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Sample records for blood urine saliva

  1. Studies in oral galvanism: mercury and copper levels in urine, blood and saliva in submerged electrically cutting divers.

    PubMed

    Ortendahl, T W; Holland, R I; Röckert, H O

    1989-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the concentration levels of mercury and copper in urine, blood/blood plasma and saliva in relation to intra-oral electrical activity. Five Swedish Navy divers took part in the study in order to determine whether working submerged with electrical cutting equipment produced changes in the presence and level of oral galvanism and whether this posed a serious occupational health risk. The investigation concluded that the risk of seriously increased intra-oral electrical activity during welding or cutting activities was small. Development of the study is suggested, with long-term sampling of urine and blood samples of divers supported. PMID:2689614

  2. Determination of mercury in blood, urine and saliva for the biological monitoring of an exposure from amalgam fillings in a group with self-reported adverse health effects.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Holger; Ludwig, Heidi; Bader, Michael; Bailer, Josef; Eickholz, Peter; Staehle, Hans Jrg; Triebig, Gerhard

    2002-04-01

    It has been argued that the release of mercury from amalgam fillings is of toxicological relevance. The aim of the study was to determine the internal mercury exposure of two groups differing in their attitude towards possible health hazards by mercury from amalgam fillings. It was to be examined if the two groups differ with regard to the mercury concentration in different biological matrices and to compare the results with current reference values. Blood, urine and saliva samples were analyzed from 40 female subjects who claimed to suffer from serious health damage due to amalgam fillings ("amalgam sensitive subjects"). 43 female control subjects did not claim any association ("amalgam non-sensitive controls"). Mercury was determined by means of cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Number and surfaces of amalgam fillings were determined by dentists for each subject. Median (range) mercury levels in blood were 2.35 (0.25-13.40) micrograms/l for "amalgam sensitive subjects" and 2.40 (0.25-10.50) micrograms/l for "amalgam non-sensitive controls". In urine, the median mercury concentrations were 1.55 (0.06-14.70) micrograms/l and 1.88 (0.20-8.43) micrograms/g creatinine respectively. No significant differences could be found between the two groups. Mercury levels in blood and urine of the examined subjects were within the range of background levels in the general population including persons with amalgam fillings. Stimulated saliva contained 76.4 (6.7-406.0) micrograms mercury/l in "amalgam sensitive subjects" and 57.0 (2.8-559.0) micrograms mercury/l in controls (not significant). Mercury levels in saliva did not correlate with the concentrations in blood and urine, but merely with the number of amalgam fillings or of the filling surfaces. Mercury in saliva is therefore not recommended for a biological monitoring. PMID:12040918

  3. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  4. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that allows non-invasive assessment of pharmacotherapeutics of scopolamine in space and other remote environments without requiring blood sampling.

  5. Value of Routine Dengue Diagnostic Tests in Urine and Saliva Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Andries, Anne-Claire; Duong, Veasna; Ly, Sowath; Cappelle, Julien; Kim, Kim Srorn; Lorn Try, Patrich; Ros, Sopheaktra; Ong, Sivuth; Huy, Rekol; Horwood, Paul; Flamand, Marie; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on detection of the virus, its components or antibodies directed against the virus in blood samples. Blood, however, may be difficult to draw in some patients, especially in children, and sampling during outbreak investigations or epidemiological studies may face logistical challenges or limited compliance to invasive procedures from subjects. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using saliva and urine samples instead of blood for dengue diagnosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Serial plasma, urine and saliva samples were collected at several time-points between the day of admission to hospital until three months after the onset of fever in children with confirmed dengue disease. Quantitative RT-PCR, NS1 antigen capture and ELISA serology for anti-DENV antibody (IgG, IgM and IgA) detection were performed in parallel on the three body fluids. RT-PCR and NS1 tests demonstrated an overall sensitivity of 85.4%/63.4%, 41.6%/14.5% and 39%/28.3%, in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. When urine and saliva samples were collected at the same time-points and tested concurrently, the diagnostic sensitivity of RNA and NS1 detection assays was 69.1% and 34.4%, respectively. IgG/IgA detection assays had an overall sensitivity of 54.4%/37.4%, 38.5%/26.8% and 52.9%/28.6% in plasma, urine and saliva specimens, respectively. IgM were detected in 38.1% and 36% of the plasma and saliva samples but never in urine. Conclusions Although the performances of the different diagnostic methods were not as good in saliva and urine as in plasma specimens, the results obtained by qRT-PCR and by anti-DENV antibody ELISA could well justify the use of these two body fluids to detect dengue infection in situations when the collection of blood specimens is not possible. PMID:26406240

  6. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Is Hematuria? When blood gets into a person's urine, doctors call it hematuria (hee-ma-TUR-ee- ...

  7. Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Urine and Saliva Samples in Nonhuman Primate Model

    PubMed Central

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John Maina; Gachie, Beatrice Muthoni; Karanja, Simon Muturi; Waema, Maxwell Wambua; Maranga, Dawn Nyawira; Maina, Naomi Wangari

    2015-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a vector-borne parasitic zoonotic disease. The disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the most prevalent in Africa. Early diagnosis is hampered by lack of sensitive diagnostic techniques. This study explored the potential of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of T. b. gambiense infection in a vervet monkey HAT model. Six vervet monkeys were experimentally infected with T. b. gambiense IL3253 and monitored for 180 days after infection. Parasitaemia was scored daily. Blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), saliva, and urine samples were collected weekly. PCR and LAMP were performed on serum, CSF, saliva, and urine samples. The detection by LAMP was significantly higher than that of parasitological methods and PCR in all the samples. The performance of LAMP varied between the samples and was better in serum followed by saliva and then urine samples. In the saliva samples, LAMP had 100% detection between 21 and 77?dpi, whereas in urine the detection it was slightly lower, but there was over 80% detection between 28 and 91?dpi. However, LAMP could not detect trypanosomes in either saliva or urine after 140 and 126?dpi, respectively. The findings of this study emphasize the importance of LAMP in diagnosis of HAT using saliva and urine samples. PMID:26504841

  8. Wild chimpanzee infant urine and saliva sampled noninvasively usable for DNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Takenaka, Osamu; Nishida, Toshisada

    2007-04-01

    In many genetic studies on the great apes, fecal or hair samples have been used as sources of DNA. However, feces and hairs are difficult to collect from chimpanzee infants under 3 years of age. As alternative DNA sources, we investigated the efficiency of collecting urine samples from infants compared with fecal samples, as well as the validity of the DNA extracted from urine and saliva samples of well-habituated M group chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania. We collected 40 urine and 3 fecal samples from 10 infants under 3 years. Compared with feces, the urine samples were relatively easy to collect. The saliva of infants, which remained on the twigs sucked by them, was collected using cotton swabs. The average amounts of DNA extracted from the 40 urine and 6 saliva samples were 3,920 and 458 pg/mul, respectively. The rate of positive PCR was low and the allelic dropout rate was high when using less than 25 pg of template DNA in the PCR mixtures. Based on the amounts of DNA, 50% of the urine samples and 100% of the saliva samples were judged usable for accurate microsatellite genotyping. For infant chimpanzees in particular, collecting urine and saliva as an alternative to fecal and hair samples can reduce the effort invested in collection in the field. PMID:17111091

  9. Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-nave deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

  10. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  11. Estimation of Cutoff Values of Cotinine in Urine and Saliva for Pregnant Women in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Polańska, Kinga

    2013-01-01

    Setting appropriate cutoff values and the use of a highly sensitive analytical method allow for correct classification of the smoking status. Urine-saliva pairs samples of pregnant women in the second and third trimester, and saliva only in the first trimester were collected. Offline SPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS method was developed in the broad concentration range (saliva 0.4–1000 ng/mL, urine 0.8–4000 ng/mL). The mean recoveries were 3.7 ± 7.6% for urine and 99.1 ± 2.6% for saliva. LOD for saliva was 0.12 ng/mL and for urine 0.05 ng/mL; LOQ was 0.4 ng/mL and 0.8 ng/mL, respectively. Intraday and interday precision equaled, respectively, 1.2% and 3.4% for urine, and 2.3% and 6.4% for saliva. There was a strong correlation between salivary cotinine and the uncorrected cotinine concentration in urine in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The cutoff values were established for saliva 12.9 ng/mL and urine 42.3 ng/mL or 53.1 μg/g creatinine with the ROC curve analysis. The developed analytical method was successfully applied to quantify cotinine, and a significant correlation between the urinary and salivary cotinine levels was found. The presented cut-off values for salivary and urinary cotinine ensure a categorization of the smoking status among pregnant women that is more accurate than self-reporting. PMID:24228246

  12. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Palsy: Caring for Your Child Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Print A A A Text Size What's ... Sangre en la orina (hematuria) Blood in the urine, known as hematuria (hee-ma-TUR-ee-uh), ...

  13. The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.

    PubMed

    Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

    2014-09-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilm) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Mller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer, but also during surgery and in intensive care units. The investigation of cell cultures opens up new possibilities for elucidation of the biochemical background of volatile compounds. In future studies, combined investigations of a particular compound with regard to human matrices such as breath, urine, saliva and cell culture investigations will lead to novel scientific progress in the field. PMID:24946087

  14. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V.; Chow, Diana S. L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP.

  15. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany.

    PubMed

    Pesch, A; Wilhelm, M; Rostek, U; Schmitz, N; Weishoff-Houben, M; Ranft, U; Idel, H

    2002-07-01

    Mercury levels measured in urine, hair, and saliva of 245 German children (8-10 years old) are reported. Mercury concentrations in urine ranged between <0.1 and 5.3 microg/l [geometric mean (GM) 0.26 microg/l or 0.25 microg/g creatinine; median for both, 0.22 in microg/l and microg/g, respectively]. Using multiple linear regression analysis, two predictors have been found accounting for 25.3% of the variance of mercury levels in urine: the number of teeth with amalgam fillings (23.2%) and the number of defective amalgam fillings (2.1%). The mercury content in hair ranged from <0.06 to 1.7 microg/g (GM 0.18 microg/g; median 0.18 microg/g). The frequency of fish consumption, the smoking habits of the parents, and the age of the children accounted for 20.4% of the variance of mercury levels in hair. The correlation between the hair mercury content and urine mercury concentration was low (r=0.297). Mercury levels in saliva ranged between <0.32 and 4.5 microg/l (median 0.16 microg/l). The mercury concentration in saliva was below the limit of quantification of 0.32 microg/l in more than 70% of the samples. Mercury analysis in urine is suitable to estimate mercury exposure due to amalgam fillings, whereas hair mercury better reflects mercury intake by fish consumption. Up to now, saliva does not seem to be a suitable tool to monitor the mercury burden, at least not at low exposure levels. PMID:12087431

  16. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

  17. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... urethra at the neck of the bladder and supplies fluid that goes into semen polycystic kidney disease— ... aspirin and other pain relievers, blood thinners, and antibiotics strenuous exercise such as long-distance running a ...

  18. Tailored Assays for Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Investigations of Aliskiren and Enalapril in Children: An Application in Serum, Urine, and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Tins, Jutta; Ramusovic, Sergej; Ler, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Drugs that are effectively used to treat hypertension in adults (e.g., enalapril) have not been sufficiently investigated in children. Studies required for pediatric approval require special consideration regarding ethics, study design, and conduct and are also associated with special demands for the bioanalytic method. Pediatric-appropriate assays can overcome these burdens and enable systematic investigations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic in all pediatric age groups. METHODS: Tailored assays were developed for pharmacokinetic investigation of a drug in 100 ?L of serum, saliva, and urine. All assays were applied in a proof-of-concept study to 22 healthy volunteers who had been given 300 mg aliskiren hemifumarate or 20 mg enalapril maleate and allowed for dense sampling. Changes in humoral parameters of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system were also evaluated with 6 parameters in 2.1 mL blood per time point. RESULTS: The pharmacokinetic results of aliskiren and enalapril obtained by low-volume assays in serum and urine were comparable to that noted in the literature. The dense sampling enabled very detailed concentration-time profiles that showed high intersubject variability and biphasic absorption behavior of aliskiren. The replacement of invasive sampling by saliva collection appears inappropriate for both drugs because the correlations of drug concentrations in both fluids were low. A low-volume assay was also used to determine values for in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and to compare those results with the published literature. CONCLUSION: These results support both the use of low-volume assays in pediatric research and the systematic investigation of their use in neonates and infants. Use of this assay methodology will increase information about drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in this vulnerable population and might contribute to safe and effective use of pharmacotherapy. PMID:26766933

  19. [Pregnancy tests: urine versus blood pregnancy tests].

    PubMed

    Franken, Willeke; van Rheenen-Flach, Leonie; Buijs, Madelon M

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss possible explanations for the discrepancy in results between urine and blood pregnancy tests. The first patient, a 26-year-old woman, had breast tenderness, was tired and suffered from abdominal pain. A urine pregnancy test was negative, but blood human chorion gonadotropin (hCG) concentration was 455 U/l (reference value < 6 U/l). It was concluded that the patient was pregnant and she was followed in the outpatient clinic. Three days later she suffered blood loss and her hCG levels returned to normal. The diagnosis was a spontaneous abortion. The second patient, a 45-year-old woman, complained of abdominal pain, nausea and more blood loss than with a normal period. The urine pregnancy test was negative, but the hCG level in her blood was 470.000 U/l. Echography showed a thickened, irregular endometrium. A molar pregnancy was suspected and curettage was performed. The hCG level dropped initially but had increased at follow-up. Persistent trophoblastic disease was suspected and the patient underwent additional treatment. PMID:24594124

  20. Blood Contamination in Saliva: Impact on the Measurement of Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kamodyov, Natlia; Ba?asov, Lenka; Jankov, Katarna; Koborov, Ivana; Tthov, ?ubomra; Stanko, Peter; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salivary oxidative stress markers represent a promising tool for monitoring of oral diseases. Saliva can often be contaminated by blood, especially in patients with periodontitis. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of blood contamination on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and were artificially contaminated with blood (final concentration 0.00110%). Next, saliva was collected from 12 gingivitis and 10 control patients before and after dental hygiene treatment. Markers of oxidative stress were measured in all collected saliva samples. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and antioxidant status were changed in 1% blood-contaminated saliva. Salivary AOPP were increased in control and patients after dental treatment (by 45.7% and 34.1%, p < 0.01). Salivary AGEs were decreased in patients after microinjury (by 69.3%, p < 0.001). Salivary antioxidant status markers were decreased in both control and patients after dental treatment (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). One % blood contamination biased concentrations of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples with 1% blood contamination are visibly discolored and can be excluded from analyses without any specific biochemic detection of blood constituents. Salivary markers of oxidative stress were significantly altered in blood-contaminated saliva in control and patients with gingivitis after dental hygiene treatment. PMID:26347580

  1. Global Methylation and Hydroxymethylation in DNA from Blood and Saliva in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tabish, Ali; Hoet, Peter; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Van Landuyt, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We describe a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify and compare simultaneously global methylation and hydroxymethylation in human DNA of different tissues. Materials and Methods. Blood and saliva DNA from fourteen volunteers was processed for epigenetic endpoints using LC-MS/MS and PCR-pyrosequencing technology. Results. Global DNA methylation was significantly lower in saliva (mean 4.61%???0.80%), compared to blood samples (5.70%??0.22%). In contrast, saliva (0.036%??0.011%) revealed significantly higher hydroxymethylation compared to blood samples (mean 0.027%??0.004%). Whereas we did not find significant correlations for both epigenetic measures between the tissues, a significant association was observed between global methylation and global hydroxymethylation in saliva DNA. Neither LINE-1 nor Alu elements of blood and saliva correlated, nor were they correlated with the DNA hydroxymethylation of blood or saliva, respectively. Conclusion. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation of cytosine can be quantified simultaneously by LC-MS/MS. Saliva DNA cannot be considered as a surrogate for blood DNA to study epigenetic endpoints. PMID:26090450

  2. Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements on microliter samples of urine, plasma, saliva, and human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.W.; Lee, L.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1987-05-01

    Improved methods to measure /sup 2/H:/sup 1/H and /sup 18/O:/sup 16/O isotope ratios on microliter samples of biological fluids are described. Enriched levels of /sup 2/H (580%) and /sup 18/O (256%) in urine, plasma, saliva, and human milk can be measured with a precision of 3.2% (n = 200) and 0.97% (n = 200) and an accuracy of -4.6 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- SD, n = 200) and -0.32 +/- 0.87% (mean +/- SD, n = 200), respectively. Hydrogen gas samples are generated from 10 microL of undistilled fluid by zinc reduction in quartz reaction vessels. Water-CO/sub 2/ equilibration of a 100-microL sample for /sup 18/O measurement is completed in 10 h using a modified commercial equilibration system. These methodological improvements facilitate and extend the use of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O tracers in studies of body composition and energy expenditure.

  3. Simple, Fast and Reliable Liquid Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Theophylline in Urine, Saliva and Plasma Samples

    PubMed Central

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Grbay, Aylin; Aydin, Ahmet; ?ahin, Gnl

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric method were developed, validated and applied for the determination of theophylline in biological fluids. Liquid- liquid extraction is performed for isolation of the drug and elimination of plasma and saliva interferences. Urine samples were applied without any extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using 60:40 methanol:water as mobile phase under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min with UV detection at 280 nm in HPLC method. UV spectrophotometric analysis was performed at 275 nm. The results of HPLC analysis were as follows: the limit of quantification: 1.1 g/mL for urine, 1.9 g/mL for saliva, 3.1 g/mL for plasma; recovery: 94.85% for plasma, 100.45% for saliva, 101.39% for urine; intra-day precision: 0.222.33%, inter-day precision: 3.17-13.12%. Spectrophotometric analysis results were as follows: the limit of quantitation: 5.23 g/mL for plasma, 8.7 g/mL for urine; recovery: 98.27% for plasma, 95.25% for urine; intra-day precision: 2.37 3.00%, inter-day precision: 5.43-7.91%. It can be concluded that this validated HPLC method is easy, precise, accurate, sensitive and selective for determination of theophylline in biological samples. Also spectrophotometric analysis can be used where it can be applicable. PMID:25237338

  4. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  5. Determination of ABO blood groups from saliva and saliva stains by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, N; Ohba, Y; Mukoyama, R; Komuro, T; Mukoyama, H; Takei, T

    1989-08-01

    The detection of A, B and H blood group substances (ABH-BGS) in saliva and in saliva stains has been investigated quantitatively by an indirect ELISA using a horseradish peroxidase conjugate in combination with the use of monoclonal antibodies. Through this method, the reaction specificity to BGS in the saliva was very high and its detection sensitivity was found to be approximately 1,000 times greater than has been achieved in a hemagglutination-inhibition test. The monoclonal anti-A and anti-B reagents reacting with both secretor and non-secretor saliva in a hemagglutination-inhibition test and in this ELISA method were selected from among commercial monoclonal antibodies. However, no monoclonal anti-H reagent was found to react with non-secretor saliva. The BGS level was determined by the use of calibration curves of A, B and H standard BGS from human gastric mucosa and was expressed in units, based on the inhibition titer of the standard BGS. In 230 saliva samples, ABH-BGS were detectable, except for H BGS in non-secretor saliva. The BGS levels in saliva stains experimentally prepared were found to be approximately proportional to the levels in the original saliva. As for actual and aged stains, it was possible to detect BGS in most cigarette butts and in aged stains, however, such detection proved impossible in saliva samples from postage stamp. PMID:2479789

  6. Nickel concentration of blood and urine after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B; Lagesson, V

    1981-01-01

    Nickel concentration in serum and whole blood as well as nickel excretion in urine was assayed at different time intervals before and after ingestion of nickel sulfate in eight healthy volunteers during a three days study. The peak level of nickel in blood was reached 2.5 hours after nickel ingestion and the maximal urinary excretion of nickel was during the first eight hours after ingestion. Great individual variations in nickel concentrations in blood and nickel excretion in urine were observed. Analysis of nickel in both urine and serum reflects ingestion of a soluble nickel salt, but urine seems to be most reliable to follow. PMID:7259086

  7. Whole-Genome Saliva and Blood DNA Methylation Profiling in Individuals with a Respiratory Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Declerck, Ken; Traen, Sophie; Koppen, Gudrun; Van Camp, Guy; Schoeters, Greet; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Boever, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of respiratory allergies (RA) can be partly explained by DNA methylation changes caused by adverse environmental and lifestyle factors experienced early in life. Longitudinal, prospective studies can aid in the unravelment of the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the disease development. High compliance rates can be expected in these studies when data is collected using non-invasive and convenient procedures. Saliva is an attractive biofluid to analyze changes in DNA methylation patterns. We investigated in a pilot study the differential methylation in saliva of RA (n = 5) compared to healthy controls (n = 5) using the Illumina Methylation 450K BeadChip platform. We evaluated the results against the results obtained in mononuclear blood cells from the same individuals. Differences in methylation patterns from saliva and mononuclear blood cells were clearly distinguishable (PAdj<0.001 and |Δβ|>0.2), though the methylation status of about 96% of the cg-sites was comparable between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva. When comparing RA cases with healthy controls, the number of differentially methylated sites (DMS) in saliva and blood were 485 and 437 (P<0.05 and |Δβ|>0.1), respectively, of which 216 were in common. The methylation levels of these sites were significantly correlated between blood and saliva. The absolute levels of methylation in blood and saliva were confirmed for 3 selected DMS in the PM20D1, STK32C, and FGFR2 genes using pyrosequencing analysis. The differential methylation could only be confirmed for DMS in PM20D1 and STK32C genes in saliva. We show that saliva can be used for genome-wide methylation analysis and that it is possible to identify DMS when comparing RA cases and healthy controls. The results were replicated in blood cells of the same individuals and confirmed by pyrosequencing analysis. This study provides proof-of-concept for the applicability of saliva-based whole-genome methylation analysis in the field of respiratory allergy. PMID:26999364

  8. Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

  9. Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naive and Saliva-Immunized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choumet, Valerie; Attout, Tarik; Chartier, Loïc; Khun, Huot; Sautereau, Jean; Robbe-Vincent, Annie; Brey, Paul; Huerre, Michel; Bain, Odile

    2012-01-01

    Background Anopheles gambiae is a major vector of malaria and lymphatic filariasis. The arthropod-host interactions occurring at the skin interface are complex and dynamic. We used a global approach to describe the interaction between the mosquito (infected or uninfected) and the skin of mammals during blood feeding. Methods Intravital video microscopy was used to characterize several features during blood feeding. The deposition and movement of Plasmodium berghei sporozoites in the dermis were also observed. We also used histological techniques to analyze the impact of infected and uninfected feedings on the skin cell response in naive mice. Results The mouthparts were highly mobile within the skin during the probing phase. Probing time increased with mosquito age, with possible effects on pathogen transmission. Repletion was achieved by capillary feeding. The presence of sporozoites in the salivary glands modified the behavior of the mosquitoes, with infected females tending to probe more than uninfected females (86% versus 44%). A white area around the tip of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva. Mosquito feedings elicited an acute inflammatory response in naive mice that peaked three hours after the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first visualization of saliva in the skin by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with antibodies directed against saliva. Both saliva deposits and sporozoites were detected in the skin for up to 18 h after the bite. Conclusion This study, in which we visualized the probing and engorgement phases of Anopheles gambiae blood meals, provides precise information about the behavior of the insect as a function of its infection status and the presence or absence of anti-saliva antibodies. It also provides insight into the possible consequences of the inflammatory reaction for blood feeding and pathogen transmission. PMID:23272060

  10. Human herpesvirus 6 DNA in peripheral blood cells and saliva from immunocompetent individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Cone, R W; Huang, M L; Ashley, R; Corey, L

    1993-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) genome equivalents were quantitated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and saliva from 20 healthy individuals by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nineteen of 20 subjects (95%) harbored HHV-6 DNA: 18 (90%) had HHV-6 in their PBMCs and 18 had HHV-6 in their saliva. Quantitative PCR revealed HHV-6 DNA levels ranging from negative to 4,000 HHV-6 genome equivalents per 10(6) PBMCs and from negative to 200,000 HHV-6 genome equivalents per ml of saliva. Longitudinal saliva samples from 15 HHV-6-seropositive subjects revealed salivary HHV-6 DNA persistence in 13 subjects. HHV-6 antibodies were detected in 17 of 19 subjects, with titers ranging from 1:400 to 1:51,200 (geometric mean titer, 1:2,500). Antibody titers did not correlate with HHV-6 DNA levels in PBMCs or saliva (P = 0.27 and P = 0.44, respectively). One subject with persistent HHV-6 DNA lacked detectable HHV-6 antibodies. The high prevalence of HHV-6 DNA in PBMCs and saliva supports the concept that HHV-6 exists at these sites in normal individuals. Images PMID:8388889

  11. Species identification of blood and saliva stains by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) using monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, S M; Dolton, P; Harris-Smith, P W

    1984-01-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) method for the identification of human blood and saliva stains is reported. The method uses a monoclonal antibody which reacts with human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in extracts of blood and saliva stains up to 16 months old. Semen stain extracts gave weak or negative results. For routine screening purposes dilutions of 1:1000 for bloodstain extracts and 1:100 for saliva stain extracts would be suitable. Of 32 other animal species tested, only chimpanzee, mouse, rat, and eel cross-reacted significantly, and the presence of the last three was clearly indicated by appropriate controls. The monoclonal antibody gave poor results in the crossover and gel diffusion techniques. PMID:6699607

  12. Evaluation of caffeine as an in vivo probe for CYP1A2 using measurements in plasma, saliva, and urine.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, J A; Christensen, M; Ramos, S I; Alm, C; Dahl, M L; Benitez, J; Bertilsson, L

    2000-08-01

    Twenty-five healthy volunteers were given 100 mg caffeine orally and several estimates of cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) activity were evaluated. The validation was performed by correlation of different parameters in plasma, saliva, and urine to two measures of caffeine clearance, CL(oral) and CL(137X-->17X) that served as standards of reference. Two subjects were excluded because of noncompliance with a caffeine-free diet. In the remaining 23 subjects, both plasma and saliva total clearances of caffeine were highly correlated with each other (r(s) = 0.97, p < 0.0001). The ratio 17X/137X restricted to one sampling point taken 4 hours after dose, showed a high correlation (r(s)) with CL(oral) and CL(137X-->17X) in plasma (0.84/0.83) and saliva (0.82/0.77) (p < 0.0001 for all the correlation values) where 17X is 1,7-dimethylxanthine (paraxanthine) and 137X is 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine). Additionally, the ratio (AFMU + 1U + 1X + 17U + 17X)/137X in a 0-24 hours urine sampling showed the highest correlation with CL(137X-->17X) (r(s) = 0.85, p < 0.001) where AFMU is 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil, 1U is 1-methyluracil, 1X is 1-methylxanthine, and 17U is 1,7-dimethyluric acid. The major estimates of CYP1A2 activity were significantly less in nonsmoking females, and this probably was related to the use of oral contraceptives in this subpopulation. In summary, among caffeine-based approaches for CYP1A2, the authors recommend either plasma or saliva 17X/137X ratio and the urinary (AFMU + 1U + 1X + 17U + 17X)/137X ratio during a sampling interval of at least 8 hours, starting at time zero since caffeine intake. These indices are simple, reliable, and relatively inexpensive estimates of CYP1A2 activity to be used in the study of human populations. PMID:10942180

  13. Microanalyzer for Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Blood and Urine

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-01-01

    Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in blood and urine enables quantitative evaluation of human occupational and environmental exposures to Pb. The state-of-the-art ICP-MS instruments analyze metals in laboratories, resulting in lengthy turn around time, and are expensive. In response to the growing need for metal analyzer for on-site, real-time monitoring of trace metals in individuals, we developed a portable microanalyzer based on flow-injection/adsorptive stripping voltammetry and used it to analyze Pb in rat blood and urine. Fouling of electrodes by proteins often prevents the effective use of electrochemical sensors in biological matrices. Minimization of such fouling was accomplished with the suitable sample pretreatment and the turbulent flowing of Pb contained blood and urine onto the glassy electrode inside the microanalyzer, which resulted in no apparent electrode fouling even when the samples contained 50% urine or 10% blood by volume. There was no matrix effect on the voltammetric Pb signals even when the samples contained 10% blood or 10% urine. The microanalyzer offered linear concentration range relevant to Pb exposure levels in human (0-20 ppb in 10%-blood samples, 0-50 ppb in 50%-urine samples). The device had excellent sensitivity and reproducibility; Pb detection limits were 0.54 ppb and 0.42 ppb, and % RSDs were 4.9 and 2.4 in 50%-urine and 10%-blood samples, respectively. It offered a high throughput (3 min per sample) and had economical use of samples (60 ?L per measurement), making the collection of blood being less invasive especially to children, and had low reagent consumption (1 ?g of Hg per measurement), thus minimizing the health concerns of mercury use. Being miniaturized in size, the microanalyzer is portable and field-deployable. Thus, it has a great potential to be the next-generation analyzer for biomonitoring of toxic metals.

  14. Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

    2015-04-01

    An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78 h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000 ng/mL for some subjects 129 h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25698515

  15. Gas chromatographic determination of pentachlorophenol in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Atuma, S.S.; Okor, D.I.

    1985-09-01

    The extraction, identification and quantification of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in human blood and urine are of great importance for monitoring human exposure to this environmental chemical. Although reports abound in the literature on PCP residues, toxicity and environmental fate, there is hardly any information on its existence in the developing tropical countries, particularly in Nigeria. There is therefore the need to survey the status of PCP in Nigerian environment with a view to establishing the potential health hazards resulting from its bioaccumulation. This paper reports a preliminary survey of the residue levels of PCP in human blood and urine of the general population in Bendel State of Nigeria.

  16. Recovery and stability of RNA in vaginal swabs and blood, semen, and saliva stains.

    PubMed

    Setzer, Mindy; Juusola, Jane; Ballantyne, Jack

    2008-03-01

    RNA expression patterns, including the presence and relative abundance of particular mRNA species, provide cell and tissue specific information that could be used for body fluid identification. In this report, we address perceived concerns on the stability, and hence recoverability, of RNA in forensic samples. Stains were prepared from blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal secretions and exposed to a range of environmental conditions from 1 to 547 days. The persistence and stability of RNA within each type of body fluid stain were determined by quantitation of total RNA, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using eight different mRNA transcripts from selected housekeeping and tissue-specific genes. The results demonstrate that RNA can be recovered from biological stains in sufficient quantity and quality for mRNA analysis. On average, several hundred nanograms of total RNA was recovered from 50-microL-sized blood and saliva stains, 1 microg from a 50-microL semen stain and nearly 70 microg from a whole vaginal swab. Messenger RNA is detectable in some samples stored at room temperature for at least 547 days. The environmental samples that were protected from direct rain impact exhibited housekeeping and tissue specific mRNA recoverability up to 7 days (saliva and semen), 30 days (blood), or 180 days (vaginal swab). Additionally, rain had a detrimental effect on the recoverability of blood (3 days), saliva (1 day), semen (7 days), and vaginal secretions (3 days) specific transcripts, with one of the mRNA species (the semen marker PRM2) not being detectable after 1 day. PMID:18298493

  17. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  18. Saliva in forensic odontology: A comprehensive update.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Susmita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, saliva has attracted much interest among researchers especially in the field of forensic sciences. This complex body fluid is gaining popularity due to its ease of collection, safety in handling and its close relationship with plasma. Analysis of saliva for serological testing and cellular content has proved to be of wide use in crime detection, drug and alcohol abuse, hormone identification, cases of poisoning and animal bites. There is a need for forensic laboratories to automate the settings specific for saliva as routinely done for blood or urine in order to consider saliva as the primary investigating tool in the absence of other body fluids. This update is aimed at highlighting the many uses of saliva in the practice of forensic odontology. PMID:26604508

  19. Fluorescence spectra of blood and urine for cervical cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Vijmasi, Trinka; Govindarajan, Kanaganaj; Rathan Rai, Ram; Atif, Muhammad; Prasad, Saradh; Aldwayyan, Abdullah S.

    2012-09-01

    In the current study, the fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and Stokes shift spectra (SSS) of blood and urine samples of cervical cancer patients were obtained and compared to those of normal controls. Both spectra showed that the relative intensity of biomolecules such as porphyrin, collagen, Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, and flavin were quite out of proportion in cervical cancer patients. The biochemical mechanism for the elevation of these fluorophores is not yet definitive; nevertheless, these biomolecules could serve as tumor markers for diagnosis, screening, and follow-up of cervical cancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on FES and SSS of blood and urine of cervical cancer patients to give a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78%.

  20. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2011-11-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  1. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  2. Viral Latency in Blood and Saliva of Simian Foamy Virus-Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rua, Rejane; Betsem, Edouard; Gessain, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Simian foamy viruses (SFV) are widespread retroviruses among non-human primates (NHP). SFV actively replicate in the oral cavity and can be transmitted to humans through NHP bites, giving rise to a persistent infection. We aimed at studying the natural history of SFV infection in human. We have analyzed viral load and gene expression in 14 hunters from Cameroon previously shown to be infected with a gorilla SFV strain. Viral DNA could be detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) targeting the pol-in region, in most samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (7.1 6.0 SFV DNA copies/105 PBMCs) and saliva (2.4 4.3 SFV DNA copies/105 cells) derived from the hunters. However, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT)-qPCR revealed the absence of SFV viral gene expression in both PBMCs and saliva, suggesting that SFV was latent in the human samples. Our study demonstrates that a latent infection can occur in humans and persist for years, both in PBMCs and saliva. Such a scenario may contribute to the putative lack of secondary human-to-human transmissions of SFV. PMID:24116202

  3. Detection of Tumor Cell-Specific mRNA and Protein in Exosome-Like Microvesicles from Blood and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jieping; Wei, Fang; Schafer, Christopher; Wong, David T. W.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of disease-specific biomarkers in oral fluids has revealed a new dimension in molecular diagnostics. Recent studies have reported the mechanistic involvement of tumor cells derived mediators, such as exosomes, in the development of saliva-based mRNA biomarkers. To further our understanding of the origins of disease-induced salivary biomarkers, we here evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-shed secretory lipidic vesicles called exosome-like microvesicles (ELMs) that serve as protective carriers of tissue-specific information, mRNAs, and proteins, throughout the vasculature and bodily fluids. RNA content was analyzed in cell free-saliva and ELM-enriched fractions of saliva. Our data confirmed that the majority of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in saliva were encapsulated within ELMs. Nude mice implanted with human lung cancer H460 cells expressing hCD63-GFP were used to follow the circulation of tumor cell specific protein and mRNA in the form of ELMs in vivo. We were able to identify human GAPDH mRNA in ELMs of blood and saliva of tumor bearing mice using nested RT-qPCR. ELMs positive for hCD63-GFP were detected in the saliva and blood of tumor bearing mice as well as using electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM). Altogether, our results demonstrate that ELMs carry tumor cellspecific mRNA and protein from blood to saliva in a xenografted mouse model of human lung cancer. These results therefore strengthen the link between distal tumor progression and the biomarker discovery of saliva through the ELMs. PMID:25397880

  4. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Tirloni, Lucas; Pinto, Antônio F M; Moresco, James; Yates, John R; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick feeding phases. These data set the foundation for in depth I. scapularis tick feeding physiology and TBD transmission studies. PMID:26751078

  5. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick feeding phases. These data set the foundation for in depth I. scapularis tick feeding physiology and TBD transmission studies. PMID:26751078

  6. IgG and IgA in saliva and blood serum in relation to smoking and respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jedrychowski, W; Adamczyk, B; Jaskólka, D

    1979-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper was to find a possible relationship between smoking and immunological disorders, which are to be the common ground for chronic respiratory diseases. Measurements of IgG and IgA in saliva and blood serum were performed in 87 persons during medical check-up before admission to work in a sulphur mine. Persons with cough and/or sputum production usually in the morning or during the day or at night were defined as positive symptoms. From the study, different immunoglobulin patterns have emerged in saliva and serum in relation to smoking. IgG content in saliva of smokers was lower and IgA higher than in non-smokers. Levels of both immunoglobulins in serum were lower among smokers. In persons with respiratory symptoms IgG content in saliva was markedly lower especially in smokers. PMID:549178

  7. Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Lundby, C

    2014-05-01

    The collection of blood, its storage as red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and its reinjection is prohibited; until now, the practice cannot be reliably detected. A recent innovation-the haematological module of the athlete's biological passport-can provide authorities with indications towards autologous blood transfusion. In situations where a given athlete has been exposed to altitude, heat stress, sickness, etc, additional evidence may be needed to establish beyond any reasonable doubt that a blood transfusion may actually have occurred. Additional evidence may be obtained from at least three different approaches using parameters related to blood and urine matrices.Genomics applied to mRNA or miRNA is one of the most promising analytical tools. Proteomics of changes associated with RBC membranes may reveal the presence of cells stored for some time, as can an abnormal pattern of size distribution of aged cells. In urine, high concentrations of metabolites of plasticisers originating from the blood storing bags strongly suggest a recent blood transfusion. We emphasise the usefulness of simultaneously obtaining and then analysing blood and urine for complementary evidence of autologous blood transfusion ('blood doping'). PMID:24764552

  8. Longitudinal Detection of Prion Shedding in Saliva and Urine by Chronic Wasting Disease-Infected Deer by Real-Time Quaking-Induced Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Davin M.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Hoover, Clare E.; Garbino, Nina; Mathiason, Candace K.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emergent, rapidly spreading prion disease of cervids. Shedding of infectious prions in saliva and urine is thought to be an important factor in CWD transmission. To help to elucidate this issue, we applied an in vitro amplification assay to determine the onset, duration, and magnitude of prion shedding in longitudinally collected saliva and urine samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer. We detected prion shedding as early as 3 months after CWD exposure and sustained shedding throughout the disease course. We estimated that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) for cervidized transgenic mice would be contained in 1 ml of infected deer saliva or 10 ml of urine. Given the average course of infection and daily production of these body fluids, an infected deer would shed thousands of prion infectious doses over the course of CWD infection. The direct and indirect environmental impacts of this magnitude of prion shedding on cervid and noncervid species are surely significant. IMPORTANCE Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an emerging and uniformly fatal prion disease affecting free-ranging deer and elk and is now recognized in 22 U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces. It is unique among prion diseases in that it is transmitted naturally through wild populations. A major hypothesis to explain CWD's florid spread is that prions are shed in excreta and transmitted via direct or indirect environmental contact. Here we use a rapid in vitro assay to show that infectious doses of CWD prions are in fact shed throughout the multiyear disease course in deer. This finding is an important advance in assessing the risks posed by shed CWD prions to animals as well as humans. PMID:26136567

  9. Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and <1% for all biofluids and concentrations tested. Recoveries for caffeine and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention. PMID:20045386

  10. Determination of nicotine, cotinine, and related alkaloids in human urine and saliva by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Reiko; Yagi, Katsuharu; Saito, Keita

    2009-01-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine in human urine and saliva was developed. These compounds were analyzed by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Nicotine, cotinine and related alkaloids were separated within 7 min by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Synergi 4u POLAR-RP 80A column and 5 mM ammonium formate/methanol (55/45, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow-rate of 0.8 mL/min. Electrospray ionization conditions in the positive ion mode were optimized for MS detection of these compounds. The optimum in-tube SPME conditions were 25 draw/eject cycles with a sample size of 40 microL using a CP-Pora PLOT amine capillary column as the extraction device. The extracted compounds could be desorbed easily from the capillary by passage of the mobile phase, and no carryover was observed. Using the in-tube SPME LC-MS method, the calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 0.5-20 ng/mL of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds in urine and saliva, and the detection limits (S/N=3) were 15-40 pg/mL. The method described here showed 20-46-fold higher sensitivity than the direct injection method (5 microL injection). The within-run and between-day precision (relative standard deviations) were below 4.7% and 11.3% (n=5), respectively. This method was applied successfully to analysis of urine and saliva samples without interference peaks. The recoveries of nicotine, cotinine and related compounds spiked into urine and saliva samples were above 83%, and the relative standard deviations were below 7.1%. This method was used to analyze urinary and salivary levels of these compounds in nicotine intake and smoking. PMID:19004590

  11. Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Muñoz, Katherine; Degen, Gisela H

    2013-06-01

    Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities. CIT can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin also known for its nephrotoxicity, and this raises concern regarding possible combined effects. But, in contrast to OTA, data on CIT contamination in foods for human consumption are scarce, and CIT biomonitoring has not been conducted so far due a lack of suitable methods for human specimen. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to develop sensitive methods for the analysis of CIT in human blood and urine to investigate human exposure. To this end, we assessed different methods of sample preparation and instrumental analysis for these matrices. Clean-up of blood plasma by protein precipitation followed by LC-MS/MS-based analysis allowed robust detection of CIT (LOD 0.07 ng/mL, LOQ 0.15 ng/mL). For urine, sample clean-up by an immunoaffinity column (CitriTest(®)) proved to be clearly superior to SPE with RP(18) material for subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. For CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT), the LOD and LOQ determined by external calibration curves in matrix were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL for CIT, and those for HO-CIT were 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL urine. The newly developed method was applied in a small pilot study: CIT was present in all plasma samples from 8 German adults, at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 0.26 ng/mL. The molar (nM) concentrations of CIT are similar to those measured for OTA in these samples as a result of dietary mycotoxin intake. CIT was detected in 8/10 urines (from 4 adults and 6 infants) in a range of 0.16-0.79 ng/mL, and HO-CIT was present in 5/10 samples at similar concentrations. Thus, CIT is excreted in urine as parent compound and also as metabolite. These first results in humans point to the need for further studies on CIT exposure. PMID:23354378

  12. The saliva proteome of the blood-feeding insect Triatoma infestans is rich in platelet-aggregation inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charneau, Sébastien; Junqueira, Magno; Costa, Camila M.; Pires, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Ellen S.; Bussacos, Ana C.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Ricart, Carlos André O.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The saliva of the bloodsucking bug Triatoma infestans vector of Chagas disease contains an anti-hemostatic molecular cocktail that prevents coagulation, vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in a vertebrate prey. In order to characterize T. infestans saliva proteome, we separated the secreted saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 200 salivary proteins were detected on the 2-DE map, mainly in the alkaline region. By nanoLC-MS/MS analysis using a LTQ-Orbitrap equipment followed by a combination of conventional and sequence-similarity searches, we identified 58 main protein spots. Most of such proteins possess potential blood-feeding associated functions, particularly anti-platelet aggregation proteins belonging to lipocalin and apyrase families. The saliva protein composition indicates a highly specific molecular mechanism of early response to platelet aggregation. This first proteome analysis of the T. infestans secreted saliva provides a basis for a better understanding of this fluid protein composition highly directed to counterpart hemostasis of the prey, thus promoting the bug's blood-feeding.

  13. Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 μg/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 μg/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 μg/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 μg/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 μg/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

  14. Effect of sample matrix on sensitivity of mercury and methylmercury quantitation in human urine, saliva, and serum using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zachariadis, George A; Kapsimali, Dimitra C

    2008-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of monomethylmercury (MMHg) and inorganic mercury (iHg) in human body fluids. The procedure is based on in situ derivatization of MMHg and iHg with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) directly in aqueous solutions followed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The extracted species from spiked human urine, saliva, and serum are separated by capillary gas chromatography and detected by quadrupole MS (GC-MS). The optimization of the HS-SPME conditions like temperature, sample volume, extraction duration, and amount of alkylation agent, was performed in urinary solutions and aqueous solutions similarly buffered. The gas chromatographic conditions like injection temperature, helium flow rate, temperature program, and pressure conditions were also optimized. The recovery was ranged between 85 and 96% for MMHg and 88 and 98% for iHg. The LODs achieved were 10 and 15 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in urine, respectively, 54 and 60 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in saliva, respectively, and 61 and 81 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in serum, respectively. The RSD was ranged between 6.2 and 9.2% for MMHg and 5.0 and 8.2% for iHg. PMID:19021164

  15. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Alexandre R.; Deeley, Kathleen B.; Callahan, Nicholas F.; Noel, Jacqueline B.; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Carricato, Wendy M.; Schulhof, Louise P.; DeSensi, Rebecca S.; Gandhi, Pooja; Resick, Judith M.; Brandon, Carla A.; Rozhon, Christopher; Patir, Asli; Yildirim, Mine; Poletta, Fernando A.; Mereb, Juan C.; Letra, Ariadne; Menezes, Renato; Wendell, Steven; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Orioli, Ida M.; Seymen, Figen; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W.; Modesto, Adriana; Marazita, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,424 DNA samples from humans. Our results suggest that we can determine the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in both DNA samples from caries-free and caries-affected individuals. However, we were not able to detect the presence of genomic DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans in any DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood, which suggests the assay may not be sensitive enough for this goal. Values of the threshold cycle of the real-time PCR reaction correlate with higher levels of caries experience in children, but this correlation could not be detected for adults. PMID:21731912

  16. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa’s Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Delaune, Deborah; Poyot, Thomas; Valade, Eric; Mérens, Audrey; Rollin, Pierre E.; Foissaud, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated RNA stability of Ebola virus in EDTA blood and urine samples collected from infected patients and stored in West Africa’s environmental conditions. In blood, RNA was stable for at least 18 days when initial cycle threshold values were <30, but in urine, RNA degradation occurred more quickly. PMID:26812135

  17. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa's Environmental Conditions.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Frédéric; Delaune, Deborah; Poyot, Thomas; Valade, Eric; Mérens, Audrey; Rollin, Pierre E; Foissaud, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated RNA stability of Ebola virus in EDTA blood and urine samples collected from infected patients and stored in West Africa's environmental conditions. In blood, RNA was stable for at least 18 days when initial cycle threshold values were <30, but in urine, RNA degradation occurred more quickly. PMID:26812135

  18. Urine and Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to ...

  19. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 and human cytomegalovirus in blood and saliva from patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nefzi, Faten; Ben Salem, Nabil Abid; Khelif, Abderrahim; Feki, Salma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-03-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNAs were quantified by real-time PCR assays in blood and saliva obtained from 50 patients with acute leukemia at the time of diagnosis (50 of each matrix), aplasia (65 of each matrix), remission (55 of each matrix), and relapse (20 of each matrix) to evaluate which biological matrix was more suitable to identify a viral reactivation, search for a possible link between HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations, and evaluate the relations between viral loads and count of different leukocyte types in blood. The median HHV-6 loads were 136; 219; 226, and 75 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 193 and 317 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis and remission. In the saliva samples, the HHV-6 loads were 22,165; 15,238; 30,214, and 17,454 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 8,991; 1,461; 2,980, and 4,283 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HHV-6 load in the blood was correlated to the counts of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (R(2)  = 0.5; P < 0.0001) and lymphocytes (R(2)  = 0.4; P = 0.001) and was not correlated to the monocyte counts (R(2)  = 0.07; P = 0.7). Saliva appears to be a more sensitive biological matrix than whole blood in the detection of HHV-6 or HCMV reactivations. The HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations were linked only in saliva. PMID:25163462

  20. A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

  1. Differences in the quantity of DNA found in the urine and saliva of smokers versus nonsmokers: implications for the timing of epigenetic events.

    PubMed

    Simkin, Melissa; Abdalla, Moemen; El-Mogy, Mohamed; Haj-Ahmad, Yousef

    2012-06-01

    TP53 is a tumor-suppressor gene coding for p53, a protein responsible for cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair. Smoking has been demonstrated to lead to the methylation of tumor-suppressor genes in noncancerous lung biopsy tissues of smokers, and in bodily fluids, promoter hypermethylation occurs very early in the progression of cancer. Thus, DNA methylation changes may be initiated long before cells become cancerous. As this association has never been explored in young, healthy individuals, we decided to look at DNA isolated from urine and saliva samples taken from young male and female smoking and nonsmoking participants. While p53 methylation was not found in any of the samples tested, differences in DNA concentration between the two groups may shed light on the timing of epigenetic alterations, as well as better explain why the negative impact of smoking is not often found in young, healthy adults. PMID:22690669

  2. Multiplex detection of pathogen biomarkers in human blood, serum, and saliva using silicon photonic microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada, I. A.; Burlingame, R. W.; Wang, A. P.; Chawla, K.; Grove, T.; Wang, J.; Southern, S. O.; Iqbal, M.; Gunn, L. C.; Gleeson, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    Genalyte has developed a multiplex silicon photonic chip diagnostics platform (MaverickTM) for rapid detection of up to 32 biological analytes from a drop of sample in just 10 to 20 minutes. The chips are manufactured with waveguides adjacent to ring resonators, and probed with a continuously variable wavelength laser. A shift in the resonant wavelength as mass binds above the ring resonators is measured and is directly proportional to the amount of bound macromolecules. We present here the ability to multiplex the detection of hemorrhagic fever antigens in whole blood, serum, and saliva in a 16 minute assay. Our proof of concept testing of a multiplex antigencapture chip has the ability to detect Zaire Ebola (ZEBOV) recombinant soluble glycoprotein (rsGP), Marburg virus (MARV) Angola recombinant glycoprotein (rGP) and dengue nonstructural protein I (NS1). In parallel, detection of 2 malaria antigens has proven successful, but has yet to be incorporated into multiplex with the others. Each assay performs with sensitivity ranging from 1.6 ng/ml to 39 ng/ml depending on the antigen detected, and with minimal cross-reactivity.

  3. Model for validation of radioimmunoassay kit reagents: measurement of follitropin and lutropin in blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Santner, S.J.; Santen, R.J.; Kulin, H.E.; Demers, L.M.

    1981-11-01

    We measured lutropin and follitropin in blood and urine with radioimmunoassay kits from Diagnostic Products Corporation and compared the results with those obtained by use of re agents from the National Institutes of health (NIH) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The urine standard (second IRP-HMG) from WHO, the blood standard (LER-907) from NIH, and the commercial standards all effected similar displacement of trace material when the commercial gonadotropin kit reagents were used. Highly significant correlations were achieved for these hormones in blood or urine on comparing commercial and NIH/WHO reagents. Serial dilutions of urine samples produced similar relative potencies with the commercial reagents. Conversion factors are presented to relate results for LER-907, second IRP, or commercial standards. Commercially available reagents can provide a practical and reliable means of gonadotropin radioimmunoassay in blood or urine.

  4. ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Luisa Caricio; Corvelo, Tereza Cristina de Oliveira; Oti, Henrique Takeshi; Loiola, Rosane do Socorro Pompeu; Aguiar, Délia Cristina Figueira; Barile, Katarine Antônia dos Santos; do Amaral, Renata Kelly Costa; Barbosa, Hivana Patricia Melo; Fecury, Amanda Alves; de Souza, Juciclayton Tavares

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the ABH and Lewis antigen expression in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric epithelium, as well as the association between H pylori and the presence of gastric epithelial lesions. METHODS: The distribution of ABH and Lewis blood group antigens in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mucosa of H pylori-infected gastric ulcer patients was analyzed. Forty-two patients with gastric ulcer were studied, and fifty healthy individuals were used as control group. The blood group antigens were determined by direct hemagglutination, dot-ELISA and immunohistochemical methods in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mucosa specimens, respectively. Diagnosis for H pylori infection was performed by conventional optical microscopy and ELISA. RESULTS: A higher seroprevalence of IgG H pylori specific antibodies was observed in gastric ulcer patients (90%) compared to the control group (60%). We observed a significant increase of phenotypes O, A2 and Lewis b in H pylori-infected patients. The expression of these antigens had progressive alterations in areas of ulcerous lesions and intestinal metaplasia. CONCLUSION: ABH and Lewis blood group antigens are a good indicator for cellular alterations in the gastric epithelium. PMID:16534856

  5. Assessment of ABO blood grouping and secretor status in the saliva of the patients with oral potentially malignant disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Pragati; Acharya, Swetha; Hallikeri, Kaveri

    2015-01-01

    Background: Secretor status may possibly be one of the factors in the etiopathogenesis of oral precancerous lesions and subsequently cancer. Studies have shown the relationship between the pathogenesis of disease and secretor status. They have made known that secretor status is a possible factor influencing disease status. Studies have revealed the association between blood groups and specific diseases. Aims: To assess any association of ABO blood grouping with oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and to examine whether there is any difference in the saliva secretor status in the patients with OPMDs and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 90 subjects, with 45 patients assigned to two groups (a) Patients with potentially malignant disorders and (b) healthy controls. ABO blood grouping was done and 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was collected in a sterile test tube. The Wiener agglutination test was performed to analyze the secretor status in both the groups. Chi-square test and odd ratio were used to assess the relationship between ABO blood group and OPMDs. Chi-square test was performed to assess the relationship between secretor status and OPMDs. Probability level was fixed at <0.05. Results: The results demonstrated a statistically significant relation between OPMDs and secretor status (P = 0.00). Eighty-seven percent of patients with OPMDs were nonsecretors, while in the control group sixteen percent of them were nonsecretors. There was no statistically significant relationship between ABO blood groups and OPMDs (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The study confirms the inability to secrete blood group antigens in the saliva of patients with OPMDs which could be regarded as a host risk factor. Results could not propose a relationship between ABO blood group and OPMDs. PMID:26604491

  6. Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

  7. Nickel concentration of blood, urine and sweat after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Christensen, O B; Mller, H; Andrasko, L; Lagesson, V

    1979-09-01

    Healthy volunteers without nickel hypersensitivity were given 5.6 mg nickel orally. The nickel concentration was assayed in urine, serum and sauna-provocated sweat from hands and trunk before and after nickel ingestion. The nickel concentration in serum increased in all subjects, and in most cases in urine, but not decisively in sweat. PMID:509933

  8. SELENIUM LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...

  9. Detection of the BLV provirus from nasal secretion and saliva samples using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: Comparison with blood samples from the same cattle.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Saito, Susumu; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Haga, Satoshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Ayumu; Murakami, Hironobu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. Sero-epidemiological studies show that BLV infection occurs worldwide. Direct contact between infected and uninfected cattle is thought to be one of the risk factors for BLV transmission. Contact transmission occurs via a mixture of natural sources, blood, and exudates. To confirm that BLV provirus is detectable in these samples, matched blood, nasal secretion, and saliva samples were collected from 50 cattle, and genomic DNA was extracted. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2, an assay developed for the highly sensitive detection of BLV, was then used to measure the proviral load in blood (n=50), nasal secretions (n=48), and saliva (n=47) samples. The results showed that 35 blood samples, 14 nasal secretion samples, and 6 saliva samples were positive for the BLV provirus. Matched blood samples from cattle that were positive for the BLV provirus (either in nasal secretion or saliva samples) were also positive in their blood. The proviral load in the positive blood samples was >14,000 (copies/110(5) cells). Thus, even though the proviral load in the nasal secretion and saliva samples was much lower (<380 copies/110(5) cells) than that in the peripheral blood, prolonged direct contact between infected and healthy cattle may be considered as a risk factor for BLV transmission. PMID:26298004

  10. Correlation of sulphadimidine acetylation test in urine and blood for isoniazid phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Nair, C R; Gupta, R C; Varshneya, A K; Malik, S K

    1984-12-01

    Sulphadimidine acetylation was determined in 110 cases in samples obtained from urine and blood. A trimodal distribution was observed by both the methods. The correlation co-efficient "r" for the two methods was 0.46. PMID:6526538

  11. Saliva and viral infections.

    PubMed

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; Abrams, William R; Malamud, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 10 years there have been only a handful of publications dealing with the oral virome, which is in contrast to the oral microbiome, an area that has seen considerable interest. Here, we survey viral infections in general and then focus on those viruses that are found in and/or are transmitted via the oral cavity; norovirus, rabies, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Increasingly, viral infections have been diagnosed using an oral sample (e.g. saliva mucosal transudate or an oral swab) instead of blood or urine. The results of two studies using a rapid and semi-quantitative lateral flow assay format demonstrating the correlation of HIV anti-IgG/sIgA detection with saliva and serum samples are presented. When immediate detection of infection is important, point-of-care devices that obtain a non-invasive sample from the oral cavity can be used to provide a first line diagnosis to assist in determining appropriate counselling and therapeutic path for an increasing number of diseases. PMID:26662485

  12. Urine is a better biomarker source than blood especially for kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Gao, Youhe

    2015-01-01

    Change is the soul of biomarker definition. Changes are more likely to be removed from blood because of homeostasis mechanisms of the body. Therefore, urine is probably a better biomarker source than blood. The road map to the urinary biomarker era is proposed. Researchers are reminded the potential opportunities and risks in their study design. Kidney diseases are emphasized as they produce most significant changes in urine. PMID:25355564

  13. Toxic trace element reference levels in blood and urine: influence of gender and lifestyle factors.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, J; Christensen, J M; Iversen, B S; Sabbioni, E

    1997-09-26

    This study is part of the EURO-TERVIHT project (Trace Element Reference Values in Human Tissues) which aims at establishing reference intervals for trace elements in blood, urine and other human tissues. In this study reference intervals (0.05-0.95 fractiles) were estimated for lead in blood (105-529 nmol/l for men, 80-340 nmol/l for women), manganese in blood (100-271 nmol/l) and arsenic in urine (36-541 nmol/l for men, 21-475 nmol/l for women). Upper reference limits (0.95 fractile) were established for chromium in urine (13 nmol/l), nickel in urine (52 nmol/l) and cobalt in urine (23 nmol/l for men, 31 nmol/l for women). The reference group was a Danish subpopulation (n = 189), age 40-70 years. The influence of gender, age, health status parameters, nutrition and various lifestyle factors was investigated. Urinary arsenic and blood lead levels were found to be higher for men than for women. Arsenic levels also increased with age up to 60 years, and then decreased. Alcohol intake lead to increased arsenic levels in urine as well as blood lead levels. Urinary nickel levels were higher in persons frequently eating porridge and porridge oats. PMID:9301099

  14. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  15. Radioimmunoassay of amphetamines in rat parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Digregorio, G J; Kniaz, E K

    1976-10-01

    Amphetamines, a commonly abused class of drugs, have been detected in various biological specimens, in particular, urine and blood. However, little information is available concerning the detection of these drugs in saliva. This investigation, utilizing the rat salivary secretions, has been attempted to establish the ability of amphetamines to be secreted in saliva and to determine the feasibility of using radioimmunoassay (RIA) for drug detection in saliva. The results of this investigation showed that (1) d-amphetamine and methamphetamine decreased salivary flow, (2) after d-amphetamine RIA tests were demonstrated in both saliva and plasma for a period of fifty minutes, and (3) positive RIA reactions were obtained by the following metamphetamine metabolites: amphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine and 4-hydroxyamphetamine. Methamphetamine and 4-hydroxy-N-methylamphetamine were found to be non-reactive in the radioimmunoassay procedure. The results indicate that saliva could be radioimmunoassayed for the detection of amphetamine or amphetamine derivatives after the administration of either d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. PMID:1017382

  16. Normal chromium levels in urine and blood of Japanese subjects determined by direct flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and valency of chromium in urine after exposure to hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Nomiyama, H.; Yotoriyama, M.; Nomiyama, K.

    1980-02-01

    Two hundred and thirty one urine and 20 blood samples of Japanese subjects from 4 geographic areas without known chromium pollution were assayed for chromium by direct flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Normal chromium level in urine of Japanese subjects was 0.41 ..mu..g/L on an average. Urine level was less than 0.8 ..mu..g/L for all age and sex groups. Chromium levels in 2 hour urines did not correlate with those in 24 hours urine. Blood level of chromium was 2.9 ng/mL. a rabbit given an oral administration of 100 mg hexavalent chromium excreted 8.2 mg in 15 days after administration. No hexavalent chromium could be detected in urine. Ninety percent of the urinary excretion occurred within 2 days of administration.

  17. Detection of cervical cancer by fluorescence emission and stokes' shift spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, V.; Vijmasi, T.; AlSalhi, M.; Govindarajan, K.; VijayaRaghavan, A. P.; Rai, Ram Rathan

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we present the results of a study to distinguish cervical cancer patients [ N=50] from healthy subjects [N=50] based on the Fluorescence Emission Spectra [FES] and Stokes' Shift Spectra [SSS] of blood and urine. FES was obtained from the cellular fraction of blood and urine by excitation at 400 nm. SSS was obtained from blood plasma and urine with ?? of 70nm. In the FES of blood cellular fraction, the ratio of intensity of the two bands due to neutral porphyrin and basic porphyrin [I630 / I580] was 1 for normal controls and 3 for cervical cancers. In the SSS of plasma, the average ratio of intensity of the two bands due to tryptophan and collagen [I305 nm / I340 nm] was 1.9 for normal controls, 1.1 for early cervical cancers and 0.9 for advanced cervical cancers In the SSS of urine, the ratio of intensity of the two bands due to flavin and NADH [I450 nm / I360 nm] was 0.2 for normal controls and 0.8 for cancer patients. A discriminant analysis combining all three parameters showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78% for this technique. In this study we show that fluorescence spectroscopy of blood and urine could develop into a promising technique for non-invasive diagnosis and screening of cervical cancers and would appropriately supplement or complement currently used techniques.

  18. Peripheral blood lymphocytes are able to maintain their viability and basic function in normal urine

    PubMed Central

    Aghamajidi, Azin; Babaie, Hesam; Amirjamshidi, Narges; Abedian, Zeinab; Khorasani, Hamidreza; Mostafazadeh, Amrollah

    2016-01-01

    Background: Similar to inflammatory cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can also infiltrate in to kidney and urinary tracts and subsequently excreted by urine. In this study we determined the viability rate and response to phytohemagglutinin-A (PHA) of human PBMCs in normal urine. Methods: A number of 1106 ficoll-hypaque isolated PBMCs were dispensed in 1 ml normal urine and 6 molar urea and RPMI-1640+FBS10 % were considered as negative and positive control, respectively. After 20, 60 and 120 minutes the viability of these cells was measured by trypan blue dye exclusion assay. 1105 of PBMCs were isolated from urine and cultured as triplicate in RPMI-1640`supplemented with FBS 10% and PHA for 96hr. MTT assay was performed to determine the PBMCs response to PHA. These experiments were repeated three times independently. Results: There was no significant difference between the viability rates of the PBMCs incubated in urine and positive control after 20, 60 and 120 minutes. Overall, there was a significant difference in trends of viability rate across the three groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our results showed that not only PBMCs remained remarkably alive in urine after 120 minutes, but can also respond to PHA up to 60 minutes after incubation in urine. These data open a new avenue in the designation for cell culture-based techniques in urine cell analysis.

  19. Bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive to dentin surfaces treated with saliva, blood, and different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Nimet; Cebe, Fatma; Cebe, Mehmet Ata; Cetin, Ali Riza; Cobanoglu, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive to dentin surfaces after treatment with 4 different hemostatic agents in the presence of saliva and blood. After testing, no significant differences were found between the mean bond strength of Clearfil SE (CSE) Bond resin adhesive to normal dentin and those of CSE to dentin treated with the hemostatic agents ViscoStat Clear, Astringedent, or Astringedent X (P > 0.05). However, the mean bond strength of CSE Bond to dentin treated with Ankaferd Blood Stopper (ABS) was significantly greater than those of the other groups (P < 0.05). Thus, while 3 of the tested hemostatic agents did not have significant effects on the bond strength of composite resin to dentin, ABS increased the bond strength of CSE Bond to dentin. PMID:26147164

  20. Disposition of Lead (Pb) in Saliva and Blood of Sprague-Dawley Rats Following a Single or Repeated Oral Exposure to Pb-Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Lin, Yuehe; Weitz, Karl K.; Wu, Hong; Gies, Richard A.; Moore, Dean A.; Yantasee, Wassana

    2006-05-01

    Biological monitoring for lead (Pb) is usually based upon a determination of blood Pb concentration; however, saliva has been suggested as a non-invasive biological matrix for assessing exposure. To further evaluate the potential utility of saliva for biomonitoring, the disposition of Pb was evaluated in whole blood (WB), red blood cells (RBC), plasma, parotid gland, bone, and saliva following either a single oral dose of 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg body weight in rats or {approx}1-week after 5 sequential daily oral gavage doses of 1, 10, or 100 mg Pb-acetate/kg/day. Saliva volume, pH, total saliva protein, and ?-amylase activity were also determined. At specified times post-dosing groups of animals were anethetized and administered pilocarpine to induce salivation. Saliva was collected, the animals were humanely sacrificed, and tissue samples were likewise collected, weighed, and processed for Pb analysis. Following a single dose exposure to PB-acetate, Pb was detectable in all samples by 30 min post-dosing. For both the single and repeated dose treatments the concentration of Pb was highest in WB and RBC relative to plasma and saliva. However, the Pb rapidly redistributed (within 5-days post-treatment) from the blood into the bone compartment based on the substantial decrease in WB and RBC Pb concentration, and the concurrent increase in bone Pb following repeated exposure at all dose levels. Although there is clear variability in the observed Pb concentrations in plasma and saliva, there was a reasonable correlation (r2=0.922) between the average Pb concentrations in these biological matrices which was consistent with previous observations. The single oral dose of Pb-acetate resulted in a decrease in salivary pH which recovered by 24 hr post-dosing and a decrease in ?-amylase enzyme activity which did recover within 5-days of ceasing exposure. It is currently unclear what impact these slight functional changes may or may not have on Pb salivary clearance rates. These results demonstrate a feasibility to rapidly detect Pb in saliva and suggest that saliva may correlate best with plasma Pb concentration.

  1. Stable RNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains revealed from whole genome expression analysis of time-wise degraded samples.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Hanekamp, Eline; Kokshoorn, Mieke; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Kayser, Manfred

    2008-03-01

    Human body fluids such as blood and saliva represent the most common source of biological material found at a crime scene. Reliable tissue identification in forensic science can reveal significant insights into crime scene reconstruction and can thus contribute toward solving crimes. Limitations of existing presumptive tests for body fluid identification in forensics, which are usually based on chemoluminescence or protein analysis, are expected to be overcome by RNA-based methods, provided that stable RNA markers with tissue-specific expression patterns are available. To generate sets of stable RNA markers for reliable identification of blood and saliva stains we (1) performed whole-genome gene expression analyses on a series of time-wise degraded blood and saliva stain samples using the Affymetrix U133 plus2 GeneChip, (2) consulted expression databases to obtain additional information on tissue specificity, and (3) confirmed expression patterns of the most promising candidate genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction including additional forensically relevant tissues such as semen and vaginal secretion. Overall, we identified nine stable mRNA markers for blood and five stable mRNA markers for saliva detection showing tissue-specific expression signals in stains aged up to 180 days of age, expectedly older. Although, all of the markers were able to differentiate blood/saliva from semen samples, none of them could differentiate vaginal secretion because of the complex nature of vaginal secretion and the biological similarity of buccal and vaginal mucosa. We propose the use of these 14 stable mRNA markers for identification of blood and saliva stains in future forensic practice. PMID:17579879

  2. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

  3. The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

  4. Blood and urine fluoride concentrations associated with topical fluoride applications on dog gingiva

    SciTech Connect

    Hock, J.; Gerber, C.; Rheaume, M.; Hellden, L.

    1981-08-01

    The circulatory uptake and urinary excretion of topical fluoride were investigated by applying a sodium fluoride solution containing /sub 18/F for six min to healthy gingiva of four adult dogs. Blood and urine samples were taken a regular intervals. Maximal fluoride in blood represented 0.02-0.05% of the applied dose and occurred four min after completion of the application. By 6.0 h, 0.02-0.06% of the applied dose had been excreted in urine. Preliminary data showed that this represented about 8.8% of the fluoride absorbed through the gingiva.

  5. [Behavior of free catecholamines in blood and urine of ambulance men and physicians during quick responses].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, M; Drges, V; Huber, G; Zllner, G; Spri, U; Keul, J

    1983-01-01

    Free urine adrenaline, noradrenaline, (additional free plasma catecholamines in the physicians), and blood lactate were determined in 11 ambulance men and 5 physicians to assess stress during medical service. Stress was evaluated employing a stress index, based on difficulties in driving, traffic, severity of injuries or illness. Emergency cases with seriously injured subjects or reanimation were judged to have a 4-fold higher stress index than routine cases where strong physiological or psychological stress was absent. Urine catecholamines and stress indices were estimated in 3-h intervals. The calculations were based on the stress induced catecholamine concentrations minus the basal excretion during the same 3-h interval. Urine adrenaline and noradrenaline in ambulance men and physicians correlated directly with the stress index, as well as the plasma catecholamines of the physicians. Lactate levels showed similar behaviour and a descriptive direct correlation with the plasma catecholamines. Urine adrenaline increased more--dependent on the stress index--than urine noradrenaline. This over-proportional adrenaline response may be an indicator for the additional psychological stress in emergency cases. Therefore physicians showed--based on the same stress index--a tendency to higher urine adrenaline excretion and blood lactate levels than the ambulance men, which might be the consequence of the overall responsibility of the physicians. Because of the observed catecholamine responses during medical service, coronary insufficiency or hypertension might be contra-indications for participation in the medical service; regular clinical investigations including ergometric tests are advisable. PMID:6852928

  6. Matrix metalloproteinases -8 and -9 in the Airways, Blood and Urine During Exacerbations of COPD.

    PubMed

    Cane, Jennifer L; Mallia-Millanes, Brendan; Forrester, Douglas L; Knox, Alan J; Bolton, Charlotte E; Johnson, Simon R

    2016-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are elevated in the airways and blood of COPD patients, contributing to disease pathogenesis and tissue remodelling. However, it is not clear if MMP levels in airways, blood and urine are related or if MMP levels are related to disease severity or presence of exacerbations requiring hospitalisation. Seventy-two patients requiring hospitalisation for COPD exacerbations had serum, urine and sputum MMP-8, -9 and active MMP-9 measured by ELISA and gelatin zymography on day one, five and four weeks later (recovery). Clinical history, spirometry, COPD Assessment Test and MRC dyspnoea score were obtained. Twenty-two stable COPD patients had MMP measurements one week apart. During exacerbations, serum and urine MMP-9 were slightly elevated by 17% and 30% compared with recovery values respectively (p = 0.001 and p = 0.026). MMP-8 was not significantly changed. These MMP levels related to serum neutrophil numbers but not to outcome of exacerbations, disease severity measures or smoking status. In clinically stable patients, serum MMP levels did not vary significantly over 7 days, whereas urine MMPs varied by up to nine fold for MMP-8 (p = 0.003). Sputum, serum and urine contained different MMP species and complexes. Median values for sputum active MMP-9 were significantly different from serum (p = 0.035) and urine (p = 0.024). Serum and urine MMPs are only modestly elevated during exacerbations of COPD and unlikely to be useful biomarkers in this clinical setting. Airway, serum and urine MMP levels are independent of each other in COPD patients. Further, MMP levels are variable between patients and do not reflect airflow obstruction. PMID:26418236

  7. [Determination of strontium content in whole blood and urine by icp-ms].

    PubMed

    Ulanova, T S; Gileva, O V; Stenno, E V; Veikhman, G A; Nedochitova, A V

    2015-01-01

    Parameters of strontium determination in the whole blood and urine of children living near ore deposits containing up to 20% strontium sulfate have been determined. The average strontium content in the whole blood of two children groups of 109.52 ± 11.07 mg/L and 131.62 ± 12.95 mg/L, significantly exceeded the level in the comparison group 44.2 ± 4.24 mg/L. The average strontium contents of two groups of children in urine were 1252.3 ± 332.2 mg/L and 1341.5 ± 241.8 mg/L, these values were 4.2 and 4.5 times higher than in the comparison group 296.4 ± 61.5 mg/L. The conditions for blood and urine sample preparation were optimized to reduce measure errors and to determine strontium at the reference concentration level. The accuracy of the results has been confirmed by analysis of the standard samples Seronorm™ Whole Blood L1, L2, L3 and Seronorm™ Urine. PMID:26539868

  8. ARSENIC LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...

  9. The Effect of Weight Reduction on the Blood and Urine Measurements of College Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segurson, Jack

    It has been suggested that the weight reduction practices of wrestlers results in kidney and liver problems. To observe the effect of wrestlers' weight reduction, diagnostic tests for kidney and liver problems were done on the blood and urine samples of 22 college wrestlers over the course of a wrestling season. Results obtained after reduction to…

  10. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  11. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  12. The Effect of Weight Reduction on the Blood and Urine Measurements of College Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segurson, Jack

    It has been suggested that the weight reduction practices of wrestlers results in kidney and liver problems. To observe the effect of wrestlers' weight reduction, diagnostic tests for kidney and liver problems were done on the blood and urine samples of 22 college wrestlers over the course of a wrestling season. Results obtained after reduction to

  13. Oligosaccharides in Urine, Blood, and Feces of Piglets Fed Milk Replacer Containing Galacto-oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Difilippo, Elisabetta; Bettonvil, Monique; Willems, Rianne H A M; Braber, Saskia; Fink-Gremmels, Johanna; Jeurink, Prescilla V; Schoterman, Margriet H C; Gruppen, Harry; Schols, Henk A

    2015-12-23

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are absorbed into the blood (about 1% of the HMO intake) and subsequently excreted in urine, where they may protect the infant from pathogen infection. As dietary galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have partial structural similarities with HMOs, this study investigated the presence of GOS and oligosaccharides originating from milk replacer in blood serum, urine, and cecal and fecal samples of piglets, as a model for human infants. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis with fluorescence detection, oligosaccharides originating from piglet diet including 3'-sialyllactose and specific GOS ranging from degree of polymerization 3 to 6 were detected in blood serum and in urine of piglets. In blood serum, GOS levels ranged from 16 to 23 ?g/mL, representing about 0.1% of the GOS daily intake. In urine, approximately 0.85 g of GOS/g of creatinine was found. Cecum digesta and feces contained low amounts of oligosaccharides, suggesting an extensive GOS intestinal fermentation in piglets. PMID:26621571

  14. Comparison of blood and urine nephrin levels in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Fatma; Tayyar, Ahter Tanay; Acmaz, Gokhan; Aksoy, Huseyin; Erturk, Gozde; Muhtaroglu, Sabahattin; Tayyar, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relation between nephrin levels and preeclampsia severity by comparing serum and urine levels of nephrin in the severe and mild groups according to severity of associated intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) development. Methods: A total of 150 patients who attended our ante-natal clinic (ANC) were included in this study. We had 5 groups; Group 1:30 patients with mild preeclampsia (MP) and normal fetal development (NFD), Group 2:30 patients with severe preeclampsia (SP) and NFD, Group 3: 30 patients with MP and IUGR, Group 4: 30 patients with SP and IUGR and Group 5: 30 volunteers who were normotensive and non-preeclamptic. We obtained both blood and urine samples for measuring nephrin levels. Results: Both serum and urine nephrin levels were significantly higher for the fourth group compared with all other groups (p<0.001). The levels of SP group with NFD were measured considerably higher than MP group out of IUGR and control group (p<0.001). Urine and serum nephrin levels with gestational age of delivery showed a negative correlation (r=-0.621, p<0.001) and also urine and serum nephrin levels with birth weight showed a negative correlation too (r=-0.655 p<0.001). Conclusion: Both serum and urine nephrin levels correlated with the severity of preeclampsia and IUGR development.

  15. Detection times of drugs of abuse in blood, urine, and oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Alain G

    2004-04-01

    Data on the detection times of drugs of abuse are based on studies of controlled administration to volunteers or on the analysis of biologic samples of subjects who are forced to stop their (often chronic) use of drugs of abuse, eg, because of imprisonment or detoxification. The detection times depend mainly on the dose and sensitivity of the method used and also on the preparation and route of administration, the duration of use (acute or chronic), the matrix that is analyzed, the molecule or metabolite that is looked for, the pH and concentration of the matrix (urine, oral fluid), and the interindividual variation in metabolic and renal clearance. In general, the detection time is longest in hair, followed by urine, sweat, oral fluid, and blood. In blood or plasma, most drugs of abuse can be detected at the low nanogram per milliliter level for 1 or 2 days. In urine the detection time of a single dose is 1.5 to 4 days. In chronic users, drugs of abuse can be detected in urine for approximately 1 week after last use, and in extreme cases even longer in cocaine and cannabis users. In oral fluid, drugs of abuse can be detected for 5-48 hours at a low nanogram per milliliter level. The duration of detection of GHB is much shorter. After a single dose of 1 or 2 ng of flunitrazepam, the most sensitive methods can detect 7-aminoflunitrazepam for up to 4 weeks in urine. PMID:15228165

  16. Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.

    2008-12-01

    With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known δ13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (δ13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (δ13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (δ13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the δ13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in the δ13C value of their blood and saliva relative to baseline: blood clot was enriched by 0.27‰; blood serum by 0.50‰ and saliva by 1.12‰. We believe this overall enrichment resulted from a 13C-enriched bulk diet (δ13C = - 20.42‰) relative to the subjects free-living diet. Evidence for this derives from inspection of foods within the bulk diet provided, compared to published profiles of the typical American diet. We will discuss possible complicating factors, such as differential absorption and metabolism of the supplements according to solubility and caloric value. These results are encouraging for the development of a δ13C blood serum biomarker that, in the company of other tests, could be used to indicate a change in carbohydrate intake. Bray, G.A., Nielsen, S.J. and Popkin, B.M., 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79: 537-543. Havel, P.J., 2005. Dietary fructose: Implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrition Reviews, 63(5): 133-157. Tilman D., 1998. The greening of the green revolution. Nature, 396:211-212.

  17. Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

  18. Detection of proline-rich proteins for the identification of saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Igoh, Akihisa; Tomotake, Sho; Doi, Yusuke

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is one of the most common body fluids found at a crime scene. Therefore, identifying saliva is important in forensic science. However, the current protein marker assays used to identify saliva are not sufficiently specific. Although proline-rich proteins (PRPs) are highly specific for saliva, their forensic potential has not yet been investigated. In this study, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect acidic salivary PRP HaeIII subfamily 1/2 (PRH1/2) and basic salivary PRP 2 (PRB2). The specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency of the ELISAs for PRH1/2 and PRB2 were compared with those of the ELISA for statherin (STATH), a known protein marker for saliva. The levels of PRH1/2 were significantly higher in saliva and saliva stains than in other body fluids (nasal secretions, urine, semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and sweat). PRB2 and STATH were detected in both nasal secretions and saliva. The PRH1/2 ELISA showed sensitivity similar to that of STATH ELISA. The detection rate of PRH1/2 ELISA was almost similar to that of STATH ELISA, followed by the ELISA for PRB2. The PRH1/2 ELISA had higher specificity for saliva than STATH ELISA. Therefore, the PRH1/2 ELISA has potential as a method to identify saliva for forensic investigation. PMID:25616553

  19. Detection of drugs of abuse in simultaneously collected oral fluid, urine and blood from Norwegian drug drivers.

    PubMed

    Vindenes, V; Lund, H M E; Andresen, W; Gjerde, H; Ikdahl, S E; Christophersen, A S; iestad, E L

    2012-06-10

    Blood and urine samples are collected when the Norwegian police apprehend a person suspected of driving under the influence of drugs other than alcohol. Impairment is judged from the findings in blood. In our routine samples, urine is analysed if morphine is detected in blood to differentiate between ingestion of heroin, morphine or codeine and also in cases where the amount of blood is too low to perform both screening and quantification analysis. In several cases, the collection of urine might be time consuming and challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate if drugs detected in blood were found in oral fluid and if interpretation of opiate findings in oral fluid is as conclusive as in urine. Blood, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from 100 drivers suspected of drugged driving. Oral fluid and blood were screened using LC-MS/MS methods and urine by immunological methods. Positive findings in blood and urine were confirmed with chromatographic methods. The analytical method for oral fluid included 25 of the most commonly abused drugs in Norway and some metabolites. The analysis showed a good correlation between the findings in urine and oral fluid for amphetamines, cocaine/benzoylecgonine, methadone, opiates, zopiclone and benzodiazepines including the 7-amino-benzodiazepines. Cocaine and the heroin marker 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-MAM) were more frequently detected in oral fluid than in urine. Drug concentrations above the cut-off values were found in both samples of oral fluid and urine in 15 of 22 cases positive for morphine, in 18 of 20 cases positive for codeine and in 19 of 26 cases positive for 6-MAM. The use of cannabis was confirmed by detecting THC in oral fluid and THC-COOH in urine. In 34 of 46 cases the use of cannabis was confirmed both in oral fluid and urine. The use of cannabis was confirmed by a positive finding in only urine in 11 cases and in only oral fluid in one case. All the drug groups detected in blood were also found in oral fluid. Since all relevant drugs detected in blood were possible to find in oral fluid and the interpretation of the opiate findings in oral fluid was more conclusive than in urine, oral fluid might replace urine in driving under the influence cases. The fast and easy sampling is time saving and less intrusive for the drivers. PMID:22284072

  20. Immunoassay screening of diphenhydramine (Benadryl) in urine and blood using a newly developed assay.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Warren C; Castro, Catherine; Catbagan, Philip; Moore, Christine; Wang, Guohong

    2012-03-01

    Diphenhydramine (DPH) is a common over the counter antihistamine that produces drowsiness and has the potential to cause driving under the influence of drugs-related accidents. To date there are no commercially available immunoassay screening kits for its detection in biological fluids such as urine and/or blood. We describe a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screen and report on its utility in the analysis of authentic specimens taken from volunteers. The assay is specific for detection of DPH and does not detect closely related antihistamines like brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, and doxylamine. There is a varying amount of cross-reactivity seen with certain tricyclic compounds, due to similarities in side chain structure with DPH. Intra- and interday precision of the assay were determined to be less than 10%. The assay is highly sensitive and has a working range from 1 to 500 ng/mL for urine and 1 to 250 ng/mL for blood. The assay was further validated with authentic urine and blood specimens obtained from volunteers and coroner's laboratories. PMID:22337782

  1. Blood, urine, and hair kinetic analysis following an acute lead intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ho, G; Keutgens, A; Schoofs, R; Kotolenko, S; Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2011-01-01

    A case of lead exposure resulting from the accidental ingestion of a lead-containing solution is reported. Because of clinical management rapidly performed through chelation therapy by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sulfonate sodium and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, blood lead levels of this 51-year-old patient were moderate (412.9 ?g/L) and no clinical symptoms were observed. Numerous blood and urine samples were collected for kinetic analysis of lead elimination. However, we report the first case in which hair samples were analyzed to determine the excretion level of lead after acute intoxication. PMID:21219705

  2. Application of ICP-OES to the determination of barium in blood and urine in clinical and forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to barium (Ba) mostly occurs in the workplace or from drinking water, but it may sometimes be due to accidental or intentional intoxication. This paper presents a reliable, sensitive method for the determination of Ba in blood and urine: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion of samples. The overall procedure was checked using Seronorm Whole Blood L-2, Trace Elements Urine and spiked blood and urine samples (0.5-10 g/mL of Ba). The accuracy of the whole procedure (relative error) was 4% (blood) and 7% (urine); the recovery was 76-104% (blood) and 85-101% (urine). The limits of detection and quantification (Ba ? = 455.403 nm) were 0.11 and 0.4 g/L of Ba, respectively; precision (relative standard deviation) was below 6% at the level of 15 g/L of Ba for blood. This method was applied to a case of the poisoning of a man who had been exposed at the workplace for over two years to powdered BaCO3, and who suffered from paralysis and heart disorders. The concentrations of Ba, in ?g/L, were 160 (blood), 460 (serum) and 1,458 (urine) upon his admission to the hospital, and 6.1 (blood) and 4.9 (urine) after 11 months (reference values: 3.34 2.20 g/L of Ba for blood and 4.43 4.60 g/L of Ba for urine). PMID:23471954

  3. Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.

    PubMed

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio

    2016-03-10

    We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America. PMID:26987769

  4. Saliva in studies of epidemiology of human disease: the UK Biobank project.

    PubMed

    Galloway, John W; Keijser, Bart J F; Williams, David M

    2016-02-01

    There has been immense interest in the uses of saliva in the diagnosis of systemic disease over the past decade and longer because it is recognized that saliva possesses great potential as a diagnostic fluid. In spite of this, the usefulness of saliva in studies of the epidemiology of human disease has still to be properly evaluated. This review describes the UK Biobank project and explores the scope to use this and other such cohort studies to gain important insights into the epidemiological aspects of systemic disease. The Biobank holds around 85,000 well-characterized saliva samples, together with blood and urine samples, the results of a battery of physiological tests, a full medical history and a detailed description of the subject's lifestyle. This repository is a resource for insightful and highly powered oral and dental research. PMID:26662490

  5. Detection of Leishmania siamensis DNA in Saliva by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phumee, Atchara; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Chusri, Sarunyou; Noppakun, Nopadon; Vibhagool, Asda; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Tampanya, Vich; Wilde, Henry; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Leishmania siamensis DNA from clinical samples collected from six leishmaniasis patients during 20112012. The samples used in this study came from bone marrow, blood, buffy coat, saliva, urine, and tissue biopsy specimens. Saliva was a good source for L. siamensis DNA by polymerase chain reaction. L. siamensis DNA was also found in saliva of an asymptomatic case-patient. Levels of L. siamensis DNA in saliva decreased until being undetectable after treatment. These levels could be used as a marker to evaluate efficacy of the treatment. A larger study is needed to evaluate this method as a screening and survey tool to study the silent background of Leishmania infection among the at-risk population. PMID:24062485

  6. Detection of Leishmania siamensis DNA in saliva by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Phumee, Atchara; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Chusri, Sarunyou; Noppakun, Nopadon; Vibhagool, Asda; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Tampanya, Vich; Wilde, Henry; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2013-11-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Leishmania siamensis DNA from clinical samples collected from six leishmaniasis patients during 2011-2012. The samples used in this study came from bone marrow, blood, buffy coat, saliva, urine, and tissue biopsy specimens. Saliva was a good source for L. siamensis DNA by polymerase chain reaction. L. siamensis DNA was also found in saliva of an asymptomatic case-patient. Levels of L. siamensis DNA in saliva decreased until being undetectable after treatment. These levels could be used as a marker to evaluate efficacy of the treatment. A larger study is needed to evaluate this method as a screening and survey tool to study the silent background of Leishmania infection among the at-risk population. PMID:24062485

  7. Extremes of urine osmolality - Lack of effect on red blood cell survival

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. A.; Fleming, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Rats were allowed a third of normal water intake for 20 days, and food consumption decreased. The reticulocyte count indicated a suppression of erythropoiesis. Urine osmolality increased from 2,000 mosmol/kg to 3,390 mosmol/kg. Random hemolysis and senescence of a cohort of red blood cell (RBC) previously labeled with (2-(C-14)) glycine was monitored via the production of (C-14)O. Neither hemolysis nor senescence was affected. Following water restriction, the polydipsic rats generated a hypotonic urine. Urine osmolality decreased to 1,300 mosmol/kg for at least 6 days; a reticulocytosis occurred, but RBC survival was unaffected. These results contradict those previously reported, which suggest that RBC survival is influenced by the osmotic stress imposed on the RBC by extremes of urine tonicity. This discrepancy, it is concluded, is due to differences in the methods employed for measuring RBC survival. The random-labeling technique employed previously assumes a steady state between RBC production and destruction. The cohort-labeling technique used here measures hemolysis and senescence independent of changes in RBC production, which is known to be depressed by fasting.

  8. Impact of consumption of freshwater fish on mercury levels in hair, blood, urine, and alveolar air.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Cecilia; Schtz, Andrejs; Sllsten, Gerd

    2005-01-22

    Human exposure to methylmercury occurs mainly via consumption of fish. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of freshwater fish consumption on mercury levels in hair, blood, urine, and end-exhaled air. Twenty subjects without dental amalgam fillings were recruited from sport-fishing societies. They ranged in age from 61 to 87 yr. Six individuals ate freshwater fish at least once a week and were categorized as high consumers. Eight individuals were classified as medium consumers and ate freshwater fish at least once a month but less than once a week. Six individuals were categorized as low consumers and had not eaten freshwater fish in the past 3 mo. Among the high consumers, median concentrations of mercury were 8.6 microg/L in blood, 2.4 microg/g in hair, 10 pg/L in end-exhaled air, and 1.1 microg/g creatinine in urine. The relationship between freshwater fish consumption and mercury was significant in all biological media. The high-consumption group had much higher mercury levels in blood (9-fold), hair (7-fold), alveolar air (3-fold), and urine (15-fold) than the low-consumption group. The latter finding may be explained by demethylation of methylmercury in the body. The ratio between mercury concentration in blood and hair was 1:270. This implies that the typical blood-hair ratio of 1:250, specified by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1990, is valid also for exposure to low amounts of methylmercury. PMID:15762551

  9. Blood, urine, and ruminal fluid changes associated with metabolic alkalosis induced by duodenal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Avery, T B; Nagaraja, T G; Frey, R A

    1986-04-01

    Two Holstein heifers and a steer fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to determine acid-base and electrolyte changes associated with metabolic alkalosis induced by duodenal obstruction. Obstruction was induced distally to the pylorus, but proximally to the common bile duct entrance. Ruminal fluid, blood, and urine samples were obtained before and after obstruction was induced. Duodenal obstruction resulted in increased blood pH, bicarbonate concentration, and base-excess values. Severe hypochloremia and hypokalemia were evident in 48 hours. Serum sodium concentration decreased only slightly. Packed cell volume and serum concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, glucose, and inorganic phosphate increased, whereas calcium concentration showed no change. Renal chloride excretion reached near zero in 24 hours, whereas sodium and potassium excretions decreased in the steer, but were unchanged in the heifers. Urine creatinine concentration increased markedly in the heifers and steers. Acid urine was not evident up to 96 hours. Ruminal fluid pH decreased and chloride concentration increased in the steer, but remained unaffected in the heifers. Duodenal obstruction had no effect on rumen sodium, calcium, and magnesium concentrations, but the potassium concentration increased in the heifers. The degrees of alkalosis and electrolyte changes were greater in the steer than in the heifers. PMID:3963593

  10. Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

  11. Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in Saliva of Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James A.; Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Wu, Hong; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2005-05-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are widely used in a variety of applications, and the potential exists for significant occupational and environmental exposures. They have been associated with more occupational poisoning cases than any other class of insecticides. One of the best approaches for accurately assessing human dosimetry and determining risk from both occupational and environmental exposure is biomonitoring. Biological matrices such as blood and urine have been routinely used for biomonitoring; however, other matrices such as saliva represent a simple and readily obtainable fluid. As a result, saliva has been suggested as an alternative biological matrix for the evaluation of a broad range of biomarkers such as environmental contaminants, drugs of abuse, hormones, chemotherapeutics, heavy metals, and pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), have been quantified in urine and blood as a biomarker for exposure to OP insecticides. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical approach for detecting and quantitating the levels of TCP in saliva obtained from rats exposed to CPF and to evaluate the potential of saliva as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix. Adult male rats were administered CPF, and blood and saliva were humanely collected for analysis of TCP and CPF. TCP was detected and quantitated in saliva using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Initial results indicate that saliva may be potentially utilized as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix to determine exposure to organophosphate insecticides.

  12. Amiloride lowers blood pressure and attenuates urine plasminogen activation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Oxlund, Christina S; Buhl, Kristian B; Jacobsen, Ib A; Hansen, Mie R; Gram, Jeppe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Schousboe, Karoline; Tarnow, Lise; Jensen, Boye L

    2014-12-01

    In conditions with albuminuria, plasminogen is aberrantly filtered across the glomerular barrier and activated along the tubular system to plasmin. In the collecting duct, plasmin activates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) proteolytically. Hyperactivity of ENaC could link microalbuminuria/proteinuria to resistant hypertension. Amiloride, an ENaC inhibitor, inhibits urokinase-type plasminogen activator. We hypothesized that amiloride (1) reduces blood pressure (BP); (2) attenuates plasminogen-to-plasmin activation; and (3) inhibits urine urokinase-type plasminogen activator in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).In an open-label, non-randomized, 8-week intervention study, a cohort (n = 80) of patients with resistant hypertension and T2DM were included. Amiloride (5 mg/d) was added to previous triple antihypertensive treatment (including a diuretic and an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and increased to 10 mg if BP control was not achieved at 4 weeks. Complete dataset for urine analysis was available in 60 patients. Systolic and diastolic BP measured by ambulatory BP monitoring and office monitoring were significantly reduced. Average daytime BP was reduced by 6.3/3.0 mm Hg. Seven of 80 cases (9%) discontinued amiloride due to hyperkalemia >5.5 mol/L, the most frequent adverse event. Urinary plasmin(ogen) and albumin excretions were significantly reduced after amiloride treatment (P < .0001). Urokinase activity was detectable in macroalbuminuric urine, with a tendency toward reduction in activity after amiloride treatment. Amiloride lowers BP, urine plasminogen excretion and activation, and albumin/creatinine ratio, and is a relevant add-on medication for the treatment of resistant hypertension in patients with T2DM and microalbuminuria. PMID:25492830

  13. Environmental Chemicals in Urine and Blood: Improving Methods for Creatinine and Lipid Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Katie M.; Upson, Kristen; Cook, Nancy R.; Weinberg, Clarice R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Investigators measuring exposure biomarkers in urine typically adjust for creatinine to account for dilution-dependent sample variation in urine concentrations. Similarly, it is standard to adjust for serum lipids when measuring lipophilic chemicals in serum. However, there is controversy regarding the best approach, and existing methods may not effectively correct for measurement error. Objectives We compared adjustment methods, including novel approaches, using simulated case–control data. Methods Using a directed acyclic graph framework, we defined six causal scenarios for epidemiologic studies of environmental chemicals measured in urine or serum. The scenarios include variables known to influence creatinine (e.g., age and hydration) or serum lipid levels (e.g., body mass index and recent fat intake). Over a range of true effect sizes, we analyzed each scenario using seven adjustment approaches and estimated the corresponding bias and confidence interval coverage across 1,000 simulated studies. Results For urinary biomarker measurements, our novel method, which incorporates both covariate-adjusted standardization and the inclusion of creatinine as a covariate in the regression model, had low bias and possessed 95% confidence interval coverage of nearly 95% for most simulated scenarios. For serum biomarker measurements, a similar approach involving standardization plus serum lipid level adjustment generally performed well. Conclusions To control measurement error bias caused by variations in serum lipids or by urinary diluteness, we recommend improved methods for standardizing exposure concentrations across individuals. Citation O’Brien KM, Upson K, Cook NR, Weinberg CR. 2016. Environmental chemicals in urine and blood: improving methods for creatinine and lipid adjustment. Environ Health Perspect 124:220–227; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509693 PMID:26219104

  14. Deconstructing Tick Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carlo Jos F.; S-Nunes, Anderson; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.; Carregaro, Vanessa; Anatriello, Elen; Silva, Joo S.; de Miranda Santos, Isabel K. F.; Ribeiro, Jos M. C.; Ferreira, Beatriz R.

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are powerful initiators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasite arthropods that suppress host immunity by secreting immunomodulatory molecules in their saliva. Here, compounds present in Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva with immunomodulatory effects on DC differentiation, cytokine production, and costimulatory molecule expression were identified. R. sanguineus tick saliva inhibited IL-12p40 and TNF-? while potentiating IL-10 cytokine production by bone marrow-derived DCs stimulated by Toll-like receptor-2, -4, and -9 agonists. To identify the molecules responsible for these effects, we fractionated the saliva through microcon filtration and reversed-phase HPLC and tested each fraction for DC maturation. Fractions with proven effects were analyzed by micro-HPLC tandem mass spectrometry or competition ELISA. Thus, we identified for the first time in tick saliva the purine nucleoside adenosine (concentration of ?110 pmol/?l) as a potent anti-inflammatory salivary inhibitor of DC cytokine production. We also found prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ?100 nm) with comparable effects in modulating cytokine production by DCs. Both Ado and PGE2 inhibited cytokine production by inducing cAMP-PKA signaling in DCs. Additionally, both Ado and PGE2 were able to inhibit expression of CD40 in mature DCs. Finally, flow cytometry analysis revealed that PGE2, but not Ado, is the differentiation inhibitor of bone marrow-derived DCs. The presence of non-protein molecules adenosine and PGE2 in tick saliva indicates an important evolutionary mechanism used by ticks to subvert host immune cells and allow them to successfully complete their blood meal and life cycle. PMID:21270122

  15. Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine. IUPAC Commission of Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, R; Heinzow, B; Herber, R F; Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M; Sabbioni, E; Templeton, D M; Thomassen, Y; Vahter, M; Vesterberg, O

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist scientists worldwide to produce comparable data which will be useful on a regional, national and international scale. The guidelines are directed to the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. These include the most important elements measured for their occupational or clinical significance, and serve as examples of principles that will guide development of methods for other elements in the future. PMID:8829133

  16. Sulfatide Analysis by Mass Spectrometry for Screening of Metachromatic Leukodystrophy in Dried Blood and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Spacil, Zdenek; Kumar, Arun Babu; Liao, Hsuan-Chieh; Auray-Blais, Christiane; Stark, Samantha; Suhr, Teryn R.; Scott, C. Ronald; Turecek, Frantisek; Gelb, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency in arylsulfatase A activity, leading to accumulation of sulfatide substrates. Diagnostic and monitoring procedures include demonstration of reduced arylsulfatase A activity in peripheral blood leukocytes or detection of sulfatides in urine. However, the development of a screening test is challenging because of instability of the enzyme in dried blood spots (DBS), the widespread occurrence of pseudodeficiency alleles, and the lack of available urine samples from newborn screening programs. METHODS We measured individual sulfatide profiles in DBS and dried urine spots (DUS) from MLD patients with LC-MS/MS to identify markers with the discriminatory power to differentiate affected individuals from controls. We also developed a method for converting all sulfatide molecular species into a single species, allowing quantification in positive-ion mode upon derivatization. RESULTS In DBS from MLD patients, we found up to 23.2-fold and 5.1-fold differences in total sulfatide concentrations for early- and late-onset MLD, respectively, compared with controls and pseudodeficiencies. Corresponding DUS revealed up to 164-fold and 78-fold differences for early- and late-onset MLD patient samples compared with controls. The use of sulfatides converted to a single species simplified the analysis and increased detection sensitivity in positive-ion mode, providing a second option for sulfatide analysis. CONCLUSIONS This study of sulfatides in DBS and DUS suggests the feasibility of the mass spectrometry method for newborn screening of MLD and sets the stage for a larger-scale newborn screening pilot study. PMID:26585924

  17. High blood and urine levels of cadmium in phosphate workers: A preliminary investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R.P.

    1981-12-01

    A preliminary study is described in which blood and urine levels of cadmium are determined in phosphate fertilizer workers exposed to phosphate dust. Control samples were taken from non-smokers who did not eat oysters regularly and who had eaten none for at least four weeks prior to the study. A cross section of phosphate workers was sampled. Various blends of phosphate fertilizers were analyzed. Analysis was by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Results show that levels in fertilizers ranged from 42-147 ppm. The mean whole blood level of phosphate workers was 7.21 + or - 2.05 ng/ml and 0.92 + or - 0.18 ng/ml in controls. The mean urine level of phosphate workers was 5.24 + or - 0.53 ng/ml compared to 0.54 + or - 0.20 ng/ml for controls. No immediate symptoms of acute or subacute cadmium intoxication were observed but high levels indicate a need for studies to elucidate any long-term effects of exposure to cadmium-containing phosphate dust. 3 tables (JMT)

  18. Tentative reference values for environmental pollutants in blood or urine from the children of Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Tuakuila, J; Kabamba, M; Mata, H; Mbuyi, F

    2015-11-01

    The DRC, as most of African nations, does not have a national biomonitoring programme and there is a lack of information on background levels of environmental pollutants in the general DRC population, particularly in children. The focus of the data presented in this report aims to establish the background levels of a range of environmental pollutants in urine or blood from the children population of Kinshasa. Based on the representative data collection of the Kinshasa population, the survey selected 125 children aged 1-14years and living in Kinshasa (6years on average, 56% of girls, 100% of non-smokers, without amalgam fillings and consumers of fish 3 times per week). Biomarkers of a range of metals (As, Cd, Hg and Pb), pyrene (PAH) and benzene were analyzed in the blood or urine samples. Globally, the results indicate that the exposure levels of children living in Kinshasa are 10 times higher than those published by the American, Canadian and German children surveys. This study provides the first Reference Values of environmental pollutants [As, Cd, Hg, Pb, pyrene (PAH) and benzene] in the Kinshasa children population and reveals elevated levels of all biomarkers studied. The data set of this study may allow environmental and health authorities of DRC to undertake a national biomonitoring programme, especially with four insights for the protection of human heath. PMID:26162326

  19. Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

  20. Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guixia; Chen, Xiaoxin; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Xingdong; Zeng, Guozhang

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 μg/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132), r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284), r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children. PMID:25419876

  1. An assessment of contemporary atomic spectroscopic techniques for the determination of lead in blood and urine matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Patrick J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Verostek, Mary Frances

    2001-09-01

    The preparation and validation of a number of clinical reference materials for the determination of lead in blood and urine is described. Four candidate blood lead reference materials (Lots, 047-050), and four candidate urine lead reference materials (Lots, 034, 035, 037 and 038), containing physiologically-bound lead at clinically relevant concentrations, were circulated to up to 21 selected laboratories specializing in this analysis. Results from two interlaboratory studies were used to establish certified values and uncertainty estimates for these reference materials. These data also provided an assessment of current laboratory techniques for the measurement of lead in blood and urine. For the blood lead measurements, four laboratories used electrothermal atomization AAS, three used anodic stripping voltammetry and one used both ETAAS and ICP-MS. For the urine lead measurements, 11 laboratories used ETAAS (most with Zeeman background correction) and 10 used ICP-MS. Certified blood lead concentrations, S.D., ranged from 5.90.4 ?g/dl (0.280.02 ?mol/l) to 76.02.2 ?g/dl (3.670.11 ?mol/l) and urine lead concentrations ranged from 985 ?g/l (0.470.02 ?mol/l) to 64136 ?g/l (3.090.17 ?mol/l). The highest concentration blood lead material was subjected to multiple analyses using ETAAS over an extended time period. The data indicate that more stringent internal quality control practices are necessary to improve long-term precision. While the certification of blood lead materials was accomplished in a manner consistent with established practices, the urine lead materials proved more troublesome, particularly at concentrations above 600 ?g/l (2.90 ?mol/l).

  2. Characterization of microRNA expression profiles in blood and saliva using the Ion Personal Genome Machine() System (Ion PGM System).

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Zhou, Di; Cao, Yandong; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Hou, Yiping; Li, Chengtao

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiling is gaining interest in the forensic community because the intrinsically short fragment and tissue-specific expression pattern enable miRNAs as a useful biomarker for body fluid identification. Measuring the quantity of miRNAs in forensically relevant body fluids is an important step to screen specific miRNAs for body fluid identification. The recent introduction of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) has the potential for screening miRNA biomarkers at the genome-wide level, which allows both the detection of expression pattern and miRNA sequences. In this study, we employed the Ion Personal Genome Machine() System (Ion PGM System, Thermo Fisher) to characterize the distribution and expression of 2588 human mature miRNAs (miRBase v21) in 5 blood samples and 5 saliva samples. An average of 1,885,000 and 1,356,000 sequence reads were generated in blood and saliva respectively. Based on miRDong, a Perl-based tool developed for semi-automated miRNA distribution designations, and manually ascertained, 6 and 19 miRNAs were identified respectively as potentially blood and saliva-specific biomarkers. Herein, this study describes a complete and reliable miRNA workflow solution based on Ion PGM System, starting from efficient RNA extraction, followed by small RNA library construction and sequencing. With this workflow solution and miRDong analysis it will be possible to measure miRNA expression pattern at the genome-wide level in other forensically relevant body fluids. PMID:26600000

  3. Blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and colour vision deficiency in Hindu castes and religious groups of West Godavari, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, M; Naidu, J M; Suryanarayana, B

    1994-12-01

    The distribution of A1A2B0 and Rh(D) blood groups, ABH saliva secretion and red-green colour blindness among fourteen Hindu caste groups, besides Christian and Muslim populations of West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh, India, is reported. All the Hindu castes except Brahmin, Kshatriya and Reddy exhibit relatively higher frequency of group B over group A. The subtyping of group A reveals that group A2 records an incidence ranging from 0.98% to 7.78%. The interpopulation chi-square tests for A1A2B0 blood group distribution indicate significant variation between several Hindu castes. The Vysya, Reddy and Adi Andhra castes not only differ from each other but also register significant variation from a majority of other populations. In the ABH saliva secretion also Vysya deviate from all other populations by recording the highest incidence (37.70%) of non-secretors, while the lowest frequency (19.98%) was observed among Kamma. The Rh(D) negative blood group is observed in all Hindu castes and religious groups with an incidence ranging from 1.04% in Vysya to 8.11% in Kamma. All the sixteen populations investigated exhibit prevalence of red-green colour blindness with a relatively higher frequency of deutan type over protan. PMID:7840536

  4. Diagnosis of Wuchereria bancrofti infection by the polymerase chain reaction using urine and day blood samples from amicrofilaraemic patients.

    PubMed

    Lucena, W A; Dhalia, R; Abath, F G; Nicolas, L; Regis, L N; Furtado, A F

    1998-01-01

    A sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on a highly repeated deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequence (188 bp; SspI repeat) was tested for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in blood and urine samples collected during the day from individuals in Coque, Recife, Brazil, an endemic area for W. bancrofti. All microfilaraemic individuals were also positive by PCR, irrespective of the samples used. The PCR system was capable of detecting W. bancrofti DNA in amicrofilaraemic individuals: c. 93% were positive by PCR when day blood samples were used and 59.7% when urine samples collected at 07:00 were used. Thus, nocturnally periodic W. bancrofti infection can be detected in blood samples collected during the day, which is convenient for large-scale screening. In addition, non-invasive urine collection provided suitable samples for PCR, which is clearly advantageous for preliminary mass diagnosis. PMID:9861400

  5. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    SciTech Connect

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 μg/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 μg/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ► The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ► Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ► There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ► Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ► Previous data seem to underestimate kidney cadmium at low urinary cadmium.

  6. Brain–blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 μM, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632

  7. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites in blood, urine, and brains of infected mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, T D; de Kesel, M; Bigaignon, G; Hoet, P; Pazzaglia, G; Lammens, M; Delmee, M

    1996-01-01

    Different techniques for identifying Toxoplasma gondii were compared. PCR was used to amplify part of the major surface antigen P30 gene of T. gondii. Amplified-DNA detection with the DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR-DEIA) was more sensitive than ethidium bromide staining after agarose gel electrophoresis and as sensitive as nested PCR. PCR-DEIA, using common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, avoids agarose gel electrophoresis for the identification of amplified products. T. gondii can also be detected with equal sensitivity in infected fibroblasts, but only after at least 8 days of cell culture. PCR-DEIA is thus recommended because of its sensitivity and convenience for detecting early parasitemia in the surveillance of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and immunocompromised hosts. The courses of infection in mice infected with two strains of T. gondii were compared. Tachyzoites of the virulent strain T. gondii RH, killing the host in 4 days, were identified in urine specimens and blood samples of mice 24 to 94 h after inoculation but not in brains, but no antibodies were detected. After intraperitoneal inoculation with cysts of the low-level virulence Beverley strain of T. gondii, parasites were identified in blood samples 4 days later and up to 17 days (but not in urine specimens) and in the brain from day 6 through day 525. By ELISA, high antibody titers were found from day 11 to day 525, with parasitemia preceding the appearance of antibodies. The usefulness of PCR-DEIA tests in conjunction with the search for circulating antibodies for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in humans is discussed. PMID:8914751

  8. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busard, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20C, 4C and 20C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20C compared to -20C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20C, 4C and 20C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

  9. Routine clinical determination of lead, arsenic, cadmium, and thallium in urine and whole blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, David E.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    1996-01-01

    For the measurement of As, Cd, Pb, and Tl in urine or whole blood, judicious choices of internal standard elements for matrix correction and the development of a refined isobaric arsenic correction are necessary to produce accurate ICP-MS results. Ga and Rh are chosen as internal standards for As and Cd respectively. Bi is better for the correction of Pb and Tl than Re. An empirically derived equation relating the measurement of 16O 35Cl to the 40Ar 35Cl contribution to the arsenic signal at mass 75 is refined by measuring the responses at mass 51 and 75 for urines with added hydrochloric acid. Overall, ICP-MS results for blood and urine are within 6% of Zeeman GFAAS results for patient samples. For surveys, the overall average of ICP-MS results is within 3% of target.

  10. Poor histological lesions in IgA nephropathy may be reflected in blood and urine peptide profiling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, leading to renal failure in 15% to 40% of cases. IgAN is diagnosed by renal biopsy, an invasive method that is not risk-free. We used blood and urine peptide profiles as a noninvasive method of linking IgAN-associated changes with histological lesions by Oxford classification. Methods We prospectively studied 19 patients with biopsy-proven IgAN and 14 healthy subjects from 2006 to 2009, excluding subjects with crescentic glomerulonephritis and collecting clinical and biochemical data at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up (24months). Histological lesions were evaluated by Oxford classification. Proteomic analysis was performed by combining magnetic bead (MB) technology and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to obtain peptide profiles. Doubling of serum creatinine was considered a variable of poor renal prognosis. Results We identified 55 peptides13 in serum, 26 in plasma, and 16 in urinethat differentiated IgAN patients from healthy subjects. A significant association was noted between serum/plasma and urine peptides and histological findingsie, tubulointerstitial damage, segmental glomerulosclerosis, and endocapillary injury. We also identified 3 peptidescorresponding to bradykinin, uromodulin, and alpha-1-antitrypsinthat were associated with severity of lesions, such as tubulointerstitial damage and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Moreover, blood peptides with m/z 2953, 5337, 9287, and 9289 and urine peptides with m/z 1769, 1898, 1913, 1945, 2491, 2756, 2977, 3004, 3389, and 4752 correlated significantly with poor renal function. Conclusions In patients with IgAN, the use of noninvasive approaches, such as blood and urine proteomics, can provide valuable information beyond that of standard diagnostic techniques, allowing us to identify blood and urine peptide profiles that are associated with poor histological lesions in IgAN patients. PMID:23577616

  11. Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

  12. IN VIVO KINETICS OF PHENYLGLUCURONIDE, A PHASE II CONJUGATE OF PHENOLE, IN BLOOD AND URINE OF RAINBOW TROUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The kinetics of phenylglucuronide (PG) in blood and urine of spinally-transected rainbow trout were investigated using microdialysis sampling techniques. Trout weighing 0.9 to 1.3 kg were dosed continuously with PG for an additional 48 h. PG could not be detected in expired branc...

  13. Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were

  14. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MARKERS:BLOOD AND URINE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES (EOHSI-AP-209-040)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure describes the process for collecting and analyzing blood and urine samples. The presence of chemical contaminants in biological specimens such as blood, urine, and hair represent a measure of the internal dose or body burden for a given individual derived from the ...

  15. Antimicrobial defense systems in saliva.

    PubMed

    van 't Hof, Wim; Veerman, Enno C I; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity is one of the most heavily colonized parts of our body. The warm, nutrient-rich and moist environment promotes the growth of a diverse microflora. One of the factors responsible for the ecological equilibrium in the mouth is saliva, which in several ways affects the colonization and growth of bacteria. In this paper, we discuss the various mechanisms by which the composition of the oral microflora is modulated by saliva. Saliva covers the oral hard and soft tissues with a conditioning film which governs the initial attachment of microorganisms, a crucial step in the setup of the oral microflora. It furthermore contains proteins which in the soluble phase bind to bacteria, blocking their adherence to surfaces. When the supply of nutrients is diminished, bacteria use salivary glycoproteins, especially high-molecular-weight mucins, as a source of complex carbohydrates, requiring a consortium of microorganisms for breakdown. In this way saliva promotes the complexity of the oral microflora, which in itself protects against overgrowth by few pathogenic species. Finally, saliva harbors a large panel of antimicrobial proteins which directly and indirectly inhibit uncontrolled outgrowth of bacteria. These include lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and antimicrobial peptides. Under pathological conditions serum leakage occurs, and saliva mobilizes the humoral and cellular defense mechanisms in the blood. In sum, saliva favors the establishment of a highly diverse microflora, rather than a semisterile environment. PMID:24862593

  16. Dietary Intake Assessment and Biochemical Characteristics of Blood and Urine in Patients with Chronic Gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Myung-Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Chronic gastritis is a prevalent gastroentestinal disease in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate status of foods and nutrients intake and health related biochemical indicators in the patients with chronic gastritis. Daily food and nutrient intake, blood lipids, and antioxidant indicators in the urine, were compared between a group of 19 patients diagnosed with chronic gastritis and a control group of 27 subjects having normal gastroscopy. No significant differences were found in age, height, weight, body mass index, and blood pressure between the two groups. Daily energy intakes were 1900.6 kcal for the chronic gastritis patient group, and 1931.8 kcal for the normal control group without significant difference. No significant difference was found between the two groups in all nutrient intakes except for cholesterol. The chronic gastritis patients consumed lower amount of sugars and sweeteners but greater amount of starchy food groups such as potatoes and legumes than subjects of control group consumed. Also the chronic gastritis patients showed higher serum triglyceride concentration than the normal subjects. These results indicate that the dietary pattern of chronic gastritis patients may have relation to a change in the serum lipid level; however, more systematic research with a larger samples size is required. PMID:25954729

  17. Interleukin-6 levels in relation to psychosocial factors: studies on serum, saliva, and in vitro production by blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Sjgren, E; Leanderson, P; Kristenson, M; Ernerudh, J

    2006-05-01

    Psychosocial factors and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are both related to risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate how a broad range of psychosocial factors related to levels of IL-6 in different media. Fifty-nine men and women aged 30-65 were recruited from a larger study and selected to cover a broad range of psychosocial status. IL-6 levels were analyzed in serum, in saliva collected at home at three different time points during a day, and in the supernatant of cell cultures stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide. After adjustments for age, gender, self-reported health problems, and lifestyle factors, IL-6-levels in serum were negatively correlated with coping and self-esteem, and positively correlated with cynicism, hostile affect, hopelessness, depression, and vital exhaustion. In saliva samples, at all time points, IL-6 levels were positively correlated to cynicism, and IL-6 levels 30 min after awakening were also positively correlated with hopelessness, depression, and vital exhaustion. After adjustment for age and gender, cynicism, depression, and vital exhaustion were negatively correlated to IL-6 levels in the supernatant of cell cultures stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide, but this effect was lost after control for self-reported health problems and lifestyle factors. In conclusion, we found that IL-6 levels in serum and saliva were negatively related to psychosocial resources and positively related to psychosocial risk factors. These data strengthen the argument that IL-6 is involved in mediating the risk for disease development that has been associated with psychosocial factors. PMID:16183246

  18. Urine Culture

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of bacteria at lower colony counts or other microorganisms that may cause these symptoms. The presence of white blood cells and low numbers of microorganisms in the urine of a symptomatic person is ...

  19. Urine chemistry

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Jones protein Urinary casts Urine amino acids Urine concentration test Urine culture (catheterized specimen) Urine culture (clean catch) Urine dermatan sulfate Urine - hemoglobin Urine metanephrine Urine pH Urine specific gravity Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA)

  20. Review of biologic matrices (urine, blood, hair) as indicators of recent or ongoing cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2006-04-01

    Especially for cannabinoids, analytical procedures for the verification of recent use and generally for the assessment of the extent of drug abuse are of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. For confirmation of abstinence, urine analysis seems to be a useful tool. Serial monitoring of THC-COOH to creatinine ratios can differentiate between recent drug use and residual THC-COOH excretion (THC-COOH/creatinine ratio > or = 0.5 compared with previous specimen ratio). For an assessment of the extent of cannabis use, the determination of free and bound THC-COOH and especially of THC and 11-OH-THC glucuronides are suggested as useful but need further confirmation. Blood analysis is preferred for the interpretation of acute effects after cannabis abuse. The cannabis influence factor (CIF) was demonstrated as a better tool to interpret the concentrations of THC and its metabolites in blood in forensic cases and therefore it was proposed to assume absolute driving inability because of cannabis intoxication from a CIF > or = 10. Additionally, a higher CIF is indicative of a recent cannabis abuse. Also discrimination between occasional use of cannabis and regular drug consumption is possible by analysis of THC-COOH in blood samples because of the long plasma half-life of THC-COOH and its accumulation in the blood of frequent cannabis consumers. In routine tests, blood samples have to be taken within a prescribed 8-day-period, and a THC-COOH concentration >75 ng/mL is assumed to be associated with regular consumption of cannabis products, whereas plasma THC-COOH concentrations <5 ng/mL are associated with occasional consumption. In contrast to other illicit drugs, hair analysis lacks the sensitivity to act as a detector for cannabinoids. THC and especially the main metabolite THC-COOH have a very low incorporation rate into hair and THC is not highly bound to melanin, resulting in much lower concentrations in hair compared with other drugs. Additionally, THC is present in cannabis smoke and also can be incorporated into the hair only by contamination. For the determination of the main metabolite THC-COOH in the picogram or femtogram per milligram range, which indicates an active consumption, special analytical procedures, such as GC/MS/MS techniques, are required. PMID:16628124

  1. Optimized siRNA-PEG conjugates for extended blood circulation and reduced urine excretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Frank; Yang, Chuanxu; Dagns-Hansen, Frederik; Schaffert, David H; Kjems, Jrgen; Gao, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Some of the main concerns with in vivo application of naked small interfering RNA are rapid degradation and urinary excretion resulting in a short plasma half-life. In this study we investigated how conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with variable chain length affects siRNA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The PEG chains were conjugated to chemically stabilized siRNA at the 5' terminal end of the passenger strand using click chemistry. The siRNA conjugate remained functionally active and showed significantly prolonged circulation in the blood stream after intravenous injection. siRNA conjugated with 20kDa PEG (PEG20k-siRNA) was most persistent, approximately 50% PEG20k-siRNA remained 1h post-injection, while the uncoupled siRNA was rapidly removed >90% at 15min. In vivo fluorescent imaging of the living animal showed increased concentration of siRNA in peripheral tissue and delayed urine excretion when coupled to PEG 20k. Biodistribution studies by northern blotting revealed equal distribution of conjugated siRNA in liver, kidney, spleen and lung without significant degradation 24 h post-injection. Our study demonstrates that PEG conjugated siRNA can be applied as a delivery system to improve siRNA bioavailability in vivo and may potentially increase the efficiency of siRNA in therapeutic applications. PMID:23471415

  2. Concentration of Selected Metals in Whole Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Short Stature and Healthy Children.

    PubMed

    Klatka, Maria; Błażewicz, Anna; Partyka, Małgorzata; Kołłątaj, Witold; Zienkiewicz, Ewa; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2015-08-01

    The short stature in children is defined as height below the third percentile from the mean for age and gender. This problem affects about 3% of young people. More than 20,000 children in Poland have problems with short stature. There is not much information available in the literature on the study of metals in blood, plasma, and urine in children with short stature. The study was conducted on a group of 56 short stature Polish children and 35 healthy children. The content of metals was determined using high-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry methods. The study revealed significant differences between the content of selected metals in body fluids between a short stature group and healthy children. There were significant differences in the Fe, Cu, and Ni concentrations between the groups with respect to the hormonal therapy. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to the area where the children lived. The results showed no statistically significant differences between metal concentration and age, body weight, and height. The study demonstrated statistically significant differences between the content of metals in body fluids in short stature children compared with the healthy children. It seems that the difference in the concentration of certain elements may also be the result of growth hormone therapy and the interaction between various metals. Both the alterations in the content of metals and their mutual interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of short stature children. PMID:25855373

  3. Blood, urine and faecal metabolite profiles in the study of adult renal disease.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Clara; Spector, Tim D; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health burden and to date traditional biomarkers of renal function (such as serum creatinine and cystatin C) are unable to identify at-risk individuals before the disease process is well under way. To help preventive strategies and maximize the potential for effective interventions, it is important to characterise the molecular changes that take place in the development of renal damage. Metabolomics is a promising tool to identify markers of renal disease since the kidneys are involved in the handling of major biochemical classes of metabolites. These metabolite levels capture a snap-shot of the metabolic profile of the individual, allowing for the potential identification of early biomarkers, and the monitoring of real-time kidney function. In this review, we describe the current status of the identification of blood/urine/faecal metabolic biomarkers in different entities of kidney diseases including: acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, renal transplant, diabetic nephropathy and other disorders. PMID:26476344

  4. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  5. The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a slow- release devises capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

  6. Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

  7. Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitria (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, S.L.; Souza, P.R.; Pimentel, E.B.; Baldo, M.P.; Malta, D.C.; Mill, J.G.; Szwarcwald, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.44.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.45.0 vs 9.83.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population. PMID:26132095

  8. Relationship between salt consumption measured by 24-h urine collection and blood pressure in the adult population of Vitria (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S L; Souza Jnior, P R; Pimentel, E B; Baldo, M P; Malta, D C; Mill, J G; Szwarcwald, C L

    2015-08-01

    High salt intake is related to an increase in blood pressure and development of hypertension. However, currently, there are no national representative data in Brazil using the gold standard method of 24-h urine collection to measure sodium consumption. This study aimed to determine salt intake based on 24-h urine collection in a sample of 272 adults of both genders and to correlate it with blood pressure levels. We used a rigorous protocol to assure an empty bladder prior to initiating urine collection. We excluded subjects with a urine volume <500 mL, collection period outside of an interval of 23-25 h, and subjects with creatinine excretion that was not within the range of 14.4-33.6 mg/kg (men) and 10.8-25.2 mg/kg (women). The mean salt intake was 10.44.1 g/day (d), and 94% of the participants (98% of men and 90% of women) ingested more than the recommended level of 5 g/d. We found a positive association between salt and body mass index (BMI) categories, as well as with salt and blood pressure, independent of age and BMI. The difference in systolic blood pressure reached 13 mmHg between subjects consuming less than 6 g/d of salt and those ingesting more than 18 g/d. Subjects with hypertension had a higher estimated salt intake than normotensive subjects (11.45.0 vs 9.83.6 g/d, P<0.01), regardless of whether they were under treatment. Our data indicate the need for interventions to reduce sodium intake, as well the need for ongoing, appropriate monitoring of salt consumption in the general population. PMID:26132095

  9. Detection of JCPyV microRNA in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Irene; Martelli, Francesco; Repice, Anna; Massacesi, Luca; Azzi, Alberta; Giannecchini, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) reactivation and development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a health concern in multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy. Here, the JCPyV microRNA-J1-3p and microRNA-J1-5p expressions and genomic variability were investigated in blood and urine samples of multiple sclerosis patients before and under natalizumab therapy and in healthy controls. The two JCPyV microRNAs were detected in the JCPyV-DNA-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples and in the exosomes derived from plasma and urine obtained from JCPyV-DNA-positive and JCPyV-DNA-negative patients. In particular, the increased JCPyV microRNA expression in samples of multiple sclerosis patients under natalizumab therapy was consistent with the high JCPyV-DNA positivity observed in these samples. Moreover, JCPyV microRNA genomic region showed few nucleotide differences in samples obtained from blood and urine of multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. Overall, these data suggest a potential role of the JCPyV microRNA expression in counteracting the viral reactivation to maintain JCPyV asymptomatic persistence in the host. PMID:25678142

  10. Blood, breast milk and urine: potential biomarkers of exposure and estimated daily intake of ochratoxin A: a review.

    PubMed

    Soto, Julia Bellver; Ruiz, Mara-Jos; Manyes, Lara; Juan-Garca, Ana

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this review are to study potential biomarkers of exposure for ochratoxin A (OTA) in biological fluids (blood, urine and breast milk) for the period 2005-14, calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of OTA by using database consumption for the Spanish population, and, finally, to correlate OTA levels detected in blood and EDI values calculated from food products. The values of OTA detected in potential biomarkers of exposure for blood, breast milk and urine ranged from 0.15 to 18.0, from 0.002 to 13.1, and from 0.013 to 0.2ngml(-1), respectively. The calculated EDI for OTA in plasma ranged from 0.15 to 26 ngkg(-1) bwday(-1), higher than that obtained in urine (0.017-0.4ngkg(-1) bwday(-1)). All these values are correlated with the range of EDI for OTA calculated from food products: 0.0001-25.2ngkg(-1) bwday(-1). PMID:26565760

  11. Blood or Urine IP-10 Cannot Discriminate between Active Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Different from Tuberculosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Linda; Cannas, Angela; Aloi, Francesco; Nsubuga, Martin; Sserumkuma, Joseph; Nazziwa, Ritah Angella; Jugheli, Levan; Lukindo, Tedson; Girardi, Enrico; Reither, Klaus; Goletti, Delia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Interferon-γ inducible protein 10 (IP-10), either in blood or in urine, has been proposed as a tuberculosis (TB) biomarker for adults. This study aims to evaluate the potential of IP-10 diagnostics in children from Uganda, a high TB-endemic country. Methods. IP-10 was measured in the blood and urine concomitantly taken from children who were prospectively enrolled with suspected active TB, with or without HIV infection. Clinical/microbiological parameters and commercially available TB-immune assays (tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB-Gold In-Tube (QFT-IT)) were concomitantly evaluated. Results. One hundred twenty-eight children were prospectively enrolled. The analysis was performed on 111 children: 80 (72%) of them were HIV-uninfected and 31 (27.9%) were HIV-infected. Thirty-three healthy adult donors (HAD) were included as controls. The data showed that IP-10 is detectable in the urine and blood of children with active TB, independent of HIV status and age. However, although IP-10 levels were higher in active TB children compared to HAD, the accuracy of identifying “active TB” was low and similar to the TST and QFT-IT. Conclusion. IP-10 levels are higher in children with respiratory illness compared to controls, independent of “TB status” suggesting that the evaluation of this parameter can be used as an inflammatory marker more than a TB test. PMID:26346028

  12. Magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of sulpiride in human urine and blood using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Liao, Wenlong; Yang, Yaling

    2015-12-01

    A novel and efficient sample preconcentration technique based on the Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4 MNPs) coated with silica (SiO2) has been developed for extraction and determination of sulpiride. The functionalized MNPs showed excellent dispersibility in aqueous solution and were applied to magnetic solid-phase extraction of sulpiride from human urine and blood prior to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The separation, preconcentration and desorption procedure was completed in 10 min. Optimal experimental conditions, including sample pH, the amount of the MNPs, eluent type and volume, and the ultrasonication time were studied and established. The method showed good linearity for the determination of sulpiride in the concentration range of 10-1000 ng/mL in urine and blood. The recovery of the method was in the range between 91.2 and 97.5%, and the limit of detection was 2 ng/mL for sulpiride in human blood and urine. The results indicated that the present procedure is a suitable pretreatment method for biological samples. PMID:26019021

  13. Predicting the phenylalanine blood concentration from urine analyses. An approach to noninvasive monitoring of patients with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Langenbeck, U; Baum, F; Mench-Hoinowski, A; Luthe, H; Behbehani, A W

    2005-01-01

    The need for regular blood-drawing in the management of chronic metabolic disorders may negatively influence the compliance of patients and their parents; noninvasive analytical procedures could well alleviate this burden. Using data obtained in six adult probands with phenylketonuria, we evaluate the feasibility of noninvasive prediction of phenylalanine blood concentrations from analysis of phenylalanine and creatinine in urine. Cross-validated regression equations correct for the significant inter-individual variation of phenylalanine fractional excretion rates. With sensitive and specific enzymatic assays for phenylalanine and creatinine, the accuracy of this noninvasive procedure may also become clinically satisfactory for the purpose of self-monitoring. PMID:16435177

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePLUS

    The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

  15. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphyrins are natural chemicals in the body that help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be measured in the urine or ...

  16. [Study on mobile phone enabled wireless detection of saliva glucose].

    PubMed

    Li, Jingjing; Yu, Yang; Lu, Yongqiang; Liu, Jing

    2011-09-01

    In this study, based on the correlation between the blood and saliva glucose, we proposed and developed a new conceptual method of using mobile phone to measure wirelessly the glucose concentration in saliva. According to the experiments on simulated saliva, the new system could draw, display, store and carry out calculation on the correlation curves between saliva glucose and electrical parameters. This demonstrates the feasibility and bright future of the new technique. PMID:22242375

  17. Structure and ligand-binding properties of the biogenic amine-binding protein from the saliva of a blood-feeding insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xueqing; Chang, Bianca W.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amine-binding proteins mediate the anti-inflammatory and antihemostatic activities of blood-feeding insect saliva. The structure of the amine-binding protein from R. prolixus reveals the interaction of biogenic amine ligands with the protein. Proteins that bind small-molecule mediators of inflammation and hemostasis are essential for blood-feeding by arthropod vectors of infectious disease. In ticks and triatomine insects, the lipocalin protein family is greatly expanded and members have been shown to bind biogenic amines, eicosanoids and ADP. These compounds are potent mediators of platelet activation, inflammation and vascular tone. In this paper, the structure of the amine-binding protein (ABP) from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is described. ABP binds the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine with high affinity. A complex with tryptamine shows the presence of a binding site for a single ligand molecule in the central cavity of the β-barrel structure. The cavity contains significant additional volume, suggesting that this protein may have evolved from the related nitrophorin proteins, which bind a much larger heme ligand in the central cavity.

  18. Comparison of urine analysis and dried blood spot analysis for the detection of ephedrine and methylephedrine in doping control.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Asami; Nishitani, Yasunori; Sato, Mitsuhiko; Kageyama, Shinji; Dohi, Michiko; Okano, Masato

    2016-02-01

    When the misuse of stimulants is determined in doping control tests conducted during the in-competition period, athletes are asked to account for the violation of the rules. This study was designed to evaluate whether the urinary threshold values (10?g/mL) for ephedrine and methylephedrine set by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) can be exceeded after the oral administration of each substance (25?mg). In addition, the study describes the validity of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method using dried blood spot testing to detect ephedrine and methylephedrine by comparing it to a quantitative laboratory urine assay. After administration of ephedrine, the urinary concentration of ephedrine did not exceed the threshold at 4-10?h in two subjects, whereas the threshold was exceeded in both the subjects at 12?h after administration. For methylephedrine, the urinary concentrations of all the subjects failed to reach the threshold for up to 10?h after administration. The concentrations reached the threshold at 12-24?h after administration in some volunteers. In contrast, the blood concentrations of ephedrine and methylephedrine reached their maximum levels at 2-8?h after administration. The blood concentrations showed a low inter-individual variability, and the results suggested that the urinary excretion of ephedrine and methylephedrine can be strongly affected by urine pH and/or urine volume. These facts suggest that urinary concentrations cannot reflect the psychoactive level of ephedrines in circulation. Thus, dried blood analysis might be suitable for the adequate detection of stimulants during in-competition testing. Copyright 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25869885

  19. Urine angiotensinogen and salt-sensitivity and potassium-sensitivity of blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Rebholz, Casey M.; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Qi; Chen, Ji-Chun; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Navar, Luis Gabriel; Hamm, Lotuce Lee; Gu, Dongfeng; He, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Urinary excretion of angiotensinogen [urine angiotensinogen (UAGT)] has been proposed as a biomarker of intrarenal reninangiotensin system activity. We investigated the association between UAGT and salt-sensitivity and potassium-sensitivity of blood pressure (BP) among Genetic Epidemiology Network of Salt Sensitivity study participants. Methods The intervention consisted of a 7-day low-sodium diet (51.3 mmol sodium/day), 7-day high-sodium diet (307.8 mmol sodium/day), and 7-day high-sodium diet with potassium supplementation (307.8 mmol sodium/day and 60 mmol potassium/day). Twenty-four-hour UAGT was estimated at baseline and at the end of each intervention for 100 randomly selected participants. Results Median UAGT (g/24 h) and UAGT-to-creatinine ratio (UAGT/Cr, g/g) were significantly reduced during the low-sodium and potassium-supplementation interventions and increased during the high-sodium intervention (both P = 0.01). Baseline log-transformed UAGT and UAGT/Cr ratio were significantly positively associated with BP at baseline and at the end of each intervention. For example, one standard deviation higher log-UAGT/Cr ratio (1.2 g/g) was associated with a 5.0-mmHg (95% confidence interval 2.37.8) higher SBP at the end of the high-sodium intervention, after adjusting for multiple covariates (P = 0.003). In addition, one standard deviation higher log-UAGT/Cr ratio was associated with a 1.6-mmHg increase in age-adjusted and sex-adjusted SBP from the low-sodium intervention to the high-sodium intervention (95% confidence interval 0.13.1, P = 0.04). This association was no longer statistically significant after multivariable adjustment. Conclusion These data indicate that elevated UAGT are associated with BP sodium sensitivity. Augmentation of intrarenal reninangiotensin system activity may play an important role in developing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:25827430

  20. Immunoassay detection of drugs in racing horses. IX. Detection of detomidine in equine blood and urine by radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, T.; Tai, C.L.; Taylor, D.G.; Woods, W.E.; Wang, C.J.; Houtz, P.K.; Tai, H.H.; Weckman, T.J.; Yang, J.M.; Sturma, L.

    1989-02-01

    Detomidine is a potent non-narcotic sedative agent which is currently in the process of being approved for veterinary clinical use in the United States. Since no effective screening method in horses is available for detomidine, we have developed an /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay for detomidine in equine blood and urine as part of a panel of tests for illegal drugs in performance horses. Our /sup 125/I radioimmunoassay has an I-50 for detomidine of approximately 2 ng/ml. Our assay shows limited cross-reactivity with the pharmacodynamically similar xylazine, but does not cross-react with acepromazine, epinephrine, haloperidol or promazine. The plasma kinetic data from clinical (greater than or equal to 5 mg/horse) as well as sub-clinical doses indicate first-order elimination in a dose-dependent manner. Within the first 30 minutes after intravenous (IV) administration of 30 mg/horse, plasma levels peak at approximately 20 ng/ml and then decline with an apparent plasma half-life of 25 minutes. Diuresis can occur with administration of clinical doses of detomidine and this effect was accounted for in the analysis of urine samples. Using this method, administration of 30 mg/horse can be readily detected in equine urine for up to 8 hours after IV injection. Additionally, doses as low as 0.5 mg/horse can be detected for short periods of time in blood and urine with use of this assay. Utilization of this assay by research scientists and forensic analysts will allow for the establishment of proper guidelines and controls regarding detomidine administration to performance horses and assurance of compliance with these guidelines.

  1. Evaluation of the One-Step ELISA kit for the detection of buprenorphine in urine, blood, and hair specimens.

    PubMed

    Cirimele, V; Etienne, S; Villain, M; Ludes, B; Kintz, P

    2004-07-16

    A solid-phase enzyme immunoassay involving microtiter plates was recently proposed by International Diagnostic Systems corporation (IDS) to screen for buprenorphine in human serum. The performance of the kit led us to investigate its applicability in other biological matrices such as urine or blood, and also hair specimens. Low concentrations of buprenorphine were detected with the ELISA test and confirmed by HPLC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations measured by HPLC/MS: 0.3 ng/mL in urine, 0.2 ng/mL in blood, and 40 pg/mg in hair). The intra-assay precision values were 8.7% at 1 ng/mL of urine (n = 8), 11.5% at 2 ng/mL in serum (n = 8), and 11.5% at 250 pg/mg of hair (n = 8), respectively. The immunoassay had no cross-reactivity with dihydrocodeine, ethylmorphine, 6-monoacetylmorphine, pholcodine, propoxyphene, dextromoramide, dextrometorphan at 1 and 10 mg/L, or codeine, morphine, methadone, and its metabolite EDDP. A 1% cross-reactivity was measured for a norbuprenorphine concentration of 50 ng/mL. Finally, the immunoassay was validated by comparing authentic specimens results with those of a validated HPLC/MS method. From the 136 urine samples tested, 93 were positive (68.4%) after the ELISA screening test (cutoff: 0.5 ng/mL) and confirmed by HPLC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations: 0.3-2036 ng/mL). From the 108 blood or serum samples screened, 27 were positive (25%) after the ELISA test with a cutoff value of 0.5 ng/mL (buprenorphine concentrations: 0.2-13.3 ng/mL). Eighteen hair specimens were positive (72%) after the screening (cutoff: 10 pg/mg) and confirmed by LC/MS (buprenorphine concentrations: 40-360 pg/mg). The ELISA method produced false positive results in less than 21% of the cases, but no false negative results were observed with the immunological test. Four potential adulterants (hypochloride 50 mL/L, sodium nitrite 50 g/L, liquid soap 50 mL/L, and sodium chloride 50 g/L) that were added to 10 positive urine specimens (buprenorphine concentrations in the range 5.3-15.6 ng/mL), did not cause a false negative response by the immunoassay. PMID:15240036

  2. Metals in blood and urine, and thyroid function among adults in the United States 2007-2008.

    PubMed

    Yorita Christensen, Krista L

    2013-11-01

    The thyroid is integral to regulation of development and metabolism. Certain metals have been shown to affect thyroid function in occupationally exposed persons, but few studies have been conducted in the general population. This study evaluates the association between biomarkers of metal exposure and thyroid hormones in the US population. Analyses included adults participating in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with no history of thyroid disease or use of thyroid medications, and with data on metals in blood (lead, cadmium and mercury) and urine (lead, cadmium, mercury, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, tungsten and uranium), and thyroid hormones (TSH, free and total T3 and T4) in serum (N=1587). Multivariate linear regression was used to model the association between thyroid hormone levels, and metals in either urine (creatinine-adjusted) or blood. Metal concentrations were considered as both continuous and categorical variables. Models were adjusted for: age, sex, race, BMI, serum lipids, serum cotinine, pregnancy and menopausal status, and use of selected medications. Few participants (<5%) had free T3, free T4, or TSH levels outside the reference range. However, 9.2% (SE=1.2%) had low T3 and 9.4% (SE=1.1%) had low T4. Metals were detected in nearly all blood and urine samples, with the highest levels seen for urinary molybdenum (median 42.5?g/L). When including all blood metals, mercury was associated with decreases in T3 and T4, while cadmium was associated with decreased TSH. Urinary cadmium was associated with increases in both T3 and T4 (models including all metals measured in urine). Urinary thallium and barium were associated with decreased T4 (both) and T3 (barium). For TSH, cesium was associated with decreased, and tungsten with increased levels. Given the high prevalence of exposure to metals, associations of the size reported here could indicate an appreciable contribution of metals exposure to the prevalence of thyroid disorders. These findings indicate the importance of further research to further examine these relationships. PMID:23044211

  3. Considering the effect of stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis of blood and saliva specific microRNA markers upon mixed body fluid stains.

    PubMed

    Uchimoto, Mari L; Beasley, Emma; Coult, Natalie; Omelia, Emma J; World, Damian; Williams, Graham

    2013-07-01

    Forensic RNA analysis is gathering pace with reports of messenger RNA analysis being used in case work, and with microRNA being increasingly researched. Such techniques address a fundamental issue in body fluid identification, namely increased specificity over existing chemical tests, and the incorporation of additional body fluids such as vaginal material. The use of RNA analysis will be of particular value to sex offences, where there can be a mixture of multiple body fluids from different people. The aim of this study was to determine whether microRNA based body fluid identification tests can be applied to mixed body fluid samples. Blood and saliva were acquired from volunteers and underwent total RNA extraction. Mixed samples were prepared using a range of ratios from 1:1 to 10:1. Each mixed sample then underwent a blood-saliva differentiation test developed in-house, which includes stem-loop reverse transcription and real-time PCR analysis. Aliquots following mixture preparation also underwent standard STR analysis, utilising Quantiplex and Next Generation Multiplex kits. Data relating to the development of an in-house blood-saliva differentiation test is presented, in which it has been demonstrated that such a test has a lower limit of detection than the enzymatic equivalent. It has been shown that not only is it possible to determine the presence of more than one body fluid, it is also possible to determine the major body fluid contributor as well as the minor contributor. PMID:23768313

  4. Saliva composition and exercise.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Luca, A; Prez, M; Vaquero, A F; Urea, R

    1998-07-01

    Little attention has been directed toward identifying the changes which occur in salivary composition in response to exercise. To address this, our article first refers to the main aspects of salivary gland physiology. A knowledge of the neural control of salivary secretion is especially important for the understanding of the effects of exertion on salivary secretion. Both salivary output and composition depend on the activity of the autonomic nervous system and any modification of this activity can be observed indirectly by alternations in the salivary excretion. The effects of physical activity (with reference to factors such as exercise intensity and duration, or type of exercise protocol) on salivary composition are then considered. Exercise might indeed induce changes in several salivary components such as immunoglobulins, hormones, lactate, proteins and electrolytes. Saliva composition might therefore be used as an alternative noninvasive indicator of the response of the different body tissues and systems to physical exertion. In this respect, the response of salivary amylase and salivary electrolytes to incremental levels of exercise is of particular interest. Beyond a certain intensity of exercise, and coinciding with the accumulation of blood lactate (anaerobic threshold or AT), a 'saliva threshold' (Tsa) does indeed exist. Tsa is the point during exercise at which the levels of salivary alpha-amylase and electrolytes (especially Na+) also begin to rise above baseline levels. The occurrence of the 2 thresholds (AT and Tsa) might, in turn, be attributable to the same underlying mechanism, that of increased adrenal sympathetic activity at high exercise intensities. PMID:9739538

  5. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1?m fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1?m microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  6. Relationships of lead in breast milk to lead in blood, urine, and diet of the infant and mother.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Jameson, C W; Mahaffey, K R; Mizon, K J; Patison, N; Law, A J; Korsch, M J; Salter, M A

    1998-01-01

    We have obtained stable lead isotope and lead concentration data from a longitudinal study of mobilization of lead from the maternal skeleton during pregnancy and lactation and in which the newly born infants were monitored for 6 months postpartum to evaluate the effects of the local environment on lead body burden of the infant. Samples of maternal and infant blood, urine, and diet and especially breast milk were measured for 21 mothers and 24 infants. Blood lead concentrations were less than 5 microg/dl in all except one subject. The mean lead concentration in breast milk +/- standard deviation was 0.73 +/- 0.70 microg/kg. In seven subjects for whom serial breast milk sampling was possible, the lead concentration varied by factors of from 2 to 4, and for three subjects there was an increase at or after 90 days postpartum. For the first 60-90 days postpartum, the contribution from breast milk to blood lead in the infants varied from 36 to 80%. Multiple linear regression analyses indicated statistically significant relationships for some of the variables of isotope ratios and lead concentrations between breast milk, blood, urine, and diet for infants and mothers. For example, the analyses revealed that both a mother's breast milk 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios and lead concentration provide information to predict her infant's blood 207Pb/206Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios. The major sources of lead in breast milk are from the maternal bone and diet. An evaluation of breast milk lead concentrations published over the last 15 years indicates that studies in which the ratio of lead concentrations in breast milk to lead concentrations in whole maternal blood (Multiple>100) were greater than 15 should be viewed with caution because of potential contamination during sampling and/or laboratory analyses. Selected studies also appear to show a linear relationship between breast milk and maternal whole blood, with the percentage of lead in breast milk compared with whole blood of <3% in subjects with blood lead levels ranging from 2 to 34 microgram/dl. The levels of lead in breast milk are thus similar to those in plasma. Breast-fed infants are only at risk if the mother is exposed to high concentrations of contaminants either from endogenous sources such as the skeleton or exogenous sources. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9755144

  7. [Saliva cotinine determination using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode - array detection].

    PubMed

    Kulza, Maksymilian; Woźniak, Anna; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The use of tobacco is a very serious threat to public health. Reducing the proportion of smokers easily leads to improved health of the general population. Smoking is a proven risk factor for respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer and complications during pregnancy. To verify the level of exposure to tobacco smoke in most patients used a simple test markers of exposure. The most commonly used marker in the evaluation of exposure to tobacco products is cotinine, which is a major metabolite of nicotine contained in tobacco smoke. Biological material most commonly used in this type of study is blood, urine and saliva. In the present study Sarstedt Salivette tubes were used to samples collection. In order to determine the concentration of cotinine in saliva samples analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection after extraction of cotinine from saliva by solid phase extraction. The method was linear of 10 to 400 ng/ml. The limit of detection was the value of the signal-to-noise ratio S/N=3, it amounted to 6 ng/ml, the limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. The intraday repeatability was 8% for lowconcentrations, for high concentrations - 3.7%. Reproducibility interdays for low concentrations was 2.4%, for high concentrations - 4.1%. We analyzed 18 samples of saliva derived from patients smoking volunteers from the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences and the Chair and Department of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Internal Medicine, University of Medical Sciences. University of Medical Sciences. Mean concentrations of cotinine in patients was 240.9 ng/ml of saliva. In this study we demonstrated the usefulness of the saliva cotinine determination method in the assessment of patient exposure to tobacco smoke. PMID:23421043

  8. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case.

    PubMed

    Mannocchi, Giulio; Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Catanese, Miriam; Umani Ronchi, Federica; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v) and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case. PMID:26236337

  9. Development and Validation of a GC-MS Method for the Detection and Quantification of Clotiapine in Blood and Urine Specimens and Application to a Postmortem Case

    PubMed Central

    Mannocchi, Giulio; Pantano, Flaminia; Tittarelli, Roberta; Catanese, Miriam; Umani Ronchi, Federica; Busardò, Francesco Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Clotiapine is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine class introduced in a few European countries since 1970, efficient in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients. There is little published data on the therapeutic and toxic concentrations of this drug. Aims. The aim of the present study is the development and validation of a method that allows the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods. Validation was performed working on spiked postmortem blood and urine samples. Samples were extracted with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) technique at pH 8.5 with n-hexane/dichloromethane (85/15 v/v) and analysis was followed by GC-MS. Methadone-d9 was used as internal standard. Results. The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.2 and 1.3 ng/mL for urine and blood, respectively, while the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 3.9 and 4.3 ng/mL, respectively. Linearity, precision, selectivity, accuracy, and recovery were also determined. The method was applied to a postmortem case. The blood and urine clotiapine concentrations were 1.32 and 0.49 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions. A reliable GC-MS method for the detection and quantification of clotiapine in blood and urine samples has been developed and fully validated and then applied to a postmortem case. PMID:26236337

  10. Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A; Hayssen, V

    2010-10-01

    Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for basal cortisol measurement in dogs, and to determine concentrations of cortisol within the hair shaft and in relation to hair color. Using food luring, 79% of dogs required no restraint for saliva collection. Salivary and hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated (P = 0.001), thus validating hair as a medium for basal cortisol quantification. Black dogs had less cortisol than nonblack dogs (P = 0.039) in hair, but not saliva. Across dogs, the average amount of cortisol did not differ between proximal and distal hair sections (P = 0.348). However, for 7 of the 9 dogs, more cortisol was present in the distal portions of the hair. We observed a difference in cortisol concentrations among hairs of different colors from individual dogs (P = 0.001). From the same 7 x 7 cm ischiatic patch from the same dog, black (eumelanin) hairs were consistently lower in cortisol than yellow (pheomelanin) hairs, and cortisol concentrations of agouti hairs were intermediate. This is the first evidence that hair of different colors might sequester cortisol differently. PMID:20705413

  11. Field evaluation of the use of an ELISA to detect chloroquine and its metabolites in blood, urine and breast-milk.

    PubMed

    Witte, A M; Klever, H J; Brabin, B J; Eggelte, T A; Van der Kaay, H J; Alpers, M P

    1990-01-01

    The evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for chloroquine and its metabolites in blood, urine and breast-milk is reported. ELISA blood levels, following standard treatment with chloroquine of pregnant and non-pregnant women, showed mean values comparable to other analytical methods. Blood chloroquine concentrations were estimated at day 0, 350-400 ng/ml; day 2, 1000-1500 ng/ml; day 14, 350-400 ng/ml; day 28, 180-350 ng/ml. In a separate sample a significant association was observed between history of chloroquine use in the previous 2 weeks and blood ELISA values (P less than 0.01). Mean ELISA values in breast-milk were higher than in corresponding whole blood samples. High concentrations of chloroquine in urine were observed. There was a weak association of the ELISA of urine and blood samples collected at the same time (P = 0.076). This study confirms the low sensitivity (less than 55%) of the Dill-Glazko test in urine, which is 100-1000 times less sensitive than the ELISA; the latter can detect 10-20 ng chloroquine per ml. A cut-off value for blood positivity 2 weeks following therapeutic drug ingestion was determined (40% ELISA inhibition), which can be used to make decisions about subject selection in drug sensitivity tests or population surveys. There are several advantages with the ELISA under field conditions. These include direct measurement of whole blood concentration; avoidance of problems of urine collection; suitability of finger-prick samples, especially with young children; application to population surveys to monitor drug use; and selection of subjects for drug sensitivity tests and monitoring of blood levels during in vivo tests. PMID:2091344

  12. [Forensic medical expertise of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy in the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O V; Petrova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cases of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy of the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine; the second objective was the statistical analysis of the data thus obtained. It was shown that sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs in the men more frequently than in the women despite rather low ethanol levels in the blood and urine of both genders or even in the cases of complete absence of ethanol in these fluids. It is concluded that ethanol concentration in the blood and urine of the subjects who died from the alcohol-induced heart injury depends on their age and sex. PMID:26521311

  13. Markers of inflammation in sarcoidosis: blood, urine, BAL, sputum, and exhaled gas.

    PubMed

    Bargagli, E; Mazzi, A; Rottoli, Paola

    2008-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is characterized by intense inflammation at the different sites of localization. Many different mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins with various functions, that participate in its complex pathogenesis have been proposed as markers of inflammation. This article examines the principal literature on these different markers analyzed in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage, expired breath, and urine. After many years of research, no single marker sufficiently sensitive and specific for diagnosis of sarcoidosis has yet been found. Greater correlation with clinical parameters is needed and proper validation. PMID:18539237

  14. Lithium and sodium in blood plasma and urine of fish and mammals of Lake Baikal

    SciTech Connect

    Putintseva, V.A.; Fleishman, D.G.

    1984-07-01

    The lithium concentration in body fluids was measured by the massspectrometric technique of isotope dilution in certain species of fish and seals, and also in water from Lake Baikal. The concentration of lithium in the urine of all studied animals was higher than that of sodium in plasma. Appreciable differences were found between Li/sup +/ and Na/sup +/ ions in the exchange between organism and environment in Lake Baikal fish: The Li/Na ratio in plasma was 10- and 100-fold lower than in water. Discrimination between these ions occurred both during their entry into the body (transport through bills) and during their elimination via the kidneys.

  15. Increased blood and urine copper after residential exposure to copper naphthenate

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, R.E.; Welch, L.; Branch, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Despite widespread industrial use of copper naphthenate, there are no reports of the relationship of copper naphthenate and copper absorption in humans or animals. We report a family of three individuals who lived in a home where copper naphthenate was sprayed on the inner foundation. Subsequently, these individuals developed non-specific complaints. In two of these individuals, serum copper levels were elevated when first measured months after copper naphthenate was sprayed in the home. A gradual decline over several years in urine and serum copper levels was observed in the individual who maintained follow-up. It is not known if symptoms reflected exposure to naphthenate, the solvent vehicle, volatilized copper, or the stress of exposure to a malodorous compound perceived as toxic. Exposure to copper naphthenate may be another cause of an elevated serum and urine copper level but the interpretation of these levels as normal' or toxic' requires additional study for clarification. This report suggests the need for further study of the absorption and relative toxicity of copper naphthenate.

  16. Comparison of internal dose measures of solvents in breath, blood and urine and genotoxic changes in aircraft maintenance personnel.

    PubMed

    Lemasters, G K; Lockey, J E; Olsen, D M; Selevan, S G; Tabor, M W; Livingston, G K; New, G R

    1999-02-01

    Solvents and fuels are in widespread use both in civilian and military populations. 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), xylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methylene chloride are found in a variety of compounds including degreasing agents, paints, coatings, pesticides and paint strippers. Toluene and xylene are also found in fuels, which are complex mixtures of hundreds of agents. The purpose of this investigation was twofold. The first was to determine the optimum medium to measure internal dose of solvents comparing blood, urine and breath. The second was to determine if low level exposures were associated with genotoxic changes after a short-term exposure of fifteen or thirty weeks. To accomplish the first goal a pilot study was initiated involving eight volunteers who worked in aircraft maintenance including sheet metal, painting and assembly mechanic jobs. Industrial hygiene measurements were evaluated over 30 working days. Breath, blood and a 24-hour urine sample were collected twice to compare internal dose parameters. To achieve the second goal, 58 newly hired subjects were monitored prior to exposure and over 30 weeks to determine if there were genotoxic changes as a result of solvent and/or fuel exposure as measured by sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN). Exposure groups included workers involved in sheet metal (fuel cell) activities, painting, fueling operations and flight line. Results of the pilot study demonstrated that industrial hygiene air samples and internal breath measures taken on the same day were highly correlated for measuring TCA (r = 0.93) and toluene (r = 0.90) but was not as well correlated for the other compounds. Breath measures were more sensitive for measuring low level exposure than were either analytes in blood or 24-hour urine samples; these latter two measures were usually below the limit of detection. A small but statistically significant increase in the frequency of SCEs occurred after 30 weeks of exposure for sheet metal workers (p = 0.003) and for painters (p = 0.05). The MN frequency in the sheet metal workers initially showed a significant increase by 15 weeks, but by 30 weeks had decreased. Chance occurrence of exposures to other occupational or non-occupational agents can not be eliminated as a cause of the genotoxic results since between 58 and 93 total analytes could be found in the breath of some aircraft maintenance personnel. PMID:10189578

  17. The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Carolyn M.; Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S.

    2011-07-15

    Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

  18. Carbon Isotopes Profiles of Human Whole Blood, Plasma, Red Blood Cells, Urine and Feces for Biological/Biomedical 14C-Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C.; Kelly, Peter B.; Clifford, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants preferentially incorporate atmospheric 14CO2, vs 13CO2, vs 12CO2, which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope 13C (?13C) and 14C (Fm) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100?L) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean ?13C were ranked low to high as follows, feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. ?13C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted ?13C by only 1.0 ensuring our Fm measurements were accurate and precise. Mean Fm were ranked low to high as follows, plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. Fm in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, 14C levels (Fm) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric 14C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (non-vegetarian), the measured Fm of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 0.0022 (meanSD), the Fm of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric Fm of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using 14C as a tracer. PMID:21452856

  19. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... This test can be done on any urine sample. For an infant, thoroughly wash the area where urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a plastic bag with an ...

  20. Detection of recombinant EPO in blood and urine samples with EPO WGA MAIIA, IEF and SAR-PAGE after microdose injections.

    PubMed

    Dehnes, Yvette; Shalina, Alexandra; Myrvold, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The misuse of microdoses of performance enhancing drugs like erythropoietin (EPO) constitutes a major challenge in doping analysis. When injected intravenously, the half-life of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) like epoetin alfa, beta, and zeta is only a few hours and hence, the window for direct detection of rhEPO in urine is small. In order to investigate the detection window for rhEPO directly in blood and urine with a combined affinity chromatography and lateral flow immunoassay (EPO WGA MAIIA), we recruited nine healthy people who each received six intravenously injected microdoses (7.5?IU/kg) of NeoRecormon (epoetin beta) over a period of three weeks. Blood and urine samples were collected in the days following the injections and analyzed with EPO WGA MAIIA as well as the current validated methods for rhEPO; isoelectric focusing (IEF) and sarcosyl polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SAR-PAGE). For samples collected 18?h after a microdose, the sensitivity of the EPO WGA MAIIA assay was 100% in plasma and 87.5% in urine samples at the respective 98% specificity threshold levels. In comparison, the sensitivity in plasma and urine was 75% and 100%, respectively, with IEF, and 87.5% in plasma and 100% in urine when analyzed with SAR-PAGE. We conclude that EPO WGA MAIIA is a sensitive assay for the detection of rhEPO, with the potential of being a fast, supplemental screening assay for use in doping analysis. PMID:24190107

  1. Analysis of the RNA content of the exosomes derived from blood serum and urine and its potential as biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu; Zeringer, Emily; Barta, Timothy; Schageman, Jeoffrey; Cheng, Angie; Vlassov, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are tiny vesicles (30–150 nm) constantly secreted by all healthy and abnormal cells, and found in abundance in all body fluids. These vesicles, loaded with unique RNA and protein cargo, have a wide range of biological functions, including cell-to-cell communication and signalling. As such, exosomes hold tremendous potential as biomarkers and could lead to the development of minimally invasive diagnostics and next generation therapies within the next few years. Here, we describe the strategies for isolation of exosomes from human blood serum and urine, characterization of their RNA cargo by sequencing, and present the initial data on exosome labelling and uptake tracing in a cell culture model. The value of exosomes for clinical applications is discussed with an emphasis on their potential for diagnosing and treating neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancer. PMID:25135963

  2. Phthalate Diesters and Their Metabolites in Human Breast Milk, Blood or Serum, and Urine as Biomarkers of Exposure in Vulnerable Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hgberg, Johan; Hanberg, Annika; Berglund, Marika; Skerfving, Staffan; Remberger, Mikael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Filipsson, Agneta Falk; Jansson, Bo; Johansson, Niklas; Appelgren, Malin; Hkansson, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Background Phthalates may pose a risk for perinatal developmental effects. An important question relates to the choice of suitable biological matrices for assessing exposure during this period. Objectives This study was designed to measure the concentrations of phthalate diesters or their metabolites in breast milk, blood or serum, and urine and to evaluate their suitability for assessing perinatal exposure to phthalates. Methods In 2001, 23 weeks after delivery, 42 Swedish primipara provided breast milk, blood, and urine samples at home. Special care was taken to minimize contamination with phthalates (e.g., use of a special breast milk pump, heat treatment of glassware and needles, addition of phosphoric acid). Results Phthalate diesters and metabolites in milk and blood or serum, if detected, were present at concentrations close to the limit of detection. By contrast, most phthalate metabolites were detectable in urine at concentrations comparable to those from the general population in the United States and in Germany. No correlations existed between urine concentrations and those found in milk or blood/serum for single phthalate metabolites. Our data are at odds with a previous study documenting frequent detection and comparatively high concentrations of phthalate metabolites in Finnish and Danish mothers milk. Conclusions Concentrations of phthalate metabolites in urine are more informative than those in milk or serum. Furthermore, collection of milk or blood may be associated with discomfort and potential technical problems such as contamination (unless oxidative metabolites are measured). Although urine is a suitable matrix for health-related phthalate monitoring, urinary concentrations in nursing mothers cannot be used to estimate exposure to phthalates through milk ingestion by breast-fed infants. PMID:18335100

  3. Elimination of matrix and spectral interferences in the measurement of lead and cadmium in urine and blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction

    SciTech Connect

    D'Haese, P.C.; Lamberts, L.V.; Liang, L.; Van de Vyver, F.L.; De Broe, M.E. )

    1991-09-01

    Direct measurement of lead and cadmium in blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction (D2-AAS) is prone to severe matrix and spectral interferences. The authors overcame these effects by coating the L'vov platform with ammonium molybdate, reducing the atomization time, introducing a post-atomization cooling step, carefully selecting ashing and atomization temperatures, and using an appropriate procedure for matrix modification. To determine Pb and Cd in blood and urine, they used matrix-matched calibration curves. With the proposed procedure for sample preparation, both Pb and Cd in whole blood can be determined in the same diluted sample. Results obtained by D2-AAS correlate closely with those by Zeeman-corrected AAS. Detection limits (mean blank + 3 SDblank) for Pb in urine and blood were 4 micrograms/L. For cadmium, the detection limits were 0.4 and 0.1 micrograms/L for urine and blood analysis, respectively. Between-run CVs were less than 5.0%.

  4. Speciation of platinum in blood plasma and urine by micelle-mediated extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Wael I; Hassanien, Mohammed M; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

    2013-10-01

    A highly sensitive and selective technique for the speciation of platinum by cloud point extraction prior to determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was described. The separation of Pt(II) from Pt(IV) was performed in the presence of 4-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)thiosemicarbazide (HCPTS) as chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The extraction of Pt(II)-HCPTS complex needs temperature higher than the cloud point temperature of Triton X-114 and pH = 7, while Pt(IV) remains in the aqueous phase. The Pt(II) in the surfactant phase was analyzed by GFAAS, and the concentration of Pt(IV) was calculated by subtraction of Pt(II) from total platinum which was directly determined by GFAAS. The effect of pH, concentration of chelating agent, surfactant, and equilibration temperature were investigated. An enrichment factor of 42 was obtained for the preconcentration of Pt(II) with 50 mL solution. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear up to 30 ?gL(-1) with detection limit of 0.08 ?gL(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 1.8%. No considerable interference was observed due to the presence of coexisting anions and cations. The accuracy of the results was verified by analyzing different spiked samples (tap water, blood plasma and urine). The proposed method was applied to the speciation analysis of Pt in blood plasma and urine with satisfactory results. PMID:23669311

  5. Urine Collection Method for the Diagnosis of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Snchez, Pablo J; Stewart, Audra; Bernstein, David I; Feja, Kristina; Novak, Zdenek; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

    2015-08-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is traditionally diagnosed by virus detection in saliva or urine. Virus culture was positive in significantly fewer urine samples collected using cotton balls in diapers (55.2%) than with samples collected by bags (93.2%) from newborns screened positive for CMV in saliva. However, polymerase chain reaction was positive in 95% of urine samples regardless of the collection method. PMID:25973993

  6. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  7. HCG in urine

    MedlinePLUS

    This type of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test measures the specific level of HCG in the urine. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. Other HCG tests include: HCG in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - ...

  8. Impact of diet on lead in blood and urine in female adults and relevance to mobilization of lead from bone stores.

    PubMed Central

    Gulson, B L; Mahaffey, K R; Jameson, C W; Patison, N; Law, A J; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Pederson, D

    1999-01-01

    We measured high precision lead isotope ratios and lead concentrations in blood, urine, and environmental samples to assess the significance of diet as a contributing factor to blood and urine lead levels in a cohort of 23 migrant women and 5 Australian-born women. We evaluated possible correlations between levels of dietary lead intake and changes observed in blood and urine lead levels and isotopic composition during pregnancy and postpartum. Mean blood lead concentrations for both groups were approximately 3 microg/dl. The concentration of lead in the diet was 5.8 +/- 3 microg Pb/kg [geometric mean (GM) 5.2] and mean daily dietary intake was 8.5 microg/kg/day (GM 7.4), with a range of 2-39 microg/kg/day. Analysis of 6-day duplicate dietary samples for individual subjects commonly showed major spikes in lead concentration and isotopic composition that were not reflected by associated changes in either blood lead concentration or isotopic composition. Changes in blood lead levels and isotopic composition observed during and after pregnancy could not be solely explained by dietary lead. These data are consistent with earlier conclusions that, in cases where levels of environmental lead exposure and dietary lead intake are low, skeletal contribution is the dominant contributor to blood lead, especially during pregnancy and postpartum. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:10090703

  9. Simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine and 6-acetyl morphine in human urine and blood samples using direct aqueous derivatisation: validation and application to real cases.

    PubMed

    Chericoni, S; Stefanelli, F; Iannella, V; Giusiani, M

    2014-02-15

    Opiates play a relevant role in forensic toxicology and their assay in urine or blood is usually performed for example in workplace drug-testing or toxicological investigation of drug impaired driving. The present work describes two new methods for detecting morphine, codeine and 6-monoacethyl morphine in human urine or blood using a single step derivatisation in aqueous phase. Propyl chloroformate is used as the dramatizing agent followed by liquid-liquid extraction and gas-chromatography-mass spectroscopy to detect the derivatives. The methods have been validated both for hydrolysed and unhydrolysed urine. For hydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 2.5ng/ml and 8.5ng/ml for codeine, and 5.2ng/ml and 15.1ng/ml for morphine, respectively. For unhydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 3.0ng/ml and 10.1ng/ml for codeine, 2.7ng/ml and 8.1ng/ml for morphine, 0.8ng/ml and 1.5ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. In blood, the LOD and LOQ were 0.44ng/ml and 1.46ng/ml for codeine, 0.29ng/ml and 0.98ng/ml for morphine, 0.15ng/ml and 0.51ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. The validated methods have been applied to 50 urine samples and 40 blood samples (both positive and negative) and they can be used in routine analyses. PMID:24491926

  10. Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Mittlböck, Martina; Uhl, Maria; Köhler-Vallant, Birgit; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years) and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years) nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD). Results Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 μg/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM)-I level. Median Pb (20 μg/L) and Hg (0.55 μg/L) levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein) and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine levels of Cd and blood levels of Hg or Pb played a major role in the genesis of CAD, particularly when compared to well-known biomarkers such as blood pressure, glucose, and lipids. PMID:24868163

  11. Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

  12. Degradation and elimination of succinylcholine and succinylmonocholine and definition of their respective detection windows in blood and urine for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, Uta; Herbstreit, Frank; Peters, Jürgen; Madea, Burkhard; Musshoff, Frank

    2012-03-01

    The muscle relaxant succinylcholine (SUX) evokes respiratory paralysis, and numerous cases of fatal SUX intoxication have been reported. Detection of SUX and its metabolite succinylmonocholine (SMC) is difficult, both due to their (bis-) quaternary structure and the extreme hydrolytic susceptibility of SUX, and data on degradation kinetics of SUX and SMC is scarce. The present study investigates the in vivo and in vitro degradation as well as elimination of both target analytes using authentic blood and urine samples from anesthetized patients. With a special focus on the urinary data and stabilization issues, this work intends to considerably enhance the forensic knowledge concerning SUX intoxications and to present the reader with practical analytical strategies to cope with such difficult cases. Eighteen subjects undergoing surgery and requiring arterial as well as bladder catheters were included in this study. Muscle relaxation was initialized with a bolus injection of 80-100 mg SUX. Blood and urine samples were either collected using paraoxonized (n = 15) or non-modified (n = 3) tubes. Sampling was performed within 6 h after SUX application following a pre-assigned schedule. Samples were processed according to a validated isotope dilution HPLC-MS/MS method using ion-pair solid-phase extraction. In blood, SUX was usually detectable for up to 10 min post-injection, while detection of SMC was possible over the whole observation period of 6 h. Effectiveness of organophosphate stabilization was proven for both analytes and is therefore recommended. In freshly secreted urine, detection windows of a minimum of 2 h as opposed to 6 h have been determined for SUX versus SMC, respectively. Considering SMC plasma kinetics, detection of the metabolite in blood and freshly secreted urine appears to be possible over a period of at least 8-24 h. Paraoxon did not enhance the stability of either target substance in urine, stabilization of urine samples is nonetheless recommended. In summary, SMC was proven to be the most promising target analyte in SUX analysis, with urine being the proposed matrix of choice for forensic applications. Furthermore, our work defines meaningful detection windows for SUX and SMC in blood and urine as routine matrices and presents sampling recommendations as well as guideline values for forensic toxicological analysis. PMID:21947675

  13. A single-step extraction method for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples by RP-HPLC and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Massadeh, Adnan M; Gharaibeh, Ahmad A; Omari, Khaled W

    2009-02-01

    A simple, rapid, reliable, and low cost one-step extraction method is developed and validated for the determination of nicotine and cotinine in human plasma and urine in smokers using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The run times are 16 and 10 min for HPLC and GC-MS, respectively. The method is validated over a wide linear range of 1-5000 ng/mL with correlation coefficients being consistently greater than 0.9985. The criteria considered for validation are: limit of quantitation, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, specificity, and selectivity. This study is aimed to estimate the nicotine and cotinine in Jordanian smokers' blood and urine samples; to study the relationship between the concentration of nicotine in urine and plasma samples; and to investigate the effect of pH on the extraction of nicotine and cotinine in urine samples. In the presented study, one hundred blood and urine samples are collected from eighty smokers and twenty nonsmokers. Samples are taken from the same volunteer at the same time after each volunteer fills in a questionnaire. Results of nicotine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 181-3702 ng/mL with an average of 1263.1 ng/mL, whereas nicotine in urine samples is in the range of 1364-1972 ng/mL, with an average of 1618 ng/mL. Cotinine concentrations in smokers' plasma are in the range of 21-4420 ng/mL with an average of 379.4 ng/mL, whereas cotinine in urine is in the range of 6-3946 ng/mL with an average of 865 ng/mL. Statistical analysis indicates highly significant differences in nicotine and cotinine concentrations in smoker samples compared with nonsmoker samples (p<0.05). PMID:19222926

  14. Differences in trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, And Ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.

    PubMed

    B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2013-11-01

    High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

  15. Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.

    PubMed

    Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

    2013-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

  16. Saliva and dental erosion

    PubMed Central

    BUZALAF, Marlia Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Anglicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

    2012-01-01

    Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

  17. Validation of JWH-018 and its metabolites in blood and urine by UPLC-MS/MS: Monitoring in forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Erol Öztürk, Yeter; Yeter, Oya; Alpertunga, Buket

    2015-03-01

    The herbal products referred to as 'Spice' have been used as 'legal alternatives' to cannabis worldwide since 2004. The first synthetic cannabinoid JWH-018 was detected in 'Spice' products in 2008, and has been banned by many legal authorities since the beginning of 2009. In order to prove use of JWH cannabinoids (JWHs), specific and robust methods were needed. We have developed a specific and reliable method for the detection and quantification of JWH-018, JWH-018 N-pentanoic acid, and JWH-018 N-(5-hydroxypentyl) in blood and urine using solid-phase extraction followed by UPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method has been validated in terms of linearity (0.1-50ng/mL), selectivity, intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy and precision (CV<15%), recovery (85-98%), limits of detection (LOD) (0.08-0.14ng/mL), and quantification (LOQ) (0.10-0.21ng/mL). Matrix effects, stability, and process efficiency were also assessed. The method has been applied to 868 authentic samples received by the Department of Chemistry (Istanbul) in the Council of Forensic Medicine of the Ministry of Justice. PMID:25616218

  18. Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals. Analysis of human fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, L.; Umana, M.; Bursey, J.; Gutknecht, W.; Handy, R.; Hyldburg, P.; Michael, L.; Moseley, A.; Raymer, J.; Smith, D.

    1986-01-01

    Biological monitoring techniques for human exposure to industrial chemicals are detailed in this book which surveys and evaluates methods and procedures to identify and quantitative chemical constituents in human tissues and body fluids, including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, urine, and breath. The book details attempts to determine 1) the feasibility of correlating preferred methods with specific tissues or fluids and/or with readily identifiable chemical characteristics, and 2) which biological matrices serve as the best indicators of past or present exposure to chemical constituents of concern. The methods studied have been evaluated of their ease and rapidly, as well as cost, accuracy and precision. Target compounds studied were those inorganic and organic chemicals basically of current or previous concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Information provided for the methods evaluated includes sections regarding various types of instrumentation and sample preparation. Sections on method/analyte correlation suggest physical or chemical properties which might be used to predict the applicability of a given analytical method to the analysis of that chemical in a specific biological matrix.

  19. DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene levels in children (in blood and urine samples) from Chiapas and Oaxaca, Mexico.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Prez-Maldonado IN; Trejo-Acevedo A; Pruneda-Alvarez LG; Gaspar-Ramirez O; Ruvalcaba-Aranda S; Perez-Vazquez FJ

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene exposure levels of children living in communities located in southeastern Mexico. The study communities were Lacanja and Victoria in Chiapas state and Ventanilla in Oaxaca state. Children living in Lacanja had total blood DDT levels (mean SD, 29,039.6 11,261.4 ng/g lipid) that were significantly higher than those of children in Victoria (10,220.5 7,893.1 ng/g lipid) and Ventanilla (11,659.7 6,683.7 ng/g lipid). With respect to the 1-hydroxypyrene levels in urine samples, the levels in Lacanja (4.8 4.1 ?g/L or 4.5 3.9 ?mol/mol creatinine) and Victoria (4.6 3.8 ?g/L or 3.9 3.0 ?mol/mol Cr) were significantly higher than levels found in Ventanilla (3.6 1.4 ?g/L or 2.5 0.5 ?mol/mol Cr). In conclusion, our data indicate high levels of exposure in children living in the communities studied in this work. The evidence found in this study could be further used as a trigger to revisit local policies on environmental exposures.

  20. Comparison study of the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in human blood and urine

    SciTech Connect

    Nhachi, C.F.B.; Loewenson, R. )

    1989-10-01

    Although exposure to DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl1)1,1,1,-trichloroethane) is not normally associated with fatality or chronic adverse effects to human life, it is a known hazard to the ecosystem. Blood levels of DDT and some of its derivatives have been used to assess extent of exposure or the body load of DDT in humans. In experimental studies, ingestion of DDT has been associated with reduced liver stores of vitamin A, and increased serum levels of vitamin A. The same study also revealed a significant correlation of vitamin A and DDE serum levels. Generally an increase in excreted 17-B-hydroxycortisone has been associated with DDT exposure. Increased excretion of 6-B-hydroxycortisol has been noted in workers who were involved in the formulation of DDT. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in humans. The indices which were compared are serum vitamin A and DDE levels and urinary 17-B-hydroxycortisol.

  1. Quantification of trace elements by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocca, B.; Alimonti, A.; Petrucci, F.; Violante, N.; Sancesario, G.; Forte, G.; Senofonte, O.

    2004-04-01

    To assess whether levels of trace metals and oxidative species are involved in Parkinson's disease (PD), Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and V were measured in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum peroxides and antioxidant capacity were determined in 26 patients with PD and 13 control subjects. The quantification of metals was based on the 1+4 water dilution of CSF, serum and urine, the acid-assisted microwave digestion under atmospheric pressure of blood and final determination by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Results indicated a significant increase of Pb and V concentrations in blood and urine ( P≤0.03, in both cases) related to the disease. Parkinson disease also seemed to be closely associated ( P≤0.003) with a reduction in levels of Al, Cd, Hg and Pb in serum and of Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb in CSF. As regards Mn, a lower mean concentration was found in the CSF and whole blood of PD patients than in control group, although this trend was not statistically significant. Levels of peroxides were also increased ( P≤0.001), while antioxidant capacity was lower ( P≤0.002) in PD patients than in controls.

  2. Saliva and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Dowd, F J

    1999-10-01

    A study of saliva and its tooth-protective components reveals at least four important functions of saliva: (1) buffering ability, (2) a cleansing effect, (3) antibacterial action, and (4) maintenance of a saliva supersaturated in calcium phosphate. Several salivary constituents subserve one or more of these functions. Research has yielded important information about organic and inorganic secretory products. It is also clear that saliva as a unique biologic fluid has to be considered in its entirety to account fully for its effects on teeth. Saliva is greater then the sum of its parts. One reason for this is that salivary components display redundancy of function, each often having more than one function. This redundancy, however, does not imply that proteins that share functional roles all contribute to the same degree. For instance, when comparing proteins that inhibit calcium phosphate precipitation, statherin and acidic proline-rich proteins are most potent, whereas histatins, cystatins, and mucins appear to play lesser roles. The complex interaction between proteins is another major factor contributing to saliva's function. In this regard, heterotypic complexes of various proteins have been shown to form on hydroxyapatite. Mucin binding to other salivary proteins, including proline-rich proteins, histatins, cystatins, and statherin, is well documented. The complexes, whether adsorbed to the tooth surface or in saliva, have important implications for bacterial clearance, selective bacterial aggregation on the tooth surface, and control of mineralization and demineralization. Finally, proteolytic activity of saliva generates numerous products whose biologic activities are often different from their parent compounds. Fluoride is another important component of saliva that is discussed separately in other articles in this issue. The ability of saliva to deliver fluoride to the tooth surface constantly makes salivary fluoride an important player in caries protection largely by promoting remineralization and reducing demineralization. Some key properties of salivary components discussed in this article are listed in Table 1. Saliva is well adapted to protection against dental caries. Saliva's buffering capability; the ability of the saliva to wash the tooth surface, to clear bacteria, and to control demineralization and mineralization; saliva's antibacterial activities; and perhaps other mechanisms all contribute to its essential role in the health of teeth. The fact that the protective function of saliva can be overwhelmed by bacterial action indicates the importance of prevention and therapy as in other infectious diseases. The knowledge of functional properties of saliva as well as those of its separate components may permit a better assessment of dental caries susceptibility. Future research is essential to characterize more fully salivary components and their interactions and how these affect the caries process. With such knowledge, the use of modified oral molecules as therapeutic agents may become a reality. Equally intriguing is the prospect of influencing the secretion of salivary components by greater knowledge and control over the secretory processes responsible for the delivery of those components. PMID:10553245

  3. Urine odor

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not have a strong smell if you ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may ...

  4. Life-threatening angioedema of the tongue: the detection of the RNA of B henselae in the saliva of a male patient and his dog as well as of the DNA of three Bartonella species in the blood of the patient.

    PubMed

    Lösch, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Non-hereditary angioedema is a common disease with a prevalence between 5% and 19% and approximately half of the patients experience a swelling of the tongue. We report a case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man with a gross life-threatening angioedema of the tongue, whose attacks occurred every 4 weeks. The most frequent causes of angioedema were excluded. We detected DNA and RNA from Bartonella henselae in the blood and saliva of the patient and in the saliva of the patient's hunting dog. Treatment with azithromycin plus minocycline cleared the blood and saliva of RNA and DNA of Bartonella species, and the patient has been free from angioedema for 1 year. None of the therapy modalities used to treat the hereditary form or ACE or allergy-induced angioedema affect the detrimental course caused by Bartonella species. We therefore suggest that a molecular Bartonella test be included in the analysis of angioedema. PMID:24654245

  5. Evaluation of toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood and urine) of steel mill workers by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Hassan I; Kazi, Tasneem G; Jamali, Mohammad K; Kazi, Gul H; Arain, Mohammad B; Jalbani, Nusrat; Shar, Ghulam Q; Sarfaraz, Raja A

    2006-10-01

    The determination of toxic metals in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical screening procedure. This study aimed to assess the possible influence of environmental exposure on production workers (PW) and quality control workers (QCW) of a steel mill, all male subjects aged 25-55 years. In this investigation, the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were determined in biological samples (blood, urine and scalp hair samples) from these steel mill workers in relation to controlled unexposed healthy subjects of the same age group. After pre-treatment with nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide, the samples were digested via a microwave oven, and for comparison purposes, the same samples were digested by the conventional wet acid digestion method. The samples digested were subjected to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). To assess the reliability of these methods, critical factors, such as detection limit(s), calibration range(s), accuracy and precision, were studied. Quality control for these procedures was established with certified sample of human hair, urine and whole blood. The results indicate that the level of lead, cadmium and nickel in scalp hair, blood and urine samples were significantly higher in both groups of exposed workers (QW and PW) than those of the controls. The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed. The results also show the need for immediate improvements in workplace ventilation and industrial hygiene practices. PMID:17533809

  6. Development of a cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry-based microplate method for the determination of nitrite in human urine and blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiao; Lu, Yunhui; Fan, Chongyang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling

    2015-02-01

    A novel and simple method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of nitrite in human urine and blood has been developed by combination of cloud point extraction (CPE) and microplate assay. The method is based on the Griess reaction and the reaction product is extracted into nonionic surfactant Triton-X114 using CPE technique. In this study, decolorization treatment of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity of nitrite detection. Multi-sample can be simultaneously detected thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. The effects of different operating parameters such as type of decolorizing agent, concentration of surfactant (Triton X-114), addition of (NH4)2SO4, extraction temperature and time, interfering elements were studied and optimum conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 10-400 ng mL-1 of nitrite with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100 ng mL-1 of nitrite was 2.80%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in the urine and blood samples with recoveries of 92.6-101.2%.

  7. Development of a cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry-based microplate method for the determination of nitrite in human urine and blood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Lu, Yunhui; Fan, Chongyang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling

    2015-02-01

    A novel and simple method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of nitrite in human urine and blood has been developed by combination of cloud point extraction (CPE) and microplate assay. The method is based on the Griess reaction and the reaction product is extracted into nonionic surfactant Triton-X114 using CPE technique. In this study, decolorization treatment of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity of nitrite detection. Multi-sample can be simultaneously detected thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. The effects of different operating parameters such as type of decolorizing agent, concentration of surfactant (Triton X-114), addition of (NH4)2SO4, extraction temperature and time, interfering elements were studied and optimum conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 10-400 ng mL(-1) of nitrite with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100 ng mL(-1) of nitrite was 2.80%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in the urine and blood samples with recoveries of 92.6-101.2%. PMID:25448978

  8. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic musks in blood and urine by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongtao; Huang, Liping; Chen, Yuxin; Guo, Liman; Li, Limin; Zhou, Haiyun; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-06-15

    A rapid, precise and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of 5 polycyclic musks (PCMs) in biological fluids was developed by solid supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). All parameters influencing SLE-GC-MS performance, including electron energy of electron-impact ionization source, collision energy for tandem mass spectrometer when operated in selected-reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, type and volume of elution reagent, nitrogen evaporation time, pH and salinity of sample have been carefully optimized. Eight milliliter of n-hexane was finally chosen as elution reagent. Blood and urine sample could be loaded into SLE cartridge without adjusting pH and salinity. Deuterated tonalide (AHTN-d3) was chosen as internal standard. The correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curves of target compounds ranged from 0.9996 to 0.9998. The dynamic range spanned over two orders of magnitude. The limit of detection (LOD) of target compounds in blood and urine ranged from 0.008 to 0.105μgL(-1) and 0.005 to 0.075μgL(-1), respectively. The developed procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of PCMs in human blood and urine obtaining satisfying recoveries on low, medium and high levels. The method was compared with SLE-GC-MS and shown one to two orders of magnitude improvement in sensitivity. PMID:25965876

  9. Nonenzymatic antioxidants in saliva of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Moori, M; Ghafoori, H; Sariri, R

    2016-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody-directed self-antigens, immune complex formation and immune deregulation, resulting in damage to essentially all the organs. SLE is associated with the increased production of free radicals. Increase in free radicals or impaired antioxidant defense system in SLE causes oxidative stress. Considering that saliva could be a reflection of the state of health, the purpose of this study was to evaluate some antioxidants in the saliva and serum of patients with SLE and compare these with healthy individuals. This could help us in obtaining a possible marker in saliva in the future. During the course of the practical part of the project, 30 patients with SLE and 30 healthy controls were investigated. After centrifugation of un-stimulated saliva and blood samples, they were examined using spectrophotometric methods and the results were analyzed by statistical software. According to the results, concentrations of malondialdehyde, uric acid and total antioxidants were significantly increased but the level of reduced glutathion was reduced significantly in the saliva and serum of SLE patients as compared to controls. It is therefore suggested that antioxidant power is impaired in saliva and serum of SLE patients. As there was a positive correlation between the antioxidant level of saliva and blood serum, the antioxidant status of saliva could be an indicator of serum antioxidants. PMID:26449364

  10. Discovery of Mosquito Saliva MicroRNAs during CHIKV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18–24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. PMID:25612225

  11. Urination - excessive amount

    MedlinePLUS

    ... calcium level in the body Drinking alcohol and caffeine Sickle cell anemia Also, your urine production may ... do you eat? Do you drink alcohol and caffeine? Tests that may be done include: Blood sugar ( ...

  12. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC A to Z: Cystitis Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  13. Urine culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  14. Calcium - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    This test measures the amount of calcium in urine. All cells need calcium in order to work. ... A 24-hour urine sample is most often needed: On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you wake up in the morning. ...

  15. Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. PMID:23261382

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Xylazine and 2,6-Xylidine in Blood and Urine by Auto Solid-Phase Extraction and Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xue; Guo, Hao; Du, Yaoyu; Gu, Chaokang

    2015-01-01

    Xylazine as veterinary medicine for sedation, but intoxication cases in humans were identified in the last few years. A highly sensitive method is required for analyzing xylazine and its metabolites in human blood and urine. This article presents an ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) study for simultaneous determination of xylazine and 2,6-dimethylaniline (DMA) in human blood and urine. The samples were extracted and cleaned up by Oasis MCX solid-phase extraction. The analysis is performed using an UHPLC-QTOF. Analysis precision, accuracy, sensitivity, linear range, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were validated for the proposed method. In the blood and urine samples, the linear calibration curves with high linearity are obtained over the range of 2.0-1,000.0 ng/mL. The LOD for xylazine and DMA in blood are 0.2 and 0.1 ng/mL, in urine are 0.4 and 0.2 ng/mL; the LOQ for xylazine and DMA in blood are 0.6 and 0.3 ng/mL, in urine are 1.0 and 0.6 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and interday precision is better than 8.6 and 11.9%. In conclusion, the proposed method is highly sensitive and reproducible, thus suitable for accurate quantification of xylazine and its metabolites in blood and urine. PMID:25907168

  17. Urine melanin

    MedlinePLUS

    Thormahlen's test; Melanin - urine ... A clean-catch urine sample is needed. ... this substance that it shows up in the urine. ... Normally, melanin is not present in urine. Normal value ranges may ... measurements or test different samples. Talk to your doctor ...

  18. Effect of intravenous taurine supplementation on plasma, blood cell, and urine taurine concentrations in adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Kopple, J D; Vinton, N E; Laidlaw, S A; Ament, M E

    1990-11-01

    Thirty-four adults undergoing long-term parenteral nutrition (TPN) were treated either with or without intravenous taurine for less than or equal to 24 mo. Statistical comparisons were carried out in eight patients randomly assigned to receive intravenous taurine, usually 10 mg.kg-1.d-1, and 10 patients not receiving taurine. Compared with normal adults, baseline plasma taurine and urine taurine-creatinine ratios were decreased in both groups and platelet taurine was reduced in the taurine-treated group. During taurine treatment the mean of the mean values for taurine became normal in plasma and platelets and remained normal in erythrocytes, granulocytes, and lymphocytes; urine taurine-creatinine ratios rose to approximately five times normal. During follow-up, patients not given taurine had plasma, erythrocyte, and granulocyte taurine and urine taurine-creatinine ratios below normal values and the concentrations of taurine-treated patients. Their platelet taurine was also subnormal. Thus, 10 mg taurine.kg-1.d-1 intravenously normalizes plasma and blood cell taurine concentrations in long-term TPN patients. PMID:2122710

  19. Content of the selected trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in blood, urine and hair of blood donors without occupational exposure to these metals.

    PubMed

    Buchancov, J; Knizkov, M; Hllov, D; Vrlk, M; Mesko, D; Klimentov, G; Glikov, E

    1994-12-01

    The trace element content in biological samples from blood donors (BD) has not been studied in detail so far. In everyday practice minimum attention is paid to the occupational history of blood donors from different social strata. In addition to clinical and elementary haematological and biochemical examinations, the authors assessed levels of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) in two groups of BD--from the Orava (n = 19) and Prievidza region (n = 29). The examined blood donors were never exposed to the risk of metal exposure. No significant differences were found in age and smoking habits between the groups. In analyses electrothermic atomization (AAS-GTA) was mostly used. Hg in urine was assessed, using the technique of hydride vapour formation (VGA). Comparing the results of both BD groups, using Student's t-test, some significant differences between the two regions were found in As, Pb, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni levels. The authors discuss the possible influence of artificial metal sources from the plants contaminating the environment of the regions for prolonged periods (power plant using coal containing As, metallurgy plant producing ferrochromium and ferromanganese alloys and lead metallurgy plant. Blood levels of metals in BD compared with control groups of the non-exposed population (data obtained from the literature) were within a similar or often lower range. In BD studied very low values of Hg in urine were found (0.015 +/- 0.004 mumol.l-1, 0.021 +/- 0.001 mumol.l-1 of urine -mean +/- SE) with the maximum recorded value of 1.0 mumol Pb.l-1 of blood. PMID:7697027

  20. Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Kfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brning, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33g/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03g/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49g/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7g/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P<0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000g/m(3) compared to ?57g/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores. PMID:25107450

  1. Urine Metanephrines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Urine Metanephrines, Total and Fractionated Related tests: Catecholamines , Plasma Free Metanephrines , VMA All content on Lab Tests ... The Endocrine Society recommends using a test for plasma free metanephrines or urine metanephrines to evaluate an ...

  2. The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millington, David S.; Kodo, Naoki; Terada, Naoto; Roe, Diane; Chace, Donald H.

    1991-12-01

    A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction, esterification and analysis using a precursor ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Specificity and sensitivity were improved by adding a small percentage of sodium octyl sulfate to the liquid matrix, which forms ion pairs with acylcarnitine esters. Acylglycines in urine were specifically detected as a group using a different precursor ion scan function. By forming methyl esters, metabolic profiles of both acylcarnitines and acylglycines were achieved in the same sample loading by application of alternating scan functions. Quantitative analysis of selected metabolites was achieved by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Amino acid profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l plasma and 25 [mu]l whole blood spots using butyl esters and a neutral loss scan function. The quantitative analysis of phenylalanine and tyrosine was achieved in these samples using stable isotope dilution. This capability will facilitate the diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other amino acidemias. These new methods have the requirements of speed, accuracy and capability for automation necessary for large-scale neonatal screening of inborn errors of matabolism.

  3. Development and validation of a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of narcotic analgesics in urine and whole blood in forensic context.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Tytgat, Jan

    2012-02-10

    Narcotic analgesics are widely (ab) used and sometimes only occur in low concentrations in biological samples. Therefore, a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for simultaneous analysis of 9 narcotic analgesics and metabolites (buprenorphine, O-desmethyltramadol, fentanyl, norbuprenorphine, norfentanyl, pethidine, piritramide, tilidine and tramadol) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge with an additional alkaline wash step to decrease matrix effects and thus increase sensitivity. Ionization with electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. In the final method, gradient elution with 10mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 ?m, 2.1 mm 50 mm). Selectivity, matrix effects, recovery, linearity, sensitivity, precision, accuracy and stability were validated in urine and whole blood. All parameters were successfully evaluated and the method showed very high sensitivity, which was the major aim of this study. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by analysis of several forensic cases involving narcotic analgesics. PMID:21356580

  4. The Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Urine and Blood by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Cloud-Point Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling; Lu, Yunhui

    2015-08-01

    A simple efficient and practical separation/preconcentration coupled with HPLC method for the determination nitrate and low concentrations of nitrite in human urine and blood was investigated. The method is based on precolumn derivatization using the Griess reaction and cloud-point extraction (CPE) of nitrite anion and direct determination of nitrate using its UV absorbance by ion-pair HPLC. The chromatographic process with detection at two wavelengths (510 and 220 nm) allows the determination of nitrite and nitrate. Decolorization and protein precipitation of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of nitrite from 10 to 1,000 ng/mL and nitrate from 0.1 to 10 g/mL. Product recoveries ranged from 92.4 to 99.9%. The limits of detection were 1 ng/mL and 0.1 g/mL for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. Therefore, the technique was simple and reliable, with potential application in biological sample analysis of nitrate and nitrite. PMID:25616990

  5. Evaluation of status of trace and toxic metals in biological samples (scalp hair, blood, and urine) of normal and anemic children of two age groups.

    PubMed

    Shah, Faheem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Naveed; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Anemia affects a substantial portion of the world's population, provoking severe health problems as well as important economic losses to the region in which this condition is found. This study was designed to compare the levels of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair, blood, and urine samples of anemic children (n = 132) with age range 1-5 and 6-10years of both genders. For a comparative study, 134 non-anemic age- and sex-matched children as control subjects, residing in the same city, were selected. The metals in the biological samples were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry prior to microwave-assisted acid digestion. The proposed method was validated using certified reference samples of hair, blood, and urine. The results indicated significantly lower levels of iron, copper, and zinc in the biological samples as compared to the control children of both genders (p = 0.01-0.008). The mean values of lead and cadmium were significantly high in all three biological samples of anemic children as compared to non-anemic children of both age groups (p = 0.005-0.001). The ratios of essential metal to toxic metals in the biological samples of anemic children of both age groups were significantly lower than that of controls. Deficiency of essential trace metals and high level of toxic metals may play a role in the development of anemia in the subjects under study. PMID:20526751

  6. Simultaneous screening and quantification of 25 opioid drugs in post-mortem blood and urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gergov, M; Nokua, P; Vuori, E; Ojanper, I

    2009-04-15

    A method for simultaneous screening and quantification was developed for the fentanyls alfentanil, fentanyl, p-fluorofentanyl, cis-3-methylfentanyl, trans-3-methylfentanyl, alpha-methylfentanyl, norfentanyl, remifentanil, sufentanil, and the other opioid drugs 6-acetylmorphine, buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, ethylmorphine, heroin, methadone, morphine, naloxone, naltrexone, norbuprenorphine, normethadone, oxycodone, pentazocine, pethidine, and tramadol in post-mortem blood and urine samples by LC-MS/MS. Samples were extracted with butyl acetate at pH 7. The drugs were separated by LC on a Genesis C(18) reversed-phase column, with a gradient consisting of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate at pH 3.2. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed with a quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometer equipped with a turbo ion spray interface in positive mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Quantification was performed based on five isotope-labelled internal standards. Validation included assessment of linearity, limit of quantification, inaccuracy, precision, and matrix effects. The limits of quantification were adequate for screening and quantification of opioid drugs at low therapeutic or abuse concentration levels, with inaccuracy less than 23% and precision better than 24% both in blood and urine samples. When this method was applied to autopsy cases, its results were in agreement with those of reference methods. PMID:19232849

  7. Taurine concentrations in plasma, blood cells, and urine of children undergoing long-term total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Vinton, N E; Laidlaw, S A; Ament, M E; Kopple, J D

    1987-04-01

    Taurine concentrations in plasma, platelets, lymphocytes, granulocytes, erythrocytes, and urine were measured in 19 children who were undergoing long-term home parenteral nutrition for 27.4 +/- 7.1 (SEM) months. The parenteral solutions contained methionine, but not taurine or cysteine. The patients' plasma, platelet, and urine taurine concentrations were significantly reduced to 54, 48, and 16%, respectively, of the values from normal children of similar ages. The most significant reductions in plasma and platelet taurine concentrations were observed in the children who were estimated to absorb less than 5% of their daily calorie needs from the enteral tract. Lymphocyte and erythrocyte taurine levels tended to be lower but were not significantly different from those in normal children. The patients' plasma methionine and cystine levels were not different from normal. There was a direct correlation between plasma and platelet taurine concentrations and between plasma and urine taurine. Both plasma and platelet taurine tended to be directly correlated with age and, after the 1st yr of total parenteral nutrition, with the duration of total parenteral nutrition therapy. PMID:3106924

  8. Amylase - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  9. Blood pressure reductions following catheter-based renal denervation are not related to improvements in adherence to antihypertensive drugs measured by urine/plasma toxicological analysis.

    PubMed

    Ewen, Sebastian; Meyer, Markus R; Cremers, Bodo; Laufs, Ulrich; Helfer, Andreas G; Linz, Dominik; Kindermann, Ingrid; Ukena, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Maurer, Hans H; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix

    2015-12-01

    Renal denervation can reduce blood pressure in patients with uncontrolled hypertension. The adherence to prescribed antihypertensive medication following renal denervation is unknown. This study investigated adherence to prescribed antihypertensive treatment by liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry in plasma and urine at baseline and 6 months after renal denervation in 100 patients with resistant hypertension, defined as baseline office systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg despite treatment with ≥3 antihypertensive agents. At baseline, complete adherence to all prescribed antihypertensive agents was observed in 52 patients, 46 patients were partially adherent, and two patients were completely non-adherent. Baseline office blood pressure was 167/88 ± 19/16 mmHg with a corresponding 24-h blood pressure of 154/86 ± 15/13 mmHg. Renal denervation significantly reduced office and ambulatory blood pressure at 6-month follow-up by 15/5 mmHg (p < 0.001/p < 0.001) and 8/4 mmHg (p < 0.001/p = 0.001), respectively. Mean adherence to prescribed treatment was significantly reduced from 85.0 % at baseline to 80.7 %, 6 months after renal denervation (p = 0.005). The blood pressure decrease was not explained by improvements in adherence following the procedure. Patients not responding to treatment significantly reduced their drug intake following the procedure. Adherence was highest for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and beta blockers (>90 %) and lowest for vasodilators (21 %). In conclusion, renal denervation can reduce office and ambulatory blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension despite a significant reduction in adherence to antihypertensive treatment after 6 months. PMID:26306594

  10. Metabolism of Vitamin D3-3H in Human Subjects: Distribution in Blood, Bile, Feces, and Urine*

    PubMed Central

    Avioli, Louis V.; Lee, Sook Won; McDonald, Joseph E.; Lund, Judith; DeLuca, Hector F.

    1967-01-01

    Vitamin D3-3H has been administered intravenously to seven normal subjects, three patients with biliary fistulas, and four patients with cirrhosis. Plasma D3-3H half-times normally ranged from 20 to 30 hours. in vivo evidence that a metabolic transformation of vitamin D occurs was obtained, and a polar biologically active vitamin D metabolite was isolated from plasma. Urinary radioactivity averaged 2.4% of the administered dose for the 48-hour period after infusion, and all the excreted radioactivity represented chemically altered metabolites of vitamin D. The metabolites in urine were mainly water-soluble, with 26% in conjugated form. From 3 to 6% of the injected radioactivity was excreted in the bile of subjects with T-tube drainage and 5% in the feces of patients having no T-tube. The pattern of fecal and biliary radioactivity suggested that the passage of vitamin D and its metabolites from bile into the intestine represents an essential stage for the fecal excretion of vitamin D metabolites in man. Abnormally slow plasma disappearance of vitamin D3-3H in patients with cirrhosis was associated with a significant decrease in the quantity and rate of glucuronide metabolite excretion in the urine. PMID:4290687

  11. Monitoring of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in bone marrow recipients by reverse transcription-PCR and comparison with PCR and blood and urine cultures.

    PubMed

    Gozlan, J; Laporte, J P; Lesage, S; Labopin, M; Najman, A; Gorin, N C; Petit, J C

    1996-09-01

    Preemptive therapy is a promising strategy for the prevention of serious cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease after bone marrow (BM) transplantation but requires relevant diagnostic tests. We compared the clinical value of a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method, which detected a late viral mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), with a PCR method that detected the viral DNA in PBL and with viral culture from leukocytes and urine for the diagnosis of symptomatic CMV infection after BM transplantation. Forty-five consecutive BM recipients were prospectively tested at weekly intervals by the four methods. CMV infection, demonstrated either by the culture of CMV or by repeated detection of viral DNA, was observed in 28 patients, but only 14 developed CMV-related clinical symptoms. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of each technique for detection of symptomatic infection were, respectively, 36 and 74% for urine culture, 43 and 84% for leukocyte culture, 100 and 65% for PCR, and 71 and 94% for RT-PCR. Although PCR detection of DNA in PBL was the earliest and most sensitive technique for the diagnosis of CMV infection, RT-PCR was more predictive of the onset of CMV-related clinical symptoms. These data suggest that both molecular methods should be used for identifying BM recipients at highest risk of CMV disease. PMID:8862562

  12. Identification of nanobacteria in human arthritic synovial fluid by method validated in human blood and urine using 200 nm model nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tsurumoto, Toshiyuki; Zhu, Dan; Sommer, Andrei P

    2008-05-01

    Earlier we introduced a biosensor for the identification of nanobacteria in water drops. Here, we generalize its principle and apply it to identify nanobacteria in synovial fluid from a patient with osteoarthritis. Results indicate the prevalence of nanobacteria in the synovial fluid. The identification method is applicable to body fluids such as unfiltered human blood and urine, is independent of culturing procedures, and permits for a rapid detection of nanoparticles in liquid drops. In view of increasing clinical evidence on a contribution of nanobacteria in disease, their reported detection in HIV-infected people in South Africa, laboratory experiments indicating the excretion of viable (i.e., propagating) nanobacteria from humans via urine, the use of human excreta in agricultural irrigation, models predicting an injection of nanoaerosols contained in irrigation water enriched with human excreta into the atmosphere, and the identification of nanobacteria in the terrestrial atmosphere, promote the identification method described in this work to an important tool to monitor nanobacteria in body fluids and environmental samples. PMID:18522113

  13. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS analysis for simultaneous determination of delphinidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-(6-malonylglucoside) in human plasma and urine after blood orange juice administration.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Lucia; Coletta, Walter; Rapisarda, Paolo; Donati, Maria Benedetta; Rotilio, Domenico

    2007-12-01

    Blood orange juice has a high content in anthocyanins, especially represented by delphinidin-3-glucoside (D3G), cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) and cyanidin-3-(6-malonylglucoside) (CMG). An LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of D3G and C3G in human plasma and urine was developed and validated. After sample preparation by SPE, chromatographic separation was performed with an RP-C(18) column, using a water/methanol linear gradient. The quantitation of target compounds was determined by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, using ESI. The method showed good selectivity, sensitivity (LOD = 0.05 and 0.10 ng/mL for C3G in plasma and urine, respectively; LOD = 0.10 ng/mL for D3G in plasma and urine), linearity (0.20-200 ng/mL; r >or= 0.998), intra- and interday precision and accuracy (urine. Stability of analytes in plasma and urine has been investigated in detail. This method was successfully applied to the determination of D3G, C3G and CMG levels in human plasma and urine after the ingestion of a single dose (500 mL) of blood orange juice. PMID:18027360

  14. Proteome analysis for rat saliva.

    PubMed

    Inenaga, Kiyotoshi; Yamada, Naoyuki; Yuji, Reiko; Kawai, Misako; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Ono, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ei-ichiro; Torii, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    Proteome analysis is a popular method to discover biomarkers for the prevention and diagnosis of diseases. Since saliva is a non-invasively available body fluid, gathering of saliva causes minimal harm to patients. Therefore, detection of proteins for the prevention and diagnosis from the saliva sample may be the preferred method, especially for children and elderly people. However, the abundance of salivary proteins and contaminant proteins from food and mouth bacteria obscure identification of proteins present in the saliva at low concentrations. To address this problem, we developed a shotgun proteomic method using two-dimensional nano-flow LC tandem mass spectrometry. We report here that our method is able to detect proteins quantitatively even in small sample volumes of saliva. PMID:20224185

  15. Determination of Aconitum alkaloids in blood and urine samples. I. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation, solid-phase extraction and mass spectrometric confirmation.

    PubMed

    Ohta, H; Seto, Y; Tsunoda, N

    1997-04-11

    Determination of four toxic Aconitum alkaloids, aconitine, mesaconitine, hypaconitine and jesaconitine, in blood and urine samples has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with ultraviolet absorbance detection, solid-phase extraction and mass spectrometry (MS). These alkaloids were hydrolyzed rapidly in alkaline solution (half lives (t1/2)five months) and were unstable in solutions of methanol and ethanol (t1/2blood samples spiked with more than 50 ng ml(-1) of alkaloids, but were not detectable from urine samples spiked with 5 microg ml(-1) of alkaloids because of severe sample interference. PMID:9174271

  16. [Saliva and dentures].

    PubMed

    de Koomen, H A; van Velzen, W A

    1992-03-01

    Saliva plays an important role in the functioning of full dentures. A prosthesis does not rest on bare mucous membranes but on an interposed salivary film. This pellicle, mainly consisting of mucin glycoproteins, protects the tissues from injury caused by the denture base. The retention of the complete upper denture, and in a lesser degree of the lower, is also dependent on the salivary layer between the denture base and the oral tissues. A combination of several physical factors results in an adhesion. In order to achieve an optimal effect of these adhesive forces, the manufacturing of the dentures as well as the long term aftercare should meet a number of requirements, described in this article. PMID:11819988

  17. Life-threatening angioedema of the tongue: the detection of the RNA of B henselae in the saliva of a male patient and his dog as well as of the DNA of three Bartonella species in the blood of the patient

    PubMed Central

    Lösch, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Non-hereditary angioedema is a common disease with a prevalence between 5% and 19% and approximately half of the patients experience a swelling of the tongue. We report a case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man with a gross life-threatening angioedema of the tongue, whose attacks occurred every 4 weeks. The most frequent causes of angioedema were excluded. We detected DNA and RNA from Bartonella henselae in the blood and saliva of the patient and in the saliva of the patient’s hunting dog. Treatment with azithromycin plus minocycline cleared the blood and saliva of RNA and DNA of Bartonella species, and the patient has been free from angioedema for 1 year. None of the therapy modalities used to treat the hereditary form or ACE or allergy-induced angioedema affect the detrimental course caused by Bartonella species. We therefore suggest that a molecular Bartonella test be included in the analysis of angioedema. PMID:24654245

  18. Human saliva proteome: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2014-06-01

    Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

  19. Biomarkers of oral exposure to 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) in blood and urine of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Nathan; Brunell, Marla; Kroeck, Karl; Hable, Mike; Crouse, Lee; O'Neill, Art; Bannon, Desmond I

    2013-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense is using the chemicals 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1, 2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in new munitions development. In a screen for biomarkers of exposure, these compounds were measured in urine and blood of male rhesus monkeys after oral doses. NTO peaked at 4?h, with urinary concentrations at least 100-fold higher than that of blood or serum while 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), a metabolite of DNAN, appeared in blood at concentrations 10- to 20-fold higher than the parent compound. For human exposure monitoring, urine is optimal for NTO while the metabolite DNP in blood is best for DNAN. PMID:24001308

  20. Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.

    2009-05-01

    The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

  1. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS, PESTICIDE METABOLITES, AND VOC IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pr...

  2. NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS, PESTICIDE METABOLITES, AND VOCS IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It pro...

  3. NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS, PESTICIDE METABOLITES, AND VOC IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It pro...

  4. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS AND VOCS IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It provide...

  5. Simultaneous determination of parabens, alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A and triclosan in human urine, blood and breast milk by continuous solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Rascn, Andrs J; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2016-02-01

    A highly sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the determination of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) including parabens, alkylphenols, phenylphenols, bisphenol A and triclosan in human breast milk, blood and urine samples is proposed. Blood and milk require a pretreatment to remove proteins and other substances potentially interfering with the continuous solid-phase extraction (SPE) system used; on the other hand, urine samples can be directly introduced into the system after filtering. Analytes are retained on a LiChrolut EN column and derivatized by silylation following elution with acetonitrile. The resulting trimethylsilyl derivatives are determined by GC-MS. The proposed method exhibited good linearity (r(2)>0.995) for all target EDCs over the concentration range 0.7-10,000ng/l in urine, and 3.3-50,000ng/l in blood and milk. Also, it provided low limits of detection (0.2-1.8ng/l in urine, and 1.0-9.0ng/l in blood and milk), good precision (relative standard deviations less than 7%) and recoveries from 86 to 104%. A total of 24 human fluid samples were analyzed and most found to contain some target EDC at concentrations from 0.10 to 14?g/l. PMID:26637951

  6. CADMIUM IN BLOOD AND URINE AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS WITH HIGH CADMIUM INTAKE VIA FOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    In New Zealand a species of oyster (Ostrea lutaria) consumed widely contains on an average 5 micro g Cd/g wet weight. In this study the cadmium intake and blood and urinary cadmium levels in a group of 78 people with a known high oyster consumption has been investigated. A second...

  7. Collection and Extraction of Saliva DNA for Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Michael R.; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Li, Ning; Ray, William C.; Bartlett, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Short Abstract DNA extraction from saliva can provide a readily available source of high molecular weight DNA, with little to no degradation/fragmentation. This protocol provides optimized parameters for saliva collection/storage and DNA extraction to be of sufficient quality and quantity for downstream DNA assays with high quality requirements. Long Abstract: The preferred source of DNA in human genetics research is blood, or cell lines derived from blood, as these sources yield large quantities of high quality DNA. However, DNA extraction from saliva can yield high quality DNA with little to no degradation/fragmentation that is suitable for a variety of DNA assays without the expense of a phlebotomist and can even be acquired through the mail. However, at present, no saliva DNA collection/extraction protocols for next generation sequencing have been presented in the literature. This protocol optimizes parameters of saliva collection/storage and DNA extraction to be of sufficient quality and quantity for DNA assays with the highest standards, including microarray genotyping and next generation sequencing. PMID:25225892

  8. Effect of Dietary Cation-Anion Difference during Prepartum and Postpartum Periods on Performance, Blood and Urine Minerals Status of Holstein Dairy Cow

    PubMed Central

    Razzaghi, A.; Aliarabi, H.; Tabatabaei, M. M.; Saki, A. A.; Valizadeh, R.; Zamani, P.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty four periparturient cows were used to determine the effects of DCAD on acid-base balance, plasma and urine mineral concentrations, health status, and subsequent lactation performance. Each group of 12 cows received either a diet containing ?100 DCAD or +100 DCAD for 21 d prepartum. Both anionic and cationic groups were divided into two groups, one received a +200 DCAD and the other +400 DCAD diet for 60 d postpartum. Prepartum reduction of DCAD decreased DMI, urinary and blood pH, urinary concentrations of Na or K and increased plasma and urinary Ca, Mg, Cl and S. Also cows fed ?100 DCAD diet consumed the most dry matter in the first 60 d after calving. Postpartum +400 DCAD increased milk fat and total solid percentages, urinary and blood pH and urinary Na and K concentrations, but urinary Ca, P, Cl and S contents decreased. Greater DMI, FCM yields were observed in cows fed a diet of +400 DCAD than +200 DCAD. No case of milk fever occurred for any diets but feeding with a negative DCAD diet reduced placenta expulsion time. In conclusion, feeding negative DCAD in late gestation period and high DCAD in early lactation improves performance and productivity of dairy cows. PMID:25049589

  9. Mouth Dryness or Thick Saliva

    MedlinePLUS

    ... candy or chew sugarless gum to stimulate saliva. Citrus, cinnamon, and mint flavors often work well. Keep ... and other foods Club soda, hot tea with lemon (decaf), fruit-ades, diluted juices, sports drinks Commercial ...

  10. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  11. GHB pharmacology and toxicology: acute intoxication, concentrations in blood and urine in forensic cases and treatment of the withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Busard, Francesco P; Jones, Alan W

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  12. Relationship of BK polyoma virus (BKV) in the urine with hemorrhagic cystitis and renal function in recipients of T-cell depleted peripheral blood and cord blood stem cell transplants

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeon Joo; Zheng, Junting; Kolitsopoulos, Yovanna; Chung, Dick; Amigues, Isabelle; Son, Tammy; Choo, Kathleen; Hester, Jeff; Giralt, Sergio A.; Glezerman, Ilya G.; Jakubowski, Ann A.; Papanicolaou, Genovefa A.

    2014-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at significant risk for BKV reactivation, hemorrhagic cystitis (HC) and renal dysfunction. We prospectively monitored 98 HSCT by serial BKV PCR in the urine through Day (D) +100 to analyze the relationship between BKV viruria and HC, serum creatinine (Cr) and creatinine clearance (CrCl) through D +180 or death. Patients, median age 52 years, range 20-73, received T-cell depleted (50%) or cord blood allografts (21%). Median pre-HSCT BKV IgG titers were 1:10,240. Incremental increase in BKV IgG titers correlated with developing BKV viruria ? 107 copies/mL. By D +100, 53 (54%) patients had BKV viruria. BKV viral load in the urine increased at engraftment and persisted throughout D +100. HC developed in 10 patients (10%); 7/10 with BKV viruria. In competing risk analyses, BKV viruria ? 107 copies/mL, older age, CMV reactivation and foscarnet use were risk factors for HC. Cr and CrCl at 2, 3 and 6 months post-HSCT were similar between patients with and without BKV viruria. PMID:24769326

  13. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  14. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... leader Partner Spotlight Become a partner World Prematurity Day World Prematurity Your support helps babies We are ... very strong. After birth For the first few days after delivery, you may urinate even more often ...

  15. Evaluation of viral load in saliva from patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Xavier Santos, Renata L; de Deus, Dayse M V; de Almeida Lopes, Edmundo P; Duarte Colho, Maria R C; de Castro, Jurema F L

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify the HCV-RNA in saliva and plasma from patients with chronic hepatitis C infections, as well as check the level of viral load in sex groups (age, ethnicity and virus subtypes). Whole saliva and blood from 70 patients with chronic hepatitis C infections attended at the department of gastroenterology from University Hospital. The HCV-RNA load was performed by qRT-PCR using Sybr Green I master mix. HCV-RNA was detected in 80% (56/70) of patients in saliva and 92.85% (65/70) in plasma. The median of the viral load in the plasma was of 4.87 log10, and in saliva, it was 3.32log10, (p = 0.0005). Female patients and black patients exhibited a negative correlation between the HCV-RNA load in saliva vs. the HCV-RNA load in plasma (r = -0.3172, CI95% -0.6240 to -0.03736, p = 0.0491) and (r = -0.3141; IC95% -0.6069 to -0.05926; p = 0.0209), respectively. HCV-RNA was detected and quantified in saliva samples, and according to the quantification levels, saliva may be a possible transmission source of HCV, particularly in women and people of black ethnicity who develop chronic HCV infections. PMID:26044945

  16. Application of a new nanocarbonaceous sorbent in electromembrane surrounded solid phase microextraction for analysis of amphetamine and methamphetamine in human urine and whole blood.

    PubMed

    Rezazadeh, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram

    2015-05-29

    Application of a new carbon-based sorbent was studied for the first time for extraction and quantification of amphetamine and methamphetamine as model analytes by means of electromembrane surrounded solid phase microextraction (EM-SPME). Since the basis of this microextraction method is adsorption of target analytes on the sorbent surface (after transferring across a supported liquid membrane) in an electrical field, the sorbent, which also performs the electrical potential, should have a conductive nature. On the other hand, using a synthesized fiber is a suitable solution to eliminate the interfering compounds existing in the fiber. To extract the model analytes from acidic sample solution through a thin layer of organic phase and into the aqueous acceptor phase and their final adsorption, 150V electrical potential was applied for 15min. Regardless of the high sample cleanup ability of the proposed method, which makes the analysis of complicated biological fluids possible, admissible extraction recoveries (9.0-18.8%) and suitable detection limits (less than 2.0ngmL(-1)) were obtained. Repeatability and reproducibility of the method were studied and intra- and inter-assay precisions were in the ranges of 2.0-7.3% and 7.5-12.5%, respectively. Coefficients of determination larger than 0.9964 were achieved by scrutinizing of the linearity up to 500ngmL(-1) and calibration curves were utilized for quantification of analytes of interest in human urine and whole blood samples. PMID:25907668

  17. Simultaneous determination of epinephrine and norepinephrine in human blood plasma and urine samples using nanotubes modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rajendra N; Bishnoi, Sunita

    2011-03-15

    The simultaneous determination of catecholamines - epinephrine and norepinephrine by square wave voltammetry (SWV) at physiological pH 7.2 is reported using multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (MWNT/EPPGE). A broad bump at ∼ 250 mV is appeared for the oxidation of epinephrine (EP) and norepinephrine (NE) at bare EPPGE whereas at MWNT/EPPGE two well-separated peaks at ∼ 150 and ∼ 215 mV are appeared for the oxidation of EP and NE, respectively. The oxidation peak current of both the neurotransmitters also increased significantly along with the negative shift of peak potentials using MWNT/EPPGE. The oxidation of both compounds occurred in a pH dependent, 2e and 2H(+) process and the electrode reaction followed diffusion controlled pathway. Linear calibration curves were obtained for epinephrine and norepinephrine in the range 0.5-100 nM with limits of detection 0.15 × 10(-9) and 0.90 × 10(-10)M, respectively. The developed protocol is implemented for the simultaneous determination of epinephrine and norepinephrine in blood plasma and urine samples of smokers as well as in athletes. PMID:21315901

  18. Determination of five di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate metabolites in urine by UPLC-MS/MS, markers of blood transfusion misuse in sports.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Nria; Ventura, Rosa; Balcells, Georgina; Segura, Jordi

    2012-11-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is the most commonly used plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride, which is found in a large variety of products, including most of the bags used for blood storage because of its protective role on erythrocytes survival. DEHP metabolites have been recently proposed as markers of the misuse of blood transfusion in athletes. In this study, a method to quantify the main five DEHP metabolites in urine has been developed: mono-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl)phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl)phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and mono-(2-carboxymethylhexyl)phthalate (2cx-MMHP). The method involved an enzymatic hydrolysis with ?-glucuronidase from Escherichia coli followed by an acidic extraction with ethyl acetate. The hydrolysed extracts were analysed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Isotope labelled MEHP, MEOHP and 5cx-MEPP were used as internal standards. Analysis of all the metabolites was achieved in a total run time of 10min, using a C(18) column and a mobile phase containing deionized water and acetonitrile with formic acid, with gradient elution at a flow-rate of 0.6mLmin(-1). Detection of the compounds was performed by multiple reaction monitoring, using electrospray ionization in positive and negative ion modes. The method was validated for quantitative purposes. Extraction recoveries were greater than 90% and the limits of quantitation ranged from 1.2 to 2.6ngmL(-1). Intra-day precisions were better than 8% for all metabolites while inter-assay precisions were better than 12%. Concentrations of DEHP metabolites were measured in a control group (n=30, subjects reflecting the common environmental DEHP exposure), and in sportsmen (n=464), to evaluate population distribution exposure to DEHP. Additionally, threshold concentrations indicating outliers of common exposure for DEHP metabolites are proposed. PMID:23040990

  19. Development and validation of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of etilefrine and oxilofrine in equine blood plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Kong, Noel; Yi, Rong; Zhao, Sarah; Sandhu, Jasmeet; Lam, Geoffrey; Loganathan, Devan; Morrissey, Barbara

    2014-11-01

    A sensitive hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous detection and quantification of etilefrine and oxilofrine in equine blood plasma and urine. The method is highly sensitive and specific with good precision and accuracy. In plasma the limit of detection and limit of quantification are 0.03 and 0.1ng/mL, respectively, for both analytes. In urine the limit of detection and limit of quantification are 0.3 and 1ng/mL, respectively, for both analytes. The suitability of the method for doping control analysis in equine species is demonstrated by analyzing postadministration samples collected after a single intravenous administration of 50mg etilefrine to a standardbred mare. Etilefrine was detected up to 120h in urine and up to 48h in plasma. Etilefrine is highly conjugated in equine urine whereas it exists in the free form in equine plasma. Therefore, enzyme hydrolysis prior to sample preparation is recommended for the detection and quantification of etilefrine and oxilofrine in equine urine. PMID:25143252

  20. Multiscale modelling of saliva secretion.

    PubMed

    Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

    2014-11-01

    We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca(2+) oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca(2+) waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K(+) channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

  1. Multiscale Modelling of Saliva Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Sneyd, James; Crampin, Edmund; Yule, David

    2014-01-01

    We review a multiscale model of saliva secretion, describing in brief how the model is constructed and what we have so far learned from it. The model begins at the level of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IPR), and proceeds through the cellular level (with a model of acinar cell calcium dynamics) to the multicellular level (with a model of the acinus), finally to a model of a saliva production unit that includes an acinus and associated duct. The model at the level of the entire salivary gland is not yet completed. Particular results from the model so far include (i) the importance of modal behaviour of IPR, (ii) the relative unimportance of Ca2+ oscillation frequency as a controller of saliva secretion, (iii) the need for the periodic Ca2+ waves to be as fast as possible in order to maximise water transport, (iv) the presence of functional K+ channels in the apical membrane increases saliva secretion, (v) the relative unimportance of acinar spatial structure for isotonic water transport, (vi) the prediction that duct cells are highly depolarised, (vii) the prediction that the secondary saliva takes at least 1 mm (from the acinus) to reach ionic equilibrium. We end with a brief discussion of future directions for the model, both in construction and in the study of scientific questions. PMID:25014770

  2. Development of an Integrated Micro-Analytical System for Lead in Saliva and Linkage to a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Describing Lead Saliva Secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Charles ); Poet, Torka S. ); Lin, Yuehe ); Weitz, Karl K. ); Zhao, Rui; Thrall, Karla D. )

    2000-12-01

    There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical instruments for real-time monitoring of trace metals, such as lead (Pb) utilizing readily available non-invasive fluids like saliva. To interpret saliva results, an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of Pb secretion into the saliva is needed. A portable microfluidics/electrochemical device was developed for the rapid analysis of Pb based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, where a saliva sample flows over an electrode surface, Pb2+ is chemically reduced, accumulated, and the electric potential of the electrode scanned. To evaluate the relationship between saliva and blood Pb, rats were treated with single oral doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg Pb/kg of body weight, and 24 hours later salivation was induced by administering pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist. Blood and saliva were collected and analyzed for Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by the micro-analytical system. The micro-analytical system was slightly less responsive ({approx}75-85%) than ICP-MS, however the response was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ppb suggesting that it can be utilized for the quantitation of salivary Pb. To relate saliva levels to internal dose of Pb (e.g. blood) and to total body burden, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Pb was modified to incorporate a salivary gland compartment. The model was capable of predicting blood and saliva Pb concentration based on a limited data set. These preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that a fully developed, micro-analytical system can be utilized as an important tool for real-time biomonitoring of Pb for both occupational and environmental exposures.

  3. A magnetic nanoparticles-based method for DNA extraction from the saliva of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li; Huang, Ying; Wu, Ting; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a risk factor for stroke, suggesting that widespread detection could help to prevent stroke. DNA from 70 stroke patients and 70 healthy controls was extracted from saliva using a magnetic nanoparticles-based method and from blood using conventional methods. Real-time PCR results revealed that the C677T polymorphism was genotyped by PCR using DNA extracted from both saliva and blood samples. The genotype results were confirmed by gene sequencing, and results for saliva and blood samples were consistent. The mutation TT genotype frequency was significantly higher in the stroke group than in controls. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher than controls in both TT genotype groups. Therefore, this noninvasive magnetic nanoparticles-based method using saliva samples could be used to screen for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in target populations. PMID:25206624

  4. Study of a novel indolin-2-ketone compound Z24 induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-spectroscopy-based metabonomics of rat urine, blood plasma, and liver extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Quanjun; Jiang Ying; Wu Chunqi; Zhao Jianyu; Yu Shouzhong; Yuan Benli; Yan Xianzhong . E-mail: yanxz@nic.bmi.ac.cn; Liao Mingyang . E-mail: liaomingy@hotmail.com

    2006-08-15

    Antiangiogenic compound has been believed to be an ideal drug in the current cancer biological therapy, but the angiogenesis inhibitors suffer setback for unknown toxicity now. A novel synthetic indolin-s-ketone small molecular compound, 3Z-3-[({sup 1} H-pyrrol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-1,3-2H-indol-2-one (Z24) can inhibit angiogenesis in new blood vessels. The hepatotoxicity effects of Z24 oral administration (dosed at 60, 130 and 200 mg/kg) have been investigated in female Wistar rats by using metabonomic analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine, plasma and liver extracts, as well as by clinical chemistry analysis, liver histopathology and electron micrographs examination. The {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the biofluids were analyzed visually and via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis. The metabonomic trajectory analysis on the time-related hepatotoxicity of Z24 was carried out based on the {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine samples, which were collected daily predose and postdose over an 8-day period. Urinary excretion of citrate, lactate, 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate increased following Z24 dosing. Increased plasma levels of lactate, TMAO and lipid were observed, with concomitant decrease in the level of glucose and phosphatidylcholine. Metabolic profiling on aqueous soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed an increase in lactate and glutamine, together with a decrease in glucose, glycogen and choline. On the other hand, studies on lipid soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed increased level in lipid triglycerides and decreased level in unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine. Moreover, the most notable effect of Z24 on the metabolism was the reduction in the urinary levels of creatinine and TMAO and the increase in acetate, citrate, succinate and 2-oxo-glutamate with time dependence. The results indicate that in rats Z24 inhibits mitochondrial function through altering the energy and lipid metabolism, which results in the accumulation of free fatty acids and lactate because of the lack of aerobic respiration. These data show that the metabonomic approach represents a promising new technology for the toxicological mechanism study.

  5. Urine culture - catheterized specimen

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

  6. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of pharmacologically active substances in urine and blood samples by use of a continuous solid-phase extraction system and microwave-assisted derivatization.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine 22 pharmacologically active substances (frequently used in the treatment of human and animal's diseases) including analgesics, antibacterials, anti-epileptics, antiseptics, ?-blockers, hormones, lipid regulators and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in blood and urine samples. Samples were subjected to continuous solid-phase extraction in a sorbent column (Oasis HLB), and then the target analytes were eluted with ethyl acetate and derivatized in a household microwave oven at 350 W for 3 min. Finally, these products were determined in a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. The analyte detection limits thus obtained ranged from 0.2 to 1.3 ng L? for urine samples and 0.8-5.6 ng L? for blood samples. Recoveries from both blood and urine ranged from 85 to 102%, and within-day and between-day relative standard deviations were all less than 7.5%. The proposed method offers advantages in reduction of the exposure danger to toxic solvents used in conventional sample pretreatment, simplicity of the extraction processes, rapidity, and sensitivity enhancement. The method was successfully used to quantify pharmacologically active substances in human and animal (lamb, veal and pig) blood and urine. The hormones estrone and 17?-estradiol were detected in virtually all samples, and so were other analytes such as acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and triclosan in human samples, and florfenicol, pyrimethamine and phenylbutazone in animal samples. PMID:22391330

  7. Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of JWH-210, RCS-4, ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and their main metabolites in pig and human serum, whole blood, and urine for comparing pharmacokinetic data.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Nadine; Kettner, Mattias; Laschke, Matthias W; Schlote, Julia; Peters, Benjamin; Bregel, Dietmar; Menger, Michael D; Maurer, Hans H; Ewald, Andreas H; Schmidt, Peter H

    2015-05-01

    A series of new synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been consumed without any toxicological testing. For example, pharmacokinetic data have to be collected from forensic toxicological case work and/or animal studies. To develop a corresponding model for assessing such data, samples of controlled pig studies with two selected SC (JWH-210, RCS-4) and, as reference, ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) should be analyzed as well as those of human cases. Therefore, a method for determination of JWH-210, RCS-4, THC, and their main metabolites in pig and human serum, whole blood, and urine samples is presented. Specimens were analyzed by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multiple-reaction monitoring with three transitions per compound. Full validation was carried out for the pig specimens and cross-validation for the human specimens concerning precision and bias. For the pig studies, the limits of detection were between 0.05 and 0.50 ng/mL in serum and whole blood and between 0.05 and 1.0 ng/mL in urine, the lower limits of quantification between 0.25 and 1.0 ng/mL in serum and 0.50 and 2.0 ng/mL in whole blood and urine, and the intra- and interday precision values lower than 15% and bias values within ±15%. The applicability was tested with samples taken from a pharmacokinetic pilot study with pigs following intravenous administration of a mixture of 200 μg/kg body mass dose each of JWH-210, RCS-4, and THC. The cross-validation data for human serum, whole blood, and urine showed that this approach should also be suitable for human specimens, e.g., of clinical or forensic cases. PMID:25772567

  8. [Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples using on-line solid phase extraction with liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Huang, Kejian; Lu, Minping; Zhou, Zhe; Lin, Cuiwu; Yang, Ning; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Dingji; Liang, Ping; Qiao, Wentao; Li, Hongsen; Li, Lu; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2015-07-01

    A new and sensitive analytical method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples by liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-LIT/MS) with on-line solid phase extraction (on-line SPE). The samples were treated with acetonitrile, followed by dilution, centrifugation, and filtration. The resulting solution was injected into the LC system directly and processed by on-line SPE column for enrichment and purification. Separation was performed on a C18 column with mixed mobile phases of methanol and 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate aqueous solution for gradient elution. The analytes were detected by the mass spectrometer with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode. MS2 full scan signals of the target parent ions within the locked retention time window were recorded. Self-built database searching was performed for qualitative confirmation, and MS2 fragment ions with high sensitivity and specificity were selected for quantification. Simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analyses of the seven rodenticides were achieved in this way. Good linearities were obtained within the investigated mass concentration ranges of the seven rodenticides, with r2 ? 0.9958 in blood and r2 ? 0.9946 in urine. The LODs varied from 0.02 ng/mL to 1.00 ng/mL, and the LOQs varied from 0.10 ng/mL to 4.00 ng/mL. The recoveries at three spiked levels in blood and urine samples ranged from 81.0% to 113.9%, with RSDs of 0.1%-6.2% (n = 6). The developed method is simple, sensitive, and can be used for the rapid detection and accurate quantification of the seven anticoagulant rodenticides in whole blood and urine samples. PMID:26672196

  9. Immunoelectrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  10. Urination - painful

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any allergies to any medicines? Have you had sexual intercourse with someone who has, or may have, gonorrhea or chlamydia? Has there been a recent change in your brand of soap, ... urinary or sexual organs? A urinalysis will be done. A urine ...

  11. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  12. MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

  13. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  14. Application of a validated LC-MS/MS method for JWH-073 and its metabolites in blood and urine in real forensic cases.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Serkan; Ozturk, Yeter Erol; Yeter, Oya; Alpertunga, Buket

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids, which were synthesized to improve the therapeutic effects of cannabis, have become a major issue when they are abused. They have different chemical structures from tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but similar effects on endocannabinoid receptors. "Spice" named products have more serious side effects than cannabis and can even cause death. These mixtures are prepared by spraying chemicals onto small pieces of herbs and are being dishonestly sold as "natural" and "legal" products over the internet. Their popularity is continuously increasing. Studies on detecting synthetic cannabinoids in biological samples as well as pharmacology and toxicology studies of these chemicals are very limited. A fast, specific and robust method for the detection and quantification of JWH-073, JWH-073 N-butanoic acid, and JWH-073 N-(4-hydroxybutyl) in blood and urine has been developed that uses solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by UPLC-MS/MS analysis. This method has been validated in terms of its linearity (0.1-50ng/mL), selectivity, intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy and precision (CV<10%), recovery (75-95%), limits of detection (LODs) (0.08-0.13ng/mL), and limits of quantification (LOQs) (0.11-0.17ng/mL). Matrix effects, stability, and process efficiency parameters of this method have also been assessed. This method was applied to 2596 authentic samples received by the Department of Toxicology (Istanbul) in the Presidency of Council of Forensic Medicine (Turkey) between September 1, 2012, and February 28, 2015. PMID:26360591

  15. Mass spectrometric studies on the in vivo metabolism and excretion of SIRT1 activating drugs in rat urine, dried blood spots, and plasma samples for doping control purposes.

    PubMed

    Höppner, Sebastian; Delahaut, Philippe; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Thevis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The NAD(+) depending enzyme SIRT1 regulates the mitochondrial biogenesis, fat and glucose metabolism through catalyzing the deacetylation of several metabolism-related protein-substrates. Recently, synthetic activators of SIRT1 referred to as STACs (Sirtuin activating compounds, e.g. SRT2104) were identified and tested in clinical studies for the treatment of aging-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's and obesity. Although the mechanism of SIRT1 activation by small molecules has caused considerable controversy, STACs demonstrated a significant performance enhancement in mice experiments including an improvement of endurance, muscle strength, and locomotor behavior. Due to their potential to increase exercise tolerance in healthy individuals, SIRT1 activators are currently being monitored by anti-doping authorities. In the present study, the in vivo metabolic clearance of three SIRT1 activators was investigated in rats by the collection of urine, DBS (dried blood spots) and plasma samples following a single oral administration. The resulting metabolic products were studied by positive electrospray ionization - (tandem) mass spectrometry and confirmed by the comparison with in vitro generated metabolites using human and rat liver microsomal preparations. Subsequently, a screening procedure for five SIRT1 activators and the metabolite M1-SRT1720 in DBS specimens was developed. Liquid-liquid-extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry was employed based on diagnostic ion transitions recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode and two deuterated internal standards namely d8-SRT1720 and d8-M1-SRT1720 were utilized. The doping control assay was characterized with regard to specificity, limit of detection (10-50ng/ml), recovery (65-83%) and imprecision (7-20%) and ion suppression/enhancement effects (<10%), demonstrating its fitness-for-purpose for sports drug testing applications. PMID:24239904

  16. Certification of Total Arsenic in Blood and Urine Standard Reference Materials by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Rick L.; Davis, W. Clay; Yu, Lee; Murphy, Karen E.; Guthrie, William F.; Leber, Dennis D.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Vetter, Thomas W.; Shakirova, Gulchekhra; Mitchell, Graylin; Kyle, David J.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Jones, Robert L.; Eckdahl, Steven; Wermers, Michelle; Maras, Melissa; Palmer, C. D.; Verostek, M.F.; Geraghty, C. M.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed procedure for determination of arsenic by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to measure arsenic at four levels in SRM 955c Toxic Elements in Caprine Blood and at two levels in SRM 2668 Toxic Elements in Frozen Human Urine for the purpose of providing mass concentration values for certification. Samples were freeze-dried prior to analysis followed by neutron irradiation for 3 h at a fluence rate of 11014cm?2s?1. After sample dissolution in perchloric and nitric acids, arsenic was separated from the matrix by extraction into zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform, and 76As quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Differences in chemical yield and counting geometry between samples and standards were monitored by measuring the count rate of a 77As tracer added before sample dissolution. RNAA results were combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) values from NIST and collaborating laboratories to provide certified values of (10.81 0.54) ?g/kg and (213.1 0.73) ?g/kg for SRM 2668 Levels I and II, and certified values of (21.66 0.73) ?g/kg, (52.7 1.1) ?g/kg, and (78.8 4.9) ?g/kg for SRM 955c Levels 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Because of discrepancies between values obtained by different methods for SRM 955c Level 1, an information value of < 5 ?g/kg was assigned for this material. PMID:26300575

  17. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells (RBC) deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells (WBC) fight infection and are part of your ...

  18. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  19. The proteome of human saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01

    Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

  20. Chloride - urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine chloride test measures the amount of chloride in a certain volume of urine. ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested in the lab. If needed, the health care provider may ask you to collect your urine ...

  1. Cytology exam of urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine cytology ... the sample is collected as a clean catch urine sample in your doctor's office or at home. ... the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, you may get ...

  2. Protein urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine protein; Albumin - urine; Urine albumin; Proteinuria; Albuminuria ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The color the ...

  3. Identification in human urine and blood of a novel selenium metabolite, Se-methylselenoneine, a potential biomarker of metabolization in mammals of the naturally occurring selenoneine, by HPLC coupled to electrospray hybrid linear ion trap-orbital ion trap MS.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marlène; Ouerdane, Laurent; Bueno, Maïté; Pannier, Florence

    2011-05-01

    Speciation analysis of selenium in human urine allowed for the first time the identification of a novel selenium metabolite, Se-methylselenoneine. Despite a concentration at low ppb level, its characterization was achieved after sample purification by solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by the parallel coupling of the bidimensional RP/HILIC chromatography with ICP-MS and ESI-LTQ Orbitrap MS detection. To confirm its biological significance with regards to selenoneine, the recently discovered analog of ergothioneine, and to discard the possibility of sample preparation artifacts, a new method was developed to monitor its actual presence, as well as the occurrence of its sulfur and/or non-methylated analogs, in non-preconcentrated urine and blood samples of non-supplemented humans. It consisted in a HILIC ESI-MS(3) method in high resolution mode (resolution 30 000 at m/z 400) with large isolation width windows for precursor ions. These two particular settings allowed respectively to keep observing the specific mass defect of selenium- and sulfur-containing molecules and to maintain the characteristic selenium pattern in product ions created through MS(n) fragmentations. As a result, all four metabolites were detected in blood and three of them in urine. Moreover, different ratios "methylated/non-methylated" were observed between urine and blood samples, which seemed to indicate their active metabolization. The analytical tool developed here will be of a great importance to further study the occurrence and the potential metabolic role in mammalian organelles, cells and fluids of these very particular and promising redox metabolites. PMID:21331438

  4. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Plan Hot Topics Meningitis Choosing Your Mood Prescription Drug Abuse Healthy School Lunch Planner How Can I Help ... like some over-the-counter pain relievers. Many athletes, especially distance runners, get hematuria from time to ...

  5. Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic device for assays of protein and glucose in urine.

    PubMed

    Sechi, Deidre; Greer, Brady; Johnson, Jesse; Hashemi, Nastaran

    2013-11-19

    The first step in curing a disease is being able to detect the disease effectively. Paper-based microfluidic devices are biodegradable and can make diagnosing diseases cost-effective and easy in almost all environments. We created a three-dimesnional (3D) paper device using wax printing fabrication technique and basic principles of origami. This design allows for a versatile fabrication technique over previously reported patterning of SU-8 photoresist on chromatography paper by employing a readily available wax printer. The design also utilizes multiple colorimetric assays that can accommodate one or more analytes including urine, blood, and saliva. In this case to demonstrate the functionality of the 3D paper-based microfluidic system, a urinalysis of protein and glucose assays is conducted. The amounts of glucose and protein introduced to the device are found to be proportional to the color change of each assay. This color change was quantified by use of Adobe Photoshop. Urine samples from participants with no pre-existing health conditions and one person with diabetes were collected and compared against synthetic urine samples with predetermined glucose and protein levels. Utilizing this method, we were able to confirm that both protein and glucose levels were in fact within healthy ranges for healthy participants. For the participant with diabetes, glucose was found to be above the healthy range while the protein level was in the healthy range. PMID:24147735

  7. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes. PMID:16251790

  8. Detection of hydatid-specific antibodies in the serum and urine for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis in patients from the Kashmir Valley, India.

    PubMed

    Chirag, S; Fomda, B A; Khan, A; Malik, A A; Lone, G N; Khan, B A; Zahoor, D

    2015-03-01

    Serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is usually made by detecting specific antibodies in serum samples. However, collection of blood samples is difficult and may be hazardous and unsafe. Thus, it is important to assess alternative simple methods of sampling body fluids that give similar results. Saliva and urine have been suggested as possible alternatives to detect specific antibodies for the diagnosis of various diseases. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no previously published study regarding the detection of CE-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G subclass antibodies (IgG1-4) in urine. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the value of hydatid-specific antibodies of IgG, IgM, IgE and IgG subclass in urine and serum samples for the diagnosis of CE. Serum and urine samples of 41 surgically confirmed patients of CE, 40 patients with other diseases and 16 healthy subjects were included in the study. CE-specific total IgG, IgE and IgG4 in sera and total IgG, IgG4 and IgG1 in the urine of CE patients were the most important specific antibodies for the diagnosis of CE. However, total IgG usually persists for an extended period and has a very high cross-reactivity. The diagnostic sensitivity of hydatid-specific IgM in serum and urine samples was very low and therefore cannot be used as a diagnostic marker. There was no significant difference between IgG1 and IgG4 in serum and urine and both showed the best correlation for the diagnosis of CE. These considerations suggest that detection of antibodies in urine could provide a new approach in the diagnosis of CE. PMID:24429044

  9. Antiviral Activities in Human Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Malamud, D.; Abrams, W.R.; Barber, C.A.; Weissman, D.; Rehtanz, M.; Golub, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and virusesgp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial clearance from the mouth. However, when bound to the tooth surface, gp340 promotes bacterial adherence. In the oral cavity, most gp340 is found soluble in saliva and can function as a specific inhibitor of infectivity of HIV-1 and influenza A. In contrast, in the female reproductive track, most gp340 is bound to the cell surface, where it can promote HIV-1 infection. PMID:21441478

  10. Antiviral activities in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Malamud, D; Abrams, W R; Barber, C A; Weissman, D; Rehtanz, M; Golub, E

    2011-04-01

    In this review, the authors survey the large number of antibacterial and antiviral proteins present in human saliva. Of interest, most of these antibacterial proteins display antiviral activity, typically against specific viral pathogens. The review focuses on one protein that interacts with both bacteria and viruses-gp340, originally referred to as salivary agglutinin. In the oral cavity, soluble gp340 binds to and aggregates a variety of bacteria, and this is thought to increase bacterial clearance from the mouth. However, when bound to the tooth surface, gp340 promotes bacterial adherence. In the oral cavity, most gp340 is found soluble in saliva and can function as a specific inhibitor of infectivity of HIV-1 and influenza A. In contrast, in the female reproductive track, most gp340 is bound to the cell surface, where it can promote HIV-1 infection. PMID:21441478

  11. Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

    2014-01-01

    Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interferon-? in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

  12. Saliva sampling in global clinical studies: the impact of low sampling volume on performance of DNA in downstream genotyping experiments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The collection of viable DNA samples is an essential element of any genetics research programme. Biological samples for DNA purification are now routinely collected in many studies with a variety of sampling methods available. Initial observation in this study suggested a reduced genotyping success rate of some saliva derived DNA samples when compared to blood derived DNA samples prompting further investigation. Methods Genotyping success rate was investigated to assess the suitability of using saliva samples in future safety and efficacy pharmacogenetics experiments. The Oragene® OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit was used to collect and extract DNA from saliva from 1468 subjects enrolled in global clinical studies. Statistical analysis evaluated the impact of saliva sample volume of collection on the quality, yield, concentration and performance of saliva DNA in genotyping assays. Results Across 13 global clinical studies that utilized the Oragene® OG-300 DNA Self-Collection kit there was variability in the volume of saliva sample collection with ~31% of participants providing 0.5 mL of saliva, rather than the recommended 2 mL. While the majority of saliva DNA samples provided high quality genotype data, collection of 0.5 mL volumes of saliva contributed to DNA samples being significantly less likely to pass genotyping quality control standards. Assessment of DNA sample characteristics that may influence genotyping outcomes indicated that saliva sample volume, DNA purity and turbidity were independently associated with sample genotype pass rate, but that saliva collection volume had the greatest effect. Conclusion When employing saliva sampling to obtain DNA, it is important to encourage all study participants to provide sufficient sample to minimize potential loss of data in downstream genotyping experiments. PMID:23759220

  13. Influence of saliva on the oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Philip D; Do, Thuy; Beighton, David; Devine, Deirdre A

    2016-02-01

    Saliva plays a major role in determining the composition and activity of the oral microbiota, via a variety of mechanisms. Molecules, mainly from saliva, form a conditioning film on oral surfaces, thus providing receptors for bacterial attachment. The attached cells use saliva components, such as glycoproteins, as their main source of nutrients for growth. Oral bacteria work sequentially and in a concerted manner to catabolize these structurally complex molecules. Saliva also buffers the pH in the biofilm to around neutrality, creating an environment which is conducive to the growth of many oral bacteria that provide important benefits to the host. Components of the adaptive and innate host defences are delivered by saliva, and these often function synergistically, and at sublethal concentrations, so a complex relationship develops between the host and the resident microbiota. Dysbiosis can occur rapidly if the flow of saliva is perturbed. PMID:26662484

  14. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  15. Urine - bloody

    MedlinePLUS

    ... surgery or an injury? Have you recently eaten foods that may cause a change in color, like beets, berries, or rhubarb? Tests that may be done include: Abdominal ultrasound Antinuclear antibody test for lupus Blood creatinine level ...

  16. Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2007-03-01

    Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

  17. Urinal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Randy; Hacking, Kip; Haymore, Benjamin; Truscott, Tadd; Splash Lab Team

    2013-11-01

    In response to harsh and repeated criticisms from our mothers and several failed relationships with women, we present the splash dynamics of a simulated human male urine stream impacting rigid and free surfaces. Our study aims to reduce undesired splashing that may result from lavatory usage. Experiments are performed at a pressure and flow rate that would be expected from healthy male subjects. For a rigid surface, the effects of stream breakup and surface impact angle on lateral and vertical droplet ejection distances are measured using high-speed photography and image processing. For free surface impact, the effects of velocity and fluid depth on droplet ejection distances are measured. Guided by our results, techniques for splash reduction are proposed.

  18. GC-MS analysis of the designer drug α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone and its metabolites in urine and blood in an acute poisoning case.

    PubMed

    Grapp, Marcel; Sauer, Christoph; Vidal, Christian; Müller, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    α-Pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP) is a synthetic cathinone belonging to the group of "second generation" pyrrolidinophenones that becomes more and more popular as a designer psychostimulant. Here we provide toxicological analytical support for a severe poisoning with α-PVP. Serum and urine samples that were sent to our laboratory were subjected to a general unknown screening procedure. The procedure includes immunoassay-based screening of drugs of abuse in serum and systematic toxicological analysis of urine and serum after neutral and basic liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Whereas the immunoassay delivered negative results, analyzing the urine sample by GC-MS in full scan mode disclosed the presence of α-PVP and its metabolites α-(2″-oxo-pyrrolidino)valerophenone (2″-oxo-α-PVP) and 1-phenyl-2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)pentan-1-ol (OH-α-PVP). In the acetylated urine sample we found additionally N,N-bis-dealkyl-PVP. In serum, α-PVP could be detected after solid phase extraction and a concentration of 29ng/mL was determined. Other forensic relevant substances were not detected. The presented data can explain the psychotic symptoms and behavioural pattern of the subject after abuse of α-PVP, leading to a clinical condition similar to excited delirium syndrome. PMID:26775198

  19. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute

    PubMed Central

    Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

  20. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

  1. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8–926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34–2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak could be further substantiated, and the early detection of HGA in cograzing horses, which are clinically normal, might be a promising step in prophylaxis. PMID:26378918

  2. Immunoconglutinins and C3 in human saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B D; Challacombe, S J; Slaney, J M; Lachmann, P J; Lehner, T

    1975-01-01

    High titres of immunoconglutinin activity (antibody to bound complement components) have been found in the parotid, sublingual and submandibular saliva of most healthy subjects. The immunoconglutinin (IK) titre in mixed saliva was substantially lower than in the other samples of saliva. C3 was detectable in only three of 164 samples of parotid, submandibular and sublingual saliva but was present in forty-seven of 117 mixed saliva samples. It is suggested that crevicular fluid is the major source of C3 in mixed saliva. A negative correlation was found in mixed saliva between the C3 concentration and the IK titre, and this suggested that C3 was the inhibitor of IK in mixed saliva. Binding of C3 to IK has been demonstrated in mixed saliva by using highly purified salivary IK and C3. Purified C3, C3i, C3c and C3d inhibited the activity of purified IK. It is suggested that salivary IK represents the secretion of a B-lymphocyte population which has evaded the mechanism responsible for inducing B-cell tolerance to autologous serum proteins. The reason for its persistence in the salivary glands, however, is not known at present. PMID:1239346

  3. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Winfried; Numtip, Wanwiwa; Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim; Csanády, György A.; Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München ; Pütz, Christian; and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 μg/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ► After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ► Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ► Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  4. Osmolality urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and urine concentration. Osmolality is a more exact measurement of urine concentration than the urine specific gravity ... slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  5. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePLUS

    ... at night? Is the force of your urine flow decreased? Do you have dribbling or leaking urine? ... conditions or surgeries that could affect your urine flow? What medicines do you take? Tests that may ...

  6. Urine sample (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    A "clean-catch" urine sample is performed by collecting the sample of urine in midstream. Men or boys should wipe clean ... urethra of contaminants). Then, in a clean container, catch about 1 to 2 ounces of urine and ...

  7. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  8. Urine drainage bags

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine drainage bags collect urine. Your bag will attach to a catheter (tube) that is inside your bladder. You may have a catheter and urine drainage bag because you have urinary incontinence (leakage), urinary ...

  9. Glucose urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine sugar test; Urine glucose test; Glucosuria test; Glycosuria test ... After you provide a urine sample, it is tested right away. The health care provider uses a dipstick made with a color-sensitive pad. The ...

  10. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  11. Urine 24-hour volume

    MedlinePLUS

    ... volumes of urine), such as is seen in diabetes insipidus . ... the conditions that cause increased urine volume include: Diabetes insipidus - renal Diabetes insipidus - central Diabetes High fluid intake ...

  12. Development and validation of a sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of fentanyl and its major metabolite norfentanyl in urine and whole blood in forensic context.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Tytgat, Jan

    2010-07-15

    Fentanyl and its major metabolite norfentanyl often occur in low doses in biological samples. Therefore, a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and fully validated. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge with an additional alkaline wash step to decrease matrix effects and thus increase sensitivity. Ionization of fentanyl and norfentanyl with electrospray ionization (ESI) was more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher ESI signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed. A comparison of columns with different internal diameter and/or smaller particles showed optimal resolution and sensitivity when an Acquity C18 column (1.7 microm, 2.1 mm x 50 mm) was used. Deuterium labeled internal standards were used, but with careful evaluation of their stability since loss of deuteriums was seen. With limits of detection of 0.25 pg/ml for fentanyl and 2.5 pg/ml for norfentanyl in urine and 5 pg/ml for fentanyl and norfentanyl in whole blood the presented method is highly appropriate for the analysis of fentanyl and norfentanyl in forensic urine and blood samples. PMID:20542478

  13. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  14. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  15. Determination of uric acid in human saliva by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection: potential application in fast diagnosis of gout.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yueqing; Chu, Qingcui; Ye, Jiannong

    2004-12-01

    The clinical manifestations of gout result from the formation and deposition of uric acid (UA) crystals. The monitoring of UA level in less invasive biological samples such as saliva is suggested for diagnosis and therapy of gout, hyperuricemia and the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. In order to investigate the correlation between trace amounts of UA in human saliva and urine and explore the potential application in fast diagnosis of gout, capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection (CE-ED) was applied for the determination of UA in human saliva and urine in this work. Under the optimum conditions, UA and three coexisting analytes could be well separated within 14 min at the separation voltage of 14 kV in 80 mmol L(-1) borax running buffer (pH 7.8). A good linear relationship was established between peak current and concentration of analytes over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N = 3) ranging from 1.09 x 10(-7) to 5.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) for all analytes. This proposed method has been successfully applied for study of the correlation between the UA content of human saliva and urine, providing an alternative and convenient method for rapid diagnosis of gout. PMID:15700169

  16. Sodium urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urinary 24 hours sodium; Urine Na+ ... your kidneys are able to maintain or remove sodium from the urine. It may be used to ... For adults, normal urine sodium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 40 to 220 mEq/L per day (mEq/ ...

  17. Clinical relevance of therapeutic drug monitoring of digoxin and gentamicin in the saliva of children.

    PubMed

    Berkovitch, M; Bistritzer, T; Aladjem, M; Burtin, P; Dagan, T; Chen-Levi, Z; Freedom, R; Koren, G

    1998-06-01

    Digoxin and gentamicin are widely used in pediatric medicine, and therapeutic monitoring is mandatory because of their narrow margin of safety and wide interpatient and intrapatient pharmacokinetic variabilities. Saliva sampling may be of potential interest, especially in children, in whom blood sampling is often difficult. In 11 children treated with digoxin for various cardiac conditions, and in 24 children treated with gentamicin (14 patients were administered gentamicin three times a day, and 10 once-daily), drugs levels were measured in plasma and saliva. There was no correlation between plasma total or free digoxin concentrations and saliva levels, precluding the clinical use of the saliva test for digoxin. No correlation was found between plasma gentamicin concentrations and saliva levels when the drug was administered three times a day; however, good correlation was found when the drug was administered once-daily (r2 = 0.89, p < 0.0001). Saliva may be used as a noninvasive method of measuring gentamicin serum concentrations to guide dosage adjustments in patients administered the drug once-daily. PMID:9631920

  18. The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frdric; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual salivawere made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

  19. The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions.

    PubMed

    Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frdric; Hall, Steven C; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P; Witkowska, H Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T; Yates, John R; Fisher, Susan J

    2008-05-01

    Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications--914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva--were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

  20. Fatty acid transduction of nitric oxide signaling: multiple nitrated unsaturated fatty acid derivatives exist in human blood and urine and serve as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul R S; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J; Woodcock, Steven R; Groeger, Alison L; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H; Iles, Karen E; Baker, Laura M S; Branchaud, Bruce P; Chen, Yuqing E; Freeman, Bruce A

    2005-12-23

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 +/- 52 and 302 +/- 369 nm, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 +/- 11 and 155 +/- 65 nm. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is approximately 50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 microm. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPARgamma, PPARalpha, or PPARdelta expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPARgamma showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nm, while PPARalpha and PPARdelta were activated at approximately 300 nm OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR gamma-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges. PMID:16227625

  1. Obestatin is present in saliva: alterations in obestatin and ghrelin levels of saliva and serum in ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ozbay, Yilmaz; Aydin, Suleyman; Dagli, A Ferda; Akbulut, Mehmet; Dagli, Necati; Kilic, Nermin; Rahman, Ali; Sahin, Ibrahim; Polat, Veli; Ozercan, H Ibrahim; Arslan, Nadi; Sensoy, Dogan

    2008-01-31

    Ghrelin and obestatin are a single gene products and are a multiple functional peptides that regulates energy homeostasis, and food intake. In the present work, we studied the secretion of ghrelin and its co-secreted peptide obestatin in 44 patients with ischemic heart disease with that of 27 healthy matched controls. Here we first conducted using an immunohistochemistry assay to screen whether human salivary glands have any obestatin immunoreactivity. Then, serum and saliva obestatin and acylated ghrelin levels were determined by using Radioimmunoassay. Our immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that obestatin was localized in the striated and excretory duct of human salivary gland. We also report for the first time that obestatin, like ghrelin, is present in human salivary gland and saliva. No evidence of the role of obestatin or ghrelin saliva levels in the context of ischemic heart disease was found. Salivary ghrelin and obestatin levels are correlated in controls with the blood levels. Determination of salivary values could represent a non-invasive alternative to serum ones that can be useful in clinical practice. PMID:18304451

  2. Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Malon, Radha S. P.; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

  3. UFLC-Q-TOF/MS based screening and identification of the metabolites in plasma, bile, urine and feces of normal and blood stasis rats after oral administration of hydroxysafflor yellow A.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yi; Wu, Liang; Tang, Yuping; Cao, Yujie; Li, Shujiao; Shen, Juan; Yue, Shijun; Qu, Cheng; Shan, Chenxiao; Cui, Xiaobing; Zhang, Li; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2016-02-15

    The dried flower of Carthamus tinctorius L. (honghua) is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine in clinics to treat coronary heart disease, hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease due to its functions of ameliorating circulation and removing blood stasis. Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is an active marker component of honghua. In this paper, ultra-flow liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass-spectrometry (UFLC-Q-TOF/MS) was established and successfully applied to the detection and identification of the metabolites in bile, urine, plasma and feces samples of normal and model rats with orally administrated HSYA. A total of 8 metabolites were observed in normal rats, while 7 metabolites were detected in model rats. The distribution of metabolites in the plasma, bile, urine and feces of normal and model rats had obvious differences. The major in vivo metabolic pathways for HSYA included hydroxylation, hydroxylation+methylation, acetylation and glucuronidation, and there were also dehydration, hydrogenation, hydration, and hydroxylation+glucuronidation. All of these metabolites were reported for the first time, and these results are valuable and important for the understanding of the metabolic process and therapeutic mechanism of HSYA and some other pigments in honghua. PMID:26827279

  4. Electrophoretic analysis of the protein in palatine saliva.

    PubMed

    Shiba, A; Sano, K; Nakao, M; Yoshida, J; Cho, H; Hayashi, T

    1980-04-01

    The protein in palatine saliva was investigated and compared with that in parotid saliva by means of SDS electrophoretic method. It was found that palatine saliva contains a large amount of high molecular weight protein (higher than 300,000) which is identified as mucin-rich glycoprotein and sialoglycoprotein, while no such protein is present in parotid saliva. The protein composition of palatine saliva has qualitatively smaller individual difference when compared to that of parotid saliva. We suggest that the high molecular weight protein which is specific to palatine saliva probably contributes to the rentention of complete maxillary dentures. PMID:6153720

  5. [Saliva and dental caries: diagnostic tests in practical dentistry].

    PubMed

    Rostoka, D; Kroĭcha, Iu; Kuznetsova, V; Brazma, D; Reĭnis, A

    2001-01-01

    New qualitative methods of diagnosis are used now in dental practice. Very popular are saliva diagnostic tests. They are fast and convenient for use. By the saliva one can make diagnosis on the caries activity because of wrong diet (Lactobacillus bacteria in saliva), elevated level of cariogenic microorganisms in saliva (Streptococcus mutans level in saliva) and saliva pH. It is possible to detect the level of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in saliva using selective diagnostic medium for the bacterial culture. PMID:11696959

  6. Diagnostic Applications of Saliva in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    AR, Prabhakar; Gulati, Akanksha; Mehta, Deepak; Sugandhan, S

    2009-01-01

    Background: The use of saliva to identify individuals with disease and to follow the progress of the affected individual has attracted the attention of numerous investigators. Its noninvasive method of collection, simplicity, and cost effectiveness make it a useful tool not only to the general practitioner but also to the pediatric dentist. Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a comprehensive review of the diagnostic uses of saliva in dentistry. PMID:25206116

  7. Validation of the difference in urine and blood carbon dioxide tension during bicarbonate loading as an index of distal nephron acidification in experimental models of distal renal tubular acidosis.

    PubMed Central

    DuBose, T D; Caflisch, C R

    1985-01-01

    Recent classifications of the several pathophysiologic types of distal renal tubular acidosis (secretory, voltage dependent, and gradient) have been based on the response of acidification parameters to a series of provocative maneuvers in vivo and in vitro. A reduction in the difference in urine and blood CO2 tension during bicarbonate loading (U-B pCO2 gradient), a widely applied parameter, has been employed as an index of reduced distal nephron proton secretion. This study was designed to test the validity of the U-B pCO2 gradient in a variety of experimental models of distal renal tubular acidosis by measuring and comparing disequilibrium pH (a direct technique to detect H+ secretion in situ) with the pCO2 in the papillary collecting duct of the rat in vivo during bicarbonate loading. Chronic amiloride, lithium chloride, and amphotericin-B administration, and the post-obstructed kidney models were employed. Amiloride resulted in an acidification defect which did not respond to sulfate infusion (urine pH = 6.15 +/- 0.08), and was associated with an obliteration of the acid disequilibrium pH (-0.26 +/- 0.05- -0.08 +/- 0.03) and reduction in papillary pCO2 (116.9 +/- 3.2 - 66.9 +/- 2.5 mmHg). The defect induced by lithium administration responded to Na2SO4 (urine pH = 5.21 +/- 0.06) but was similar to amiloride with respect to the observed reduction in disequilibrium pH (-0.04 +/- 0.02) and pCO2 (90.3 +/- 3.0 mmHg). The post-obstructed kidney model was characterized by an abnormally alkaline urine pH unresponsive to sulfate (6.59 +/- 0.06) and a reduction in disequilibrium pH (+0.02 +/- 0.06) and pCO2 (77.6 +/- 3.6 mmHg). Amphotericin-B resulted in a gradient defect as characterized by excretion of an acid urine after infusion of sodium sulfate (5.13 +/- 0.06). Unlike other models, however, amphotericin-B was associated with a significant acid disequilibrium pH (-0.11 +/- 0.05) and an appropriately elevated urine pCO2 (119.8 +/- 6.4 mmHg) which did not differ from the respective values in control rats. Thus, these findings support the use of the U-B pCO2 as a reliable means of demonstrating impaired distal nephron proton secretion in secretory and voltage-dependent forms of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA) and supports the view that proton secretion is not impaired in gradient forms of distal RTA. PMID:3921566

  8. Gingival crevicular fluid and saliva.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John J; Preshaw, Philip M

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the structure and function of the mouth, its tissues and secretions is of great interest to physiologists, cell biologists, immunologists and microbiologists but is also of fundamental interest to the dental professional interested in comprehending the aberrant processes associated with oral disease and in the application of effective clinical interventions. The field of periodontology, which has a truly multidisciplinary perspective cutting across leading edge molecular and cellular biology, clinical dentistry, epidemiology and behavioural science, exemplifies this. A paradigm shift in recent years has led to the consideration of the oral cavity (and, thus, oral disease) not in isolation but as a component integrated with systemic physiology, important in maintaining systemic health and reflective of systemic disease; this has served to promote periodontology, in particular, into the forefront of medicine in general. This volume of Periodontology 2000 considers the role of gingival crevicular fluid and saliva in physiological function, maintenance of oral tissue integrity, defense against pathogens and oral disease as well as the many, emerging applications of analysis of these fluids in support of periodontal disease diagnosis, prognosis and epidemiology. However, whilst the emphasis is on periodontal disease, the wider contexts of oral and systemic health are also key considerations. PMID:26662478

  9. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePLUS

    Drug screen -- urine ... detect the presence of illegal and some prescription drugs in your urine. Their presence indicates that you recently used these drugs. Some drugs may remain in your system for ...

  10. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have a bleeding disorder. Common bleeding disorders include: Hemophilia (pronounced: hee-muh-FIL-ee-uh), an inherited ... clotting factors in the blood. People with severe hemophilia are at risk for excessive bleeding and bruising ...

  11. Urine Tests (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Urine Tests KidsHealth > For Parents > Urine Tests Print A A A Text Size What's ... Urinalysis How a Urinalysis Is Done Doctors order urine tests for kids to make sure that the ...

  12. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size en ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  13. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the Body Works Main Page Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  14. 24-hour urine copper test

    MedlinePLUS

    The 24-hour urine copper test measures the amount of copper in a urine sample. ... A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect ...

  15. Simultaneous determination of phosphatidylcholine-derived quaternary ammonium compounds by a LC-MS/MS method in human blood plasma, serum and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Christian; Schtz, Philipp; Bernasconi, Luca; Huber, Andreas R

    2016-01-01

    The determination of circulating trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), choline, betaine, l-carnitine and O-acetyl-l-carnitine concentration in different human matrices is of great clinical interest. Recent results highlighted the prognostic value of TMAO and quaternary ammonium containing metabolites in the field of cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Herein, we report a method for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of closely related phosphatidylcholine-derived metabolites in three different biological matrices by stable isotope dilution assay. Plasma, serum and urine samples were simply deproteinized and separated by HILIC-chromatography. Detection and quantification were performed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization in positive mode. For accuracy and precision, full calibration was performed covering more than the full reference range. Assay performance metrics include intra- and interday imprecision were below 10% for all analytes. To exclude matrix effects standard addition methods were applied for all matrices. It was shown that calibration standards and quality control prepared in water can be used instead of matrix-matched calibration and controls. The LC/MS/MS-based assay described in this article may improve future clinical studies evaluating TMAO and related substances as prognostic markers for cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality in different patient populations. PMID:26673229

  16. The effects of saliva collection, handling and storage on salivary testosterone measurement.

    PubMed

    Durdiakov, Jaroslava; Fbryov, Helena; Koborov, Ivana; Ostatnkov, Daniela; Celec, Peter

    2013-12-20

    Several endocrine parameters commonly measured in plasma, such as steroid hormones, can be measured in the oral fluid. However, there are several technical aspects of saliva sampling and processing that can potentially bias the validity of salivary testosterone measurement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects caused by repeated sampling; 5 min centrifugation (at 2000, 6000 or 10,000g); the stimulation of saliva flow by a cotton swab soaked in 2% citric acid touching the tongue; different storage times and conditions as well as the impact of blood contamination on salivary testosterone concentration measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. Fresh, unprocessed, unstimulated saliva samples served as a control. Salivary testosterone concentrations were influenced neither by repeated sampling nor by stimulation of salivary flow. Testosterone levels determined in samples stored in various laboratory conditions for time periods up to 1 month did not differ in comparison with controls. For both genders, salivary testosterone levels were substantially reduced after centrifugation (men F=29.1; women F=56.17, p<0.0001). Blood contamination decreased salivary testosterone levels in a dose-dependent manner (men F=6.54, p<0.01, F=5.01, p<0.05). Salivary testosterone can be considered A robust and stable marker. However, saliva processing and blood leakage can introduce bias into measurements of salivary testosterone using ELISA. Our observations should be considered in studies focusing on salivary testosterone. PMID:24051109

  17. Parotid salivary gland of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): structure and composition of saliva.

    PubMed

    Raubenheimer, E J; Dauth, J; Dreyer, M J; de Vos, V

    1988-12-01

    Specimens from parotid salivary glands of full-grown elephant (Loxodonta africana) a (n=6) and saliva aspirated from their main excretory ducts were examined macroscopically and microscopically and analyzed biochemically. The composition of the saliva was compared to that of the blood. The parotids (n=12; mean = 7.4 kg) are homocrine and of a seromucous nature. Myoepithelial cells are well-developed along intercalated ducts and their processes extend to proximal portions of allied acini. The saliva is hypotonic and contains relatively low concentrations of sodium and glucose and high concentrations of potassium, urea, calcium and phosphorus. Absence of detectable levels of alpha-amylase negates a digestive role and the voluminous secrete evidently aids swallowing by moisturising and lubricating the large mass of ingested leaves, grass and bark. PMID:3210214

  18. HCG blood test - quantitative

    MedlinePLUS

    A quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test measures the specific level of HCG in the blood. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy. Other HCG tests include: HCG urine test HCG blood test - qualitative

  19. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva.

    PubMed

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Pierl, Sebastin Aguilar; Turse, Joshua E; Scoles, Glen A; Purvine, Samuel O; Nicora, Carrie D; Clauss, Therese R W; Ueti, Massaro W; Brown, Wendy C; Brayton, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified. PMID:25110293

  20. Rapid and sensitive detection of varicella zoster virus in saliva of patients with herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lechler, Kayla J.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2013-01-01

    VZV reactivation produces zoster (shingles) which may be further complicated by meningoencephalitis, myelopathy, vasculopathy and multiple ocular disorders. Importantly, these neurological and ocular complications of VZV reactivation can occur without rash. In such instances, virological verification relies on detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or less often, the presence of VZV DNA in blood mononuclear cells or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue samples (e.g., saliva or tears) in patients with neurological disease in the absence of rash and shown to correlate with the standard tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. In patients with acute herpes zoster, the yield of cell DNA was greater in saliva collected by passive drool or synthetic swab than by cotton swab. The time to process saliva from collection to obtaining DNA was one hour. VZV DNA was present exclusively in the pelleted fraction of saliva and was found in 100% of patients before antiviral treatment. This rapid sensitive method can be applied readily to saliva from humans with neurologic and other disease that might be caused by VZV in the absence of rash. PMID:23747545

  1. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  2. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; Álvares, Francisco; López-Bao, José V.; Rodríguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng μl-1). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog’s mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng μl-1. The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates. PMID:26496352

  3. A New Method for Noninvasive Genetic Sampling of Saliva in Ecological Research.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Diana; Godinho, Raquel; lvares, Francisco; Lpez-Bao, Jos V; Rodrguez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive samples for genetic analyses have become essential to address ecological questions. Popular noninvasive samples such as faeces contain degraded DNA which may compromise genotyping success. Saliva is an excellent alternative DNA source but scarcity of suitable collection methods makes its use anecdotal in field ecological studies. We develop a noninvasive method of collection that combines baits and porous materials able to capture saliva. We report its potential in optimal conditions, using confined dogs and collecting saliva early after deposition. DNA concentration in saliva extracts was generally high (mean 14 ng ?l(-1)). We correctly identified individuals in 78% of samples conservatively using ten microsatellite loci, and 90% of samples using only eight loci. Consensus genotypes closely matched reference genotypes obtained from hair DNA (99% of identification successes and 91% of failures). Mean genotyping effort needed for identification using ten loci was 2.2 replicates. Genotyping errors occurred at a very low frequency (allelic dropout: 2.3%; false alleles: 1.5%). Individual identification success increased with duration of substrate handling inside dog's mouth and the volume of saliva collected. Low identification success was associated with baits rich in DNA-oxidant polyphenols and DNA concentrations <1 ng ?l(-1). The procedure performed at least as well as other noninvasive methods, and could advantageously allow detection of socially low-ranked individuals underrepresented in sources of DNA that are involved in marking behaviour (faeces or urine). Once adapted and refined, there is promise for this technique to allow potentially high rates of individual identification in ecological field studies requiring noninvasive sampling of wild vertebrates. PMID:26496352

  4. Urinary {alpha}{sub 1}-microglobulin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, and retinol-binding protein levels in general populations in Japan with references to cadmium in urine, blood, and 24-hour food duplicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Moon, Chan-Seok; Zhang, Zuo-Wen

    1995-07-01

    Possible cadmium (Cd) exposure-associated changes in urinary levels of low-molecular-weight proteins were studied in nonsmoking and nondrinking female members of the general Japanese population (378 subjects with no known occupational heavy metal exposure) who lived at 19 study sites (all without any known environmental heavy metal pollution) in 13 prefectures throughout Japan. The external Cd dose was evaluated in terms of daily Cd intake via food (Cd-F), whereas Cd levels in blood (Cd-B) and urine (Cd-U) were taken as internal dose indicators. When the subjects were classified according to Cd-F into three groups with {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} (20.4 {mu}g/day as a geometric mean of 97 women), {open_quotes}middle{close_quotes} (35.0 {mu}g/day, 120 women) and {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} (67.0 {mu}g/day, 66 women) exposure, both Cd-B and Cd-U increased in parallel with the changes in Cd-F. However, there were no dose-dependent changes in {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin or retinol-binding protein levels in urine. {alpha}{sub 1}-Microglobulin levels appeared to increase, but the distribution of the cases above the two cutoff levels of 9.6 and 15.8 {mu}g/mg creatinine among the three Cd-F groups did not show any bias. Overall, it was concluded that there was no apparent Cd exposure-associated elevation in urinary low-molecular-weight protein levels in the study population. 41 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; R, Kannan; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  6. Usefulness of saliva samples for biomarker studies in radiation research.

    PubMed

    Pernot, Eileen; Cardis, Elisabeth; Badie, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Salivary biomarkers have important potential to facilitate breakthroughs in epidemiologic studies, management of emergency situations, and detection and surveillance of diseases by medical staff. During the last decade, an increasing number of studies on salivary biomarkers have been published as a consequence of the impressive development of new high-throughput technologies. Here, we present a review of salivary biomarkers potentially useful in ionizing radiation (IR) research, particularly in molecular epidemiologic studies. Although several salivary biomarkers of cancer and other IR-associated diseases have been identified, few salivary biomarkers of exposure and no biomarker of susceptibility or effects specific to IR have been reported so far. Further studies are therefore needed to fully assess the potential of saliva as a source of biomarkers in the radiation research field. Although the use of saliva samples is not without drawbacks, it could represent an ideal noninvasive alternative to blood, particularly in children and in the context of large molecular epidemiology studies on the effects of low doses of IR, where, given the expected limited magnitude of effects, an extensive number of samples is required to reach statistical significance. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Biomarkers, Biospecimens, and New Technologies in Molecular Epidemiology." PMID:25472676

  7. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic model for cadmium using Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis of concentrations in blood, urine, and kidney cortex from living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    Fransson, Martin Niclas; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Akerstrom, Magnus; Johanson, Gunnar

    2014-10-01

    The health effects of low-level chronic exposure to cadmium are increasingly recognized. To improve the risk assessment, it is essential to know the relation between cadmium intake, body burden, and biomarker levels of cadmium. We combined a physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for cadmium with a data set from healthy kidney donors to re-estimate the model parameters and to test the effects of gender and serum ferritin on systemic uptake. Cadmium levels in whole blood, blood plasma, kidney cortex, and urinary excretion from 82 men and women were used to calculate posterior distributions for model parameters using Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis. For never- and ever-smokers combined, the daily systemic uptake was estimated at 0.0063 ?g cadmium/kg body weight in men, with 35% increased uptake in women and a daily uptake of 1.2 ?g for each pack-year per calendar year of smoking. The rate of urinary excretion from cadmium accumulated in the kidney was estimated at 0.000042 day(-1), corresponding to a half-life of 45 years in the kidneys. We have provided an improved model of cadmium kinetics. As the new parameter estimates derive from a single study with measurements in several compartments in each individual, these new estimates are likely to be more accurate than the previous ones where the data used originated from unrelated data sets. The estimated urinary excretion of cadmium accumulated in the kidneys was much lower than previous estimates, neglecting this finding may result in a marked under-prediction of the true kidney burden. PMID:25015660

  8. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

  9. Influence of human saliva on the development of artificial erosions.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, E; Lussi, A; Goetz, F

    2013-01-01

    It was hypothesized that saliva from patients with erosion exhibits lower protective efficacy compared to saliva from patients without erosion, based on in vitro enamel softening studies. A total of 645 enamel specimens were distributed among seven experimental groups. Saliva was gathered from each of 10 volunteers without clinical signs of dental erosion and from 10 patients exhibiting severe erosive defects. Aliquots of 50 ml of saliva from each patient were mixed with sour drops or citric acid, respectively. Pooled saliva, sour drops and citric acid mixed with water served as controls. The enamel specimens were soaked in the respective mixture for 5 min and were subsequently incubated in pure saliva for 2 min. This cycle was repeated three times, then the specimens were kept in 100 ml of saliva for 8 h. Surface microhardness was evaluated at the beginning of the experiment and after each cycle. During the experiments, microhardness decreased significantly in all groups except for the pure saliva group. For sour drops and citric acid mixed with saliva from patients without erosion, the final microhardness was higher compared to the mixture of the two erosive compounds with saliva from patients with erosion. The storage of saliva for 8 h resulted in a certain amount of rehardening, with the highest level of rehardening being observed in the group that was least demineralized (sour drops plus saliva from patients without erosion). It is concluded that salivary components play a crucial role in the development of dental erosion. PMID:23838437

  10. Binding of corroded ions to human saliva.

    PubMed

    Mueller, H J

    1985-05-01

    Employing equilibrium dialysis, the binding abilities of Cu, Al, Co and Cr ions from corroded Cu-Al and Co-Cr dental casting alloys towards human saliva and two of its gel chromatographic fractions were determined. Results indicate that both Cu and Co bind to human saliva i.e. 0.045 and 0.027 mg/mg protein, respectively. Besides possessing the largest binding ability, Cu also possessed the largest binding capacity. The saturation of Cu binding was not reached up to the limit of 0.35 mg protein/ml employed in the tests, while Co reached full saturation at about 0.2 mg protein/ml. Chromium showed absolutely no binding to human saliva while Al ions did not pass through the dialysis membranes. Compared to the binding with solutions that were synthetically made up to contain added salivary-type proteins, it is shown that the binding to human saliva is about 1 order of magnitude larger, at least for Cu ions. PMID:4005360

  11. The evaluation of the applicability of a high pH mobile phase in ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like hypnotics in urine and blood.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan

    2012-08-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and some metabolites (7-aminoflunitrazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, chlordiazepoxide, chlornordiazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, diazepam, ethylloflazepate, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, N-desmethylflunitrazepam, nitrazepam, N-methylclonazepam (internal standard), nordiazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge. Electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher retention and higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. Considering the benefits of a high pH mobile phase on both chromatography and mass spectrometry, its use should be encouraged. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 ?m, 2.1 mm 50 mm). The optimized method was fully validated. PMID:22749457

  12. Artificial Saliva Formulations versus Human Saliva Pretreatment in Dental Erosion Experiments.

    PubMed

    Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Sener, Beatrice; Attin, Thomas; Wiegand, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosion-preventive effect of different artificial saliva formulations and human saliva in vitro compared to human saliva in situ. In the in vitro experiment, bovine enamel and dentin specimens were stored in artificial saliva (4 different formulations, each n = 20), deionized water (n = 20) or human saliva (n = 6 enamel and dentin specimens/volunteer) for 120 min. In the in situ experiment, each of the 6 enamel and dentin specimens was worn intraorally by 10 volunteers for 120 min. The specimens were then eroded (HCl, pH 2.6, 60 s). Half of the specimens were subjected to microhardness analysis (enamel) and the determination of calcium release into the acid (enamel and dentin), while the other half were again placed in the respective medium or worn intraorally, respectively, for 120 min before a second erosion was performed. Knoop microhardness of enamel and the calcium release of enamel and dentin into the acid were again determined. Statistical analysis was conducted by two-way repeated-measures ANOVA or two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Enamel microhardness was not significantly different between all test groups after the first and the second erosive challenge, respectively. Enamel calcium loss was significantly lower in situ compared to the in vitro experiment, where there was no significant difference between all test groups. Dentin calcium loss was significantly lower than deionized water only after the first and than all except one artificial saliva after the second erosion. Under the conditions of this experiment, the use of artificial saliva formulations and human saliva in vitro does not reflect the intraoral situation in dental erosion experiments adequately. PMID:26870948

  13. Members of the salivary gland surface protein (SGS) family are major immunogenic components of mosquito saliva.

    PubMed

    King, Jonas G; Vernick, Kenneth D; Hillyer, Julin F

    2011-11-25

    Mosquitoes transmit Plasmodium and certain arboviruses during blood feeding, when they are injected along with saliva. Mosquito saliva interferes with the host's hemostasis and inflammation response and influences the transmission success of some pathogens. One family of mosquito salivary gland proteins, named SGS, is composed of large bacterial-type proteins that in Aedes aegypti were implicated as receptors for Plasmodium on the basal salivary gland surface. Here, we characterize the biology of two SGSs in the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, and demonstrate their involvement in blood feeding. Western blots and RT-PCR showed that Sgs4 and Sgs5 are produced exclusively in female salivary glands, that expression increases with age and after blood feeding, and that protein levels fluctuate in a circadian manner. Immunohistochemistry showed that SGSs are present in the acinar cells of the distal lateral lobes and in the salivary ducts of the proximal lobes. SDS-PAGE, Western blots, bite blots, and immunization via mosquito bites showed that SGSs are highly immunogenic and form major components of mosquito saliva. Last, Western and bioinformatic analyses suggest that SGSs are secreted via a non-classical pathway that involves cleavage into a 300-kDa soluble fragment and a smaller membrane-bound fragment. Combined, these data strongly suggest that SGSs play an important role in blood feeding. Together with their role in malaria transmission, we propose that SGSs could be used as markers of human exposure to mosquito bites and in the development of disease control strategies. PMID:21965675

  14. Cadmium in blood and urine--impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking--association of renal effects.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Ing-Marie; Bensryd, Inger; Lundh, Thomas; Ottosson, Helena; Skerfving, Staffan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2002-01-01

    We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range, 0.065-0.99). The intake of Cd per kilogram body weight did not significantly differ between sexes and did not correlate with BCd or UCd, which may be explained by a low and varying bioavailibility of Cd from food items. However, when a subgroup of the study population, couples of never-smoking men and women, were compared, a lower intake per kilogram body weight was found in the women, but the women had a 1.8 times higher BCd and a 1.4 times higher UCd. The higher female BCd and UCd may be explained by higher absorption due to low iron status. BCd and UCd both increased with age and were higher in the ex-smokers, who had stopped smoking more than 5 years before the study, compared to never-smokers. The contribution of locally produced food to the total Cd intake was relatively low and varied. Males living in areas with low soil Cd had lower UCd than the others. However, Cd levels in kidneys from pigs, fed locally produced cereals, did not predict BCd or UCd in humans at the same farms. The kidney function parameter ss2-microglobulin-creatinine clearance was related to UCd, whereas urinary protein-HC, N-acetyl-ss-glucoseaminidase or albumin-creatinine clearance was not when age was accounted for. Hence, even at the low exposure levels in this study population, there was an indication of effect on biochemical markers of renal function. PMID:12460796

  15. Urine Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feedback, Daniel L.; Cibuzar, Branelle R.

    2009-01-01

    The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a system designed to collect an individual crewmember's void, gently separate urine from air, accurately measure void volume, allow for void sample acquisition, and discharge remaining urine into the Waste Collector Subsystem (WCS) onboard the International Space Station. The Urine Monitoring System (UMS) is a successor design to the existing Space Shuttle system and will resolve anomalies such as: liquid carry-over, inaccurate void volume measurements, and cross contamination in void samples. The crew will perform an evaluation of airflow at the ISS UMS urinal hose interface, a calibration evaluation, and a full user interface evaluation. o The UMS can be used to facilitate non-invasive methods for monitoring crew health, evaluation of countermeasures, and implementation of a variety of biomedical research protocols on future exploration missions.

  16. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  17. Urine pH test

    MedlinePLUS

    pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... provider may order this test to check for changes in your body's ... stones can form, depending on the acidity level of your urine.

  18. Lutzomyia longipalpis Saliva or Salivary Protein LJM19 Protects against Leishmania braziliensis and the Saliva of Its Vector, Lutzomyia intermedia

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Natalia M.; Silva, Robson A.; Costa, Dirceu J.; Pitombo, Maiana A.; Fukutani, Kiyoshi F.; Miranda, Jos C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Barral, Aldina; de Oliveira, Camila I.; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Brodskyn, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Background Leishmania transmission occurs in the presence of insect saliva. Immunity to Phlebotomus papatasi or Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva or salivary components confers protection against an infection by Leishmania in the presence of the homologous saliva. However, immunization with Lutzomyia intermedia saliva did not protect mice against Leishmania braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. In the present study, we have studied whether the immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or a DNA plasmid coding for LJM19 salivary protein would be protective against L. braziliensis infection in the presence of Lu. intermedia saliva, the natural vector for L. braziliensis. Methodology/Principal Findings Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with LJM19 DNA plasmid induced a Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response against Lu. longipalpis as well as against a Lu. intermedia saliva challenge. Immunized and unimmunized control hamsters were then intradermally infected in the ears with L. braziliensis in the presence of Lu. longipalpis or Lu. intermedia saliva. Animals immunized with Lu. longipalpis saliva exhibited smaller lesion sizes as well as reduced disease burdens both at lesion site and in the draining lymph nodes. These alterations were associated with a significant decrease in the expression levels of IL-10 and TGF-?. Animals immunized with LJM19 DNA plasmid presented similar findings in protection and immune response and additionally increased IFN-? expression. Conclusions/Significance Immunization with Lu. longipalpis saliva or with a DNA plasmid coding LJM19 salivary protein induced protection in hamsters challenged with L. braziliensis plus Lu. intermedia saliva. These findings point out an important role of immune response against saliva components, suggesting the possibility to develop a vaccine using a single component of Lu. longipalpis saliva to generate protection against different species of Leishmania, even those transmitted by a different vector. PMID:21655303

  19. Ethanol production in a postmortem urine sample.

    PubMed

    Antonides, Heather; Marinetti, Laureen

    2011-09-01

    Significant ethanol production in a urine sample is not a common phenomenon that occurs in postmortem volatile anaylsis. Here, a 66-year-old female decedent with a history of renal failure and diabetes originally presented at the hospital as "acting funny". After expiring at the hospital, the toxicology section received both hospital and postmortem samples for analysis. Initially, only hospital blood and urine were analyzed for volatiles. The hospital blood was only positive for acetone. As a second matrix confirmation, the autopsy urine was also analyzed and found to be positive for acetone and ethanol. Upon initial examination, the urine sample had an ethanol value of 0.10 g%, which continued to increase to a peak concentration of 0.28 g%. This case study focuses on the production of ethanol in a urine sample that was analyzed over a three-month period. Also presented is a vitreous humor metabolic panel that contains glucose, creatinine, and urea nitrogen data for this case. PMID:21871162

  20. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  1. Factors That Influence the Extensional Rheological Property of Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Amrita; Inui, Taichi; Dodds, Michael; Proctor, Gordon; Carpenter, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The spinnbarkeit of saliva reflects the ability of saliva to adhere to surfaces within the mouth, thereby serving as a protective role and aiding in lubrication. Therefore, alterations in the extensional rheology of saliva may result in the loss in adhesiveness or the ability to bind onto surfaces. Mucin glycoproteins and their structures are known to be important factors for the extensional rheological properties of saliva. The conformation of mucin depends on factors such as pH and ionic strength. Chewing is one of the main stimuli for salivary secretion but creates significant sheer stress on the salivary film which could influence mouthfeel perceptions. The current study investigates the possible factors which affect the extensional rheological properties of saliva by comparing submandibular/sublingual saliva with different oral stimuli within the same group of subjects. Unstimulated and stimulated saliva (chew, smell and taste) salivas were collected primarily from submandibular/sublingual glands. The saliva samples were measured for Spinnbarkeit followed by the measuring mucin, total protein, total calcium and bicarbonate concentrations. The results indicated correlations between rheological properties and mucin/ion concentrations. However, chewing stimulated submandibular/sublingual saliva is shown to have significantly lower Spinnbarkeit, but factors such as mucin, protein and calcium concentrations did not account for this variation. Analysis of the concentration of bicarbonate and pH appears to suggest that it has a prominent effect on extensional rheology of saliva. PMID:26305698

  2. Non-Coding RNAs in Saliva: Emerging Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Majem, Blanca; Rigau, Marina; Revents, Jaume; Wong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA) profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases). Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information. PMID:25898412

  3. Visualization and live imaging analysis of a mosquito saliva protein in host animal skin using a transgenic mosquito with a secreted luciferase reporter system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, D S; Yokomine, T; Sumitani, M; Yagi, K; Matsuoka, H; Yoshida, S

    2013-12-01

    Mosquitoes inject saliva into a vertebrate host during blood feeding. The analysis of mosquito saliva in host skin is important for the elucidation of the inflammatory responses to mosquito bites, the development of antithrombotic drugs, and the transmission-blocking of vector-borne diseases. We produced transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes expressing the secretory luciferase protein (MetLuc) fused to a saliva protein (AAPP) in the salivary glands. The transgene product (AAPP-MetLuc) of transgenic mosquitoes exhibited both luciferase activity as a MetLuc and binding activity to collagen as an AAPP. The detection of luminescence in the skin of mice bitten by transgenic mosquitoes showed that AAPP-MetLuc was injected into the skin as a component of saliva via blood feeding. AAPP-MetLuc remained at the mosquito bite site in host skin with luciferase activity for at least 4?h after blood feeding. AAPP was also suspected of remaining at the site of injury caused by the mosquito bite and blocking platelet aggregation by binding to collagen. These results demonstrated the establishment of visualization and time-lapse analysis of mosquito saliva in living vertebrate host skin. This technique may facilitate the analysis of mosquito saliva after its injection into host skin, and the development of new drugs and disease control strategies. PMID:24118655

  4. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  5. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; and others

    2014-07-15

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 μg/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (β coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. - Highlights: • Positive associations between urine metals and creatinine-based eGFR are unexpected. • Optimal approach to urine concentration adjustment for urine biomarkers uncertain. • We compared urine concentration adjustment methods. • Positive associations observed only with urine creatinine adjustment. • Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment needed.

  6. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo Garca; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  7. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo Garca; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  8. Different Host Complement Systems and Their Interactions with Saliva from Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera, Psychodidae) and Leishmania infantum Promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Nascimento, Alexandre Alves Sousa; Queiroz, Daniel Costa; Vale, Vladimir Fazito; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Arajo, Ricardo Nascimento; Pereira, Marcos Horcio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia longipalpis is the vector of Leishmania infantum in the New World, and its saliva inhibits classical and alternative human complement system pathways. This inhibition is important in protecting the insects midgut from damage by the complement. L. longipalpis is a promiscuous blood feeder and must be protected against its hosts complement. The objective of this study was to investigate the action of salivary complement inhibitors on the sera of different host species, such as dogs, guinea pigs, rats and chickens, at a pH of 7.4 (normal blood pH) and 8.15 (the midgut pH immediately after a blood meal). We also investigated the role of the chicken complement system in Leishmania clearance in the presence and absence of vector saliva. Results The saliva was capable of inhibiting classical pathways in dogs, guinea pigs and rats at both pHs. The alternative pathway was not inhibited except in dogs at a pH of 8.15. The chicken classical pathway was inhibited only by high concentrations of saliva and it was better inhibited by the midgut contents of sand flies. Neither the saliva nor the midgut contents had any effect on the avian alternative pathway. Fowl sera killed L. infantum promastigotes, even at a low concentration (2%), and the addition of L. longipalpis saliva did not protect the parasites. The high body temperature of chickens (40C) had no effect on Leishmania viability during our assays. Conclusion Salivary inhibitors act in a species-specific manner. It is important to determine their effects in the natural hosts of Leishmania infantum because they act on canid and rodent complements but not on chickens (which do not harbour the parasite). Moreover, we concluded that the avian complement system is the probable mechanism through which chickens eliminate Leishmania and that their high body temperature does not influence this parasite. PMID:24255715

  9. Relationship between intraindividual variation of the saliva/plasma- and of the arteriovenous concentration ratio as demonstrated by the administration of caffeine.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, R

    1990-05-01

    The use of saliva instead of venous blood for monitoring drugs has many advantages. Its usefulness has, however, been questioned, because of the variability of the intraindividual saliva/plasma ratio. Among other reasons, this variability can result from the fluctuation of the arteriovenous blood concentration ratio. The present work represents a detailed investigation of this phenomenon, using caffeine as an example. This phenomenon is observed when the concentration of free diffusible substances differs in the central and peripheral compartment, depending on the pharmacokinetic phase. In such cases, the salivary concentration more closely reflects the cellular concentration in organs of the central compartment than that of peripheral venous blood. PMID:2380663

  10. 24-hour urine protein

    MedlinePLUS

    ... type of x-ray exam with dye (contrast material) within 3 days before the urine test Fluid ... ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk ...

  11. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  12. Potassium urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal urine potassium level may be due to: Diabetic acidosis and other forms of metabolic acidosis Eating ... of the urologic patient: history, physical examination, and urinalysis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et ...

  13. Maple syrup urine disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for this disorder: Plasma amino acid test Urine organic acid test Genetic testing There will be signs ... GM, Cowan TM, Klein O, Packman S. Aminoacidemias and organic acidemias. In: Swaiman K, Ashwal S, Ferriero DM, Ferriero ...

  14. PBG urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphobilinogen test ... temporarily stop taking medicines that may affect the test results. Be sure to tell your provider about ... This test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.

  15. Endocannabinoids Measurement in Human Saliva as Potential Biomarker of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tabarin, Antoine; Clark, Samantha; Leste-Lasserre, Thierry; Marsicano, Giovanni; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Cota, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Background The discovery of the endocannabinoid system and of its role in the regulation of energy balance has significantly advanced our understanding of the physiopathological mechanisms leading to obesity and type 2 diabetes. New knowledge on the role of this system in humans has been acquired by measuring blood endocannabinoids. Here we explored endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines in saliva and verified their changes in relation to body weight status and in response to a meal or to body weight loss. Methodology/Principal Findings Fasting plasma and salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were measured through liquid mass spectrometry in 12 normal weight and 12 obese, insulin-resistant subjects. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines were evaluated in the same cohort before and after the consumption of a meal. Changes in salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines after body weight loss were investigated in a second group of 12 obese subjects following a 12-weeks lifestyle intervention program. The levels of mRNAs coding for enzymes regulating the metabolism of endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines and of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor, alongside endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines content, were assessed in human salivary glands. The endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), N-arachidonoylethanolamide (anandamide, AEA), and the N-acylethanolamines (oleoylethanolamide, OEA and palmitoylethanolamide, PEA) were quantifiable in saliva and their levels were significantly higher in obese than in normal weight subjects. Fasting salivary AEA and OEA directly correlated with BMI, waist circumference and fasting insulin. Salivary endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines did not change in response to a meal. CB1 receptors, ligands and enzymes were expressed in the salivary glands. Finally, a body weight loss of 5.3% obtained after a 12-weeks lifestyle program significantly decreased salivary AEA levels. Conclusions/Significance Endocannabinoids and N-acylethanolamines are quantifiable in saliva and their levels correlate with obesity but not with feeding status. Body weight loss significantly decreases salivary AEA, which might represent a useful biomarker in obesity. PMID:22860123

  16. SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1 : 1 salt (MX), whose concentration is cMX = (1/2)∑ci (ci = analytical concentration of all the ions) and z ion charge calculated as z=±(I/cMX)1/2 = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered. PMID:25733975

  17. Longitudinal Study of Hepatitis A Infection by Saliva Sampling: The Kinetics of HAV Markers in Saliva Revealed the Application of Saliva Tests for Hepatitis A Study

    PubMed Central

    Amado Leon, Luciane Almeida; de Almeida, Adilson Jos; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Tourinho, Renata Santos; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of studies investigating hepatitis A diagnostic through saliva, the frequency and the pattern of hepatitis A virus (HAV) markers in this fluid still remains unknown. To address this issue, we carried on a longitudinal study to examine the kinetics of HAV markers in saliva, in comparison with serum samples. The present study followed-up ten patients with acute hepatitis A infection during 180 days post diagnosis (dpd). Total anti-HAV was detected in paired serum and saliva samples until the end of the follow-up, showing a peak titer at 90th. However, total anti-HAV level was higher in serum than in saliva samples. This HAV marker showed a probability of 100% to be detected in both serum and saliva during 180 dpd. The IgM anti-HAV could be detected in saliva up to 150 dpd, showing the highest frequency at 30th, when it was detected in all individuals. During the first month of HAV infection, this acute HAV marker showed a detection probability of 100% in paired samples. The detection of IgM anti-HAV in saliva was not dependent on its level in serum, HAV-RNA detection and/or viral load, since no association was found between IgM anti-HAV positivity in saliva and any of these parameter (p>0.05). Most of the patients (80%) were found to contain HAV-RNA in saliva, mainly at early acute phase (30th day). However, it was possible to demonstrate the HAV RNA presence in paired samples for more than 90 days, even after seroconversion. No significant relationship was observed between salivary HAV-RNA positivity and serum viral load, demonstrating that serum viral load is not predictive of HAV-RNA detection in saliva. Similar viral load was seen in paired samples (on average 104 copies/mL). These data demonstrate that the best diagnostic coverage can be achieved by salivary anti-HAV antibodies and HAV-RNA tests during 3090 dpd. The long detection and high probability of specific-HAV antibodies positivity in saliva samples make the assessment of salivary antibodies a useful tool for diagnosis and epidemiological studies. The high frequency of HAV-RNA in saliva and the probability of detection of about 50%, during the first 30 dpd, demonstrate that saliva is also useful for molecular investigation of hepatitis A cases, mainly during the early course of infection. Therefore, the collection of saliva may provide a simple, cheap and non-invasive means of diagnosis, epidemiological surveys and monitoring of hepatitis A infection purposes. PMID:26690904

  18. The α-test: rapid cell-free CD4 enumeration using whole saliva.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Cynthia L; Babayeva, Mariya A; Modarresi, Rozbeh; McArthur, Carole P; Kumar, Santosh; Awasom, Charles; Ayuk, Leo; Njinda, Annette; Achu, Paul; Winston, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    There is an urgent need for affordable CD4 enumeration to monitor HIV disease. CD4 enumeration is out of reach in resource-limited regions due to the time and temperature restrictions, technical sophistication, and cost of reagents, in particular monoclonal antibodies to measure CD4 on blood cells, the only currently acceptable method. A commonly used cost-saving and time-saving laboratory strategy is to calculate, rather than measure certain blood values. For example, LDL levels are calculated using the measured levels of total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides. Thus, identification of cell-free correlates that directly regulate the number of CD4(+) T cells could provide an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts due to the physiological relevance of the correlates. The number of stem cells that enter blood and are destined to become circulating CD4(+) T cells is determined by the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 due to their influence on locomotion. The process of stem cell locomotion into blood is additionally regulated by cell surface human leukocyte elastase (HLE(CS)) and the HLE(CS)-reactive active α(1)proteinase inhibitor (α(1)PI, α(1)antitrypsin, SerpinA1). In HIV-1 disease, α(1)PI is inactivated due to disease processes. In the early asymptomatic categories of HIV-1 disease, active α(1)PI was found to be below normal in 100% of untreated HIV-1 patients (median=12 μM, and to achieve normal levels during the symptomatic categories. This pattern has been attributed to immune inactivation, not to insufficient synthesis, proteolytic inactivation, or oxygenation. We observed that in HIV-1 subjects with >220 CD4 cells/μl, CD4 counts were correlated with serum levels of active α(1)PI (r(2)=0.93, p<0.0001, n=26) and inactive α(1)PI (r(2)=0.91, p<0.0001, n=26). Administration of α(1)PI to HIV-1 infected and uninfected subjects resulted in dramatic increases in CD4 counts suggesting α(1)PI participates in regulating the number of CD4(+) T cells in blood. With stimulation, whole saliva contains sufficient serous exudate (plasma containing proteinaceous material that passes through blood vessel walls into saliva) to allow measurement of active α(1)PI and the correlation of this measurement is evidence that it is an accurate method for calculating CD4 counts. Briefly, sialogogues such as chewing gum or citric acid stimulate the exudation of serum into whole mouth saliva. After stimulating serum exudation, the activity of serum α(1)PI in saliva is measured by its capacity to inhibit elastase activity. Porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) is a readily available inexpensive source of elastase. PPE binds to α(1)PI forming a one-to-one complex that prevents PPE from cleaving its specific substrates, one of which is the colorimetric peptide, succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Ala-p-nitroanilide (SA(3)NA). Incubating saliva with a saturating concentration of PPE for 10 min at room temperature allows the binding of PPE to all the active α(1)PI in saliva. The resulting inhibition of PPE by active α(1)PI can be measured by adding the PPE substrate SA(3)NA. (Figure 1). Although CD4 counts are measured in terms of blood volume (CD4 cells/μl), the concentration of α(1)PI in saliva is related to the concentration of serum in saliva, not to volume of saliva since volume can vary considerably during the day and person to person. However, virtually all the protein in saliva is due to serum content, and the protein content of saliva is measurable. Thus, active α(1)PI in saliva is calculated as a ratio to saliva protein content and is termed the α(1)PI Index. Results presented herein demonstrate that the α(1)PI Index provides an accurate and precise physiologic method for calculating CD4 counts. PMID:22644001

  19. Evaluation of the Murine Immune Response to Xenopsylla cheopis Flea Saliva and Its Effect on Transmission of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    Bosio, Christopher F.; Viall, Austin K.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Gardner, Donald; Rood, Michael P.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Arthropod-borne pathogens are transmitted into a unique intradermal microenvironment that includes the saliva of their vectors. Immunomodulatory factors in the saliva can enhance infectivity; however, in some cases the immune response that develops to saliva from prior uninfected bites can inhibit infectivity. Most rodent reservoirs of Yersinia pestis experience fleabites regularly, but the effect this has on the dynamics of flea-borne transmission of plague has never been investigated. We examined the innate and acquired immune response of mice to bites of Xenopsylla cheopis and its effects on Y. pestis transmission and disease progression in both nave mice and mice chronically exposed to flea bites. Methods/Principal Findings The immune response of C57BL/6 mice to uninfected flea bites was characterized by flow cytometry, histology, and antibody detection methods. In nave mice, flea bites induced mild inflammation with limited recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the bite site. Infectivity and host response in nave mice exposed to flea bites followed immediately by intradermal injection of Y. pestis did not differ from that of mice infected with Y. pestis without prior flea feeding. With prolonged exposure, an IgG1 antibody response primarily directed to the predominant component of flea saliva, a family of 3645 kDa phosphatase-like proteins, occurred in both laboratory mice and wild rats naturally exposed to X. cheopis, but a hypersensitivity response never developed. The incidence and progression of terminal plague following challenge by infective blocked fleas were equivalent in nave mice and mice sensitized to flea saliva by repeated exposure to flea bites over a 10-week period. Conclusions Unlike what is observed with many other blood-feeding arthropods, the murine immune response to X. cheopis saliva is mild and continued exposure to flea bites leads more to tolerance than to hypersensitivity. The immune response to flea saliva had no detectable effect on Y. pestis transmission or plague pathogenesis in mice. PMID:25255317

  20. Hormones, IgG and lactose changes around parturition in plasma, and colostrum or saliva of multiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Devillers, Nicolas; Farmer, Chantal; Mounier, Anne-Marie; Le Dividich, Jean; Prunier, Armelle

    2004-01-01

    Blood, colostrum and saliva samples were serially taken from 6 multiparous sows from day 109 of gestation until day 3 postpartum. Plasma was assayed for oestradiol-17beta (E2), progesterone (P4), prolactin (PRL), cortisol, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactose. Colostrum was assayed for E2, P4, IgG and lactose. Lactoserum, obtained after ultra centrifugation of colostrum, was assayed for PRL. Saliva was assayed for cortisol. Time-related variations in hormone, IgG and lactose concentrations measured in plasma were parallel to those measured in colostrum, lactoserum or saliva. However, the concentrations were higher in colostrum or lactoserum and lower in saliva than in plasma. Ratios of concentrations of cortisol in saliva and PRL in lactoserum over those in plasma did not vary with time and averaged 0.2 and 1.6, respectively. Conversely, the ratios of concentrations of E2 and P4 in colostrum over those in plasma varied with time (P < 0.05) but were quite constant before the end of parturition, averaging 2.7 and 3.6, respectively. The ratios of concentrations of IgG and lactose in colostrum over those in plasma also varied with time (P < 0.05). The concentrations of hormones in plasma on the one hand and in colostrum, lactoserum or saliva on the other hand were significantly correlated but correlations varied with time (PRL across periods: r = 0.31; cortisol across periods: r = 0.60; E2 during parturition: r = 0.83; P4 before parturition: r = 0.82; P4 during parturition: r = 0.67). The present results indicate that around parturition, assays of hormones in colostrum or saliva can be used to study the hormonal status of sows. Furthermore, variations in colostrum and plasma concentrations of IgG and lactose are good indicators of the transition from colostrum to milk synthesis. PMID:15535470

  1. Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Mor, Sunil K.; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y. H.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulizer suspensions, aerosolized, size selected (100 to 450 nm) using a differential mobility analyzer, and collected onto gelatin filters. Uranine was used as a particle tracer. The resulting particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The amounts of infectious virus, total virus, and fluorescence in the collected samples were determined by infectivity assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and spectrofluorometry, respectively. For all nebulizer suspensions, the virus content generally followed a particle volume distribution rather than a number distribution. The survival of airborne MS2 was independent of particle size but was strongly affected by the type of nebulizer suspension. Human saliva was found to be much less protective than cell culture medium (i.e., 3% tryptic soy broth) and artificial saliva. These results indicate the need for caution when extrapolating laboratory results, which often use artificial nebulizer suspensions. To better assess the risk of airborne transmission of viral diseases in real-life situations, the use of natural suspensions such as saliva or respiratory mucus is recommended. PMID:24561592

  2. Identification of Pro- and Mature Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor in Human Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Mandel, AL; Ozdener, H; Utermohlen, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective Growth factors, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), are polypeptides that are involved in the maintenance, survival, and death of central and peripheral cells. Numerous growth factors have been identified in saliva and are thought to promote wound healing and maintenance of the oral epithelium. The aim of this study was to determine if BDNF is also found in human saliva. Methods Whole, unstimulated saliva samples (n=30) were analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot using an anti-human BDNF antibody. Proteolytic cleavage products were similarly assessed following the incubation of pooled saliva with N-glycanase F and plasmin. Subjects genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Results These experiments revealed the presence of immunoreactive bands at 14, 32 and 34 kD, corresponding to mature (mBDNF) and proBDNF, as well as a truncated pro-form at 24 kD. Not every sample contained all forms of BDNF. Treatment with N-glycanase and plasmin reduced the size of the higher molecular weight bands, confirming the glycosylated pro-form of BDNF. mBDNF was detected significantly less often in subjects with the Val66Met SNP, compared to those without the polymorphism (X2 = 4.05; P<0.05). Conclusions While the function of salivary BDNF still requires elucidation, these findings suggest that it may be possible to use saliva in lieu of blood in future studies of BDNF and the Val66Met polymorphism. PMID:19467646

  3. Immunoreactive pattern of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm against human whole saliva.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Amado, Francisco; Cerveira, Frederico; Ferreira, Rita; Vilanova, Manuel; Cerca, Nuno; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is essential to interact with microorganisms in the oral cavity. Therefore, the interest in saliva antimicrobial properties is on the rise. Here, we used an immunoproteomic approach, based on protein separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms by 2DE, followed by Western-blotting, to compare human serum and saliva reactivity profile. A total of 17 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Serum and saliva presented a distinct pattern of immunoreactive proteins. Our results suggest that saliva seems to have higher propensity to react against S. epidermidis proteins with oxidoreductase activity and proteins involved with L-serine metabolic processes. We show that saliva was a powerful tool for the identification of potential S. epidermidis biofilms proteins. PMID:25782040

  4. Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Mónica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota. PMID:22868153

  5. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol. PMID:20648576

  6. Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

    2010-09-01

    Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

  7. [Saliva: an important factor in retention of complete dentures].

    PubMed

    Albanese, S; Villani, G

    1989-01-01

    The saliva plays a profound role in a removable prosthodontic treatment in edentulous patients. Indeed the presence of a thin salivary film is essential to the comfort of the mucosa. The saliva also plays pivotal role for the stomatitis of prothesic etiology, found in significant numbers of complete and partial denture wearers. Additionally, saliva in cause in calcolus deposition and in anomalous hue of removable denture. PMID:2700885

  8. [The role of saliva in the oral defence mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Dalmadi, Lilian; Fbin, Tibor Kroly

    2004-10-01

    Saliva plays an important role in oral health, regulating and maintaining the integrity of the oral hard tissues and soft tissues. This paper reviews the role of saliva in the oral defence mechanisms. The most important salivary immune and non-immune defence proteins and constituents that take part in the pellicle formation and re-mineralisation processes are introduced. General health conditions, medications and salivary gland disorders influencing the defence potential of the saliva are discussed. Treatment possibilities of such conditions, and the future perspective of saliva research is also presented. PMID:15631050

  9. Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Dean A.; Lin, Yuehe

    2005-09-15

    There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for on-site and real-time biomonitoring of lead (Pb) from both occupational and environmental exposures. Saliva is an appealing matrix since it is easily obtainable, and therefore a potential substitute for blood since there is a reasonably good correlation between Pb levels in both blood and saliva. The microanalytical system is based on stripping voltammetry of Pb at the microelectrochemical cell having a flow injection/flow-onto design. Samples that contain as little as 1% saliva can cause electrode fouling, resulting in significantly reduced responsiveness, irreproducible quantitations, and the need for frequent electrode regeneration. In addition, incomplete Pb release from salivary protein can also yield a lower Pb response than expected. This paper evaluates the extent of in vitro Pb-protein binding and the optimal pre-treatment for releasing Pb from the saliva samples. Even in 50% by volume of rat saliva, the electrode fouling was not observed, due to the appropriate sample pretreatment (with 1.0 M acid, followed by centrifugation at the RCF of 15200?g) and the constant flow of the sample and acidic carrier that prevented passivation by the protein. The system offered a linear response over a low Pb range (1-10 ppb), low detection limit (1 ppb), excellent reproducibility (5% RSD), and reliability. It also yielded the same Pb concentrations in unknown samples as did the ICP-MS. These encouraging results suggest that the microanalytical system represents an important analytical advancement for real-time non-invasive (i.e., saliva) biomonitoring of Pb.

  10. Ten-minute analysis of drugs and metabolites in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2005-11-01

    Rapid analysis of drugs in emergency room overdose patients is critical to selecting appropriate medical care. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative to blood plasma analysis for this application. However, current clinical laboratory analysis methods involve extensive sample extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and typically require as much as one hour to perform. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable lab-on-a-chip format, and generally no more than a drop of sample is required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of microg/mL concentrations. Measurements of cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, and several barbiturates are presented.

  11. Reduced Blood Coagulation on Roll-to-Roll, Shrink-Induced Superhydrophobic Plastics.

    PubMed

    Nokes, Jolie M; Liedert, Ralph; Kim, Monica Y; Siddiqui, Ali; Chu, Michael; Lee, Eugene K; Khine, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The unique antiwetting properties of superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces prevent the adhesion of water and bodily fluids, including blood, urine, and saliva. While typical manufacturable approaches to create SH surfaces rely on chemical and structural modifications, such approaches are expensive, require postprocessing, and are often not biocompatible. By contrast, it is demonstrated that purely structural SH features are easily formed using high throughput roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing by shrinking a prestressed thermoplastic with a thin, stiff layer of silver and calcium. These features are subsequently embossed into any commercially available and Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved plastic. The R2R SH surfaces have contact angles >150° and contact angle hysteresis <10°. Importantly, the surfaces minimize blood adhesion, leading to reduced blood coagulation without the need for anticoagulants. SH surfaces have >4200× reduction of blood residue area compared to the nonstructured controls of the same material. In addition, blood clotting is reduced >5× using whole blood directly from the patient. Furthermore, these surfaces can be easily configured into 3D shapes, as demonstrated with SH tubes. With the simple scale-up production and the eliminated need for anticoagulants to prevent clotting, the proposed conformable SH surfaces can be impactful for a wide range of medical tools, including catheters and microfluidic channels. PMID:26784916

  12. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  13. A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-09-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

  14. A dynamic model of saliva secretion

    PubMed Central

    Palk, Laurence; Sneyd, James; Shuttleworth, Trevor J.; Yule, David I.; Crampin, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    We construct a mathematical model of the parotid acinar cell with the aim of investigating how the distribution of K+ and Cl− channels affects saliva production. Secretion of fluid is initiated by Ca2+ signals acting the Ca2+ dependent K+ and Cl− channels. The opening of these channels facilitates the movement of Cl− ions into the lumen which water follows by osmosis. We use recent results into both the release of Ca2+ from internal stores via the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and IP3 dynamics to create a physiologically realistic Ca2+ model which is able to recreate important experimentally observed behaviours seen in parotid acinar cells. We formulate an equivalent electrical circuit diagram for the movement of ions responsible for water flow which enables us to calculate and include distinct apical and basal membrane potentials to the model. We show that maximum saliva production occurs when a small amount of K+ conductance is located at the apical membrane, with the majority in the basal membrane. The maximum fluid output is found to coincide with a minimum in the apical membrane potential. The traditional model whereby all Cl− channels are located in the apical membrane is shown to be the most efficient Cl− channel distribution. PMID:20600135

  15. Metabolic hormones in saliva: origins and functions

    PubMed Central

    Zolotukhin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The salivary proteome consists of thousands of proteins, which include, among others, hormonal modulators of energy intake and output. Although the functions of this prominent category of hormones in whole body energy metabolism are well characterized, their functions in the oral cavity, whether as a salivary component, or when expressed in taste cells, are less studied and poorly understood. The respective receptors for the majority of salivary metabolic hormones have been also shown to be expressed in salivary glands, taste cells, or other cells in the oral mucosa. This review provides a comprehensive account of the gastrointestinal hormones, adipokines, and neuropeptides identified in saliva, salivary glands, or lingual epithelium, as well as their respective cognate receptors expressed in the oral cavity. Surprisingly, few functions are assigned to salivary metabolic hormones, and these functions are mostly associated with the modulation of taste perception. Because of the well-characterized correlation between impaired oral nutrient sensing and increased energy intake and body mass index, a conceptually provocative point of view is introduced, whereupon it is argued that targeted changes in the composition of saliva could affect whole body metabolism in response to the activation of cognate receptors expressed locally in the oral mucosa. PMID:22994880

  16. Forensic body fluid identification: the Raman spectroscopic signature of saliva.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of Raman spectroscopy for nondestructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci.,Int., 2008, 181, e1-e5). However, those experiments were performed using only one sample of each body fluid and did not investigate the potential for spectral variations among different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a single human saliva sample as well as among samples from multiple donors. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human saliva samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. Principal component analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry saliva is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The major chemical components known to be present in saliva were used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of saliva was also addressed. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry saliva in a quantitative way. The combination of these three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for saliva. This proof of concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be saliva during forensic analysis. PMID:20174703

  17. Urine Blockage in Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10 to 12 weeks after conception. However, the mother’s placenta continues to do most of the work until the last few weeks of the pregnancy. Wastes and extra water are removed from the baby’s body through the umbilical cord. The ... womb [ Top ] What causes urine blockage in newborns? ...

  18. RBC urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tell you how to do this. A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  19. Myoglobin urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  20. Protein electrophoresis - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina ... care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile ...

  1. Current Development of Saliva/Oral fluid-based Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Chih-Ko; Christodoulides, Nicolaos J.; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.; Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Weigum, Shannon E.; McDevitt, John; Redding, Spencer W.

    2013-01-01

    Saliva can be easily obtained in medical and non-medical settings, and contains numerous bio-molecules, including those typically found in serum for disease detection and monitoring. In the past two decades, the achievements of high-throughput approaches afforded by biotechnology and nanotechnology allow for disease-specific salivary biomarker discovery and establishment of rapid, multiplex, and miniaturized analytical assays. These developments have dramatically advanced saliva-based diagnostics. In this review, we discuss the current consensus on development of saliva/oral fluid-based diagnostics and provide a summary of recent research advancements of the Texas-Kentucky Saliva Diagnostics Consortium. In the foreseeable future, current research on saliva based diagnostic methods could revolutionize health care. PMID:20737986

  2. Wetting properties of saliva substitutes on acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Aydin, A K; Terzio?lu, H; Ulubayram, K; Hasirci, N

    1997-01-01

    The good wetting of the acrylic resin by saliva substitutes is of clinical importance in xerostomic patients. This study evaluated the wetting properties of different artificial saliva formulations that were mucin-based, carboxymethylcellulose-based, and concentrated ion-based on poly(methyl methacrylate) denture base resin, and compared these properties with natural saliva. The wetting properties of the test materials were examined by contact angle measurements. Ninety-six samples that measured 30 x 30 x 3 mm were examined. The wetting properties of mucin-containing and carboxymethylcellulose-containing substitutes on poly(methyl methacrylate) were significantly better than those of human saliva. Mucin-containing artificial salivas had the best wetting properties on the acrylic resin for the materials tested. PMID:9495167

  3. Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  4. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Urine Test: Dipstick KidsHealth > For Parents > Urine Test: Dipstick Print A A A Text Size en espaol Anlisis de la orina: tiras reactivas What It Is A urine dipstick test is often done as ...

  5. Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Urine Test: Dipstick KidsHealth > For Parents > Urine Test: Dipstick Print A A A Text Size ... la orina: tiras reactivas What It Is A urine dipstick test is often done as part of ...

  6. An in vitro model to assess the immunosuppressive effect of tick saliva on the mobilization of inflammatory monocyte-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Vachiery, Nathalie; Puech, Carinne; Cavelier, Patricia; Rodrigues, Valrie; Aprelon, Rosalie; Lefranois, Thierry; Martinez, Dominique; Epardaud, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Tick-borne pathogens cause potent infections. These pathogens benefit from molecules contained in tick saliva that have evolved to modulate host innate and adaptive immune responses. This is called "saliva-activated transmission" and enables tick-borne pathogens to evade host immune responses. Ticks feed on their host for relatively long periods; thus, mechanisms counteracting the inflammation-driven recruitment and activation of innate effector cells at the bite site, are an effective strategy to escape the immune response. Here, we developed an original in vitro model to evaluate and to characterize the immunomodulatory effects of tick saliva that prevent the establishment of a local inflammatory immune response. This model mimics the tick bite and enables the assessment of the effect of saliva on the inflammatory-associated dynamic recruitment of cells from the mononuclear phagocyte system. Using this model, we were able to recapitulate the dual effect of tick saliva on the mobilization of inflammatory monocyte-derived cells, i.e. (i) impaired recruitment of monocytes from the blood to the bite wound; and (ii) poor mobilization of monocyte-derived cells from the skin to the draining lymph node. This simple tool reconstitutes the effect of tick saliva in vivo, which we characterized in the mouse, and should enable the identification of important factors facilitating pathogen infection. Furthermore, this model may be applied to the characterization of any pathogen-derived immunosuppressive molecule affecting the establishment of the inflammatory immune response. PMID:26412247

  7. Infection with dengue-2 virus alters proteins in naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission. PMID:24886023

  8. The effects of adulterants and selected ingested compounds on drugs-of-abuse testing in urine.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Amitava

    2007-09-01

    Household chemicals such as bleach, table salt, laundry detergent, toilet bowl cleaner, vinegar, lemon juice, and eyedrops are used for adulterating urine specimens. Most of these adulterants except eyedrops can be detected by routine specimen integrity tests (creatinine, pH, temperature, and specific gravity); however, certain adulterants such as Klear, Whizzies, Urine Luck, and Stealth cannot. These adulterants can successfully mask drug testing if the concentrations of certain abused drugs are moderate. Several spot tests have been described to detect the presence of such adulterants in urine. Urine dipsticks are commercially available for detecting the presence of such adulterants, along with performance of tests for creatinine, pH, and specific gravity. Certain hair shampoo and saliva-cleaning mouthwashes are available to escape detection in hair or saliva samples, but the effectiveness of such products in masking drugs-of-abuse testing has not been demonstrated. Ingestion of poppy seed cake may result in positive screening test results for opiates, and hemp oil exposure can cause positive results for marijuana. These would be identified as true-positive results in drugs-of-abuse testing even though they do not represent the actual drug of abuse. PMID:17709324

  9. Dissolution of stainless steel in artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Lakatos-Varsnyi, M; Wegrelius, L; Olefjord, I

    1997-01-01

    Dissolution of stainless steel type 304 in artificial saliva was studied by electrochemical methods, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and atom absorption spectroscopy. The samples were polarized in the -400 mV (saturated calomel electrode) to -50 mV (saturated calomel electrode) range. The total thickness of the passive film was found to be 25 +/- 3 A, independent of the potential. The passive film consists of a duplex structure: an inner layer of (Cr0.5Fe0.5)2O3 and an outer layer of a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and (CrxFey)PO4.2H2O. The analysis indicated that 11 micrograms/cm2 of the alloying elements were dissolved during exposure for 1 year. PMID:9197105

  10. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    PubMed Central

    Timchalk, Charles; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subjects true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or transcellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa, and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human populations. PMID:26074822

  11. HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.

    PubMed

    Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

  12. HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R.; Phelan, Joan A.; Norman, Robert G.; Fisch, Gene S.; Corby, Patricia M.; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J.; Kokaras, Alexis S.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

  13. Microbial community profiling of human saliva using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Nur A; Young, Brian A; Minard-Smith, Angela T; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M; McMillan, Nancy J; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M; Faith, Seth A; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUS and BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

  14. Microbial Community Profiling of Human Saliva Using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Nur A.; Young, Brian A.; Minard-Smith, Angela T.; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M.; Faith, Seth A.; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUSand BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

  15. The human saliva proteome: overview and emerging methods for characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2015-05-01

    Among the different biomolecules found in human saliva, proteins are among the most prominent. Proteins carry out many vital roles in saliva, from enzymatic catalysis to structure. Proteins also have great potential as diagnostic biomarkers, which can be easily collected using non-invasive methods. In order to catalog salivary proteins, and determine those with diagnostic potential for human disease and other health conditions, mass spectrometry-based proteomic technologies have been used over the last decade or more. Using these conventional technologies, several thousand proteins have been identified in whole saliva, with numerous studies identifying proteins with diagnostic promise for a variety of health conditions. In addition, these technologies have been used to identify proteins expressed by microbial communities in human saliva. In recent years, new mass spectrometry-based proteomics technologies have emerged that are giving researchers new tools for characterizing the proteome of whole saliva, as well as other biological sample types. Two of the most promising of these new technologies include methods for "data-independent acquisition", which allows for large-scale hypothesis-driven proteomic discovery studies, and proteogenomics, a bioinformatics-driven approach which integrates genomic and proteomic data to characterize novel gene products missed by conventional methods. This paper will summarize the efforts of cataloging the saliva proteome to-date, including highlights of studies identifying salivary protein biomarkers of disease. In addition, the emerging technologies of data-independent acquisition and proteogenomics will be described, along with their potential in characterizing the saliva proteome for diagnostic applications.

  16. Urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol.

    PubMed

    Elers, J; Pedersen, L; Henninge, J; Hemmersbach, P; Dalhoff, K; Backer, V

    2011-08-01

    We examined blood and urine concentrations of repetitive doses of inhaled salbutamol in relation to the existing cut-off value used in routine doping control. We compared the concentrations in asthmatics with regular use of beta2-agonists prior to study and healthy controls with no previous use of beta2-agonists. We enrolled 10 asthmatics and 10 controls in an open-label study in which subjects inhaled repetitive doses of 400 microgram salbutamol every second hour (total 1600 microgram), which is the permitted daily dose by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Blood samples were collected at baseline, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after the first inhalations. Urine samples were collected at baseline, 0-4 h, 4-8 h, and 8-12 h after the first inhalations. Median urine concentrations peaked in the period 4-8 h after the first inhalations in the asthmatics and between 8-12 h in controls and the median ranged from 268 to 611 ngmL (-1). No samples exceeded the WADA threshold value of 1000 ngmL (-1) when corrected for the urine specific gravity. When not corrected one sample exceeded the cut-off value with urine concentration of 1082 ngmL (-1). In conclusion we found no differences in blood and urine concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We found high variability in urine concentrations between subjects in both groups. The variability between subjects was still present after the samples were corrected for urine specific gravity. PMID:21563035

  17. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  18. Disposable Collection Kit for Rapid and Reliable Collection of Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Tezuka, Yuki; Takeda, Kazunori; Shetty, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe and evaluate disposable saliva collection kit for rapid, reliable, and reproducible collection of saliva samples. Methods The saliva collection kit comprised of a saliva absorbent swab and an extractor unit was used to retrieve whole saliva samples from 10 subjects. The accuracy and precision of the extracted volumes (3, 10, and 30 ?l) were compared to similar volumes drawn from control samples obtained by passive drool. Additionally, the impact of kit collection method on subsequent immunoassay results was verified by assessing salivary cortisol levels in the samples and comparing them to controls. Results The recovered volumes for the whole saliva samples were 3.85 0.28, 10.79 0.95, and 31.18 1.72 ?l, respectively (CV = 8.76%) and 2.91 0.19, 9.75 0.43, and 29.64 0.91 ?l, respectively, (CV = 6.36%) for the controls. There was a close correspondence between the salivary cortisol levels from the saliva samples obtained by the collection kit and the controls (R2 > 0.96). Conclusions The disposable saliva collection kit allows accurate and repeatable collection of fixed amounts of whole saliva and does not interfere with subsequent measurements of salivary cortisol. The simple collection process, lack of elaborate specimen recovery steps, and the short turnaround time (<3 min) should render the kit attractive to test subjects and researchers alike. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 27:720723, 2015. 2015 The Authors American Journal of Human Biology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25754371

  19. Quantification of piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in human plasma and saliva using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Adriana Maria; Santos, Gabriel Mulinari; Dionísio, Thiago José; Marques, Maria Paula; Brozoski, Daniel Thomas; Lanchote, Vera Lúcia; Fernandes, Maria Helena Raposo; Faria, Flávio Augusto Cardoso; Santos, Carlos Ferreira

    2016-02-20

    Saliva sampling used to quantify piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam is a noninvasive and painless method when compared to sequential blood sampling. For that, a rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in saliva and human plasma was developed and validated. Piroxicam and its major metabolite were separated using a LiChroCART 125-4 RP Select-B Sorbent C18 column using a mixture of methanol and 2% phosphoric acid (pH 2.7) (70:30, v/v) for the mobile phase with a flow injection of 1mL/min. The run time was 4min. Volunteers had saliva and blood sampled before, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 24, 48 and 72h after taking a 20mg oral dose of piroxicam. The pharmacokinetic parameters of piroxicam in plasma samples were as follows: AUC0-72 (64819hng/mL), predicted clearance (0.2L/h), distribution volume (14.8L), elimination half-life (50.7h) and saliva/plasma concentration ratio (0.003). The estimation of all pharmacokinetic parameters for 5'-hydroxypiroxicam would require collections beyond 72h; however, it was possible to quantify the mean maximum concentration (133ng/mL), time to peak concentration (53.6h), mean AUC0-72 (6213hng/mL), predicted clearance (110.3L/h) and saliva/plasma concentration ratio (0.04). The developed methods proved effective and sensitive for determining the lower quantification limit of piroxicam in plasma (6.1ng/mL) and saliva (0.15ng/mL) and of 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in plasma (1.2ng/mL) and saliva (0.15ng/mL). PMID:26760238

  20. The innate and adaptive response to mosquito saliva and Plasmodium sporozoites in the skin.

    PubMed

    Hopp, Christine S; Sinnis, Photini

    2015-04-01

    A malaria infection begins when an infected mosquito takes a blood meal and inoculates parasites into the skin of its mammalian host. The parasite then has to exit the skin and escape the immune cells that protect the body from infection and alert the system to intruding pathogens. It has become apparent that this earliest stage of infection is amenable to vaccine interventions. Here, we discuss how the innate and adaptive host response to both mosquito saliva and the parasite may interfere with the infection, as well as possible mechanisms the parasite might use to circumvent the host defense. PMID:25694058

  1. Anthocyanin metabolites in human urine and serum.

    PubMed

    Kay, Colin D; Mazza, G; Holub, Bruce J; Wang, Jian

    2004-06-01

    In the present study we investigated the metabolic conversion of cyanidin glycosides in human subjects using solid-phase extraction,HPLC-diode array detector, MS, GC, and enzymic techniques. Volunteers consumed approximately 20 g chokeberry extract containing 1.3 g cyanidin 3-glycosides (899 mg cyanidin 3-galactoside, 321 mg cyanidin 3-arabinoside, 51 mg cyanidin 3-xyloside and 50 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 h post-consumption of the extract. Urine samples were also collected at 0, 4-5,and 22-24h. We have confirmed that human subjects have the capacity to metabolise cyanidin 3-glycosides, as we observed at least ten individual anthocyanin metabolites in the urine and serum. Average concentrations of anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites in the urine reached levels of 17.9 (range 14.9-20.9) l.mol/l within 5 h post-consumption and persisted in 24h urine samples at levels of 12.1 (range 11.1-13.0) nmol/l. In addition, average total levels of anthocyanins and anthocyanin metabolites detected in the serum were observed at 5917 (range 197.3-986.1) nmol/ within 2h post-consumption. Cyanidin 3-galactoside accounted for 55.4% (9.9(range 7-2-12-6) l.mol/) and 66.0% (390.6 (range 119.4-661-9) nmol V) of the detected anthocyanins in the urine and serum samples,respectively. The metabolites were identified as glucuronide conjugates, as well as methylated and oxidised derivatives of cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin glucuronide. Conjugation probably affects the biological activity of anthocyanins and these metabolic products are likely in part responsible for the reported health benefits associated with the consumption of anthocyanins. PMID:15228048

  2. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in saliva of ticks fed on lumpy skin disease virus-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Lubinga, J C; Tuppurainen, E S M; Stoltsz, W H; Ebersohn, K; Coetzer, J A W; Venter, E H

    2013-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease is an economically important disease of cattle that is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus. It is endemic in Africa and outbreaks have also been reported in the Middle-East. Transmission has mostly been associated with blood-feeding insects but recently, the authors have demonstrated mechanical transmission by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus as well as mechanical/intrastadial and transstadial transmission by Amblyomma hebraeum. Saliva is the medium of transmission of pathogens transmitted by biting arthropods and, simultaneously, it potentiates infection in the vertebrate host. This study aimed to detect LSDV in saliva of A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus adult ticks fed, as nymphs or as adults, on LSDV-infected animals, thereby also demonstrating transstadial or mechanical/intrastadial passage of the virus in these ticks. Saliva samples were tested for LSDV by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Supernatants obtained from virus isolation were further tested by real-time PCR to confirm that the cytopathic effects observed were due to LSDV. Lumpy skin disease virus was detected, for the first time, in saliva samples of both A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus ticks. At the same time, mechanical/intrastadial and transstadial passage of the virus was demonstrated and confirmed in R. appendiculatus and A. hebraeum. PMID:23456606

  3. Substitution of human for horse urine disproves an accusation of doping*.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Silvina; Kienast, Mariana E; Villegas-Castagnasso, Egle E; Pena, Natalia L; Manganare, Marcos M; Posik, Diego; Peral-García, Pilar; Giovambattista, Guillermo

    2008-09-01

    In order to detect switching and/or manipulation of samples, the owner of a stallion asked our lab to perform a DNA test on a positive doping urine sample. The objective was to compare the urine DNA profile versus blood and hair DNA profiles from the same stallion. At first, 10 microsatellite markers were investigated to determine the horse identity. No results were obtained when horse specific markers were typed in the urine sample. In order to confirm the species origin of this sample we analyzed the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. This analysis from blood and hair samples produced reproducible and clear PCR-RFLP patterns and DNA sequence match with those expected for horse, while the urine sample results were coincident with human. These results allowed us to exclude the urine sample from the questioned stallion and determine its human species origin, confirming the manipulation of urine sample. PMID:18631282

  4. Extracellular Nucleic Acids in Urine: Sources, Structure, Diagnostic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bryzgunova, O. E.; Laktionov, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    Cell-free nucleic acids (cfNA) may reach the urine through cell necrosis or apoptosis, active secretion of nucleic acids by healthy and tumor cells of the urinary tract, and transport of circulating nucleic acids (cir- NA) from the blood into primary urine. Even though urinary DNA and RNA are fragmented, they can be used to detect marker sequences. MicroRNAs are also of interest as diagnostic probes. The stability of cfNA in the urine is determined by their structure and packaging into supramolecular complexes and by nuclease activity in the urine. This review summarizes current data on the sources of urinary cfNA, their structural features, diagnostic potential and factors affecting their stability. PMID:26483959

  5. HSV-1 latent rabbits shed viral DNA into their saliva

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rabbits latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae spontaneously shed infectious virus and viral DNA into their tears and develop recurrent herpetic-specific corneal lesions. The rabbit eye model has been used for many years to assess acute ocular infections and pathogenesis, antiviral efficacy, as well as latency, reactivation, and recurrent eye diseases. This study used real-time PCR to quantify HSV-1 DNA in the saliva and tears of rabbits latent with HSV-1 McKrae. Methods New Zealand white rabbits used were latent with HSV-1 strain McKrae and had no ocular or oral pathology. Scarified corneas were topically inoculated with HSV-1. Eye swabs and saliva were taken from post inoculation (PI) days 28 through 49 (22 consecutive days). Saliva samples were taken four times each day from each rabbit and the DNA extracted was pooled for each rabbit for each day; one swab was taken daily from each eye and DNA extracted. Real-time PCR was done on the purified DNA samples for quantification of HSV-1 DNA copy numbers. Data are presented as copy numbers for each individual sample, plus all the copy numbers designated as positive, for comparison between left eye (OS), right eye (OD), and saliva. Results The saliva and tears were taken from 9 rabbits and from 18 eyes and all tested positive at least once. Saliva was positive for HSV-1 DNA at 43.4% (86/198) and tears were positive at 28.0% (111/396). The saliva positives had 48 episodes and the tears had 75 episodes. The mean copy numbers ± the SEM for HSV-1 DNA in saliva were 3773 ± 2019 and 2294 ± 869 for tears (no statistical difference). Conclusion Rabbits latent with strain McKrae shed HSV-1 DNA into their saliva and tears. HSV-1 DNA shedding into the saliva was similar to humans. This is the first evidence that documents HSV-1 DNA in the saliva of latent rabbits. PMID:23021094

  6. Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Walter Luiz; Moffa, Eduardo Buozi; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira

    2016-01-01

    In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases. PMID:26981761

  7. Bond strength of adhesives to dentin contaminated with smoker's saliva.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Lilliam M; Oguri, Makoto; O'Keefe, Kathy; Dusevish, Vladimir; Spencer, Paulette; Powers, John M; Marshall, Grayson W

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of contamination with smoker's and non-smoker's saliva on the bond strength of resin composite to superficial dentin using different adhesive systems. The interfacial structure between the resin and dentin was evaluated for each treatment using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Freshly extracted human molars were ground with 600-grit SiC paper to expose the superficial dentin. Adhesives [One-Up-Bond-F-Plus (OUFP) and Adper-Prompt-L-Pop (APLP)] and resin composite (TPHSpectrum) were bonded to the dentin (n = 8/group, 180 total specimens) under five surface conditions: control (adhesive applied following manufacturers' instructions); saliva, then 5-s air dry, then adhesive; adhesive, saliva, 5-s air dry; adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry (ASW group); and adhesive, saliva, 5-s water rinse, 5-s air dry, reapply adhesive (ASWA group). After storage in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h, the specimens were debonded under tension at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. ESEM photomicrographs of the dentin/adhesive interfaces were taken. Mean bond strength ranged from 8.1 to 24.1 MPa. Fisher's protected least significant difference (P = 0.05) intervals for critical adhesive, saliva, and surface condition differences were 1.3, 1.3, and 2.1 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in bond strength to dentin between contamination by smoker's and nonsmoker's saliva, but bond strengths were significantly different between adhesive systems, with OUFP twice as strong as APLP under almost all conditions. After adhesive application and contamination with either smoker's or nonsmoker's saliva followed by washing and reapplication of the adhesive (ASWA group), the bond strength of both adhesive systems was the same as that of the control group. PMID:20155506

  8. Assessment of whole saliva flow rate in denture wearing patients.

    PubMed

    Yurdukoru, B; Terzio?lu, H; Yilmaz, T

    2001-01-01

    It has been suggested that salivary flow rate decreases with age. As is known, the presence of a thin salivary film layer is essential for the comfort of the mucosa beneath a denture base and for denture retention. The purpose of this study was to determine the flow rates, viscosity and the pH of resting and stimulated whole saliva before and after prosthetic treatment in complete denture wearing patients. Saliva was collected under clinical conditions between 08.00 and 10.00 hours. The flow rates of whole saliva were measured at three stages: (i) resting and stimulated saliva before prosthetic treatment; (ii) immediately after the first wearing of the complete denture; and (iii) resting and stimulated saliva after 2 or 3 months of wearing the complete denture. Saliva production was stimulated by chewing paraffin wax. Flow rate was calculated as collected volume/collection time. It was found that there was a significant difference between resting and stimulated whole salivary flow rates before and after complete denture wearing. PMID:11298917

  9. Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

  10. Protein biomarkers of periodontitis in saliva.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John J

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5-15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented. PMID:24944840

  11. Protein Biomarkers of Periodontitis in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 515% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented. PMID:24944840

  12. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva of patients with active infection not associated with periodontal or liver disease severity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mainly transmitted by parenteral route, being blood transfusion and intravenous drug use the most frequent risk factors. However, it has been suggested that there are other routes of transmission. There are several studies where HCV RNA has been detected in saliva of patients infected with HCV, and epidemiological studies have proposed the dental treatments as possible risk factors for HCV transmission. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of HCV RNA in saliva of patients with active infection and associating with periodontal or liver disease. Methods Patients with quantifiable HCV-RNA in serum were enrolled in the study. Periodontal disease was assessed using the modified gingival index (MGI). Presence of dental plaque was assessed with the use of disclosing tablets. Patients were clinically and laboratory evaluated to identify the stage of liver disease, the HCV RNA was determinate in saliva by nested RT-PCR. To determine associations between different parameters univariate and multivariate analysis were used. Results A total of 45 patients were included. Of these patients, 21 (46.6%) had hepatitis, 23 (51.1%) had cirrhosis and one patient (2.4%) presented hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Viral loads in serum ranged from 2.316.68 log IU/ml with a mean of 5.46 log IU/ml (95% CI 5.235.70). HCV RNA was positive in saliva of 29 patients (64.4%) and was not detected in 16 (35.6%). For univariate analysis three independent variables were associated with the detection of HCV-RNA in saliva: gender, viral load and dental plaque and multivariate analysis only one independent variable viral load >5.17 log IU/mL remained significantly associated with the detection of HCV in saliva (p?=?0.0002). A statistical difference was observed when viral load was analyzed, log 5.85IU/mL (95% CI 5.676.02) for patients with HCV in saliva vs. log 4.77IU/mL (95% CI 4.355.19) for patients without HCV in saliva (p?=?0.0001). The detection of HCV-RNA in saliva was more frequent in patients with relatively high serum viral loads. Conclusion HCV-RNA in saliva was associated with the level of serum viral load but not with periodontal or liver disease severity. PMID:24512371

  13. Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of All Topics All Urine and Urination - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Chinese - Traditional (繁體中文) French (français) Japanese (日本語) Korean (한국어) Russian (Русский) Somali ( ...

  14. Correlation between plasma and urine phenylalanine concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boulos, Manal; Boulat, Olivier; Van Melle, Guy; Guignard, Jean-Pierre; Matthieu, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    In this pilot study, we show that plasma phenylalanine concentration can be predicted from urine concentration if the age of the patient is taken into consideration. This observation could open the way to a new monitoring of phenylketonuric patients in which painful frequent blood sampling, mandatory to adapt the low phenylalanine diet, could be mostly replaced by urinalysis. Compliance to treatment would be improved and hence also the ultimate mental development. Since this study was based on a small number of patients, validation of the model in a large multicentric survey is needed before it can be recommended. PMID:14739551

  15. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Viviana P; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Antonio; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Arajo, Ricardo; Horcio Pereira, Marcos; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gontijo, Nelder F; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G

    2016-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host's skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11?kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases. PMID:26758086

  16. SALO, a novel classical pathway complement inhibitor from saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Viviana P.; Fazito Vale, Vladimir; Pangburn, Michael K.; Abdeladhim, Maha; Ferreira Mendes-Sousa, Antonio; Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Rasouli, Manoochehr; Brandt, Elizabeth A.; Meneses, Claudio; Lima, Kolyvan Ferreira; Nascimento Araújo, Ricardo; Horácio Pereira, Marcos; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Kamhawi, Shaden; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gontijo, Nelder F.; Collin, Nicolas; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2016-01-01

    Blood-feeding insects inject potent salivary components including complement inhibitors into their host’s skin to acquire a blood meal. Sand fly saliva was shown to inhibit the classical pathway of complement; however, the molecular identity of the inhibitor remains unknown. Here, we identified SALO as the classical pathway complement inhibitor. SALO, an 11 kDa protein, has no homology to proteins of any other organism apart from New World sand flies. rSALO anti-complement activity has the same chromatographic properties as the Lu. longipalpis salivary gland homogenate (SGH)counterparts and anti-rSALO antibodies blocked the classical pathway complement activity of rSALO and SGH. Both rSALO and SGH inhibited C4b deposition and cleavage of C4. rSALO, however, did not inhibit the protease activity of C1s nor the enzymatic activity of factor Xa, uPA, thrombin, kallikrein, trypsin and plasmin. Importantly, rSALO did not inhibit the alternative or the lectin pathway of complement. In conclusion our data shows that SALO is a specific classical pathway complement inhibitor present in the saliva of Lu. longipalpis. Importantly, due to its small size and specificity, SALO may offer a therapeutic alternative for complement classical pathway-mediated pathogenic effects in human diseases. PMID:26758086

  17. Determination of creatinine-related molecules in saliva by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry and the evaluation of hemodialysis in chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Mayu; Furuhashi, Mitsuyoshi; Sesoko, Shogo; Kosuge, Kazuhiro; Maeda, Toshio; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Min, Jun Zhe; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-03-10

    The serum concentrations of creatinine (Cre) and urea are used for the determination of the renal function. However, the use of blood is not always suitable due to the invasive, hygienic and infection problems during its sample collection and handling. In contrast, saliva is relatively clean and the samples can be quickly and noninvasively collected and easily stored. Therefore, the simultaneous determination of Arginine (Arg), creatine (Cr) and Cre in the saliva of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients was performed by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS together with the saliva of healthy volunteers. The evaluation of hemodialysis of CKD patients was also carried out by the determinations before and after the dialysis. An HS-F5 column was used for the simultaneous determination of Arg, Cr and Cre in the saliva. These molecules were rapidly separated within 4min and sensitively determined by the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the precursor ion [M+H](+)?product ions (m/z 175.1?70.1 for Arg; m/z 132.0?44.1 for Cr; m/z 114.0?44.1 for Cre). The concentration of Cre in the CKD patients was higher than that in the healthy persons. The concentrations of Cre in the saliva of the patients before hemodialysis were moderately correlated with the serum Cre concentrations (R(2)=0.661). Furthermore, the concentration in the saliva obviously decreased after hemodialysis (before 0.73mg/dL, after 0.25mg/dL; p<0.02). Thus, the proposed detection method using saliva by UPLC-MS/MS is useful for the evaluation of the renal function in CKD patients. The present method offers a new option for monitoring the hemodialysis of CKD patients. PMID:26893090

  18. The demand control model and circadian saliva cortisol variations in a Swedish population based sample (The PART study)

    PubMed Central

    Alderling, Magnus; Theorell, Töres; de la Torre, Bartolomé; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous studies of the relationship between job strain and blood or saliva cortisol levels have been small and based on selected occupational groups. Our aim was to examine the association between job strain and saliva cortisol levels in a population-based study in which a number of potential confounders could be adjusted for. Methods The material derives from a population-based study in Stockholm on mental health and its potential determinants. Two data collections were performed three years apart with more than 8500 subjects responding to a questionnaire in both waves. In this paper our analyses are based on 529 individuals who held a job, participated in both waves as well as in an interview linked to the second wave. They gave saliva samples at awakening, half an hour later, at lunchtime and before going to bed on a weekday in close connection with the interview. Job control and job demands were assessed from the questionnaire in the second wave. Mixed models were used to analyse the association between the demand control model and saliva cortisol. Results Women in low strain jobs (high control and low demands) had significantly lower cortisol levels half an hour after awakening than women in high strain (low control and high demands), active (high control and high demands) or passive jobs (low control and low demands). There were no significant differences between the groups during other parts of the day and furthermore there was no difference between the job strain, active and passive groups. For men, no differences were found between demand control groups. Conclusion This population-based study, on a relatively large sample, weakly support the hypothesis that the demand control model is associated with saliva cortisol concentrations. PMID:17129377

  19. Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.

    PubMed

    Mattelaer, J J

    1999-06-01

    In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

  20. Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M.; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Cargile, Benjamin J.; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J.; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E.; Lee, Cheng S.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Menon, Rajasree; Mueller, Michael; Qiao, Renli; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Sevinsky, Joel R.; States, David; Stephenson, James L.; Than, Shawn; Yates, John R.; Yu, Weixia; Xie, Hongwei; Xie, Yongming; Omenn, Gilbert S.; Loo, Joseph A.; Wong, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential that each fluid provides. To create a more comprehensive catalog of human salivary proteins, we have first compiled an extensive list of proteins from whole saliva (WS) identified through MS experiments. The WS list is thereafter combined with the proteins identified from the ductal parotid, and submandibular and sublingual (parotid/SMSL) salivas. In parallel, a core dataset of the human plasma proteome with 3020 protein identifications was recently released. A total of 1939 nonredundant salivary proteins were compiled from a total of 19 474 unique peptide sequences identified from whole and ductal salivas; 740 out of the total 1939 salivary proteins were identified in both whole and ductal saliva. A total of 597 of the salivary proteins have been observed in plasma. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed similarities in the distributions of the saliva and plasma proteomes with regard to cellular localization, biological processes, and molecular function, but revealed differences which may be related to the different physiological functions of saliva and plasma. The comprehensive catalog of the salivary proteome and its comparison to the plasma proteome provides insights useful for future study, such as exploration of potential biomarkers for disease diagnostics. PMID:19898684

  1. Systematic comparison of the human saliva and plasma proteomes.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weihong; Apweiler, Rolf; Balgley, Brian M; Boontheung, Pinmanee; Bundy, Jonathan L; Cargile, Benjamin J; Cole, Steve; Fang, Xueping; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Griffin, Timothy J; Hagen, Fred; Hu, Shen; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Lee, Cheng S; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E; Menon, Rajasree; Mueller, Michael; Qiao, Renli; Rhodus, Nelson L; Sevinsky, Joel R; States, David; Stephenson, James L; Than, Shawn; Yates, John R; Yu, Weixia; Xie, Hongwei; Xie, Yongming; Omenn, Gilbert S; Loo, Joseph A; Wong, David T

    2009-01-01

    The proteome of human salivary fluid has the potential to open new doors for disease biomarker discovery. A recent study to comprehensively identify and catalog the human ductal salivary proteome led to the compilation of 1166 proteins. The protein complexity of both saliva and plasma is large, suggesting that a comparison of these two proteomes will provide valuable insight into their physiological significance and an understanding of the unique and overlapping disease diagnostic potential that each fluid provides. To create a more comprehensive catalog of human salivary proteins, we have first compiled an extensive list of proteins from whole saliva (WS) identified through MS experiments. The WS list is thereafter combined with the proteins identified from the ductal parotid, and submandibular and sublingual (parotid/SMSL) salivas. In parallel, a core dataset of the human plasma proteome with 3020 protein identifications was recently released. A total of 1939 nonredundant salivary proteins were compiled from a total of 19 474 unique peptide sequences identified from whole and ductal salivas; 740 out of the total 1939 salivary proteins were identified in both whole and ductal saliva. A total of 597 of the salivary proteins have been observed in plasma. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed similarities in the distributions of the saliva and plasma proteomes with regard to cellular localization, biological processes, and molecular function, but revealed differences which may be related to the different physiological functions of saliva and plasma. The comprehensive catalog of the salivary proteome and its comparison to the plasma proteome provides insights useful for future study, such as exploration of potential biomarkers for disease diagnostics. PMID:19898684

  2. Molecular sabotage of plant defense by aphid saliva.

    PubMed

    Will, Torsten; Tjallingii, W Fred; Thönnessen, Alexandra; van Bel, Aart J E

    2007-06-19

    Aphids, which constitute one of the most important groups of agricultural pests, ingest nutrients from sieve tubes, the photoassimilate transport conduits in plants. Aphids are able to successfully puncture sieve tubes with their piercing mouthparts (stylets) and ingest phloem sap without eliciting the sieve tubes' normal occlusion response to injury. Occlusion mechanisms are calcium-triggered and may be prevented by chemical constituents in aphid saliva injected into sieve tubes before and during feeding. We recorded aphid feeding behavior with the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique and then experimentally induced sieve tube plugging. Initiation of sieve tube occlusion caused a change in aphid behavior from phloem sap ingestion to secretion of watery saliva. Direct proof of "unplugging" properties of aphid saliva was provided by the effect of aphid saliva on forisomes. Forisomes are proteinaceous inclusions in sieve tubes of legumes that show calcium-regulated changes in conformation between a contracted state (below calcium threshold) that does not occlude the sieve tubes and a dispersed state (above calcium threshold) that occludes the sieve tubes. We demonstrated in vitro that aphid saliva induces dispersed forisomes to revert back to the nonplugging contracted state. Labeling Western-blotted saliva proteins with 45Ca2+ or ruthenium red inferred the presence of calcium-binding domains. These results demonstrate that aphid saliva has the ability to prevent sieve tube plugging by molecular interactions between salivary proteins and calcium. This provides aphids with access to a continuous flow of phloem sap and is a critical adaptation instrumental in the evolutionary success of aphids. PMID:17553961

  3. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Leucine aminopeptidase is a type of protein called an enzyme. It is normally found in liver cells ... Increased levels of leucine aminopeptidase can be seen in ... Hepatitis Liver cancer Liver ischemia (reduced blood flow to the ...

  4. Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

  5. Saliva transit in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Cassiani, R A; Mota, G A; Aprile, L R O; Dantas, R O

    2015-10-01

    Saliva is an important factor in the neutralization of the acidity of the refluxed material that comes from the stomach to the esophagus. The impairment of saliva transit from oral cavity to distal esophagus may be one of the causes of esophagitis and symptoms in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). With the scintigraphic method, the transit of 2 mL of artificial saliva was measured in 30 patients with GERD and 26 controls. The patients with GERD had symptoms of heartburn and acid regurgitation, a 24-hour pH monitoring with more than 4.2% of the time with pH below four, 26 with erosive esophagitis, and four with non-erosive reflux disease. Fourteen had mild dysphagia for solid foods. Twenty-one patients had normal esophageal manometry, and nine had ineffective esophageal motility. They were 15 men and 15 women, aged 21-61 years, mean 39 years. The control group had 14 men and 12 women, aged 19-61 years, mean 35 years. The subjects swallowed in the sitting and supine position 2 mL of artificial saliva labeled with 18 MBq of (99m) Technetium phytate. The time of saliva transit was measured from oral cavity to esophageal-gastric transition, from proximal esophagus to esophageal-gastric transition, and the transit through proximal, middle, and distal esophageal body. There was no difference between patients and controls in the time for saliva to go from oral cavity to esophageal-gastric transition, and from proximal esophagus to esophageal-gastric transition, in the sitting and supine positions. In distal esophagus in the sitting position, the saliva transit duration was shorter in patients with GERD (3.0 0.8 seconds) than in controls (7.6 1.7 seconds, P = 0.03). In conclusion, the saliva transit from oral cavity to the esophageal-gastric transition in patients with GERD has the same duration than in controls. Saliva transit through the distal esophageal body is faster in patients with GERD than controls. PMID:25082357

  6. Fluoride concentration in saliva after use of oral hygiene products.

    PubMed

    Campus, Guglielmo; Lallai, Maria Rosario; Carboni, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this in vivo, single-blind, randomized study was to compare fluoride concentrations in saliva of patients treated with oral hygiene products containing different fluoride salts. The study involved 104 students attending the University of Sassari. Participants were subdivided: group A used a sodium monofluorophosphate (NaMFP) toothpaste; groups B and C used an amine fluoride (AmF) toothpaste; group D used a toothpaste and a mouthwash both based on AmF, and group E used a toothpaste and a varnish both on an NaMFP base. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected at baseline (t(0)), at the end of the 20 days' treatment phase (t(1)) and after 24 h, during which the volunteers refrained from any oral hygiene measure (t(2)). Saliva fluoride concentrations were measured using an ion-specific electrode. All measurements were made in triplicate and analysed statistically using ANOVA. In saliva, the mean fluoride concentration increased significantly in each treatment group. In conclusion, the fluoride concentration in saliva can be maintained to an optimal therapeutic level with the regular use of fluoridated products. PMID:12566642

  7. Saliva Microbiota Carry Caries-Specific Functional Gene Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; Chen, Zhenggang; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. PMID:24533043

  8. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n?=?15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P?=?0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r?=?0.347, P?=?0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P?=?0.001 stimulated; P?=?0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P?=?0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

  9. Ungulate saliva inhibits a grassendophyte mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Tanentzap, Andrew J.; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal endophytes modify plantherbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichlo festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grassendophyte mutualism. PMID:25055816

  10. Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.

    PubMed

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R

    2014-07-01

    Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichlo festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism. PMID:25055816

  11. Elemental ion release from fixed restorative materials into patient saliva.

    PubMed

    Elshahawy, W; Ajlouni, R; James, W; Abdellatif, H; Watanabe, I

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantitatively investigate the elemental ion release from the fixed gold alloy and ceramic crowns into patient saliva. Twenty patients who participated in the study were divided into two equal groups; 1) full coverage type IV gold crowns and 2) full coverage CAD-CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns. Saliva collection and clinical evaluation of marginal integrity and gingival health were performed before crowns preparation, 3 months and 6 months after crowns placement. Clinical evaluations were conducted using California Dental Association criteria. Collected saliva samples were analysed for element release using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The zinc, copper, palladium, gold and silver were released from type IV gold crowns into saliva, while the silicon and aluminium were released from ceramic crowns. A clinically significant number of subjects had increased release of zinc from baseline to three-month recall and increased silicon release from baseline to both three-month and six-month recalls. For all elements, the subjects' counts for the case of three-month recall to six-month recall were never higher than that of the case of baseline to three-month recall except for palladium. No obvious adverse effects on marginal integrity or gingival health were noticed. Significant increased releases of zinc from cast gold crowns and silicon from CAD-CAM-fabricated ceramic crowns into the saliva were evident after 3 months of clinical service. PMID:23438065

  12. Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Herr, Amy E.; Hatch, Anson V.; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Tran, Huu M.; Brennan, James S.; Giannobile, William V.; Singh, Anup K.

    2007-01-01

    At present, point-of-care (POC) diagnostics typically provide a binary indication of health status (e.g., home pregnancy test strip). Before anticipatory use of diagnostics for assessment of complex diseases becomes widespread, development of sophisticated bioassays capable of quantitatively measuring disease biomarkers is necessary. Successful translation of new bioassays into clinical settings demands the ability to monitor both the onset and progression of disease. Here we report on a clinical POC diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic disposable cartridge designed to operate in a compact analytical instrument. Our microfluidic method facilitates hands-free saliva analysis by integrating sample pretreatment (filtering, enrichment, mixing) with electrophoretic immunoassays to quickly measure analyte concentrations in minimally pretreated saliva samples. Using 20 μl of saliva, we demonstrate rapid (<10 min) measurement of the collagen-cleaving enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in saliva from healthy and periodontally diseased subjects. In addition to physiologically measurable indicators of periodontal disease, conventional measurements of salivary MMP-8 were used to validate the microfluidic assays described in this proof-of-principle study. The microchip-based POC diagnostic demonstrated is applicable to rapid, reliable measurement of proteinaceous disease biomarkers in biological fluids. PMID:17374724

  13. The Effect of Smoking on Mineral and Protein Compositionof Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi Bafghi, Ali; Goljanian Tabrizi, Ali; Bakhshayi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To assess the salivary composition of proteins and minerals in smokers compared with non-smokers. Materials and Methods: In this study we compared the total protein and Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb of whole saliva in two groups of men (28 smokers and 31nonsmokers) aged between 29-41years. Results: Fifty-nine participants were evaluated. The mean age was 33.145.32 years among smokers and 32.155.12 years among non-smokers (P>0.05). The mean concentration of total protein, Ca, Pb, and Zn of whole saliva in smokers was lower than that in non-smokers, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The mean concentration of Na, K, Mg in whole saliva was not significantly different between smokers and non-smokers (P>0.05). Conclusion: We specified that smoking reduced the value of total protein, Ca and Pb of saliva, however it did not have an impact on Na, K, and Mg of saliva. PMID:26788479

  14. Saliva microbiota carry caries-specific functional gene signatures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Ning, Kang; Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; Chen, Zhenggang; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. PMID:24533043

  15. Caffeine in plasma and saliva by a radioimmunoassay procedure.

    PubMed

    Cook, C E; Tallent, C R; Amerson, E W; Myers, M W; Kepler, J A; Taylor, G F; Christensen, H D

    1976-12-01

    Caffeine was analyzed in human plasma and saliva by a simple, rapid, and sensitive radioimmunoassay procedure. Immunization of rabbits with an antigen prepared by coupling 7-(5-carboxypentyl)-1,3-dimethylxanthine to bovine serum albumin resulted in the formation of antibodies selective for caffeine as opposed to various mono- and dimethylxanthines, mono-, di-, and trimethyluric acids and a variety of common drugs. The radioligand used for competitive binding studies was 7-(2,3-3H2-propyl)-1,3-dimethylxanthine. The procedure permits direct analysis of caffeine in plasma or saliva without extraction. Comparison with a high pressure liquid chromatography method for the analysis of caffeine gave satisfactory results and showed no evidence for interference by metabolites. A caffeine half-life of 4.0 hours determined by the radioimmunoassay was in agreement with previous work. Comparison of human plasma and saliva levels by the radioimmunoassay procedure indicated approximately equal concentrations in the two fluids. PMID:1033273

  16. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulović, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ∼19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ∼81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ∼18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (∼3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (∼6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (∼31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (∼24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  17. Identification of 24 h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Lauren A.; Radulović, Željko M.; Kim, Tae K.; Porter, Lindsay M.; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24 h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24 h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24 h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24 h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ~19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ~81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ~18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (~3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (~6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (~31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (~24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24 h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  18. Urine sediment from a Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Pallatto, Valarie; Wood, Michael; Grindem, Carol

    2005-12-01

    A 6-year-old, intact male Chihuahua was presented with stranguria and painful urination of 5 days duration. Cystine crystals were observed in low numbers in unstained urine sediment preparations, and a diagnosis of cystinuria was made. Uroliths were removed surgically from the urethra and the bladder, and mineral analysis indicated the stones were composed of 100% cystine. Cystinuria results from an inherited defect in renal tubular transport of cystine that affects many breeds and has been found as an autosomal recessive trait in Newfoundlands. Accurate identification of cystine crystals in urine is an important means of diagnosing cystinuria. PMID:16270274

  19. On-site diagnosis of H. pylori infection by urine.

    PubMed

    Miwa, H; Akamatsu, S; Tachikawa, T; Sogabe, T; Ohtaka, K; Nagahara, A; Sugiyama, Y; Sato, N

    2001-02-01

    We have recently developed an on-site diagnostic kit for H. pylori infection using urine (utilizing immunochromatographic method employing a nitrocellulose membrane coated by extracted H. pylori antigen). Accordingly, we investigated its usefulness in 155 consecutive dyspeptic patients using the 13C urea breath test as a gold standard and further compared its performance with two commercially available rapid diagnostic kits that use whole blood (Helisal Rapid Blood, and ImmunoCard H. pylori). As the results, the urine based on-site diagnostic kit provided 95.9% sensitivity and 87.9% specificity with 92.9% accuracy, which were comparable or even better than that of both rapid whole blood tests, suggesting its usefulness in screening of H. pylori infection. PMID:11248521

  20. Knowledge and attitudes of health care workers from the Primary Health Centre in In?ija, Serbia on professional exposures to blood-borne infections.

    PubMed

    Gaji?, Zdenko; Raj?evi?, Smiljana; Duri?, Predrag; Ili?, Svetlana; Dugandija, Tihomir

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to blood-borne infections (HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C) poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes on occupational exposure in primary health care. In 2009, a total of 100 health care workers from the Primary Health Care Centre in In?ija, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia were included in the study. The results suggested that the health care workers who participated in the survey possess basic knowledge about blood-borne virus transmission routes. Most incorrect answers were related to the transmission of blood-borne viruses by tears, saliva, urine and stool. This study also demonstrated that health workers tend to unrealistically estimate the risk of HIV infections. As for the level of education about the prevention and control of blood-borne infections, 49 % of the participants had never had any education on this topic, while 22 % had been educated during the last five years. Around 75 % consider education on blood-borne infection and protective measures at work unnecessary. PMID:23585167

  1. Identification of a third member of the Anellovirus genus ("small anellovirus") in French blood donors.

    PubMed

    Biagini, P; de Micco, P; de Lamballerie, X

    2006-02-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that a putative third member of the genus Anellovirus (TTV/TTMV) is present in the blood of healthy persons (20% prevalence), and also in their PBMNC and saliva samples. PMID:16328140

  2. Longistatin in tick saliva blocks advanced glycation end-product receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Anisuzzaman; Hatta, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Islam, M. Khyrul; Alim, M. Abdul; Anas, M. Abu; Hasan, M. Mehedi; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2014-01-01

    Ticks are notorious hematophagous ectoparasites and vectors of many deadly pathogens. As an effective vector, ticks must break the strong barrier provided by the skin of their host during feeding, and their saliva contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules that paralyze host defenses. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates immune cell activation at inflammatory sites and is constitutively and highly expressed in skin. Here, we demonstrate that longistatin secreted with saliva of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis binds RAGE and modulates the host immune response. Similar to other RAGE ligands, longistatin specifically bound the RAGE V domain, and stimulated cultured HUVECs adhered to a longistatin-coated surface; this binding was dramatically inhibited by soluble RAGE or RAGE siRNA. Treatment of HUVECs with longistatin prior to stimulation substantially attenuated cellular oxidative stress and prevented NF-κB translocation, thereby reducing adhesion molecule and cytokine production. Recombinant longistatin inhibited RAGE-mediated migration of mouse peritoneal resident cells (mPRCs) and ameliorated inflammation in mouse footpad edema and pneumonia models. Importantly, tick bite upregulated RAGE ligands in skin, and endogenous longistatin attenuated RAGE-mediated inflammation during tick feeding. Our results suggest that longistatin is a RAGE antagonist that suppresses tick bite–associated inflammation, allowing successful blood-meal acquisition from hosts. PMID:25401185

  3. Five-minute analysis of chemotherapy drugs and metabolites in saliva: evaluating dosage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gift, Alan; Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank E.; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2004-03-01

    Traditional cancer treatment, surgical removal and gamma- or x-ray irradiation, is often augmented by the use of chemotherapy drugs. Theses drugs prevent cancer cell growth through a variety of biochemical mechanisms, but are not target specific and kill other cells. Consequently, the amount administered has a narrow range of safe and effective use. Furthermore, because of the dangerous side-effects of these drugs, clinical trials can not be performed, and a statistical basis for dosage is not available. Instead, the concentration of the drugs and their metabolites are monitored during treatment of cancer patients, Unfortunately current practices require 10-20 mL of blood per analysis, and multiple samples to profile pharmacokinetics may further jeopardize the patient's health. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative, but the large sample volumes are difficult to obtain. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable pipette format, and generally no more than two drops (100 ?L) of sample are required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by four to six orders of magnitude allows detection of nanomolar concentrations. Preliminary measurements will be presented.

  4. Longistatin in tick saliva blocks advanced glycation end-product receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Anisuzzaman; Hatta, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Islam, M Khyrul; Alim, M Abdul; Anas, M Abu; Hasan, M Mehedi; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tsuji, Naotoshi

    2014-10-01

    Ticks are notorious hematophagous ectoparasites and vectors of many deadly pathogens. As an effective vector, ticks must break the strong barrier provided by the skin of their host during feeding, and their saliva contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules that paralyze host defenses. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates immune cell activation at inflammatory sites and is constitutively and highly expressed in skin. Here, we demonstrate that longistatin secreted with saliva of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis binds RAGE and modulates the host immune response. Similar to other RAGE ligands, longistatin specifically bound the RAGE V domain, and stimulated cultured HUVECs adhered to a longistatin-coated surface; this binding was dramatically inhibited by soluble RAGE or RAGE siRNA. Treatment of HUVECs with longistatin prior to stimulation substantially attenuated cellular oxidative stress and prevented NF-?B translocation, thereby reducing adhesion molecule and cytokine production. Recombinant longistatin inhibited RAGE-mediated migration of mouse peritoneal resident cells (mPRCs) and ameliorated inflammation in mouse footpad edema and pneumonia models. Importantly, tick bite upregulated RAGE ligands in skin, and endogenous longistatin attenuated RAGE-mediated inflammation during tick feeding. Our results suggest that longistatin is a RAGE antagonist that suppresses tick bite-associated inflammation, allowing successful blood-meal acquisition from hosts. PMID:25401185

  5. Infectious Chikungunya Virus in the Saliva of Mice, Monkeys and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Joy; Rudd, Penny A.; Prow, Natalie A.; Belarbi, Essia; Roques, Pierre; Larcher, Thibaut; Gresh, Lionel; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva; Schroder, Wayne A.; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging, ordinarily mosquito-transmitted, alphavirus that occasionally produces hemorrhagic manifestations, such as nose bleed and bleeding gums, in human patients. Interferon response factor 3 and 7 deficient (IRF3/7-/-) mice, which are deficient for interferon α/β responses, reliably develop hemorrhagic manifestations after CHIKV infection. Here we show that infectious virus was present in the oral cavity of CHIKV infected IRF3/7-/- mice, likely due to hemorrhagic lesions in the olfactory epithelium that allow egress of infected blood into the nasal, and subsequently, oral cavities. In addition, IRF3/7-/- mice were more susceptible to infection with CHIKV via intranasal and oral routes, with IRF3/7-/- mice also able to transmit virus mouse-to-mouse without an arthropod vector. Cynomolgus macaques often show bleeding gums after CHIKV infection, and analysis of saliva from several infected monkeys also revealed the presence of viral RNA and infectious virus. Furthermore, saliva samples collected from several acute CHIKV patients with hemorrhagic manifestations were found to contain viral RNA and infectious virus. Oral fluids can therefore be infectious during acute CHIKV infections, likely due to hemorrhagic manifestations in the oral/nasal cavities. PMID:26447467

  6. Lectin-Like Constituents of Foods Which React with Components of Serum, Saliva, and Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, R. J.; Dankers, I.

    1981-01-01

    Hot and cold aqueous extracts were prepared from 22 commonly ingested fruits, vegetables, and seeds. When tested by agar diffusion, extracts from 13 and 10 of the foods formed precipitin bands with samples of normal rabbit serum and human saliva, respectively; extracts from four of the foods also reacted with antigen extracts of strains of Streptococcus mutans. When added to rabbit antiserum, extracts from 18 of 21 foods tested inhibited reactivity with antigen extracts derived from S. mutans MT3. Extracts from 16 foods agglutinated whole S. mutans cells, whereas those from 10 foods agglutinated human erythrocytes of blood types A and B. The lectin-like activities of extracts which reacted with human saliva were studied further. Pretreatment of saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (S-HA) beads with extracts of bananas, coconuts, carrots, alfalfa, and sunflower seeds markedly reduced the subsequent adsorption of S. mutans MT3. Pretreatment of S-HA with banana extract also strongly inhibited adsorption of S. mutans H12 and S. sanguis C1, but it had little effect on attachment of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 or A. viscosus LY7. Absorption experiments indicated that the component(s) in banana extract responsible for inhibiting streptococcal adsorption to S-HA was identical to that which bound to human erythrocytes. The banana hemagglutinin exhibited highest activity between pH 7 and 8, and it was inhibited by high concentrations of glucosamine, galactosamine, and, to a lesser extent, mannosamine. Other sugars tested had no effect. The selective bacterial adsorption-inhibiting effect noted for banana extract was also observed in studies with purified lectins. Thus, pretreating S-HA with wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A inhibited adsorption of S. mutans MT3 cells, whereas peanut agglutinin, Ulex agglutinin, Dolichos agglutinin, and soybean agglutinin had little effect; none of these lectins affected attachment of A. viscosus LY7. Collectively, the observations suggest that many foods contain lectins which can interact with components of human saliva and S. mutans cells. Because of their potential to influence host-parasite interactions in the mouth and elsewhere in the gastrointestinal canal, these reactions warrant further study. Images PMID:6786220

  7. Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

  8. A urine volume measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

  9. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie; Vostrotin, Vadim; Vvdensky, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  10. Urine sample used for congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis by PCR.

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, I; Rodriguez, M; Domingo, C J; del Castillo, F; Juncosa, T; Alvar, J

    1996-01-01

    The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected infants can be difficult; serology is unreliable, and diagnosis must be based on the combination of symptomatology and direct demonstration of the parasite. Four infants suspected of having Toxoplasma gondii infection were studied by serological analysis, tissue culture, and PCR determination. T. gondii was isolated from the urine of one patient. The parasite was detected by PCR in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of three infants and in the urine in all patients. Because nested PCR proved to be a sensitive, relatively rapid, and specific method and because it can be applied to a variety of different clinical samples, PCR can be a valuable technique for the identification of T. gondii infections in children. The present study indicates that PCR examination of urine, a fluid never before used for diagnosis in this age group, may be valuable in diagnosing cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:8880481

  11. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  12. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  13. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  14. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  15. 28 CFR 550.41 - Urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Urine surveillance. 550.41 Section 550.41... Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates in Contract CTCs) 550.41 Urine surveillance. A program of urine testing for drug use shall be established in contract CTCs. (a)...

  16. Ixodes tick saliva suppresses the keratinocyte cytokine response to TLR2/TLR3 ligands during early exposure to Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Quentin; Gallo, Richard L; Jaulhac, Benoît; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Luft, Benjamin; Yang, Xiahoua; Boulanger, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes hard tick induces skin injury by its sophisticated biting process. Its saliva plays a key role to enable an efficient blood meal that lasts for several days. We hypothesized that this feeding process may also be exploited by pathogens to facilitate their transmission, especially in the context of arthropod-borne diseases. To test this, we used Lyme borreliosis as a model. This bacterial infection is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato transmitted by Ixodes. We co-incubated Borrelia with human keratinocytes in the presence of poly (I: C), a dsRNA TLR3 agonist generated by skin injury. This induced a strong cytokine response from human primary keratinocytes that was much greater than that induced by Borrelia alone. OspC, a TLR2/1 agonist and a major surface lipoprotein of Borrelia also amplified the process. Interestingly, tick saliva inhibited cytokine responses by keratinocytes to these TLR agonists. We propose that Borrelia uses the immunoprivileged site produced by tick saliva to facilitate its transmission. PMID:26307945

  17. What's behind a sand fly bite? The profound effect of sand fly saliva on host hemostasis, inflammation and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Abdeladhim, Maha; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G.

    2014-01-01

    Sand flies are blood-feeding insects and vectors of the Leishmania parasite. For many years, saliva of these insects has represented a gold mine for the discovery of molecules with anti-hemostatic and immuno-modulatory activities. Furthermore, proteins in sand fly saliva have been shown to be a potential vaccine against leishmaniasis and also markers of vector exposure. A bottleneck to progress in these areas of research has been the identification of molecules responsible for the observed activities and properties of saliva. Over the past decade, rapid advances in transcriptomics and proteomics resulted in the completion of a number of sialomes (salivary gland transcriptomes) and the expression of several recombinant salivary proteins from different species of sand fly vectors. This review will provide readers with a comprehensive update of recent advances in the characterization of these salivary molecules and their biological activities and offer insights pertaining to their protective effect against leishmaniasis and their potential as markers of vector exposure. PMID:25117872

  18. Purification of a serine protease and evidence for a protein C activator from the saliva of the tick, Ixodes scapularis

    PubMed Central

    Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Ribeiro, Jos M.C.; Mather, Thomas N.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The saliva of ticks is critical to their survival as parasites and hematophagous animals. In this study, we have purified an enzyme with trypsin-like activity from the saliva of the tick vector of Lyme Disease, Ixodes scapularis. This enzyme, named as IXOSP (Ixodes scapularis salivary serine protease), is a 29.9 kDa molecule with N-terminus FPxMVxLRIKxR. A BLAST search identified IXOSP as a secreted serine protease (AAY66740) with a conserved catalytic triad His, Asp, and Ser. In vitro studies demonstrated that IXOSP cleaves chromogenic substrates with arginine in the P1 position, by a mechanism inhibited by PMSF or aprotinin. Gene expression studies revealed that IXOSP is expressed at different tick developmental stages, including eggs, and unfed or fed adult tick salivary glands, but not in nymphs or in the midgut. While the physiological substrate for IXOSP remains to be identified, we demonstrated that I. scapularis saliva activate protein C (PC) resulting in the production of activated PC, a potent anticoagulant that also regulates a myriad of inflammatory responses through protease activated receptors. In contrast, the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae, An. stephensi, An. albimanus, Aedes aegypti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Phlebotomus ariasi did not activate protein C. These discoveries are discussed in the context of blood coagulation, inflammation and vector-host interactions. PMID:24184517

  19. Purification of a serine protease and evidence for a protein C activator from the saliva of the tick, Ixodes scapularis.

    PubMed

    Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Ribeiro, Jos M C; Mather, Thomas N; Francischetti, Ivo M B

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of ticks is critical to their survival as parasites and hematophagous animals. In this study, we have purified an enzyme with trypsin-like activity from the saliva of the tick vector of Lyme Disease, Ixodes scapularis. This enzyme, named as IXOSP (I. scapularis salivary serine protease), is a 29.9 kDa molecule with N-terminus FPxMVxLRIKxR. A BLAST search identified IXOSP as a secreted serine protease (AAY66740) with a conserved catalytic triad His, Asp, and Ser. In vitro studies demonstrated that IXOSP cleaves chromogenic substrates with arginine in the P1 position, by a mechanism inhibited by PMSF or aprotinin. Gene expression studies revealed that IXOSP is expressed at different tick developmental stages, including eggs, and unfed or fed adult tick salivary glands, but not in nymphs or in the midgut. While the physiological substrate for IXOSP remains to be identified, we demonstrated that I. scapularis saliva activate protein C (PC) resulting in the production of activated PC, a potent anticoagulant that also regulates a myriad of inflammatory responses through protease activated receptors. In contrast, the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Phlebotomus ariasi did not activate protein C. These discoveries are discussed in the context of blood coagulation, inflammation and vector-host interactions. PMID:24184517

  20. Conservation of streptococcal CRISPRs on human skin and saliva

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are utilized by bacteria to resist encounters with their viruses. Human body surfaces have numerous bacteria that harbor CRISPRs, and their content can provide clues as to the types and features of viruses they may have encountered. Results We investigated the conservation of CRISPR content from streptococci on skin and saliva of human subjects over 8-weeks to determine whether similarities existed in the CRISPR spacer profiles and whether CRISPR spacers were a stable component of each biogeographic site. Most of the CRISPR sequences identified were unique, but a small proportion of spacers from the skin and saliva of each subject matched spacers derived from previously sequenced loci of S. thermophilus and other streptococci. There were significant proportions of CRISPR spacers conserved over the entire 8-week study period for all subjects, and salivary CRISPR spacers sampled in the mornings showed significantly higher levels of conservation than any other time of day. We also found substantial similarities in the spacer repertoires of the skin and saliva of each subject. Many skin-derived spacers matched salivary viruses, supporting that bacteria of the skin may encounter viruses with similar sequences to those found in the mouth. Despite the similarities between skin and salivary spacer repertoires, the variation present was distinct based on each subject and body site. Conclusions The conservation of CRISPR spacers in the saliva and the skin of human subjects over the time period studied suggests a relative conservation of the bacteria harboring them. PMID:24903519

  1. EXCRETION OF CADMIUM AND MERCURY IN RAT SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The excretion of cadium and mercury in saliva was studied in urethane-anesthetized male rats given single intravenous injections of 109CdCl2 or 203HgCl2 (0.1 or 1.0 mg divalent cation/kg). Pilocarpine (20 mg/kg, ip) was used to stimulate salivation. All doses produced a distinct ...

  2. Sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement: biochemical studies on parotid saliva.

    PubMed

    Beeley, J A; Chisholm, D M

    1976-08-01

    Parotid saliva from a patient suffering from sarcoidosis with salivary gland involvement has been shown to have a decreased level of alpha-amylase but increased levels of albumin and lysozyme. These observations suggest that in addition to impaired gland function, gland damage as a result of inflammation had occurred which permitted increased passage of constituents from serum into the gland secretion. PMID:956685

  3. Immunological detection of glassy-winged sharpshooter saliva in grapevine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a major vector for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causative agent of Pierces Disease in grapevine. During the feeding process of stylet penetration and xylem fluid ingestion, GWSS inject saliva into the plant. Inoculation...

  4. [3 different methods for evaluating Streptococcus mutans in the saliva].

    PubMed

    Petti, S; Tomassini, E; Gatto, R; Ottolenghi, L; Tarantino, L; Simonetti D'Arca, A

    1994-03-01

    Three different methods for detection and count of Streptococcus mutans in saliva have been compared with a microbiological method in order to estimate their efficacy and practicality. The study has been carried out on fifty children of six-eleven years old. The first method (stamp method) derives from that of Kohler and Bratthall, improved on the sampling, without saliva stimulation and, hence, more rapid. Furthermore, using a tongue depressor with a shovel-like extremity, we can either restrict the area where the grown colonies must be counted, avoiding any mistake, and stamp the spatula in the centre of the plate, not in the border, as the original method described, pressing it with the same force in every part, so that almost all the saliva collected can be plated on the Streptococcus mutans selective medium. As stated by this method, a tongue depressor is pressed first on the subject's tongue, then on a plate containing the medium. After incubation, the Streptococcus mutans colonies are counted on the plate's area limited by the stamp of the extremity of the spatula. According to Emilson we can also discriminate Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus colonies. The second method is a "strip mutans test" (Dentocult): saliva is stimulated making the subject chew a piece of paraffin and then it is collected passing a plastic spatula for ten times on the child's tongue. The spatula is introduced into a tube containing a liquid medium selective for Streptococcus mutans and then incubated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8183202

  5. Novel Serum and Urine Markers for Pediatric Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Anupam B.; Rai, Alex J.; Cosme, Yohaimi; Liu, Khin; Dayan, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe the association between two novel biomarkers, calprotectin and leucine-rich alpha glycoprotein-1 (LRG), and appendicitis in children. Methods This was a prospective, cohort study of children 3 to 18 years old presenting to a pediatric emergency department with possible appendicitis. Blood and urine samples were assayed for calprotectin and LRG via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Final diagnosis was determined by histopathology or telephone follow-up. Biomarker levels were compared for subjects with and without appendicitis. Recursive partitioning was used to identify thresholds that predicted appendicitis. Results Of 176 subjects, mean age was 11.6 years (SD 4.0 years) and 52% were male. Fifty-eight patients (34%) were diagnosed with appendicitis. Median plasma calprotectin, serum LRG, and urine LRG levels were higher in appendicitis versus non-appendicitis (p < 0.008). When stratified by perforation status, median plasma calprotectin and serum LRG levels were higher in non-perforated appendicitis vs. non-appendicitis (p < 0.01). Median serum LRG, urine LRG, and plasma calprotectin levels were higher in perforated appendicitis as compared to non-perforated appendicitis (p < 0.05). Urine calprotectin did not differ among groups. A serum LRG < 40,150 ng/ml, a urine LRG < 42 ng/ml, and a plasma calprotectin < 159 ng/ml, each provided a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100% to identify children at low risk for appendicitis, but with specificities ranging from 23% to 35%. The standard white blood cell (WBC) count achieved 100% sensitivity at a higher specificity than both novel biomarkers. Conclusions Plasma calprotectin and serum/urine LRG are elevated in pediatric appendicitis. No individual marker performed as well as the WBC. PMID:22221321

  6. Identification of HIV-1 Genitourinary Tract Compartmentalization by Analyzing the env Gene Sequences in Urine

    PubMed Central

    BLASI, Maria; CARPENTER, J. Harris; BALAKUMARAN, Bala; CARA, Andrea; GAO, Feng; KLOTMAN, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HIV-1 persists indefinitely in memory CD4+ T cells and other long-lived cellular reservoirs despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our group had previously demonstrated that HIV-1 can establish a productive infection in renal epithelial cells and that the kidney represents a separate compartment for HIV-1 replication. Here, to better understand the viruses in this unique site, we genetically characterized and compared the viruses in blood and urine specimens from twenty-four HIV-1 infected subjects with detectable viremia. Design and Methods Blood and urine samples were obtained from 35 HIV-1 positive subjects. Single-genome amplification was performed on HIV-1 env RNA and DNA isolated from urine supernatants and urine derived cell pellets respectively, as well as from plasma and PBMC from the same individuals. Neighbor-joining trees were constructed under the Kimura 2-parameter mode. Results We amplified and sequenced the full-length HIV-1 envelope (env) gene from twelve of the twenty-four individuals, indicating that fifty percent (50%) of the viremic HIV-1 positive patients had viral RNA in their urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the env sequences from four subjects with more than fifteen urine-derived env sequences showed that the majority of the sequences from urine formed distinct cluster(s) independent of those PBMC and plasma-derived sequences, consistent with viral compartmentalization in the urine. Conclusions Our results suggest the presence of a distinct HIV compartment in the genitourinary tract. PMID:26372275

  7. Acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection

    MedlinePLUS

    CMV mononucleosis; Cytomegalovirus (CMV) ... Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is very common. The infection is spread by: Blood transfusions Organ transplants Respiratory droplets Saliva Sexual contact Urine Most ...

  8. Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.

    PubMed

    Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis tick. PMID:22371172

  9. Mucin levels in saliva of adolescents with dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Gabryel-Porowska, Halina; Gornowicz, Agnieszka; Bielawska, Anna; Wójcicka, Anna; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Bielawski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Background Human saliva, a complex secretion that contains a mixture of inorganic and organic molecules, plays an essential role in the maintenance of oral health. Mucins are the major macromolecular component of the secretion and are considered the first line of defense for epithelial tissues. The aim of this study was to compare levels of mucins (MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC1) in saliva of young subjects with dental caries. Material/Methods All patients had DMF (decay/missing/filled) higher than value 0. Eight subjects with DMF=3 (control group) and 27 adolescents with DMF >11 (research group) were recruited for this study. Clinical evaluation procedures were oral examination, including tooth, periodontal, oral mucosal status, and collection of saliva samples. Saliva was collected for mucin assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantitate MUC5B, MUC7, and MUC1. Results Our results indicate that adolescents with very high intensity of dental caries disease had increased levels of MUC1 and MUC5B. The membrane mucin MUC1 protein levels in the group with DMF>11 (research group) were higher compared to the group with DMF=3 (control group), and the increase was statistically significant (p=0.011). Similarly, secreted mucin MUC5B protein levels were higher (p=0.06) in the group with DMF>11 (research group). Although MUC7 protein levels were slightly reduced in symptomatic subjects, the decrease was statistically insignificant (p=0.918). Conclusions Our data suggest links between the production of mucins, especially MUC1 and MUC5B in saliva, and dental caries disease. PMID:24441930

  10. Influence of time, toothpaste and saliva in the retention of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, Julia Caroline; BUX, Miriam; FILIPUZZI-JENNY, Elisabeth; KULIK, Eva Maria; WALTIMO, Tuomas; WEIGER, Roland; WALTER, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The intraoral transmission of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species seems to be facilitated by contaminated toothbrushes and other oral hygiene devices. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the in vitro retention and survival rate of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes. The impacts of human saliva and antimicrobial toothpaste on these parameters were further evaluated. Material and Methods Part I: Four toothbrushes (Colgate 360°, Curaprox CS5460 ultra soft, elmex InterX, Trisa Flexible Head3) were contaminated by S. mutans DSM 20523 or S. sanguinis DSM 20068 suspensions for three minutes. Bacteria were removed from the toothbrushes after either three minutes (T0) or 24 hours (T24) of dry storage and grown on Columbia blood agar plates for the quantification of colony-forming units (CFUs). Part II: The effects of saliva from a caries-active or a caries-inactive person and of toothpaste containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate were also tested. Results Part I: After three minutes of dry storage, approximately one percent of the bacteria were still detectable on the toothbrushes. After 24 hours, S. sanguinis exhibited a more pronounced decrease in viable cell numbers compared with S. mutans but the differences were not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p>0.05). Part II: The addition of human saliva from a caries-active or caries-inactive person slightly increased the retention of both streptococcal species at T0. The use of toothpaste had no influence on the amount of viable streptococci at T0, but it reduced the microbial load after 24 hours of storage. There were only slight nonsignificant differences (p>0.05) between the four toothbrushes. Conclusions In vitro bacterial retention and survival of S. sanguinis and S. mutans on different toothbrushes occurred. Within the limitations of this study, the use of human saliva or an antimicrobial toothpaste did not lead to significant differences in the microbial load on toothbrushes. PMID:25025554

  11. Diagnostic perspective of saliva in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus children: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, P. V. S. Deepa; Sridevi, E.; Sai Sankar, A. J.; Manoj Kumar, M. G.; Sridhar, M.; Sujatha, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The absence, destruction, or loss of β-cells of pancreas results in type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus [IDDM]). Presently, diagnosis and periodic monitoring of diabetes is achieved by evaluating blood glucose levels as it is relatively invasive and dreaded by children. In the light of this, present study was planned to compare salivary glucose values with blood glucose values and the biochemical characteristics of saliva in IDDM children were evaluated and obtained results were compared with the salivary parameters of normal children. Materials and Methods: Thirty IDDM children and 30 healthy children were selected for the study. Fasting blood sample and unstimulated salivary sample were collected from all the subjects and were subjected for analysis. Results: A weak positive correlation was noticed between fasting blood glucose and salivary glucose values in IDDM children. But a mean average of salivary glucose was high in IDDM children when compared with healthy children. The biochemical parameters like acid phosphatase, total protein count, and α-amylase were increased, whereas salivary urea did not show significant variation between the groups. Conclusion: With presently used diagnostic armamentarium, estimation of salivary glucose cannot replace the standard method of estimation of glucose in diabetic mellitus children. The established relationship was very weak with many variations. PMID:26681845

  12. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub ?g/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  13. THE ROLE OF SALIVA IN TICK FEEDING

    PubMed Central

    Francischetti, Ivo M.B; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J.; Santos, Isabel M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

    2009-01-01

    When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/tick_review/Sup-Table-1.xls.gz. PMID:19273185

  14. Plants Can Benefit from Herbivory: Stimulatory Effects of Sheep Saliva on Growth of Leymus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jushan; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Bonser, Stephen P.; Sun, Fang; Zhou, Yifa; Gao, Ying; Teng, Xing

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants and herbivores can evolve beneficial interactions. Growth factors found in animal saliva are probably key factors underlying plant compensatory responses to herbivory. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how animal saliva interacts with herbivory intensities and how saliva can mobilize photosynthate reserves in damaged plants. Methodology/Principal Findings The study examined compensatory responses to herbivory and sheep saliva addition for the grass species Leymus chinensis in three experiments over three years. The first two experiments were conducted in a factorial design with clipping (four levels in 2006 and five in 2007) and two saliva treatment levels. The third experiment examined the mobilization and allocation of stored carbohydrates following clipping and saliva addition treatments. Animal saliva significantly increased tiller number, number of buds, and biomass, however, there was no effect on height. Furthermore, saliva effects were dependent on herbivory intensities, associated with meristem distribution within perennial grass. Animal saliva was found to accelerate hydrolyzation of fructans and accumulation of glucose and fructose. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated a link between saliva and the mobilization of carbohydrates following herbivory, which is an important advance in our understanding of the evolution of plant responses to herbivory. Herbivory intensity dependence of the effects of saliva stresses the significance of optimal grazing management. PMID:22235277

  15. Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

  16. Insights into the saliva of the brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

  17. Effect of artificial saliva contamination on adhesion of dental restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, Kisaki; Karibe, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Kiyokazu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of artificial saliva contamination on three restorative materials, namely, a glass ionomer cement (GIC), a resin-modified GIC (RMGIC), and a composite resin (CR), for which two different etching adhesive systems were used. Thus, three surface conditions were created on bovine teeth using artificial saliva: control, mild saliva contamination, and severe saliva contamination. The dentin bond strength for CR was significantly lower after artificial saliva contamination. There were, however, no significant differences among the three surface conditions in terms of the dentin and enamel bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC. Moreover, CR exhibited significantly greater microleakage after artificial saliva contamination, whereas no significant differences were found in GIC and RMGIC. The results showed that artificial saliva contamination did not affect the shear bond strengths of GIC and RMGIC or their degrees of microleakage. PMID:25087662

  18. Development and validation of a reversed-phase HPLC method for CYP1A2 phenotyping by use of a caffeine metabolite ratio in saliva.

    PubMed

    Begas, Elias; Kouvaras, Evangelos; Tsakalof, Andreas K; Bounitsi, Maria; Asprodini, Eftihia Konstadinos

    2015-11-01

    CYP1A2 is important for metabolizing various clinically used drugs. Phenotyping of CYP1A2 may prove helpful for drug individualization therapy. Several HPLC methods have been developed for quantification of caffeine metabolites in plasma and urine. Aim of the present study was to develop a valid and simple HPLC method for evaluating CYP1A2 activity during exposure in xenobiotics by the use of human saliva. Caffeine and paraxanthine were isolated from saliva by liquid-liquid extraction (chlorophorm/isopropanol 85/15v/v). Extracts were analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC on a C18 column with mobile phase 0.1% acetic acid/methanol/acetonitrile (80/20/2 v/v) and detected at 273nm. Caffeine and paraxanthine elution times were <13min with no interferences from impurities or caffeine metabolites. Detector response was linear (0.10-8.00µg/ml, R(2) >0.99), recovery was >93% and bias <4.47%. Intra- and inter-day precision was <5.14% (n=6). The limit of quantitation was 0.10µg/ml and the limit of detection was 0.018±0.002µg/mL for paraxanthine and 0.032±0.002µg/ml for caffeine. Paraxanthine/caffeine ratio of 34 healthy volunteers was significantly higher in smokers (p<0.001). Saliva paraxanthine/caffeine ratios and urine metabolite ratios were highly correlated (r=0.85, p<0.001). The method can be used for the monitoring of CYP1A2 activity in clinical practice and in studies relevant to exposure to environmental and pharmacological xenobiotics. PMID:25891161

  19. Comparison and Correlation of Glucose Levels in Serum and Saliva of Both Diabetic and Non-diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhumika J; Dave, Bela; Dave, Dilip; Karmakar, Payel; Shah, Mona; Sarvaiya, Bhumi

    2015-01-01

    Background: To detect and compare salivary glucose with plasma glucose level and postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 patients were participated in this study. They were divided into two groups, each group consist of 50 patients. Un-stimulated saliva and blood were collected and investigated for glucose levels. Results: FBS, PPBS, plasma glucose levels and salivary glucose levels were higher in diabetic patients than healthy controls. FBS, PPBS, plasma glucose level and salivary glucose levels were significantly correlated with each other in diabetic patients Conclusion: Salivary glucose level can be used for monitoring tool to assess the glycemic status of diabetes mellitus patients as it is noninvasive and diagnostic method. PMID:26464543

  20. Concentrations of major elements and mercury in unstimulated human saliva.

    PubMed

    Monaci, F; Bargagli, E; Bravi, F; Rottoli, P

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was a preliminary assessment of a possible role of human saliva in the diagnosis of some physiological and pathological changes in oral and body functions. Reliable procedures for collection and analysis of samples were established in order to assess total concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, and Hg in whole unstimulated saliva. Possible relationships between element concentrations and sex, age, smoking, illness conditions, or side effects resulting from the use of drugs were investigated. The effects of stimulated or unstimulated collection procedures, dental prosthesis, and amalgam fillings were also evaluated. Total concentrations of major cations and Hg in whole saliva from 33 healthy adults living in the Siena district showed a coefficient of variation ranging from 11% (P) to 53% (Na) and average values were in the same range of those previously reported for unstimulated saliva. Healthy males had significantly higher concentrations of K, Na, P, and Na/K, Na/Ca, Na/Mg, and Na/P values than females. Age, smoking, dental prosthesis, and amalgam fillings had no significant effects on the concentrations of major elements. On the contrary, concentrations of Hg were positively correlated to the number of amalgam fillings and increased at a rate of about 1.9 microg/L for each filling. No correlations were found between Hg concentrations and those of major elements. Comparisons with literature data showed a different composition (particularly for Na and Hg concentrations) between unstimulated and stimulated saliva. Samples from patients affected by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had significantly higher concentrations of K and the maximum value was measured in a patient affected by acute pulmonary edema. This increase was likely the result of pharmacological treatments with tricyclic antidepressants and/or saline solutions. Data reported in this study, although preliminary, contribute to the assessment of levels of major cations (some of them very little investigated) and Hg in whole unstimulated human saliva and provides consistent support for further research on the possible use of this easy accessible matrix as a diagnostic tool of body function changes. PMID:12462743