benzoylecgonine-d3, ecgonine methyl ester-d3, and cocaethylene-d3 and buffered with phosphate buffer. The drugs in the sample are extracted by cation-exchange solid phase extraction. The drugs from the solid phase cartridge are eluted and the eluent is dried under the stream of nitrogen. The residue is incubated with pentafluoropropionic acid anhydride and pentafluoropropanol to form pentafluoropropionyl derivatives of ecgonine methyl ester and benzoylecgonine. Cocaine and cocaethylene are refractory to derivatization. The extract is dried, reconstituted in ethyl acetate, and injected into gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analyzer. Quantitation of the drugs in the samples is made, using selected ion monitoring, from a 3-point calibration curve. PMID:20077067

Fleming, Steven W; Dasgupta, Amitava; Garg, Uttam



Urine pH  


... Drugs that can decrease urine pH include ammonium chloride, thiazide diuretics, and methenamine mandelate. Eat a normal, ... is associated with xanthine, cystine, uric acid , and calcium oxalate stones. Alkaline urine is associated with calcium ...


Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine combinations and the plasma and saliva concentrations of desethylamodiaquine in children with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.  


The treatment efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine (AQ) coformulated or copackaged, and the plasma and saliva concentrations of desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), the active metabolite of AQ, were evaluated in 120 and 7 children, respectively, with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria treated with oral daily doses of the 2 formulations for 3 days. All children recovered clinically. Fever clearance (1.1 ± 0.2 vs 1.0 ± 0 days) and parasite clearance times (21.1 ± 10.2 vs 19.0 ± 7.0 hours) in artesunate-AQ coformulated and artesunate-AQ copackaged treated children, respectively, were similar. All children remained aparasitemic for at least 28 days. Blood and saliva samples were collected over 35 days and DEAQ in plasma and saliva was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. DEAQ was detectable in plasma and saliva within 40 minutes of oral administration of artesunate-AQ. DEAQ concentrations 7 days after the start of therapy were 247.8 and 125.1 ng/mL in plasma and saliva, respectively. The concentration-time curves of plasma and saliva in declining phases were approximately parallel giving a similar half-life of 169.1 ± 16.4 and 142.8 ± 6.5 hours in plasma and saliva, respectively. Clearance from plasma and saliva was also similar (335.6 and 443.4 mL·h·kg, respectively). Area under concentration-time curves (AUC0-35d) for plasma and saliva were 94,744.9 and 74,004.2 ng·mL·h, respectively. In general, Saliva-plasma concentration ratio was 0.25-0.4. DEAQ concentrations in saliva may be useful for monitoring therapy and for the evaluation of the disposition of AQ in children with falciparum malaria treated with AQ-based combination. PMID:21192244

Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Happi, Christian T; Okuboyejo, Titilope M; Sijuade, Abayomi O; Michael, Obaro S; Adewoye, Elsie O; Folarin, Onikepe



Detection of phencyclidine usage by radioimmunoassay of saliva.  


Paired serum and saliva samples, obtained from 100 emergency department patients suspected of phencyclidine (PCP) intoxication, were analyzed using a specific PCP radioimmunoassay (RIA). Seventy-four of the 100 saliva samples and 75 of the paired serum samples were positive for PCP. The final clinical diagnosis was PCP intoxication in 79 cases. Of these, both serum and saliva tests were positive in 70 cases, only serum was positive in two cases, and both serum and saliva samples were negative in seven cases. The concentration of PCP in the samples did not correlate with the severity of PCP intoxication. In the remaining 21 cases, with no clinical evidence of PCP intoxication, PCP assays were negative in both serum and saliva in 17 cases, three patients had positive saliva and serum tests, and one other patient had a positive PCP saliva assay. Thus, saliva would appear to be as reliable as serum as a specimen for PCP analysis. PMID:6503222

McCarron, M M; Walberg, C B; Soares, J R; Gross, S J; Baselt, R C


Nonstructural protein 1 characteristic peak from NS1-saliva mixture with Surface-Enhanced Raman spectroscopy.  


Surface Enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an enhanced technique of Raman spectroscopy, which amplifies the intensity of Raman scattering to a practical range with adsorption of analyte onto nano-size plasmonic material such as gold, silver or copper. This feature of SERS has given it a niche in tracing molecular structure, especially useful for marking diseases specific biomarker. NS1 protein has been clinically accepted as an alternative biomarker for diseases caused by flavivirus. Detection of Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) will allow early diagnosis of the diseases. Its presence in the blood serum has been reported as early as first day of infection. With gold substrate, our work here intends to explore if SERS is suitable to detect NS1 from saliva, with saliva becoming the most favored alternative to blood as diagnostic fluid due to its advantages in sample collection. Our experimental results find both gold coated slide (GS) and saliva being Raman inactive, but the molecular fingerprint of NS1 protein at Raman shift 1012cm(-1), which has never been reported before. The distinct peak is discovered to be attributed by breathing vibration of the benzene ring structure of NS1 side chain molecule. The characteristic peak is also found to vary in direct proportion to concentration of the NS1-saliva mixture, with a correlation coefficient of +0.96118 and a standard error estimation of 0.11382. PMID:24110208

Radzol, A R M; Lee, Khuan Y; Mansor, W



Shortcomings of Urine-Preferred Drug Screening on Post-Mortem Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In counties with limited budgets, in order to save money on toxicology work, the request often comes from local medical examiners that screening for drugs on decedents be performed initially on urine and, if positive, to send blood for confirmation; negative urine results are not further evaluated. A study of known urine and blood drug screens was performed to evaluate

Henry J. Carson; Mary H. Dudley; Steven W. Fleming; Donald J. Linder



46 CFR 4.06-5 - Responsibility of individuals directly involved in serious marine incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR determined to be directly involved in an SMI must provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen for chemical testing...enforcement officer. (b) If the individual refuses to provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen, this refusal...



Five minute analysis of chemotherapy drugs in saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cancer treatment often includes chemotherapy drugs that prevent cancer cell growth through a variety of biochemical mechanisms, but are not target specific and kill other cells. Consequently, the dosage has a narrow range of safe and effective use. Furthermore, because of the dangerous side-effects of these drugs, clinical trials are not performed, and dosage is based on the limited statistics of the response of previously treated patients and administered according to body surface area. Monitoring dosage during administration would clearly improve patient outcome. Unfortunately current practices require 10-20 milliliters of blood per analysis, and multiple samples to profile pharmacokinetics may further jeopardize the patient's health. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative, but the large sample volumes are difficult to obtain. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable pipette format, and generally no more than two drops (100 microL) of sample are required to perform analysis. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of nanomolar concentrations. Measurements of chemotherapy drugs at relevant concentration are presented.

Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart



Source of sialogastrone, a gastric inhibitory substance in human saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human saliva contains a substance that inhibits gastric secretion when administered intravenously to dogs or rats. The purpose of this study was to determine which one of the salivary glands elaborates this substance. Individual samples of whole, parotid, submaxillary, and sublingual saliva were collected from normal human subjects. The amount of inhibitory substance in each sample of saliva was estimated

René Menguy; Michel Berlinski



Detection of Entamoeba histolytica DNA in the Saliva of Amoebic Liver Abscess Patients Who Received Prior Treatment with Metronidazole  

PubMed Central

Saliva is an easily-accessible and a non-invasive clinical specimen alternate to blood and liver pus. An attempt was made to detect Entamoeba histolytica DNA released in the saliva of amoebic liver abscess (ALA) patients by applying 16S-like rRNA gene-based nested multiplex polymerase chain reaction (NM-PCR). The NM-PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of eight (28.6%) of 28 ALA patients. The NM-PCR result was negative for E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of all the eight ALA patients who were tested prior to treatment with metronidazole but was positive in the saliva of eight (40%) of 20 ALA patient who were tested after therapy with metronidazole. The NM-PCR detected E. histolytica DNA in liver abscess pus of all 28 (100%) patients with ALA. The TechLab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive for E. histolytica Gal/GalNAc lectin antigen in the liver abscess pus of 13 (46.4%) of the 28 ALA patients. The indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test was positive for anti-amoebic antibodies in the serum of 22 (78.6%) of the 28 ALA patients and 2 (5.7%) of 35 healthy controls. The present study, for the first time, demonstrates the release of E. histolytica DNA in the saliva of ALA patients by applying NM-PCR.

Khairnar, Krishna; Parija, Subhash Chandra



The role of crude human saliva and purified salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins in the inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 in an inhibition assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Despite the continuous shedding of HIV infected blood into the oral cavity and the detectable presence of the AIDS virus at a high frequency, human saliva is reported to inhibit oral transmission of HIV through kissing, dental treatment, biting, and aerosolization. The purpose of this study was to purify salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from crude saliva and determine

Habtom H Habte; Anwar S Mall; Corena de Beer; Zoë E Lotz; Delawir Kahn



Gustatory adaptation to saliva and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human NaCl thesholds were measured under 2 conditions: (a) salivary influence excluded by rinse with distilled water or 1 of 3 weak concentrations of NaCl between stimulations, and (b) salivary influence maximized by using no rinse. Adaptation to distilled water yielded a median threshold for 4 Ss of .00014 M vs. .0043 M for adaptation to saliva. The latter value

Donald H. McBurney; Carl Pfaffmann




PubMed Central

The relationship between psychosocial factors and an increased risk for disease has been related to a heightened pro-inflammatory status reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or C-reactive protein (CRP). Routinely, epidemiological studies rely on measurements of inflammatory markers in serum or plasma, but the use of biological fluids such as saliva or oral mucosal transudate (OMT) may offer potential advantages. This study investigated correlations among plasma CRP and levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in plasma, saliva and OMT in a population of middle aged women with histories of past intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 67 women without existing chronic diseases participated in the study, which included two visits each in which psychological tests were administered, and blood, saliva and OMT samples were collected. Although significantly higher plasma CRP levels were found in past IPV sufferers compared to controls, there were no significant differences in IL-6 or sIL-6R levels in plasma, saliva or OMT between the two groups. There were only relatively modest correlations between IL-6 levels in plasma and those in saliva or OMT and between plasma IL-6 and CRP levels. A significant correlation between IL-6 and sIL6R levels in both saliva and OMT, but not in plasma, was also detected. No significant correlations were found between levels of IL-6 in saliva or OMT and periodontal health measures. Results indicate that IL-6 and sIL-6R levels in saliva or OMT do not closely reflect those in plasma, and therefore are not a good surrogate for systemic levels.

Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J.; Burns, Vicki E.; Newton, Tamara L.



Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for detecting tannin-binding proteins in the saliva of herbivores. The method is simple and requires only small quantities of crude saliva. The saliva of deer, a browsing ruminant, has been compared to that of domestic sheep and cow, which are grazing ruminants. The browser, which normally ingests dietary tannin, produces tannin-binding proteins, while the grazers

Paul J. Austin; Lisa A. Suchar; Charles T. Robbins; Ann E. Hagerman



Development of an Assay for the Detection of PrPres in Blood and Urine Based on PMCA Assay and ELISA Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The focus of this program is the development of a pre-clinical blood- based TSE diagnostic. The assay is been developed with plasma from hamsters infected with the 263K strain of scrapie. The assay has shown high sensitivity and specificity and good repro...

L. L. Gregori R. G. Rohwer



Blood in the semen  


... you have? Tests that may be done include: Prostate exam PSA blood test Semen analysis Semen culture Ultrasound of pelvis and scrotum Urinalysis Urine culture If the blood does ... culture Ultrasound of the seminal vesicles, scrotum, and testes


Excretion of West Nile virus in urine during acute infection.  


Detection of West Nile virus (WNV) RNA in urine has been anecdotally described and proposed for the diagnosis of WNV infection. This study reports the routine use of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for the detection of WNV RNA in urine to support diagnosis of WNV infection during the large outbreak that occurred in northeastern Italy in 2012. Fourteen of 32 patients (43.8%) with symptomatic WNV infection, defined as neuroinvasive disease and fever, had detectable WNV RNA in urine at the time of diagnosis, at a higher rate and load and for a longer time than detection of WNV RNA in blood. Detection of WNV RNA in urine was less frequent (2 of 14 patients [14.2%]) in blood donors in whom WNV infection was identified by WNV nucleic acid amplification testing. Infectious virus was isolated from the urine of a patient with neuroinvasive disease and a high WNV RNA load in urine. PMID:23821721

Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Martello, Thomas; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio



Proposal of Noninvasive Liver Function Measurement Method via Saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors studied the correlation between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and salivary ALT activity using ten healthy young adults and ten liver disease patients. Firstly, in order to establish the experimental conditions, we investigated the influence of occult blood and salivary secretion rate on the salivary ALT activity using healthy subjects. Then, simultaneous analysis of the serum and salivary ALT activities were conducted to investigate the correlation using the twenty subjects. As the results, although salivary ALT activity was as low as one third of serum ALT activity, the presence of salivary ALT activity was confirmed in healthy young adults whose saliva was not contaminated with serum. The salivary ALT activity of liver disease patients showed higher values than that of healthy young adults. In other word, if a threshold of salivary ALT activity was established, healthy young adults could be distinguished from liver disease patients.

Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kawabata, Yuji; Hatakeyama, Toyomasa; Kashii, Yoshiro


Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates  

SciTech Connect

Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others



Rates of antimicrobial resistance among common bacterial pathogens causing respiratory, blood, urine, and skin and soft tissue infections in pediatric patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antimicrobial resistance patterns among the principal bacterial pathogens from infections of the respiratory tract, blood, skin and soft tissue, and urinary tract of pediatric patients from the USA, Canada, Germany, France, and Italy were studied using the The Surveillance Network (TSN) database. Among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from respiratory tract infections, the prevalence of high-level penicillin resistance (MIC=2 µg\\/ml) ranged from 1.1

M. E. Jones; J. A. Karlowsky; D. C. Draghi; C. Thornsberry; D. F. Sahm; J. S. Bradley



Effects of heavy physical exercise and adaptogens on nitric oxide content in human saliva.  


Since heavy physical exercise increases the content of nitric oxide and cortisol in blood and saliva, standardized extracts of the adaptogen herbal drugs Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba roots were applied to several groups of athletes in a placebo controlled double blind study. In the beginning of a test with athletes Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of NO and cortisol in blood plasma and saliva similar to athletes with heavy physical exercise. These results correlate with an increased physical performance in athletes taking adaptogens versus athletes taking placebo. In contrast after treatment with the adaptogen heavy physical exercise does not increase salivary NO and cortisol in athletes, whereas athletes treated with placebo heavy physical exercise increased salivary NO. These results show that the salivary NO test can be used both for evaluation of physical loading and stress protective effect of an adaptogen. PMID:10228607

Panossian, A G; Oganessian, A S; Ambartsumian, M; Gabrielian, E S; Wagner, H; Wikman, G



Platelet aggregation and coagulation inhibitors in leech saliva and their roles in leech therapy.  


Prolonged bleeding by the host after the leech ceases to feed and several reports that the use of leeches restores blood flow in the microcirculation after plastic surgery led us to search for inhibitors of platelet aggregation in Hirudo medicinalis saliva. Dilute leech saliva was collected by phagostimulating starved leeches with a solution of arginine in saline. The saliva is shown to inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, collagen, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, platelet activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-3-glycerophophoryl choline [PAF]), and arachidonic acid. We have isolated the PAF inhibitor and found it to be an amphipathic phosphoglyceride. We have also purified apyrase adenosine triphosphate ([ATP] diphosphohydrolase), which inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation, and have described collagenase. Besides well-known hirudin, Hirudo saliva contains a potent inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa. We also report antiaggregant and anticoagulant activities in the crop content of the closely related Nile leech, Limnatis nilotica. Anticoagulants of hematophagous species are surveyed. We have used medicinal leeches in plastic surgery for decompression of skin flaps and in patients with postphlebitic syndrome and peripheral arterial occlusions. Preliminary results indicate certain beneficial effects of leech therapy. PMID:8836013

Rigbi, M; Orevi, M; Eldor, A



Iron and Ferritin Levels in Saliva of Patients with Thalassemia and Iron Deficiency Anemia  

PubMed Central

Most of the techniques for measuring iron stores such as serum iron concentration, iron binding capacity, serum ferritin level, liver biopsy can be troublesome or invasive for patients with thalassemia. The salivary iron measurement could be of potential advantage being an easy and non invasive approach for diagnosis of iron deficiency and iron overload . The aim of this study was to compare the levels of iron and ferritin in saliva and serum of patients affected by thalassemia or iron deficiency anemia. For this purpose, 96 patients with iron overload (71 with thalassemia major, 10 with thalassemia intermedia and 15 with thalassemia trait), 30 patients with iron deficiency anemia, and 35 healthy children as control group were involved in this study. Their saliva and serum iron and ferritin levels were measured. Iron and ferritin levels were higher in iron overload groups than in control group and lower in iron deficiency group (p<0.05). Furthermore serum and saliva iron and ferritin levels paralleled in all groups. In conclusion, iron and ferritin saliva can be routinely used for diagnosis of both iron overload and deficiency; furthermore this procedure may be an important advantage for blood donors being easily available and not invasive.

Canatan, Duran; Akdeniz, Sevgi Kosaci



Array-Based Whole-Genome Survey of Dog Saliva DNA Yields High Quality SNP Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundGenome-wide association scans for genetic loci underlying both Mendelian and complex traits are increasingly common in canine genetics research. However, the demand for high-quality DNA for use on such platforms creates challenges for traditional blood sample ascertainment. Though the use of saliva as a means of collecting DNA is common in human studies, alternate means of DNA collection for canine

Jennifer S. Yokoyama; Carolyn A. Erdman; Steven P. Hamilton



The Glossina morsitans tsetse fly saliva: General characteristics and identification of novel salivary proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is an obligate blood-sucking insect that transmits different human-pathogenic and livestock threathening trypanosome species in Africa. To obtain more insight in the tsetse salivary function, some general aspects of the tsetse fly saliva and its composition were studied.Direct pH and protein content measurements revealed a moderately alkaline (pH?8.0) salivary environment with approximately 4.3?g soluble proteins

J. Van Den Abbeele; G. Caljon; J.-F. Dierick; L. Moens; K. De Ridder; M. Coosemans



The Glossina morsitans tsetse fly saliva: general characteristics and identification of novel salivary proteins.  


The tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) is an obligate blood-sucking insect that transmits different human-pathogenic and livestock threatening trypanosome species in Africa. To obtain more insight in the tsetse salivary function, some general aspects of the tsetse fly saliva and its composition were studied. Direct pH and protein content measurements revealed a moderately alkaline (pH approximately 8.0) salivary environment with approximately 4.3 microg soluble proteins per gland and a constant representation of the major saliva proteins throughout the blood-feeding cycle. Although major salivary genes are constitutively expressed, upregulation of salivary protein synthesis within 48 h after the blood meal ensures complete protein replenishment from day 3 onwards. Screening of a non-normalised Glossina morsitans morsitans lambdagt11 salivary gland expression library with serum from a saliva-immunized rabbit identified three full-length cDNAs encoding for novel salivary proteins with yet unknown functions: a 8.3 kDa glycine/glutamate-rich protein (G. morsitans morsitans salivary gland protein Gmmsgp1), a 12.0 kDa proline-rich protein (Gmmsgp2), and a 97.4 kDa protein composed of a metallophosphoesterase/5'nucleotidase region with a glutamate/aspartate/asparagines-rich region (Gmmsgp3). PMID:17785195

Van Den Abbeele, J; Caljon, G; Dierick, J-F; Moens, L; De Ridder, K; Coosemans, M



Ovulation detection in saliva, is it possible.  


Background/Aims: The new mini-microscope Geratherm® ovu control was evaluated for its recognition of saliva ferning in a collective of 47 patients taking part in an artificial reproductive technology program on the day of follicular puncture. Methods: The ferning phenomenon was evaluated by patients and laboratory staff according to the criteria: no ferning, slight ferning and good ferning. Results: Geratherm® ovu control showed a specificity of 78% and a sensitivity of 80% in relation to rising E2 levels under follicle-stimulating hormone/human chorionic gonadotrophin. A comparison of the evaluations of the saliva test carried out by patients and by laboratory staff resulted in a high and substantial agreement of 89.4% (?). Conclusion: Evaluations performed by ovu control were similar to those achieved with a highly sophisticated inverted microscope. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24008369

Salmassi, A; Schmutzler, A G; Püngel, F; Schubert, M; Alkatout, I; Mettler, L



The Growth of Oral Bacteria on Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present experiments were aimed at studying the degradation of salivary glycoproteins by the oral microflora. To this end, S. sanguis I strain Ny476 and S. sanguis II (S. mitior) strain Ny581 were grown continuously in human-whole saliva. Under these conditions, the strains produced a variety of cell-associated hydrolytic activities, including glycosidases, exo- and endopeptidases, and esterases. S. sanguis II

M. H. De Jong; J. S. Van Der Hoeven



Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases  

PubMed Central

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases.

Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh



Uranium in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

DURING some work in this Research Department on compounds of uranium, as a safety precaution, we commenced to analyse the urine of personnel concerned, using a fluorimetric method. In the preparation of fluorimetric standards, known amounts of uranyl nitrate were added to samples of urine from persons not engaged on the work with uranium. To our surprise we found uranium

H. M. Wilson; A. A. Smales



Endocannabinoids Measurement in Human Saliva as Potential Biomarker of Obesity  

PubMed Central

Background The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and of its role in the regulation of energy balance has significantly advanced our understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes. New knowledge on the role of this system in humans has been acquired by measuring blood endocannabinoids. Here we explored endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines in saliva and verified their changes in relation to body weight status and in response to a meal or to body weight loss. Methodology/Principal Findings Fasting plasma and salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were measured through liquid mass spectrometry in 12 normal weight and 12 obese, insulin-resistant subjects. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were evaluated in the same cohort before and after the consumption of a meal. Changes in salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines after body weight loss were investigated in a second group of 12 obese subjects following a 12-weeks lifestyle intervention program. The levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes regulating the metabolism of endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines and of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor, alongside endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines content, were assessed in human salivary glands. The endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA), and the N-acylethanolamines (oleoylethanolamide, OEA and palmitoylethanolamide, PEA) were quantifiable in saliva and their levels were significantly higher in obese than in normal weight subjects. Fasting salivary AEA and OEA directly correlated with BMI, waist circumference and fasting insulin. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines did not change in response to a meal. CB1 receptors, ligands and enzymes were expressed in the salivary glands. Finally, a body weight loss of 5.3% obtained after a 12-weeks lifestyle program significantly decreased salivary AEA levels. Conclusions/Significance Endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines are quantifiable in saliva and their levels correlate with obesity but not with feeding status. Body weight loss significantly decreases salivary AEA, which might represent a useful biomarker in obesity.

Tabarin, Antoine; Clark, Samantha; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Cota, Daniela



Physiologicomathematical model for studying human exposure to organic solvents: kinetics of blood/tissue n-hexane concentrations and of 2,5-hexanedione in urine.  

PubMed Central

The physiologicomathematical model with eight compartments described allows the simulation of the absorbtion, distribution, biotransformation, excretion of an organic solvent, and the kinetics of its metabolites. The usual compartments of the human organism (vessel rich group, muscle group, and fat group) are integrated with the lungs, the metabolising tissues, and three other compartments dealing with the metabolic kinetics (biotransformation, water, and urinary compartments). The findings obtained by mathematical simulation of exposure to n-hexane were compared with data previously reported. The concentrations of n-hexane in alveolar air and in venous blood described both in experimental and occupational exposures provided a substantial validation for the data obtained by mathematical simulation. The results of the urinary excretion of 2,5-hexanedione given by the model were in good agreement with data already reported. The simulation of an exposure to n-hexane repeated five days a week suggested that the solvent accumulates in the fat tissue. The half life of n-hexane in fat tissue equalled 64 hours. The kinetics of 2,5-hexanedione resulting from the model suggest that occupational exposure results in the presence of large amounts of 2,5-hexanedione in the body for the whole working week.

Perbellini, L; Mozzo, P; Brugnone, F; Zedde, A



Determination of cyclosporine in saliva using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


Saliva may offer an alternative specimen for the therapeutic monitoring of cyclosporine (CsA) in children and patients with difficult venous access. For a highly protein-bound drug such as CsA, saliva may also provide a practical approach for measuring the unbound concentration. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is ideally suited for the measurement of drugs in saliva. A solid-phase extraction technique, analytic liquid chromatography over an Aqua Perfect C18 column, maintained at 65 degrees C, and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify CsA in saliva. The method used cyclosporine C (CsC) as the internal standard. Mobile phase comprised of a 97:3 vol/vol mixture of methanol and 30 mmol ammonium acetate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Chromatograms using mass transitions of m/z 1219.9 --> m/z 1202.9 for CsA and m/z 1235.9 --> m/z 1218.9 for CsC were obtained. The calibration curve was linear from 1 to 300 microg/L with correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.9732 to 0.9968). The lower limit of quantification was 1 microg/L, and limit of detection was 0.6 microg/L with an average extraction recovery of 84.7 +/- 2.6% for CsA and 93.7 +/- 4.4% for CsC from the saliva matrix. The accuracy of the method ranged from 92% to 104.7%, and the intra- and interrun coefficients of variation were 6.9-12.2% and 8.3-12.1%, respectively. The correlation coefficient value between the CsA concentration measurements in 15 paired blood-saliva samples from kidney transplant recipients was 0.695 (P = 0.006). The noninvasive and simple method of saliva collection coupled with the LC-MS/MS quantification technique for CsA analysis would generate novel data that could benefit patients undergoing CsA therapy. PMID:15385841

Mendonza, Anisha; Gohh, Reginald; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh



[Inhibitory effect of human saliva on HIV-1 infectivity].  


Human saliva is known to decrease human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infectivity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to confirm these findings and to explore the mechanism of action of saliva. Whole saliva from seronegative donors was incubated with HIV-1IIIB chronically infected MOLT 4 cells (MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells) or cell-free HIV-1IIIB or KMT strains. We monitored viral infectivity by using MAGI/CCR5 cells. Whole saliva with Na levels less than 20 mEq/l rapidly damaged MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells, thereby HIV infection to MAGI/CCR5 cells by MOLT 4/HIV-1IIIB cells was nearly abolished. On the contrary, in the cace of whole saliva with Na levels more than 23 mEq/l which damaged few cells, cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1IIIB was prevented by more than 50%. The infectivity of cell-free HIV-1IIIB to MAGI/CCR5 cells was abolished after incubating and filtering the HIV with whole saliva. Depletion of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) from whole saliva resulted in a 11-28% decrease in the anti HIV-1KMT activity of saliva. Preincubation of host cells with whole saliva led to an enhancement of the HIV infection rather than inhibition. Whole saliva had no effect on the expression level of the cellular receptors (CD4, CXCR4 and CCR5). These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of whole saliva on HIV-1 infectivity is directly linked to the virus itself rather than on the host cell. Moreover, the physical entrapment of cell-free HIV-1 by whole saliva seems to have major salivaly defence mechanisms against HIV-1 infection through the oral cavity. PMID:16578966

Etsuko, K; Wei, S



Single and Multiple Dose Pharmacokinetics of Maraviroc in Saliva, Semen, and Rectal Tissue of Healthy HIV-negative Men  

PubMed Central

Background.?Antiretroviral pharmacology in seminal plasma (SP) and rectal tissue (RT) may provide insight into antiretroviral resistance and the prevention of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Saliva may be of utility for noninvasively measuring adherence. Methods.?A pharmacokinetic study was performed in 12 HIV-negative men receiving maraviroc 300 mg twice daily for 8 days. Seven time-matched pairs of blood plasma (BP) and saliva samples were collected over 12 h on day 1 (PK1) and days 7 and 8 (PK2). One RT sample from each subject was collected during PK1 and PK2. Two SP samples were collected from each subject during PK1, and 6 SP samples were collected from each subject during PK2. Results.?SP AUCs were ?50% lower than BP. However, protein binding in SP ranged from 4% to 25%, resulting in protein-free concentrations >2-fold higher than BP. RT AUCs were 7.5- to 26-fold higher than BP. Maraviroc saliva AUCs were ?70% lower than BP, but saliva concentrations correlated with BP (r2 = 0.58). Conclusions.?More pharmacologically available maraviroc was found in SP than BP. High RT concentrations are promising for preventing rectal HIV acquisition. Saliva correlation with BP suggests that this may be useful for monitoring adherence. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00775294.

Patterson, Kristine B.; Malone, Stephanie A.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Asher Prince, Heather M.; Dumond, Julie B.; Spacek, Melissa B.; Heidt, Paris E.; Cohen, Myron S.; Kashuba, Angela D. M.



Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU): pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status  

PubMed Central

Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes), arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca) salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaPi)), supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB) and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF)), in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote) of oxidative metabolism (OM), without and with variation of markers. Results 1) In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite) were unchanged; 2) upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median) numerous stone parameters differed significant!)', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3) a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4) in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5) also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were negatively correlated, whereas in SF plasma Ca/Pi ratio, PTH and body mass index correlated positively; 6) multivariate regression analysis revealed that PTH, body mass index and nitrate together could explain 22 (p = 0.002) and only 7 (p = 0.06) per cent of variation of plasma Ca/Pi in SF and SB, respectively Conclusions In IRCU a) numerous constituents of fasting urine, plasma, blood and blood pressure change in response to variation of OM biomarkers, suggesting involvement of OM imbalance as factor in functional deterioration of tissue; b) in the majority of patients a positive exponential relationship links urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, presumably to accumulate Ca outside tubular lumen, thereby minimizing intratubular and urinary Ca salt crystallization; c) alteration of interactions of low urine nitrate, PTH and Ca/Pi in plasma may be of importance in formation of new Ca stone and co-regulation of dynamics of blood vasculature; d) overweight, combined with OM-modified renal interstitial environment appears to facilitate these processes, carrying the risk that CaPi mineral develops within or/and close to blood vessel tissue, and spreads towards urothelium. For future research focussing on IRCU pathogenesis studies are recommended on the role of affluent lifestyle mediated renal ischemia, mild hypertensive nephropathy, rise of uric acid precursor oxypurines and uricemia, clarifying also why loss of significance of interrelationships of OM biomarkers with traditional Ca stone risk factors is characteristic for SB patients. OM biomarkers Plasma uric acid - Discussed as scavenger of reactive oxygen species, but also as donator (via the xanthine oxido-reductase reaction) Urinary malonedialdehydc - Accepted as indicator of peroxidation of lipids within biological cell membranes Urinaiy nitrate - Accepted as indicator of vasodilation-mediating nitric oxide production by blood vessel endothelium Urinary malonedialdehyde/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance Urinary nitrate/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of oxidant/antiox



Toward an Understanding of the Biochemical and Pharmacological Complexity of the Saliva of a Hematophagous Sand Fly Lutzomyia longipalpis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains powerful pharmacologically active substances and may be a vaccine target against some vector-borne diseases. Subtractive cloning combined with biochemical approaches was used to discover activities in the salivary glands of the hematophagous fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Sequences of nine full-length cDNA clones were obtained, five of which are possibly associated with blood-meal acquisition, each having

Rosane Charlab; Jesus G. Valenzuela; Edgar D. Rowton; Jose M. C. Ribeiro



Relation between bloodand urine-amphetamine concentrations in impaired drivers as influenced by urinary pH and creatinine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amphetamine undergoes extensive renal excretion and significant amounts are present in urine as the unchanged parent drug. This prompted us to investigate whether a quantitative relationship existed between blood and urine concentrations of amphetamine in the body fluids of drug-impaired drivers apprehended in Sweden, where this stimulant is the major drug of abuse. The relationship between blood and urine concentrations

A W Jones; L Karlsson



Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Saliva  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for on-site and real-time biomonitoring of lead (Pb) from both occupational and environmental exposures. Saliva is an appealing matrix since it is easily obtainable, and therefore a potential substitute for blood since there is a reasonably good correlation between Pb levels in both blood and saliva. The microanalytical system is based on stripping voltammetry of Pb at the microelectrochemical cell having a flow injection/flow-onto design. Samples that contain as little as 1% saliva can cause electrode fouling, resulting in significantly reduced responsiveness, irreproducible quantitations, and the need for frequent electrode regeneration. In addition, incomplete Pb release from salivary protein can also yield a lower Pb response than expected. This paper evaluates the extent of in vitro Pb-protein binding and the optimal pre-treatment for releasing Pb from the saliva samples. Even in 50% by volume of rat saliva, the electrode fouling was not observed, due to the appropriate sample pretreatment (with 1.0 M acid, followed by centrifugation at the RCF of 15200?g) and the constant flow of the sample and acidic carrier that prevented passivation by the protein. The system offered a linear response over a low Pb range (1-10 ppb), low detection limit (1 ppb), excellent reproducibility (5% RSD), and reliability. It also yielded the same Pb concentrations in unknown samples as did the ICP-MS. These encouraging results suggest that the microanalytical system represents an important analytical advancement for real-time non-invasive (i.e., saliva) biomonitoring of Pb.

Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Dean A.; Lin, Yuehe



Ten-minute analysis of drugs and metabolites in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid analysis of drugs in emergency room overdose patients is critical to selecting appropriate medical care. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative to blood plasma analysis for this application. However, current clinical laboratory analysis methods involve extensive sample extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and typically require as much as one hour to perform. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable lab-on-a-chip format, and generally no more than a drop of sample is required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of microg/mL concentrations. Measurements of cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, and several barbiturates are presented.

Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart



Urine electrolytes and the urine anion and osmolar gaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine ammonia concentration is crucial to understanding and quantifying the kidney's response to metabolic acidosis. This test is generally not performed by clinical laboratories. The urine anion gap and osmolar gaps have been proposed as surrogate measures of urine ammonia in patients with hyperchloremic acidosis. We measured ammonium and other electrolytes in the urine of patients attending our renal disease

Barry Kirschbaum; Domenic Sica; F. Phillip Anderson



The effects of postexercise feeding on saliva antimicrobial proteins.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a carbohydrate (CHO) and protein (PRO) drink consumed immediately after endurance exercise on saliva antimicrobial proteins known to be important for host defense. Eleven male runners ran for 2 hr at 75% VO2max on 2 occasions and immediately postexercise were provided, in randomized order, either a placebo solution (CON) or a CHO-PRO solution containing 1.2 g CHO/kg body mass (BM) and 0.4 g PRO/kg BM (CHO-PRO). The solutions were flavor and volume equivalent (12 ml/kg BM). Saliva flow rate, lysozyme, ?-amylase, and secretory (S) IgA concentrations were determined from unstimulated saliva samples collected preexercise, immediately postexercise, and every 30 min until 180 min postexercise. CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a lower saliva flow rate than with CON at 30 and 60 min postexercise. Saliva lysozyme concentration increased immediately postexercise in both trials compared with preexercise (p< .05), and CHO-PRO ingestion immediately postexercise resulted in a higher saliva lysozyme concentration in the first hour of recovery than with CON (125% greater at 30 min, 94% greater at 60 min; p< .01). Saliva SIgA concentration decreased below preexercise concentrations 90-150 min postexercise (p< .001), with no effect of CHO-PRO. Saliva ?-amylase activity was unaffected by exercise or CHO-PRO refeeding. CHO-PRO refeeding did not alter the secretion rates of any saliva variables during recovery. In conclusion, immediate refeeding with CHO-PRO evoked a greater saliva lysozyme concentration during the first hour of recovery after prolonged exercise than ingestion of placebo but had minimal impact on saliva ?-amylase and SIgA responses. PMID:22693239

Costa, Ricardo J S; Fortes, Matthew B; Richardson, Katharine; Bilzon, James L J; Walsh, Neil P



Urine drug screen  


... the container from the urine stream. Give the container to the health care provider or assistant. Wash your hands again with soap and water. The sample is then taken to the laboratory for evaluation.


The Human Urine Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.



Detection of Novel Polyomaviruses, TSPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, HPyV9 and MWPyV in Feces, Urine, Blood, Respiratory Swabs and Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Eight novel human polyomaviruses have been discovered since 2007. Prevalence rates and tissue tropism for the most recent members HPyV 6, 7, 9, TSPyV and MWPyV are largely unknown. We used real-time PCR to determine the presence of HPyV 6, 7, 9, TSPyV and MWPyV in feces (n?=?263), urine (n?=?189), blood (n?=?161), respiratory swabs (n?=?1385) and cerebrospinal fluid (n?=?171) from both healthy control children and children and adults undergoing diagnostic testing. Whole genome sequencing was able to be performed on 9 MWPyV positive specimens. Novel polyomaviruses were only detected in respiratory swabs and feces, with no detections of HPyV 9 in any sample type. MWPyV was found to be the most prevalent novel polyomavirus, being detected in 18 (1.5%) respiratory specimens from symptomatic patients, 16 (9.8%) respiratory sample from healthy control children, 11 (5.9%) fecal specimens from patient suffering gastrointestinal illness, and in 13 (15.3%) of feces from healthy control children. MWPyV was found only in respiratory and fecal specimens from children, the oldest being 9 years old. HPyV 6, 7, 9 and TSPyV were also detected in respiratory specimens and fecal specimens at low prevalence (<1.3%). The majority of these detections were found in immunocompromised patients. Our findings suggest that MWPyV can result in a subclinical infection, persistent or intermittent shedding, particularly in young children. The other novel polyomaviruses were also found in respiratory and fecal specimens, but at lower prevalence and most commonly in immunocompromised individuals.

Rockett, Rebecca J.; Sloots, Theo P.; Bowes, Sharleen; O'Neill, Nicholas; Ye, Suifang; Robson, Jenny; Whiley, David M.; Lambert, Stephen B.; Wang, David; Nissen, Michael D.; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn



Influence of Individual Saliva Secretion on Fluoride Bioavailability  

PubMed Central

The aim of this preliminary investigation was to compare the individual saliva secretion rate with the fluoride bioavailability in saliva after using sodium fluoride and amine fluoride. Methods: To assess oral fluoride kinetics 10 highly trained volunteers brushed their teeth with one of the formulations and saliva was collected. The amount of saliva was measured, and the fluoride content was determined. Data underwent statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney-U test and Pearson correlation. The ex vivo experiment I included individual saliva collection of the same volunteers. Then the oral hygiene products were solved in equal amounts of whole saliva (ex-vivo experiment II), and the fluoride content was measured. Finally, both products were dispersed in distilled water (ex-vivo experiment III) to calculate the dissociation of both products in water. Results: In vivo results of fluoride content after 3 min. tooth brushing demonstrated a negative correlation with saliva secretion: for NaF r = -0.695 (p<0.01) and for amine fluoride r = -0.446 (p<0.01). The in-vitro experiment I resulted for NaF in 251.7±22.4 µg/g fluoride and for amine fluoride in 171.7±14.4 µg/g. Conclusions: Fluoride bioavailability of saliva after exposure to NaF was higher compared to amine fluoride. The individual secretion rate changes the fluoride content and normal secretors keep the fluoride availability longer.

Naumova, E.A; Gaengler, P; Zimmer, S; Arnold, W.H



Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years

M. Ipek Cingi; Cemal Cingi; Emre Cingi



Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have

M. R. Hamidian; M. Vahid Golpayegani; S. Shojai



Forensic body fluid identification: the Raman spectroscopic signature of saliva.  


The potential use of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci.,Int., 2008, 181, e1-e5). However, those experiments were performed using only one sample of each body fluid and did not investigate the potential for spectral variations among different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a single human saliva sample as well as among samples from multiple donors. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human saliva samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. Principal component analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry saliva is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The major chemical components known to be present in saliva were used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of saliva was also addressed. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry saliva in a quantitative way. The combination of these three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for saliva. This proof of concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be saliva during forensic analysis. PMID:20174703

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K



The Flow Rate of Unstimulated Human Labial Gland Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the minor salivary glands contribute an important fraction of the resting flow of saliva, which may be particularly relevant in xerostomia, there is currently no precise method of measuring the flow from individual glands or recording the number of active glands in a given area. These experiments were devised to test a photographic method of assaying labial gland saliva

D. B. Ferguson



Studies of Histidine-Rich Polypeptides from Human Parotid Saliva.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The isolation of an histidine-rich polypeptide from human parotid saliva is described. This polypeptide, termed HRP-1, contains 17% histidine. HRP-1 is a neutral molecule and is a precursor of the cationic histidine-rich polypeptides found in saliva. Resu...

B. J. Baum J. L. Bird D. B. Millar R. W. Longton



Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on saliva-derived microcosms  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) is shown to hamper the presence of mutans streptococci in saliva and may have positive effects on oral health. We investigated the effects of LGG on the cariogenic potential and microbial composition of saliva-derived microcosms.

Lien Chi Pham; Michel A. Hoogenkamp; Rob A. M. Exterkate; Zewdu Terefework; Johannes J. de Soet; Jacob M. ten Cate; Wim Crielaard; Egija Zaura



Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients.  


Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow. PMID:20976401

Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de



Candida albicans binds to saliva proteins selectively adsorbed to silicone.  


Explanted voice prostheses obtained from 5 patients at the time of prosthesis replacement were consistently colonized by yeast, in particular Candida albicans. A simple, reproducible, in vitro model of C. albicans adherence to saliva-coated voice prosthesis silicone was developed. Whole saliva promoted adherence of C. albicans to silicone in a dose-dependent manner. Saliva rinses from voice prosthesis patients also promoted binding of C. albicans to silicone in vitro (mean adherence 14.9% +/- 2.8% of input C. albicans cells). This was significantly higher than C. albicans adherence to silicone in the absence of saliva (P < .001) or adherence promoted by saliva rinses from healthy volunteers (P < .005). Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and a blot overlay adherence assay revealed that certain salivary proteins were selectively adsorbed to silicone and that C. albicans yeast cells adhered specifically to the adsorbed salivary proteins. PMID:16997116

Holmes, Ann R; van der Wielen, Pauline; Cannon, Richard D; Ruske, Dean; Dawes, Patrick



Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care.

Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W.



Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra



Fluoride Concentrations in Plaque, Whole Saliva, and Ductal Saliva After Application of Home-use Topical Fluorides  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now well-accepted that the primary anti-caries activity of fluoride (F) is via topical action. The retention of F in the mouth after topical fluoride treatment is considered to be an important factor in the clinical efficacy of F. The purpose of this study was to evaluate F levels in ductal saliva, whole saliva, and pooled plaque after treatment

D. T. Zero; R. F. Raubertas; J. Fu; A. M. Pedersen; A. L. Hayes; J. D. B. Featherstone



When There's Blood in Your Urine  


... The problem is different from bleeding due to blunt trauma, which may occur in contact sports or accidents. ... prostate cancer. Imaging tests – A helical computed tomography (CT) scan, also called a spiral CT, is now the ...


Paper-based microfluidic devices for analysis of clinically relevant analytes present in urine and saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the use of paper-based microfluidic devices fabricated from a novel polymer blend for the monitoring of urinary\\u000a ketones, glucose, and salivary nitrite. Paper-based devices were fabricated via photolithography in less than 3 min and were\\u000a immediately ready for use for these diagnostically relevant assays. Patterned channels on filter paper as small as 90 ?m wide\\u000a with barriers as narrow as

Scott A. Klasner; Alexander K. Price; Kurt W. Hoeman; Rashaun S. Wilson; Kayla J. Bell; Christopher T. Culbertson



Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Nicholas J. Haley; Davis M. Seelig; Mark D. Zabel; Glenn C. Telling; Edward A. Hoover; Mark R. Cookson



The effect of anti-sandfly saliva antibodies on Phlebotomus argentipes and Leishmania donovani.  


A study was undertaken to find the effect of repeated bites of the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes, on its host as well as on the vector itself. The study also aimed to find the effect of the immune serum on the parasite, Leishmania donovani, naturally transmitted by the vector. The hamster which was exposed to sandfly feeding showed good antibody titre against the sandfly salivary-gland secretion, which indicates that the salivary-gland secretion is immunogenic in nature. The result also revealed that the feeding attraction of the females, which has been expressed as the percentage of engorgement, gradually decreased as the mortality rate increased during the subsequent bites. Similar mortality rate was observed when the flies were fed with the immune sera through an artificial membrane feeding method. When the sandflies were fed both with the immune sera and the blood-parasite (L. donovani) suspension, in addition to the major loss of the number of vectors, there was an inhibition of development in the gut and a concomitant reduction in the migration of the parasite in the surviving females. These results indicate that the anti-sandfly saliva immune sera probably bind with the respective antigen-presenting sites of the sandfly salivary gland and, thus, cause the sandfly death. The possible explanation of the inhibition of the forward movement of the parasites is that the attraction of the parasites to the oesophagus, mediated by the sandfly saliva, is inhibited by the anti-saliva antibodies. The importance of anti-sandfly saliva antibodies as a tool of vector control and also to block the transmission of leishmaniasis has been indicated. PMID:9512990

Ghosh, K N; Mukhopadhyay, J



The human urine metabolome.  


Urine has long been a "favored" biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S



Substantiation of an artificial saliva formulated for use in a masticatory apparatus.  


The aim of this work was to substantiate artificial saliva prepared for use in a masticator apparatus. Mastication's goal is to produce a viscous and plastic food bolus where these properties authorize a safe swallow. Apart from its biochemical contribution, saliva is mainly used in this kind of apparatus to provide a viscous component to the bolus. Artificial saliva was prepared with water and minerals, and completed with mucin and amylase. Different physico-chemical conditions were applied and the resultant viscosity was compared to that of human saliva. Mechanically- or chemically-stimulated salivas of ten healthy subjects were collected. Viscosity was measured with a capillary viscometer in response to changes in measurement's temperature, air exposure or pH. The effects of circadian saliva collection and the stimulation type on viscosity of human saliva were also studied. Viscosity of artificial and human salivas was comparable. An increase in the measurement's temperature or a 30 min-exposure of saliva to air led to a significant decrease in viscosity of both types of saliva. Amylase in artificial saliva did not change viscosity. The viscosity of human saliva displayed important subject variability as well as a dependence on the stimulation type of saliva production. This work allowed a useful evaluation of the formulated artificial saliva. It exhibited similar viscosity as the natural saliva in response to different methodological conditions. Therefore the proposed artificial saliva satisfies the major requirement of viscosity for a use in the masticator apparatus designed to prepare a food bolus. PMID:22988786

Roger-Leroi, V; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Woda, A; Marchand, M; Peyron, M A



Saliva as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide and immune markers in sport and exercise science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: This paper discusses the use of saliva analysis as a tool for monitoring steroid, peptide, and immune markers of sports training. Design: Salivary gland physiology, regarding the regulation and stimulation of saliva secretion, as well as methodological issues including saliva collection, storage and analysis are addressed in this paper. The effects of exercise on saliva composition are then considered.

Elena Papacosta; George P. Nassis



Rust Urine after Intense Hand Drumming Is Caused by Extracorpuscular Hemolysis  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: During Carnival, groups of ?60 drummers go drumming with their hands and marching for periods of 2 to 4 h. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and type of urinary abnormalities after candombe drumming and to evaluate possible pathogenic mechanisms. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: For analysis of pathogenic mechanisms, a group of individuals were prospectively evaluated before and after candombe drumming. Methods: Candombe drummers were recruited in January 2006, 1 wk before prolonged drumming. After clinical evaluation, urine and blood samples were obtained before and immediately after drumming. Results: Forty-five healthy individuals (four women and 41 men), median age 31 yr (14 to 56), were evaluated. Predrumming urine and plasma samples were obtained for 30 individuals. Nineteen (42%) of 45 had a previous history of rust urine emission temporally related with candombe drumming. After drumming, 18 of 26 showed urine abnormalities; six of 26 showed rust urine, eight of 26 had microhematuria, and seven of 26 had proteinuria >1 g/L. The candombe drummers who showed rust urine after heavy drumming presented significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin when compared with those without urine abnormalities. Haptoglobin was significantly lower in the rust urine group. Fragmented red cells were observed in the blood smear of individuals with rust urine. Rust urine after drumming was associated with previous episodes of rust urine and glucosuria. Conclusions: Taken together, these data confirm that rust urine is caused by extracorpuscular hemolysis.

Tobal, Diego; Olascoaga, Alicia; Moreira, Gabriela; Kurdian, Melania; Sanchez, Fernanda; Rosello, Maria; Alallon, Walter; Martinez, Francisco Gonzalez; Noboa, Oscar



Specificity, sensitivity, and operability of RSID™-urine for forensic identification of urine: comparison with ELISA for Tamm-Horsfall protein.  


In this study, the specificity, sensitivity, and operability of RSID™-Urine, a new immunochromatographic test for urine identification, was evaluated and compared with ELISA detection of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP). Urine was successfully identified among other body fluids using RSID™-Urine and ELISA detection of THP. The detection limit of RSID™-Urine equated to 0.5 ?L of urine; although the sensitivity of RSID™-Urine may be lower than that of ELISA detection of THP, it is thought to be sufficient for application to casework samples. However, results from RSID™-Urine must be interpreted with caution when the sample may have been contaminated with blood or vaginal fluid, because this might inhibit urine detection. The RSID™-Urine assay can be performed in just 15 min by dropping the extracted sample onto the test cassette. Therefore, RSID™-Urine should be an effective tool for the forensic identification of urine, in addition to ELISA detection of THP. PMID:22563762

Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Sakurada, Koichi



Advanced Urine Toxicology Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond

Peter L. Tenore



Bacterial Assay of Urine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The dip-slide technique for bacterial assay of urine has been found to be a competent method for isolating the usual organisms responsible for urinary tract infection. Being a simple device, reliable in transport, and commercially available, it would appe...

J. E. Sippel Z. Farid A. S. Diab



The Mammalian Urine Concentrating Mechanism: Hypotheses and Uncertainties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney, which can produce a urine that is substantially more concentrated than blood plasma during periods of water deprivation, is one of the enduring mysteries in traditional physiology. Owing to the complex lateral and axial relationships of tubules and vessels, in both the outer and inner medulla, the urine concentrating mechanism may only be fully understood in terms of the kidneyÃÂs three-dimensional functional architecture and its implications for preferential interactions among tubules and vessels.

Anita Layton (Duke University Mathematics); PhD William H. Dantzler (University of Arizona College of Medicine Department of Physiology)




PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the presence and relative composition of neutral lipids in human saliva. Design Whole unstimulated saliva was collected from 12 subjects ranging from 21 to 29 years old. Samples were lyophilized, and lipids were extracted using chloroform-methanol. Lipids were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. Results Human saliva contains cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, wax esters, cholesterol esters and squalene. The mean total neutral lipid content was 12.1 +/? 6.3 µg/ml. Conclusions This lipids in human saliva closely resemble the lipids found on the skin surface. These salivary lipids are most likely produced by the sebaceous follicles in the oral mucosa and sebaceous glands associated with major salivary glands.

Brasser, Andrew J; Barwacz, Christopher A; Dawson, Deborah V; Brogden, Kim A; Drake, David R; Wertz, Philip W



Paper Electrophoresis of Saliva Albumins (Elektroforeza Bibulowa Bialek Sliny).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proteins of mixed human saliva were concentrated by prevaporation, separated by electrophoresis and the fractions obtained there were of determined quantitatively. Three different techniques of separation were developed. The best separation was obtain...

T. Szymczyk



Method for stimulating saliva production during oral sample collection procedure  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and device are provided for stimulating and increasing the production of saliva during immunoassay tests for drugs or other analytes wherein a scent or odor capable of stimulating saliva production is incorporated into a device for obtaining an oral sample from a test subject. The scent or odor may be impregnated into the oral sample collection device or may be part of an attachment to such a device, and the scent or odor is disposed in such a manner so as to maximize the exposure of the scent to the test subject and thus stimulate the production of saliva. The method and device of the invention are advantageous because the increased production of saliva will facilitate the testing of an oral sample for drugs or other analytes and will increase the likelihood of obtaining a complete and accurate result.



Zone Electrophoresis of Human Parotid Saliva in Acrylamide Gel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns an examination of acrylamide gel as another medium for the zone electrophoresis of parotid saliva proteins. Preliminary experiments with acrylamide-gel strips yielded protein patterns in which twenty or more fractions could be visually...

T. S. Meyer B. L. Lamberts



Concentrations of major elements and mercury in unstimulated human saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was a preliminary assessment of a possible role of human saliva in the diagnosis of some physiological\\u000a and pathological changes in oral and body functions. Reliable procedures for collection and analysis of samples were established\\u000a in order to assess total concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, and Hg in whole unstimulated saliva. Possible relationships

F. Monaci; E. Bargagli; F. Bravi; P. Rottoli



Massive tongue swelling following the use of synthetic saliva.  


A 5-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and severe learning difficulties developed massive tongue swelling of sudden onset following the use of synthetic saliva. Acute airway obstruction and severe stridor ensued which required tracheal intubation and transfer to paediatric intensive care. The child was treated with intravenous steroids, antihistamines and epinephrine. With cessation of synthetic saliva, the swelling gradually resolved and the child was extubated on day 5. PMID:14617126

Kandala, Vijay; Playfor, Stephen



The Effect of Saliva on the Viscosity of Thickened Drinks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. These thickeners are composed\\u000a of primarily modified maize starch; some varieties also incorporate powdered gums. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in\\u000a saliva that initiates the breakdown of starch. To determine the significance of this process in dysphagia management, we measured\\u000a the effects of human saliva

Ben HansonMark; Mark T. O’Leary; Christina H. Smith


Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPH-Spectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers’ instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37°C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher’s protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker’s and non-smoker’s saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker’s or nonsmoker’s saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group.

Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M.; Marshall, Grayson W.



The effect of saliva on the viscosity of thickened drinks.  


Powdered thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. These thickeners are composed of primarily modified maize starch; some varieties also incorporate powdered gums. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva that initiates the breakdown of starch. To determine the significance of this process in dysphagia management, we measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of thickened drinks. Two thickeners were studied: one comprising modified maize starch alone and one that included additional gums. These were added to drinks with neutral and acidic pH: water and orange juice. Two clinical scenarios were simulated: (1) the effect of saliva on fluid as it is swallowed and (2) the effect when saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Saliva was found to reduce the viscosity of water thickened with maize starch in both scenarios: (1) 90% reduction after 10 s and (2) almost 100% reduction in viscosity after 20 min. The thickener composed of gums and maize starch showed a significant reduction but retained a level of thickening. In contrast, thickened orange juice (pH 3.8) was not observed to undergo any measurable reduction in viscosity under the action of saliva. PMID:21374083

Hanson, Ben; O'Leary, Mark T; Smith, Christina H



Antimicrobial factors in whole saliva of human infants.  

PubMed Central

Antimicrobial factors were analyzed in samples of whole saliva from 31 children, aged 0.8 to 3.8 years. When compared with the adult reference group, the children displayed similar levels of lysozyme, salivary peroxidase, and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-), whereas the amounts of immunoglobulins (isotypes A, G, and M), lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, thiocyanate (SCN-), amylase, and protein were significantly lower than the adult values. The child's behavior during the collection period noticeably influenced the composition of the saliva. Children who were restless and crying during the collection had significantly more immunoglobulins, lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, and protein in their saliva samples, obviously due to the contamination of saliva mixed with nasal or lacrimal secretions. Therefore, the normal values for saliva could be determined for the noncrying children only. These salivary defense systems did not show any relation to the length of breast-feeding or to the previous history of antibiotic treatment. Thus, with the exception of lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase, the nonimmunoglobulin antimicrobial saliva systems studied here seem to be already at the adult level during early childhood, when the protective antibody systems are still immature.

Tenovuo, J; Lehtonen, O P; Aaltonen, A S; Vilja, P; Tuohimaa, P



CHROMagar Orientation medium reduces urine culture workload.  


Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee; Alfa, Michelle J



CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload  

PubMed Central

Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories.

Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagace-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee



Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes  

PubMed Central

The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential that each fluid provides. To create a more comprehensive catalog of human salivary proteins, we have first compiled an extensive list of proteins from whole saliva (WS) identified through MS experiments. The WS list is thereafter combined with the proteins identified from the ductal parotid, and submandibular and sublingual (parotid/SMSL) salivas. In parallel, a core dataset of the human plasma proteome with 3020 protein identifications was recently released. A total of 1939 nonredundant salivary proteins were compiled from a total of 19 474 unique peptide sequences identified from whole and ductal salivas; 740 out of the total 1939 salivary proteins were identified in both whole and ductal saliva. A total of 597 of the salivary proteins have been observed in plasma. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed similarities in the distributions of the saliva and plasma proteomes with regard to cellular localization, biological processes, and molecular function, but revealed differences which may be related to the different physiological functions of saliva and plasma. The comprehensive catalog of the salivary proteome and its comparison to the plasma proteome provides insights useful for future study, such as exploration of potential biomarkers for disease diagnostics.

Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M.; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Cargile, Benjamin J.; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J.; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E.; Lee, Cheng S.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Menon, Rajasree; Mueller, Michael; Qiao, Renli; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Sevinsky, Joel R.; States, David; Stephenson, James L.; Than, Shawn; Yates, John R.; Yu, Weixia; Xie, Hongwei; Xie, Yongming; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Loo, Joseph A.; Wong, David T.



Clinical significance of subjective foamy urine.  


Foamy urine is widely regarded as a sign of proteinuria. However, there is no objective definition of foamy urine and there are no reports on the proportion of involved patients who have overt proteinuria or microalbuminuria. We performed this study to investigate this proportion and to identify possible risk factors for these two conditions. We reviewed all new outpatients from 1 November 2011 to 30 April 2012 and identified patients complaining of foamy urine. Their demographic data and medical records were examined. In particular, we tabulated the patients' spot urinary protein to creatinine ratio, spot urinary microalbumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum levels of creatinine (Cr), uric acid, calcium, phosphate, and glucose. In addition, we calculated estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) by using the CKD-EPI equation. We also performed risk factor analysis with the Chi-squared test and by logistic regression. Seventy-two patients (6.3% of total new outpatients) complained of foamy urine; of these, there were 59 males with a median age of 65.5 years (range, 36-87 years). Of the 72 patients, 16 (22.2%) had overt proteinuria. We found that diabetes, poor renal function (high Cr, BUN, low eGFR), increased serum phosphate, and increased serum glucose were associated with overt proteinuria. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that serum Cr and serum phosphate were associated with overt proteinuria. The ACR was available for 38 patients, and in this subgroup, 12 (31.6%) showed microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria. In this subgroup, a high serum Cr was the only statistically significant risk factor. Among patients who complained of foamy urine, approximately 20% had overt proteinuria, and increased serum Cr and phosphate were statistically significant risk factors. PMID:23323222

Kang, Kyu Keun; Choi, Jung Ran; Song, Ji Young; Han, Sung Wan; Park, So Hyun; Yoo, Woong Sun; Kim, Hwe Won; Lee, Dongyoung; Moon, Kyoung Hyoub; Lee, Myung Hee; Kim, Beom



Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline.  


We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral terbutaline on 2 study days. Further, 10 healthy subjects were administrated 1 mg inhaled terbutaline in 4 repetive doses with total 4 mg. Blood samples were collected at baseline and during 6 h after the first inhalations. Urine samples were collected at baseline and during 12 h after the first inhalations. Median (IQR) urine concentrations peaked in the period 0-4 h after inhalation with Cmax 472 (324) ng/mL in asthmatics and 661 (517) ng/mL in healthy subjects, and 4-8 h after oral use with Cmax 666 (877) ng/mL in asthmatic and 402 (663) ng/mL in healthy subjects. In conclusion we found no significant differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between therapeutic and prohibited use based on doping tests with urine and blood samples. PMID:22782385

Elers, J; Hostrup, M; Pedersen, L; Henninge, J; Hemmersbach, P; Dalhoff, K; Backer, V



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in white blood cell DNA and 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine from aluminum workers: relation with job category and synergistic effect of smoking.  


We examined a group of 105 workers from a primary aluminum plant for the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts in their WBC and 1-hydroxypyrene in their urine. Workers were recruited from five job categories with different PAH exposure: the anode factory; the bake oven; and the electrolysis and the pot-relining departments. Unexposed workers from the foundry department served as the control group. The exposure to PAH was measured by personal monitoring, and the average PAH concentrations in the work atmosphere ranged from 0.4 micrograms/m3 in the foundry to 150 micrograms/m3 in the pot-relining department. The average exposure to benzo(a)pyrene was under the Swedish exposure limit of 5 micrograms/m3. The internal dose of pyrene was measured utilizing the 1-hydroxypyrene concentration in pre- and postshift urine samples. Higher exposure to PAH in the work atmosphere was associated with increased concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine. The average increase in concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene ranged from 0.2 mumol/mol creatinine in the control group to 5.9 mumol/mol creatinine in the pot-relining department; an accumulation of 1-hydroxypyrene over a 5-day working period was observed. A good correlation was found between PAH exposure and the concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine on a group level (rs = 0.90; P = 0.02). PAH-DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling analysis (nuclease P1 enrichment procedure).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7894326

van Schooten, F J; Jongeneelen, F J; Hillebrand, M J; van Leeuwen, F E; de Looff, A J; Dijkmans, A P; van Rooij, J G; den Engelse, L; Kriek, E


Blood groups and diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Eight hundred and sixty-five patients with diabetes mellitus showed ABO blood group frequencies closely similar to those expected from the controls. Six hundred and sixteen patients with diabetes mellitus showed frequencies of secretion and non-secretion of the ABH(O) substances in the saliva closely similar to those expected from the controls. Four hundred and fifty-three patients with diabetes mellitus gave MN blood group frequencies very similar to those expected from the controls.

Macafee, A. L.



Children's noncompliance during saliva collection predicts measures of salivary cortisol.  


Salivary cortisol has been useful for evaluating children's physiological responses to stress and for identifying factors that predict their magnitude and duration. However, results have been somewhat equivocal across studies, and this has motivated researchers to identify sources of variance and error. Here, we examined the prevalence of preschoolers' noncompliance during saliva collection and aimed to learn about noncompliant children in terms of their hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function, behavior in other situations, and symptoms of behavioral problems. Results were based on measures of cortisol, children's behavior during saliva collection and a mother-child teaching interaction, and ratings of problem behavior by teachers and parents. Results show that 12% (21/174) of the sample was noncompliant on at least one of the collection trials. Children, who were noncompliant but did not outright refuse saliva collection, had higher cortisol than did compliant children. Children who were noncompliant during saliva collection were likely to be noncompliant during the teaching episode, and they were perceived as having more internalizing symptoms than compliant children. These results suggest that children's noncompliance during saliva collection can be a source of nonrandom missing data or extreme cortisol values, which should be considered in future studies. PMID:21761405

Kaitz, Marsha; Sabato, Reut; Shalev, Idan; Ebstein, Richard; Mankuta, David



Immunoglobulin A antibody levels in human tears, saliva, and serum.  

PubMed Central

The presence and level of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies to the oral microorganism Streptococcus mutans were determined in human tears, parotid saliva, and serum by a modified, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgA antibodies were found in the tears of all 15 subjects, although S. mutans is a nonocular bacterium. The IgA antibody levels in tears and saliva were not significantly different. This finding suggests that the level of IgA antibody activity per volume is independent of the naturally occurring site of the antigen, and that local stimulation does not cause a significant difference in the antibody level per volume of secretion between exocrine sites. Much higher levels of IgA antibody were present in serum, suggesting that after oral ingestion of antigen both the systemic and exocrine systems are stimulated. IgG antibodies to S. mutans were also found in human tears, saliva, and serum. No relationship between serum levels and tear and saliva levels was found for either IgA or IgG antibodies. Thus the antibodies in tears and saliva did not appear to have leaked from serum. We conclude that there may be remote regulation of both the ocular and the parotid IgA and IgG antibody systems.

Burns, C A; Ebersole, J L; Allansmith, M R



Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics  

PubMed Central

At present, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics typically provide a binary indication of health status (e.g., home pregnancy test strip). Before anticipatory use of diagnostics for assessment of complex diseases becomes widespread, development of sophisticated bioassays capable of quantitatively measuring disease biomarkers is necessary. Successful translation of new bioassays into clinical settings demands the ability to monitor both the onset and progression of disease. Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument. Our microfluidic method facilitates hands-free saliva analysis by integrating sample pretreatment (filtering, enrichment, mixing) with electrophoretic immunoassays to quickly measure analyte concentrations in minimally pretreated saliva samples. Using 20 ?l of saliva, we demonstrate rapid (<10 min) measurement of the collagen-cleaving enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in saliva from healthy and periodontally diseased subjects. In addition to physiologically measurable indicators of periodontal disease, conventional measurements of salivary MMP-8 were used to validate the microfluidic assays described in this proof-of-principle study. The microchip-based POC diagnostic demonstrated is applicable to rapid, reliable measurement of proteinaceous disease biomarkers in biological fluids.

Herr, Amy E.; Hatch, Anson V.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Tran, Huu M.; Brennan, James S.; Giannobile, William V.; Singh, Anup K.



Enzymatic Oxalate Determination in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A methoddepending uponthe useof oxalicdecarboxylase isdescribed for the deter- minationofoxalic acidin urine. The urinaryoxalateexcretionof 25 healthypersons measured by this procedureis foundto average20.5 mg. (COOH)2\\/24 hr. In 70 patients with calculusdiseasethe oxalate titer of the urine was within the normal range. 1THE ACCURATE MEASUREMENT of oxalate concentration in urine pre- sents considerable difficulties. The methods available in the literature are based

Gerda G. Mayer; Deborah Markow; Frieda Karp


Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis.  


Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes. PMID:22069059

Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah



Treating cancer with a whole, leech saliva extract  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Methods are provided for isolating and using a whole-saliva leech extract. The methods can include feeding a phagostimulatory agent to a leech; inducing a regurgitation in the leech, the inducing including placing the leech in an environment having a temperature of less than about C.; and, collecting an unrefined, whole saliva in the regurgitation of the cooled leech. The methods can include revitalizing the leech by warming it at a temperature ranging from about C. to about C. Stable, lyophilized, whole-saliva extracts of a leech are also provided, the extract having a stable activity when stored for use at a temperature below about C., the extract maintaining at least 70% of the activity for at least 6 months. The extracts can be used to treat solid tumors, treat liquid tumors, treat diabetes, treat a viral disease, treat a parasitic disease, treat an antibacterial disease, or serve as an anti-oxidant.

Ghawi; Abbas Mohammad (Selangor, MY); Merzouk; Ahmed (Richmond, CA); Abdualkader; Abdualrahman (Pahang, MY); Alaama; Mohamed (Pahang, MY)



Stimulus effects on protein and electrolyte concentrations in parotid saliva.  

PubMed Central

Twelve subjects collected ten 1 min samples and then a 2.5 ml sample of parotid saliva at a constant flow rate on five separate days with citric acid, salt, sugar, quinine sulphate, and sour lemon drops as gustatory stimuli. The ten 1 min samples were analysed for protein and electrolyte content and the final 2.5 ml sample was used for electrophoretic separation of the different salivary proteins. In most subjects, salt elicited the secretion of saliva with a much higher protein concentration than did the other stimuli, but none of the stimuli differentially influenced the relative proportions of the different proteins secreted. There were several small but statistically significant effects of the nature of the stimulus on the concentrations of sodium, calcium and chloride, but not on potassium, magnesium or phosphate. Since the nature of the gustatory stimulus can influence the composition of saliva, salivary composition could be influenced by the nature of the diet. Images Plate 1

Dawes, C



Changes in whole saliva in patients with coeliac disease.  


Many systemic diseases impair salivary flow rate and composition and therefore incite oral pathological processes. This study analyses the composition of whole saliva in patients with diagnosed coeliac disease (CD) and in healthy controls, and monitors possible changes in saliva composition after a short oral gluten challenge. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva was collected from 128 CD patients and 55 healthy controls. In a separate study, paraffin-stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from 33 CD patients and 10 controls both before and 24 h after an oral mucosal and submucosal gluten challenge. No difference in saliva flow rate was observed, but total protein (Psaliva than do healthy controls. PMID:10739855

Lenander-Lumikari, M; Ihalin, R; Lähteenoja, H



Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population.



Methods for analyzing saliva proteins for systemic disease detection.  


New technological developments, coupled with the limitations of existing methodologies for the detection of disease, are propelling the field of salivary diagnostics forward at unprecedented rates. Advancements in proteomics and nanotechnology are paving the way for diagnostic tests that will be capable of rapid multi-analyte detection in both laboratory and nonlaboratory settings. Technological advancements have also benefited biomarker research to the point where saliva is now recognized as an excellent diagnostic medium that can be collected simply and noninvasively. This article reviews the varying nanotechnological platforms and how they will utilize saliva as the diagnostic medium. PMID:20236918

Luther, Tara; Carrion, Carlos F; Cobb, Nicholas; Le, Giao; Edwards, Cynthia; Schwartz, Stephen; Streckfus, Charles


Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.  


In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

Mattelaer, J J



Saliva components reestablish the basal production of IL-6 by mononuclear cells, 72 hours after nitinol archiwire placement: a preliminary study.  


The purpose of the study was to evaluate interleukin-6 production, in saliva-activated mononuclear cell cultures from malocclusion patients, before and after placement of .014 NiTi archwires.Four patients receiving .014 Nitinol archwire to correct malocclusion participated in this study. Samples of their blood and saliva were collected before and after placement of the apparatus. Mononuclear cells were obtained from the blood using the Ficoll-Paque (1.077 g/ml) density gradient separation method. Mononuclear Cells were activated with saliva from each patient and were cultured in 96-well plates for 72 hours. Samples were collected at 24 hours before apparatus placement, and at 24 hours and 72 hours after placement. IL-6 expression levels in the cell culture supernatants were quantified by ELISA. An increase in IL-6 levels in the cell culture supernatants was observed 24 hours after placement of the orthodontic apparatus relative to the negative control (p = 0.002) and IL-6 came to basal limits 72 hours after apparatus placement.IL-6 quantification may be useful as a biomarker to estimate the inflammatory response caused by forces applied during orthodontic treatment and their levels came to basal limits 72 hours after apparatus placement in patients without systemic diseases. The isolation of saliva components involved in such effects is important to study the mechanisms to control the acute inflammation in oral cavity after apparatus placement. PMID:22761193

León-Romero, Luis C; Rodríguez-Orozco, Alain R; Vargas-Purecko, Ma De la Luz; Ruiz-Reyes, Héctor



Lectin-like constituents of foods which react with components of serum, saliva, and Streptococcus mutans.  


Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that many foods contain lectins which can interact with components of human saliva and S. mutans cells. Because of their potential to influence host-parasite interactions in the mouth and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal canal, these reactions warrant further study. PMID:6786220

Gibbons, R J; Dankers, I



Five-minute analysis of chemotherapy drugs and metabolites in saliva: evaluating dosage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional cancer treatment, surgical removal and gamma- or x-ray irradiation, is often augmented by the use of chemotherapy drugs. Theses drugs prevent cancer cell growth through a variety of biochemical mechanisms, but are not target specific and kill other cells. Consequently, the amount administered has a narrow range of safe and effective use. Furthermore, because of the dangerous side-effects of these drugs, clinical trials can not be performed, and a statistical basis for dosage is not available. Instead, the concentration of the drugs and their metabolites are monitored during treatment of cancer patients, Unfortunately current practices require 10-20 mL of blood per analysis, and multiple samples to profile pharmacokinetics may further jeopardize the patient's health. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative, but the large sample volumes are difficult to obtain. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable pipette format, and generally no more than two drops (100 ?L) of sample are required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by four to six orders of magnitude allows detection of nanomolar concentrations. Preliminary measurements will be presented.

Gift, Alan; Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank E.; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart



Decrease in the total antioxidant activity of saliva in patients with periodontal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the role of free radical-induced tissue damage and the antioxidant defense mechanism of saliva in periodontal disease. Antioxidant activity of saliva was compared in 20 healthy individuals and 17 patients with periodontal diseases. We measured the scavenging capacity of saliva against free radicals generated in vitro by electrolysis, xanthine-xanthine oxidase, or stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Total protein content

Randa Diab-Ladki; Bernard Pellat; Ramez Chahine



Association of Free Arginine and Lysine Concentrations in Human Parotid Saliva with Caries Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

We determined the free-amino acid content of stimulated parotid (ductal) saliva from two groups of adult subjects whose caries experiences were markedly different. The levels of free arginine and free lysine in the parotid saliva of caries-free adults were significantly higher than those found in the parotid saliva of individuals with a history of dental decay. There was no correlation,

B. C. VanWuyckhuyse; H. E. R. Perinpanayagam; D. Bevacqua; R. E. Raubertas; R. J. Billings; W. H. Bowen; L. A. Tabak



Bloat In cattle 44. Comparison of mixed bovine saliva collected by three different methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flow rates and protein composition of mixed bovine saliva collected by the 'bit' (aspiration from the mouth) and cardial methods were compared to saliva secreted with the food bolus, using 4 cows of known bloat susceptibility. Average flow rates for saliva collected by the cardial, bolus, and 'bit' methods were 900,310, and 25 g for 10 min, respectively. Protein nitrogen

W. T. Jones; M. P. Gurnsey; C. S. W. Reid; R. B. Broadhurst; G. C. Waghorn



Avoidance of swallowing saliva: A symptom related to aberrant basal ganglia functions?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report two patients with avoidance of swallowing saliva despite intact swallowing functions. One, with mild, de novo Parkinson's disease, had a fear that his saliva was contaminated and would harm him. The other, with a history of CNS germinoma in remission for 3 years following chemotherapy, expectorated because his saliva was distasteful and disgusting. He had a lesion involving

Hideto Miwa; Kaoru Tsuruta; Tomoyoshi Kondo



Examination of North American bison saliva for potential plant growth regulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of laboratory bioassays were utilized to test for the presence of potential plant growth factors in saliva from a large native ungulate, the North American bison (Bison bison L.). Whole saliva enhancedAvena coleoptile growth at high pH, whether alone or in combination with indoleacetic acid (IAA). However, this enhancement was a result of salts in the saliva (primarily

J. K. Detling; C. W. Ross; M. H. Walmsley; D. W. Hilbert; C. A. Bonilla; M. I. Dyer



Immunological detection of glassy-winged sharpshooter saliva in grapevine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a major vector for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causative agent of Pierce’s Disease in grapevine. During the feeding process of stylet penetration and xylem fluid ingestion, GWSS inject saliva into the plant. Inoculation...


Saliva Is Effective in Screening for CMV Infection in Newborns  


... Jennifer Wenger 301-496-7243 Saliva is effective in screening for CMV infection in newborns, says NIH-funded research Swabbing a newborn’s ... CMV) infection, a leading cause of hearing loss in children, says research in the June 2 issue ...


?-Galactosidase Activity in Saliva is Associated with Oral Malodor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deglycosylation of oral mucins may be a critical initial step leading to their subsequent proteolysis and putrefaction. The present study was undertaken to determine whether activity in saliva of a major glycosidic enzyme (?–galactosidase) is associated with oral malodor in a group of 64 subjects. Enzyme activity was detected by the use of a chromogenic substrate (X-Gal) impregnated on paper

N. Sterer; R. Bar-Ness Greenstein; M. Rosenberg



Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

Niaura, Raymond; And Others



Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers During Rapid Weight Loss  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the effect of smoking cessation on weight gain is well-documented, little is known about the effect of weight loss on smoking. We examined the association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in a group of 9 obese female smokers during participation in a protein-sparing modified fast (Optifast). For the first 3 months of treatment, subjects consumed only the

Raymond Niaura; Matthew M. Clark; Michael A. Raciti; Vincent Pera; David B. Abrams




EPA Science Inventory

The excretion of cadium and mercury in saliva was studied in urethane-anesthetized male rats given single intravenous injections of 109CdCl2 or 203HgCl2 (0.1 or 1.0 mg divalent cation/kg). Pilocarpine (20 mg/kg, ip) was used to stimulate salivation. All doses produced a distinct ...


Highly Specific Radioimmunoassay for the Measurement of Caffeine in Saliva.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Using a tritiated (3H) caffeine tracer and a murine monoclonal anti-caffeine antibody, we developed a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the detection of caffeine (1,3,7 trimethylxanthine) in saliva. The assay shows <2% cross reactivity with theophylline and avoi...

S. S. McGeoy T. L. Kelly J. Assmus P. Naitoh R. T. Rubin



Physiologic Determinants of Endothelin Concentrations in Human Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Salivary endothelin (ET) concentrations have been shown to correlate with disease severity in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). We undertook the present study to evaluate the stability of salivary ET under different handling conditions to assess its suit- ability as a biochemical marker in screening, diagnosis, and management of CHF. Methods: Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals

Sue Xiang; Rachel Denver; Michael Bailey; Henry Krum


Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptides are Expressed in Salivary Glands and Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expression of antimicrobial peptides at epithelial surfaces such as skin, lung, and intestine is thought to provide protection against infection. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides are essential for the protection of skin against invasive bacterial infection. To determine if cathelicidins are also present in the oral cavity, we examined the expression of both mRNA and protein in mice and human saliva.

M. Murakami; T. Ohtake; R. A. Dorschner; R. L. Gallo



Entry of Four Tetracyclines into Saliva and Tears  

PubMed Central

Although meningococci are susceptible to the tetracyclines by testing in vitro, oxytetracycline (OC) and doxycycline (DC) have failed to eliminate carriage, whereas minocycline (MC) has been effective. Because these congeners differ in lipophilicity, they and tetracycline (TC) were studied in volunteers by assay of serum, saliva, and tears obtained after 5 days of treatment. OC and TC were undetectable or attained concentrations subinhibitory for meningococci in saliva and tears. The concentrations of MC in saliva and tears were equal to or greater than the average minimal inhibitory concentration as long as 12 h post-dose. Near inhibitory concentrations resulted with DC at 100 mg/day; yet, doubling the dose to 100 mg/12 h did not yield concentrations that exceeded the average minimal inhibitory concentration for meningococci. The previous reports of failure or meager entry of DC and MC into saliva probably reflected extraction of these drugs in the paraffin chewed by subjects to stimulate salivary flow. The efficiency of entry of the tetracyclines into the secretions of the noninflamed upper respiratory tract correlates with lipophilicity at physiological pH, enabling prediction of meningococcal chemoprophylactic efficacy.

Hoeprich, Paul D.; Warshauer, David M.



Maple syrup urine disease-therapeutic use of insulin in catabolic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

High and neurotoxic blood levels of leucine and its ketoanalogue develop in catabolic patients with maple syrup urine disease. The use of relatively high doses of insulin and additional glucose had a more pronounced effect on lowering leucine (and a-ketoisocaproate) blood levels than dietary elimination of leucine alone. This is demonstrated in 2 neonates after blood exchange transfusion and in

U. Wendel; U. Langenbeck; Ingrid Lombeck; H. J. Bremer



Urine Antibody Tests: New Insights into the Dynamics of HIV1 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Noninvasive methodologies provide alter- natives to diagnostic blood tests and have high patient acceptance, increased safety, and reduced costs. Such tests may supplement or replace blood diagnostic assays currently in use. Methods: Using a licensed urine-based test for antibody to HIV-1, we performed 25 991 HIV-1 urine antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening tests (confirm- able by HIV-1 Western blot

Howard B. Urnovitz; Jerrilyn C. Sturge; Toby D. Gottfried; William H. Murphy


Protein Buffering in Model Systems and in Whole Human Saliva  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to quantify the buffer attributes (value, power, range and optimum) of two model systems for whole human resting saliva, the purified proteins from whole human resting saliva and single proteins. Two model systems, the first containing amyloglucosidase and lysozyme, and the second containing amyloglucosidase and ?-amylase, were shown to provide, in combination with hydrogencarbonate and di-hydrogenphosphate, almost identical buffer attributes as whole human resting saliva. It was further demonstrated that changes in the protein concentration as small as 0.1% may change the buffer value of a buffer solution up to 15 times. Additionally, it was shown that there was a protein concentration change in the same range (0.16%) between saliva samples collected at the time periods of 13:00 and others collected at 9:00 am and 17:00. The mode of the protein expression changed between these samples corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the change of the buffer value at pH 6.7. Finally, SDS Page and Ruthenium II tris (bathophenantroline disulfonate) staining unveiled a constant protein expression in all samples except for one 50 kDa protein band. As the change in the expression pattern of that 50 kDa protein band corresponded to the change in basic buffer power and the buffer value at pH 6.7, it was reasonable to conclude that this 50 kDa protein band may contain the protein(s) belonging to the protein buffer system of human saliva.

Lamanda, Andreas; Cheaib, Zeinab; Turgut, Melek Dilek; Lussi, Adrian



Lactoperoxidase Activity in Human Milk and in Saliva of Newborn Infants  

PubMed Central

Human milk and saliva from newborn infants were analyzed for their content of lactoperoxidase and thiocyanate. The activity of lactoperoxidase in infant saliva was variable but generally higher than that found in calf saliva. In contrast, the activity in human colostrum was low (?5%) compared with that found in cow's milk. The enzyme was resistant to gastric juice. Thiocyanate was demonstrated in infant saliva in concentrations about one-third of that in adult saliva. The amounts of lactoperoxidase and thiocyanate in infant saliva are quite sufficient to inhibit bacterial growth in in vitro systems. The importance of this system in vivo has not yet been demonstrated. The availability of this system to both newborn calves and humans (in calves provided largely by colostrum and in human babies by saliva) might be indirect evidence of its importance.

Gothefors, Leif; Marklund, Stefan



Saliva can mediate HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.  


HIV is not usually transmitted by saliva from HIV-1-infected individuals. Antiviral substances in saliva responsible for this may include HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We evaluated saliva ADCC titers of 62 HIV-1-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and 55 uninfected individuals. HIV-1-infected women were less likely to have ADCC activity in saliva than in serum or cervical lavage fluid (CVL). 24% of HIV-1-positive women and a similar percentage of uninfected women had HIV-1-specific saliva ADCC activity. A significant amount of saliva ADCC activity in infected women was HIV-gp120-specific. These studies demonstrate that HIV-specific ADCC activity can be present in saliva. This activity may contribute to host defence against initial infection with HIV. PMID:16978244

Kim, Jenney S; Nag, Pratip; Landay, Alan L; Alves, Mario; Cohn, Mardge H; Bremer, James W; Baum, Linda L



Growth of oral Streptococcus species and Actinomyces viscosus in human saliva.  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms in dental plaque live in constant association with saliva. The role of saliva in the adherence of bacteria to the teeth and the antibacterial properties of saliva have been well investigated; less interest has been shown in the possible role of saliva as a substrate for oral microorganisms. In this study it was shown that saliva can serve as a growth medium for oral Streptococcus spp. and Actinomyces viscosus. The cell production of these organisms on saliva was carbohydrate limited. The doubling times for growth on glucose-supplemented saliva (4 to 5 mmol/liter) ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 h. The availability of carbohydrate sources for the oral microflora is discussed in relation to microbial growth in the oral cavity.

de Jong, M H; van der Hoeven, J S; van OS, J H; Olijve, J H



Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.



The role of saliva in tick feeding.  


When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and adaptive immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental Table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from PMID:19273185

Francischetti, Ivo M B; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J; Santos, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Jose M C



Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich


Frequent detection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) DNA in saliva of human immunodeficiency virus-infected men: clinical and immunologic correlates.  


The prevalence, quantity, temporal pattern, and clinical and immunologic correlates of shedding of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; or human herpesvirus [HHV]-8) DNA in saliva were studied. KSHV DNA was detected in saliva from 18 (75%) of 24 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with KS and from 1 of 1 HIV-negative patient with KS, 3 (15%) of 20 HIV-positive patients without KS, and none of 24 controls. KSHV DNA levels ranged from 10(2.4) to 10(6) copies/mL and were lower than levels for Epstein-Barr virus but comparable to those for HHV-6. Detection of KSHV DNA in saliva was not associated with oral KS or decreased peripheral blood CD4 cell counts. KSHV DNA was not detected in semen. Resistance of KSHV DNA from saliva to DNase treatment was consistent with the presence of virions. These data suggest that KSHV can replicate in the oropharynx and that salivary contact could contribute to KSHV transmission. PMID:9207354

Koelle, D M; Huang, M L; Chandran, B; Vieira, J; Piepkorn, M; Corey, L



Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity to Sand Fly Saliva in Humans from a Leishmaniasis-Endemic Area of Mali Is TH1-Mediated and Persists to Midlife  

PubMed Central

Immunity to sand fly saliva in rodents induces a TH1 delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response conferring protection against leishmaniasis. The relevance of DTH to sand fly bites in humans living in a leishmaniasis-endemic area remains unknown. Here, we describe the duration and nature of DTH to sand fly saliva in humans from an endemic area of Mali. DTH was assessed at 24, 48, 72, and 96?hours post bite in volunteers exposed to colony-bred sand flies. Dermal biopsies were obtained 48?hours post bite; cytokines were quantified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with sand fly saliva in vitro. A DTH response to bites was observed in 75% of individuals aged 1–15 years, decreasing gradually to 48% by age 45, and dropping to 21% thereafter. Dermal biopsies were dominated by T lymphocytes and macrophages. Abundant expression of IFN-? and absence of TH2 cytokines establishes the TH1 nature of this DTH response. PBMCs from 98% of individuals responded to sand fly saliva. Of these, 23% were polarized to a TH1 and 25% to a TH2 response. We demonstrate the durability and TH1 nature of DTH to sand fly bites in humans living in a cutaneous leishmaniasis-endemic area. A systemic TH2 response may explain why some individuals remain susceptible to disease.

Oliveira, Fabiano; Traore, Bourama; Gomes, Regis; Faye, Ousmane; Gilmore, Dana C; Keita, Somita; Traore, Pierre; Teixeira, Clarissa; Coulibaly, Cheick A; Samake, Sibiry; Meneses, Claudio; Sissoko, Ibrahim; Fairhurst, Rick M; Fay, Michael P; Anderson, Jennifer M; Doumbia, Seydou; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G



[Concentration of calcium ions in the saliva and the value of the pH of the saliva in female and male smokers].  


Dental decay is a pathological process of extrasomatic origin which leads to demineralization and proteolytic degradation of hard surfaces of a tooth susceptible to this disease. Saliva composition, including calcium ion concentration and its pH value, is of importance in the development of the carious process. Tobacco smoke contains toxic compounds which negatively influence oral health. The aim of the study was evaluation of the selected saliva components: protein concentration, Ca2+ concentration, pH value both in male and female smokers. The investigated group included 65 patients reporting for the treatment to the Department of Conservative Dentistry of Medical University in Lublin. In the investigated group male smokers constituted 15.38%, female smokers--20.00%, male nicotine abstinents 21.54% and female nicotine abstinent 43.08%. The study included both survey examinations of patients and biochemical examinations of the saliva. Mixed, non-stimulated saliva was used as a material for biochemical examinations. Ca2+ concentration and pH of the saliva were assayed with the use of Rapidlab 348 analyzer. Protein in the saliva was assayed with calorimetric method according to Lowry. Saliva was collected from smokers 10-120 minutes after smoking of several cigarettes. It was stated that Ca2+ and protein concentration as well as pH of the saliva were not correlated with sex and cigarette smoking or non-smoking. PMID:20301903

Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Bachanek, Teresa; Rogowska, Wanda



Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel



Immunoreactive LH in long-term frozen human urine samples.  


Urine provides a convenient non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for measurement of certain hormones. Urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) measurements have been used for endocrinology research and anti-doping testing. However, the commercially available LH immunoassays are developed and validated for human blood samples but not urine so that LH assays intended for use with urine samples need thorough validation. Therefore, the present study evaluated the measurement of urinary LH immunoreactivity using previously validated immunofluorometric (IF) and immunochemiluminometric (ICL) LH assays after prolonged frozen storage. LH was measured in serial urine samples following administration of a single injection of one of two doses of recombinant human chorionic hormone (rhCG) with assays run at the end of study (2008) and again after four years of frozen (-20?°C) storage where samples were stored without adding preservatives. The ICL assay showed quantitatively reproducible LH measurements after prolonged -20?°C storage. However, the IF immunoassay gave consistently lower LH levels relative to ICL (2008) with a further proportionate reduction after four years of sample storage (2012). Yet, both the assays displayed similar patterns of the time-course of urine LH measurement both before and after four years of frozen storage. In conclusion, we found that both immunoassays are suitable for urinary LH measurements with ICL assay being more robust for quantitative urinary LH measurement such as for anti-doping purposes, whereas the IF could be applicable for research studies where urine LH levels are compared within-study but not in absolute terms. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23606665

Singh, Gurmeet Kaur Surindar; Jimenez, Mark; Newman, Ron; Handelsman, David J



Novel Serum and Urine Markers for Pediatric Appendicitis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the association between two novel biomarkers, calprotectin and leucine-rich alpha glycoprotein-1 (LRG), and appendicitis in children. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study of children 3 to 18 years old presenting to a pediatric emergency department with possible appendicitis. Blood and urine samples were assayed for calprotectin and LRG via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Biomarker levels were compared for subjects with and without appendicitis. Recursive partitioning was used to identify thresholds that predicted appendicitis. Results Of 176 subjects, mean age was 11.6 years (SD ±4.0 years) and 52% were male. Fifty-eight patients (34%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. Median plasma calprotectin, serum LRG, and urine LRG levels were higher in appendicitis versus non-appendicitis (p < 0.008). When stratified by perforation status, median plasma calprotectin and serum LRG levels were higher in non-perforated appendicitis vs. non-appendicitis (p < 0.01). Median serum LRG, urine LRG, and plasma calprotectin levels were higher in perforated appendicitis as compared to non-perforated appendicitis (p < 0.05). Urine calprotectin did not differ among groups. A serum LRG < 40,150 ng/ml, a urine LRG < 42 ng/ml, and a plasma calprotectin < 159 ng/ml, each provided a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100% to identify children at low risk for appendicitis, but with specificities ranging from 23% to 35%. The standard white blood cell (WBC) count achieved 100% sensitivity at a higher specificity than both novel biomarkers. Conclusions Plasma calprotectin and serum/urine LRG are elevated in pediatric appendicitis. No individual marker performed as well as the WBC.

Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Rai, Alex J.; Cosme, Yohaimi; Liu, Khin; Dayan, Peter S.



Aphid gel saliva: sheath structure, protein composition and secretory dependence on stylet-tip milieu.  


In order to separate and analyze saliva types secreted during stylet propagation and feeding, aphids were fed on artificial diets. Gel saliva was deposited as chains of droplets onto Parafilm membranes covering the diets into which watery saliva was secreted. Saliva compounds collected from the diet fluid were separated by SDS-PAGE, while non-soluble gel saliva deposits were processed in a novel manner prior to protein separation by SDS-PAGE. Soluble (watery saliva) and non-soluble (gel saliva) protein fractions were significantly different. To test the effect of the stylet milieu on saliva secretion, aphids were fed on various diets. Hardening of gel saliva is strongly oxygen-dependent, probably owing to formation of sulfide bridges by oxidation of sulphydryl groups. Surface texture of gel saliva deposits is less pronounced under low-oxygen conditions and disappears in dithiothreitol containing diet. Using diets mimicking sieve-element sap and cell-wall fluid respectively showed that the soluble protein fraction was almost exclusively secreted in sieve elements while non-soluble fraction was preferentially secreted at cell wall conditions. This indicates that aphids are able to adapt salivary secretion in dependence of the stylet milieu. PMID:23056521

Will, Torsten; Steckbauer, Kathrin; Hardt, Martin; van Bel, Aart J E



Leaching of 210 Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached\\u000a 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users’ mouth. Leaching\\u000a of 210Po

Umme-Farzana Syed; Abdul Bari; Liaquat Husain



Aggregation of 27 oral bacteria by human whole saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven oral strains of the genera Actinomyces (5), Bacteroides (3), and Streptococcus (19) were tested for aggregation by human whole saliva, as well as the effect of culture medium, Ca-ions, and bacteria concentration thereupon. Of the media tested, GF-broth gave rise to less interference b