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Increased levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes in saliva, induced sputum, urine and blood from patients with aspirin-intolerant asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:A diagnosis of aspirin-intolerant asthma requires aspirin provocation in specialist clinics. Urinary leukotriene E4 (LTE4) is increased in aspirin-intolerant asthma. A study was undertaken to investigate new biomarkers of aspirin intolerance by comparing basal levels of cysteinyl-leukotrienes (CysLTs) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) in saliva, sputum and ex vivo stimulated blood in subjects with aspirin-intolerant and aspirin-tolerant asthma. The effects of

F Gaber; K Daham; A Higashi; N Higashi; A Gülich; I Delin; A James; M Skedinger; P Gyllfors; M Nord; S-E Dahlén; M Kumlin; B Dahlén



PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Current detection or screening for malaria infection necessitates drawing blood by fingerprick or venipuncture, which poses risks and limitations for repeated measurement. This study presents PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples, and illustrates this potential application in genotyping malaria infections. METHODS: Urine and saliva were obtained from 47 thick film positive and 4 negative

Sungano Mharakurwa; Christopher Simoloka; Philip E Thuma; Clive J Shiff; David J Sullivan



Hepatitis B antigen in saliva, urine, and stool.  


A survey of hepatitis B patients, asymptomatic hepatitis B antigen (HBsAg) carriers, and control subjects was conducted to determine the relationship between antigenemia and antigen excretion in saliva, urine, and stool. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect HBsAg. Specificity-confirmed HBsAg was detected in the saliva of 6 (30%) of 20 antigenemic patients, 1 (5%) of 20 nonantigenemic patients, 14 (34%) of 41 carriers, and 0 of 112 controls. HBsAg was detected in urine only after 100-fold concentration of first-morning specimens. Specificity-confirmed HBsAg was present in the urine of 7 (16%) of 43 carriers; unconfirmed HBsAg was found in the urine of 5 (13%) of 38 patients and 5 (5%) of 112 controls. Unconfirmed HBsAg was detected in concentrated stool specimens from 5 (46%) of 11 patients and 3 of 8 carriers and controls. Longitudinally collected specimens from antigenemic subjects showed no consistent patterns of antigen excretion. PMID:1116873

Irwin, G R; Allen, A M; Bancroft, W H; Karwacki, J J; Brown, H L; Pinkerton, R H; Willhight, M; Top, F H



Bioavailability study of paracetamol tablets in saliva and urine.  


A bioavailability study of two lots of paracetamol tablets was carried out in 5 healthy volunteers, using a crossover aleatory design, and drug monitoring in urine and saliva by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results were correlated with those obtained in an in vitro dissolution study. Statistical evaluation of bioavailability parameters indicates that the two formulations may be considered bioequivalent, in spite of differences found during early stages of the absorption process, which were preventable according to an in vitro dissolution study. PMID:9074893

Retaco, P; González, M; Pizzorno, M T; Volonté, M G



Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.



A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.



Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP.

Wu, L.; Tam, V.; Chow, Diana S. L.; Putcha, Lakshmi



Amylase - urine  


... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .


Genotyping performance between saliva and blood-derived genomic DNAs on the DMET array: a comparison.  


The Affymetrix Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) microarray is the first assay to offer a large representation of SNPs conferring genetic diversity across known pharmacokinetic markers. As a convenient and painless alternative to blood, saliva samples have been reported to work well for genotyping on the high density SNP arrays, but no reports to date have examined this application for saliva-derived DNA on the DMET platform. Genomic DNA extractions from saliva samples produced an ample quantity of genomic DNA for DMET arrays, however when human amplifiable DNA was measured, it was determined that a large percentage of this DNA was from bacteria or fungi. A mean of 37.3% human amplifiable DNA was determined for saliva-derived DNAs, which results in a significant decrease in the genotyping call rate (88.8%) when compared with blood-derived DNAs (99.1%). More interestingly, the percentage of human amplifiable DNA correlated with a higher genotyping call rate, and almost all samples with more than 31.3% human DNA produced a genotyping call rate of at least 96%. SNP genotyping results for saliva derived DNA (n?=?39) illustrated a 98.7% concordance when compared with blood DNA. In conclusion, when compared with blood DNA and tested on the DMET array, saliva-derived DNA provided adequate genotyping quality with a significant lower number of SNP calls. Saliva-derived DNA does perform very well if it contains greater than 31.3% human amplifiable DNA. PMID:22448283

Hu, Yueshan; Ehli, Erik A; Nelson, Kelly; Bohlen, Krista; Lynch, Christophina; Huizenga, Patty; Kittlelsrud, Julie; Soundy, Timothy J; Davies, Gareth E



Genotyping Performance between Saliva and Blood-Derived Genomic DNAs on the DMET Array: A Comparison  

PubMed Central

The Affymetrix Drug Metabolism Enzymes and Transporters (DMET) microarray is the first assay to offer a large representation of SNPs conferring genetic diversity across known pharmacokinetic markers. As a convenient and painless alternative to blood, saliva samples have been reported to work well for genotyping on the high density SNP arrays, but no reports to date have examined this application for saliva-derived DNA on the DMET platform. Genomic DNA extractions from saliva samples produced an ample quantity of genomic DNA for DMET arrays, however when human amplifiable DNA was measured, it was determined that a large percentage of this DNA was from bacteria or fungi. A mean of 37.3% human amplifiable DNA was determined for saliva-derived DNAs, which results in a significant decrease in the genotyping call rate (88.8%) when compared with blood-derived DNAs (99.1%). More interestingly, the percentage of human amplifiable DNA correlated with a higher genotyping call rate, and almost all samples with more than 31.3% human DNA produced a genotyping call rate of at least 96%. SNP genotyping results for saliva derived DNA (n?=?39) illustrated a 98.7% concordance when compared with blood DNA. In conclusion, when compared with blood DNA and tested on the DMET array, saliva-derived DNA provided adequate genotyping quality with a significant lower number of SNP calls. Saliva-derived DNA does perform very well if it contains greater than 31.3% human amplifiable DNA. PMID:22448283

Nelson, Kelly; Bohlen, Krista; Lynch, Christophina; Huizenga, Patty; Kittlelsrud, Julie; Soundy, Timothy J.; Davies, Gareth E.



Quantification of cortisol, cortisol immunoreactive metabolites, and immunoglobulin A in serum, saliva, urine, and feces for noninvasive assessment of stress in reindeer  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study was designed to develop reliable methods for quantification of cortisol and cortisol immunoreactive metabolites (C-CIM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in reindeer serum, saliva, urine, and feces as tools for the objective noninvasive assessment of well-being and immunocompetence in reindeer. Although C-CIM was readily quantifiable by radioimmunoassay in serum, urine, and feces, the levels in saliva samples were low, rendering quantification unreliable. Whereas IgA concentrations were high in feces samples, they were much lower, albeit quantifiable, in serum and urine; the levels in saliva samples were too low for quantification with the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that we developed. Further studies are in progress to validate the usefulness of fecal levels of C-CIM and IgA in the assessment of welfare in reindeer. PMID:16639949

Rehbinder, Claes



Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.



Quantifying blood leakage into the oral mucosa and its effects on the measurement of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone in saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of blood leakage due to microinjury to the oral cavity on the measurement of salivary hormones was examined. Saliva samples were collected before, immediately after, and then every 15 min for 1 h following vigorous tooth brushing. Blood in saliva was quantified by visual inspection of discoloration, Hemastix® reagent strips to detect hemoglobin, and an immunoassay for transferrin.

Katie T Kivlighan; Douglas A Granger; Eve B Schwartz; Vincent Nelson; Mary Curran; Elizabeth A Shirtcliff



[Concentration of serum proteins and blood group substances in human saliva 2. Individual differences in serum protein concentration in saliva with special reference to age estimation].  


Factors related to the concentrations of IgA, IgG and albumin (Alb) in human saliva were studied. Saliva specimens that were strongly positive for the occult blood test contained much more Alb than negative specimens. The concentrations of IgA and IgG in the saliva specimens showed no clear associations with the results of the occult blood test. Although associations were found among the concentrations of individual proteins (IgA, IgG and Alb) in saliva specimens, no association was found between the concentration of these proteins and the DMF (decayed, missing and filled teeth) and PMA (papillary, marginal and attached gingival) indexes. The concentrations and ratios of these proteins were almost the same in saliva specimens from both sexes. The ratios of IgA/Alb and IgG/Alb among those aged less than 20 years old were significantly lower than in older subjects (probability < 0.001). We also found relatively low IgA/Alb value among those 45 years old or older. The ratios of these proteins in saliva stains did not change remarkably after storage for 18 weeks. PMID:8377271

Suzuki, M



Measurement of thioridazine in blood and urine.  

PubMed Central

1 Thioridazine can be specifically, simply, and reliably measured in plasma and urine by gas chromatography using hexane extraction and prochlorperazine as internal standard; fluorimetry is non-specific. 2 The method can also measure thioridazine ring sulphoxide, and mesoridazine-plus-sulphoridazine (M/S). 3 After single doses plasma sometimes shows M/S in addition to thioridazine itself; it always does so on continued treatment. There is great individual variation in both components, and evidence of changes in metabolism during the early weeks. 4 Urinary excretion may be influenced by pH, but between pH 6.0-7.0 about 1% of the daily dose appears in 24 h urine as the following: free thioridazine in microng quantities, M/S and ring sulphoxide each in mg amounts. 5 Patients attain steady state conditions, although plasma levels rise considerably after each dose and settle again in about 10 h. After chronic treatment is stopped to half-life is at about 30 h. 6 Plasma levels cannot be related to therapeutic response when this is slow, as in schizophrenia, but interpretations are complicated by the production of clinically active metabolites, and by plasma protein binding. PMID:16633

Ng, C H; Crammer, J L



A micromethod for the determination of fluoride in blood plasma and saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple and accurate technique for the determination of fluoride (F?) in capillary-sampled blood is presented. The method is based on the known addition-slope determination technique using the fluoride electrode is required. A standard deviation of 1.3–5.6% in the range 300–10 ng F\\/ml was given by 259 duplicate determinations on human plasma. Measurements of parotid saliva showed that it

Jan Ekstrand



Determination of uric acid and p-aminohippuric acid in human saliva and urine using capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection: potential application in fast diagnosis of renal disease.  


The monitoring of uric acid (UA) and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) levels in biological samples is routinely carried out in clinical laboratories as an indication of renal disease. With the aim of investigation of the correlation between the trace amounts of UA and PAH in human saliva or urine and renal diseases, we carried out the determination of UA and PAH in human saliva and urine by using capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (CE-ED) in this work. Under the optimum conditions, UA, PAH and three coexisting analytes could be well separated within 21 min at the separation voltage of 14 kV in 80 mmol/L borax running buffer (pH 9.2). Good linear relationship was established between peak current and concentration of analytes over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) ranged from 5.01 x 10(-7) to 2.00 x 10(-6) mol/L for all analytes. The result shows that this proposed method could be successfully applied for the study on the correlation between the levels of UA and PAH in human saliva and urine and renal diseases, and provide an alternative and convenient method for the fast diagnosis of renal disease. PMID:15916928

Guan, Yueqing; Wu, Ting; Ye, Jiannong



Fluorescence spectra of blood and urine for cervical cancer detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Vijmasi, Trinka; Govindarajan, Kanaganaj; Rathan Rai, Ram; Atif, Muhammad; Prasad, Saradh; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.



Developmental validation of RSID-saliva: a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test for the forensic detection of saliva.  


Current methods for forensic identification of saliva generally assay for the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase, an enzyme long associated with human saliva. Here, we describe the Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID-Saliva), a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test that uses two antisalivary amylase monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of salivary amylase, rather than the activity of the enzyme. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva is accurate, reproducible, and highly sensitive for human saliva; RSID-Saliva detects less than 1 microL of saliva. The sensitivity of RSID-Saliva allows investigators to sample a fraction of a questioned stain while retaining the majority for DNA-STR analysis. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva identifies saliva from a variety of materials (e.g., cans, bottles, envelopes, and cigarette-butts) and it does not cross-react with blood, semen, urine, or vaginal fluid. RSID-Saliva is a useful forensic test for determining which evidentiary items contain saliva and thus may yield a DNA profile. PMID:19486436

Old, Jennifer B; Schweers, Brett A; Boonlayangoor, Pravat W; Reich, Karl A



Viral Latency in Blood and Saliva of Simian Foamy Virus-Infected Humans  

PubMed Central

Simian foamy viruses (SFV) are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (NHP). SFV actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. We aimed at studying the natural history of SFV infection in human. We have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from Cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla SFV strain. Viral DNA could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) targeting the pol-in region, in most samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (7.1 ± 6.0 SFV DNA copies/105 PBMCs) and saliva (2.4 ± 4.3 SFV DNA copies/105 cells) derived from the hunters. However, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT)-qPCR revealed the absence of SFV viral gene expression in both PBMCs and saliva, suggesting that SFV was latent in the human samples. Our study demonstrates that a latent infection can occur in humans and persist for years, both in PBMCs and saliva. Such a scenario may contribute to the putative lack of secondary human-to-human transmissions of SFV. PMID:24116202

Rua, Rejane; Betsem, Edouard; Gessain, Antoine



The human DNA content in artifacts deposited by the blowfly Lucilia cuprina fed human blood, semen and saliva.  


Adult flies of some species are known to be attracted to crime scenes where they feed on the proteinaceous decomposition products of dead bodies. The flies leave deposits through excretion and regurgitation, and these artifacts often appear morphologically similar to bloodstains. To date, little consideration has been given to the possibility of the fly artifacts containing forensically useful levels of human DNA, or of flies as vectors of human DNA. In the present study, groups of artifacts collected after the adult blowfly Lucilia cuprina fed on biological fluids were examined and found to contain human DNA sufficient for profiling. Random samples from each group of artifacts were then subjected to human DNA profiling. Of the samples analysed, full or partial human DNA profiles were found in 57% of samples deposited by flies after blood meals, 92% after semen meals, 46% after saliva meals, 93% after blood/semen meals, 58% after blood/saliva meals and 95% after semen/saliva meals. DNA from artifacts deposited after flies were fed blood, semen, saliva, blood/semen, blood/saliva or semen/saliva was extracted at various time points up to 750 days, and the human DNA component quantified. The human DNA extracted from blood- and semen-based fly artifacts demonstrated a clear trend in which the amount of DNA extracted increased over the first 400 days, and full human DNA profiles were still obtained 750 days after artifact deposition. Saliva- and blood/saliva-based samples were tested at intervals up to 60 days and generated partial profiles at this final time. Blood/semen- and semen/saliva-based samples generated full profiles at 250 days. The presence of human DNA in fly artifacts has considerable forensic significance. Fly artifacts could potentially compromise crime reconstruction, and/or contaminate DNA evidence, up to at least two years after their deposition. Alternatively, fly artifacts may be a useful source of DNA if an offender has attempted to clean up a crime scene. PMID:24314522

Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, Robert John; van Oorschot, Roland A H



Detection of Tumor Cell-Specific mRNA and Protein in Exosome-Like Microvesicles from Blood and Saliva  

PubMed Central

The discovery of disease-specific biomarkers in oral fluids has revealed a new dimension in molecular diagnostics. Recent studies have reported the mechanistic involvement of tumor cells derived mediators, such as exosomes, in the development of saliva-based mRNA biomarkers. To further our understanding of the origins of disease-induced salivary biomarkers, we here evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-shed secretory lipidic vesicles called exosome-like microvesicles (ELMs) that serve as protective carriers of tissue-specific information, mRNAs, and proteins, throughout the vasculature and bodily fluids. RNA content was analyzed in cell free-saliva and ELM-enriched fractions of saliva. Our data confirmed that the majority of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in saliva were encapsulated within ELMs. Nude mice implanted with human lung cancer H460 cells expressing hCD63-GFP were used to follow the circulation of tumor cell specific protein and mRNA in the form of ELMs in vivo. We were able to identify human GAPDH mRNA in ELMs of blood and saliva of tumor bearing mice using nested RT-qPCR. ELMs positive for hCD63-GFP were detected in the saliva and blood of tumor bearing mice as well as using electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM). Altogether, our results demonstrate that ELMs carry tumor cell–specific mRNA and protein from blood to saliva in a xenografted mouse model of human lung cancer. These results therefore strengthen the link between distal tumor progression and the biomarker discovery of saliva through the ELMs. PMID:25397880

Yang, Jieping; Wei, Fang; Schafer, Christopher; Wong, David T. W.



Rapid analysis of benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and cocaethylene in urine, serum, and saliva by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  An isocratic high-performance liquid-chromatographic (HPLC) procedure with diode-array detection has been developed for the\\u000a determination of benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and cocaethylene in urine, serum, and saliva. After solid-phase extraction with\\u000a mixed-mode extraction cartridges the three solutes are separated, in less than 20 min, by HPLC on a Supelcosil ABZ+column\\u000a with 17?83 (v\\/v) acetonitrile-0.04 M phosphate buffer, pH 2.3, as mobile phase.

C. Foulon; M.-C. Menet; N. Manuel; C. Pham-Huy; H. Galons; J.-R. Claude; F. Guyon



Determination of uric acid in urine, saliva and calcium oxalate renal calculi by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.  


A very simple and direct method for determination of uric acid, in various biological matrices, based on high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry is described. Chromatographic separations were performed with a stationary phase Zorbax Sax Column, an anion exchange resin, with 50% sodium citrate 1 mM at pH 6.5 and 50% acetonitrile as mobile phase delivered at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The detector counted negative ions by monitoring m/z 167.1, which corresponds to the urate anion. The method does not use an internal standard but quality control samples were used. Intra-day precision ranged between 1.1 and 1.5%, whereas inter-day precision was between 1.3 and 2.8% (n=5) working with some selected standards. Recovery tests of added standard have been successfully performed in urine and saliva samples, thus showing an appropriate accuracy of the method. The limit of quantitation found was 70 microg/l. Different urine and saliva samples were analyzed using an alternative analytical methodology based on an enzymatic reaction and photometric detection at 520 nm, resulting both methods comparable at a 95% confidence level. The method has been also applied to the determination of trace amounts of uric acid in the core of some selected calcium oxalate renal calculi. PMID:16061429

Perelló, Joan; Sanchis, Pilar; Grases, Félix



Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan  

PubMed Central

The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 ?g/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 ?g/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 ?g/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 ?g/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 ?g/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung



Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study.  


Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6-15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources. PMID:24756002

Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth



[Estimating the efficiency of DNA isolation methods in semen, blood and saliva stains using the QuantiBlot system].  


The aim of this study was to compare and select the optimal method of DNA isolation from blood, semen and saliva stains, as well as to determine appropriate conditions for employing amplification kits for identification of individual persons [brak w polskim tek?cie]. The materials analyzed in this study consisted of stains of blood, semen and saliva samples stored for a year, and stains of blood stored for a month. Seven various methods of isolation were compared: the Fast DNA kit (Qbiogene), phenol/chloroform extraction, Sherlock (DNA II Gdansk), Dneasy (Qiagen), Wizard Genomic Purification Kit (Promega), Chelex 100 (Biorad) and salting out proteins method. After the isolation, the quantity of DNA was measured with QuantiBlot [brak w polskim tek?cie]. The highest DNA concentration in bloodstains stored for one year and one month was observed employing the salting out proteins method. The phenol-chloroform extraction method was also found to produce reasonably good results. Isolation from blood and semen with salting-out method appeared to be the most effective. The phenol/chloroform method was dependent on the age and origin of the materials [brak w polskim tek?cie]. The Sherlock kit was proven to be effective in blood samples stored for one year. DNA concentration values obtained in semen and saliva samples were very low and characterized by a low repeatability. PMID:16708611

Pro?niak, Adam; Gloc, Ewa; Berent, Jaros?aw; Babol-Pokora, Katarzyna; Jacewicz, Renata; Szram, Stefan



Correlation between concentration in urine and in blood of cadmium and lead among women in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the present study are to examine if there exists a quantitative relationship between lead in urine (Pb-U) and that in blood (Pb-B), and also between cadmium in urine (Cd-U) and that in blood (Cd-B) among the general populations who are environmentally (and not occupationally) exposed to these elements at various levels. For this purpose, peripheral blood and

Kae Higashikawa; Zuo-Wen Zhang; Shinichiro Shimbo; Chan-Seok Moon; Takao Watanabe; Haruo Nakatsuka; Naoko Matsuda-Inoguchi; Masayuki Ikeda



Correlations of Trace Element Levels in the Diet, Blood, Urine, and Feces in the Chinese Male  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the associations between trace elements in dietary intake and the other three biological media (blood,\\u000a urine, or feces) and inter-element interactions among the latter, we simultaneously collected 72-h diet duplicates, whole\\u000a blood, and 72-h urine and feces from 120 free-living healthy males in China. Correlations among the toxic (cadmium [Cd], lead\\u000a [Pb]), and nutritionally essential (zinc

Ying Wang; Yang-Li Ou; Ya-Qiong Liu; Qing Xie; Qing-Fen Liu; Quan Wu; Ti-Qiang Fan; Lai-Lai Yan; Jing-Yu Wang


Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

Maugh, Thomas H., II



A pharmacokinetic study of ethyl glucuronide in blood and urine: Applications to forensic toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This pharmacokinetic study investigated the kinetics of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in blood and urine during the whole time course of absorption and elimination. There are few previous studies on the kinetics of EtG in blood, and we wanted to evaluate whether such knowledge could yield valuable information regarding the time of ethanol ingestion in forensic cases,

Gudrun Høiseth; Jean Paul Bernard; Ritva Karinen; Lene Johnsen; Anders Helander; Asbjørg S. Christophersen; Jørg Mørland



HVRII of mtDNA in cord blood cells of newborn children and in their saliva 10 years later.  


Comparison of hypervariable region II nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA obtained from cord blood cells and saliva cells of the same individual at birth and after ten years revealed a few differences at the so-called mutation hot spots (three transitions and three indels within the C-tract). The personal identity of samples was proved by short tandem repeat profiling. Comparison of individuals living in two regions that differ by air pollution, however, did not reveal statistically significantly increased number of mutations in the population from the region of poorer environmental conditions, although indicating such tendency. PMID:21457651

Schmuczerová, J; Töröková, P; Kujanová, M; Cechová, H; Topinka, J; Dostál, M; Sram, R J; Brdi?ka, R



PCR applications in identification of saliva samples exposed to different conditions (streptococci detection based).  


Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples) were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen) and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples) included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples). DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan). Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius. PMID:24494527

Ali, M M; Shokry, D A; Zaghloul, H S; Rashed, L A; Nada, M G



Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities. PMID:20090508

Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.



Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.



The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.



Blood and urine fluoride concentrations associated with topical fluoride applications on dog gingiva  

SciTech Connect

The circulatory uptake and urinary excretion of topical fluoride were investigated by applying a sodium fluoride solution containing /sub 18/F for six min to healthy gingiva of four adult dogs. Blood and urine samples were taken a regular intervals. Maximal fluoride in blood represented 0.02-0.05% of the applied dose and occurred four min after completion of the application. By 6.0 h, 0.02-0.06% of the applied dose had been excreted in urine. Preliminary data showed that this represented about 8.8% of the fluoride absorbed through the gingiva.

Hock, J.; Gerber, C.; Rheaume, M.; Hellden, L.



Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate  

SciTech Connect

Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These results demonstrate a feasibility to rapidly detect Pb in saliva and suggest that saliva may correlate best with plasma Pb concentration.

Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana



Analysis of Paired Serum, Urine and Filter Paper Blood Specimens for Presence of Filarial Antigen by Immunoradiometric Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paired serum, urine, and finger-prick whole blood dried on filter paper were analyzed by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for filarial antigen using Brugia malayi-specific rabbit antibody. Nine sera and 6 urines from the 10 paired serum-urine samples obtained from individuals with microfilaremia contained IRMA detectable filarial antigen. In contrast, all serum and urine specimens from patients with chronic infections, endemic and

G. B. K. S. Prasad; B. C. Harinath; R. G. Hamilton



Effect of Alcohol Withdrawl on Glutathione S-transferase, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Amylase in Blood and Saliva of Alcohol-Dependent Males  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Alcohol biomarkers help in the early detection of alcoholism and its complications. There is a paucity of studies in India on the salivary markers of systemic diseases in general and on salivary alcohol biomarkers in particular. Objectives: The present study was aimed at assessing the effect of alcohol withdrawal on the antioxidants and amylase in blood and saliva, and at finding the correlation between the blood and the salivary parameters in alcoholics. Methods: Sixty alcohol-dependent males who were in the age group of 30 – 70 years, who were admitted to the Deaddiction Centre for alcohol withdrawal treatment for one month, were the subjects of this study; age-matched healthy individuals were the controls. In the blood and saliva samples, the activities of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) and amylase and the Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) were assayed. Results: The alcohol-dependent subjects showed significantly lower GST and amylase activities and the TAC in blood and saliva as compared to those in the controls (P<0.001). The alcohol withdrawal caused a significant increase in the GST and amylase activities and the TAC to near-control values. In the alcohol-dependent subjects, there was a significant correlation between the values in blood and saliva with respect to GST and TAC. Conclusions: Alcoholism causes an impaired antioxidant capacity and a decreased secretion of amylase, which is ameliorated due to the alcohol withdrawal regimen . The strong correlation between blood and saliva with respect to the antioxidants suggests the potential future use of saliva as a laboratory tool in clinical medicine. PMID:23814713

Peter, Neethumol; Chiramel, Kevin J.; A.R., Shivashankara



Arsenic levels in blood, urine, and hair of workers applying monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)  

SciTech Connect

Uptake and excretion of total arsenic from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) in workers who applied the herbicide was followed during the spraying season. Urine, blood, and hair samples were collected and air samples were taken from the workers' breathing zone. Arsenic concentrations in air samples ranged from 0.001-1.086 micrograms/m3. Blood and urine arsenic values ranged from 0.0-0.2 mg/L and 0.002-1.725 mg/L, respectively. The geometric mean arsenic concentration in urine increased during the week but returned to base levels on weekends. Hair arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.02-358.0 mg/kg, increased during the spraying season, and returned to pre-season levels once herbicide application ceased. Three workers had higher than normal pre-exposure hair values. However, only one of the three workers had consistently above normal values throughout the study period.

Abdelghani, A.A.; Anderson, A.C.; Jaghabir, M.; Mather, F.



[Sensitive determination of p-nitrophenol in blood and urine by HPLC after E 605 intoxication (author's transl)].  


p-Nitrophenol, the main metabolite of parathion metabolism can be quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following very simple preparation of small quantities of blood the urine. Determination is carried out by UV detection at 315 nm following separation on a RP 18 column. Detection limits are 5-10 ng/ml serum and 50-100 ng/ml urine. levels of p-nitrophenol in blood and urine after survival from parathion intoxication are demonstrated. PMID:7102114

Michalke, P




EPA Science Inventory

Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...



EPA Science Inventory

To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...


[Activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and in urine of smoking and non-smoking smelters].  


The human body is constantly exposed to xenobiotics. This will include exogenous substances from environmental pollution such as heavy metals and lifestyle such as smoking, which may lead to impaired functioning of many organs. The liver and kidney are the critical organs in the case of a long-term occupational or environmental exposure to heavy metals and tobacco smoke. In diagnostics of liver and kidney damage useful are the methods which determine the activity of enzymes such as alanine aminopeptidase (AAP). AAP is a marker for early detection of acute kidney damage, and presence of AAP derive mainly from proximal tubular brush-border. Activity of AAP in urine allows to assess the damage resulting from the nephrotoxic exposure to heavy metals. In the serum AAP is mainly from hepatic. Activity of AAP may be useful to identify liver cancer. The investigation was shown, that AAP activity in the blood is used to detect hepatic cholestasis and congestive jaundice. The aim of present study was to assess the influence of occupational exposure of copper-foundry workers to heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead) on activity of alanine aminopeptidase in blood and urine. The investigations were performed in blood and urine of 166 subjects: 101 male copper smelters and 65 non-exposed male subjects. The study protocol was approved by Local Bioethics Committee of Wroclaw Medical University (KB No: 469/2008). The data on smoking which had been obtained from a direct personal interview were verified by determination of serum cotinine concentrations. Biological material collected from the control group and smelters was divided into subgroups of nonsmokers and smokers. The concentrations of lead and cadmium were determined in whole blood, whilst the level of arsenic and cadmium were determined in urine using FAAS method (Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry) in the acetylate flame on the SOLAAR M6. The activity of AA was determined in blood and in urine. The results showed a 9-fold increase in the concentration of lead and 10-fold elevation of arsenic level in all groups of smelters in comparison to the control group. The highest cadmium, lead and arsenic concentrations were observed in blood and urine of smoking smelters. We have observed a significant increase in the concentrations of lead and cadmium in blood of smoking persons from control group in comparison to the non-smoking persons from this group, which suggest, that tobacco smoking increase the heavy metals concentrations in the organisms. Occupational exposure to heavy metals resulted in an increase of AAP activity in blood and urine of all groups of smelters in comparison to corresponding control groups. The highest value of AAP was observed in serum and urine of smoking smelters. Tobacco smoke also increases the AAP activity the blood and urine of smoking smelters and control group compared to the non-smoking smelters and nonsmoking control group, appropriate. The study was shown that occupational exposure to heavy metals and tobacco. PMID:21360924

Bizo?, Anna; Stasiak, Karolina; Milnerowicz, Halina



Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system  

PubMed Central

Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar



The relationship of blood- and urine-boron to boron exposure in borax-workers and usefulness of urine-boron as an exposure marker.  

PubMed Central

Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 microgram/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 micrograms/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform. Personal air samplers of two types were used: one, the 37-mm closed-face, two-piece cassette to estimate total dust and the other, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler to estimate inspirable particulate mass. Under the conditions of this study, the IOM air sampler more nearly estimated human exposure as measured by blood- and urine-boron levels than did the sampler that measured total dust.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889874

Culver, B D; Shen, P T; Taylor, T H; Lee-Feldstein, A; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, P L



Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known ?13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (?13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (?13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (?13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the ?13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in the ?13C value of their blood and saliva relative to baseline: blood clot was enriched by 0.27‰; blood serum by 0.50‰ and saliva by 1.12‰. We believe this overall enrichment resulted from a 13C-enriched bulk diet (?13C = - 20.42‰) relative to the subjects free-living diet. Evidence for this derives from inspection of foods within the bulk diet provided, compared to published profiles of the typical American diet. We will discuss possible complicating factors, such as differential absorption and metabolism of the supplements according to solubility and caloric value. These results are encouraging for the development of a ?13C blood serum biomarker that, in the company of other tests, could be used to indicate a change in carbohydrate intake. Bray, G.A., Nielsen, S.J. and Popkin, B.M., 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79: 537-543. Havel, P.J., 2005. Dietary fructose: Implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrition Reviews, 63(5): 133-157. Tilman D., 1998. The greening of the green revolution. Nature, 396:211-212.

Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.



Determination of bromide in whole blood and urine from humans using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We devised a sensitive and simple method for determination of bromide in whole blood and urine from humans using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Bromide was alkylated with pentafluorobenzyl p-toluenesulphonate in the mixture of acetone and phosphate buffer (pH 6.8). The derivative obtained was analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with the positive-ion EI mode. The lower limit of detection for the compound

Shigetoshi Kage; Keiko Kudo; Hideaki Ikeda; Akira Tsujita; Noriaki Ikeda



The History of Saliva Based Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

t is probably surprising for most people to learn that saliva has been used in diagnostics for more than two thousand years. Ancient doctors of traditional Chinese medicine have concluded that saliva and blood are 'brothers' in the body and they come from the same origin. It is believed that changes in saliva are indicative of the wellness of the

Zhanzhi Hu


Determination of paroxetine in blood and urine using micellar liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.  


Paroxetine is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for the treatment of depression and related mood disorders. A micellar liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of paroxetine in serum and urine. Detection of paroxetine was carried out using a C18 column and a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate, 6% 1-pentanol at pH 3 (buffer salt 0.01 M NaH2PO4) running under isocratic mode at 1.0 mL/min and electrochemical detection at 0.8 V. The analyte was eluted without interferences in <15 min. The proposed methodology was validated under the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use in matrix in terms of specificity, linearity (r(2) > 0.9999; 0.5-5 ?g/mL range), accuracy (88-97.5%, recovery), repeatability (RSD < 0.54%), intermediate precision (RSD < 0.54%), limit of detection and quantification (0.001 and 0.005 ?g/mL, respectively) and robustness (RSD < 3.63%). Developed method was successfully applied to real blood and urine samples as well as in spiked serum and urine samples. The developed method was specific, rapid, precise, reliable, accurate, inexpensive and then suitable for routine analysis of paroxetine in monitorized samples. PMID:24448669

Agrawal, Nitasha; Marco-Peiró, Sergio; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Durgbanshi, Abhilasha; Bose, Devasish; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Carda-Broch, Samuel



Is Platinum Present in Blood and Urine from Treatment Givers during Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy?  

PubMed Central

Background. In selected patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) originating from colorectal cancer (CRC) the high dosage of oxaliplatin (460?mg/m2) is recommended for hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), which may be a health risk to those administering the drug. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of platinum (Pt) exposure for the two main people handling and administering the cytotoxic agent during HIPEC. Methods. Samples of blood and urine were collected from one male surgeon and one female perfusionist during oxaliplatin-based HIPEC treatment with open abdomen coliseum technique on six consecutive patients with PC from CRC. Results. All blood samples analysed were below the detection limit of <0.05?nmol/L Pt, and the urine samples were all below the detection limit of <0.03?nmol/L Pt. Conclusions. There appears to be little or no risk of Pt exposure during HIPEC when the recommended protective garment is used and the safety considerations are followed. PMID:20631909

Naslund Andreasson, Sara; Anundi, Helena; Thoren, Sig-Britt; Ehrsson, Hans; Mahteme, Haile



Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.



Repeated exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia sand fly saliva induces local expression of interferon-inducible genes both at the site of injection in mice and in human blood.  


During a blood meal, Lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit Leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. In experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic Leishmania species together with saliva. In contrast, pre-immunization with Lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co-inoculation of Lu. intermedia SGS and L. braziliensis. These data highlight potential unique features of both L. braziliensis and Lu. intermedia. In this study, we investigated the genes modulated by Lu. intermedia SGS immunization to understand their potential impact on the subsequent cutaneous immune response following inoculation of both SGS and L. braziliensis. The cellular recruitment and global gene expression profile was analyzed in mice repeatedly inoculated or not with Lu. intermedia. Microarray gene analysis revealed the upregulation of a distinct set of IFN-inducible genes, an immune signature not seen to the same extent in control animals. Of note this INF-inducible gene set was not induced in SGS pre-immunized mice subsequently co-inoculated with SGS and L. braziliensis. These data suggest the parasite prevented the upregulation of this Lu. intermedia saliva-related immune signature. The presence of these IFN-inducible genes was further analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from uninfected human individuals living in a L. braziliensis-endemic region of Brazil thus regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites. PBMCs were cultured in presence or absence of Lu. intermedia SGS. Using qRT-PCR we established that the IFN-inducible genes induced in the skin of SGS pre-immunized mice, were also upregulated by SGS in PBMCs from human individuals regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites, but not in PBMCs of control subjects. These data demonstrate that repeated exposure to Lu. intermedia SGS induces the expression of potentially host-protective IFN-inducible genes. PMID:24421912

Weinkopff, Tiffany; de Oliveira, Camila I; de Carvalho, Augusto M; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Muniz, Aline C; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne



Cadmium blood and urine concentrations as measures of exposure: NHANES 1999-2010.  


Exposure to cadmium, a heavy metal present in cigarettes, can be assessed in both urine and blood. Few studies have compared the properties of concurrent measurements of urine cadmium (uCd) and blood cadmium (bCd) in relation to the duration and timing of a known exposure. In this study, bCd and uCd were modeled with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2010). Adjusted geometric mean bCd and uCd were estimated from regression results. Each 1% higher geometric mean uCd was associated with 0.50% (95% confidence interval: 0.47%-0.54%; R(2)=0.30) higher bCd. In male never-smokers, bCd was 69% (59%-81%) and uCd was 200% (166%-234%) higher at age ?70 years versus 20-29 years. Ten pack-years (py) of smoking were associated with 13.7% (10.0%-17.4%) higher bCd and 16.8% (12.6%-21.1%) higher uCd in male smokers. The first year after smoking cessation was associated with 53% (48%-58%) lower bCd and 23% (14%-33%) lower uCd in representative males aged 55 years with 20?py smoking. Smoking in the previous 5 days was associated with 55% (40%-71%) higher bCd and 7% (-3%-18%) higher uCd. Results were similar for women. uCd mainly measures long-term exposure and bCd recent exposure, but with noticeable overlap. Epidemiological studies should base the choice of uCd or bCd on the timing of cadmium exposure relevant to the disease under study. PMID:24002489

Adams, Scott V; Newcomb, Polly A



Brain-blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632



Rapid Antemortem Detection of CWD Prions in Deer Saliva  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

Haley, Nicholas J.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Nalls, Amy V.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A.



Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.  


Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido



Use of Cell-Free Circulating Schistosome DNA in Serum, Urine, Semen, and Saliva To Monitor a Case of Refractory Imported Schistosomiasis Hematobia  

PubMed Central

This case of imported refractory schistosomiasis has highlighted the usefulness of cell-free parasite DNA as a diagnostic marker to assess active schistosome infection. In contrast to the rapid disappearance of ova in urine, parasite DNA remained persistent in several other specimen types even after the fourth treatment with praziquantel. This result was consistent with the presence of morphologically intact ova in bladder biopsy samples and with the corresponding symptoms. PMID:23884992

Yasuda, Mitsuko; Yuasa, Jozi; Isaka, Shigeo; Haruki, Kosuke; Ohmae, Hiroshi; Osada, Yoshio; Kanazawa, Tamotsu; Chigusa, Yuichi



LC-MS/MS analysis of dextromethorphan metabolism in human saliva and urine to determine CYP2D6 phenotype and individual variability in N-demethylation and glucuronidation.  


In order to establish a fast screening method for the determination of the CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype a sensitive LC-MS/MS assay to quantify dextromethorphan (DEX) and its O-demethylated metabolite dextrorphan (DOR) in human saliva was developed with limits of quantitation of 1 pmol/ml. Saliva was provided by 170 medical students 2h after oral ingestion of 30 mg (81 micromol) dextromethorphan hydrobromide. Individual ratios of the concentrations DEX/DOR (metabolic ratio, MR(DEX/DOR)) varied more than 25,000-fold (0.03-780). Two groups comprising 156 'Extensive' and 14 'Poor Metabolizers' were clearly distinguished. For the investigation of individual differences in N-demethylation and glucuronidation, four additional metabolites of DEX, 3-methoxymorphinan (MOM), 3-hydroxymorphinan (HOM), and the two O-glucuronides (DORGlu and HOMGlu) were measured by LC-MS/MS analysis of 6-h urine of 24 volunteers. The N-demethylation reactions DEX-to-MOM and DOR-to-HOM defined by the respective MR were significantly correlated. The same holds for the glucuronidation pathways (MR(DOR/DORGlu) versus MR(HOM/HOMGlu)). The three poor CYP2D6 metabolizers excreted relatively high amounts of the parent compound DEX (up to 7 micromol), but only low amounts of glucuronides (DORGlu: 0.4-1.0 micromol; HOMGlu: 0.2-0.7 micromol). For the 21 'Extensive Metabolizers', the two glucuronides were the most abundant, with relatively little interindividual variation (DORGlu: 10-44 micromol; HOMGlu: 5-17 micromol). For the excretion of the glucuronides, two normal distributions provided the best fit, indicating that the determination of the glucuronides alone could allow assignment of the CYP2D6 metabolic phenotype. PMID:15556536

Lutz, Ursula; Völkel, Wolfgang; Lutz, Roman W; Lutz, Werner K



Poor histological lesions in IgA nephropathy may be reflected in blood and urine peptide profiling  

PubMed Central

Background IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, leading to renal failure in 15% to 40% of cases. IgAN is diagnosed by renal biopsy, an invasive method that is not risk-free. We used blood and urine peptide profiles as a noninvasive method of linking IgAN-associated changes with histological lesions by Oxford classification. Methods We prospectively studied 19 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and 14 healthy subjects from 2006 to 2009, excluding subjects with crescentic glomerulonephritis and collecting clinical and biochemical data at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up (24 months). Histological lesions were evaluated by Oxford classification. Proteomic analysis was performed by combining magnetic bead (MB) technology and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to obtain peptide profiles. Doubling of serum creatinine was considered a variable of poor renal prognosis. Results We identified 55 peptides—13 in serum, 26 in plasma, and 16 in urine—that differentiated IgAN patients from healthy subjects. A significant association was noted between serum/plasma and urine peptides and histological findings—ie, tubulointerstitial damage, segmental glomerulosclerosis, and endocapillary injury. We also identified 3 peptides—corresponding to bradykinin, uromodulin, and alpha-1-antitrypsin—that were associated with severity of lesions, such as tubulointerstitial damage and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Moreover, blood peptides with m/z 2953, 5337, 9287, and 9289 and urine peptides with m/z 1769, 1898, 1913, 1945, 2491, 2756, 2977, 3004, 3389, and 4752 correlated significantly with poor renal function. Conclusions In patients with IgAN, the use of noninvasive approaches, such as blood and urine proteomics, can provide valuable information beyond that of standard diagnostic techniques, allowing us to identify blood and urine peptide profiles that are associated with poor histological lesions in IgAN patients. PMID:23577616




EPA Science Inventory

This procedure describes the process for collecting and analyzing blood and urine samples. The presence of chemical contaminants in biological specimens such as blood, urine, and hair represent a measure of the internal dose or body burden for a given individual derived from the ...


Effect of Hormonal Treatments Prior to Lactation on Hormones in Blood Plasma, Milk, and Urine during Early Lactation1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormonal changes in blood plasma, colostrum, milk, and urine were studied through day 25 of lactation in 6, 6, and 2 Holsteins, respectively, to compare nor- mal calving, premature calving induced with 25 mg of dexamethasone and estra- dio1-173, and lactation induced with ex- ogenous estradiol-173 and progesterone. Treatments had no effect on concentra- tions of prolactin in plasma, but

R. E. Erb; B. P. Chew; H. F. Keller; P. V. Malven



Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko



Lead and cadmium levels in daily foods, blood and urine in children and their mothers in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. The present study was initiated to examine the dietary intake, blood level and urinary concentration of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) among children in Korea, in comparison with the findings in their mothers.Methods. Peripheral blood, spot urine and 24-h food duplicate samples were collected in Busan, Korea, from 38 pairs of children (4–10 years of age) and their mothers

Chan-Seok Moon; Jong-Min Paik; Chang-Soo Choi; Do-Hoon Kim; Masayuki Ikeda



Heparanase Levels Are Elevated in the Urine and Plasma of Type 2 Diabetes Patients and Associate with Blood Glucose Levels  

PubMed Central

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Utilizing an ELISA method capable of detection and quantification of heparanase, we examined heparanase levels in the plasma and urine of a cohort of 29 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 14 T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, and 47 healthy volunteers. We provide evidence that heparanase levels in the urine of T2DM patients are markedly elevated compared to healthy controls (1162±181 vs. 156±29.6 pg/ml for T2DM and healthy controls, respectively), increase that is statistically highly significant (P<0.0001). Notably, heparanase levels were appreciably decreased in the urine of T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, albeit remained still higher than healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Increased heparanase levels were also found in the plasma of T2DM patients. Importantly, urine heparanase was associated with elevated blood glucose levels, implying that glucose mediates heparanase upregulation and secretion into the urine and blood. Utilizing an in vitro system, we show that insulin stimulates heparanase secretion by kidney 293 cells, and even higher secretion is observed when insulin is added to cells maintained under high glucose conditions. These results provide evidence for a significant involvement of heparanase in diabetic complications. PMID:21364956

Shafat, Itay; Ilan, Neta; Zoabi, Samih; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nakhoul, Farid



Nitrosamine levels in human blood, urine and gastric aspirate following ingestion of foods containing potential nitrosamine precursors or preformed nitrosamines.  


In studies of the effect of diet on nitrosamine levels in selected human physiological fluids, volunteers were fed meals containing fish or beef (sources of precursor amines) or bacon (a source of preformed nitrosamines), in combination with spinach and vegetable juice to supply nitrite via possible reduction of nitrate. Blood, urine and gastric contents were sampled periodically for up to 4 hr after feeding. The results of the study indicated that traces of nitrosamines, usually N-nitrosodimethylamine, were present in many samples of blood, urine and gastric contents, even after an 8-hr fast. Eating the test meals led to a slight increase in nitrosamine levels in the blood and stomach contents in a few subjects. The data obtained from this study suggest that gastric formation of nitrosamine does not appear to be an important health factor in normal people, since the levels of nitrosamines found in physiological fluids are not markedly increased after eating. PMID:6890024

Lakritz, L; Gates, R A; Gugger, A M; Wasserman, A E



Catecholamines - urine  


Dopamine-urine test; Epinephrine-urine test; Adrenalin-urine test; Urine metanephrine; Normetanephrine; Norepinephrine-urine test; Urine catecholamines; VMA; HVA; Metanephrine; Homovanillic acid (HVA)


Antimicrobial defense systems in saliva.  


The oral cavity is one of the most heavily colonized parts of our body. The warm, nutrient-rich and moist environment promotes the growth of a diverse microflora. One of the factors responsible for the ecological equilibrium in the mouth is saliva, which in several ways affects the colonization and growth of bacteria. In this paper, we discuss the various mechanisms by which the composition of the oral microflora is modulated by saliva. Saliva covers the oral hard and soft tissues with a conditioning film which governs the initial attachment of microorganisms, a crucial step in the setup of the oral microflora. It furthermore contains proteins which in the soluble phase bind to bacteria, blocking their adherence to surfaces. When the supply of nutrients is diminished, bacteria use salivary glycoproteins, especially high-molecular-weight mucins, as a source of complex carbohydrates, requiring a consortium of microorganisms for breakdown. In this way saliva promotes the complexity of the oral microflora, which in itself protects against overgrowth by few pathogenic species. Finally, saliva harbors a large panel of antimicrobial proteins which directly and indirectly inhibit uncontrolled outgrowth of bacteria. These include lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and antimicrobial peptides. Under pathological conditions serum leakage occurs, and saliva mobilizes the humoral and cellular defense mechanisms in the blood. In sum, saliva favors the establishment of a highly diverse microflora, rather than a semisterile environment. PMID:24862593

van 't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M



Correlation of salivary glucose, blood glucose and oral candidal carriage in the saliva of type 2 diabetics: A case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the correlation between blood glucose levels and salivary glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients, to study the relationship between salivary glucose levels and oral candidal carriage in type 2 diabetic patients and to determine whether salivary glucose levels could be used as a noninvasive tool for the measurement of glycemic control in type 2 diabetics. Study Design: The study population consisted of three groups: Group 1 consisted of 30 controlled diabetics and Group 2 consisted of 30 uncontrolled diabetics based on their random nonfasting plasma glucose levels. Group 3 consisted of 30 healthy controls. Two milliliters of peripheral blood was collected for the estimation of random nonfasting plasma glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Unstimulated saliva was collected for the estimation of salivary glucose. Saliva was collected by the oral rinse technique for the estimation of candidal counts. Results: The salivary glucose levels were significantly higher in controlled and uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controls. The salivary candidal carriage was also significantly higher in uncontrolled diabetics when compared with controlled diabetics and nondiabetic controls. The salivary glucose levels showed a significant correlation with blood glucose levels, suggesting that salivary glucose levels can be used as a monitoring tool for predicting glycemic control in diabetic patients. Conclusion: The present study found that estimation of salivary glucose levels can be used as a noninvasive, painless technique for the measurement of diabetic status of a patient in a dental set up. Increased salivary glucose levels leads to increased oral candidal carriage; therefore, oral diagnosticians are advised to screen the diabetic patients for any oral fungal infections and further management. PMID:25191065

Kumar, Satish; Padmashree, S.; Jayalekshmi, Rema



Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study  

PubMed Central

Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef



Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study.  


Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

Genuis, Stephen J; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef



Determination of lopinavir and ritonavir in blood plasma, seminal plasma, saliva and plasma ultra-filtrate by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry detection.  


A method based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) in human blood, semen and saliva samples. The acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, monitoring the transitions: m/z 629 > 447.1 for LPV, 721.18 > 268.02 for RTV and m/z 747.22 > 322.03 for the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL for both analytes in all matrices. The method was linear in the studied range (1-2000 ng/mL for LPV and 1-200 ng/mL for RTV), with r2 > 0.99 for each drug, and the run time was 4.5 min. The intra-assay precisions (%) were in the ranges of 0.1-14.2 (LPV) and 0.4-12.7 (RTV), the inter-assay precisions were in the ranges of 2.8-15.3 (LPV) and 1.1-12.8 (RTV) and the intra-and inter-assay recoveries were >85% for both drugs. The extraction efficiencies were 73.5-118.4% for LPV and 74.4-126.2% for RTV. The analytical method was applied to measure LPV and RTV concentrations in blood plasma (total and unbound fraction), saliva and semen of six HIV+ individuals under stable treatment with Kaletra soft gel capsules. The results were consistent with previously published data. PMID:18257112

Estrela, Rita C E; Ribeiro, Fabio S; Seixas, Brayan V; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme



The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez



The oxidant-scavenging abilities in the oral cavity may be regulated by a collaboration among antioxidants in saliva, microorganisms, blood cells and polyphenols: a chemiluminescence-based study.  


Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a "slow-release devises" capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez



Correlation between urine and blood concentrations, and dietary intake of cadmium and lead among women in the general population of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether lead (Pb) in urine and cadmium (Cd) in blood, especially the former, can be used as markers of environmental\\u000a exposure of general populations to these metals. Methods: Between 1991 and 1998, spot urine and peripheral blood samples, together with 24?h duplicates of food intake were collected\\u000a from 607?non-smoking adult women in 30?survey sites (SS) in seven

S. Shimbo; Z.-W. Zhang; C.-S. Moon; T. Watanabe; H. Nakatsuka; N. Matsuda-Inoguchi; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda



Assessment of occupational exposure to 4,4'-methylenedianiline by the analysis of urine and blood samples.  


Seven workers at a work site where methylenedianiline (MDA) was used as a curing agent for an epoxy resin were studied during 4 workdays and one weekend. Internal exposure was monitored by analysis of 4,4'-MDA in hydrolysed urine and blood. After acidic hydrolysis, MDA was extracted, derivatised by use of pentafluoropropionic anhydride, and determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, with negative ion chemical ionization. There was wide variation of MDA concentrations in hydrolysed blood between the workers (range 10-60 nmol/l). Also, the urinary excretion rate varied considerably both between and within the individual workers (0-90 mumol/h). The urinary excretion displayed some variation in relation to exposed periods. The urinary levels were linearly related to the concentrations in blood (rs = 0.93, P = 0.02). The present results show the value of excretion of MDA in hydrolysed urine and concentrations in blood as means for the biological monitoring of MDA exposure. In this case, the exposure was probably mainly dermal, in spite of extensive protection measures. PMID:7672859

Dalene, M; Skarping, G; Brunmark, P



In vivo analysis of cadmium in battery workers versus measurements of blood, urine, and workplace air.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To measure in vivo the cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex (kidney-Cd) and in superficial liver tissue (liver-Cd) of nickel cadmium battery workers, and to compare the results with other commonly used estimates of cadmium exposure (current concentrations of cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd)) or repeated measurements of cadmium in workplace air (CumAir-Cd). METHODS: The study comprised 30 workers with a range of duration of exposure of 11-51 years. 13 subjects were currently employed, whereas the other 17 had a median period without occupational exposure of eight years before the measurements. The in vivo measurements were made with an x ray fluorescence technique permitting average detection limits of 30 and 3 micrograms cadmium per g tissue in kidney and liver, respectively. RESULTS: 19 of 30 (63%) people had kidney-Cd and 13 of 27 (48%) had liver-Cd above the detection limits. Kidney-Cd ranged from non-detectable to 350 micrograms/g and liver-Cd from non-detectable to 80 micrograms/g. The median kidney-Cd and liver-Cd were 55 micrograms/g and 3 micrograms/g, respectively. Kidney-Cd correlated significantly with B-Cd (r, 0.49) and U-Cd (r, 0.70), whereas liver-Cd correlated significantly with U-Cd (r, 0.58). Neither kidney-Cd nor liver-Cd correlated with the CumAir-Cd. The prevalence of beta 2-microglobulinurea increased with increased liver-Cd. CONCLUSIONS: Current U-Cd can be used to predict the kidney-Cd and liver-Cd measured in vivo. In vivo measurements of kidney-Cd and liver-Cd were not shown to correlate with the individual cadmium exposure estimates, obtained by integration of the cadmium concentration in workplace air. There may be several reasons for this, including uncertainties in the estimate of the individual cumulative exposures as well as in the in vivo measurements. There was a suggestion of a relation between liver-Cd and tubular proteinuria. PMID:9245949

Borjesson, J; Bellander, T; Jarup, L; Elinder, C G; Mattsson, S



Simple decomposition procedure for determination of selenium in whole blood, serum and urine by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy.  


A digestion procedure for selenium determination by hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in whole blood, serum and urine is described, it employs sulfuric acid, hydrogen peroxide and vanadium (V) sulfuric acid reagent solution. The method is rapid, uses no explosive reagents and can be performed at a constant temperature of 100 degrees C. Therefore, it is easily applicable in a routine clinical laboratory for a large amount of samples. The coefficient of intra-assay variation was 4.3-5.6%, the coefficient for inter-assay variation was 5-5.9% in the medium and high concentration range, and 5.8-8.6% in the low range. In analyzing several commercial reference materials our results showed good agreement with the target values. Analytical recovery by addition of sodium selenite and seleno-DL-methionine to samples ranged between 97 and 104%. The correlation between the described digestion procedure and the nitric, sulfuric and perchloric acid digestion procedure recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry showed good agreement for whole blood, serum and for urine. We determined selenium in serum (n = 58) and whole blood (n = 50) in a collective of healthy children from 1 to 5 years living in Styria, Austria. The low values in serum (35 +/- 11 micrograms/L) and whole blood (42 +/- 6 micrograms/L) at one year of life increased significantly to 48 +/- 13 mu/L (p = 0.033) and 55 +/- 6 micrograms/L (p = 0.004) at three years of life in serum and whole blood, respectively. The selenium concentration showed no further increase up to five years of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8019150

Tiran, B; Tiran, A; Rossipal, E; Lorenz, O



Simultaneous determination of 12 illicit drugs in whole blood and urine by solid phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS.  


A rapid and sensitive method based on solid phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylene-dioxymethamphetamine, N-methyl-1-(3,4-methyl-enedioxyphenyl)-2-butanamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, p-methoxymethamphetamine, ephedrine, N-methylephedrine, cathinone, methcathinone, and ketamine in whole blood and urine was developed and validated. Following solid phase extraction, the analytes were separated on ACQUITY UPLC BEH Phenyl column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7?m) under gradient elution using a mobile phase containing of acetonitrile and 0.3% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1) and analyzed by a triplequadrupole mass spectrometer in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The proposed method was linear for each analyte with correlation coefficients over 0.99. Recovery validation studies showed accuracy bias below 4.4%. Acceptable precision was also obtained with a relative standard deviation below 8.9%. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be adequate for the quantitation of the illicit drugs in whole blood and urine sample and was higher than reported methods. The present method was proved to be reliable and robust for drug screening in forensic toxicological analysis. PMID:24631805

Zhang, Lin; Wang, Zhao-Hong; Li, Hong; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Meng; Jiang, Ye; Zhao, Wen-Song



Identification of Unique Blood and Urine Biomarkers in Influenza Virus and Staphylococcus aureus Co-infection: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Each year, there are estimated to be approximately 200,000 hospitalizations and 36,000 deaths due to influenza in the United States. Reports have indicated that most deaths are not directly due to influenza virus, but to secondary bacterial pneumonia, predominantly staphylococcal in origin. Here we identify the presence of candidate blood and urine biomarkers in mice with Staphyococcus aureus and influenza virus co-infection. In this pilot study, mice were grouped into four treatments: co-infected with influenza virus and S. aureus, singly infected with influenza virus or S. aureus, and a control group of uninfected mice (PBS treated). Gene expression changes were identified by DNA-microarrays from blood samples taken at day five post infection. Proteomic changes were obtained from urine samples collected at three and five days post infection using 2-D DIGE followed by protein ID by mass spectrometry. Differentially expressed genes and/or proteins were identified as candidate biomarkers for future validation in larger studies. PMID:21151588

Prescott, Meagan A.; Pastey, Manoj K.



A simple {sup 197}Hg RNAA procedure for the determination of mercury in urine, blood, and tissue  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has been implicated as a causal agent in such central nervous system diseases as Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s. Consequently, there has been increased interest in the determination of ultra-trace-level mercury in biological matrices, especially in tissue. While such nonnuclear techniques as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry have been employed routinely for mercury determinations in urine and blood, there is a paucity of nonnuclear techniques for the determination of mercury in the low parts-per-billion range in biological tissue. As pointed out by Fardy and Warner, instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) require no blank determinations in contrast to nonnuclear analytical techniques employing digestion and/or chemical operations. Therefore, INAA and RNAA become the obvious choices for determination of ultra-trace levels of mercury in tissue. Most separation methods reported in the literature require different and separate methodologies for mercury determinations in urine, blood, or tissue. The purposes of this study are to develop a single methodology for the determination of low levels of mercury in all biological matrices by RNAA and to optimize parameters necessary for an efficacious trace-level determination. Previously, few studies have taken into account the effects of the Szilard-Chalmers reactions of the radioactivatable analyte within a biological matrix. It also would appear that little attention has been given to the optimum postirradiation carrier concentration of the analyte species necessary. This study discusses these various considerations.

Blotcky, A.J. [VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Rack, E.P.; Meade, A.G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others



Observation of steady state in blood and urine following human ingestion of hexavalent chromium in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The uptake and elimination of Cr(VI) in a male volunteer who ingested 2 L/d of water containing 2 mg/L for 17 consecutive days was measured. Total chromium was measured in urine, plasma, and red blood cells (RBCs) for 4 d prior to and 2 wk after dosing (34 d total). The estimated bioavailability (2%) and the plasma elimination half-life (36 h) were consistent with our previous studies of Cr(VI) ingestion in humans. Steady-state chromium concentrations in urine and blood were achieved after 7 d of Cr(VI) ingestion. Both plasma and redblood cell (RBC) chromium concentrations returned rapidly to background levels within a few days after cessation of dosing. Since the concentration of chromium in the RBC should not decrease quickly if the chromium had entered the RBC as Cr(VI), these data support our prior work suggesting that concentrations of 10 mg Cr(VI)/L or less in drinking water of exposed humans appears to be completely reduced to Cr(III) prior to systemic distribution. Clinical chemistry data indicate that no toxicity occurred. 21 refs., 3 figs.

Paustenbach, D.J. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Alameda, CA (United States); Hays, S.M.; Brien, B.A. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others



Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine.  


Antimalarial drugs commonly referred to as antimalarials, include a variety of compounds with different physicochemical properties. There is a lack of information on antimalarial distribution in the body over time after administration, e.g. the drug concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine, which must be improved in order to advance curing the parasitic disease malaria. A key problem also lies in that pharmacokinetic studies not always are performed in patient groups that may benefit most of the treatment such as children, pregnancy and lower-weight ethnic populations. Here we review the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After LC separation, the preferred detection tool is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) but other detection methods have been used e.g. UV, fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Major trends for sample preparation of the different groups of antimalarials for each matrix and its detection have been summarized. Finally, the main problems that the researchers have dealt with are highlighted. This information will aid analytical chemists in the development of novel methods for determining existing antimalarials and upcoming new drugs. PMID:24911547

Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A; Styrishave, Bjarne; Björklund, Erland



Modulation of aflatoxin biomarkers in human blood and urine by green tea polyphenols intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in mod- ulating aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) biomarkers, a total of 352 serum samples and 352 urine samples collected from a 3 month chemo- prevention trial with 500 mg GTPs, 1000 mg GTPs and a placebo were measured for AFB1-albumin adducts (AFB-AA), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and aflatoxin B1-mercapturic acid (AFB-NAC). Lev- els

Lili Tang; Meng Tang; Li Xu; Haitao Luo; Tianren Huang; Jiahua Yu; Lisheng Zhang; Weimin Gao; Stephen B. Cox; Jia-Sheng Wang


Diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by detection of viral DNA in dried blood spots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The reference method of cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolation from urine or saliva is not a feasible routine technique for all newborns, and laboratory diagnosis of this infection would be useful both for epidemiological purposes and to enable prompt institution of adequate measures to identify and correct late sequelae. Extraction and amplification of viral DNA from dried blood spots (DBS) collected

Maria Barbi; Sandro Binda; Valeria Primache; Cristina Luraschi; Carlo Corbetta



Lithium and sodium in blood plasma and urine of fish and mammals of Lake Baikal  

SciTech Connect

The lithium concentration in body fluids was measured by the massspectrometric technique of isotope dilution in certain species of fish and seals, and also in water from Lake Baikal. The concentration of lithium in the urine of all studied animals was higher than that of sodium in plasma. Appreciable differences were found between Li/sup +/ and Na/sup +/ ions in the exchange between organism and environment in Lake Baikal fish: The Li/Na ratio in plasma was 10- and 100-fold lower than in water. Discrimination between these ions occurred both during their entry into the body (transport through bills) and during their elimination via the kidneys.

Putintseva, V.A.; Fleishman, D.G.



Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), antibodies to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts were measured by ELISA and hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). RESULTS--Mean urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in samples from coke oven workers varied from 1.11 to 5.53 umol/mol creatinine and 0.14 umol/mol creatinine in the control group. Workers at the top side had the highest values of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts did not correlate with either 1-hydroxypyrene nor length of work at the coke oven plant. But antibody concentration in samples collected in January was predictive of the concentration in samples collected in June. A small non-significant increase in hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts was found in samples from coke oven workers relative to the control group when comparing smokers and nonsmokers separately. CONCLUSION--1-Hydroxypyrene correlates well with exposure groups based on job description. Antibodies to benzo(a)-pyrene DNA adducts was related to people and not exposure. Work at a coke oven plant might lead to increased hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts. PMID:8535495

Ovreb?, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D



Elimination of matrix and spectral interferences in the measurement of lead and cadmium in urine and blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction  

SciTech Connect

Direct measurement of lead and cadmium in blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction (D2-AAS) is prone to severe matrix and spectral interferences. The authors overcame these effects by coating the L'vov platform with ammonium molybdate, reducing the atomization time, introducing a post-atomization cooling step, carefully selecting ashing and atomization temperatures, and using an appropriate procedure for matrix modification. To determine Pb and Cd in blood and urine, they used matrix-matched calibration curves. With the proposed procedure for sample preparation, both Pb and Cd in whole blood can be determined in the same diluted sample. Results obtained by D2-AAS correlate closely with those by Zeeman-corrected AAS. Detection limits (mean blank + 3 SDblank) for Pb in urine and blood were 4 micrograms/L. For cadmium, the detection limits were 0.4 and 0.1 micrograms/L for urine and blood analysis, respectively. Between-run CVs were less than 5.0%.

D'Haese, P.C.; Lamberts, L.V.; Liang, L.; Van de Vyver, F.L.; De Broe, M.E. (University of Antwerp, Department of Nephrology-Hypertension (Belgium))



Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (<15min) preparation of lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:24491523

Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee



Pituitary, Adrenal, and Sex Hormones in Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood samples were taken at 9 a.m., on an empty stomach, 2?3 hours after night sleep. In females with regular cycles, blood samples were taken both during their early proliferative phases (on days 5 and 6 of the cycle) and during the secretory phases (on days 21 and 22). The amount of saliva accumulated in the mouth was spat out

G. F. Korot'ko; L. P. Gotovtseva



Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.



Simple and rapid quantification of gadolinium in urine and blood plasma samples by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF).  


A simple and rapid method to determine gadolinium (Gd) concentrations in urine and blood plasma samples by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was developed. With a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 ?g L(-1) in urine and 80 ?g L(-1) in blood plasma and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 330 ?g L(-1) in urine and 270 ?g L(-1) in blood plasma, it allows analyzing urine samples taken from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients during a period of up to 20 hours after the administration of Gd-based MRI contrast agents by means of TXRF. By parallel determination of the urinary creatinine concentration, it was possible to monitor the excretion kinetics of Gd from the patient's body. The Gd concentration in blood plasma samples, taken immediately after an MRI examination, could be determined after rapid and easy sample preparation by centrifugation. All measurements were validated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). TXRF is considered to be an attractive alternative for fast and simple Gd analysis in human body fluids during daily routine in clinical laboratories. PMID:21847492

Telgmann, Lena; Holtkamp, Michael; Künnemeyer, Jens; Gelhard, Carsten; Hartmann, Marcel; Klose, Annika; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe



Dry matter intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and concentration of minerals in the blood and urine of steers fed rice straw treated with wood ash extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies to evaluate the effects of feeding rice straw treated with wood ash extract (WAE) on dry matter (DM) intake, in vivo nutrient digestibility and mineral concentrations in the blood and urine were conducted using 12 Boran steers. The steers were randomly assigned to three treatments consisting of untreated, urea treated and WAE treated rice straws in a completely randomised

G. H. Laswai; J. D. Mtamakaya; A. E. Kimambo; A. A. Aboud; P. W. Mtakwa



Biochemical analysis of some metabolites in urine and blood in persons exposed accidentally to a source of ¹⁹²Ir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven biochemical indicators (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, xanthurenic ; acid, creatine, creatinine, BETA -aminoisobutyric acid, taurine, 11-deoxy-17-; ketosteroid, total estrogens and Dische reaction-positive substance(s) in urine; ; 5-hydroxytryptamine in whole blood; and cortisol in blood plasma) of the ; radiation injury'' were analyzed in 6 cases which were accidentally exposed to a ; gamma ray source of ¹⁹²Ir. Among them, 4 indicators

W. Nakamura; K. Mizobuchi; F. Sawada; T. Kankura; S. Kobayashi



Bilirubin - urine  


Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...


Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  


The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L



Testosterone in human saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Testosterone has been detected in whole human saliva. Levels averaged (±SE) 295±36 and 195±25 pg\\/ml in adult males and females, respectively, and usually were undetectable in children. In adult males, the excretion of testosterone in saliva appeared to follow a circadian rhythm.

A. D. Landman; L. M. Sanford; B. E. Howland; C. Dawes; E. T. Pritchard



Comparison study of the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in human blood and urine  

SciTech Connect

Although exposure to DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl1)1,1,1,-trichloroethane) is not normally associated with fatality or chronic adverse effects to human life, it is a known hazard to the ecosystem. Blood levels of DDT and some of its derivatives have been used to assess extent of exposure or the body load of DDT in humans. In experimental studies, ingestion of DDT has been associated with reduced liver stores of vitamin A, and increased serum levels of vitamin A. The same study also revealed a significant correlation of vitamin A and DDE serum levels. Generally an increase in excreted 17-B-hydroxycortisone has been associated with DDT exposure. Increased excretion of 6-B-hydroxycortisol has been noted in workers who were involved in the formulation of DDT. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in humans. The indices which were compared are serum vitamin A and DDE levels and urinary 17-B-hydroxycortisol.

Nhachi, C.F.B.; Loewenson, R. (Univ. of Zimbabwe (South Africa))



Genomic Targets in Saliva  

PubMed Central

Saliva, the most accessible and noninvasive biofluid of our body, harbors a wide spectrum of biological analytes informative for clinical diagnostic applications. While proteomic constituents are a logical first choice as salivary diagnostic analytes, genomic targets have emerged as highly informative and discriminatory. This awareness, coupled with the ability to harness genomic information by high-throughput technology platforms such as genome-wide microarrays, ideally positions salivary genomic targets for exploring the value of saliva for detection of specific disease states and augmenting the diagnostic and discriminatory value of the saliva proteome for clinical applications. Buccal cells and saliva have been used as sources of genomic DNA for a variety of clinical and forensic applications. For discovery of disease targets in saliva, the recent realization that there is a transcriptome in saliva presented an additional target for oral diagnostics. All healthy subjects evaluated have approximately 3,000 different mRNA molecules in their saliva. Almost 200 of these salivary mRNAs are present in all subjects. Exploration of the clinical utility of the salivary transcriptome in oral cancer subjects shows that four salivary mRNAs (OAZ, SAT, IL8, and IL1b) collectively have a discriminatory power of 91% sensitivity and specificity for oral cancer detection. Data are also now in place to validate the presence of unique diagnostic panels of salivary mRNAs in subjects with Sjöogren's disease. PMID:17435127




A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and\\/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs.The samples were collected from a

Michael Scott-Ham; Fiona C. Burton



Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato



Chromatographic diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease by measuring the l-alloisoleucine\\/ l-phenylalanine ratio in dried blood spots  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance ligand-exchange chromatography with ultraviolet detection method for confirmation diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was developed that relies on the determination of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and Phe levels in blood. The dynamic ranges for the BCAAs and Phe were 50–1000?M (r2=0.9982–0.9996) and 74–873?M (r2=0.9992) from a dried blood spot, and the BCAA detection limits (S\\/N=3) were

Ji-Seon Jeong; Hee-Jung Sim; Yong-Moon Lee; Hye-Ran Yoon; Ha-Jeong Kwon; Seon-Pyo Hong



Saliva and Meningococcal Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 Neisseria meningitidis carriage was compared in swab specimens of nasopharynx, tonsils, and saliva taken from 258 students. We found a higher yield in nasopharyngeal than in tonsillar swabs (32% vs. 19%, p<0.001). Low preva- lence of carriage in saliva swabs (one swab (0.4%)) sug- gests that low levels of salivary contact are unlikely to transmit meningococci. I nvasive meningococcal

Hilary J. Orr; Steve J. Gray; Mary Macdonald; James M. Stuart


Measurement of saliva tacrolimus levels in pediatric renal transplant recipients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate whether a strong and clinically applicable correlation exists between saliva and\\u000a whole-blood tacrolimus levels measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A high degree of\\u000a correlation would potentially allow pain-free saliva sample collection to replace blood sampling for the measurement of tacrolimus\\u000a levels. Enrolled in the study were 37 children (24 boys)

Vladimir Belostotsky; Jo Adaway; Brian G. Keevil; Dena R. Cohen; Nicholas J. A. Webb



Development of a validated LC-MS/MS method for determination of doxofylline on rat dried blood spots and urine: application to pharmacokinetics.  


A rapid and highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of doxofylline on rat dried blood spots and urine was developed and validated. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reverse phase C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 ?m), using 20 mM ammonium acetate (pH adjusted to 3.5 with trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile (75:25 v/v) as a mobile phase at 25 °C. LC-MS detection was performed with selective ion monitoring using target ions at m/z 267 and m/z 195 for doxofylline and caffeine used as internal standard respectively. The calibration curve showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 1-5000 ng/mL. The effect of hematocrit on extraction of doxofylline from DBS was evaluated. The mean recoveries of doxofylline from DBS and urine were 93.46 and 89.86% respectively. The intra and inter-day precisions were less than 4.28% in DBS as well as urine. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.24 and 0.84 ng/mL in DBS and 0.28 and 1.00 ng/mL in urine samples respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of doxofylline in rats. PMID:23501441

Rao, R Nageswara; Prasad, K Guru; Naidu, Ch Gangu; Saida, Shaik; Agwane, Sachin B



Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.  


Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. PMID:23261382

Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W



Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.  


The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction. PMID:23912828

Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro



Enhancing the sensitivity of the LC-MS/MS detection of propofol in urine and blood by azo-coupling derivatization.  


Propofol is a low-polarity, volatile molecule that is difficult for an electrospray ion source (ESI) to ionize in either negative ion mode (NIM) or positive ion mode (PIM), which hampers its detection via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The aim of the present study was to use a new derivatization agent to improve ionization efficiency and to develop an efficient liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of propofol in urine and blood, taking advantage of an electrophilic aromatic substitution. An azo-coupling reaction with a diazonium salt from aniline was performed to introduce a protonation site into the molecule. The diazonium salt was generated by aniline in water solution by HCl and sodium nitrite; derivatization was achieved by stirring a mixture of the diazonium salt and propofol in sodium hydroxide solution for 30 min below 5 °C. A liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate was performed to obtain the azo derivative (molecular composition: C18H22ON2; molecular weight: 282 Da) in high yield. The compound provided very high ionization yields in both PIM and NIM ESI, and the protonated or deprotonated molecule gave intense signals. The transitions m/z 283???77, 241 and m/z 281???176, 161 were chosen for the PIM and NIM, respectively, in order to develop quantitative methods of detecting propofol in urine and blood via triple-quadrupole LC-MS/MS. These methods proved to be highly sensitive, with limits of quantification of 0.4 pg/mL and 0.1 ng/mL obtained in the NIM when analyzing 1 mL of urine and 100 ?L of blood, respectively. PMID:24414741

Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Busardò, Francesco P; Bertol, Elisabetta



Influence of replacement of chloride by sulphate upon urine excretion and glomerular filtration rate in blood perfused isolated dog kidneys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tubular reabsorption was inhibited in isolated dog kidneys by the progressive substitution of plasma chloride by sulphate. In the absence of antidiuretic hormone activity, urine output remained unchanged owing to an equivalent decrease in glomerular filtration rate. This equilibrium was demonstrated under conditions of “saline natriuresis” and was not disturbed by furosemide. Although the impairment of glomerular filtration rate was

A. Nizet; H. Thoumsin; J. Thoumsin-Moons; J. L. Collard



Duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects the recovery from a bout of ruminal acidosis: short-chain fatty acid and lactate absorption, saliva production, and blood metabolites.  


This study was conducted to determine if the duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, saliva production, and blood metabolites before, during, and following an induced bout of ruminal acidosis. Sixteen Angus heifers were assigned to 1 of 4 blocks and within block to 1 of 2 treatments designated as long adapted (LA) or short adapted (SA). Long adapted and SA heifers were fed a backgrounding diet [forage:concentrate (F:C) = 60:40] for 33 and 7 d, respectively, and then transitioned over 20 d to a high-grain diet (F:C = 9:91) with the timing of dietary transition staggered such that the LA and SA heifers were fed the high-grain diet for 34 and 8 d, respectively, before inducing ruminal acidosis. Ruminal acidosis was induced by restricting feed to 50% of DMI:BW for 24 h followed by an intraruminal infusion of ground barley at 10% DMI:BW. Heifers were then given their regular diet allocation 1 h after the intraruminal infusion. Data were collected during an 8 d baseline period (BASE), on the day of the acidosis challenge (CHAL), and during 2 consecutive 8 d recovery periods (REC1 and REC2). When pooled across periods, the fractional rates of propionate (42 vs. 34%/h; P = 0.045) and butyrate (45 vs. 36%/h; P = 0.019) absorption, measured using the isolated and washed reticulorumen technique, were greater for LA than SA heifers. Moreover, overall, LA heifers tended to have greater absolute rates of butyrate absorption (94 vs. 79 mmol/h; P = 0.087) and fractional rates of total SCFA absorption (37 vs. 32%/h; P = 0.100). Treatment × period interactions for lactate absorption (P = 0.024) and serum D-lactate concentration (P = 0.003) were detected with LA heifers having greater D-lactate concentrations during CHAL and greater fractional rates of lactate absorption during REC1 than SA. The absolute and fractional absorption of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased between REC1 and REC2, with intermediate values for BASE (P ? 0.05). Although fractional rates of SCFA absorption were low during REC1, saliva production (P = 0.018) increased between BASE and REC1, with intermediate values for REC2. These results suggest that the duration of time that animals are fed a high-grain diet may increase propionate, butyrate, and lactate absorption, and that cattle may decrease SCFA absorption and increase saliva production shortly after an acute bout of ruminal acidosis. PMID:24158368

Schwaiger, T; Beauchemin, K A; Penner, G B



Saliva as a diagnostic fluid. Literature review  

PubMed Central

There is a growing interest in diagnosis based on the analysis of saliva. This is a simple, non-invasive method of obtaining oral samples which is safe for both the health worker and the patient, not to mention allowing for simple and cost-efficient storage. The majority of studies use general saliva samples in their entirety, complex fluids containing both local and systemic sources and whose composition corresponds to that of the blood. General saliva contains a considerable amount of desquamated epithelial cells, microorganisms and remnants of food and drink; it is essential to cleanse and refine the saliva samples to remove any external elements. Immediate processing of the sample is recommended in order to avoid decomposition, where this is not possible, the sample may be stored at -80ºC. Salivary analysis – much the same as blood analysis – aims to identify diverse medication or indications of certain diseases while providing a relatively simple tool for both early diagnosis and monitoring various irregularities. The practicalities of salivary analysis have been studied in fields such as: viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases (like Sjögren’s syndrome and c?liac disease), endocrinopathies (such as Cushing’s syndrome), oncology (early diagnosis of breast, lung and stomach carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma), stress assessment, medication detection and forensic science among others. It is hoped that salivary analysis, with the help of current technological advances, will be valued much more highly in the near future. There still remain contradictory results with respect to analytic markers, which is why further studies into wider-ranging samples are fundamental to prove its viability. Key words:Saliva, biomarkers, early diagnosis. PMID:24558562

Mancheno-Franch, Aisha; Marzal-Gamarra, Cristina; Carlos-Fabuel, Laura



Trace metals in blood and urine of newborn/mother pairs, adolescents and adults of the Flemish population (2007-2011).  


The Flemish Centre for Environment and Health started with human biomonitoring in 2002 (FLEHS I: 2002-2006). The main goal of the second human biomonitoring cycle (FLEHS II: 2007-2011), was to determine mean values for a large number of pollutants in a representative sample of the general Flemish population. Values for Cd and Pb were updated, and a group of previously undetermined metals and metalloids (As, Mn, Cu and Tl) were included in some of the age groups. In this human biomonitoring program, three different age groups of the general Flemish population were monitored: 255 newborns and their mothers, 210 adolescents aged 14-15, and 204 adults between 20 and 40 years old. Trace elements were determined in cord blood and maternal blood of the mothers, in blood and urine of adolescents and in urine of adults. Determinants of life-style and personal factors were taken into account. The levels of trace elements in cord blood and maternal blood were for most elements at the lower end of the range found in literature. For Pb, As and Tl, a strong correlation (respectively r=0.43, 0.55 and 0.33; p<0.05) was found between levels in cord blood (respectively 8.6, 0.54 and 0.017 ?g/L) and maternal blood (11.1, 0.64 and 0.028 ?g/L), indicating that they are transported via the placenta from mother to fetus. The levels found in the adolescents and adults were compared with results from international biomonitoring studies, and were found to be in the same ranges. With the exception of Pb, all trace elements increased with increasing age group population. Finally, the results also showed that the levels of Cd and Pb in blood for this campaign (e.g. for Pb 8.6 and 14.8 ?g/L in neonates and adolescents respectively) were lower compared to the first campaign (e.g. for Pb 14.7 and 21.7 ?g/L in neonates and adolescents respectively), indicating a decrease over time. However, differences in sampling strategies might partially explain this observed trend. PMID:25041848

Baeyens, Willy; Vrijens, Jan; Gao, Yue; Croes, Kim; Schoeters, Greet; Den Hond, Elly; Sioen, Isabelle; Bruckers, Liesbeth; Nawrot, Tim; Nelen, Vera; Van Den Mieroop, Els; Morrens, Bert; Loots, Ilse; Van Larebeke, Nicolas; Leermakers, Martine



The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction, esterification and analysis using a precursor ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Specificity and sensitivity were improved by adding a small percentage of sodium octyl sulfate to the liquid matrix, which forms ion pairs with acylcarnitine esters. Acylglycines in urine were specifically detected as a group using a different precursor ion scan function. By forming methyl esters, metabolic profiles of both acylcarnitines and acylglycines were achieved in the same sample loading by application of alternating scan functions. Quantitative analysis of selected metabolites was achieved by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Amino acid profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l plasma and 25 [mu]l whole blood spots using butyl esters and a neutral loss scan function. The quantitative analysis of phenylalanine and tyrosine was achieved in these samples using stable isotope dilution. This capability will facilitate the diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other amino acidemias. These new methods have the requirements of speed, accuracy and capability for automation necessary for large-scale neonatal screening of inborn errors of matabolism.

Millington, David S.; Kodo, Naoki; Terada, Naoto; Roe, Diane; Chace, Donald H.



Preparation of selective and sensitive electrochemically treated pencil graphite electrodes for the determination of uric acid in urine and blood serum.  


In this study, the preparation of electrochemically treated pencil graphite (ETPG) electrodes in the mixture of lithium perchlorate and sodium carbonate solutions was investigated for the first time in the literature. The prepared ETPG electrodes showed high selectivity and sensitivity for uric acid (UA) oxidation over ascorbic acid and dopamine. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used as electrochemical method. The parameters affecting the UA oxidation were investigated. The optimal pH for UA oxidation was determined as 2. The adsorption of UA on ETPG surface reached saturation in 180s. The oxidation peak current values versus UA concentration at the ETPG electrode showed linearity in the range from 0.05 microM to 10.0 microM (R(2)=0.9962) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM (S/N=3). The oxidation peak of UA on the ETPG electrode did not show any significant change in the presence of certain interferents except bovine serum albumin. The prepared electrodes showed good fabrication reproducibility. The analytical applications of the prepared electrodes were tested by using human urine and blood serum samples. The recovery results of different amounts of UA in urine were varied between 98.6% and 106.4% implying no matrix effect. It was observed that the standard addition method was more satisfactory in the case of blood serum samples. PMID:20452760

Ozcan, Ali; Sahin, Yücel



Curated MicroRNAs in Urine and Blood Fail to Validate as Predictive Biomarkers for High-Risk Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if microRNA profiling of urine and plasma at radical prostatectomy can distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancer. Materials and Methods A panel of microRNAs was profiled in the plasma of 70 patients and the urine of 33 patients collected prior to radical prostatectomy. Expression of microRNAs was correlated to the clinical endpoints at a follow-up time of 3.9 years to identify microRNAs that may predict clinical response after radical prostatectomy. A machine learning approach was applied to test the predictive ability of all microRNAs profiled in urine, plasma, and a combination of both, and global performance assessed using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Validation of urinary expression of miRNAs was performed on a further independent cohort of 36 patients. Results The best predictor in plasma using eight miRs yielded only moderate predictive performance (AUC?=?0.62). The best predictor of high-risk disease was achieved using miR-16, miR-21 and miR-222 measured in urine (AUC?=?0.75). This combination of three microRNAs in urine was a better predictor of high-risk disease than any individual microRNA. Using a different methodology we found that this set of miRNAs was unable to predict high-volume, high-grade disease. Conclusions Our initial findings suggested that plasma and urinary profiling of microRNAs at radical prostatectomy may allow prognostication of prostate cancer behaviour. However we found that the microRNA expression signature failed to validate in an independent cohort of patients using a different platform for PCR. This highlights the need for independent validation patient cohorts and suggests that urinary microRNA signatures at radical prostatectomy may not be a robust way to predict the course of clinical disease after definitive treatment for prostate cancer. PMID:24705338

Sapre, Nikhil; Hong, Matthew K. H.; Macintyre, Geoff; Lewis, Heather; Kowalczyk, Adam; Costello, Anthony J.; Corcoran, Niall M.; Hovens, Christopher M.



Amylase - blood  


Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...


Saliva, diagnostics, and dentistry.  


Saliva, a scientific and clinical entity familiar to every oral health researcher and dental practitioner, has emerged as a translational and clinical commodity that has reached national visibility at the National Institutes of Health and the President's Office of Science and Technology. "Detecting dozens of diseases in a sample of saliva" was issued by President Obama as one of the 14 Grand Challenges for biomedical research in the 21(st) Century (National Economic Council, 2010). In addition, NIH's 2011 Government Performance Report Act (GPRA) listed 10 initiatives in the high-risk long-term category (Collins, 2011). The mandate is to determine the efficacy of using salivary diagnostics to monitor health and diagnose at least one systemic disease by 2013. The stage is set for the scientific community to capture these national and global opportunities to advance and substantiate the scientific foundation of salivary diagnostics to meet these goals. A specific calling is to the oral, dental, and craniofacial health community. Three areas will be highlighted in this paper: the concept of high-impact diagnostics, the role of dentists in diagnostics, and, finally, an infrastructure currently being developed in the United Kingdom--The UK Biobank--which will have an impact on the translational and clinical utilizations of saliva. PMID:21917745

Urdea, M S; Neuwald, P D; Greenberg, B L; Glick, M; Galloway, J; Williams, D; Wong, D T W



Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva  

SciTech Connect

The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. (Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey))



Urine Eggs  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: In spring, a young man's fancy turns to thoughts of urine-soaked eggs. You heard that right. Here in Dongyang, China, eggs boiled in the urine of 10-year-old boys are a considered a delicacy of spring. ...

Hacker, Randi



Biomarkers of oral exposure to 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) in blood and urine of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).  


The U.S. Department of Defense is using the chemicals 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1, 2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in new munitions development. In a screen for biomarkers of exposure, these compounds were measured in urine and blood of male rhesus monkeys after oral doses. NTO peaked at 4?h, with urinary concentrations at least 100-fold higher than that of blood or serum while 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a metabolite of DNAN, appeared in blood at concentrations 10- to 20-fold higher than the parent compound. For human exposure monitoring, urine is optimal for NTO while the metabolite DNP in blood is best for DNAN. PMID:24001308

Hoyt, Nathan; Brunell, Marla; Kroeck, Karl; Hable, Mike; Crouse, Lee; O'Neill, Art; Bannon, Desmond I



Gender Differences in the Validity of Testosterone Measured in Saliva by Immunoassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We rigorously evaluated gender differences in the measurement validity of salivary testosterone. Matched serum, saliva, and finger stick blood spot specimens were collected from 40 (20 males) young adults (aged 18–27 years). Saliva was assayed for testosterone by two independent (isotopic and non-isotopic) immunoassay methods. Serum was assayed by commercially available immunoassay kits for free and total testosterone. An immunoassay

Elizabeth A. Shirtcliff; Douglas A. Granger; Andrea Likos




EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pr...


Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs.  


The main advantage of collecting saliva cortisol as opposed to plasma cortisol is that it is non-invasive and therefore it is now widely used in stress measurement studies on farm animals and dogs. Although a plasma cortisol response to handling associated with blood collection generally occurs at 3 min from the commencement of handling, there is no information in the literature on the time course of the response of salivary cortisol concentration to handling. The aims of these experiments were to (1). determine if there is a response to up to 4 min handling that affects cortisol concentration in saliva and (2). determine the main causes of variation in saliva cortisol in dogs over time. In experiment 1, saliva was collected from six Kelpies at 0 min then 2, 3 or 4 min after the commencement of restraint. There was no handling effect found in up to 4 min sampling time. In experiment 2, saliva was collected from six Labrador Retrievers five times in 2 h (14:00-16:00), three days a week for four weeks. Some of the sources of variation in saliva cortisol over time included between dog variation that varied over a period of days and variation between occasions that affected the group of dogs as a whole. PMID:12893165

Kobelt, A J; Hemsworth, P H; Barnett, J L; Butler, K L



Serum markers of chronic dehydration are associated with saliva spinability.  


Findings of a relationship between saliva and dehydration have been observed, but the precise nature of these relationships is unclear and no evidence of a direct link has been found. In particular, no study reports a relationship between chronic dehydration and saliva conditions in community-dwelling older adults. This study aimed to identify whether salivary conditions are sensitive to body hydration markers in an elderly population. A total of 403 subjects aged 76 years participated in the study. Stimulated saliva flow rate and spinability of saliva were measured. In addition, determinations of serum levels of uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, sodium and potassium were made. Dehydration was defined as uric acid >/= 7 mg dL(-1) according to the standard value. The salivary spinability were significantly associated with the concentration of uric acid (OR=2.06, P=0.044) according to multiple logistic regression analysis. In addition, after adjusting for gender, the uric acid concentration and the salivary spinability was significantly associated with BUN, potassium and creatinine levels. The subjects with high uric acid levels (>/= 7 mg dL(-1)) had the most elastic saliva. Both BUN and serum creatinine are the most commonly used indicators of renal function. Therefore, our findings might demonstrate that older adults who are dehydrated showed highly elastic saliva, which was associated with renal function. In conclusion, this study suggests that there is a significant relationship between chronic dehydration status and salivary spinability level. PMID:17824885

Yoshihara, A; Hirotomi, T; Takano, N; Kondo, T; Hanada, N; Miyazaki, H




EPA Science Inventory

In New Zealand a species of oyster (Ostrea lutaria) consumed widely contains on an average 5 micro g Cd/g wet weight. In this study the cadmium intake and blood and urinary cadmium levels in a group of 78 people with a known high oyster consumption has been investigated. A second...


Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.



Urination Pain  


... Trouble "Down There" Getting a Urine Test (Video) Movie: Urinary System Quiz: Urinary System Your Kidneys Your ... site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and ...


Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)



Urination - painful  


... atrophic vaginitis ) Herpes infection in the genital area Irritation of the vaginal tissue caused by bubble bath, perfumes, or lotions Vulvovaginitis , such as yeast or other infections of the vulva and vagina Other causes of painful urination include: ...


Relationship of BK polyoma virus (BKV) in the urine with hemorrhagic cystitis and renal function in recipients of T Cell-depleted peripheral blood and cord blood stem cell transplantations.  


Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at significant risk for BK virus (BKV) reactivation, hemorrhagic cystitis (HC), and renal dysfunction. We prospectively monitored 98 patients who had received HSCT by serial BKV PCR in the urine through day (D) +100 to analyze the relationship between BK viruria and HC, serum creatinine (Cr), and creatinine clearance (CrCl) through D +180 or death. Patients, median age 52 years (range, 20 to 73), received T cell-depleted (50%) or cord blood allografts (21%). Median pre-HSCT BKV IgG titers were 1:10,240. Incremental increase in BKV IgG titers correlated with developing BK viruria ? 10(7) copies/mL. By D +100, 53 (54%) patients had BK viruria. BKV load in the urine increased at engraftment and persisted throughout D +100. HC developed in 10 patients (10%); 7 of 10 with BK viruria. In competing risk analyses, BK viruria ? 10(7) copies/mL, older age, cytomegalovirus reactivation, and foscarnet use were risk factors for HC. Cr and CrCl at 2, 3, and 6 months after HSCT were similar between patients with and without BK viruria. PMID:24769326

Lee, Yeon Joo; Zheng, Junting; Kolitsopoulos, Yovanna; Chung, Dick; Amigues, Isabelle; Son, Tammy; Choo, Kathleen; Hester, Jeff; Giralt, Sergio A; Glezerman, Ilya G; Jakubowski, Ann A; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A



Androstenedione rhythms in saliva in congenital adrenal hyperplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial samples of saliva were collected at home by 17 patients being treated for congenital adrenal hyperplasia to determine the circadian rhythm of androstenedione as an index of therapeutic control. Single samples of blood for measurement of plasma testosterone, 170H-progesterone, and androstenedione concentrations were collected from these and a further seven patients for comparison. Plasma androstenedione concentrations showed a close

M C Young; R F Walker; D Riad-Fahmy; I A Hughes



A study of blood and urine alcohol concentrations in cases of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault in the United Kingdom over a 3-year period.  


This paper details the alcohol concentrations found in a selection of 1,014 cases of claimed drug-facilitated sexual assault analysed at The Forensic Science Service, London Laboratory between January 2000 and December 2002. Where appropriate, either a whole blood sample and/or a urine sample was analysed for alcohol, common drugs of abuse and potentially stupefying drugs. The samples were collected from a complainant within 12 h of an alleged incident in 391 of the 1014 cases analysed. Of these, the majority (81%) contained alcohol. The presence of alcohol itself was not surprising as most of the alleged incidents were associated with social situations such as at a public house, bar, night-club or party, where it is expected that alcohol would have been consumed. However, 233 (60%) of the 391 cases had a high back-calculated figure, where high is defined as greater than 150 milligrams per 100 millilitres (150 mg%). Some of these samples were also found to contain illicit drugs. This is the first paper to our knowledge which discusses in detail the significance of the alcohol concentrations found in cases of this type. PMID:16356751

Scott-Ham, Michael; Burton, Fiona C



Highly sensitive and selective determination of pyrazinamide at poly-L-methionine/reduced graphene oxide modified electrode by differential pulse voltammetry in human blood plasma and urine samples.  


In this current study we used electrochemically active film which contains poly-L-methionine (PMET) and electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for pyrazinamide (PZM) detection. The electrocatalytic response of analyte at PMET/ERGO/GCE film was measured using both cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). In addition, electrochemical impedance studies revealed that the smaller R(ct) value observed at PMET/ERGO film modified GCE which authenticates its good conductivity and faster electron transfer rate. The prepared PMET/ERGO/GCE film exhibits excellent DPV response towards PZM and the reduction peak current increased linearly with respect to PZM concentration in the linear range between 0.4 ?M to 1129 ?M with a sensitivity of 0.266 ?A ?M(-1) cm(-2). Real sample studies were carried out in human blood plasma and urine samples, which offered good recovery and revealed the promising practicality of the sensor for PZM detection. The proposed sensor displayed a good selectivity, repeatability, sensitivity with appreciable consistency and good reproducibility. In addition, the proposed electrochemical sensor showed good results towards the commercial pharmaceutical PZM samples. PMID:24461828

Cheemalapati, Srikanth; Devadas, Balamurugan; Chen, Shen-Ming



Free amino acids in stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva: advantages or disadvantages.  


This study determines the mean concentrations of free amino acids in stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva in healthy young adults. Standardised salivary amino acids as a substitute for their counterpart in blood, searched for the source of free amino acids in saliva, the probable correlation between particular amino acids with caries experience. Stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva were collected by the draining method in 31 dental students. Saliva was purified, and amino acids were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. DMFT scores were recorded, and the relation of amino acids to caries experience was explored by generalised linear model. Almost all amino acids had higher concentration in unstimulated whole saliva than in stimulated saliva. The normal range of amino acids (95% CI) and their natural logarithm were defined. There was a significant relationship between caries experience and threonine (P < 0·008), citrulline (P < 0·023) and ornithine (P < 0·001) as a detrimental factor, whereas serin (P < 0·026), glutamine (P < 0·015) and phenylalanine (P < 0·014) had an inhibiting effect on caries. However, in comparison, salivary flow rate (P < 0·013) was a more preventive factor than amino acids. Amino acids in saliva contribute as a marker, instead of their counterpart in blood. Unstimulated saliva had higher concentration of amino acids. Amino acids have different impact on caries and may be one of underlying risk factors for caries experience. PMID:24931136

Masoudi Rad, H; Rabiei, M; Sobhani, A; Sadegh Khanjani, M; Rahbar Taramsar, M; Kazemnezhad Leili, E



Pink urine.  


Abstract A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P



Urine culture - catheterized specimen  


Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...


Study of a novel indolin-2-ketone compound Z24 induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-spectroscopy-based metabonomics of rat urine, blood plasma, and liver extracts  

SciTech Connect

Antiangiogenic compound has been believed to be an ideal drug in the current cancer biological therapy, but the angiogenesis inhibitors suffer setback for unknown toxicity now. A novel synthetic indolin-s-ketone small molecular compound, 3Z-3-[({sup 1} H-pyrrol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-1,3-2H-indol-2-one (Z24) can inhibit angiogenesis in new blood vessels. The hepatotoxicity effects of Z24 oral administration (dosed at 60, 130 and 200 mg/kg) have been investigated in female Wistar rats by using metabonomic analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine, plasma and liver extracts, as well as by clinical chemistry analysis, liver histopathology and electron micrographs examination. The {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the biofluids were analyzed visually and via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis. The metabonomic trajectory analysis on the time-related hepatotoxicity of Z24 was carried out based on the {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine samples, which were collected daily predose and postdose over an 8-day period. Urinary excretion of citrate, lactate, 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate increased following Z24 dosing. Increased plasma levels of lactate, TMAO and lipid were observed, with concomitant decrease in the level of glucose and phosphatidylcholine. Metabolic profiling on aqueous soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed an increase in lactate and glutamine, together with a decrease in glucose, glycogen and choline. On the other hand, studies on lipid soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed increased level in lipid triglycerides and decreased level in unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine. Moreover, the most notable effect of Z24 on the metabolism was the reduction in the urinary levels of creatinine and TMAO and the increase in acetate, citrate, succinate and 2-oxo-glutamate with time dependence. The results indicate that in rats Z24 inhibits mitochondrial function through altering the energy and lipid metabolism, which results in the accumulation of free fatty acids and lactate because of the lack of aerobic respiration. These data show that the metabonomic approach represents a promising new technology for the toxicological mechanism study.

Wang Quanjun [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Jiang Ying [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wu Chunqi [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhao Jianyu [National Center of Biomedical Analysis, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yu Shouzhong [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yuan Benli [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yan Xianzhong [National Center of Biomedical Analysis, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail:; Liao Mingyang [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail:



LC-ESI-MS\\/MS on an ion trap for the determination of LSD, iso LSD, nor LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxyLSD in blood, urine and vitreous humor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), its epimer iso-LSD, and its main metabolites nor-LSD and 2-oxo-3-hydroxy LSD in blood, urine, and, for the first time, vitreous humor samples. The method is based on liquid\\/liquid\\u000a extraction and liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry detection in an ion trap mass spectrometer, in positive ion\\u000a electrospray ionization

Donata Favretto; Giampietro Frison; Sergio Maietti; Santo Davide Ferrara



Reference intervals for orotic acid in urine, plasma and dried blood spot using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  


Orotic acid (OA), a marker of hereditary orotic aciduria, is usually used for the differential diagnosis of some hyperammonemic inherited defects of urea cycle and of basic amino acid transporters. This study was aimed to establish age related reference intervals of OA in urine, and for the first time in plasma, and dried blood spot (DBS) from 229 apparently healthy subjects aged from three days to 40 years. The quantification of OA was performed by a previously implemented method, using a stable isotope dilution with 1,3-[(15)N(2)]-orotic acid and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS). The method has proved to be sensitive and accurate for a quantitative analysis of OA also in DBS and plasma. According to previous studies, urinary OA levels (mmol/mol of creatinine) decrease significantly with age. The upper limits (as 99th %ile) were of 3.44 and 1.30 in groups aged from three days to 1 year (group 1) and from 1 year to 12 years (group 2), respectively; in teenagers (from 13 to 19 years; group 3) and adults (from 20 to 40 years; group 4) urinary levels became more stable and the upper limits were of 0.64 and 1.21, respectively. Furthermore, OA levels in DBS (?M) also resulted significantly higher in subjects of group 1 (upper limit of 0.89) than in subjects of groups 2, 3 and 4 (upper limits of 0.24, 0.21, and 0.29, respectively). OA levels in plasma (?M) were significantly lower in subjects of group 3 (upper limit of 0.30) than in subjects of groups 1, 2, and 4 (upper limits of 0.59, 0.48, and 0.77, respectively). This method was also employed for OA quantification in plasma and DBS of 17 newborns affected by urea cycle defects, resulting sensitive and specific enough to screen these disorders. PMID:22019295

D'Apolito, Oceania; Garofalo, Daniela; la Marca, Giancarlo; Dello Russo, Antonio; Corso, Gaetano





... mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. What Is Blood and What Does It Do? Two types of ... mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also called ...




... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...



EPA Science Inventory

Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...


Saliva assays in clinical and research biology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an update of the current knowledges about saliva components whose assays are of biological interest and have been validated. It begins by a recall of saliva physiology: role, flow rate, main components and their mode of entry into saliva. Infectious agents and their markers are not reviewed. Peptidic molecules (catecholamines, short hormonal peptides), lipids, minerals (Na, K,

G Lac



The proteome of human saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

Griffin, Timothy J.



Validation of an immunoassay to measure plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in human saliva  

PubMed Central

Introduction: We have previously shown that the concentrations of D-dimer are significantly elevated in saliva compared with plasma. Saliva offers several advantages compared with blood analysis. We hypothesised that human saliva contains plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and that the concentrations are not affected by the time of saliva collection. The aim was to adopt and validate an immunoassay to quantify PAI-1 concentrations in saliva and to determine whether saliva collection time has an influence in the measurement. Materials and methods: Two saliva samples (morning and afternoon) from the same day were collected from healthy subjects (N = 40) who have had no underlying heart conditions. A customized AlphaLISA® immunoassay (PerkinElmer®, MA, USA) was adopted and used to quantify PAI-1 concentrations. We validated the analytical performance of the customized immunoassay by calculating recovery of known amount of analyte spiked in saliva. Results: The recovery (95.03%), intra- (8.59%) and inter-assay (7.52%) variations were within the acceptable ranges. The median salivary PAI-1 concentrations were 394 pg/mL (interquartile ranges (IQR) 243.4–833.1 pg/mL) in the morning and 376 (129.1–615.4) pg/mL in the afternoon and the plasma concentration was 59,000 (24,000–110,000) pg/mL. Salivary PAI-1 did not correlate with plasma (P = 0.812). Conclusions: The adopted immunoassay produced acceptable assay sensitivity and specificity. The data demonstrated that saliva contains PAI-1 and that its concentration is not affected by the time of saliva collection. There is no correlation between salivary and plasma PAI-1 concentrations. Further studies are required to demonstrate the utility of salivary PAI-1 in CVD risk factor studies. PMID:24969919

Zhang, Xi; Dimeski, Goce; Punyadeera, Chamindie



Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva.  


Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira de; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena



Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

PubMed Central

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Goncalves; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira; Barcinski, Marcello Andre; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena



Quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA extracted from saliva for its use in forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Saliva has long been known for its diagnostic value in several diseases. It also has a potential to be used in forensic science. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the quantity and quality of DNA samples extracted from saliva with those extracted from blood in order to assess the feasibility of extracting sufficient DNA from saliva for its possible use in forensic identification. Materials and Methods: Blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 volunteers and DNA extraction was performed through Phenol Chloroform technique. The quantity and quality of isolated DNA was analyzed by spectrophotometery and the samples were then used to amplify short tandem repeat (STR) F13 using the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Mean quantity of DNA obtained in saliva was 48.4 ± 8.2 ?g/ml and in blood was 142.5 ± 45.9 ?g/ml. Purity of DNA obtained as assessed by the ratio of optical density 260/280, was found to be optimal in 45% salivary samples while remaining showed minor contamination. Despite this positive F13 STR amplification was achieved in 75% of salivary DNA samples. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that saliva may prove to be a useful source of DNA for forensic purpose. PMID:25125913

Khare, Parul; Raj, Vineet; Chandra, Shaleen; Agarwal, Suraksha



Urine drainage bags  


Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach to a catheter (tube) that is inside your bladder. You may have a catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary ...


Urine therapy through the centuries.  


Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy. PMID:21614793

Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido



Discriminative determination of alkyl methylphosphonates and methylphosphonate in blood plasma and urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after tert.-butyldimethylsilylation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for determining two nerve gas hydrolysis products, alkyl (ethyl, isopropyl and pinacolyl) methylphosphonates (RMPAs) and methylphosphonate (MPA), separately, in human plasma and urine samples was developed, using two different deproteinization procedures. In the first method, the plasma sample was deproteinized by adding a fourfold volume of acetonitrile, followed by passing the supernatant through a Bond Elut strong anion-exchange

Mieko Kataoka; Yasuo Seto



Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP  

SciTech Connect

The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 ?g/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ? After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ? Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

Kessler, Winfried, E-mail: [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Numtip, Wanwiwa [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany)] [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany); Csanády, György A. [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany) [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München (Germany); Pütz, Christian [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others



Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.



White Light Generation in Human Saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.



Toward Standardization of BK Virus Monitoring: Evaluation of the BK Virus R-gene Kit for Quantification of BK Viral Load in Urine, Whole-Blood, and Plasma Specimens.  


Screening of BK virus (BKV) replication is recommended to identify patients at increased risk of BKV-associated diseases. However, the heterogeneity of molecular techniques hinders the establishment of universal guidelines for BKV monitoring. Here we aimed to compare the performance of the CE-marked BK virus R-gene kit (R-gene) to the performance of our in-house assay for quantification of BKV DNA loads (BKVL). A 12-specimen panel from the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) organization, 163 urine samples, and 88 paired specimens of plasma and whole blood (WB) from transplant recipients were tested. Both the R-gene and in-house assays showed a good correlation within the QCMD panel (r = 0.995 and r = 0.989, respectively). BKVL were highly correlated between assays, although positive biases were observed with the in-house assay in analysis of urine (0.72 ± 0.83 log10 copies/ml), plasma (1.17 ± 0.63 log10 copies/ml), and WB (1.28 ± 0.37 log10 copies/ml). Recalibration with a common calibrator significantly reduced the bias in comparisons between assays. In contrast, BKVL was underestimated with the in-house PCR in eight samples containing BKV genotype II, presenting point mutations at primer-annealing sites. Using the R-gene assay, plasma and WB specimens were found to be equally suitable for quantification of BKVL, as indicated by the high correlation coefficient (r = 0.965, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the R-gene assay demonstrated reliable performance and higher accuracy than the in-house assay for quantification of BKVL in urine and blood specimens. Screening of BKV replication by a well-validated commercial kit may enable clinical laboratories to assess viral loads with greater reproducibility and precision. PMID:25297334

Sueur, Charlotte; Solis, Morgane; Meddeb, Mariam; Soulier, Eric; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Lepiller, Quentin; Freitag, Rachel; Bahram, Seiamak; Caillard, Sophie; Barth, Heidi; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Fafi-Kremer, Samira



Second-Tier Test for Quantification of Alloisoleucine and BranchedChain Amino Acids in Dried Blood Spots to Improve Newborn Screening for Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Newborn screening for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) relies on finding increased concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine by tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS). D-Alloisoleucine (allo- Ile)istheonlypathognomonicmarkerofMSUD,butit cannot be identified by existing screening methods be- causeitisnotdifferentiatedfromisobaricaminoacids. Furthermore, newborns receiving total parenteral nu- trition often have increased concentrations of BCAAs. To improve the specificity of newborn

Devin Oglesbee; Karen A. Sanders; Jean M. Lacey; Mark J. Magera; Bruno Casetta; Kevin A. Strauss; Silvia Tortorelli; Piero Rinaldo; Dietrich Matern


Determination of uric acid in human saliva by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection: potential application in fast diagnosis of gout.  


The clinical manifestations of gout result from the formation and deposition of uric acid (UA) crystals. The monitoring of UA level in less invasive biological samples such as saliva is suggested for diagnosis and therapy of gout, hyperuricemia and the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. In order to investigate the correlation between trace amounts of UA in human saliva and urine and explore the potential application in fast diagnosis of gout, capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (CE-ED) was applied for the determination of UA in human saliva and urine in this work. Under the optimum conditions, UA and three coexisting analytes could be well separated within 14 min at the separation voltage of 14 kV in 80 mmol L(-1) borax running buffer (pH 7.8). A good linear relationship was established between peak current and concentration of analytes over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) ranging from 1.09 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) for all analytes. This proposed method has been successfully applied for study of the correlation between the UA content of human saliva and urine, providing an alternative and convenient method for rapid diagnosis of gout. PMID:15700169

Guan, Yueqing; Chu, Qingcui; Ye, Jiannong



The ?-test: rapid cell-free CD4 enumeration using whole saliva.  


There is an urgent need for affordable CD4 enumeration to monitor HIV disease. CD4 enumeration is out of reach in resource-limited regions due to the time and temperature restrictions, technical sophistication, and cost of reagents, in particular monoclonal antibodies to measure CD4 on blood cells, the only currently acceptable method. A commonly used cost-saving and time-saving laboratory strategy is to calculate, rather than measure certain blood values. For example, LDL levels are calculated using the measured levels of total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides. Thus, identification of cell-free correlates that directly regulate the number of CD4(+) T cells could provide an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts due to the physiological relevance of the correlates. The number of stem cells that enter blood and are destined to become circulating CD4(+) T cells is determined by the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 due to their influence on locomotion. The process of stem cell locomotion into blood is additionally regulated by cell surface human leukocyte elastase (HLE(CS)) and the HLE(CS)-reactive active ?(1)proteinase inhibitor (?(1)PI, ?(1)antitrypsin, SerpinA1). In HIV-1 disease, ?(1)PI is inactivated due to disease processes. In the early asymptomatic categories of HIV-1 disease, active ?(1)PI was found to be below normal in 100% of untreated HIV-1 patients (median=12 ?M, and to achieve normal levels during the symptomatic categories. This pattern has been attributed to immune inactivation, not to insufficient synthesis, proteolytic inactivation, or oxygenation. We observed that in HIV-1 subjects with >220 CD4 cells/?l, CD4 counts were correlated with serum levels of active ?(1)PI (r(2)=0.93, p<0.0001, n=26) and inactive ?(1)PI (r(2)=0.91, p<0.0001, n=26). Administration of ?(1)PI to HIV-1 infected and uninfected subjects resulted in dramatic increases in CD4 counts suggesting ?(1)PI participates in regulating the number of CD4(+) T cells in blood. With stimulation, whole saliva contains sufficient serous exudate (plasma containing proteinaceous material that passes through blood vessel walls into saliva) to allow measurement of active ?(1)PI and the correlation of this measurement is evidence that it is an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts. Briefly, sialogogues such as chewing gum or citric acid stimulate the exudation of serum into whole mouth saliva. After stimulating serum exudation, the activity of serum ?(1)PI in saliva is measured by its capacity to inhibit elastase activity. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) is a readily available inexpensive source of elastase. PPE binds to ?(1)PI forming a one-to-one complex that prevents PPE from cleaving its specific substrates, one of which is the colorimetric peptide, succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Ala-p-nitroanilide (SA(3)NA). Incubating saliva with a saturating concentration of PPE for 10 min at room temperature allows the binding of PPE to all the active ?(1)PI in saliva. The resulting inhibition of PPE by active ?(1)PI can be measured by adding the PPE substrate SA(3)NA. (Figure 1). Although CD4 counts are measured in terms of blood volume (CD4 cells/?l), the concentration of ?(1)PI in saliva is related to the concentration of serum in saliva, not to volume of saliva since volume can vary considerably during the day and person to person. However, virtually all the protein in saliva is due to serum content, and the protein content of saliva is measurable. Thus, active ?(1)PI in saliva is calculated as a ratio to saliva protein content and is termed the ?(1)PI Index. Results presented herein demonstrate that the ?(1)PI Index provides an accurate and precise physiologic method for calculating CD4 counts. PMID:22644001

Bristow, Cynthia L; Babayeva, Mariya A; Modarresi, Rozbeh; McArthur, Carole P; Kumar, Santosh; Awasom, Charles; Ayuk, Leo; Njinda, Annette; Achu, Paul; Winston, Ronald



Monitoring the endogenous steroid profile disruption in urine and blood upon nandrolone administration: An efficient and innovative strategy to screen for nandrolone abuse in entire male horses.  


Nandrolone (17?-hydroxy-4-estren-3-one) is amongst the most misused endogenous steroid hormones in entire male horses. The detection of such a substance is challenging with regard to its endogenous presence. The current international threshold level for nandrolone misuse is based on the urinary concentration ratio of 5?-estrane-3?,17?-diol (EAD) to 5(10)-estrene-3?,17?-diol (EED). This ratio, however, can be influenced by a number of factors due to existing intra- and inter-variability standing, respectively, for the variation occurring in endogenous steroids concentration levels in a single subject and the variation in those same concentration levels observed between different subjects. Targeting an efficient detection of nandrolone misuse in entire male horses, an analytical strategy was set up in order to profile a group of endogenous steroids in nandrolone-treated and non-treated equines. Experiment plasma and urine samples were steadily collected over more than three months from a stallion administered with nandrolone laurate (1?mg/kg). Control plasma and urine samples were collected monthly from seven non-treated stallions over a one-year period. A large panel of steroids of interest (n?=?23) were extracted from equine urine and plasma samples using a C18 cartridge. Following a methanolysis step, liquid-liquid and solid-phase extractions purifications were performed before derivatization and analysis on gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for quantification. Statistical processing of the collected data permitted to establish statistical models capable of discriminating control samples from those collected during the three months following administration. Furthermore, these statistical models succeeded in predicting the compliance status of additional samples collected from racing horses. PMID:23949888

Kaabia, Z; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Popot, M A; Bailly-Chouriberry, L; Plou, P; Bonnaire, Y; Le Bizec, B



Direct Detection of Drugs of Abuse in Whole Hemolysed Postmortem Blood and Qualitative Measurement in EDTA - Plasma using the CEDIA DAU Urine Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direct and simple detection of a broad spectrum of drugs in whole hemolysed postmortem blood (Part A) and the possibility of qualitative measurement in serum and whole blood using the cloned enzyme donor immu- noassay technique (CEDIA) (Part B) is described. We measured the samples for the presence of amphetamines (AMP), barbiturates (BARB), benzodiazepines (BENZ), cannabinoids, cocaine, LSD, methadone

B. Kottenhahn; G. Drasch; G. Roider; B. Hofbauer


Identification of transgenic mice by PCR analysis of saliva.  


As an alternative to surgically obtaining samples (e.g., tail or tissue biopsy, toe dock, or blood sampling) from weanling mice to screen for transgene integration or other genetic monitoring procedures, we offer a simpler, nonsurgical method. A small amount of saliva, obtained from weanling mice by oral wash using a plastic pipet tip, contains enough oral epithelial cells and lymphocytes to yield sufficient DNA for nested primer polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The procedure can be repeated many times with minimal stress to the animal, in contrast to tissue biopsy procedures such as tail cutting. Sample analysis is rapid and straightforward; saliva is applied to sample collection paper and then purified using a solid phase DNA purification system. The paper, containing purified DNA, is added directly to PCR cocktail for the first round of amplification. For weanling mice, in the second round of amplification, a small amount of product from the first round is removed and added to PCR cocktail containing the second set of primers. With adult mice, an adequate volume of saliva may be obtained (dependent upon the sensitivity of the particular reaction) to eliminate the need for second-round amplification with nested primers. This technique is reliable, does not require organic solvents, and is more humane than protocols currently in use. Furthermore, this technique could replace hundreds of thousands of surgical biopsies on rodents annually, which are performed for both transgene determination and genetic monitoring procedures. PMID:9631068

Irwin, M H; Moffatt, R J; Pinkert, C A



Quantitation of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and cocaethylene in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  


Cocaine, a stimulant, is a commonly abused drug. Cocaine and its metabolites are measured in various biological specimens for clinical and forensic purposes. Urine or plasma or serum is spiked with deuterated internal standards cocaine-d3, benzoylecgonine-d3, ecgonine methyl ester-d3, and cocaethylene-d3 and buffered with phosphate buffer. The drugs in the sample are extracted by cation-exchange solid phase extraction. The drugs from the solid phase cartridge are eluted and the eluent is dried under the stream of nitrogen. The residue is incubated with pentafluoropropionic acid anhydride and pentafluoropropanol to form pentafluoropropionyl derivatives of ecgonine methyl ester and benzoylecgonine. Cocaine and cocaethylene are refractory to derivatization. The extract is dried, reconstituted in ethyl acetate, and injected into gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analyzer. Quantitation of the drugs in the samples is made, using selected ion monitoring, from a 3-point calibration curve. PMID:20077067

Fleming, Steven W; Dasgupta, Amitava; Garg, Uttam



Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers.

Malon, Radha S. P.; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Corcoles, Emma P.



Validation of the difference in urine and blood carbon dioxide tension during bicarbonate loading as an index of distal nephron acidification in experimental models of distal renal tubular acidosis.  

PubMed Central

Recent classifications of the several pathophysiologic types of distal renal tubular acidosis (secretory, voltage dependent, and gradient) have been based on the response of acidification parameters to a series of provocative maneuvers in vivo and in vitro. A reduction in the difference in urine and blood CO2 tension during bicarbonate loading (U-B pCO2 gradient), a widely applied parameter, has been employed as an index of reduced distal nephron proton secretion. This study was designed to test the validity of the U-B pCO2 gradient in a variety of experimental models of distal renal tubular acidosis by measuring and comparing disequilibrium pH (a direct technique to detect H+ secretion in situ) with the pCO2 in the papillary collecting duct of the rat in vivo during bicarbonate loading. Chronic amiloride, lithium chloride, and amphotericin-B administration, and the post-obstructed kidney models were employed. Amiloride resulted in an acidification defect which did not respond to sulfate infusion (urine pH = 6.15 +/- 0.08), and was associated with an obliteration of the acid disequilibrium pH (-0.26 +/- 0.05- -0.08 +/- 0.03) and reduction in papillary pCO2 (116.9 +/- 3.2 - 66.9 +/- 2.5 mmHg). The defect induced by lithium administration responded to Na2SO4 (urine pH = 5.21 +/- 0.06) but was similar to amiloride with respect to the observed reduction in disequilibrium pH (-0.04 +/- 0.02) and pCO2 (90.3 +/- 3.0 mmHg). The post-obstructed kidney model was characterized by an abnormally alkaline urine pH unresponsive to sulfate (6.59 +/- 0.06) and a reduction in disequilibrium pH (+0.02 +/- 0.06) and pCO2 (77.6 +/- 3.6 mmHg). Amphotericin-B resulted in a gradient defect as characterized by excretion of an acid urine after infusion of sodium sulfate (5.13 +/- 0.06). Unlike other models, however, amphotericin-B was associated with a significant acid disequilibrium pH (-0.11 +/- 0.05) and an appropriately elevated urine pCO2 (119.8 +/- 6.4 mmHg) which did not differ from the respective values in control rats. Thus, these findings support the use of the U-B pCO2 as a reliable means of demonstrating impaired distal nephron proton secretion in secretory and voltage-dependent forms of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) and supports the view that proton secretion is not impaired in gradient forms of distal RTA. PMID:3921566

DuBose, T D; Caflisch, C R



Getting a Urine Test  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Page The Pink Locker Society Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...


A feasibility study of the use of saliva as an alternative to leukocytes as a source of DNA for the study of Pt-DNA adducts in cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy.  


This note presents a comparison of the use of saliva versus leukocytes for the determination of Pt-DNA adducts obtained from patients undergoing platinum-based chemotherapy. Samples of both blood and saliva were taken pre- and post-treatment and were analysed via sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS) to determine the level of Pt-DNA adducts formed. As expected, significant inter-patient variability was seen; however, a lack of correlation between the levels of adducts observed in saliva and blood samples was also observed (Pearson correlation coefficient r?=?-0.2598). A high yield of DNA was obtained from saliva samples, but significant difficulties were experienced in obtaining patient adherence to the saliva sampling procedure. In both leukocyte and saliva samples, not only was Pt from previous chemotherapy cycles detected, but the rapid appearance of Pt in the DNA was noted in both sample types 1 h after treatment. PMID:25374124

Taylor, Sarah E; Wood, Joanna P; Thomas, Anne L; Jones, George D D; Reid, Helen J; Sharp, Barry L



The effects of saliva collection, handling and storage on salivary testosterone measurement.  


Several endocrine parameters commonly measured in plasma, such as steroid hormones, can be measured in the oral fluid. However, there are several technical aspects of saliva sampling and processing that can potentially bias the validity of salivary testosterone measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by repeated sampling; 5 min centrifugation (at 2000, 6000 or 10,000g); the stimulation of saliva flow by a cotton swab soaked in 2% citric acid touching the tongue; different storage times and conditions as well as the impact of blood contamination on salivary testosterone concentration measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Fresh, unprocessed, unstimulated saliva samples served as a control. Salivary testosterone concentrations were influenced neither by repeated sampling nor by stimulation of salivary flow. Testosterone levels determined in samples stored in various laboratory conditions for time periods up to 1 month did not differ in comparison with controls. For both genders, salivary testosterone levels were substantially reduced after centrifugation (men F=29.1; women F=56.17, p<0.0001). Blood contamination decreased salivary testosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner (men F=6.54, p<0.01, F=5.01, p<0.05). Salivary testosterone can be considered A robust and stable marker. However, saliva processing and blood leakage can introduce bias into measurements of salivary testosterone using ELISA. Our observations should be considered in studies focusing on salivary testosterone. PMID:24051109

Durdiaková, Jaroslava; Fábryová, Helena; Koborová, Ivana; Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter



A comparative study of diazepam levels in bone marrow versus serum, saliva and brain tissue.  


The distribution of diazepam in biological fluids and tissues of rats was examined 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after intraperitoneal administration by using a radioimmunoassay with specific anti-diazepam antibody. The diazepam levels in serum, saliva, brain and bone marrow decreased over a period of 2 h and levelled off 4 h after administration. The diazepam concentration in bone marrow was much higher than in serum, saliva and brain, suggesting an accumulation of diazepam in this tissue. This indicates that bone marrow could be a very useful material for the detection of diazepam in skeletonized remains. The diazepam concentrations in bone marrow, serum, saliva and brain showed a linear relationship (r = 0.860-0.997), indicating that a valid estimate of diazepam concentration in blood can be made from bone marrow samples. PMID:1931735

Takatori, T; Tomii, S; Terazawa, K; Nagao, M; Kanamori, M; Tomaru, Y



Acute One-Cigarette Smoking Decreases Ghrelin Hormone in Saliva: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Cigarette smoking is commonly associated with weight loss and mechanisms for these weight changes are still elusive. Ghrelin is a peptide hormone that works in a neuroendocrine fashion to stimulate hunger and the desire for food intake. Ghrelin is also secreted in saliva, probably to enhance food taste. In the current study, we tested the direct impact of acute cigarette smoking on total ghrelin found in saliva. Methods. Blood and saliva samples were collected from 30 healthy nonsmoker male volunteers before and after one-cigarette smoke. Total ghrelin in serum and saliva was measured by ELISA based method. Results. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in salivary ghrelin after smoking (P < 0.0001). In serum, total ghrelin levels were not affected before and after smoking (P = 0.1362). Additionally, positive correlation was observed between serum and salivary ghrelin before smoking (r = 0.4143 and P = 0.0158); however, this correlation was lost after smoking (r = 0.1147 and P = 0.5461). Conclusion. Acute one-cigarette smoking can negatively affect ghrelin levels in saliva that might contribute to the dull food taste in smokers. PMID:24808912

Kaabi, Yahia A.; Khalifa, Mohiealdeen A.



Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

Society, American C.



Urine pH test  


A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).


Heritability of urine and plasma amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Urine amylase activity was measured in 142 boys and girls including unrelated twin individuals, aged 12–16 years. Statistical analysis revealed different distribution in the group with positive protein or blood reaction. Log distribution in a homogeneous sample population was unimodal with a skewness (\\u000a

K. S. Park



The evaluation of the applicability of a high pH mobile phase in ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like hypnotics in urine and blood.  


A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and some metabolites (7-aminoflunitrazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, chlordiazepoxide, chlornordiazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, diazepam, ethylloflazepate, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, N-desmethylflunitrazepam, nitrazepam, N-methylclonazepam (internal standard), nordiazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge. Electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher retention and higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. Considering the benefits of a high pH mobile phase on both chromatography and mass spectrometry, its use should be encouraged. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 ?m, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). The optimized method was fully validated. PMID:22749457

Verplaetse, Ruth; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan



Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)



Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity  

E-print Network

Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity Alain Le Coupanec1 , Divya) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector

Boyer, Edmond



PubMed Central

The relationship between psychosocial factors and an increased risk for disease has been related to a heightened pro-inflammatory status reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or C-reactive protein (CRP). Routinely, epidemiological studies rely on measurements of inflammatory markers in serum or plasma, but the use of biological fluids such as saliva or oral mucosal transudate (OMT) may offer potential advantages. This study investigated correlations among plasma CRP and levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in plasma, saliva and OMT in a population of middle aged women with histories of past intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 67 women without existing chronic diseases participated in the study, which included two visits each in which psychological tests were administered, and blood, saliva and OMT samples were collected. Although significantly higher plasma CRP levels were found in past IPV sufferers compared to controls, there were no significant differences in IL-6 or sIL-6R levels in plasma, saliva or OMT between the two groups. There were only relatively modest correlations between IL-6 levels in plasma and those in saliva or OMT and between plasma IL-6 and CRP levels. A significant correlation between IL-6 and sIL6R levels in both saliva and OMT, but not in plasma, was also detected. No significant correlations were found between levels of IL-6 in saliva or OMT and periodontal health measures. Results indicate that IL-6 and sIL-6R levels in saliva or OMT do not closely reflect those in plasma, and therefore are not a good surrogate for systemic levels. PMID:20888902

Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J.; Burns, Vicki E.; Newton, Tamara L.



Gustatory adaptation to saliva and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human NaCl thesholds were measured under 2 conditions: (a) salivary influence excluded by rinse with distilled water or 1 of 3 weak concentrations of NaCl between stimulations, and (b) salivary influence maximized by using no rinse. Adaptation to distilled water yielded a median threshold for 4 Ss of .00014 M vs. .0043 M for adaptation to saliva. The latter value

Donald H. McBurney; Carl Pfaffmann



Saliva flow rate, amylase activity, and protein and electrolyte concentrations in saliva after acute alcohol consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of acute alcohol consumption on saliva secretion rate and selected salivary parameters in healthy nonalcoholic volunteers. Study Design: Twenty-four volunteers (37.7 ± 9.6 years, mean ± SD) consumed 0.6 g or 0.7 g alcohol\\/kg of body weight (for women and men, respectively) in a soft drink. Saliva samples were

Nina Enberg; Hannu Alho; Vuokko Loimaranta; Marianne Lenander-Lumikari



Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  


Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo



Long term treatment of moderate hypertension with penbutolol (Hoe 893d). I. Effects on blood pressure, pulse rate, catecholamines in blood and urine, plasma renin activity and urinary aldosterone under basal conditions and following exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of penbutolol (Hoe 893 d), a new non-selective beta-receptor blocking agent, were studied in 5 patients with moderate hypertension. Initially, it was shown that 2–4 mg given orally once or twice daily tended to lower blood pressure and pulse rate, both at rest and following submaximal work. In prolonged trials (3–8 months) 40–60 mg\\/day were required to produce

B.-G. Hansson; B. Hökfelt



Effects of heavy physical exercise and adaptogens on nitric oxide content in human saliva.  


Since heavy physical exercise increases the content of nitric oxide and cortisol in blood and saliva, standardized extracts of the adaptogen herbal drugs Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba roots were applied to several groups of athletes in a placebo controlled double blind study. In the beginning of a test with athletes Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of NO and cortisol in blood plasma and saliva similar to athletes with heavy physical exercise. These results correlate with an increased physical performance in athletes taking adaptogens versus athletes taking placebo. In contrast after treatment with the adaptogen heavy physical exercise does not increase salivary NO and cortisol in athletes, whereas athletes treated with placebo heavy physical exercise increased salivary NO. These results show that the salivary NO test can be used both for evaluation of physical loading and stress protective effect of an adaptogen. PMID:10228607

Panossian, A G; Oganessian, A S; Ambartsumian, M; Gabrielian, E S; Wagner, H; Wikman, G



Urination - difficulty with flow  


... also be caused by: Some medicines (such as remedies for colds and allergies, tricyclic antidepressants, some drugs ... the bladder sits. The heat relaxes muscles and aids urination. Massage or place light pressure over your ...


Frequent or urgent urination  


... use Anxiety Bladder cancer (not a common cause) Caffeine Enlarged prostate or infection of the prostate Interstitial ... pelvis Vaginitis Drinking too much before bedtime, especially caffeine or alcohol, can cause frequent urination at nighttime. ...


Urinating more at night  


... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...


Human saliva as a source of anti-malarial antibodies to examine population exposure to Plasmodium falciparum  

PubMed Central

Background Antibody responses to malaria antigens reflect exposure to parasites, and seroprevalence correlates with malaria transmission intensity. Antibodies are routinely measured in sera or on dried blood spots but a non-invasive method would provide extra utility in sampling general populations. Saliva is already in use in the detection of plasma-derived IgM and IgG to viral infections. In this study, antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite antigens were compared between blood and saliva samples from the same individuals in unlinked surveys conducted in Tanzania and The Gambia. Methods In Tanzania, 53 individuals provided paired fingerprick blood and saliva sample using two commercially available sampling devices. In the Gambia, archived plasma and saliva samples collected from 200 children in the Farafenni area in a cross-sectional survey were analyzed. IgG antibodies against P. falciparum antigens, Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP-119) and Apical membrane Antigen (AMA-1) were measured by ELISA in paired saliva and blood samples from both sites. Antibody levels were compared as continuous optical density (OD) values and by sero-positivity. Results Significant correlations between saliva and plasma antibody levels were seen in Tanzania for both antigens, AMA-1(r2 range 0.93 to 0.89, p < 0.001) and MSP-119 (r2 range 0.93 to 0.75, p < 0.001), with a weaker correlation for results from The Gambia (r2range 0.64 to 0.63, p < 0.01). When assessed as seropositivity and compared with plasma, sensitivity and specificity were good with saliva antibody levels to both AMA-1 and MSP-119 (sensitivity range 64-77% and specificity range 91-100% & 47-67% and 90-97% respectively) over the different sample sets. Conclusions These data demonstrate anti-malarial antibodies can be detected in saliva and correlate strongly with levels in plasma. This non-invasive relatively simple collection method will be potentially useful for general population surveys, and particularly in migratory populations or those with infrequent contact with health services or opposed to blood withdrawal. Further studies will be needed to optimize collection methods, standardize volumes and content and develop controls. PMID:21527045



Evaluation of the Murine Immune Response to Xenopsylla cheopis Flea Saliva and Its Effect on Transmission of Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Arthropod-borne pathogens are transmitted into a unique intradermal microenvironment that includes the saliva of their vectors. Immunomodulatory factors in the saliva can enhance infectivity; however, in some cases the immune response that develops to saliva from prior uninfected bites can inhibit infectivity. Most rodent reservoirs of Yersinia pestis experience fleabites regularly, but the effect this has on the dynamics of flea-borne transmission of plague has never been investigated. We examined the innate and acquired immune response of mice to bites of Xenopsylla cheopis and its effects on Y. pestis transmission and disease progression in both naïve mice and mice chronically exposed to flea bites. Methods/Principal Findings The immune response of C57BL/6 mice to uninfected flea bites was characterized by flow cytometry, histology, and antibody detection methods. In naïve mice, flea bites induced mild inflammation with limited recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the bite site. Infectivity and host response in naïve mice exposed to flea bites followed immediately by intradermal injection of Y. pestis did not differ from that of mice infected with Y. pestis without prior flea feeding. With prolonged exposure, an IgG1 antibody response primarily directed to the predominant component of flea saliva, a family of 36–45 kDa phosphatase-like proteins, occurred in both laboratory mice and wild rats naturally exposed to X. cheopis, but a hypersensitivity response never developed. The incidence and progression of terminal plague following challenge by infective blocked fleas were equivalent in naïve mice and mice sensitized to flea saliva by repeated exposure to flea bites over a 10-week period. Conclusions Unlike what is observed with many other blood-feeding arthropods, the murine immune response to X. cheopis saliva is mild and continued exposure to flea bites leads more to tolerance than to hypersensitivity. The immune response to flea saliva had no detectable effect on Y. pestis transmission or plague pathogenesis in mice. PMID:25255317

Bosio, Christopher F.; Viall, Austin K.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Gardner, Donald; Rood, Michael P.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph



Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulizer suspensions, aerosolized, size selected (100 to 450 nm) using a differential mobility analyzer, and collected onto gelatin filters. Uranine was used as a particle tracer. The resulting particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The amounts of infectious virus, total virus, and fluorescence in the collected samples were determined by infectivity assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and spectrofluorometry, respectively. For all nebulizer suspensions, the virus content generally followed a particle volume distribution rather than a number distribution. The survival of airborne MS2 was independent of particle size but was strongly affected by the type of nebulizer suspension. Human saliva was found to be much less protective than cell culture medium (i.e., 3% tryptic soy broth) and artificial saliva. These results indicate the need for caution when extrapolating laboratory results, which often use artificial nebulizer suspensions. To better assess the risk of airborne transmission of viral diseases in real-life situations, the use of natural suspensions such as saliva or respiratory mucus is recommended. PMID:24561592

Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Mor, Sunil K.; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y. H.



Rust Urine after Intense Hand Drumming Is Caused by Extracorpuscular Hemolysis  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives: During Carnival, groups of ?60 drummers go drumming with their hands and marching for periods of 2 to 4 h. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and type of urinary abnormalities after candombe drumming and to evaluate possible pathogenic mechanisms. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: For analysis of pathogenic mechanisms, a group of individuals were prospectively evaluated before and after candombe drumming. Methods: Candombe drummers were recruited in January 2006, 1 wk before prolonged drumming. After clinical evaluation, urine and blood samples were obtained before and immediately after drumming. Results: Forty-five healthy individuals (four women and 41 men), median age 31 yr (14 to 56), were evaluated. Predrumming urine and plasma samples were obtained for 30 individuals. Nineteen (42%) of 45 had a previous history of rust urine emission temporally related with candombe drumming. After drumming, 18 of 26 showed urine abnormalities; six of 26 showed rust urine, eight of 26 had microhematuria, and seven of 26 had proteinuria >1 g/L. The candombe drummers who showed rust urine after heavy drumming presented significantly higher levels of lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin when compared with those without urine abnormalities. Haptoglobin was significantly lower in the rust urine group. Fragmented red cells were observed in the blood smear of individuals with rust urine. Rust urine after drumming was associated with previous episodes of rust urine and glucosuria. Conclusions: Taken together, these data confirm that rust urine is caused by extracorpuscular hemolysis. PMID:18434617

Tobal, Diego; Olascoaga, Alicia; Moreira, Gabriela; Kurdian, Melania; Sanchez, Fernanda; Rosello, Maria; Alallon, Walter; Martinez, Francisco Gonzalez; Noboa, Oscar



Characterization of the differentiated antioxidant profile of human saliva.  


Saliva is armed with various defense mechanisms, such as the immunological and enzymatic defense systems. In addition, saliva has the ability to protect the mucosa against mechanical insults and to promote its healing via the activity of epidermal growth factor. However, another defense mechanism, the antioxidant system, exists in saliva and seems to be of paramount importance. The most interesting finding of the present study was the demonstration of the existence of much higher concentrations of the various salivary molecular and enzymatic antioxidant parameters in the parotid saliva compared with the submandibular/sublingual saliva. For example, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, uric acid, and total antioxidant status were higher in resting parotid saliva compared with resting submandibular/sublingual saliva by 2405, 235, 245, and 147%, respectively. Another important finding was the distinction between the salivary antioxidant system and the immunological and enzymatic protective systems, as represented by the salivary concentrations of secretory IgA and lysozyme, respectively. These findings suggest that the profound antioxidant capacity of saliva secreted from parotid glands is related either to the different physiological demands related to eating (parotid predominance), to oral integrity maintenance (submandibular/sublingual predominance), or to the high content of deleterious redox-active transitional metal ions present in parotid saliva. This also may signify that our oral cavity environment is only partially protected against oxidative stress during most of the day and night. PMID:11827752

Nagler, Rafael M; Klein, Ifat; Zarzhevsky, Nataly; Drigues, Noam; Reznick, Abraham Z



Ten-minute analysis of drugs and metabolites in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid analysis of drugs in emergency room overdose patients is critical to selecting appropriate medical care. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative to blood plasma analysis for this application. However, current clinical laboratory analysis methods involve extensive sample extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and typically require as much as one hour to perform. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable lab-on-a-chip format, and generally no more than a drop of sample is required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of microg/mL concentrations. Measurements of cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, and several barbiturates are presented.

Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart



Forensic body fluid identification: the Raman spectroscopic signature of saliva.  


The potential use of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci.,Int., 2008, 181, e1-e5). However, those experiments were performed using only one sample of each body fluid and did not investigate the potential for spectral variations among different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a single human saliva sample as well as among samples from multiple donors. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human saliva samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. Principal component analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry saliva is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The major chemical components known to be present in saliva were used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of saliva was also addressed. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry saliva in a quantitative way. The combination of these three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for saliva. This proof of concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be saliva during forensic analysis. PMID:20174703

Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K



Metabolic hormones in saliva: origins and functions  

PubMed Central

The salivary proteome consists of thousands of proteins, which include, among others, hormonal modulators of energy intake and output. Although the functions of this prominent category of hormones in whole body energy metabolism are well characterized, their functions in the oral cavity, whether as a salivary component, or when expressed in taste cells, are less studied and poorly understood. The respective receptors for the majority of salivary metabolic hormones have been also shown to be expressed in salivary glands, taste cells, or other cells in the oral mucosa. This review provides a comprehensive account of the gastrointestinal hormones, adipokines, and neuropeptides identified in saliva, salivary glands, or lingual epithelium, as well as their respective cognate receptors expressed in the oral cavity. Surprisingly, few functions are assigned to salivary metabolic hormones, and these functions are mostly associated with the modulation of taste perception. Because of the well-characterized correlation between impaired oral nutrient sensing and increased energy intake and body mass index, a conceptually provocative point of view is introduced, whereupon it is argued that targeted changes in the composition of saliva could affect whole body metabolism in response to the activation of cognate receptors expressed locally in the oral mucosa. PMID:22994880

Zolotukhin, S.



Multiple factor analysis of urine leaks after retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.  


Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is increasingly becoming a definitive therapeutic option for the treatment of small (less than 4 cm) and select moderate-sized (less than 7 cm) renal tumors. Postoperative hemorrhage and urine leak are the most pertinent complications after nephron-sparing surgery, open or laparoscopic. To our knowledge, the risk factors of urine leaks after retroperitoneal LPN have not been studied. We retrospectively analyzed our experience with retroperitoneal LPN to determine risk factors for postoperative urine leak complications. The records of 236 patients who underwent retroperitoneal LPN for renal tumor from March 2003 to October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Urine leak was strictly defined as continued urine output from the drain after postoperative day 2. In our series, 39 patients (16.5%) had urine leak complications. On multivariate analysis, mean estimated blood loss (p = 0.0120) and computed tomography angiogram (CTA) examination (p = 0.0286) were independent predictive factors of urine leaks. Moreover, the intraoperative blood loss was significantly reduced in patients undergoing CTA examination (p = 0.0375). Our investigation showed that factors such as intraoperative blood loss and CTA examination are predictors of urine leaks after retroperitoneal LPN. Less intraoperative blood loss to obtain a clear operative field and meticulous suturing technique are necessary to reduce urine leak probability. PMID:22004840

Wang, Ping; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo



Determination of uric acid in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with amperometric electrochemical detection.  


The aim of the present study is to establish a highly sensitive method for the determination of uric acid (UA) in human saliva. The monitoring of UA levels in less invasive biological samples such as saliva is suggested for the diagnosis and therapy of gout, hyperuricemia, and the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, and for detecting such conditions as alcohol dependence, obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, kidney disease, and heart disease. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) was employed for the determination of UA obtained by solid-phase extraction from saliva. To quantify UA, we compared the ED efficiencies of an amperometric ED (Ampero-ED) with a single electrode and a coulometric ED (Coulo-ED) with a multiple electrode array. The results showed that the detection limits (S/N=3) were 3 nM for Ampero-ED and 6 nM for Coulo-ED, and the linearity of the calibration curves of 60-6000 nM had correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. In addition, the total analytical time was 10 min. In the sample preparation of UA in saliva, an Oasis MAX solid-phase cartridge was used. The recoveries of UA spiked at 0.6 and 3 microM in saliva were above 95% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 15%. Therefore, the present method may be used in the routine and diagnostic determination of UA in human saliva. PMID:12535838

Inoue, Koichi; Namiki, Tatsuya; Iwasaki, Yusuke; Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki



Forensic identification of urine using the DMAC test: a method validation study.  


Forensic scientists may sometimes be asked to identify the presence of urine in cases such as harassment, rape or murder. One popular presumptive test method uses para-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC), favoured because it is simple, rapid and safe. This paper confirms that DMAC reacts with urea rather than creatinine, ammonia or uric acid. Sensitivity studies found that the 0.1% w/v DMAC solution currently used for urine identification detects levels of urea found in other body fluids, potentially resulting in false positives. A 0.05% w/v solution was found to be more appropriate in terms of sensitivity to urea however the test is still not specific for urine, giving positive reactions with a number of body fluids (saliva, semen, sweat and vaginal material) and other substances (foot lotion, hair removal cream and broccoli). PMID:22583500

Ong, Sandy Y; Wain, Adrian; Groombridge, Linda; Grimes, Eileen



Human saliva exposure modulates bone cell performance in vitro.  


Various situations encountered by a clinician during the daily routine including surgical periodontitis therapy, dental implant insertion, or tooth extraction involve the contact of saliva with the jaw bone. However, there are only sparse data concerning the influence of saliva on bone cells. Saliva specimens were incorporated within culture medium and administered to murine MC3T3 osteoblasts, of which the morphology (REM), proliferation (EZ4U), and differentiation (qRT-PCR, alkaline phosphatase activity, extracellular matrix calcification) were assessed. Simultaneously, the composition of saliva media was analyzed with respect to the content of lactoferrin, activities of classical salivary enzymes, and the ability to provoke inflammatory cytokine production (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) in MC3T3 osteoblasts. The morphology, proliferation, and expression of differentiation-associated genes were seriously handicapped by saliva contact. Saliva-touched cells exhibited less alkaline phosphatase but normal levels of extracellular matrix mineralization. Saliva-containing culture media featured physiological activities of salivary enzymes and considerable amounts of lactoferrin but almost completely lacked salivary alkaline phosphatase and unspecific proteases. Upon saliva incubation, MC3T3 osteoblasts did not release noteworthy levels of interleukin-1 beta or tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although saliva is generally considered to vitalize oral tissues, this study reveals that it harms osteoblast-like cells more due to the presence of salivary enzymes than by triggering of inflammation. This issue is clinically relevant because it broadens the understanding of the bone cell fate within the rather complex cosmos of the oral cavity thereby providing a basis for clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. It seems to be reasonable to restrict the contact period between saliva and bone. PMID:21246386

Proksch, Susanne; Steinberg, Thorsten; Keller, Constantin; Wolkewitz, Martin; Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad, Margit; Finkenzeller, Guenter; Hannig, Christian; Hellwig, Elmar; Al-Ahmad, Ali



Validity of extracellular water assessment with saliva samples using plasma as the reference biological fluid.  


Extracellular water (ECW) assessment is based on dilution techniques, commonly using blood sampling. However, plasma collection is an invasive procedure. We aimed to validate the use of saliva for ECW estimation by the bromide dilution technique using plasma as the reference method, in a sample of elite athletes. A total of 89 elite athletes with a mean age of 20.4 ± 4.4 years were evaluated. Baseline samples were collected before sodium bromide oral dose administration, and enriched samples were collected 3 h post-dose administration. The bromide concentration was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Comparison of means, concordance coefficient correlation (CCC), multiple regression and Bland-Altman analysis were performed. The ECW from saliva explained 91% of the variance in ECW by plasma with a standard error of estimation of 0.91 kg. The CCC between alternative and reference methods was 0.952. No significant trend was observed between the mean and difference of the methods, with limits of agreement ranging between -1.5 and 2.1 kg. These findings reveal that bromide dilution volume calculated from saliva samples is a valid noninvasive method for ECW assessment in elite athletes. PMID:22275182

Matias, Catarina N; Silva, Analiza M; Santos, Diana A; Gobbo, Luis A; Schoeller, Dale A; Sardinha, Luís B



Infection with dengue-2 virus alters proteins in naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission. PMID:24886023



Synergistic effect of cigarette smoke and saliva on lymphocytes--the mediatory role of volatile aldehydes and redox active iron and the possible implications for oral cancer.  


Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is most induced by exposure of the oral epithelial cells to tobacco products such as cigarette smoke. This exposure always occurs in the presence of saliva and presumably is induced by free radicals. To explore the effects of CS on cells in the presence of saliva, we used peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and exposed them to CS, alone or in the presence of saliva. We discovered that after 80min, exposure of the lymphocytes to CS alone resulted in a time-dependent cellular loss with a survival rate of 56%, while following lymphocyte exposure to CS in the presence of saliva, less than 15% of the cells survived. This was accompanied by concomitant accumulation of cellular protein carbonyls which could be protected by the exogenous addition of uric acid or glutathione, but not by the addition of ascorbate (Asc), N-acetyl-l-cystein (NAC) or desferal (DES). Exposure of the lymphocytes to aldehydes present in CS, such as acrolein and croton-aldehyde, also resulted in the elevation of protein carbonyls, which was ameliorated primarily by the addition of glutathione. However, lymphocyte exposure to acroline in the presence of saliva did not show the same synergism in cell death observed as when the lymphocytes were exposed to CS and saliva. Thus, we postulated the existence of another mechanism and examined the role of redox active iron as an additional explanation for this synergism. In fact, it was found that in the presence of saliva and ascorbate there was a marked decrease in the lymphocyte survival rate; this was reversed by the addition of the iron chelator desferal. In light of these results, a comprehensive mechanism for the induction of oral cancer by cigarette smoke is suggested, stressing the role of a pivotal player in the process leading to oral cancer which has never been previously considered in this regard - the saliva. PMID:15006635

Hasnis, Erez; Reznick, Abraham Z; Pollack, Shimon; Klein, Yfat; Nagler, Rafael M



Dissolution of stainless steel in artificial saliva.  


Dissolution of stainless steel type 304 in artificial saliva was studied by electrochemical methods, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atom absorption spectroscopy. The samples were polarized in the -400 mV (saturated calomel electrode) to -50 mV (saturated calomel electrode) range. The total thickness of the passive film was found to be 25 +/- 3 A, independent of the potential. The passive film consists of a duplex structure: an inner layer of (Cr0.5Fe0.5)2O3 and an outer layer of a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and (CrxFey)PO4.2H2O. The analysis indicated that 11 micrograms/cm2 of the alloying elements were dissolved during exposure for 1 year. PMID:9197105

Lakatos-Varsányi, M; Wegrelius, L; Olefjord, I



Microbial Community Profiling of Human Saliva Using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUSand BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

Hasan, Nur A.; Young, Brian A.; Minard-Smith, Angela T.; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M.; Faith, Seth A.; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.



Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques  

SciTech Connect

The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))



HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva  

PubMed Central

Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R.; Phelan, Joan A.; Norman, Robert G.; Fisch, Gene S.; Corby, Patricia M.; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J.; Kokaras, Alexis S.; Malamud, Daniel



Saliva viscosity as a potential risk factor for oral malodor.  


Abstract Objectives. The objective of this study was to assess whether saliva viscosity, measured by a viscometer, was a predictor of oral malodor. Materials and methods. The subjects were 617 patients who visited an oral malodor clinic. The organoleptic test (OT) was used for diagnosis of oral malodor. An oral examination assessed the numbers of teeth present and decayed teeth as well as the presence or absence of dentures. Further, periodontal pocket depths (PD), gingival bleeding, dental plaque and tongue coating were investigated. Unstimulated saliva were collected for 5 min. Saliva viscosity was measured with a viscometer. Logistic regression analysis with oral malodor status by OT as a dependent variable was performed. Possible confounders including age, gender, number of teeth present, number of decayed teeth, number of teeth with PD ? 4 mm, number of teeth with bleeding on probing, presence or absence of dentures, plaque index, area of tongue coating, saliva flow rate, saliva pH and saliva viscosity were used as independent variables. Results. Saliva viscosity (p = 0.047) along with the number of teeth with PD ?4 mm (p = 0.001), plaque index (p = 0.037) and area of tongue coating (p < 0.001) were significant variables for oral malodor. Subjects with a higher number of teeth with PD ? 4 mm (OR = 1.32), plaque index (OR = 2.13), area of tongue coating (OR = 3.17) and saliva viscosity (OR = 1.10) were more likely to have oral malodor compared to those with lower values. Conclusions. The results suggested that high saliva viscosity could be a potential risk factor for oral malodor. PMID:25115949

Ueno, Masayuki; Takeuchi, Susumu; Takehara, Sachiko; Kawaguchi, Yoko



Point-of-Care Microdevices for Blood Plasma Analysis in Viral Infectious Diseases.  


Each year, outbreaks of viral infections cause illness, disability, death, and economic loss. As learned from past incidents, the detrimental impact grows exponentially without effective quarantine. Therefore, rapid on-site detection and analysis are highly desired. In addition, for high-risk areas of viral contamination, close monitoring should be provided during the potential disease incubation period. As the epidemic progresses, a response protocol needs tobe rapidly implemented and the virus evolution fully tracked. For these scenarios, point-of-care microdevices can provide sensitive, accurate, rapid and low-cost analysis for a large population, especially in handling complex patient samples, such as blood, urine and saliva. Blood plasma can be considered as a mine of information containing sources and clues of biomarkers, including nucleic acids, immunoglobulin and other proteins, as well as pathogens for clinical diagnosis. However, blood plasma is also the most complicated body fluid. For targeted plasma biomarker detection or untargeted plasma biomarker discovery, the challenges can be as difficult as identifying a needle in a haystack. A useful platform must not only pursue single performance characteristics, but also excel at multiple performance parameters, such as speed, accuracy, sensitivity, selectivity, cost, portability, reliability, and user friendliness. Throughout the decades, tremendous progress has been made in point-of-care microdevices for viral infectious diseases. In this paper, we review fully integrated lab-on-chip systems for blood analysis of viral infectious disease. PMID:24879614

Yeh, Yin-Ting; Nisic, Merisa; Yu, Xu; Xia, Yiqiu; Zheng, Si-Yang



[Determination of zimarin in urine].  


Private technique of extraction isolation and purification, chromatographic detection and photometric determination of zimarin in urine is suggested. Detection limit is 0.01 mg, determination limit is 0.1 mg of glycoside in 100 ml of urine. Method makes it possible to detect 66-80% of zimarin added to 100 ml of urine in quantities 0.5-0.1 mg. PMID:2528227

Skorzova, Z B; Shniakina, G P



The rôle of saliva in maintaining oral health and as an aid to diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva is a complex secretion. 93% by volume is secreted by the major salivary glands and the remaining 7% by the minor glands. 99% of saliva is water and the other 1% is composed of organic and inorganic molecules. While the quantity of saliva is important, so is its quality. The components of saliva, its functions in maintaining oral health

Carmen Llena Puy


The intra-oral distribution of unstimulated and chewing-gum-stimulated parotid saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to determine the percentage contribution of parotid saliva to whole saliva and to the saliva at 11 sites in the mouth, when flow rate was unstimulated or stimulated with chewing-gum. The marker substance used was a-amylase, as this is in much higher concentration in parotid saliva than in secretions from other salivary glands. Formulae were derived for

R. Sas; C. Dawes



Metals in Urine and Peripheral Arterial Disease  

PubMed Central

Exposure to metals may promote atherosclerosis. Blood cadmium and lead were associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the 1999–2000 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary levels of cadmium, lead, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, and tungsten with PAD in a cross-sectional analysis of 790 participants ?40 years of age in NHANES 1999–2000. PAD was defined as a blood pressure ankle brachial index < 0.9 in at least one leg. Metals were measured in casual (spot) urine specimens by inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry. After multivariable adjustment, subjects with PAD had 36% higher levels of cadmium in urine and 49% higher levels of tungsten compared with noncases. The adjusted odds ratio for PAD comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of the cadmium distribution was 3.05 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97 to 9.58]; that for tungsten was 2.25 (95% CI, 0.97 to 5.24). PAD risk increased sharply at low levels of antimony and remained elevated beyond 0.1 ?g/L. PAD was not associated with other metals. In conclusion, urinary cadmium, tungsten, and possibly antimony were associated with PAD in a representative sample of the U.S. population. For cadmium, these results strengthen previous findings using blood cadmium as a biomarker, and they support its role in atherosclerosis. For tungsten and antimony, these results need to be interpreted cautiously in the context of an exploratory analysis but deserve further study. Other metals in urine were not associated with PAD at the levels found in the general population. PMID:15687053

Navas-Acien, Ana; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Calderon-Aranda, Emma; Selvin, Elizabeth; Guallar, Eliseo



The isomeric metabolites of doxepin in equine serum and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its tranquilizing properties, the tricyclic antidepressant doxepin may be misused as a doping agent in competition horses. Therefore, efficient analytical procedures are required to detect this drug in samples submitted for doping control. To screen for parent doxepin in equine blood and urine, a less specific method has been accepted employing gas chromatography (GC) combined with electron impact

Heinz-Werner Hagedorn; Heribert Meiser; Heidrun Zankl; Rüdiger Schulz



Exchange transfusion in acute episodes of maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two neonates with maple syrup urine disease were treated by exchange transfusion. Within 15 h blood leucine and KICA concentrations were lowered from 2.6 mM to 1.1 mM using 570 to 620 ml blood per kg body weight. The other branched-chain amino acid\\/keto acid pairs fell to normal. During exchange transfusion the patient's nitrogen balance seems to be negative. Further

U. Wendel; U. Langenbeck; I. Lombeck; H. J. Bremer



Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W



Leucine aminopeptidase - urine  


... container when you get up in the morning. Cap the container. Keep it in the refrigerator or ... reduced blood flow to the liver) Liver necrosis (death of live tissue) Liver tumor Pregnancy (late stage)


Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva of patients with active infection not associated with periodontal or liver disease severity  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mainly transmitted by parenteral route, being blood transfusion and intravenous drug use the most frequent risk factors. However, it has been suggested that there are other routes of transmission. There are several studies where HCV RNA has been detected in saliva of patients infected with HCV, and epidemiological studies have proposed the dental treatments as possible risk factors for HCV transmission. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of HCV RNA in saliva of patients with active infection and associating with periodontal or liver disease. Methods Patients with quantifiable HCV-RNA in serum were enrolled in the study. Periodontal disease was assessed using the modified gingival index (MGI). Presence of dental plaque was assessed with the use of disclosing tablets. Patients were clinically and laboratory evaluated to identify the stage of liver disease, the HCV RNA was determinate in saliva by nested RT-PCR. To determine associations between different parameters univariate and multivariate analysis were used. Results A total of 45 patients were included. Of these patients, 21 (46.6%) had hepatitis, 23 (51.1%) had cirrhosis and one patient (2.4%) presented hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Viral loads in serum ranged from 2.31–6.68 log IU/ml with a mean of 5.46 log IU/ml (95% CI 5.23–5.70). HCV RNA was positive in saliva of 29 patients (64.4%) and was not detected in 16 (35.6%). For univariate analysis three independent variables were associated with the detection of HCV-RNA in saliva: gender, viral load and dental plaque and multivariate analysis only one independent variable viral load >5.17 log IU/mL remained significantly associated with the detection of HCV in saliva (p?=?0.0002). A statistical difference was observed when viral load was analyzed, log 5.85 IU/mL (95% CI 5.67–6.02) for patients with HCV in saliva vs. log 4.77 IU/mL (95% CI 4.35–5.19) for patients without HCV in saliva (p?=?0.0001). The detection of HCV-RNA in saliva was more frequent in patients with relatively high serum viral loads. Conclusion HCV-RNA in saliva was associated with the level of serum viral load but not with periodontal or liver disease severity. PMID:24512371



Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.



Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50 male) with age range of 15 -17 years were randomly selected, divided to four groups. Unstimulated whole saliva specimens were collected at the morning. TAC of saliva was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student’s t-test, by SPSS 13. Results: The level of TAC was significantly higher in the saliva of caries active group relative to the caries free subjects. Statistical analysis for male and female groups showed a statistically significant reduction of TAC level in female group. Conclusion: TAC was higher in caries active group. Thus this result showed that total antioxidant capacity may influence in dental caries and activity can be measured by salivary factors and this may be helpful in preventive dentistry. Key words:Dental caries, saliva, total antioxidant capacity. PMID:23524431

Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Hendi, Seyedeh S.; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas



Maple syrup urine disease-therapeutic use of insulin in catabolic states  

Microsoft Academic Search

High and neurotoxic blood levels of leucine and its ketoanalogue develop in catabolic patients with maple syrup urine disease. The use of relatively high doses of insulin and additional glucose had a more pronounced effect on lowering leucine (and a-ketoisocaproate) blood levels than dietary elimination of leucine alone. This is demonstrated in 2 neonates after blood exchange transfusion and in

U. Wendel; U. Langenbeck; Ingrid Lombeck; H. J. Bremer



Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes  

PubMed Central

The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential that each fluid provides. To create a more comprehensive catalog of human salivary proteins, we have first compiled an extensive list of proteins from whole saliva (WS) identified through MS experiments. The WS list is thereafter combined with the proteins identified from the ductal parotid, and submandibular and sublingual (parotid/SMSL) salivas. In parallel, a core dataset of the human plasma proteome with 3020 protein identifications was recently released. A total of 1939 nonredundant salivary proteins were compiled from a total of 19 474 unique peptide sequences identified from whole and ductal salivas; 740 out of the total 1939 salivary proteins were identified in both whole and ductal saliva. A total of 597 of the salivary proteins have been observed in plasma. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed similarities in the distributions of the saliva and plasma proteomes with regard to cellular localization, biological processes, and molecular function, but revealed differences which may be related to the different physiological functions of saliva and plasma. The comprehensive catalog of the salivary proteome and its comparison to the plasma proteome provides insights useful for future study, such as exploration of potential biomarkers for disease diagnostics. PMID:19898684

Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M.; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Cargile, Benjamin J.; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J.; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E.; Lee, Cheng S.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Menon, Rajasree; Mueller, Michael; Qiao, Renli; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Sevinsky, Joel R.; States, David; Stephenson, James L.; Than, Shawn; Yates, John R.; Yu, Weixia; Xie, Hongwei; Xie, Yongming; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Loo, Joseph A.; Wong, David T.



Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah



Catecholamines, Plasma and Urine Test  


... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Dopamine; Epinephrine; Norepinephrine; Free Urine Catecholamines; Fractionated Catecholamines Formal ... top of each kidney. The primary catecholamines are dopamine, epinephrine (adrenaline), and norepinephrine. Catecholamine testing measures the ...


Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich


Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics  

PubMed Central

At present, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics typically provide a binary indication of health status (e.g., home pregnancy test strip). Before anticipatory use of diagnostics for assessment of complex diseases becomes widespread, development of sophisticated bioassays capable of quantitatively measuring disease biomarkers is necessary. Successful translation of new bioassays into clinical settings demands the ability to monitor both the onset and progression of disease. Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument. Our microfluidic method facilitates hands-free saliva analysis by integrating sample pretreatment (filtering, enrichment, mixing) with electrophoretic immunoassays to quickly measure analyte concentrations in minimally pretreated saliva samples. Using 20 ?l of saliva, we demonstrate rapid (<10 min) measurement of the collagen-cleaving enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in saliva from healthy and periodontally diseased subjects. In addition to physiologically measurable indicators of periodontal disease, conventional measurements of salivary MMP-8 were used to validate the microfluidic assays described in this proof-of-principle study. The microchip-based POC diagnostic demonstrated is applicable to rapid, reliable measurement of proteinaceous disease biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:17374724

Herr, Amy E.; Hatch, Anson V.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Tran, Huu M.; Brennan, James S.; Giannobile, William V.; Singh, Anup K.



Elemental ion release from fixed restorative materials into patient saliva.  


The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the elemental ion release from the fixed gold alloy and ceramic crowns into patient saliva. Twenty patients who participated in the study were divided into two equal groups; 1) full coverage type IV gold crowns and 2) full coverage CAD-CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns. Saliva collection and clinical evaluation of marginal integrity and gingival health were performed before crowns preparation, 3 months and 6 months after crowns placement. Clinical evaluations were conducted using California Dental Association criteria. Collected saliva samples were analysed for element release using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The zinc, copper, palladium, gold and silver were released from type IV gold crowns into saliva, while the silicon and aluminium were released from ceramic crowns. A clinically significant number of subjects had increased release of zinc from baseline to three-month recall and increased silicon release from baseline to both three-month and six-month recalls. For all elements, the subjects' counts for the case of three-month recall to six-month recall were never higher than that of the case of baseline to three-month recall except for palladium. No obvious adverse effects on marginal integrity or gingival health were noticed. Significant increased releases of zinc from cast gold crowns and silicon from CAD-CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns into the saliva were evident after 3 months of clinical service. PMID:23438065

Elshahawy, W; Ajlouni, R; James, W; Abdellatif, H; Watanabe, I



Streptococcus pneumoniae in Saliva of Dutch Primary School Children  

PubMed Central

While nasopharyngeal sampling is the gold standard for the detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, historically seen, saliva sampling also seems highly sensitive for pneumococcal detection. We investigated S. pneumoniae carriage in saliva from fifty schoolchildren by conventional and molecular methods. Saliva was first culture-enriched for pneumococci, after which, DNA was extracted from all bacterial growth and tested by quantitative-PCR (qPCR) for pneumococcus-specific genes lytA and piaA. Next, serotype composition of the samples was determined by serotype-specific qPCRs, conventional-PCRs (cPCR) and sequencing of cPCR amplicons. Although only 2 (4%) of 50 samples were positive by conventional diagnostic culture, 44 (88%) were positive for pneumococci by qPCR. In total, we detected the presence of at least 81 pneumococcal strains representing 20 serotypes in samples from 44 carriers with 23 carriers (52%) positive for multiple (up to 6) serotypes. The number of serotypes detected per sample correlated with pneumococcal abundance. This study shows that saliva could be used as a tool for future pneumococcal surveillance studies. Furthermore, high rates of pneumococcal carriage and co-carriage of multiple pneumococcal strains together with a large number of serotypes in circulation suggests a ubiquitous presence of S. pneumoniae in saliva of school-aged children. Our results also suggest that factors promoting pneumococcal carriage within individual hosts may weaken competitive interactions between S. pneumoniae strains. PMID:25013895

Wyllie, Anne L.; Chu, Mei Ling J. N.; Schellens, Marielle H. B.; van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Jody; Jansen, Marc D.; van der Ende, Arie; Bogaert, Debby; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Trzcinski, Krzysztof



A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.



Determination of adenine nucleotides and their metabolites in human saliva.  


The profile and normal concentrations of nucleotide metabolites in human saliva and reproducibility of these determinations were analyzed. Samples of human saliva collected from healthy individuals at weekly intervals, were deproteinized and analysed for the content of adenine nucleotides and their metabolites by reversed-phase HPLC. Initial ATP, hypoxanthine and uric acid concentrations were 0.52 +/- 0.15 microM, 1.91 +/- 0.37 microM and 184 +/- 22 microM respectively. A substantial individual variation persisted within 3 weeks of sampling excepted hypoxanthine which showed some unrelated variations. Determination of nucleotides and their catabolites in saliva due to its simplicity and reproducibility, may be of clinical value in diagnosis of local or systemic disorders. PMID:11310987

Kocha?ska, B; Smole?ski, R T; Knap, N



Confirmation of LSD intoxication by analysis of serum and urine.  


Serum and urine specimens of 31 patients with suspected lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) intoxication were analyzed for LSD by both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The RIA assay, using 0.1 ng/mL as the limit of detection instead of the manufacturer's recommendation of 0.5 ng/mL, was positive for LSD in 13 blood and urine specimens from 14 patients. Results were compared to HPLC analysis using methysergide instead of lysergol as the internal standard and a limit of detection of 0.5 ng/mL. HPLC detected LSD in 9 of 13 serum specimens and 11 of 13 urine specimens that had tested positive by RIA. Of 18 patients with a final clinical diagnosis of LSD intoxication, LSD was detected by RIA in 14 patients and by HPLC in 11 patients. For 13 other cases in which the final diagnosis was a condition other than LSD intoxication, serum and urine assays for LSD were negative in all cases by both techniques. LSD assays have not been generally available in clinical laboratories. We conclude that the qualitative determination of LSD in either serum or urine by a commercially available radioimmunoassay has made it possible to provide reliable laboratory confirmation of LSD intoxication. PMID:2374406

McCarron, M M; Walberg, C B; Baselt, R C



Electrochemical behaviour of titanium alloys in artificial saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Titanium alloys are used i n odontology applications owing to their excellent biocompatibility. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys is an important component of their biocompatibility. In this study, the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V, Ti6Al7Nb, Ti6Al2Nb1Ta1Mo, Ti5Al2,5Fe and commercial titanium in Afnor saliva was in- vestigated. Maintaining titanium and Ti6Al7Nb alloy in Afnor saliva for 7 days results in

Daniel Mareci; Catalin Bocanu; Gheorhe Nemtoi; Delia Aelenei



Lectin-Like Constituents of Foods Which React with Components of Serum, Saliva, and Streptococcus mutans  

PubMed Central

Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that many foods contain lectins which can interact with components of human saliva and S. mutans cells. Because of their potential to influence host-parasite interactions in the mouth and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal canal, these reactions warrant further study. Images PMID:6786220

Gibbons, R. J.; Dankers, I.



Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both techniques provide information predominantly on the low molecular weight proteome (<15 kDa). There have been several reports that colorectal cancer is associated with changes in the serum proteome that are detectable by SELDI and we hypothesised that proteomic changes would also be detectable in urine. Results We collected urine from 67 patients with colorectal cancer and 72 non-cancer control subjects, diluted to a constant protein concentration and generated MALDI and SELDI spectra. The intensities of 19 peaks differed significantly between cancer and non-cancer patients by both t-tests and after adjusting for confounders using multiple linear regressions. Logistic regression classifiers based on peak intensities identified colorectal cancer with up to 78% sensitivity at 87% specificity. We identified and independently quantified 3 of the discriminatory peaks using synthetic stable isotope peptides (an 1885 Da fragment of fibrinogen and hepcidin-20) or ELISA (?2-microglobulin). Conclusion Changes in the urine proteome may aid in the early detection of colorectal cancer. PMID:18558005

Ward, Douglas G; Nyangoma, Stephen; Joy, Howard; Hamilton, Emma; Wei, Wenbin; Tselepis, Chris; Steven, Neil; Wakelam, Michael JO; Johnson, Philip J; Ismail, Tariq; Martin, Ashley



Quality of Measurement of Smoking Status by Self-Report and Saliva Cotinine Among Pregnant Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. The objectives of this paper were to determine the rate of misclassification of smoking and nonsmoking status by self-reports and saliva cotinine of pregnant women participating in a smoking cessation trial, determine the relationship of the number of cigarettes smoked per day and saliva cotinine, and examine whether misclassification was due to an inappropriate saliva cotinine cutoff point. Methods.

Neal Richard Boyd; Richard A. Windsor; Laura L. Perkins; John B. Lowe



DPC Coat-A-Count Total Testosterone modified protocol for saliva (male & female)  

E-print Network

DPC Coat-A-Count Total Testosterone modified protocol for saliva (male & female) Adapted from for use of DPC Coat-A-Count total testosterone assay with saliva. Clin. Biochem. 32(1), 83-85. 1. Bring by spiking charcoal-stripped saliva with suitable amounts of testosterone.) 4. (a) Add 400 :l of the diluted

Michigan, University of


Purification of a serine protease and evidence for a protein C activator from the saliva of the tick, Ixodes scapularis.  


The saliva of ticks is critical to their survival as parasites and hematophagous animals. In this study, we have purified an enzyme with trypsin-like activity from the saliva of the tick vector of Lyme Disease, Ixodes scapularis. This enzyme, named as IXOSP (I. scapularis salivary serine protease), is a 29.9 kDa molecule with N-terminus FPxMVxLRIKxR. A BLAST search identified IXOSP as a secreted serine protease (AAY66740) with a conserved catalytic triad His, Asp, and Ser. In vitro studies demonstrated that IXOSP cleaves chromogenic substrates with arginine in the P1 position, by a mechanism inhibited by PMSF or aprotinin. Gene expression studies revealed that IXOSP is expressed at different tick developmental stages, including eggs, and unfed or fed adult tick salivary glands, but not in nymphs or in the midgut. While the physiological substrate for IXOSP remains to be identified, we demonstrated that I. scapularis saliva activate protein C (PC) resulting in the production of activated PC, a potent anticoagulant that also regulates a myriad of inflammatory responses through protease activated receptors. In contrast, the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Phlebotomus ariasi did not activate protein C. These discoveries are discussed in the context of blood coagulation, inflammation and vector-host interactions. PMID:24184517

Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Ribeiro, José M C; Mather, Thomas N; Francischetti, Ivo M B



Risk assessment of welders using analysis of eight metals by ICP-MS in blood and urine and DNA damage evaluation by the comet and micronucleus assays; influence of XRCC1 and XRCC3 polymorphisms.  


The aims of the present study were to assess the occupational risk of welders using analysis of metals in biological fluids, DNA damage evaluation by complementary genotoxic endpoints and the incidence of polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. A biomonitoring study was conducted that included biometrology (blood and urinary concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, nickel, zinc by ICP-MS), comet and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays in peripheral lymphocytes and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 (p.Arg399Gln) and XRCC3 (p.Thr241Met). This study included 60 male welders divided into two groups: group 1 working without any collective protection device and group 2 equipped with smoke extraction systems. A control group (n = 30) was also included in the study. Higher chromium, lead and nickel blood and urinary concentrations were detected in the two groups of welders compared to controls. Statistically differences between welders of group 1 and group 2 were found for blood concentration of cobalt and urinary concentrations of aluminium, chromium, lead and nickel. The alkaline comet assay revealed that welders had a significant increase of OTMchi2 distribution at the end of a work week compared to the beginning; a significant induction of DNA strand breaks at the end of the week was observed in 20 welders out of 30. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay showed that welders of group 1 had a higher frequency of chromosomal damage than controls. The XRCC1 variant allele coding Gln amino acid at position 399 was found to be associated with a higher number of DNA breaks as revealed by the comet assay. Increased metal concentrations in biological fluids, DNA breaks and chromosomal damage in lymphocytes emphasized the need to develop safety programmes for welders. PMID:16234265

Iarmarcovai, G; Sari-Minodier, I; Chaspoul, F; Botta, C; De Méo, M; Orsière, T; Bergé-Lefranc, J L; Gallice, P; Botta, A



[Detection of cannabinoids in urine].  


Described in the paper are results of comparative examination of urine by the methods of immunochromatographic express analysis (ICA), fluorescence-polarization immune analysis (FIA) and of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) made for the purpose of detecting consumers of hemp products. A high specificity and a good sensitivity of the methods were demonstrated, which is a basis for using them as preliminary tests in detecting cannaboids and their metabolites in urine. The methods were evaluated quantitively and qualitatively versus the etalon method of chromato-mass-spectrometry. A possibility was pointed out to apply the methods of ICA and TLC as system analysis in the determination of 11-nordelta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carbonic acid in urine of marijuana users. PMID:15881141

Kataev, S S; Zelenina, N B; Melent'ev, A B; Zalesova, V A; Kurdina, L N



Growth of Escherichia coli in human urine: role of salt tolerance and accumulation of glycine betaine.  


Glycine betaine is a powerful osmoprotectant molecule present in the inner medulla of the kidney and excreted into urine. It may be responsible for the ability of Escherichia coli to grow in hypertonic urine. Also, strains of E. coli that cause urinary tract infections may be more salt-tolerant than strains from other sites. To explore these questions, 301 isolates from blood, urine, or stool and 12 representative enteric strains were examined. Tolerance varied from 0.1 to 0.7 M NaCl (median, 0.5) in minimal medium. There were no significant differences in salt tolerance by site of isolation. A salt-sensitive enteric strain that responded poorly to glycine betaine and mutant strains lacking the ability to synthesize or transport glycine betaine did not grow well in hypertonic urine. Accumulation of glycine betaine appears to be a mechanism by which E. coli can adapt to external osmotic forces and grow in hypertonic urine. PMID:1431248

Kunin, C M; Hua, T H; Van Arsdale White, L; Villarejo, M



Conservation of streptococcal CRISPRs on human skin and saliva  

PubMed Central

Background Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are utilized by bacteria to resist encounters with their viruses. Human body surfaces have numerous bacteria that harbor CRISPRs, and their content can provide clues as to the types and features of viruses they may have encountered. Results We investigated the conservation of CRISPR content from streptococci on skin and saliva of human subjects over 8-weeks to determine whether similarities existed in the CRISPR spacer profiles and whether CRISPR spacers were a stable component of each biogeographic site. Most of the CRISPR sequences identified were unique, but a small proportion of spacers from the skin and saliva of each subject matched spacers derived from previously sequenced loci of S. thermophilus and other streptococci. There were significant proportions of CRISPR spacers conserved over the entire 8-week study period for all subjects, and salivary CRISPR spacers sampled in the mornings showed significantly higher levels of conservation than any other time of day. We also found substantial similarities in the spacer repertoires of the skin and saliva of each subject. Many skin-derived spacers matched salivary viruses, supporting that bacteria of the skin may encounter viruses with similar sequences to those found in the mouth. Despite the similarities between skin and salivary spacer repertoires, the variation present was distinct based on each subject and body site. Conclusions The conservation of CRISPR spacers in the saliva and the skin of human subjects over the time period studied suggests a relative conservation of the bacteria harboring them. PMID:24903519



DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva  

E-print Network

DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva From: Wirth, M. M., Welsh, K., & Schultheiss, O. C. (in preparation). Implicit power motivation predicts cortisol increases after social defeat. 1 to overestimate true levels by about 15%) 6. Add 1.0 ml 125 I cortisol tracer to each tube. Centrifuge all tubes

Michigan, University of



EPA Science Inventory

The excretion of cadium and mercury in saliva was studied in urethane-anesthetized male rats given single intravenous injections of 109CdCl2 or 203HgCl2 (0.1 or 1.0 mg divalent cation/kg). Pilocarpine (20 mg/kg, ip) was used to stimulate salivation. All doses produced a distinct ...


Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into

Weihong Yan; Rolf Apweiler; Brian M. Balgley; Pinmanee Boontheung; Jonathan L. Bundy; Benjamin J. Cargile; Steve Cole; Xueping Fang; Mireya Gonzalez-Begne; Timothy J. Griffin; Fred Hagen; Shen Hu; Lawrence E. Wolinsky; Cheng S. Lee; Daniel Malamud; James E. Melvin; Rajasree Menon; Michael Mueller; Renli Qiao; Nelson L. Rhodus; Joel R. Sevinsky; David States; James L. Stephenson Jr; Shawn Than; John R. Yates; Weixia Yu; Hongwei Xie; Yongming Xie; Gilbert S. Omenn; Joseph A. Loo; David T. Wong



Exosome analysis: a promising biomarker system with special attention to saliva.  


Today, exosome-related studies have become a focus in science and technology. Recently, three scientists won the Nobel Prize for determining the mechanisms of exosomal transport, making exosomes a promising biomarker system for disease diagnosis and treatment. This review provides a general introduction of exosomes and explores the recent progress on the function, application, isolation, and identification of exosomes as biomarkers in blood and other body fluids, especially in saliva. Detailed information of exosomal proteins and RNAs is discussed in the paper because of their ability to determine the function of exosomes. Due to their noninvasive assessment for quick and convenient diagnosis of diseases, salivary exosomes may well be promising biomarkers. PMID:25135166

Zheng, Xiaowen; Chen, Feng; Zhang, Jieni; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Jiuxiang



Total reactive antioxidant potential in human saliva of smokers and non-smokers.  


Uric acid is the most important non-enzymatic antioxidant present in human saliva. There is a great variability among individuals, both in salivary uric acid content and saliva total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP). The uric acid present in saliva correlates with plasma uric acid, suggesting that the former is imported from plasma. There are not statistical differences between uric acid or TRAP values in saliva of smokers and non-smokers. Also, smoking a cigarette does not modify the levels of antioxidants present in saliva. PMID:10410236

Kondakova, I; Lissi, E A; Pizarro, M



Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.



Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)  

PubMed Central

We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W.



Practical Bench Comparison of BBL CHROMagar Orientation and Standard Two-Plate Media for Urine Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 1,023 urine samples sent for routine culture were plated onto sheep blood and MacConkey agars and a BBL CHROMagar Orientation (CO; Becton Dickinson, Cockeysville, Md.) plate, and the results were compared. Of these, 250 urine samples (24%) grew >10,000 CFU of one or two putative pathogens\\/ml and 773 showed no growth (NG), mixed growth of <10,000 CFU\\/ml,

Holly A. D'Souza; Mary Campbell; Ellen Jo Baron



Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage. PMID:25087662

Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu



The role of saliva in tick feeding.  


When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and adaptive immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental Table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from PMID:19273185

Francischetti, Ivo M B; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J; Santos, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Jose M C



28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling...surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in...



Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes  


... services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Urination Changes Call your doctor or nurse if ... as a fever or pain.” Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes Learn about liquids. Drink more liquids. ...


Isolation of Encephalitozoon cuniculi from urine samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Encephalitozoon cuniculi was isolated from the urine of infected rabbits using human and canine tissue cultures. The organism was isolated from 7 of 11 contaminated urines from seropositive animals. The advantages of urine over tissue as a source of E. cuniculi are that it is obtainable from living animals, can be examined for the presence of organisms, and is

D. Pye; J. C. Cox



Human antibody response to Anopheles saliva for comparing the efficacy of three malaria vector control methods in Balombo, Angola.  


Human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles whole saliva, used as biomarker of Anopheles exposure, was investigated over a period of two years (2008-2009), in children between 2 to 9 years old, before and after the introduction of three different malaria vector control methods; deltamethrin treated long lasting impregnated nets (LLIN) and insecticide treated plastic sheeting (ITPS)--Zero Fly®) (ITPS-ZF), deltamethrin impregnated Durable (Wall) Lining (ITPS-DL--Zerovector®) alone, and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with lambdacyhalothrin alone. These different vector control methods resulted in considerable decreases in all three entomological (82.4%), parasitological (54.8%) and immunological criteria analyzed. The highest reductions in the number of Anopheles collected and number of positive blood smears, respectively 82.1% and 58.3%, were found in Capango and Canjala where LLIN and ITPS-ZF were implemented. The immunological data based on the level of anti-saliva IgG Ab in children of all villages dropped significantly from 2008 to 2009, except in Chissequele. These results indicated that these three vector control methods significantly reduced malaria infections amongst the children studied and IRS significantly reduced the human-Anopheles contact. The number of Anopheles, positive blood smears, and the levels of anti-saliva IgG Ab were most reduced when LLIN and ITPS-ZF were used in combination, compared to the use of one vector control method alone, either ITPS-DL or IRS. Therefore, as a combination of two vector control methods is significantly more effective than one control method only, this control strategy should be further developed at a more global scale. PMID:23028499

Brosseau, Laura; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Besnard, Patrick; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Le Mire, Jacques; Mouchet, François; Remoue, Franck; Allan, Richard; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Manguin, Sylvie



Human Antibody Response to Anopheles Saliva for Comparing the Efficacy of Three Malaria Vector Control Methods in Balombo, Angola  

PubMed Central

Human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles whole saliva, used as biomarker of Anopheles exposure, was investigated over a period of two years (2008–2009), in children between 2 to 9 years old, before and after the introduction of three different malaria vector control methods; deltamethrin treated long lasting impregnated nets (LLIN) and insecticide treated plastic sheeting (ITPS) - Zero Fly®) (ITPS-ZF), deltamethrin impregnated Durable (Wall) Lining (ITPS-DL – Zerovector®) alone, and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with lambdacyhalothrin alone. These different vector control methods resulted in considerable decreases in all three entomological (82.4%), parasitological (54.8%) and immunological criteria analyzed. The highest reductions in the number of Anopheles collected and number of positive blood smears, respectively 82.1% and 58.3%, were found in Capango and Canjala where LLIN and ITPS-ZF were implemented. The immunological data based on the level of anti-saliva IgG Ab in children of all villages dropped significantly from 2008 to 2009, except in Chissequele. These results indicated that these three vector control methods significantly reduced malaria infections amongst the children studied and IRS significantly reduced the human-Anopheles contact. The number of Anopheles, positive blood smears, and the levels of anti-saliva IgG Ab were most reduced when LLIN and ITPS-ZF were used in combination, compared to the use of one vector control method alone, either ITPS-DL or IRS. Therefore, as a combination of two vector control methods is significantly more effective than one control method only, this control strategy should be further developed at a more global scale. PMID:23028499

Brosseau, Laura; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Besnard, Patrick; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Le Mire, Jacques; Mouchet, Francois; Remoue, Franck; Allan, Richard; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Manguin, Sylvie



Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

SciTech Connect

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)



Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel



Blood contamination of anaesthetic and related staff.  


The incidence of skin contamination of anaesthetic and related staff by patient's blood and saliva was studied during 270 anaesthetics in Cardiff hospitals over seven continuous days in October 1989. A survey was also made of current Hepatitis B immunisation status and glove-wearing habits of 75 anaesthetists. Blood from 35 (14%) patients caused skin contamination of 65 staff during 46 incidents. Twenty-eight (61%) of the contamination incidents occurred during vessel cannulation. Five (8%) of the 65 staff contaminated by blood already had cuts on their hands. There were nine incidents (4%) of skin contamination by saliva. Fifty-three (71%) anaesthetists were immunised against Hepatitis B. Only seven (9%) anaesthetists wear gloves for oral or nasal intubation, six (8%) for insertion of peripheral venous cannulae, 47 (63%) for insertion of arterial lines and 67 (89%) for insertion of central lines. All anaesthetic and associated staff should wear gloves on a routine basis. PMID:2240496

Harrison, C A; Rogers, D W; Rosen, M



Alteration of saliva and serum concentrations of manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium and lead among career welders  

PubMed Central

Human saliva offers a unique noninvasive approach for populational study. Purposes of this study were to investigate the feasibility of using saliva manganese (Mn) concentration as a biomarker of Mn exposure among career welders and to study the variations of Mn, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in saliva as affected by the welding profession. Forty-nine male welders, of whom 28 were in the low exposed group and 21 in the high exposed group, were recruited. Control subjects were 33 military soldiers without metal exposure. Ambient Mn levels in breathing zones were 0.01, 0.24 and 2.21 mg/m3for control, low, and high exposed groups, respectively. Saliva samples were collected to quantify metals by inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Saliva concentrations of Mn and Cu were significantly higher in welders than in controls (p < 0.01); the variation in saliva levels appeared likely to be associated with airborne Mn levels among study populations. Saliva levels of Zn were significantly lower in welders than in controls (p < 0.05), while Cd and Pb levels in saliva were unchanged. Significant associations were observed between saliva and serum for Mn (r = 0.575, p < 0.05) and Cu (r = 0.50, p < 0.05). Moreover, saliva Mn concentrations were higher among welders with 5–10 years of employment than those with less than 5 years of employment. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between saliva Mn and Cu and between saliva Mn and Zn. Taken together, these data suggest that Mn concentrations in saliva appear reflective of welders’ exposure to airborne Mn and their years of welding experience. respectively. Elevated Mn levels among welders may alter the homeostasis of Cu and Zn. PMID:18054180

Wang, Dixin; Du, Xuqin; Zheng, Wei



Does irradiation affect the protein composition of saliva?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare the relative amount of low molecular weight salivary proteins in patients with head\\u000a and neck tumours treated with radiotherapy and healthy subjects. Reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography was used\\u000a for protein separation. Nine protein fractions (including acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs), cystatins, histatins\\u000a and statherin) were identified in saliva from irradiated patients

M. Hannig; E. Dounis; T. Henning; N. Apitz; L. Stößer



On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan



Protopine alkaloids in horse urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and

Paul M Wynne; John H Vine; R Gary Amiet



Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40+/-1.7) and postflight (44+/-5) phases. Eighteen control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.



Saliva/Pathogen Biomarker Signatures and Periodontal Disease Progression  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to determine the role of saliva-derived biomarkers and periodontal pathogens during periodontal disease progression (PDP). One hundred human participants were recruited into a 12-month investigation. They were seen bi-monthly for saliva and clinical measures and bi-annually for subtraction radiography, serum and plaque biofilm assessments. Saliva and serum were analyzed with protein arrays for 14 pro-inflammatory and bone turnover markers, while qPCR was used for detection of biofilm. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was used to group study participants based on clinical, microbiological, salivary/serum biomarkers, and PDP. Eighty-three individuals completed the six-month monitoring phase, with 44 exhibiting PDP, while 39 demonstrated stability. Participants assembled into three clusters based on periodontal pathogens, serum and salivary biomarkers. Cluster 1 members displayed high salivary biomarkers and biofilm; 82% of these individuals were undergoing PDP. Cluster 2 members displayed low biofilm and biomarker levels; 78% of these individuals were stable. Cluster 3 members were not discriminated by PDP status; however, cluster stratification followed groups 1 and 2 based on thresholds of salivary biomarkers and biofilm pathogens. The association of cluster membership to PDP was highly significant (p < 0.0002). The use of salivary and biofilm biomarkers offers potential for the identification of PDP or stability ( number, CT00277745). PMID:21406610

Kinney, J.S.; Morelli, T.; Braun, T.; Ramseier, C.A.; Herr, A.E.; Sugai, J.V.; Shelburne, C.E.; Rayburn, L.A.; Singh, A.K.; Giannobile, W.V.



Saliva/pathogen biomarker signatures and periodontal disease progression.  


The purpose of this study was to determine the role of saliva-derived biomarkers and periodontal pathogens during periodontal disease progression (PDP). One hundred human participants were recruited into a 12-month investigation. They were seen bi-monthly for saliva and clinical measures and bi-annually for subtraction radiography, serum and plaque biofilm assessments. Saliva and serum were analyzed with protein arrays for 14 pro-inflammatory and bone turnover markers, while qPCR was used for detection of biofilm. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was used to group study participants based on clinical, microbiological, salivary/serum biomarkers, and PDP. Eighty-three individuals completed the six-month monitoring phase, with 39 [corrected] exhibiting PDP, while 44 [corrected] demonstrated stability. Participants assembled into three clusters based on periodontal pathogens, serum and salivary biomarkers. Cluster 1 members displayed high salivary biomarkers and biofilm; 71% [corrected] of these individuals were undergoing PDP. Cluster 2 members displayed low biofilm and biomarker levels; 76% [corrected] of these individuals were stable. Cluster 3 members were not discriminated by PDP status; however, cluster stratification followed groups 1 and 2 based on thresholds of salivary biomarkers and biofilm pathogens. The association of cluster membership to PDP was highly significant (p < 0.0007). [corrected] The use of salivary and biofilm biomarkers offers potential for the identification of PDP or stability ( number, CT00277745). PMID:21406610

Kinney, J S; Morelli, T; Braun, T; Ramseier, C A; Herr, A E; Sugai, J V; Shelburne, C E; Rayburn, L A; Singh, A K; Giannobile, W V



Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin



[Chemiluminescence of whole saliva in antioxidant treatment of prosthetic bed tissues].  


Inflammatory reaction is always accompanied by increased intensity of free-radical oxidation, especially when the phenomena of hypoxia and microcirculatory disorders that occur during the development of side-effects of acrylic removable dentures. This study determined the effectiveness of adaptogens, antioxidants in the complex treatment of diseases of tissues prosthetic field and their influence on the processes of LPO in whole mixed unstimulated saliva. Formed in the reaction to initiate the process of oxygen radicals (OH, RO, O(2)), initiate the formation of lipid peroxide radicals RO(2) biological substrate, the recombination of which leads to the emergence of unsustainable tetroxids, which decays with the release of light quanta. This luminescence is recorded as an amplified current of the photomultiplier, the registration systems. The results suggest the intensive formation of free radicals and peroxides in diseased tissue prosthetic field. Probably the main reason for increasing free-radical oxidation is the release of peroxidase from the crumbling inflammation, phagocytes (mainly neutrophils). The process of peroxidation contributes to an increase in blood supply to inflamed tissues, leading to local enrichment of oxygen, as well as toxic effects of acrylic bases of partial and complete removable dentures in the prosthetic field of tissue. Effect of antioxidants in combination with traditional treatment in 70 patients with periodontal disease and prosthetic bed was assessed by chemiluminescence analysis of whole mixed unstimulated saliva. The level of lipid peroxidation and chemiluminescence activity exceeded the normal values in the 1,5-2 - twice before the treatment. After treatment with antioxidants, these parameters decreased and increased during remission. Thus, studies to determine the status of saliva chemiluminescence method to treat and monitor the dynamics after treatment of periodontitis tissues supporting teeth prosthetic field in the control group and the main observation, revealed the following pattern: the approach of all the indices to normal in patients with a core group, which corresponded to the clinical dynamic index parameters of periodontal tissues supporting teeth prosthetic field, and a similar core group of the positive dynamics of the intensity values of chemiluminescence-indicators in the control group up to 3 months of observation, with a significant deterioration of the same indicators at a later time dynamic monitoring. PMID:20413812

Tunian, M Iu; Lalaian, B K; Zakarian, A E; Grigorian, K L; Pogosian, G A; Egiazarian, A V



saliva and urine samples were collected before and 4, 5, 6,7 and 8 h after labeling 41  

E-print Network

volunteers (aged 67.5 ± 5.1 years, mean t SD; 20 women, 21 men). The dose of 2% !80 water was designed differed with gender (men 27.5 ± 5.7, women 38.5 ± 5.2%, P). They were given water and a commercial diet (UAR A03), and had light from 0700 to 1900 hours. The indirect

Boyer, Edmond


Influence of commercial collection devices for saliva on the reliability of salivary steroids analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva analysis is an accepted non-invasive alternative to plasma in pediatric endocrinology. Although commercial saliva collectors are available, the reliability of these devices for the analysis of salivary hormones has not been proved.We investigated the recovery and linearity of salivary steroids (cortisol, cortisone, 17-hyroxyprogesterone, testosterone, androstenedione) being relevant in endocrine research and therapy control.Pooled saliva was spiked with ascending concentrations

Michael Gröschl; Manfred Rauh



Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: new biologic reagents for drug discovery.  


The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. PMID:24434629

Guan, Xuan; Mack, David L; Moreno, Claudia M; Strande, Jennifer L; Mathieu, Julie; Shi, Yingai; Markert, Chad D; Wang, Zejing; Liu, Guihua; Lawlor, Michael W; Moorefield, Emily C; Jones, Tara N; Fugate, James A; Furth, Mark E; Murry, Charles E; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Santana, Luis F; Childers, Martin K



A brief review of Rhazes, Avicenna, and Jorjani's views on diagnosis of diseases through urine examination.  


The present survey aims at studying the opinions of three famous medical scholars in history (Rhazes, Avicinna, and Jorjani) on the diagnosis of diseases via urine examination and their compatiblity with modern science. Refering to original authentic sources in traditional medicine, including Al-Hawi (The Virtuous Life), Zakhireh-i Kharazmshahi (Thesaurus of the Shah of Khwarazm), and Al-Canon fi al Tibb (The Canon on Medicine), we compared the ideas of the authors with modern medicine. In traditional medicine, physicians would pay attention to the methods of urine collection and urinary features such as color, consistency, volume, frequency, odor, and foam as the means of diagnosis, all of which still serve as the bases for today's diagnostic approach. Moreover, symptoms of the diagnosis of the disease through urine are consistent in tradition and modern medicine; some examples are blood in the urine (hematuria), decreased urine output (oliguria), change in urine color together with headache (Alport syndrome), diluted urine (tubular dysfunction in reabsorption of water or initial polydipsy), and urinary floor with tiny bubbles (one of the main symptoms of proteinuria). PMID:25001133

Shamsi, Mohsen; Haghverdi, Farshid; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed



Probing viscosity of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva by magnetic rotational spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic rotational spectroscopy was employed for rheological analysis of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva. Saliva viscosity of butterflies is 4-5 times greater than that of water and similar to that of 30%-40% sucrose solutions at 25 °C. Hence, viscosity stratification would not be expected when butterflies feed on nectar with 30%-40% sugar concentrations. We did not observe any viscoelastic effects or non-Newtonian behavior of saliva droplets. Thus, butterfly saliva is significantly different rheologically from that of humans, which demonstrates a viscoelastic behavior.

Tokarev, Alexander; Kaufman, Bethany; Gu, Yu; Andrukh, Taras; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.



Individual identification of racehorses from urine samples using a 26-plex single-nucleotide polymorphism assay.  


To construct a system for identifying individual horses from urine samples that are submitted for postracing doping tests, we developed a genotyping assay based on 26-plex single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). DNA was isolated from urine using a commercially available DNA/RNA extraction kit, and SNP genotyping was achieved with a SNaPshot(™) technique. DNA profiles including 26 SNPs were acquired from urine samples and blood/hair samples. Within the studied Thoroughbred population, the 26-plex assay showed a probability of identity of 5.80 × 10(-11). Compared to the conventional short tandem repeat assay, the SNP assay used less DNA, and the rate of successful genotyping was improved to 97% using aliquots of horse urine as small as 140 ?L. The urinary DNA could be successfully genotyped under proper storage concerning refrigeration or freeze-thawing. This SNP assay can be used for individual identification when suspicious results are obtained from horse doping tests. PMID:23061924

Kakoi, Hironaga; Kijima-Suda, Isao; Gawahara, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Kenji; Tozaki, Teruaki; Hirota, Kei-ichi; Yoshizawa, Midori



The Automicrobic System for urines.  

PubMed Central

An evaluation of the Automicrobic System (AMS) for Urines (Vitek Systems, Inc.) was carried out under the auspices of the Product Evaluation Committee of the College of American Pathologists from the period June 1977 through October 1978. Data generated during this evaluation indicated that, when comparing the AMS methodology to our clinical microbiology laboratory methodology, a 37% time saving could be realized by utilizing the AMS. Quantitation with the AMS showed a 99% correlation with the clinical microbiology laboratory method except for yeast which correlated only 50% of the time. The average overall identification accuracy was 95%. Negative response accuracy was 99%. Other members of the Enterobacteriaceae which the instrument is not designed to identify may produce erroneous results if they occur in urine specimens. Specimens containing two organisms were identified with a 94% correlation when compared to our conventional methodology. The time when a well becomes positive may be used as a fairly reliable indicator of significance (count greater than 70,000 colony-forming units per ml) for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella-Enterobacter group, and group D Enterococcus, but not for Proteus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and yeast. Specimen collection must be performed properly since specimens considered as contaminated by conventional plating-out techniques may be reported out by the AMS as only one or two organisms and thus lead to an erroneous assumption as to significance. Cost per specimen was $1.83 more by utilizing the AMS method as compared to our conventional method. This is offset by a saving of 1.74 h daily of personnel time and a final report in 13 h. At least 30 urine specimens would be needed daily to pay for the instrument and specimen costs in 1 year. The AMS can provide significant aid to a clinical microbiology laboratory when all factors are considered. PMID:118176

Nicholson, D P; Koepke, J A



Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease.  


Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings. PMID:23772241

Indiran, Venkatraman; Gunaseelan, R Emmanuel



Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.



Sand-Fly Saliva-Leishmania-Man: The Trigger Trio  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniases are worldwide diseases transmitted to the vertebrate host by the bite of an infected sand-fly. Sand-fly biting and parasite inoculation are accompanied by the injection of salivary molecules, whose immunomodulatory properties are actively being studied. This mini review focuses on how the interactions between sand-fly saliva and the immune system may shape the outcome of infection, given its immunomodulatory properties, in experimental models and in the endemic area. Additionally, we approach the recent contributions regarding the identification of individual salivary components and how these are currently being considered as additional components of a vaccine against leishmaniasis. PMID:24312093

Oliveira, Fabiano; de Carvalho, Augusto M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.



Blood and salivary oxidative stress biomarkers following an acute session of resistance exercise in humans.  


The aim of the present study was to compare oxidative stress biomarkers determined in blood and saliva before and after acute resistance exercise. 1 week after 1 maximum repetition (1RM) test 11 healthy well-trained males completed a hypertrophy acute session of resistance training including 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of the 1RM, with 90 s rest periods between sets. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected before (pre) and 10 min after (post) the resistance training session. A significant (p<0.05) rise in blood lactate accumulation (pre: 1.6+/-0.4 vs. post: 9.5+/-2.4) was found post-acute resistance training compared with baseline values. Significant increases (p<0.05) in TBARS (42%), AOPP (28%), uric acid (27%) and GSH (14%) were detected post-acute resistance training in relation to pre in blood samples. A significant increase (p<0.05) in uric acid (36%) was found in saliva post-acute resistance training as well as a significant correlation (p<0.05) between uric acid determined in blood and saliva. Statistical analysis did not reveal any other change in the salivary oxidative stress biomarkers. In conclusion, an acute session of resistance exercise induces oxidative stress in plasma of trained men after acute resistance training, which was not found in saliva samples except for uric acid. PMID:20617486

Deminice, R; Sicchieri, T; Payão, P O; Jordão, A A



Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.  


Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary



Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by PCR analysis of urine and other clinical samples from AIDS and non-HIV-infected patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of different clinical specimens, such as sputum, cerebrospinal fluid and blood, have been reported to be good substrates for the detection ofMycobacterium tuberculosisby PCR assay. We wanted to search for the presence of mycobacteria in other body fluids, such as urine. Urine samples and other samples obtained from AIDS patients and non HIV-infected patients were analysed by PCR.

Leonardo A. Sechi; Maria Piera Pinna; Alberto Sanna; Piero Pirina; Franco Ginesu; Franca Saba; Antonio Aceti; Franco Turrini; Stefania Zanetti; Giovanni Fadda



Antibacterial activity of nifuratel in urine and serum  

PubMed Central

The minimum inhibitory concentrations of nifuratel for 205 randomly selected isolates from urinary tract infections were tested by tube dilution. Of these, 177 (86·3%) were resistant to more than 6 ?g/ml and 140 of 141 (99·3%) strains of Escherichia coli were resistant to more than 3 ?g/ml. Urine levels of nifuratel were examined in two groups: one group had 400 mg given once and the other group had 2 g given over 24 hours. In both groups samples of urine were collected every hour for seven hours after the last dose. After one 400-mg dose the maximum urine level achieved by any subject was 2·0 ?g/ml and the mean maximum level was 0·75 ?g/ml. With the 2 g total dose, the maximum level noted was 4 ?g/ml and the mean maximum level was 1·8 ?g/ml. No measurable inhibition was noted in any of the blood samples removed at one and a half to two hours after the last dose. PMID:4625698

McGeachie, J.; Robinson, G.; Black, D.



Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.  


Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the particular drink. This study measured the effects of human saliva on the viscosity of drinks thickened with a widely used starch-based thickener. Experiments simulated a possible clinical scenario whereby saliva enters a cup and contaminates a drink. Citric acid (E330) was added to water to produce a controlled range of pH from 3.0 to 7.0, and several commercially available drinks with naturally low pH were investigated. When saliva was added to thickened water, viscosity was reduced to less than 1% of its original value after 10-15 min. However, lowering pH systematically slowed the reduction in viscosity attributable to saliva. At pH 3.5 and below, saliva was found to have no significant effect on viscosity. The pH of drinks in this study ranged from 2.6 for Coca Cola to 6.2 for black coffee. Again, low pH slowed the effect of saliva. For many popular drinks, having pH of 3.6 or less, viscosity was not significantly affected by the addition of saliva. PMID:22210234

Hanson, Ben; Cox, Ben; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Smith, Christina H



Responses of Artemisia frigida Willd. (Compositae) and Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel. (Poaceae) to sheep saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although studies show that grazing and browsing by herbivores have marked effects on host plants, the mechanisms remain unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of sheep saliva on host plant growth. Sheep saliva was manually applied to clipped plants of two different life forms, a semi-shrub, Artemisia frigida Willd., and a herbaceous species, Leymus chinensis

Z. Zhang; S.-P. Wang; G.-M. Jiang; B. Patton; P. Nyren



Saliva DHEAS Changes in Patients Suffering from Psychopathological Disorders Arising from Bullying at Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Psychological disorders arising from bullying at work (BW) are common. The relationship between these disorders and putative markers is not well established. Aims: To measure saliva dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and saliva cortisol as putative markers in individuals suffering from BW. Methods: Forty one subjects suffering…

Lac, Gerard; Dutheil, Frederic; Brousse, Georges; Triboulet-Kelly, Celine; Chamoux, Alain



Aerobic Exercise Reduced Oxidative Stress in Saliva of Persons With Down Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on uric acid (UA), total antioxidant activity (TAA), oxidative stress (OS) and nitrite a stable nitric oxide (NO) metabolite in saliva from persons with Down syndrome (DS). Stimulated saliva was sampled from 12 participants 1 hour before and immediately after a 1,600-meter walking test. Uric acid

Jean C. Zambrano; Ramón Marquina; Nancy Sulbarán; Antonio J. Rodríguez-Malaver; Rafael A. Reyes



Saliva cotinine and thiocyanate: Chemical indicators of smokeless tobacco and cigarette use in adolecents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent attempts to measure smoking behavior using chemical tests may have been confounded by the use of smokeless tobacco. An objective measure of smokeless tobacco use is needed, particularly among adolescents who may not provide accurate self-reports of tobacco usage. Saliva cotinine was used to distinguish self-reported tobacco users from nonusers and a combination of saliva cotinine and thiocyanate (SCN)

Melody Powers Noland; Richard J. Kryscio; Richard S. Riggs; Linda H. Linville; Lea J. Perritt; Thomas C. Tucker



Maple syrup urine disease: Branchedchain amino acid concentrations and metabolism in cultured human lymphoblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intracellular concentration of free leucine, isoleucine, and valine and their metabolism were studied in lymphoblast cultures established from peripheral blood of an individual with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and a control subject. Branched-chain a-keto acid decarboxylase activity in the MSUD cells was 10% or less of the control value as measured by the ability of the cells to

Stephen D. Skaper; Daniel P. Molden; J. Edwin Seegmiller



Nachweis und Bestimmung von bromhaltigen Medikamenten in Blut, Urin und Gewebe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypnotics obtainable without prescription, especially the bromoureide derivatives, are gaining in importance in conjunction with suicides, attempted suicides and drug poisonings. The hitherto unexplained metabolism of the bromureides is discussed. By means of X-ray fluorescence analysis, it is possible to easily and quickly determine bromine in blood, urine, tissue and other biological material. Through the use of simpler methods of

G. Hauck



Round-the-clock urine sugar monitoring system for diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy logic based image processing application has been developed here which noninvasively measures the blood sugar level of a person from his \\/her urine by noting the colour change in its reaction with Benedicts reagent and displays the result so that apart from the patient, others also get informed. This system helps a diabetic patient to regularly monitor and

P. Ghosh; D. Bhattacharjee; M. Nasipuri; D. K. Basu



Military Deployment Human Exposure Assessment: Urine Total and Isotopic Uranium Sampling Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently the Department of Defense (DoD) does not use exposure biomarkers to measure service members’ exposure to environmental chemicals. Blood and urine exposure biomarkers for volatile organic compounds (VOC), selected heavy metals, depleted uranium (DU), and chemical warfare agents are currently available but have not been field tested or validated by the DoD in military deployments as a tool to

Lisa M. May; Jack Heller; Victor Kalinsky; John Ejnik; Steve Cordero; Kristi J. Oberbroekling; Thuy T. Long; Kathryne C. E. Meakim; David Cruess; Arthur P. Lee



Impact of Prolonged Cannabinoid Excretion in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers' Blood on Per Se Drugged Driving Laws  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Cannabis is the illicit drug most frequently reported with impaired driving and motor vehicle accidents. Some “per se” laws make it illegal to drive with any amount of drug in the body, while others establish blood, saliva, or urine concentrations above which it is illegal to drive. The persistence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in chronic daily cannabis smokers’ blood is unknown. METHODS Thirty male chronic daily cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days, with daily blood collection. Samples were processed in an ice bath during sample preparation to minimize cannabinoid adsorption onto precipitant material. We quantified THC by 2-dimensional GC-MS. RESULTS Of the 30 participants, 27 were THC-positive on admission, with a median (range) concentration of 1.4 ?g/L (0.3–6.3). THC decreased gradually; only 1 of 11 participants was negative at 26 days, 2 of 5 remained THC-positive (0.3 ?g/L) for 30 days, and 5.0% of participants had THC ?1.0 ?g/L for 12 days. Median 11-hydroxy-THC concentrations were 1.1 ?g/L on admission, with no results ?1.0 ?g/L 24 h later. 11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) detection rates were 96.7% on admission, decreasing slowly to 95.7% and 85.7% on days 8 and 22, respectively; 4 of 5 participants remained THCCOOH positive (0.6–2.7 ?g/L) after 30 days, and 1 remained positive on discharge at 33 days. CONCLUSIONS Cannabinoids can be detected in blood of chronic daily cannabis smokers during a month of sustained abstinence. This is consistent with the time course of persisting neurocognitive impairment reported in recent studies. PMID:23449702

Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Queiroz, Regina H.C.; Huestis, Marilyn A.



Serum and saliva protein levels in females with breast cancer  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the change in the total protein content between the serum and saliva of female patients with breast cancer and in healthy females. The study was conducted between October 2012 and November 2013. There were 80 females in the present study with 40 breast cancer patients and 40 healthy control subjects, with an age range of 50–70 years. The results of the study showed that the mean value ± standard deviation of the total serum protein in patients with breast cancer was 7.63±0.41 g/dl, whereas in the healthy subjects it was 6.14±1.84 g/dl. The total salivary protein measurement was 0.14±0.07 g/dl and 0.25±0.09 g/dl in the breast cancer and healthy group, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the total serum protein was higher in female patients with breast cancer, whereas the levels in the saliva were lower compared to the healthy female group. The results of the present study indicate that serum protein levels may be used for the diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:25364460




Wounds of the hand contaminated by human or animal saliva.  


A prospective and retrospective evaluation of 75 patients with hand wounds contaminated by human saliva (35) or animal saliva (40) demonstrates that a program of outpatient management can be sufficient for optimal care in many patients. This series challenges the proposition that hospitalization, radiographs, and surgical debridement are necessary for most such wounds. Sixty-seven per cent did not have surgical intervention and no complications resulted. Ninety-two per cent received antibiotics. Radiographs were obtained only when bony injury or entry into a joint was suspected. Delay in seeking treatment until obvious signs of infection or pain are present is common. Literature review details the anatomic factors important in the natural history and control of these infections, and the changes with respect to modes of treatment for these potentially dangerous wounds. The injury is caused by bites with the hand extended or, in fight-bite wounds, with the metacarpal-phalangeal and interphalangeal joints flexed, allowing deeper penetration and then sealing of the wound when the first is opened. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the organisms most frequently found in human bites, and in animal bites; Pasteurella multocida should be considered in dog and cat bites. PMID:7365851

Peeples, E; Boswick, J A; Scott, F A



Plasma chemistry and urine analysis in Salmonella?induced polyuria in racing pigeons (Columba livia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyuria?polydipsia is a frequent observation in pigeons with salmonellosis. These are accompanied by a decreased albumin\\/globulin ratio, increased creatinine and haptoglobin concentrations, and decrease in the chloride concentration in the blood plasma. The urine was found to have a low density with red and white blood cells frequently present in the sediment.A water deprivation test was conducted on three animals:

D. Gevaert; J. Nelis; B. Verhaeghe



Mosquito Saliva Serine Protease Enhances Dissemination of Dengue Virus into the Mammalian Host  

PubMed Central

Dengue virus (DENV), a flavivirus of global importance, is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. In this study, we developed in vitro and in vivo models of saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV infectivity. Serine protease activity in Aedes aegypti saliva augmented virus infectivity in vitro by proteolyzing extracellular matrix proteins, thereby increasing viral attachment to heparan sulfate proteoglycans and inducing cell migration. A serine protease inhibitor reduced saliva-mediated enhancement of DENV in vitro and in vivo, marked by a 100-fold reduction in DENV load in murine lymph nodes. A saliva-mediated infectivity enhancement screen of fractionated salivary gland extracts identified serine protease CLIPA3 as a putative cofactor, and short interfering RNA knockdown of CLIPA3 in mosquitoes demonstrated its role in influencing DENV infectivity. Molecules in mosquito saliva that facilitate viral infectivity in the vertebrate host provide novel targets that may aid in the prevention of disease. PMID:24131723

Conway, Michael J.; Watson, Alan M.; Colpitts, Tonya M.; Dragovic, Srdjan M.; Li, Zhiyong; Wang, Penghua; Feitosa, Fabiana; Shepherd, Denueve T.; Ryman, Kate D.; Klimstra, William B.; Anderson, John F.



Cranial Ultrasonography in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: We performed serial cranial ultrasonography in four newborns affected by maple syrup urine disease. Symmetric increase of echogenicity of periventricular white matter, basal ganglia (mainly pallidi), and thalami was detected in the acute stage. The degree of ultrasonography abnormalities paralleled the clinical course of the disease. Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of branched-chain amino acid

Giuseppe Fariello; Carlo Dionisi-Vici; Cinzia Orazi; Saverio Malena; Andrea Bartuli; Paolo Schingo; Enza Carnevale; Isora Saponara; Gaetano Sabetta


The Determination of Thallium in Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variation of the triphenylmethane dye method for the determination of thallium has been modified to be suitable for analysis of urine samples in a small laboratory. Thallium is oxidized to the thallic state by bromine water, and is reacted with methyl violet for the colorimetric measurement. A maximum of 200 ?g thallium per liter was found in the urine

Morris B. Jacobs



Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation. PMID:5768462

Porter, I. A.; Brodie, J.



Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

I. A. Porter; J. Brodie



Radioscintigraphic demonstration of unsuspected urine extravasation  

SciTech Connect

Three cases of unsuspected urine extravasation first detected by radionuclide scintigraphy are presented with subsequent confirmation by CT and, retrograde pyelograms. A renal study done to rule out acute transplant rejection demonstrates gallbladder uptake which was initially thought to be consistent with urine extravasation.

Bocchini, T.; Williams, W.; Patton, D.



Immunodiagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis using urine samples.  


Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is one of the most lethal zoonotic parasitic infections. The diagnosis is based on the combination of the abdominal imaging including CT, MRI and PET, and serology. To develop a new diagnostic tool for AE with urine as samples, mouse-Echinococcus multilocularis (Em) model and then human cases were studied. The antibody levels of urine and serum samples from the infected mice and AE cases were well correlated with each other. The sensitivity and specificity of the method with urine were 91% and 98%, respectively, when IgG4 to crude Em was examined. Comparing with serum samples, the collection of urine is easier and safer and the urine diagnostic tool makes surveys of this silent disease easier. PMID:23872436

Itoh, Makoto; Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Ishikawa, Yuji; Akabane, Hiromitsu; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Nagaoka, Fumiaki; Ito, Akira



Saliva from Obese Individuals Suppresses the Release of Aroma Compounds from Wine  

PubMed Central

Background Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine) after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O) and 28 normal-weight (N) individuals. Methods and Findings Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. Conclusion Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity. PMID:24465618

Piombino, Paola; Genovese, Alessandro; Esposito, Silvia; Moio, Luigi; Cutolo, Pier Paolo; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Smith, Daniel P.; Owens, Sarah M.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Ercolini, Danilo



Using the new Phadebas ® Forensic Press test to find crime scene saliva stains suitable for DNA analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Phadebas® Forensic Press test is a new product that detects saliva stains by reacting with amylase. When the paper is pressed against a saliva stain a blue spot occurs. To test the sensitivity of the paper, a set of dilution series of saliva down to 1:500 was prepared on cotton fabric. Blue spots could be seen for dilutions of

Johannes Hedman; Karin Gustavsson; Ricky Ansell



Intake of polyphenol-rich pomegranate pure juice influences urinary glucocorticoids, blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in human volunteers  

PubMed Central

Pomegranate juice (PJ; also known as pomegreat pure juice) provides a rich and varied source of polyphenolic compounds that may offer cardioprotective, anti-atherogenic and antihypertensive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PJ consumption on glucocorticoids levels, blood pressure (BP) and insulin resistance in volunteers at high CVD risk. Subjects (twelve males and sixteen females) participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study (BMI: 26·77 (sd 3·36) kg/m2; mean age: 50·4 (sd 6·1) years). Volunteers were assessed at baseline, and at weeks 2 and 4 for anthropometry, BP and pulse wave velocity. Cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva were determined by specific ELISA methods, and the cortisol/cortisone ratio was calculated. Fasting blood samples were obtained to assess plasma lipids, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Volunteers consumed 500 ml of PJ or 500 ml of a placebo drink containing a similar amount of energy. Cortisol urinary output was reduced but not significant. However, cortisol/cortisone ratios in urine (P = 0·009) and saliva (P = 0·024) were significantly decreased. Systolic BP decreased from 136·4 (sd 6·3) to 128·9 (sd 5·1) mmHg (P = 0·034), and diastolic BP from 80·3 (sd 4·29) to 75·5 (sd 5·17) mmHg (P = 0·031) after 4 weeks of fruit juice consumption. Pulse wave velocity decreased from 7·5 (sd 0·86) to 7·44 (sd 0·94) m/s (P = 0·035). There was also a significant reduction in fasting plasma insulin from 9·36 (sd 5·8) to 7·53 (sd 4·12) mIU/l (P = 0·025) and of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (from 2·216 (sd 1·43) to 1·82 (sd 1·12), P = 0·028). No significant changes were seen in the placebo arm of the study. These results suggest that PJ consumption can alleviate key cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects that might be due to a reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP, possibly through the inhibition of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity as evidenced by the reduction in the cortisol/cortisone ratio. The reduction in insulin resistance might have therapeutic benefits for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

Tsang, Catherine; Smail, Nacer F.; Almoosawi, S.; Davidson, I.; Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.



PCR-based detection of salivary bacteria as a marker of expirated blood.  


Distinguishing between bloodstains caused by a spatter pattern or by expirated blood may be crucial to a forensic investigation. Expirated blood is likely to be contaminated with saliva but current techniques have limited sensitivity, especially with small bloodstains. We report that a PCR assay, designed to detect salivary bacteria, can amplify streptococcal DNA from saliva stains applied to fabrics for at least 62 days after seeding. Bacterial DNA was detected when 0.01 microl of saliva was present in the stain and the amplification was not affected by contamination with blood. These findings indicate that PCR amplification of salivary microbial DNA may have application in the identification of expirated bloodstains in forensic case-work. PMID:20470737

Power, Daniel A; Cordiner, Stephen J; Kieser, Jules A; Tompkins, Geoffrey R; Horswell, Jacqui



Dual mechanism of brain injury and novel treatment strategy in maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children commonly suffer metabolic decompensation in the context of catabolic stress associated with non-specific illness. The mechanisms underlying this decompensation and brain injury are poorly understood. Using recently developed mouse models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease, we assessed biochemical, behavioural and neuropathological changes that occurred during encephalopathy in these mice. Here, we show that rapid brain leucine accumulation displaces other essential amino acids resulting in neurotransmitter depletion and disruption of normal brain growth and development. A novel approach of administering norleucine to heterozygous mothers of classic maple syrup urine disease pups reduced branched-chain amino acid accumulation in milk as well as blood and brain of these pups to enhance survival. Similarly, norleucine substantially delayed encephalopathy in intermediate maple syrup urine disease mice placed on a high protein diet that mimics the catabolic stress shown to cause encephalopathy in human maple syrup urine disease. Current findings suggest two converging mechanisms of brain injury in maple syrup urine disease including: (i) neurotransmitter deficiencies and growth restriction associated with branched-chain amino acid accumulation and (ii) energy deprivation through Krebs cycle disruption associated with branched-chain ketoacid accumulation. Both classic and intermediate models appear to be useful to study the mechanism of brain injury and potential treatment strategies for maple syrup urine disease. Norleucine should be further tested as a potential treatment to prevent encephalopathy in children with maple syrup urine disease during catabolic stress. PMID:19293241

Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.




PubMed Central

Context Reliable methods to screen newborns for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection are needed for identification of infants at increased risk for hearing loss. Since dried blood spots (DBS) are routinely collected for metabolic screening from all newborns in the United States, there has been interest in using DBS polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for newborn CMV screening. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy of DBS real-time PCR assays for newborn CMV screening Design, Setting, and Participants Between March 2007 and May 2008, infants born at seven medical centers in the U.S. were enrolled in the CMV and Hearing Multicenter Screening (CHIMES) study. Newborn saliva specimens were tested for the detection of early antigen fluorescent foci (DEAFF). Results of saliva DEAFF were compared with a single-primer (from 03/07 to 12/07) and a two-primer (from 01/08 to 05/08) DBS real-time PCR. Infants positive by screening DEAFF or PCR were enrolled in follow-up to confirm congenital infection by the reference standard method, DEAFF on saliva or urine. Main Outcome Measures Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) of single-primer and two-primer DBS real-time PCR assays for identifying infants with confirmed congenital CMV infection. Results Congenital CMV infection was confirmed in 92 of 20,448 (0.45%; 95% CI, 0.36–0.55) infants. Ninety-one of 92 infants were saliva DEAFF positive on screening. Of the 11,422 infants screened using the single-primer DBS PCR, 17 of 60 (28%) infants were positive with this assay, whereas, among the 9,026 infants screened using the two-primer DBS PCR, 11 of 32 (34%) infants were positive. The single-primer DBS PCR identified congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 28.3% (95% CI, 17.4–41.4%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 803.7 (95% CI, 278.7–2317.9), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the single-primer DBS PCR were 80.9% (95% CI, 58.1–94.5%) and 99.6% (95% CI, 99.5–99.7%), respectively. The two-primer DBS PCR assay identified infants with congenital CMV infection with a sensitivity of 34.4% (95% CI, 18.6–53.2%), specificity, 99.9% (95% CI, 99.9–100%), positive LR, 3088.9 (95% CI, 410.8–23226.7), and negative LR, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5–0.8). The positive and negative predictive values of the two-primer DBS PCR were 91.7% (95% CI, 61.5–99.8%) and 99.8% (95% CI, 99.6–99.9%), respectively. Conclusions Among newborns, CMV testing with DBS real-time PCR compared with saliva rapid culture had low sensitivity, limiting its value as a screening test. PMID:20388893

Boppana, Suresh B.; Ross, Shannon A.; Novak, Zdenek; Shimamura, Masako; Tolan, Robert W.; Palmer, April L.; Ahmed, Amina; Michaels, Marian G.; Sanchez, Pablo J.; Bernstein, David I.; Britt, William J.; Fowler, Karen B.



Prostaglandin E2 in tick saliva regulates macrophage cell migration and cytokine profile  

PubMed Central

Background Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that suppress the host’s immune and inflammatory responses by secreting immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory molecules in their saliva. In previous studies we have shown that tick salivary gland extract (SGE) and saliva from Dermacentor variabilis have distinct effects on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated IC-21 macrophage and NIH3T3-L1 fibroblast migration. Since tick saliva contains a high concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent modulator of inflammation, we used a PGE2 receptor antagonist to evaluate the role of PGE2 in the different migratory responses induced by saliva and its impact on macrophage cytokine profile. Methods Adult ticks were fed on female New Zealand white rabbits for 5-8 days. Female ticks were stimulated with dopamine/theophylline to induce salivation and saliva was pooled. Competitive enzyme immunoassays (EIA) were used to measure saliva PGE2 content and the changes in macrophage intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. The effects of tick saliva on macrophage and fibroblast migration were assessed in the absence and presence of the PGE2 receptor antagonist, AH 6809, using blind well chamber assays. A cytokine antibody array was used to examine the effects of tick saliva on macrophage cytokine secretion. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA; Student Newman-Kuels post-test was used for multiple comparisons. Results The saliva-induced increase in PDGF-stimulated macrophage migration was reversed by AH 6809. The inhibition of PDGF-stimulated fibroblast migration by saliva was also antagonist-sensitive. Tick saliva induced macrophages to secrete copious amounts of PGE2, and conditioned medium from these cells caused an AH 6809-sensitive inhibition of stimulated fibroblast migration, showing that macrophages can regulate fibroblast activity. We show that tick saliva decreased the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines regulated and normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES/CCL5), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI) through a PGE2-dependent mechanism mediated by cAMP. Saliva had similar effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated macrophages. Conclusions Our data show that ticks utilize salivary PGE2 to subvert the ability of macrophages to secrete pro-inflammatory mediators and recruit fibroblasts to the feeding lesion, therefore inhibiting wound healing. PMID:24025197



Saliva alcohol concentrations in accident and emergency attendances  

PubMed Central

Objectives—Although alcohol is known to play a key part in accidents, no UK study has assessed alcohol concentrations in a comprehensive sample of accident and emergency (A&E) attenders. This study set out to do this, and examine the relation between alcohol concentrations and the severity, type and circumstances of presentation, and the sociodemographic characteristics of patients. Methods—A survey was conducted of all new A&E attenders (aged 10 years or over). Two 24 hour periods for each day of the week were covered in 6, 7 or 11 hour sessions over a two month period. Alcohol concentrations were assessed from saliva samples using a disposable device. Data were collected from 638 attenders, of whom 544 provided saliva samples; the remainder refused or were unable to participate. Results—Positive saliva alcohol readings were obtained in 22% of attenders (95%CI 19% to 26%); this increased to 25% if others were included (for example, those who refused to participate but were judged to be intoxicated). Alcohol was associated with 94% of incidents of self harm, 54% of non-specific/multiple complaints, 47% of collapses, 50% of assaults, and 50% of patients admitted to hospital. Higher concentrations of alcohol were found from Friday to Sunday, between midnight and 0900, and in patients aged 41 to 60. Among people with positive alcohol results, those attending with a companion had higher concentrations than those attending alone. There were no significant differences between men and women in alcohol concentrations. Discussion—These findings show that alcohol use is an important factor in A&E attendance, but it should not be assumed that there is a causal relation between alcohol use and injury. Several accident related and sociodemographic variables were predictive of alcohol use before attending. The overall level of prediction was too weak to permit accurate identification of drinkers for screening purposes, but routine alcohol concentration assessments may be justified in the high risk groups identified in this study. A&E departments may be convenient and fruitful settings for brief interventions with early problem drinkers. PMID:11435356

Simpson, T; Murphy, N; Peck, D



An inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation from the saliva of Triatoma pallidipennis.  


The saliva of Triatoma pallidipennis, a blood-sucking triatomine bug (Hemiptera, family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae) was found to contain a factor that specifically inhibits collagen-induced platelet aggregation. The 19-kDa protein was purified to homogeneity and named pallidipin. Collagen-mediated aggregation of platelets in plasma and of washed platelets was inhibited with the same efficacy. No inhibition of aggregation stimulated by other effectors (ADP, thrombin, thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619, phorbol ester) was detected. Pallidipin had no effect on platelet adhesion to collagen but inhibited ATP release from platelets. It interacted reversibly with platelets and may share with collagen a common target on them. The protein exhibits a unique primary structure (predicted from cDNA clones) with no significant similarity to other previously described sequences. The protein produced in recombinant baby hamster kidney cells had antiaggregatory effects similar to those of native pallidipin. Availability of recombinant pallidipin will allow further investigation of the precise mechanism of action. PMID:8106481

Noeske-Jungblut, C; Krätzschmar, J; Haendler, B; Alagon, A; Possani, L; Verhallen, P; Donner, P; Schleuning, W D



Does irradiation affect the protein composition of saliva?  


The purpose of this study was to compare the relative amount of low molecular weight salivary proteins in patients with head and neck tumours treated with radiotherapy and healthy subjects. Reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography was used for protein separation. Nine protein fractions (including acidic and basic proline-rich proteins (PRPs), cystatins, histatins and statherin) were identified in saliva from irradiated patients as well as healthy subjects. However, compared with non-irradiated healthy subjects, the fraction of acidic PRPs was significantly reduced in irradiated patients. These data indicate an alteration of the relative amount of low molecular weight salivary proteins in irradiated patients besides the reduction of salivary flow. PMID:16450108

Hannig, M; Dounis, E; Henning, T; Apitz, N; Stösser, L



Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum  

PubMed Central

Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30?minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38?weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:23575245



Isotype, subclass and molecular size of immunoglobulins in salivas from young infants.  

PubMed Central

Whole saliva samples from 17 infants who were between 3 and 20 weeks of age were analysed for isotype, subclass and molecular size of immunoglobulins. IgA concentrations ranged from 1.7 to over 60 micrograms/ml. IgM concentrations ranged from undetected to 59% of the IgA concentration in the respective saliva. Ratios of salivary IgM to salivary IgA were inversely correlated with the age of the infant. Gel filtration of 31 salivas on calibrated columns of Superose 6 revealed the IgA to elute in a position consistent with that of secretory IgA. IgM eluted in a position consistent with that of the pentameric molecule. IgA1 was the predominating subclass (IgA1/IgA1 + IgA2 = 0.64) in infant whole saliva. Both IgA subclass concentrations were significantly lower than concentrations measured in adult parotid salivas. Several infant salivas initially contained greater than 95% IgA1 but salivary IgA2 concentrations progressively increased as these infants grew older. These observations support the conclusions that essentially all IgA in whole saliva of predentate infants is of secretory origin, that adult salivary IgM/IgA proportions are achieved early in life, but that, at least in some infants, the salivary IgA subclass proportions are still changing during this time. PMID:2736804

Smith, D J; King, W F; Taubman, M A



Decrease in the total antioxidant activity of saliva in patients with periodontal diseases.  


This study examined the role of free radical-induced tissue damage and the antioxidant defense mechanism of saliva in periodontal disease. Antioxidant activity of saliva was compared in 20 healthy individuals and 17 patients with periodontal diseases. We measured the scavenging capacity of saliva against free radicals generated in vitro by electrolysis, xanthine-xanthine oxidase, or stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Total protein content and total antioxidant activity of saliva were also determined. The results indicate that stimulated saliva of healthy individuals is significantly more effective (40-50%) than that of patients with periodontal diseases in scavenging a wide variety of free radicals generated in vitro. Under these conditions it appears that the total antioxidant activity of saliva is significantly decreased in these patients despite the fact that the levels of the three main antioxidants (uric acid, ascorbic acid, and albumin) are not significantly affected. We conclude that periodontal diseases are associated with an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former due to both an increase in free radical production and a defect in the total antioxidant activity of saliva. PMID:12743837

Diab-Ladki, Randa; Pellat, Bernard; Chahine, Ramez



Fluoride inhibits the antimicrobial peroxidase systems in human whole saliva.  


Fluoride (F-) ions at concentrations present in vivo at the plaque/enamel interface (0.05-10 mM) inhibited the activities of lactoperoxidase (LP), myeloperoxidase (MP) and total salivary peroxidase (TSP) in a pH- and dose-dependent way. The inhibition was observed only at pH < or = 6.5 and with F- concentrations > or = 0.1 mM. At pH 5.5 LP activity was inhibited by 85% and MP by 34% with 10 mM F-. TSP activity was also inhibited only at low pH (5.5) by approximately 25%. Furthermore, the generation of the actual antimicrobial agent in vivo, hypothiocyanite (HOSCN/OSCN-), of the oral peroxidase systems was inhibited by F-, again at low pH (5.0-5.5) both in buffer (by 45%) and in saliva (by 15%). This inhibition was observed only with the highest F- concentrations studied (5-10 mM). Fluoridated toothpaste (with 0.10 or 0.14% F) mixed with saliva did not inhibit TSP or HOSCN/OSCN- generation. This may have been due to the 'buffering' effect of toothpaste which did not allow salivary pH to drop below 5.9. We conclude that the F- ions in acidic fluoride products, e.g. in gels or varnishes (but not in toothpastes), may have the potential to locally inhibit the generation of a nonimmune host defense factor, HOSCN/OSCN/SCN-, produced by oral peroxidase systems. The possible clinical significance of this finding remains to be shown. PMID:7850846

Hannuksela, S; Tenovuo, J; Roger, V; Lenander-Lumikari, M; Ekstrand, J



Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein  

PubMed Central

We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C23-X7/9-C33-X23/24-C58-C8-C67X7-X75-X23-C99-X15-C115-X10-C126X24/25/33-C150C151-X7-C159-X8-X168-X23/24-C192-X9/10-C202 predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24 h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 h and 48 h tick saliva proteins (TSPs). Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ~160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ~16% and caused ~24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (~44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24 h Ixodes scapularis TSPs specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. PMID:23428900

Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mercia Guaratini



[Development of automatic urine monitoring system].  


An automatic urine monitoring system is presented to replace manual operation. The system is composed of the flow sensor, MSP430f149 single chip microcomputer, human-computer interaction module, LCD module, clock module and memory module. The signal of urine volume is captured when the urine flows through the flow sensor and then displayed on the LCD after data processing. The experiment results suggest that the design of the monitor provides a high stability, accurate measurement and good real-time, and meets the demand of the clinical application. PMID:24941774

Wei, Liang; Li, Yongqin; Chen, Bihua



Saliva Proteins of Vector Culicoides Modify Structure and Infectivity of Bluetongue Virus Particles  

PubMed Central

Bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) are related orbiviruses, transmitted between their ruminant hosts primarily by certain haematophagous midge vectors (Culicoides spp.). The larger of the BTV outer-capsid proteins, ‘VP2’, can be cleaved by proteases (including trypsin or chymotrypsin), forming infectious subviral particles (ISVP) which have enhanced infectivity for adult Culicoides, or KC cells (a cell-line derived from C. sonorensis). We demonstrate that VP2 present on purified virus particles from 3 different BTV strains can also be cleaved by treatment with saliva from adult Culicoides. The saliva proteins from C. sonorensis (a competent BTV vector), cleaved BTV-VP2 more efficiently than those from C. nubeculosus (a less competent / non-vector species). Electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identified a trypsin-like protease in C. sonorensis saliva, which was significantly reduced or absent from C. nubeculosus saliva. Incubating purified BTV-1 with C. sonorensis saliva proteins also increased their infectivity for KC cells ?10 fold, while infectivity for BHK cells was reduced by 2–6 fold. Treatment of an ‘eastern’ strain of EHDV-2 with saliva proteins of either C. sonorensis or C. nubeculosus cleaved VP2, but a ‘western’ strain of EHDV-2 remained unmodified. These results indicate that temperature, strain of virus and protein composition of Culicoides saliva (particularly its protease content which is dependent upon vector species), can all play a significant role in the efficiency of VP2 cleavage, influencing virus infectivity. Saliva of several other arthropod species has previously been shown to increase transmission, infectivity and virulence of certain arboviruses, by modulating and/or suppressing the mammalian immune response. The findings presented here, however, demonstrate a novel mechanism by which proteases in Culicoides saliva can also directly modify the orbivirus particle structure, leading to increased infectivity specifically for Culicoides cells and, in turn, efficiency of transmission to the insect vector. PMID:21423801

Darpel, Karin E.; Langner, Kathrin F. A.; Nimtz, Manfred; Anthony, Simon J.; Brownlie, Joe; Takamatsu, Haru-Hisa; Mellor, Philip S.; Mertens, Peter P. C.



Detection of HCV-RNA in saliva of patients with chronic hepatitis C.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have provided conflicting results on the presence of hepatitis C virus-RNA in saliva. In this study, 23 (62%) of 37 patients tested positive for hepatitis C virus-RNA in saliva, using polymerase chain reaction analysis. A slightly greater proportion had a sporadic rather than a parenteral origin of chronic hepatitis C. These results provide a biological basis for saliva as a possible source of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but do not necessarily imply transmission by this route. PMID:8390957

Couzigou, P; Richard, L; Dumas, F; Schouler, L; Fleury, H



Saliva substitutes for the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal  The aim of this review is to summarize the in vitro and in vivo evidence on the performance of contemporary saliva substitutes\\u000a in the treatment of xerostomia and hyposalivation caused by radiation therapy for head and neck malignancies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A literature search was conducted during July to September 2008 in PubMed, using the query terms “saliva substitute”, “saliva\\u000a substitute and xerostomia”,

Sebastian Hahnel; Michael Behr; Gerhard Handel; Ralf Bürgers



Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications  

E-print Network

. Waterless, or no-flush urinals, may help mitigate these effects and offer other advantages, including lower utility charges, improved restroom hygiene, and decreased fixture maintenance. Some notable caveats include possible lack of acceptance by users, odor...

Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.



Blood Clots  


... Groups Advocacy Toolkit Home / For Patients / Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood clotting, or coagulation, is an important ... of blood and its nutrients. back to top Blood Clots: A Patient's Journey back to top Am ...


Urine processing for potable water recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resource recovery, including that of urine water extraction, is one of the most crucial aspects of long-term life support in interplanetary space travel. This effort consequently examined an approach to processing raw, undiluted urine based on low-temperature freezing. A strategy uniquely different from NASA's current emphasis on distillation processing strategies, whereby this liquid freeze-thaw (LiFT) procedure avoids both chemical and

Jeffrey MacLeod Schmidt



Imaging in classic form of maple syrup urine disease: a rare metabolic central nervous system.  


Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants' urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24049754

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh



Imaging in Classic Form of Maple Syrup Urine Disease: A Rare Metabolic Central Nervous System  

PubMed Central

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants’ urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24049754

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K.; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh



Whole Saliva Protease Levels in Relation to Periodontal Status in Man.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Whole saliva protease activity was measured in 83 randomly chosen subjects and in 59 persons with severe periodontal involvement. Thirty-three persons from the latter group were retested at least 3 months after periodontal surgery. Significant differences...

H. H. Chauncey, I. L. Shannon



Lysozyme Activity in the Serum, Saliva and Tears of Germfree and Conventional Rats and Mice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lysozyme levels in serum, saliva and tears of germfree, gnotobiotic, conventionalized as well as conventionally-reared rats and mice were studied. The results showed that lysozyme levels in serum and tears were quite similar in these groups. However, the ...

D. R. Makulu, M. Wagner



Urine Metabolites Reflect Time-Dependent Effects of Cyclosporine and Sirolimus on Rat Kidney Function?  

PubMed Central

Background The clinical use of the immunosuppressant calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine is limited by its nephrotoxicity. This is enhanced when combined with the immunosuppressive mTOR inhibitor sirolimus. Nephrotoxicity of both drugs is not yet fully understood. Methods The goal was to gain more detailed mechanistic insights into the time-dependent effects of cyclosporine and sirolimus on the rat kidney by using a comprehensive approach including metabolic profiling in urine (1H-NMR spectroscopy), kidney histology, kidney function parameters in plasma, measurement of glomerular filtration rates, the oxidative stress marker 15-F2t-isoprostane in urine and immunosuppressant concentrations in blood and kidney. Male Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (controls), cyclosporine (10/25mg/kg/d) and/or sirolimus (1mg/kg/d) by oral gavage once daily for 6 and 28 days. Results Twenty-eight day treatment led to a decrease of glomerular filtration rates (cyclosporine -59%, sirolimus -25%). These were further decreased when both drugs were combined (-86%). Histology revealed tubular damage after treatment with cyclosporine, which was enhanced when sirolimus was added. No other part of the kidney was affected. 1H-NMR spectroscopy analysis of urine (day 6) revealed time-dependent changes of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate and succinate concentrations. In combination with increased urine isoprostane concentrations these changes indicated oxidative stress. After 28 days of cyclosporine treatment, urine metabonomics shifted to patterns typical for proximal tubular damage with reduction of Krebs cycle intermediates and trimethylamine-N-oxide concentrations whereas acetate, lactate, trimethylamine and glucose concentrations increased. Again, sirolimus enhanced these negative effects. Conclusions Our results indicate that cyclosporine and/or sirolimus induce damage of the renal tubular system. This is reflected by urine metabolite patterns, which seem to be more sensitive than currently used clinical kidney function markers such as creatinine concentrations in serum. Metabolic profiling in urine may provide the basis for the development of toxicodynamic monitoring strategies for immunosuppressant nephrotoxicity. PMID:19099400

Klawitter, Jost; Bendrick-Peart, Jamie; Rudolph, Birgit; Beckey, Virginia; Klawitter, Jelena; Haschke, Manuel; Rivard, Christopher; Chan, Laurence; Leibfritz, Dieter; Christians, Uwe; Schmitz, Volker



[Foam in urine: from Hippocrates to the Medical School of Salerno].  


The formation of persistent little bubbles in urine, similar to those of beer, was noticed since ancient times by the first scholars of uroscopy. The diagnostic interest, rare and uncertain in Hippocrates, has increased over time. The Hippocratic school limited itself to observe the sign without interpreting the pathophysiology and they did not compare it with other clinical signs. Hippocratic texts only expressed an opinion on the severity and prognosis of the pathology which had produced it. Galen does not differ much from the Hippocratic school, however he tries to interpret the cause of the formation of bubbles in urine. Certainly, because of being unfamiliar to the laws of fluids and to the surperficial tension of liquids, he believes that the air contained in the bubbles of the foam in the urine comes from inside the organism. However, he realizes that the foam in urine is formed only when the urine is denser (more viscous).The Byzantine uroscopy, with Theophilus Protospatharius and Stephen of Athens considers the presence of foam quite important. In fact, they state that the bubbles appear in the urine when there is a severe failure of the organism. It is a sign of the attempt of the body to eliminate the bad humours produced in the different zones where digestion takes place. Several authors from the School of Salerno express different opinions on the production of foam in urine. Cofone affirms it derives from the putrefied blood in dense urine and he also uses this sign for diagnostic and prognostic results. Mattheus Archiepiscopus confirms Galens belief that the foam derives from wind bubbles produced in the stomach. The "De Urinis" of Maestro Mauro is strongly influenced by the writings of Constantine the African, who reports the experience of Isaac. The "humani corporis regiones" and the "regiones urine" are described and therefore Mauro tries to localize in which region of the body the bad humours were produced. In particular, the chapter on "De ycteritia" is an exact description of the foam in urine generated by the elimination of bad humours produced in excess by the liver (bile salts). PMID:24777927

Iorio, Luigi; Lamagna, Mario



Susceptibility of human and avian influenza viruses to human and chicken saliva.  


Oral cavity can be an entry site of influenza virus and saliva is known to contain innate soluble anti-influenza factors. Influenza strains were shown to vary in their susceptibility to those antiviral factors. Whether the susceptibility to the saliva antiviral factors plays any role in the host species specificity of influenza viruses is not known. In this study, the antiviral activity of human and chicken saliva against human and the H5N1 avian influenza viruses were investigated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) assays. In comparison to human influenza viruses, H5N1 isolates showed reduced susceptibility to human saliva as measured by HI and NT assays. Interestingly, an H5N1 isolate that bind to both ?2,3- and ?2,6-linked sialic acid showed much higher HI titers with human saliva, suggesting that the susceptibility profile was linked to the receptor-binding preference and the presence of ?2,6-linked sialic in human saliva. On the other hand, the H5N1 isolates showed increased HI titers but reduced NT titers to chicken saliva as compared to human influenza isolates. The human salivary antiviral components were characterized by testing the sensitivity to heat, receptor destroying enzyme (RDE), CaCl?/EDTA dependence, and inhibition by mannan, and shown to be ?- and ?-inhibitors. These data suggest that the H5N1 HPAI influenza virus had distinctive susceptibility patterns to human and chicken saliva, which may play some roles in its infectivity and transmissibility in these hosts. PMID:24214532

Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Auewarakul, Prasert; Wiriyarat, Witthawat



Sicca symptoms, saliva and tear production, and disease variables in 636 patients with rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—(1) To estimate the prevalence of ocular and oral sicca symptoms (SISY) or reduced saliva and tear production; (2) to relate SISY and sicca signs to measures of disease activity, damage, and health status; and (3) to examine the relation between symptoms and objective signs of tear and saliva production in a large sample of representative patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).?METHODS—From an unselective county RA register 636 patients (age 20-70 years) were examined with Schirmer-I test (ST), unstimulated whole saliva (UWS), questions on SISY and measures of disease activity, damage and health status.?RESULTS—Ocular sicca symptoms were reported in 38%, oral sicca symptoms in 50%, and a combination of both in 27%. Reduced tear production was present in 29%, and reduced saliva production in 17%. The minimum frequency of secondary Sjögren's syndrome was 7%. Measurements of exocrine disease manifestations were to variable extents bivariately correlated to disease activity measures, physical disability, pain, fatigue, and use of xerogenic drugs, but were not related to deformed joint count. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between disease activity and reduced saliva production. Only weak associations between SISY and tear or saliva production were observed.?CONCLUSION—SISY, reduced tear and saliva production were frequent extra-articular manifestations in RA, but were only weakly intercorrelated. High disease activity and at least two SISY were independent predictors of reduced saliva production, but ocular and oral dryness did not seem to be closely related to disease duration, disease activity, damage or health status.?? PMID:10381485

Uhlig, T.; Kvien, T. K.; Jensen, J. L.; Axell, T.



Detection of drugs of abuse in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).  


Eighty drugs of abuse and metabolites were successfully measured by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) using gold- and silver-doped sol-gels immobilized in glass capillaries. A method was developed that provided consistent detection of 50 ppb cocaine in saliva in a focused study. This general method was successfully applied to the detection of a number of additional drugs in saliva, such as amphetamine, diazepam, and methadone. PMID:21929854

Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart



Antibodies from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis recognise two proteins from the saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a major vector of Leishmania, exhibits pharmacological and immunomodulatory activities that may facilitate entry and establishment of parasites into the\\u000a vertebrate host. Salivary gland components of the sand fly are, therefore, potential candidates in the development of a vaccine\\u000a against human leishmaniasis. With the objective of identifying sand fly saliva proteins that

Diana Bahia; Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo; Ileana Rodríguez León; Jonas Perales; Marcos Horácio Pereira; Guilherme Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis



SELDI-TOF-MS of saliva: Methodology and pre-treatment effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in saliva as a diagnostic fluid for monitoring general health and for early diagnosis of disease has increased in the last few years. In particular, efforts have focused on the generation of protein maps of saliva using advanced proteomics technology. Surface-enhanced laser-desorption\\/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) is a novel high throughput and extremely sensitive proteomic approach that allows protein

Raymond Schipper; Arnoud Loof; Jolan de Groot; Lucien Harthoorn; Eric Dransfield; Waander van Heerde



Genome-Wide Identification of Genes Essential for the Survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Human Saliva  

PubMed Central

Since Streptococcus pneumoniae transmits through droplet spread, this respiratory tract pathogen may be able to survive in saliva. Here, we show that saliva supports survival of clinically relevant S. pneumoniae strains for more than 24 h in a capsule-independent manner. Moreover, saliva induced growth of S. pneumoniae in growth-permissive conditions, suggesting that S. pneumoniae is well adapted for uptake of nutrients from this bodily fluid. By using Tn-seq, a method for genome-wide negative selection screening, we identified 147 genes potentially required for growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva, among which genes predicted to be involved in cell envelope biosynthesis, cell transport, amino acid metabolism, and stress response predominated. The Tn-seq findings were validated by testing a panel of directed gene deletion mutants for their ability to survive in saliva under two testing conditions: at room temperature without CO2, representing transmission, and at 37°C with CO2, representing in-host carriage. These validation experiments confirmed that the plsX gene and the amiACDEF and aroDEBC operons, involved in respectively fatty acid metabolism, oligopeptide transport, and biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids play an important role in the growth and survival of S. pneumoniae in saliva at 37°C. In conclusion, this study shows that S. pneumoniae is well-adapted for growth and survival in human saliva and provides a genome-wide list of genes potentially involved in adaptation. This notion supports earlier evidence that S. pneumoniae can use human saliva as a vector for transmission. PMID:24586856

Verhagen, Lilly M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; Burghout, Peter; Schraa, Kiki; Spagnuolo, Lorenza; Mennens, Svenja; Eleveld, Marc J.; van der Gaast-de Jongh, Christa E.; Zomer, Aldert; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Bootsma, Hester J.



Noninvasive saliva collection techniques for free-ranging mountain gorillas and captive eastern gorillas.  


This study was designed to develop a simple, noninvasive method for saliva collection: a first step toward developing new diagnostic tests to survey gorillas for infectious diseases. The subjects included free-ranging mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda, and a group of orphan mountain and Grauer's gorillas (Gorilla heringei graueri) housed nearby in a temporary holding facility. Three collection methods were used to recover saliva from discarded forest food: swabbing, soaking, and washing. Saliva was also collected from orphan gorillas maintained in a captive setting by using dental ropes inside mesh bags. The presence of gorilla saliva in each sample was confirmed by using a salivary s-amylase assay and forensic press test paper. The recovery of gorilla DNA was verified by polymerase chain reaction by using primers specific to mountain and Grauer's gorillas. Of the three collection techniques used to recover saliva from forest food, directly swabbing plant bite marks was the most effective. Wild celery (Peucedanum linderi) provided for the most consistent saliva recovery and is eaten year round by mountain gorillas in Rwanda. This study shows that gorilla saliva can be recovered easily and noninvasively from known individual free-ranging gorillas by collecting pieces of wild celery discarded as the gorillas forage and from captive gorillas by offering them juice-soaked dental ropes inside mesh bags. Both methods can be used to recover gorilla DNA for genetic studies. Saliva collected from free-ranging and captive gorillas may prove to be a useful biologic sample for the development of new diagnostic tests and hormonal analysis. PMID:20597210

Smiley, Tierra; Spelman, Lucy; Lukasik-Braum, Magdalena; Mukherjee, Jean; Kaufman, Gretchen; Akiyoshi, Donna E; Cranfield, Michael



The erosive effects of saliva following chewing gum on enamel and dentine: an ex vivo study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The primary objective was to determine the erosive effect of expectorated saliva, following chewing acidic gum, on enamel and dentine samples, using a non-acidic gum as a negative control. Secondary objectives were to determine the effect of brushing enamel and dentine samples and the effect of individual saliva pH and buffering.Design A single-centre, single-blind, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study.Setting A

E. M. Paice; R. W. Vowles; N. X. West; S. M. Hooper



Simultaneous Plasma and Saliva Steroid Measurements as an Index of Control in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study involving simultaneous measurements of plasma and saliva 17OH-progesterone (17OHP), and plasma testosterone concentrations was performed at frequent intervals over a 3-year period in 16 patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). There was a close correlation between the results of these three biochemical measurements over a wide range of concentrations. The practical application of a sensitive saliva 17OHP

I. A. Hughes; G. F. Read



Serum and parotid saliva testosterone, calcium, magnesium, and zinc levels in males, with and without periodontitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen male patients with periodontitis and 10 patients free of periodontitis were included in the study. The concentrations\\u000a of testosterone (T), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and zinc (Zn) were measured in serum and parotid saliva. Patients with\\u000a periodontitis had increased Ca and decreased Zn serum levels, and they had decreased Ca and increased T levels in parotid\\u000a saliva. Furthermore, there

Tülin Kuraner; M. Sinan Beksac; Kadriye Kayakirilmaz; Feriha Ca?layan; Lütfü S. Öndero?lu; Hilal Özgünes



Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.  


Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

Bassett, John E



Viability of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in whole saliva with varying concentrations of indigenous antimicrobial agents.  


We have studied the possible relationship between indigenous salivary antimicrobial agents, indigenous mutans streptococci and the capability of added mutans streptococci to grow in saliva. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 19 healthy donors. Saliva samples were sterilized, supplemented with glucose and inoculated with Streptococcus mutans or Streptococcus sobrinus. The mixtures were incubated for 20 h followed by counting of viable cells. Saliva samples were analysed, both before and after sterilization, for indigenous antimicrobial agents and the bacterial flora. The subjects could be divided into two groups: those (n = 9) whose saliva promoted and those (n = 10) whose saliva inhibited the growth of the inoculated streptococci. A statistically significant correlation (+0.82, p < 0.001) was found between the numbers of viable cells of S. mutans and S. sobrinus after incubation in saliva. The sterilization procedure reduced the content of all antimicrobial proteins. Salivary antimicrobial factors, or levels of indigenous mutans streptococci, did not differ between the two groups. We conclude that none of the individual salivary antimicrobial factors alone can explain the large individual differences in growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting patterns of saliva on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. Inter-individually, saliva either supports or inhibits the growth of mutans streptococci, indicating a similar response of these two species in relation to the properties of saliva. PMID:1334804

Lenander-Lumikari, M; Tenovuo, J; Emilson, C G; Vilja, P



Orthodontic treatment effects on inflammatory marker profiles in saliva before and after 2 archwire changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Periodontal tissue changes exerted by external forces in orthodontic treatment allow tooth movement. The changes in periodontal tissues i.e. inflammation can be monitored using gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). GCF is a component of saliva. Saliva could be used to monitor periodontal disease progression. The use of saliva to monitor periodontal tissues changes during orthodontic treatment is still unknown. Therefore, we observed the profiles of inflammatory markers namely creatine kinase ('CK), nitric oxide (NO), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in saliva of orthodontic patients to evaluate their importance in orthodontic treatment. A total of 21 subjects (13 female and 8 male) participated in this study. Samples were collected from gingival crevicular fluid at three period of archwire changes: baseline (M0), 2 weeks after 0.014" NiTi archwire (M1), and 2 weeks after 0.018" NiTi archwire (M2). All enzyme activities i.e. CK, LDH and AST were measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm. Griess assay was used to measure nitric oxide level. CK activity, NO level, LDH activity and AST activity in saliva samples did not show significant differences among period of archwire changes. The use of inflammatory marker profiles in saliva may not represent the changes in periodontal tissues during orthodontic treatment.

Yamamoto, Zulham; Jaafar, Ikmal Mohamad; Rohaya, M. A. W.; Abidin, Intan Zarina Zainol; Senafi, Sahidan; Ariffin, Zaidah Zainal; Ariffin, Shahrul Hisham Zainal



Electrochemical behavior and pH stability of artificial salivas for corrosion tests.  


It is assumed that the compositions of artificial salivas are similar to that of human saliva. However, the use of solutions with different compositions in in vitro corrosion studies can lead dissimilar electrolytes to exhibit dissimilar corrosivity and electrochemical stability. This study evaluated four artificial salivas as regards pH stability with time, redox potentials and the polarization response of an inert platinum electrode. The tested solutions were: SAGF medium, Mondelli artificial saliva, UFRJ artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmacy, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and USP-RP artificial saliva (prepared at the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil). It was observed that pH variations were less than 1 unit during a 50-hour test. The SAGF medium, and the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions exhibited more oxidizing characteristics, whereas the Mondelli solution presented reducing properties. Anodic polarization revealed oxidation of the evaluated electrolytes at potentials below +600 mV SCE. It was observed that the UFRJ and USP-RP solutions presented more intense oxidation and reduction processes as compared to the Mondelli and SAGF solutions. PMID:17710285

Queiroz, Gláucia Maria Oliveira de; Silva, Leandro Freitas; Ferreira, José Tarcísio Lima; Gomes, José Antônio da Cunha P; Sathler, Lúcio



Retention of antimicrobial activity in plaque and saliva following mouthrinse use in vivo.  


The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of plaque and saliva towards the prolonged activity, also called substantivity, of three antimicrobial mouthrinses (Listerine®, Meridol®, Crest Pro Health®), used in combination with a toothpaste (Prodent Coolmint®). Volunteers brushed for 4 weeks with a toothpaste without antimicrobial claims, while during the last 2 weeks half of the volunteers used an antimicrobial mouthrinse in addition to brushing. At the end of the experimental period, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 h after oral hygiene, and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were determined. The contribution of plaque and saliva towards substantivity was assessed by combining plaque obtained after mechanical cleaning only with plaque and saliva obtained after additional use of an antimicrobial rinse. Subsequently, resulting viabilities of the combined plaques were determined. The viabilities of plaque samples after additional rinsing with mouthrinses were lower than of plaque obtained after mechanical cleaning only, regardless of the rinse involved. Moreover, plaque collected 6 h after rinsing with antimicrobial mouthrinses contained a surplus of antimicrobial activity. Only Listerine showed decreased viability in saliva, but none of the mouthrinses showed any residual antimicrobial activity in saliva. The findings indicate that plaque left behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the prolonged substantivity of antimicrobial mouthrinses. PMID:20838045

Otten, M P T; Busscher, H J; van der Mei, H C; Abbas, F; van Hoogmoed, C G



Saliva levels of Abeta1-42 as potential biomarker of Alzheimer's disease: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Simple, non-invasive tests for early detection of degenerative dementia by use of biomarkers are urgently required. However, up to the present, no validated extracerebral diagnostic markers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) are available. The clinical diagnosis of probable AD is made with around 90% accuracy using modern clinical, neuropsychological and imaging methods. A biochemical marker that would support the clinical diagnosis and distinguish AD from other causes of dementia would therefore be of great value as a screening test. A total of 126 samples were obtained from subjects with AD, and age-sex-matched controls. Additionally, 51 Parkinson's disease (PD) patients were used as an example of another neurodegenerative disorder. We analyzed saliva and plasma levels of ? amyloid (A?) using a highly sensitive ELISA kit. Results We found a small but statistically significant increase in saliva A?42 levels in mild AD patients. In addition, there were not differences in saliva concentration of A?42 between patients with PD and healthy controls. Saliva A?40 expression was unchanged within all the studied sample. The association between saliva A?42 levels and AD was independent of established risk factors, including age or Apo E, but was dependent on sex and functional capacity. Conclusions We suggest that saliva A?42 levels could be considered a potential peripheral marker of AD and help discrimination from other types of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a new and promising biomarker for early AD. PMID:21047401



Variability of human saliva composition: possible relationships with fat perception and liking.  


Saliva is the medium that bathes the taste receptors in the oral cavity and in which aroma and taste compounds are released when food is eaten. Moreover saliva contains enzymes and molecules that can interact with food. To date, little research has been devoted to the intra- and inter-individual variabilities of these components and their inter-relationships. The first aim of this work was to study intra- and inter-individual variabilities over time in the composition of molecules likely to interact with food in the mouth, with particular focus on molecules that might interact with fat. The second aim was to try to relate this composition to a liking for fat and its perception. Stimulated and unstimulated saliva from 13 subjects was collected in the morning and afternoon on three occasions at 4-month intervals. Saliva characteristics such as flow, protein concentration, lipolysis, proteolysis, amylolysis, lipocalin concentration, lysozyme activity, total antioxidant status and uric acid concentrations were measured, as well as the liking for and perceived fattiness of a fat solution. The results showed that for most of the measured characteristics, intra-subject variability in saliva composition was smaller than inter-subject variability, with remarkable stability over time (8 months) in terms of flow, lypolysis, proteolysis and total antioxidant status. Relationships were found between some of these characteristics (lipolysis, lipocalin and flow) and fat-liking or perception, showing that the composition of saliva may play an important role in fat perception and liking. PMID:22024405

Neyraud, Eric; Palicki, Olivier; Schwartz, Camille; Nicklaus, Sophie; Feron, Gilles



Disaccharides in urine samples as markers of intravenous abuse of methadone and buprenorphine.  


Methadone and buprenorphine are commonly used as oral substitutes in opiate maintenance programs to treat persons who are dependent on heroin. During these programs, patients are not allowed to continue using illicit drugs. Abstinence can easily be monitored by urine tests with immunochemical methods. It is well known that the intravenous abuse of heroin substitutes like methadone or buprenorphine has become common as well. The methadone-prescribing physician has no opportunity to check whether the opiate maintenance treatment patient takes his substitution medicines orally as intended or continues with his intravenous misuse now substituting the methadone instead of injecting heroin. In Germany, substitutes are available as liquids and tablets that contain carbohydrates as adjuvants. Sucrose is used to increase viscosity in liquids, while lactose is needed for pressing tablets (e.g., Methaddict® and Subutex®). In case of oral ingestion, disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by disaccharidases in the small intestine. These monosaccharides are absorbed into the blood stream by special monosaccharide transporters. Disaccharidases do not exist in blood, thus sucrose and lactose are not split if substitute medicines are injected intravenously. Our assumption, therefore, was that they are excreted unchanged in urine. We investigated a method for the detection of disaccharides in urine as markers of intravenous abuse of substitutes. Urine samples of 26 intravenous substitute abusers showed all positive results for lactose (76.9%) and/or sucrose (73.1%). The method is assumed to be useful to detect intravenous abuse of substitutes. PMID:24099717

Jungen, Hilke; Andresen-Streichert, Hilke; Müller, Alexander; Iwersen-Bergmann, Stefanie



False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.  


Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent. PMID:24456228

Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros



Amorphous alloys resistant to corrosion in artificial saliva solution.  


The tailoring of new corrosion-resistant alloys with specific properties has recently been performed mostly by the sputter deposition technique. The aim of this work was to investigate corrosion resistance of aluminum-tungsten (Al-W) amorphous alloys in artificial saliva solution, pH=5.5, based on the electrochemical methods of cyclic voltammetry and linear polarization. Thin alloy films were prepared on a sapphire substrate by magnetron codeposition. Completely amorphous films were obtained in the Al(80)W(20)-Al(67)W(33) composition range. Amorphous Al-W alloys exhibit very high corrosion resistance due to their homogeneous single-phase nature. The passive films spontaneously formed at their surface are uniform with characteristics of an insulator film and prevent corrosion progression in the bulk in a very demanding oral environment. The mechanism of increasing resistivity of Al-W alloys to pitting corrosion and generalized corrosion has been discussed in the view of increasing tungsten content in the alloy. Considering these exceptional corrosion properties and microhardness which falls in the range 7.5+/-1.6 Pa, Al-W alloys represent promising materials for dental applications. PMID:15348422

Kwokal, A; Metikos-Hukovi?, M; Radi?, N; Poljak-Guberina, R; Catovi?, A



Effects of iron on the pharmacokinetics of paracetamol in saliva.  


Paracetamol has been reported to chelate with iron. It was found that no in vitro reaction between ferrous ion and paracetamol. Other studies found that there is an aerobic (in the gastrointestinal tract) oxidation of ferrous ion to ferric ion caused in iron-paracetamol in vivo reactions. The objective of this study was to determine if iron interacts with paracetamol and reduces paracetamol absorption. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study design was used to assess the in vivo interaction of paracetamol and ferrous ion. Paracetamol (1.0 g) was co-ignested alone or with (300 mg) ferrous sulphate by ten healthy male volunteers, using saliva drug levels as a parameter. Concomitant administration of ferrous sulphate and paracetamol, decreased AUC8 from 42.88 +/- 3.8-34.25 +/- 2.8 microg h mL(-1) (p = 0.04) and Cmax from 18.75 +/- 1.9 to 15.9 +/- 1.7 microg mL(-1) (p = 0.11), while no change in tmax (p = 0.5) was originated. A significant difference was found in the paracetamol pharmacokinetic parameter oral clearance (C1/F) (p = 0.02) and slightly increased in volume of distribution (V(d)/F) (p = 0.10). Co-administration of iron and paracetamol results in decreased paracetamol absorption due to an interaction between iron and paracetamol. PMID:24517028

Issa, Mahmoud Mohamed; Nejem, R'afat Mahmoud; Shanab, Alaa Abu



Non-immunoglobulin defense factors in canine saliva and effects of a tooth gel containing antibacterial enzymes.  


Selected innate: non-immunoglobulin defense factors in canine saliva were characterized and quantitated. The samples from dogs showed increased pH, higher lysozyme and salivary peroxidase activities, but lower hypothiocyanite concentration and myeloperoxidase activity when compared with human saliva. Secondly, a 1-month clinical pilot study was performed using a commercial tooth gel to determine acute and long-term changes in salivary host defense proteins. Daily application of the tooth gel did not substantially affect the concentrations of these factors in dogs with normal salivation. Our results suggest that canine saliva may be similar to human saliva, comprised of both immune and non-immune antimicrobial factors. However, as in humans, oral administration of antimicrobial proteins as reported here does not seem to benefit dogs with normal saliva secretion. Products such as the tooth gel evaluated in this study may benefit dogs with xerostomia or other clinical conditions causing decreased saliva production. PMID:11968939

Tenovuo, J; Illukka, T; Vähä-Vahe, T



Blood differential  


Differential; White blood cell differential count ... The health care provider will take blood from your vein. The blood collects into an airtight container. In infants or a young child, blood will be taken from a ...


Blood Transfusion  


... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...


Blood Transfusions  


... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood Blood is like the body's transportation system, busy ... his or her body. Continue What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a relatively simple medical ...


Blood Thinners  


If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...


Blood culture  


Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...


Blood Types  


... the blood cells as belonging in our own system. Blood cell markers are microscopic. But they can make the difference between blood being accepted or rejected after a transfusion. So medical experts group blood into types based on the different ...


Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.  


Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

Zatzman, M L; South, F E



Effects of ph and thiocyanate on hydrogen peroxide-induced evolution of molecular oxygen in human mixed saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogen peroxide-induced evolution of molecular oxygen was measured with a Clark-type electrode in a buffered reaction mixture containing mixed whole or dialysed saliva. The optimum pH for oxygen evolution in mixed whole saliva was around 8. Oxygen evolution was also observed in dialysed saliva, suggesting that free SCN? is not essential. The optimum pH was around pH 6. Sodium thiocyanate

T. Nishioka; M. Kimura; U. Takahama



Urine alkalization facilitates uric acid excretion  

PubMed Central

Background Increase in the incidence of hyperuricemia associated with gout as well as hypertension, renal diseases and cardiovascular diseases has been a public health concern. We examined the possibility of facilitated excretion of uric acid by change in urine pH by managing food materials. Methods Within the framework of the Japanese government's health promotion program, we made recipes which consist of protein-rich and less vegetable-fruit food materials for H+-load (acid diet) and others composed of less protein but vegetable-fruit rich food materials (alkali diet). Healthy female students were enrolled in this consecutive 5-day study for each test. From whole-day collected urine, total volume, pH, organic acid, creatinine, uric acid and all cations (Na+,K+,Ca2+,Mg2+,NH4+) and anions (Cl-,SO42-,PO4-) necessary for the estimation of acid-base balance were measured. Results Urine pH reached a steady state 3 days after switching from ordinary daily diets to specified regimens. The amount of acid generated ([SO42-] +organic acid-gut alkai) were linearly related with those of the excretion of acid (titratable acidity+ [NH4+] - [HCO3-]), indicating that H+ in urine is generated by the metabolic degradation of food materials. Uric acid and excreted urine pH retained a linear relationship, where uric acid excretion increased from 302 mg/day at pH 5.9 to 413 mg/day at pH 6.5, despite the fact that the alkali diet contained a smaller purine load than the acid diet. Conclusion We conclude that alkalization of urine by eating nutritionally well-designed food is effective for removing uric acid from the body. PMID:20955624



Concentrations of thiocyanate and hypothiocyanite in the saliva of young adults.  


The study was conducted to determine thiocyanate (SCN-) and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) concentrations in resting (RWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) and stimulated parotid saliva (SPS) of 20 healthy young adults aged 21-29 y. Samples of saliva were collected at 12:30, immediately before lunch. Resting saliva was collected by expectoration, and stimulated saliva was collected during the uniform chewing of paraffin wax. Parotid secretion was collected using a modified Carlsson-Crittenden cup (Carlsson et al., Am, J. Physiol., 26, 169-177, 1910). SCN- concentration was determined by the ferric nitrate method (Betts et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 75, 5721-5727, 1953) whilst OSCN- was assayed using 2-mercaptoethanol as a reducing agent (Pruitt et al., Caries Res., 16, 315-323, 1982). In RWS, SWS and SPS, the mean SCN- concentrations (in mM) were 1.48 +/- 0.59(S.D.), 0.90 +/- 0.56(S.D.) and 1.24 +/- 0.65(S.D.) whilst the mean OSCN- concentrations (in microM) were 31.21 +/- 13.54(S.D.), 24.90 +/- 12.61 and 30.19 +/- 23.35(S.D.) in the respective salivas. The presence of OSCN- in the secretion collected from the parotid gland supported previous findings by Tenovuo and Pruitt (Tenovuo et al., J. Oral Path, ol. 13, 573-584, 1984), who suggested an endogenous glandular (eukaryotic) source of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), since parotid saliva from healthy glands is devoid of bacteria and leukocytes. PMID:7869127

Jalil, R A



The Ketogenic Diet: Seizure Control Correlates Better With Serum ?-Hydroxybutyrate Than With Urine Ketones  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between ?-hydroxybutyrate levels and seizure control in children on the ketogenic diet. Seventy-four children on the ketogenic diet presenting for routine follow-up visits had blood levels of ?-hydroxybutyrate correlated with their seizure control. Forty-two children admitted for initiation of the ketogenic diet had urine ketones measured by dipstick and correlated

Donald L. Gilbert; Paula L. Pyzik; John M. Freeman



Urine as a CO2 absorbent.  


The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of urine on the absorption of greenhouse gases such as CO(2). Human urine diluted with olive-oil-mill wastewaters (OMW) could be used to capture CO(2) from flue gas of coal-fired power plant and convert CO(2) emissions into valuable fertilizers (mainly, NH(4)HCO(3)) that can enhance CO(2) sequestration into soil and subsoil layers. Thus, the CO(2) emissions could be reduced between 0.1 and 1%. The proposed strategy requires further research to increase CO(2) absorption and assess the risks associated with wastewater reuse and xenobiotics in the agroecological environment. PMID:22366316

Aguilar, Manuel Jiménez



Characterization of SIV in the Oral Cavity and in Vitro Inhibition of SIV by Rhesus Macaque Saliva  

PubMed Central

Abstract Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are rarely acquired via an oral route in adults. Previous studies have shown that human whole saliva inhibits HIV infection in vitro, and multiple factors present in human saliva have been shown to contribute to this antiviral activity. Despite the widespread use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaques as models for HIV pathogenesis and transmission, few studies have monitored SIV in the oral cavity of infected rhesus macaques and evaluated the viral inhibitory capacity of macaque saliva. Utilizing a cohort of rhesus macaques infected with SIVMac251, we monitored virus levels and genotypic diversity in the saliva throughout the course of the disease; findings were similar to previous observations in HIV-infected humans. An in vitro infectivity assay was utilized to measure inhibition of HIV/SIV infection by normal human and rhesus macaque whole saliva. Both human and macaque saliva were capable of inhibiting HIV and SIV infection. The inhibitory capacity of saliva samples collected from a cohort of animals postinfection with SIV increased over the course of disease, coincident with the development of SIV-specific antibodies in the saliva. These findings suggest that both innate and adaptive factors contribute to inhibition of SIV by whole macaque saliva. This work also demonstrates that SIV-infected rhesus macaques provide a relevant model to examine the innate and adaptive immune responses that inhibit HIV/SIV in the oral cavity. PMID:20672998

Thomas, Jessica S.; Lacour, Nedra; Kozlowski, Pamela A.; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J.



Proteomic analysis of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus saliva: a comparison between partially and fully engorged females.  


The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is one of the most harmful parasites affecting bovines. Similarly to other hematophagous ectoparasites, R. microplus saliva contains a collection of bioactive compounds that inhibit host defenses against tick feeding activity. Thus, the study of tick salivary components offers opportunities for the development of immunological based tick control methods and medicinal applications. So far, only a few proteins have been identified in cattle tick saliva. The aim of this work was to identify proteins present in R. microplus female tick saliva at different feeding stages. Proteomic analysis of R. microplus saliva allowed identifying peptides corresponding to 187 and 68 tick and bovine proteins, respectively. Our data confirm that (i) R. microplus saliva is complex, and (ii) that there are remarkable differences in saliva composition between partially engorged and fully engorged female ticks. R. microplus saliva is rich mainly in (i) hemelipoproteins and other transporter proteins, (ii) secreted cross-tick species conserved proteins, (iii) lipocalins, (iv) peptidase inhibitors, (v) antimicrobial peptides, (vii) glycine-rich proteins, (viii) housekeeping proteins and (ix) host proteins. This investigation represents the first proteomic study about R. microplus saliva, and reports the most comprehensive Ixodidae tick saliva proteome published to date. Our results improve the understanding of tick salivary modulators of host defense to tick feeding, and provide novel information on the tick-host relationship. PMID:24762651

Tirloni, Lucas; Reck, José; Terra, Renata Maria Soares; Martins, João Ricardo; Mulenga, Albert; Sherman, Nicholas E; Fox, Jay W; Yates, John R; Termignoni, Carlos; Pinto, Antônio F M; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva



Natural calcium isotonic composition of urine as a marker of bone mineral balance  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Background: We investigated whether changes in the natural isotopic composition of calcium in human urine track changes in net bone mineral balance, as predicted by a model of calcium isotopic behavior in vertebrates. If so, isotopic analysis of natural urine or blood calcium could be used to monitor short-term changes in bone mineral balance that cannot be detected with other techniques. Methods: Calcium isotopic compositions are expressed as ??44Ca, or the difference in parts per thousand between the 44Ca/40Ca of a sample and the 44Ca/ 40Ca of a standard reference material. ??44Ca was measured in urine samples from 10 persons who participated in a study of the effectiveness of countermeasures to bone loss in spaceflight, in which 17 weeks of bed rest was used to induce bone loss. Study participants were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: controls received no treatment, one treatment group received alendronate, and another group performed resistive exercise. Measurements were made on urine samples collected before, at 2 or 3 points during, and after bed rest. Results: Urine ??44Ca values during bed rest were lower in controls than in individuals treated with alendronate (P <0.05, ANOVA) or exercise (P <0.05), and lower than the control group baseline (P <0.05, Mest). Results were consistent with the model and with biochemical and bone mineral density data. Conclusion: Results confirm the predicted relationship between bone mineral balance and calcium isotopes, suggesting that calcium isotopic analysis of urine might be refined into a clinical and research tool. ?? 2007 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

Skulan, J.; Bullen, T.; Anbar, A.D.; Puzas, J.E.; Shackelford, L.; LeBlanc, A.; Smith, S.M.



Interferon-? and interleukin-4 detected in serum and saliva from patients with oral lichen planus  

PubMed Central

Our previous salivary study had demonstrated an apparent T helper 2 (Th2)-predominance in saliva of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and suggested a potential of salivary interleukin-4 (IL-4) as a biomarker for monitoring disease severity. To further determine the consistency of Th1/Th2 bias of OLP, this study investigated the expression profile of interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-4 in serum and the relationship of the serum levels of these cytokines with their saliva partners. Sixty ethnic Chinese patients with OLP (40 of the erythematous/ulcerative form and 20 of the reticular form) were recruited for this study, with 40 age–sex-matched healthy volunteers as control group. IFN-? and IL-4 levels in serum and paired saliva samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OLP patient showed a low-level IFN-? but high-level IL-4 expression profile in both serum and saliva, with a lower IFN-?/IL-4 ratio. Serum IL-4 level in the erythematous/ulcerative group was significantly higher than that in the reticular group. Serum levels of IFN-? and IL-4 were significantly and positively correlated with their saliva partners. These results provided more evidence for Th2 cytokine-predominant immune imbalance in OLP, as well as the potential of IL-4 as the biomarker for monitoring severity of OLP. PMID:24158143

Liu, Wen-Zhao; He, Ming-Jing; Long, Long; Mu, Dong-Liang; Xu, Ming-Shu; Xing, Xue; Zeng, Xin; Liao, Ga; Dan, Hong-Xia; Chen, Qian-Ming



Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries  

PubMed Central

Background Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cariogenic bacteria and modulate the disease process. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of salivary sTLR-2 and sCD14 as biomarkers of caries activity and indirect measures of the cariogenic bacterial burden. Methods Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from twenty caries free and twenty caries active children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The concentration of sCD14 and sTLR-2 together with that of the cytokine IL-8 reported to be increased in dental caries was assessed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results While the level of sCD14 and that of IL-8 was equivocal between the two groups, the sTLR-2 concentration in caries active saliva was significantly higher than that in caries free saliva. Conclusions The sTLR-2 in saliva could serve as a potential biomarker for caries activity. PMID:25174416



Surface-enhanced Raman spectral measurements of 5-fluorouracil in saliva.  


The ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to measure 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in saliva is presented. The approach is based on the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to provide a unique spectral signature for virtually every chemical, and the ability of SERS to provide microg/mL sensitivity. A simple sampling method, that employed 1-mm glass capillaries filled with silver-doped sol-gels, was developed to isolate 5-FU from potential interfering chemical components of saliva and simultaneously provide SERSactivity. The method involved treating a 1 mL saliva sample with 1 mL of acetic acid, drawing 10 microL of sample into a SERS-active capillary by syringe, and then measuring the SER spectrum. Quality SER spectra were obtained for samples containing as little as 2 microg of 5-FU in 1 mL saliva. The entire process, the acid pretreatment, extraction and spectral measurement, took less than 5 minutes. The SERS of 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine, two major metabolites of 5-FU, were also measured and shown to have unique spectral peaks. These measurements suggest that disposable SERS-active capillaries could be used to measure 5-FU and metabolite concentrations in chemotherapy patient saliva, thereby providing metabolic data that would allow regulating dosage. Tentative vibrational mode assignments for 5-FU and its metabolites are also given. PMID:18946423

Farquharson, Stuart; Gift, Alan; Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Ordway, Beth; Farquharson, Carl; Murren, John



Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1 fmol/L for DHT, 1 pmol/L for T2, and 66 fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity.

Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-Van; Gugoa??, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette



Effect of saliva on an antimicrobial tissue conditioner containing silver-zeolite.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of human saliva on the antimicrobial effect of a tissue conditioner containing an antibiotic agent, silver-zeolite. Samples of each tissue conditioner with or without silver-zeolite were prepared and a plastic disk was used as a control. Candida albicans and nosocomial respiratory infection-causing bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Streptococcus milleri group (S. constellatus and S. intermedius), were selected as test microorganisms. Antimicrobial effects of samples after water or saliva immersion for 28 days were evaluated by counting the number of viable cells [colony forming unit (CFU)] in each microbial suspension (100 microL). All data were statistically analysed by one-way anova and Bonferroni's test (P < 0.05). The antimicrobial effects of samples with silver-zeolite immersed in saliva against C. albicans, S. aureus and MRSA were observed while CFU of P. aeruginosa indicated no significant difference from that of the control. As for the S. milleri group, its CFU after saliva immersion showed the significantly smaller value than that of the control. It is concluded that the antimicrobial effects of samples containing silver-zeolite against all tested microbes except for P. aeruginosa and the S. milleri group are not influenced by saliva immersion for 28 days. PMID:15189314

Abe, Y; Ishii, M; Takeuchi, M; Ueshige, M; Tanaka, S; Akagawa, Y



Distribution of H type 1 and H type 2 antigenic determinants in human sera and saliva.  

PubMed Central

A radioimmunoassay specific for the H type 1 antigenic determinant demonstrated that the H type 1 antigen is under the strict control of the Se gene in both serum and saliva. Similar amounts of H type 1 antigenic determinants were found in saliva from Se/-, le/le donors and in saliva from Se/-, Le/- donors. However, sera from Se/-, le/le donors were about 100 times more efficient in inhibiting the H type 1 assay than were sera from Se/-, Le/- donors. A radioimmunoassay, based on the binding of Ulex europaeus with the H type 2 antigenic determinant, showed that all the H type 2 antigen in saliva is under the control of the Se gene, while only one-third of the H type 2 antigen present in serum is under the control of this gene. The remaining two-thirds of H type 2 antigen in sera is independent of the ABH secretor status of the donor. The amount of H type 2 antigen in both serum and saliva is independent of the Le gene. These results are compatible with the existence of two alpha (1 leads to 2) fucosyl-transferases but suggest that the enzyme of epithelial origin, coded by the Se gene, should be able to transform both type 1 and type 2 natural substrates, while the enzyme of mesodermic origin, coded by the H gene, would work preferentially on the natural type 2 substrates. PMID:6177241

Le Pendu, J; Lemieux, R U; Lambert, F; Dalix, A M; Oriol, R



Saliva Cortisol and Exposure to Aircraft Noise in Six European Countries  

PubMed Central

Background Several studies show an association between exposure to aircraft or road traffic noise and cardiovascular effects, which may be mediated by a noise-induced release of stress hormones. Objective Our objective was to assess saliva cortisol concentration in relation to exposure to aircraft noise. Method A multicenter cross-sectional study, HYENA (Hypertension and Exposure to Noise near Airports), comprising 4,861 persons was carried out in six European countries. In a subgroup of 439 study participants, selected to enhance the contrast in exposure to aircraft noise, saliva cortisol was assessed three times (morning, lunch, and evening) during 1 day. Results We observed an elevation of 6.07 nmol/L [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.32–9.81 nmol/L] in morning saliva cortisol level in women exposed to aircraft noise at an average 24-hr sound level (LAeq,24h) > 60 dB, compared with women exposed to LAeq,24h ? 50 dB, corresponding to an increase of 34%. Employment status appeared to modify the response. We found no association between noise exposure and saliva cortisol levels in men. Conclusions Our results suggest that exposure to aircraft noise increases morning saliva cortisol levels in women, which could be of relevance for noise-related cardiovascular effects. PMID:20049122

Selander, Jenny; Bluhm, Gosta; Theorell, Tores; Pershagen, Goran; Babisch, Wolfgang; Seiffert, Ingeburg; Houthuijs, Danny; Breugelmans, Oscar; Vigna-Taglianti, Federica; Antoniotti, Maria Chiara; Velonakis, Emmanuel; Davou, Elli; Dudley, Marie-Louise; Jarup, Lars



Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test strip for detection of Rabies virus in dog saliva samples.  


An immunochromatographic test strip for Rabies virus was evaluated with dog saliva samples. The test was initially validated against 237 dogs of known infection status, and then evaluated in the field with 1,290 live dogs. By validation of paired saliva-brain specimens obtained from dogs at necropsy, the saliva strip test was 94.4% specific and 93.0% sensitive when compared to the gold standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT) on brain smears. The sensitivity and specificity of a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay using saliva were 100% compared to the FAT results. The performance of strip test with field saliva samples from street dogs had a specificity of 98.7% in comparison to nPCR as the reference method. As the strip test kit can potentially be used outside the laboratory and be applicable as an on-site testing assay, it represents a powerful screening tool for epidemiological surveys and disease control. The test could be useful for the surveillance of rabies in dogs and, in particular, be used to monitor the success of rabies control programs. PMID:22362801

Kasempimolporn, Songsri; Saengseesom, Wachiraporn; Huadsakul, Samrerng; Boonchang, Supatsorn; Sitprija, Visith



Quantitative nanostructural and single-molecule force spectroscopy biomolecular analysis of human-saliva-derived exosomes.  


Exosomes are naturally occurring nanoparticles with unique structure, surface biochemistry, and mechanical characteristics. These distinct nanometer-sized bioparticles are secreted from the surfaces of oral epithelial cells into saliva and are of interest as oral-cancer biomarkers. We use high- resolution AFM to show single-vesicle quantitative differences between exosomes derived from normal and oral cancer patient's saliva. Compared to normal exosomes (circular, 67.4 ± 2.9 nm), our findings indicate that cancer exosome populations are significantly increased in saliva and display irregular morphologies, increased vesicle size (98.3 ± 4.6 nm), and higher intervesicular aggregation. At the single-vesicle level, cancer exosomes exhibit significantly (P < 0.05) increased CD63 surface densities. To our knowledge, it represents the first report detecting single-exosome surface protein variations. Additionally, high-resolution AFM imaging of cancer saliva samples revealed discrete multivesicular bodies with intraluminal exosomes enclosed. We discuss the use of quantitative, nanoscale ultrastructural and surface biomolecular analysis of saliva exosomes at single-vesicle- and single-protein-level sensitivities as a potentially new oral cancer diagnostic. PMID:22017459

Sharma, Shivani; Gillespie, Boyd M; Palanisamy, Viswanathan; Gimzewski, James K



Influence of saliva on aggregation and adherence of Streptococcus gordonii HG 222.  

PubMed Central

The influence of saliva on the aggregation and adherence of Streptococcus gordonii HG 222 was studied. The aggregation was measured spectrophotometrically, and the adherence of S. gordonii to microtiter plate wells was measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system. The aggregation of HG 222 was induced primarily by mucous saliva, whereas the adherence of HG 222 to microtiter plates was mediated by both mucous and serous saliva. Fractions of submandibular saliva, obtained by gel filtration and containing low-molecular-weight mucins (MG-2), induced both bacterial aggregation and adherence. Purified MG-2 induced aggregation and promoted adherence, whereas high-molecular-weight mucins (MG-1) did not. After incubating clarified human whole saliva with HG 222, only MG-2, and not MG-1, was bound by the bacteria. Proline-rich proteins (PRPs) and proline-rich glycoprotein (PRG) promoted the adherence of HG 222. These proteins in solution bound to HG 222 but did not induce aggregation of the bacterial cells. PRPs and PRG in solution were not able to inhibit adherence to microtiter plate wells coated with the same components. Purified alpha-amylase hardly promoted adherence to microtiter plates but, in the soluble state, readily bound to HG 222. In conclusion, these results indicate that the aggregation of S. gordonii HG 222 is mediated primarily by MG-2. These mucins also promote adherence. Several other salivary components, such as PRPs and PRG, are also involved in the adherence of HG 222. PMID:1500195

Ligtenberg, A J; Walgreen-Weterings, E; Veerman, E C; de Soet, J J; de Graaff, J; Amerongen, A V



Antioxidant status and dialysis: plasma and saliva antioxidant activity in patients with fluctuating urate levels.  


The present study is concerned with the influence of processes occurring during dialysis on the antioxidant capacity of plasma and saliva. The biological fluids were also tested for uric acid and total protein content. Before hemodialysis, plasma antioxidant status of hemodialyzed patients appears slightly higher than the corresponding status in normal subjects; after hemodialysis it is found unchanged. The result can be explained by a balance between a reduction in uric acid plasma content, due to the dialytic procedure, and an increase in protein content, possibly due to a dialysis-related hemoconcentration. Moreover, pre-dialysis total antioxidant capacity of whole saliva samples is higher than in healthy individuals and drastically decreases towards normal values following dialytic procedure. Our data indicate a certain concentration of the uric acid in the saliva of hemodialyzed patients and evidence that both total protein concentration and uric acid level show a good correlation with saliva total antioxidant capacity, suggesting that proteins are major antioxidants of this fluid. Further observations are needed to assess whether this improved saliva antioxidant ability has any consequence on the periodontal conditions of hemodialyzed subjects. PMID:9925029

Meucci, E; Littarru, C; Deli, G; Luciani, G; Tazza, L; Littarru, G P



Effects of delmopinol on antimicrobial peroxidase systems and lysozyme in vitro and in human whole saliva.  


Delmopinol is a new surface-active agent which can reduce plaque formation and gingivitis. This study was aimed to analyze whether delmopinol (0.0032-0.65 mM) interferes with the activity of two surface-active oral antimicrobial enzymes, salivary peroxidase and lysozyme. In addition to human whole saliva (pH 5.0 and 6.0), the experiments were done in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) with purified lactoperoxidase (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). LPO and MPO were significantly inhibited in buffer by delmopinol concentrations > 6.5 mM and > or = 3.2 mM, respectively. No such inhibition was found for total peroxidase activity in mixed saliva. In vitro, delmopinol was found to desorb surface-bound peroxidases in an active form to the liquid phase. In further analyses, the possible effect of delmopinol on peroxidase-generated hypothiocyanite (HOSCN/OSCN-) was studied in saliva and buffer. No effect was found in buffer, but salivary HOSCN/OSCN- declined significantly with 6.5 mM delmopinol. This was obviously due to an enhanced decay of hypothiocyanite, rather than its reduced rate of formation. No delmopinol-related inhibition of lysozyme occurred in saliva or buffer. The results suggest that high concentration (6.4 mM -0.2%) of delmopinol may lower the concentrations of antimicrobial HOSCN/OSCN- in saliva but has no effect on human lysozyme. PMID:7552957

Tenovuo, J; Hannuksela, S; Lenander-Lumikari, M



Diagnostic Efficacy of Saliva For Dengue - A Reality in Near Future? A Piloting Initiative  

PubMed Central

Background: Dengue, a mosquito-transmitted viral infection presents variable symptoms, including death. Due to their increasing incidences, early detection and improved diagnoses of severe cases are of prime importance. Currently, viral antigens and antibodies are detected by traditional serological tests. However, the introduction of oral fluid as an alternative, has led to many researches. Hence, this prompted us to carry out a pilot study to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of saliva in detecting dengue antibody by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Aim and objectives: To evaluate the presence of Dengue antibody in saliva and its sensitivity and specificity through ELISA. Methodology and Results: Twenty seropositive patients and twenty seronegative patients of Dengue were considered individually. Saliva samples collected from these patients were subjected to ELISA test for detection of Dengue antibody. A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% were obtained for making a diagnosis of Dengue infection. Conclusion: Many studies have been conducted by utilizing saliva as a diagnostic tool, especially in western population. Its advantages over venipuncture are many, especially as it is less invasive, safe, less expensive and as it allows large numbers of samples to be collected easily for screening and epidemiological purposes. In a developing tropical country like India, such a diagnostic tool has to be encouraged. Further research necessitates the implementation of saliva as a diagnostic tool. PMID:24783144

Ravi Banavar, Spoorthi; G.S., Vidya



Stimulated and unstimulated saliva progesterone in menopausal women with oral dryness feeling.  


The aim of this study was to investigate the stimulated and unstimulated salivary progesterone in menopausal women with oral dryness (OD) feeling. A case-control study was carried out on 70 selected menopausal women aged 42-78 years with or without OD feeling (35 as cases with xerostomia and 35 as control without xerostomia), conducted at the Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration. The salivary concentration of progesterone was determined with an enzyme immunoassay kit. Statistical analysis of the Student's t test was used. The mean stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva progesterone concentrations and unstimulated saliva flow, but not stimulated saliva flow rate, was significantly lower in the case than in the control. The results showed that subjects with dry mouth had decreased unstimulated saliva flow and salivary progesterone compared with those without dry mouth. Thus, salivary progesterone level appears associated with OD feeling in menopause. PMID:20652338

Mirzaii-Dizgah, Iraj; Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh



Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors.  


Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1?fmol/L for DHT, 1?pmol/L for T2, and 66?fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity. PMID:24993181

Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoa??, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette



Family with intermittent maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A family is described in which the 3 children presented with episodes of severe metabolic acidosis secondary to minor infections. 2 of them died, and 1 of these was severely retarded. The sole surviving child is 6 years old and is normal with respect to physical and mental development.Gas chromatography of the urine obtained during episodes of ketoacidosis showed the

H. B. Valman; A. D. Patrick; J. W. T. Seakins; J. W. Platt; D. Gompertz



Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

Zee, David S.; And Others



Outcome of maple syrup urine disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The outcome of 12 children with classical maple syrup urine disease is reviewed. All patients presented in the neonatal period at ages varying from 5 to 21 (median 8) days. The time taken to make the diagnosis ranged from 1 day to longer than 9 months (median 7 days). Each survived his initial illness but 3 died later after apparently

E R Naughten; J Jenkins; D E Francis; J V Leonard



Cytologic evaluation of urine after kidney transplantation.  


Over a ten-month period, 54 kidney transplant patients returning for routine clinic visits were prospectively evaluated utilizing urinary cytology; 101 urine specimens were examined. The incidence of undetected infection was low. Two patients were noted to have polyomavirus infections, and two had candiduria. No patient had urinary tract malignancy. PMID:2823518

Stilmant, M M; Freedlund, M C; Schmitt, G W



Methodfor Determining Thiocyanatein SerumandUrine  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for rapid and specific measurement ofthiocyanate inserumorurine. We separate thiocyanate frominterfering compoundsby adsorbingitonananion- exchange resin that has special affinity for thiocyanate, then eluting with sodium perchlorate. The eluted thiocy- anate is quantified by a modified KOnigreaction, sodium hypochlorite being used as the chlorinating reagent. An- alytical recovery of thiocyanateaddedto serum and urine was quantitative;the coefficient of

Bo SOrbo


Ultraviolet properties of Australian mammal urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exploitation of predator signals by potential prey is well researched, but relatively little is known about how predators exploit chemical cues (either deliberate signals or waste by-products) produced by their prey. In Finland, the urine of some small rodents ( Microtus spp. and Clethrionomys spp.) is reflective in the ultraviolet range of wavelengths, and diurnal raptors with ultraviolet vision

A. Kellie; S. J. Dain; P. B. Banks



Presence of endogenous prednisolone in human urine.  


The possibility of an endogenous presence of the glucocorticoid prednisolone has already been demonstrated in bovine and horse urine, with the aim of clarifying its origin in this matrix, which is used by official agencies for the control of illicit treatments. From this point of view, the endogenous nature of prednisolone could be a major topic in doping control of both amateur and professional human athletes. A study was therefore made on 34 human volunteers (13 males and 21 females; aged 22-62) to detect the presence of prednisolone in their urine by HPLC-MS(3). One of the volunteers underwent vernal allergy treatment with betamethasone for two subsequent years. An investigation was carried out with the aim of verifying if the suppression, and the circadian rhythm, of cortisol urinary levels could also apply to prednisolone. The results of the study show that prednisolone was present in the urine of all 34 volunteers, with a concentration very close to 100-times lower that of cortisol, with no dependence on gender. The same ratio (1/100) was observed in the prednisolone and cortisol levels detected during the 24h together with the suppression of prednisolone by betamethasone treatment. These data demonstrate the endogenous nature of low concentrations of prednisolone in human urine, and motivate further studies about the biosynthetic pathways of this corticosteroid and its relationship with stress in humans, as already described in cows. PMID:23182764

Fidani, Marco; Gamberini, Maria C; Pompa, Giuseppe; Mungiguerra, Francesca; Casati, Alessio; Arioli, Francesco




EPA Science Inventory

To estimate pesticide exposure for young children wearing diapers, a method for collecting urine samples for analysis of pesticide metabolites is needed. To find a practical method, two possibilities were investigated: (1) analysis of expressed urine from cotton diaper inserts ...


Trialling urine diversion in Australia: technical and social learnings.  


This paper discusses a urine diversion (UD) trial implemented within the institutional setting of the University of Technology Sydney that sought to identify key issues for public UD and reuse systems at scale in the Australian urban context. The trial was novel in its transdisciplinary action research approach, that included consideration of urine diverting toilets (UDTs) as socio-technical systems where interactions between users' practices and perceptions and the performance of the technology were explored. While the study explored a broad range of issues that included urine transport, reuse, and regulations, amongst others, the boundary of the work presented in this paper is the practicalities of UD practice within public urban buildings. Urine volume per urinal use, an important metric for sizing tanks for collecting urine from waterless urinal systems in commercial buildings, was also estimated. The project concluded that current UDTs are unsuitable to public/commercial spaces, but waterless urinals have a key role. PMID:24292466

Abeysuriya, Kumi; Fam, Dena; Mitchell, Cynthia



Urine Test for HPV Works Well, Analysis Finds  


... News) -- A simple urine test can routinely spot human papillomavirus (HPV), which is linked to the risk of cervical ... found. "Our study shows that testing urine for HPV has good accuracy when compared to testing samples ...


A simple pharmacokinetic model of alendronate developed using plasma concentration and urine excretion data from healthy men.  


The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70?mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10?±?14.32?ng/mL was attained after 1.00?±?0.16?h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28?±?654.57??g and 314.68?±?395.43??g/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68?±?0.95?h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005?±?0.004?h(-1) and 0.42?±?0.08?h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data. PMID:23886303

Chae, Jung-Woo; Seo, Jeong-Won; Mahat, Bimit; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il



Kynurenic acid in human saliva--does it influence oral microflora?  


Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is an endogenous antagonist of alpha7 nicotinic receptors and all ionotropic glutamate receptors. Its neuroprotective activity has been suggested. In this study, the presence of KYNAin human saliva and its potential bactericidal role was investigated. KYNAwas found in all samples of human saliva with mean concentration of 3.4 nM. The concentration of KYNA in saliva obtained from patients with odontogenic abscesses was 3.5 times higher than in healthy subjects. We have shown that the human gingival fibroblasts produce KYNAand an inflammatory stimulant, lipopolysaccharide, enhanced its synthesis in vitro. The bactericidal effect of KYNA was also presented. We hypothesize that KYNA may contribute to the control of oral microflora. PMID:16845213

Kuc, Damian; Rahnama, Mansur; Tomaszewski, Tomasz; Rzeski, Wojciech; Wejksza, Katarzyna; Urbanik-Sypniewska, Teresa; Parada-Turska, Jolanta; Wielosz, Marian; Turski, Waldemar A



Incidence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in re-activation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crew members. The shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts will increase during spaceflight. A total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was used to determine shedding patterns before, during, and after spaceflight. EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during (p less than 0.001) or after (p less than 0.01) flight. No significant difference between the in-flight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

Payne, Deborah A.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Pierson, Duane L.



Influence of self-made saliva substitutes on tribological characteristics of human enamel.  


This paper describes the results of tests on the influence of human saliva and its substitutes on tribological characteristics of friction pairs. Each pair consists of enamel and one of the following materials: ceramics, the Meridian B2 dental composite, the GK dental amalgam, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The saliva substitutes used were prepared using pyrophosphates, xanthan gum, and mucins dissolved in a saline buffer. The results of the tribological tests show that the values of the parameters under investigation (coefficient of friction and linear wear) were different from each other. Some similarity was observed between the evaluated level of wear characteristics after the friction process in the environment of human saliva and that in the environment of one of the mucins tested. Microscopic observations of the surfaces of the enamel samples after friction revealed varied forms of tribological wear. PMID:25088699

Andrysewicz, Edyta; Mystkowska, Joanna; D?browski, Jan Ryszard; Olchowik, Rafa?



Failure of prediction of liver function test abnormalities with the urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays.  


A prospective observational study of 229 cases was conducted in a busy ambulatory care setting to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy of spot urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin assays as screening tests for serum liver function test (LFT) abnormalities. Both urine tests exhibited remarkably similar characteristics overall once they were adjusted to maximize accuracy and predictive values (occurring at a normal or abnormal "threshold," respectively, of 3.4 or 5.07 mumol/d for urobilinogen and 0 or 1+ for urine bilirubin). The percentage of cases correctly identified were 81% to 83% for serum bilirubin assays, 68% to 72% for other LFTs, but only 62% to 63% for screens for cases with at least one abnormal LFT finding. Poor sensitivities (47% to 49%) limited the detection of abnormal findings by the screen; both screens were reasonably specific (79% to 89%), but negative predictive values were suitable (89%) for serum bilirubin results only and were prohibitively lower (49% to 50%) in predicting all patients without LFT abnormalities. We conclude that spot urine urobilinogen and urine bilirubin determinations, although good screens for isolated serum bilirubin elevations, have unacceptable statistical properties as predictors of other LFT results due to a high proportion of false-negative results. PMID:2642693

Binder, L; Smith, D; Kupka, T; Nelson, B; Glass, B; Wainscott, M; Haynes, J



A method for studying inhibitory activity in whole urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for inducing and quantifying calcium oxalate crystallisation in whole human urine. The propensity of a given urine to induce crystal formation was described in two ways: 1) its ability to resist spontaneous nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals was assessed by titrating 20 mls of the urine with increasing quantities of sodium oxalate (0–150 µmol) to

R. L. Ryall; C. M. Hibberd; V. R. Marshall



Original article Partition of nitrogenous substances in the urine  

E-print Network

Original article Partition of nitrogenous substances in the urine of sheep on different dietary ― The distribution of nitrogenous substances in urine was studied in sheep fed high (28.71 g N measured in urine. The nitrogen content of these measured substances was calculated. The results showed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Laccase-type phenoloxidase in salivary glands and watery saliva of the green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The activity and composition of leafhopper saliva are important in interactions with the host rice plant, and it may play a physiological role in detoxifying toxic plant substances or ingesting sap. We have characterized diphenoloxidase in the salivary glands of Nephotettix cincticeps, its activity as a laccase, and its presence in the watery saliva with the objective of understanding its

Makoto Hattori; Hirosato Konishi; Yasumori Tamura; Kotaro Konno; Kazushige Sogawa



The influence of sensory stimulation (acupuncture) on the release of neuropeptides in the saliva of healthy subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent studies we have shown that xerostomia (dry mouth) can be treated successfully with sensory stimulation (acupuncture). The increase of saliva secretion lasted often for at least one year. Some neuropeptides have been found to influence the secretion of saliva. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms behind the effect of acupuncture on salivary secretion by

Irena Dawidson; Birgit Angmar-Månsson; Maria Blom; Elvar Theodorsson; Thomas Lundeberg



Role of Mucins from Human Whole Saliva in the Protection of Tooth Enamel against Demineralization in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of salivary pellicles on the demineralization of human dental enamel by 1% citric acid was studied. The pellicles were formed on embedded human tooth surfaces incubated in vitro with various solutions for periods of up to 6 days. Pellicles induced by unstimulated whole saliva gave an approximately 45% and those from parotid saliva a 25% inhibition of demineralization.

Nieuw Amerongen; C. H. Oderkerk; A. A. Driessen



Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone concentrations assessed in saliva  

E-print Network

Effects of sugarless chewing gum as a stimulant on progesterone, cortisol, and testosterone Testosterone Cortisol Progesterone Chewing gum Saliva collection Sugarless chewing gum is a frequently used conditions (gum, no gum) as well as in a saliva pool and water, either untreated or treated with chewing gum

Schultheiss, Oliver C.


Bacteria in the oral mucosa and its effects on the measurement of cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone, and testosterone in saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria load in saliva was experimentally manipulated, and the consequences for the measurement of salivary testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and cortisol (C) were examined. Healthy adults (n = 19) donated the first saliva sample upon rising after which they rinsed their mouths with water, waited 10 min, and donated a second sample. Samples were either left untreated or passed through a 0.22-?m

Guy-Lucien S. Whembolua; Douglas A. Granger; Sarany Singer; Katie T. Kivlighan; Jeffrey A. Marguin



Filler leachability of composites stored in distilled water or artificial saliva.  


Though dental composite materials leach filler elements when stored in distilled water, it is not known whether similar leaching occurs in saliva. The hypothesis to be tested was that due to ion exchange occurring at the filler surfaces, more filler elements leach from composites stored in a salt solution simulating saliva than from composites stored in distilled water. Another aim was to determine how matrix selection, filler composition, and filler silanization affect filler leachability of composites after storage in the simulated saliva and water media. We made 128 batches of experimental composites. Half of these used a bis-GMA/TEGDMA matrix and the other a UEDMA/TEGDMA matrix. Either silica or barium glass filler particles were incorporated into these matrices. Filler silanization was followed by a filler drying at 60 degrees C for 24 h. Half of the silanized particles received an additional heat treatment for 1 h at 110 degrees C in vacuum. One specimen per batch was stored in distilled water and the other in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. After each 30-day interval for one year, the specimens were transferred to either freshly distilled water or newly mixed artificial saliva. The "old" solutions were analyzed by ICP for determination of the Si, Ba, and Al concentrations. Analysis of variance revealed that storage solution, filler composition, and total time in the storage solution had strong effects on the leachability (p < 0.0001 in all cases). The average monthly leakage of Si for quartz-filled composites was 0.22 +/- 0.20 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 2.80 +/- 1.20 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). For barium-glass-filled composites, the corresponding Si leaching values were 0.73 +/- 0.48 microgram/mL and 5.00 +/- 2.20 microgram/mL. The monthly means of the barium leaching values were 2.00 +/- 1.00 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 3.10 +/- 1.80 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). The large difference between leaching in artificial saliva and in distilled water, as well as the interaction between storage medium and filler, cast doubt on the clinical relevance of in vitro studies using distilled water. PMID:8952623

Söderholm, K J; Mukherjee, R; Longmate, J



Stress hormone levels in saliva after shogi competition are modified by stress coping strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Using shogi, a representative table game popular in Japan, to model a stress situation, we investigated the modulatory effects\\u000a of player characteristics on changes in the levels of cortisol and testosterone in the saliva of the players.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Saliva samples were collected at the following time-points: (1) 30 min after awakening on the day of the shogi convention;\\u000a (2) immediately before the

Masako Hasegawa-Ohira; Masahiro Toda; Kanehisa Morimoto


The sensitivity and specificity of the RSID™-saliva kit for the detection of human salivary amylase in the Forensic Science Laboratory, Dublin, Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate here that the RSID™-saliva test can be used as a test for human salivary ?-amylase on samples routinely examined in forensic casework. We show that the RSID™-saliva test detects salivary ?-amylase at lower concentrations than the Phadebas® Quantitative test, that the RSID™-saliva test does not cross-react with forensically important human fluids and that the RSID™-saliva test can be

David G. Casey; Judy Price



Immunoelectrophoresis - blood  


IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture


Saliva improves Streptococcus mitis protective effect on human gingival fibroblasts in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate.  


This study aimed to investigate the effect of saliva on Streptococcus mitis free cells and on S. mitis/human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) co-culture model, in presence of 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA). The bacterial aggregation both in the planktonic phase and on HGFs, as well as the apoptotic and necrotic eukaryotic cells amount were analyzed, in presence of saliva and/or HEMA. The aggregation test revealed a significant saliva aggregation effect on S. mitis strains compared to the untreated sample. No sig