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1

CLINICAL DIAGNOSTICS ON HUMAN WHOLE BLOOD, PLASMA, SERUM, URINE, SALIVA,  

E-print Network

. A colorimetric enzyme-kinetic glucose assay is then performed on serum, plasma, urine, and saliva the transport of enzyme laden droplets without loss in activity, and a com- plete colorimetric enzyme-kinetic FLUID TRANSPORT Transport of fluids containing proteins, such as enzyme-laden reagents and human

Fair, Richard

2

Isoflavones in urine, saliva and blood of infants – data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula  

PubMed Central

In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavones levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional, partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children’s exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. One hundred sixty-six full term infants between birth and 1 year of age were recruited into soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens according to their feeding histories. Three hundred eighty-one urine, 361 saliva and 88 blood samples were collected at 382 visits. We used automated online SPE coupled to HPLC-MS/MS for measuring three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) in urine, and use similar LC/MS/MS techniques for saliva and blood spots . Concentrations of daidzein and genistein were undetectable in most blood or saliva samples from children fed breast milk or cow-milk formula. The proportion of non-detectable values was somewhat lower in urine than the other matrices. Concentrations of equol were detectable in only a few urine samples. For both daidzein and genistein, urine contained the highest median concentrations, followed by blood, and then saliva. Urinary concentrations of genistein and daidzein were about 500 times higher in the soy-formula-fed infants than in the cow-milk-formula-fed infants. The correlations between matrices for either analyte were strikingly lower than the correlation between the two analytes in any single matrix. We did not find significant correlations between isoflavone concentrations and the levels of certain hormones in children fed soy formula. Our results, based on much larger numbers of infants, strongly confirm previous reports, but whether the phytoestrogens in soy formula are biologically active in infants is still an open question. We plan further longitudinal studies focusing on physical and developmental findings reflecting the effects of estrogen exposure. PMID:18665197

Cao, Yang; Calafat, Antonia M.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Umbach, David M.; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Rogan, Walter J.

2009-01-01

3

Network-based approach for analyzing intra- and interfluid metabolite associations in human blood, urine, and saliva.  

PubMed

Most studies investigating human metabolomics measurements are limited to a single biofluid, most often blood or urine. An organism's biochemical pool, however, comprises complex transboundary relationships, which can only be understood by investigating metabolic interactions and physiological processes spanning multiple parts of the human body. Therefore, we here propose a data-driven network-based approach to generate an integrated picture of metabolomics associations over multiple fluids. We performed an analysis of 2251 metabolites measured in plasma, urine, and saliva, from 374 participants of the Qatar Metabolomics Study on Diabetes (QMDiab). Gaussian graphical models (GGMs) were used to estimate metabolite-metabolite interactions on different subsets of the data set. First, we compared similarities and differences of the metabolome and the association networks between the three fluids. Second, we investigated the cross-talk between the fluids by analyzing correlations occurring between them. Third, we propose a framework for the analysis of medically relevant phenotypes by integrating type 2 diabetes, sex, age, and body mass index into our networks. In conclusion, we present a generic, data-driven network-based approach for structuring and visualizing metabolite correlations within and between multiple body fluids, enabling unbiased interpretation of metabolomics multifluid data. PMID:25434815

Do, Kieu Trinh; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Yousri, Noha A; Theis, Fabian J; Suhre, Karsten; Krumsiek, Jan

2015-02-01

4

Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

2015-01-01

5

Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that allows non-invasive assessment of pharmacotherapeutics of scopolamine in space and other remote environments without requiring blood sampling.

Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

2014-01-01

6

On-site testing of saliva and sweat with Drugwipe and determination of concentrations of drugs of abuse in saliva, plasma and urine of suspected users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential drug users participated voluntarily in a Belgian study on the usefulness of the non-instrumental immunoassay Drugwipe\\u000a (Securetec, Germany) for the screening of cocaine, opiates, amphetamine and cannabinoids in saliva and sweat. If one of the\\u000a screening assays (urine, oral fluid, sweat) showed a positive result, blood and saliva were collected. The on-site Drugwipe\\u000a results were correlated with the Drugwipe

N. Samyn; C. van Haeren

2000-01-01

7

Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route)

Candace K. Mathiason; Jenny G. Powers; Sallie J. Dahmes; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller; Robert J. Warren; Gary L. Mason; Sheila A. Hays; Jeanette Hayes-Klug; Davis M. Seelig; Margaret A. Wild; Lisa L. Wolfe; Terry R. Spraker; Michael W. Miller; Christina J. Sigurdson; Glenn C. Telling; Edward A. Hoover

2006-01-01

8

Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)  

MedlinePLUS

... change - Use this tool to play your goals. Hot Topics Studying for Tests Dealing With Sports Injuries Measles Healthy Weight: Your Personal Plan Dealing With Anger Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Kidneys & Urinary System > Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) Print ...

9

saliva and urine samples were collected before and 4, 5, 6,7 and 8 h after labeling 41  

E-print Network

saliva and urine samples were collected before and 4, 5, 6,7 and 8 h after labeling 41 healthy. Collection of two samples of either urine or saliva made the method truly noninvasive. The present study

Boyer, Edmond

10

Lead levels in saliva and in blood  

SciTech Connect

The relation between salivary and whole-blood Pb levels was examined in 266 male adults, 196 of whom were Pb-exposed workers. The coefficient of correlation r between salivary and blood Pb levels was .72 (p<0.01). The results show that the salivary Pb concentration increased very rapidly, in a more or less exponential fashion, after blood Pb levels exceeded 500 ..mu..g/l. Techniques of saliva collection and Pb determination by flamesless atomic absorption spectrophotometry are described. The validity of using salivary Pb as a screening test is evaluated.

P'an, A.Y.S.

1981-02-01

11

Comparative detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum DNA in saliva and urine samples from symptomatic malaria patients in a low endemic area  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Definite diagnosis of malaria relies on microscopy detection of blood stages of parasites in peripheral blood and requires blood sample collection. The nested PCR method has shown to be more sensitive and superior to microscopy in detecting co-infections of Plasmodium species in circulation while Plasmodium falciparum DNA can be identified in urine and saliva specimens of patients, albeit at

Pattakorn Buppan; Chaturong Putaporntip; Urassaya Pattanawong; Sunee Seethamchai; Somchai Jongwutiwes

2010-01-01

12

Determination of cortisol in serum, saliva and urine.  

PubMed

Cortisol is quantitatively the major glucocorticoid product of the adrenal cortex. The main reason to measure cortisol is to diagnose human diseases characterised by deficiency of adrenal steroid excretion in Addison's disease or overproduction in Cushing's syndrome (CS). In both cases a sensitive, accurate and reproducible assay of cortisol is required. Several methods have been described for the quantitative measurement of cortisol in both serum and urine. The most widely used methods in routine clinical laboratories are immunoassays (IA) and enzyme immunoassays (EIA), luminescence and fluorescence assays, which are available in numerous commercial kits and on automated platforms. However, there remains a number of problems in the so-called direct immunoassays if extraction and prepurification are not carried out before the assay. Recently, more specific chromatographic methods have been introduced, such as high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) or liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric assays (LC-MS/MS). The high specificity especially of LC-MS/MS facilitates reliable measurement of cortisol both in plasma, urine and saliva samples. PMID:24275191

Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa

2013-12-01

13

Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

2006-10-01

14

A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

2014-01-01

15

The human volatilome: volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, feces and saliva.  

PubMed

Breath analysis is a young field of research with its roots in antiquity. Antoine Lavoisier discovered carbon dioxide in exhaled breath during the period 1777-1783, Wilhelm (Vilém) Petters discovered acetone in breath in 1857 and Johannes Müller reported the first quantitative measurements of acetone in 1898. A recent review reported 1765 volatile compounds appearing in exhaled breath, skin emanations, urine, saliva, human breast milk, blood and feces. For a large number of compounds, real-time analysis of exhaled breath or skin emanations has been performed, e.g., during exertion of effort on a stationary bicycle or during sleep. Volatile compounds in exhaled breath, which record historical exposure, are called the 'exposome'. Changes in biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations can be used to mirror metabolic or (patho)physiological processes in the whole body or blood concentrations of drugs (e.g. propofol) in clinical settings-even during artificial ventilation or during surgery. Also compounds released by bacterial strains like Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Streptococcus pneumonia could be very interesting. Methyl methacrylate (CAS 80-62-6), for example, was observed in the headspace of Streptococcus pneumonia in concentrations up to 1420 ppb. Fecal volatiles have been implicated in differentiating certain infectious bowel diseases such as Clostridium difficile, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Cholera. They have also been used to differentiate other non-infectious conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition, alterations in urine volatiles have been used to detect urinary tract infections, bladder, prostate and other cancers. Peroxidation of lipids and other biomolecules by reactive oxygen species produce volatile compounds like ethane and 1-pentane. Noninvasive detection and therapeutic monitoring of oxidative stress would be highly desirable in autoimmunological, neurological, inflammatory diseases and cancer, but also during surgery and in intensive care units. The investigation of cell cultures opens up new possibilities for elucidation of the biochemical background of volatile compounds. In future studies, combined investigations of a particular compound with regard to human matrices such as breath, urine, saliva and cell culture investigations will lead to novel scientific progress in the field. PMID:24946087

Amann, Anton; Costello, Ben de Lacy; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogus?aw; Pleil, Joachim; Ratcliffe, Norman; Risby, Terence

2014-09-01

16

Analysis of the shedding of three ?-herpesviruses in urine and saliva of children with renal disease.  

PubMed

Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and 7 (HHV-7) are important pathogens in immunocompromised patients. To elucidate the kinetics of the three ?-herpesviruses in saliva and urine samples were collected serially from children with renal diseases. Twenty children with renal diseases were enrolled in this study. A total of 240 saliva and urine samples were collected monthly from the patients over a 1-year period. Viral DNAs loads were measured by real-time PCR. In 10 CMV seropositive patients CMV DNA was detected rarely in saliva and CMV DNA load was lower than the other two ?-herpesviruses DNA loads. All patients were seropositive for HHV-6B and the virus was detected frequently in saliva. Two of 20 patients were HHV-7 seronegative. High copies of viral DNA were detected continuously in saliva of the HHV-7 seropositive patients. Although neither CMV nor HHV-6B DNA load was different among the three renal diseases, HHV-7 DNA load was different among the diseases (P = 0.039). HHV-6B DNA loads were significantly higher in patients with immunosuppressive treatment compared to those without treatment (P = 0.013). Although CMV DNA was detected in urine samples collected from 5 of 10 CMV seropositive patients, HHV-6B and HHV-7 DNA were detected at relatively low frequencies in urine. No remarkable temporal associations between viral DNA excretion and proteinuria or immunosuppressive treatment were demonstrated. The pattern of viral DNA excretion in saliva and urine were different among the three viruses. No temporal correlation was observed between viral infection and renal diseases. PMID:24132949

Yamamoto, Yasuto; Morooka, Masashi; Hashimoto, Shuji; Ihra, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi

2014-03-01

17

Human exposure to antimony. III Contents in some human excreted biofluids (urine, milk, saliva)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human are exposed to antimony through a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. Even though the real value of the approach is still uncertain, it has become common practice to use excreted biofluids (i.e., urine, milk, saliva, etc.) to diagnose pollutant exposure due to the non-invasive nature of sampling these fluids. In this third review of the series on human

MONTSERRAT FILELLA; NELSON BELZILE; YU-WEI CHEN

2011-01-01

18

Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP.

Wu, L.; Tam, V.; Chow, Diana S. L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

2014-01-01

19

Antihemostatic Molecules from Saliva of Blood-Feeding Arthropods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to feed on vertebrate blood has evolved many times in various arthropod clades. Each time this trait evolves, novel solutions to the problem posed by vertebrate hemostasis are generated. Consequently, saliva of blood-feeding arthropods has proven to be a rich source of antihemostatic molecules. Vasodilators include nitrophorins (nitric oxide storage and transport heme proteins), a variety of peptides

Donald E. Champagne

2005-01-01

20

Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)  

MedlinePLUS

... blood clots blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia sickle cell disease—an inherited disorder in which RBCs ... blood clots blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia sickle cell disease When blood is visible in the ...

21

Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naive and Saliva-Immunized  

E-print Network

Visualizing Non Infectious and Infectious Anopheles gambiae Blood Feedings in Naive and Saliva of the proboscis was observed when the mosquitoes fed on blood from the vessels of mice immunized with saliva the bite. Polynuclear and mast cells were associated with saliva deposits. We describe the first

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

22

Determination of nicotine, anabasine, and cotinine in urine and saliva samples using single-drop microextraction.  

PubMed

A simple, sensitive, and inexpensive singe-drop microextraction (SDME) followed by gas chromatography and flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) was developed for determination of nicotine, anabasine, and cotinine in human urine and saliva samples. The target compounds were extracted from alkaline aqueous sample solution into an organic acceptor drop suspended on the tip of a 25-?L GC microsyringe in the aqueous sample solution. This microsyringe was also used for direct injection after extraction. Under optimized experimental conditions, calibration plots were found to be linear in the range of 0.5-25.0, 0.5-65.0, and 0.5-45.0mgL(-1) for nicotine, anabasines and cotinine, respectively. The method detection limit values were in the range of 0.33-0.45mgL(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precisions for peak area ratios were in the range of 1.3-9.2% and 2.0-7.0%, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to the determination of analytes in spiked urine and saliva samples with satisfactory results. The mean relative recoveries of spiked water samples ranged over 71.2-111.0%, with relative standard deviations varying from 2.3% to 10.0%. PMID:20855236

Kardani, Fatemeh; Daneshfar, Ali; Sahrai, Reza

2010-10-15

23

Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements on microliter samples of urine, plasma, saliva, and human milk.  

PubMed

Improved methods to measure 2H:1H and 18O:16O isotope ratios on microliter samples of biological fluids are described. Enriched levels of 2H (580%) and 18O (256%) in urine, plasma, saliva, and human milk can be measured with a precision of 3.2% (n = 200) and 0.97% (n = 200) and an accuracy of -4.6 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- SD, n = 200) and -0.32 +/- 0.87% (mean +/- SD, n = 200), respectively. Hydrogen gas samples are generated from 10 microL of undistilled fluid by zinc reduction in quartz reaction vessels. Water-CO2 equilibration of a 100-microL sample for 18O measurement is completed in 10 h using a modified commercial equilibration system. These methodological improvements facilitate and extend the use of 2H and 18O tracers in studies of body composition and energy expenditure. PMID:3578092

Wong, W W; Lee, L S; Klein, P D

1987-05-01

24

Nitrite in saliva increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness  

PubMed Central

Salivary nitrate from dietary or endogenous sources is reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. In the acidic stomach, nitrite is further reduced to NO and related compounds, which have potential biological activity. We used an in vivo rat model as a bioassay to test effects of human saliva on gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness. Gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness were measured after topical administration of human saliva in HCl. The saliva was collected either after fasting (low in nitrite) or after ingestion of sodium nitrate (high in nitrite). In additional experiments, saliva was exchanged for sodium nitrite at different doses. Mucosal blood flow was increased after luminal application of nitrite-rich saliva, whereas fasting saliva had no effects. Also, mucus thickness increased in response to nitrite-rich saliva. The effects of nitrite-rich saliva were similar to those of topically applied sodium nitrite. Nitrite-mediated effects were associated with generation of NO and S-nitrosothiols. In addition, pretreatment with an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase markedly inhibited nitrite-mediated effects on blood flow. We conclude that nitrite-containing human saliva given luminally increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness in the rat. These effects are likely mediated through nonenzymatic generation of NO via activation of guanylyl cyclase. This supports a gastroprotective role of salivary nitrate/nitrite. PMID:14702114

Björne, Håkan; Petersson, Joel; Phillipson, Mia; Weitzberg, Eddie; Holm, Lena; Lundberg, Jon O.

2004-01-01

25

Blood in the Urine (Hematuria) in Children (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... BLOOD IN THE URINE OVERVIEW Hematuria is the medical term for blood in the urine. Blood in the ... or other qualified health care professional regarding any medical questions or conditions. The use of this website is governed by the UpToDate Terms of Use ©2015 UpToDate, Inc. References Top Diven ...

26

Effect of dietary copper on the copper content of urine, parotid saliva, and sweat in humans  

SciTech Connect

Eleven young men were confined to a metabolic research unit to study the effect of the level of dietary copper (Cu) on Cu metabolism. They were fed a constant diet containing the following three levels of dietary Cu: adequate Cu (1.68 mg/d) for 24 days (MP1), low Cu (0.785 mg/d) for 42 days (MP2), and high Cu (7.53 mg/d) for 24 days (MP3). Urine was collected throughout the study and Cu was determined in 6-day pools from the beginning of the study, the end of each MP, and the midpoint of MP2. Parotid saliva was collected near the end of each MP. Sweat was collected from the upper arm and ancillary area of three subjects for 2-day periods near the end of each MP. Urinary Cu averaged 0.34, 0.34 and 0.33 {mu}mol/d for MP 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 0.16 to 0.39 {mu}mol/d. Parotid saliva Cu averaged 13.4, 13.0, and 12.0 nmol/L for MP 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Individual averages ranged from 6.9 to 17.8 nmol/L. Sweat Cu levels were very low and did not appear to be affected by dietary Cu. The limited data suggest that sweat losses would have little effect on Cu balance. Neither urinary nor salivary Cu was affected by dietary Cu or related to indices of Cu status (serum Cu, ceruloplasmin, or erythrocyte superoxide dismutase). Urinary and salivary Cu differed significantly among individuals. Results suggest that urinary, salivary, and sweat Cu do not play a role in regulating Cu retention or affect Cu status of humans.

Turnlund, J.R. (Dept. of Agriculture, Albany, CA (USA))

1989-02-09

27

Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements on microliter samples of urine, plasma, saliva, and human milk  

SciTech Connect

Improved methods to measure /sup 2/H:/sup 1/H and /sup 18/O:/sup 16/O isotope ratios on microliter samples of biological fluids are described. Enriched levels of /sup 2/H (580%) and /sup 18/O (256%) in urine, plasma, saliva, and human milk can be measured with a precision of 3.2% (n = 200) and 0.97% (n = 200) and an accuracy of -4.6 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- SD, n = 200) and -0.32 +/- 0.87% (mean +/- SD, n = 200), respectively. Hydrogen gas samples are generated from 10 microL of undistilled fluid by zinc reduction in quartz reaction vessels. Water-CO/sub 2/ equilibration of a 100-microL sample for /sup 18/O measurement is completed in 10 h using a modified commercial equilibration system. These methodological improvements facilitate and extend the use of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O tracers in studies of body composition and energy expenditure.

Wong, W.W.; Lee, L.S.; Klein, P.D.

1987-05-01

28

Simple, Fast and Reliable Liquid Chromatographic and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Theophylline in Urine, Saliva and Plasma Samples  

PubMed Central

In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) and UV spectrophotometric method were developed, validated and applied for the determination of theophylline in biological fluids. Liquid- liquid extraction is performed for isolation of the drug and elimination of plasma and saliva interferences. Urine samples were applied without any extraction. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column by using 60:40 methanol:water as mobile phase under isocratic conditions at a flow rate of 0.75 mL/min with UV detection at 280 nm in HPLC method. UV spectrophotometric analysis was performed at 275 nm. The results of HPLC analysis were as follows: the limit of quantification: 1.1 µg/mL for urine, 1.9 µg/mL for saliva, 3.1 µg/mL for plasma; recovery: 94.85% for plasma, 100.45% for saliva, 101.39% for urine; intra-day precision: 0.22–2.33%, inter-day precision: 3.17-13.12%. Spectrophotometric analysis results were as follows: the limit of quantitation: 5.23 µg/mL for plasma, 8.7 µg/mL for urine; recovery: 98.27% for plasma, 95.25% for urine; intra-day precision: 2.37 – 3.00%, inter-day precision: 5.43-7.91%. It can be concluded that this validated HPLC method is easy, precise, accurate, sensitive and selective for determination of theophylline in biological samples. Also spectrophotometric analysis can be used where it can be applicable. PMID:25237338

Charehsaz, Mohammad; Gürbay, Aylin; Aydin, Ahmet; ?ahin, Gönül

2014-01-01

29

Toenail, Blood and Urine as Biomarkers of Manganese Exposure  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined the correlation between manganese exposure and manganese concentrations in different biomarkers. Methods Air measurement data and work histories were used to determine manganese exposure over a workshift and cumulative exposure. Toenail samples (n=49), as well as blood and urine before (n=27) and after (urine, n=26; blood, n=24) a workshift were collected. Results Toenail manganese, adjusted for age and dietary manganese, was significantly correlated with cumulative exposure in months 7-9, 10-12, and 7-12 before toenail clipping date, but not months 1-6. Manganese exposure over a work shift was not correlated with changes in blood nor urine manganese. Conclusions Toenails appeared to be a valid measure of cumulative manganese exposure 7 to 12 months earlier. Neither change in blood nor urine manganese appeared to be suitable indicators of exposure over a typical workshift. PMID:21494156

Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Lin, Xihong; Herrick, Robert F.; Fang, Shona C.; Cavallari, Jennifer M.; Christiani, David C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.

2011-01-01

30

Biomonitoring of arsenic in urine and saliva of children playing on playgrounds constructed from chromated copper arsenate-treated wood.  

PubMed

Children may be exposed to arsenic during contact with structures treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). A high frequency of hand-to-mouth activity may increase their risk of ingesting arsenic. Previous work showed that arsenic concentrations in the hand-wash samples of children playing on CCA playgrounds were four times higher than those playing on non-CCA playgrounds. It is not clear whether playing on CCA playgrounds results in elevated overall exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to perform arsenic biomonitoring in children to determine whether playing on CCA-treated playgrounds substantially contributes to their overall exposure to arsenic. One hundred and twenty five saliva samples from 61 children and 101 urine samples from 45 children were collected after children played on 8 CCA and 8 non-CCA playgrounds. Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted using high performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The arsenic species detected in the urine and saliva samples from children playing on CCA and non-CCA playgrounds were similar. Dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine were the main arsenic species found in urine samples. The sum of inorganic trivalent and pentavalent arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid in urine was 15 +/- 28 microg/L in the CCA group and 12 +/- 23 microg/L in the non-CCA group (p = 0.60). The sum of these species in saliva was 1.1 +/- 2.1 microg/L in the CCA group and 1.4 +/- 1.1 microg/L in the non-CCA group (p = 0.32). These results show that there is no significant difference in the concentration or speciation of arsenic between the samples from children playing on CCA and non-CCA playgrounds. Contact with CCA playgrounds is not likely to significantly contribute to the overall arsenic exposure in children; other sources such as dietary arsenic may be a main contributor to their overall exposure. PMID:20377243

Lew, Kristi; Acker, Jason P; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris

2010-05-15

31

Immunological and molecular detection of human immunodeficiency virus in saliva, and comparison with blood testing.  

PubMed

In order to test the detection feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in saliva, a three-method blind screening analysis was conducted. Sixty-eight individuals were studied, comprising 34 HIV carriers and 34 noncarriers (controls) of matched gender and age. An oral examination preceded saliva and blood sampling of studied individuals. All samples were tested blind for HIV by using two immunological methods [Oraquick-compatible enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a fluorescent immunoenzymatic method (ELFA)], confirmed by western blotting, and a simple molecular method (polymerase chain reaction amplification of a relatively constant viral DNA region), confirmed by DNA hydridization. Compared with the controls, about twice as many HIV carriers had oral health problems, including periodontal disease. ELFA resulted in 33/34 positives and 34/34 negatives in saliva, while it detected 34/34 positives and 34/34 negatives in blood. ELISA performed even better, with correct assignment of all positives and negatives in both saliva and blood. The PCR method, at three annealing temperatures, surprisingly detected all positive samples, while it gave no false-positive result. In conclusion, the detection of anti-HIV in saliva may achieve accuracy of 97.1-100%, comparable with that in blood. Furthermore, this study suggests that a highly accurate molecular method of HIV detection may be feasible, although the studied carriers had rather homogeneous characteristics. PMID:16776764

Yapijakis, Christos; Panis, Vassilis; Koufaliotis, Nikos; Yfanti, Georgia; Karachalios, Stefanos; Roumeliotou, Anastasia; Mantzavinos, Zacharias

2006-06-01

32

Residual cannabis levels in blood, urine and oral fluid following heavy cannabis use.  

PubMed

An understanding of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) kinetics and residual levels after cannabis use is essential in interpreting toxicology tests in body fluids from live subjects, particularly when used in forensic settings for drug abuse, traffic and interpersonal violence cases. However the current literature is largely based on laboratory studies using controlled cannabis dosages in experienced users, with limited research investigating the kinetics of residual THC concentrations in regular high dose cannabis users. Twenty-one dependent cannabis users were recruited at admission to two residential detoxification units in Melbourne, Australia. After being provided with information about, and consenting to, the study, subjects volunteered to provide once-daily blood, urine and oral fluid (saliva) samples for seven consecutive days following admission, involving cessation and abstinence from all cannabis use. Blood and oral fluid specimens were analysed for THC and urine specimens for the metabolite THC-COOH. In some subjects THC was detectable in blood for at least 7 days and oral fluid specimens were positive for THC up to 78h after admission to the unit. Urinary THC-COOH concentrations exceeded 1000ng/mL for some subjects 129h after last use. The presented blood THC levels are higher and persist longer in some individuals than previously described, our understanding and interpretation of THC levels in long term heavy cannabis users may need to be reconsidered. PMID:25698515

Odell, Morris S; Frei, Matthew Y; Gerostamoulos, Dimitri; Chu, Mark; Lubman, Dan I

2015-04-01

33

Review: Interpreting Mercury in Blood and Urine of Individual Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of mercury exposure are determined by: (a) chemical form, (b) route of exposure, (c) dose, and (d) patient factors. Patient factors include age, genetics, environmental aspects, and nutritional status, and are responsible for different individual responses to similar doses. When blood and urine are collected to evaluate exposure, the results are influenced by (a) specimen collection, (b) analysis,

Kern L. Nuttall

34

Blood-feeding and immunogenic Aedes aegypti saliva proteins.  

PubMed

Mosquito-transmitted pathogens pass through the insect's midgut (MG) and salivary gland (SG). What occurs in these organs in response to a blood meal is poorly understood, but identifying the physiological differences between sugar-fed and blood-fed (BF) mosquitoes could shed light on factors important in pathogens transmission. We compared differential protein expression in the MGs and SGs of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes after a sugar- or blood-based diet. No difference was observed in the MG protein expression levels but certain SG proteins were highly expressed only in BF mosquitoes. In sugar-fed mosquitoes, housekeeping proteins were highly expressed (especially those related to energy metabolism) and actin was up-regulated. The immunofluorescence assay shows that there is no disruption of the SG cytoskeletal after the blood meal. We have generated for the first time the 2-DE profiles of immunogenic Ae. aegypti SG BF-related proteins. These new data could contribute to the understanding of the physiological processes that appear during the blood meal. PMID:19882664

Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Patramool, Sirilaksana; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Séveno, Martial; Remoue, Franck; Demettre, Edith; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Jouin, Patrick; Biron, David G; Thomas, Frédéric; Missé, Dorothée

2010-05-01

35

A micromethod for the determination of fluoride in blood plasma and saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A simple and accurate technique for the determination of fluoride (F?) in capillary-sampled blood is presented. The method is based on the known addition-slope determination technique using the fluoride electrode is required. A standard deviation of 1.3–5.6% in the range 300–10 ng F\\/ml was given by 259 duplicate determinations on human plasma. Measurements of parotid saliva showed that it

Jan Ekstrand

1977-01-01

36

Multiple displacement amplification of blood and saliva samples placed on FTA® cards  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed multiple displacement amplification (MDA) of 50 blood and 50 saliva samples placed on FTA cards. A 1.2-mm disk was punched out of the FTA cards. The disk was washed, dried and used as target for the GenomiPhi DNA amplification kit. On average, the Phi29 polymerase produced 2 ?g whole genome amplified DNA (wgaDNA) with DNA fragment sizes ranging

C. Børsting; N. Morling

2006-01-01

37

Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

2012-03-01

38

Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

2011-11-01

39

Molecularly imprinted polymers as synthetic receptors for the QCM-D-based detection of L-nicotine in diluted saliva and urine samples.  

PubMed

Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic receptors that are able to specifically bind their target molecules in complex samples, making them a versatile tool in biosensor technology. The combination of MIPs as a recognition element with quartz crystal microbalances (QCM-D with dissipation monitoring) gives a straightforward and sensitive device, which can simultaneously measure frequency and dissipation changes. In this work, bulk-polymerized L-nicotine MIPs were used to test the feasibility of L-nicotine detection in saliva and urine samples. First, L-nicotine-spiked saliva and urine were measured after dilution in demineralized water and 0.1× phosphate-buffered saline solution for proof-of-concept purposes. L-nicotine could indeed be detected specifically in the biologically relevant micromolar concentration range. After successfully testing on spiked samples, saliva was analyzed, which was collected during chewing of either nicotine tablets with different concentrations or of smokeless tobacco. The MIPs in combination with QCM-D were able to distinguish clearly between these samples: This proves the functioning of the concept with saliva, which mediates the oral uptake of nicotine as an alternative to the consumption of cigarettes. PMID:23754330

Alenus, J; Ethirajan, A; Horemans, F; Weustenraed, A; Csipai, P; Gruber, J; Peeters, M; Cleij, T J; Wagner, P

2013-08-01

40

Development of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for determination of thiocynate ion in human urine and saliva samples.  

PubMed

Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAE-ME) procedure coupled with UV-vis spectrophotometric measurement has been developed for determination of thiocyanate ion (SCN(-)) in water and biological fluids samples. The method is based on protonation of SCN(-) ions in acidic medium and extraction of thiocyanic acid into fine droplets of chloroform as an extraction solvent contains rhodamine B (RhB). The RhB was protonated in presence of thiocynanic acid to form highly colored ion-pair complex of [thiocynate][RhBH(+)] in chloroform, which used for subsequent spectrophotometric determination of SCN(-) ions. Experimental parameters for both spectrophotometric reaction and USAE-ME procedure have been optimized. Under optimized conditions the calibration curve for SCN(-) showed good linearity in the range of 38.0-870.0ngmL(-1) (R(2)=0.9967). The limit of detection (S/N=3) and preconcentration factor were 5.0ngmL(-1) and 40, respectively. Relative standard deviation for determination of 200ngmL(-1) of SCN(-) was 2.8% (n=5). The proposed method has been successfully applied for determination of SCN(-) ion in tap water, mineral bottled water and human saliva and urine samples with an average recovery of 99.2%. PMID:23353810

Hashemi, Mahdi; Daryanavard, Seyed Mosayeb; Abdolhosseini, Sana

2013-02-15

41

Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion.  

PubMed

The collection of blood, its storage as red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and its reinjection is prohibited; until now, the practice cannot be reliably detected. A recent innovation-the haematological module of the athlete's biological passport-can provide authorities with indications towards autologous blood transfusion. In situations where a given athlete has been exposed to altitude, heat stress, sickness, etc, additional evidence may be needed to establish beyond any reasonable doubt that a blood transfusion may actually have occurred. Additional evidence may be obtained from at least three different approaches using parameters related to blood and urine matrices.Genomics applied to mRNA or miRNA is one of the most promising analytical tools. Proteomics of changes associated with RBC membranes may reveal the presence of cells stored for some time, as can an abnormal pattern of size distribution of aged cells. In urine, high concentrations of metabolites of plasticisers originating from the blood storing bags strongly suggest a recent blood transfusion. We emphasise the usefulness of simultaneously obtaining and then analysing blood and urine for complementary evidence of autologous blood transfusion ('blood doping'). PMID:24764552

Segura, J; Lundby, C

2014-05-01

42

Developmental validation of RSID-saliva: a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test for the forensic detection of saliva.  

PubMed

Current methods for forensic identification of saliva generally assay for the enzymatic activity of alpha-amylase, an enzyme long associated with human saliva. Here, we describe the Rapid Stain IDentification (RSID-Saliva), a lateral flow immunochromatographic strip test that uses two antisalivary amylase monoclonal antibodies to detect the presence of salivary amylase, rather than the activity of the enzyme. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva is accurate, reproducible, and highly sensitive for human saliva; RSID-Saliva detects less than 1 microL of saliva. The sensitivity of RSID-Saliva allows investigators to sample a fraction of a questioned stain while retaining the majority for DNA-STR analysis. We demonstrate that RSID-Saliva identifies saliva from a variety of materials (e.g., cans, bottles, envelopes, and cigarette-butts) and it does not cross-react with blood, semen, urine, or vaginal fluid. RSID-Saliva is a useful forensic test for determining which evidentiary items contain saliva and thus may yield a DNA profile. PMID:19486436

Old, Jennifer B; Schweers, Brett A; Boonlayangoor, Pravat W; Reich, Karl A

2009-07-01

43

Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 ?g\\/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 ?g\\/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 ?g\\/dl), respectively,

Jerome Nriagu; Brian Burt; Aaron Linder; Amid Ismail; Woosung Sohn

2007-01-01

44

Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7±0.1?g\\/dl and 2.4±0.13?g\\/l (equivalent to 0.24±0.13?g\\/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found

Jerome Nriagu; Brian Burt; Aaron Linder; Amid Ismail; Woosung Sohn

2006-01-01

45

Detection of Tumor Cell-Specific mRNA and Protein in Exosome-Like Microvesicles from Blood and Saliva  

PubMed Central

The discovery of disease-specific biomarkers in oral fluids has revealed a new dimension in molecular diagnostics. Recent studies have reported the mechanistic involvement of tumor cells derived mediators, such as exosomes, in the development of saliva-based mRNA biomarkers. To further our understanding of the origins of disease-induced salivary biomarkers, we here evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-shed secretory lipidic vesicles called exosome-like microvesicles (ELMs) that serve as protective carriers of tissue-specific information, mRNAs, and proteins, throughout the vasculature and bodily fluids. RNA content was analyzed in cell free-saliva and ELM-enriched fractions of saliva. Our data confirmed that the majority of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in saliva were encapsulated within ELMs. Nude mice implanted with human lung cancer H460 cells expressing hCD63-GFP were used to follow the circulation of tumor cell specific protein and mRNA in the form of ELMs in vivo. We were able to identify human GAPDH mRNA in ELMs of blood and saliva of tumor bearing mice using nested RT-qPCR. ELMs positive for hCD63-GFP were detected in the saliva and blood of tumor bearing mice as well as using electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM). Altogether, our results demonstrate that ELMs carry tumor cell–specific mRNA and protein from blood to saliva in a xenografted mouse model of human lung cancer. These results therefore strengthen the link between distal tumor progression and the biomarker discovery of saliva through the ELMs. PMID:25397880

Yang, Jieping; Wei, Fang; Schafer, Christopher; Wong, David T. W.

2014-01-01

46

Imipramine hydrochloride and desipramine hydrochloride as new reagents for detection of microamounts of blood in urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzidine and o-tolidine, the hazardous carcinogens are still in use for the detection of blood in urine. Development of safer substitutes are of paramount importance. Unfortunately, the alternate available reagents lack specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility. Imipramine hydrochloride (IPH) and desipramine hydrochloride (DPH) are proposed as new reagents for the detection of blood in urine. Both the reagents impact to blood

Akheel A Syed; Mohammed F Silwadi; Bibi A Khatoon

2002-01-01

47

In vivo isotope-fractionation factors and the measurement of deuterium- and oxygen-18-dilution spaces from plasma, urine, saliva, respiratory water vapor, and carbon dioxide  

SciTech Connect

In vivo isotope-fractionation factors were determined for hydrogen and oxygen between plasma water samples and samples of urine, saliva, respiratory water vapor, and carbon dioxide in 20 normal adults. The isotope-fractionation factors ranged from 0.944 to 1.039 for /sup 2/H in breath water vapor and for /sup 18/O in breath CO/sub 2/, respectively. When corrected for isotope fractionation, the /sup 2/H- and /sup 18/O-dilution spaces determined from urine, saliva, respiratory water, and CO/sub 2/ were within -0.10 +/- 1.09 kg (mean +/- SD, n = 60) and 0.04 +/- 0.68 kg (n = 80), respectively, of the values determined from plasma. In the absence of these corrections, we observed a 6% overestimation of /sup 2/H-dilution space and a 1% overestimation of /sup 18/O-dilution space from the use of respiratory water values. A 4% underestimation of the /sup 18/O-dilution space was observed for breath CO/sub 2/ without correction for isotope fractionation.

Wong, W.W.; Cochran, W.J.; Klish, W.J.; Smith, E.O.; Lee, L.S.; Klein, P.D.

1988-01-01

48

In vivo isotope-fractionation factors and the measurement of deuterium- and oxygen-18-dilution spaces from plasma, urine, saliva, respiratory water vapor, and carbon dioxide.  

PubMed

In vivo isotope-fractionation factors were determined for hydrogen and oxygen between plasma water samples and samples of urine, saliva, respiratory water vapor, and carbon dioxide in 20 normal adults. The isotope-fractionation factors ranged from 0.944 to 1.039 for 2H in breath water vapor and for 18O in breath CO2, respectively. When corrected for isotope fractionation, the 2H- and 18O-dilution spaces determined from urine, saliva, respiratory water, and CO2 were within -0.10 +/- 1.09 kg (mean +/- SD, n = 60) and 0.04 +/- 0.68 kg (n = 80), respectively, of the values determined from plasma. In the absence of these corrections, we observed a 6% overestimation of 2H-dilution space and a 1% overestimation of 18O-dilution space from the use of respiratory water values. A 4% underestimation of the 18O-dilution space was observed for breath CO2 without correction for isotope fractionation. PMID:3122550

Wong, W W; Cochran, W J; Klish, W J; Smith, E O; Lee, L S; Klein, P D

1988-01-01

49

The saliva proteome of the blood-feeding insect Triatoma infestans is rich in platelet-aggregation inhibitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The saliva of the bloodsucking bug Triatoma infestans vector of Chagas disease contains an anti-hemostatic molecular cocktail that prevents coagulation, vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in a vertebrate prey. In order to characterize T. infestans saliva proteome, we separated the secreted saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 200 salivary proteins were detected on the 2-DE map, mainly in the alkaline region. By nanoLC-MS/MS analysis using a LTQ-Orbitrap equipment followed by a combination of conventional and sequence-similarity searches, we identified 58 main protein spots. Most of such proteins possess potential blood-feeding associated functions, particularly anti-platelet aggregation proteins belonging to lipocalin and apyrase families. The saliva protein composition indicates a highly specific molecular mechanism of early response to platelet aggregation. This first proteome analysis of the T. infestans secreted saliva provides a basis for a better understanding of this fluid protein composition highly directed to counterpart hemostasis of the prey, thus promoting the bug's blood-feeding.

Charneau, Sébastien; Junqueira, Magno; Costa, Camila M.; Pires, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Ellen S.; Bussacos, Ana C.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Ricart, Carlos André O.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.

2007-12-01

50

Saliva samples are a viable alternative to blood samples as a source of DNA for high throughput genotyping  

E-print Network

the feasibility of using saliva-extracted DNA in comparison to blood-derived DNA, across two genotyping platforms: Applied Biosystems TaqmanTM and Illumina BeadchipTM genome-wide arrays. Method Patients were recruited from the Pharmacogenetics of Breast Cancer...

Abraham, Jean E; Maranian, Mel J; Spiteri, Inmaculada; Russell, Roslin; Ingle, Susan; Luccarini, Craig; Earl, Helena M; Pharoah, Paul PD; Dunning, Alison M; Caldas, Carlos

2012-05-30

51

Lead levels in blood and saliva in a low-income population of Detroit, Michigan  

PubMed Central

The relationships between blood lead (PbB) and saliva lead (PbSa) concentrations and the determinants of PbB and PbSa status in 970 low-income adults in the city of Detroit, Michigan were explored. Average PbB and PbSa values in the sample population were found to be 2.7 ± 0.1 ?g/dl and 2.4 ± 0.13 ?g/l (equivalent to 0.24 ± 0.13 ?g/dl), respectively, and a weak but statistically significant association was found between the lead levels in the two types of body fluid samples. The average PbB level for men (4.0 ± 0.56 ?g/dl) was higher than that for women (2.7 ± 0.11 ?g/dl); other significant predictors of PbB included age, level of education, being employed, income level, the presence of peeling paint on the wall at home and smoking. There was no gender- or age-dependent difference in blood saliva values but statistically significant correlations were found between PbSa and level of education, employment, income level and smoking. Dental caries was severe in this population. Only 0.5% of the participants had no clinical signs of caries, over 80% had cavitated carious lesions (i.e., lesions that had progressed into dentin), and the number of lost teeth and carious lesions averaged 3.4 and 30, respectively. Weak but significant associations were found between PbB as well as PbSa and measures of dental caries in the study population. The positive associations are believed to be a reflection of the fact that the risk factors for dental caries, especially in low-income populations of the US, overlap extensively with those of lead poisoning and may not have a causal significance. PMID:16443391

Nriagu, Jerome; Burt, Brian; Linder, Aaron; Ismail, Amid; Sohn, Woosung

2006-01-01

52

Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study.  

PubMed

Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6-15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources. PMID:24756002

Wu, Hui-Chen; Wang, Qiao; Chung, Wendy K; Andrulis, Irene L; Daly, Mary B; John, Esther M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Knight, Julia; Bradbury, Angela R; Kappil, Maya A; Gurvich, Irina; Santella, Regina M; Terry, Mary Beth

2014-07-01

53

Blood and urine cadmium and bioelements profile in nickel-cadmium battery workers in Serbia.  

PubMed

Although cadmium (Cd) is extensively used for nickel-cadmium battery production, few recent reports are available on the effect of this toxic metal on the imbalance of biometals in occupational exposure. The current study was carried out to determine the Cd level and its effect on the content of bioelements: zinc, cooper, magnesium, and iron in blood and urine of workers exposed to Cd during nickel-cadmium battery production. beta(2)-microglobulins (beta(2)-MG), as indicators of kidney damage, were determined in urine.The study group comprised 32 male nickel-cadmium battery workers, and the control group had 15 male construction workers with no history of Cd exposure. Levels of Cd and bioelements were determined in blood and urine by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Cd concentration in blood of exposed workers was around 10 microg/L and in urine ranged from 1.93 to 8.76 microg/g creatinine (cr). Urine Cd concentration was significantly higher in exposed workers than in the controls, although no statistical difference in beta(2)-MG content was observed in urine between the two groups. Blood Zn and Mg level were significantly reduced and urine Zn level was increased in Cd-exposed group when compared with controls.The mean Cd concentrations in blood and urine did not exceed the recommended reference values of 10 microg/L in blood and 10 microg/g cr in urine. Cd exposure resulted in disturbances of Zn in blood and urine and Mg in blood but had no effect on Cu and Fe content in biological fluids. PMID:19458135

Bulat, Z Plamenac; Dukic-Cosic, D; Dokic, M; Bulat, P; Matovic, V

2009-03-01

54

SELENIUM LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Blood, hair, urine and tap water samples were obtained from participants in a population exposed to varying amounts of selenium via water from home wells. Concentrations of selenium in urine and hair produced significant positive correlations with well-water selenium levels. Bloo...

55

HCG in urine  

MedlinePLUS

... blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... To collect a urine sample, you urinate into a special (sterile) ... urine sample or passed through the urine stream while urinating. ...

56

Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.

1996-01-01

57

A comparative study of Candida albicans mean colony counts and blood group antigens in the saliva of healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal species in the oral cavity. Various factors associated with C. albicans infection have been evaluated so far. In some studies, the relationship between the blood group antigens and C. albicans has been discussed. The aim of this study was to assess mean C. albicans colony counts in the saliva of healthy subjects and its relationship with ABO blood groups. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional/analytical study was performed in the Oral Medicine Department, School of Dentistry, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 300 healthy subjects, including 100 individuals with blood group O, 100 with blood group A and 100 with blood group B. The samples were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar media to determine the means of C. albicans colonies. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney statistical tests and SPSS 16. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05. Results: The samples included 156 males and 144 females with a mean age of 27.52 years. The mean colony counts in the saliva of individuals with blood groups O, A, and B were 26.4, 19.84, and 21.23, respectively. There were no significant differences between the three groups (P = 0.280). Conclusion: Although the mean C. albicans colony counts in individuals with blood group O were more than those with other blood groups, the differences were not statistically significant. More research studies are needed in order to prove the role of blood groups in susceptibility to candidiasis. PMID:24932196

Khozeimeh, Faezeh; Mohammadpour, Mehrnaz; Taghian, Mehdi; Naemy, Vahid

2014-01-01

58

Determination of endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels in antemortem urine and blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid’s (GHB’s) natural presence in the body has made the interpretation of its levels a challenging task for the forensic toxicologist. This study was designed to measure endogenous GHB levels in antemortem urine and blood samples. The range detected in urine was from 34 to 575?g\\/dl and in blood from 17 to 151?g\\/dl. The results indicate that the concentration

Albert A. Elian

2002-01-01

59

Detection of cervical cancer by fluorescence emission and stokes' shift spectra of blood and urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the results of a study to distinguish cervical cancer patients [ N=50] from healthy subjects [N=50] based on the Fluorescence Emission Spectra [FES] and Stokes' Shift Spectra [SSS] of blood and urine. FES was obtained from the cellular fraction of blood and urine by excitation at 400 nm. SSS was obtained from blood plasma and urine with ?? of 70nm. In the FES of blood cellular fraction, the ratio of intensity of the two bands due to neutral porphyrin and basic porphyrin [I630 / I580] was 1 for normal controls and 3 for cervical cancers. In the SSS of plasma, the average ratio of intensity of the two bands due to tryptophan and collagen [I305 nm / I340 nm] was 1.9 for normal controls, 1.1 for early cervical cancers and 0.9 for advanced cervical cancers In the SSS of urine, the ratio of intensity of the two bands due to flavin and NADH [I450 nm / I360 nm] was 0.2 for normal controls and 0.8 for cancer patients. A discriminant analysis combining all three parameters showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 78% for this technique. In this study we show that fluorescence spectroscopy of blood and urine could develop into a promising technique for non-invasive diagnosis and screening of cervical cancers and would appropriately supplement or complement currently used techniques.

Masilamani, V.; Vijmasi, T.; AlSalhi, M.; Govindarajan, K.; VijayaRaghavan, A. P.; Rai, Ram Rathan

2011-03-01

60

Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2? levels in babies of different gestational ages  

PubMed Central

Objective: We measured cord blood and urine 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (8-iso-PGF2?) levels in babies of different gestational ages to determine lipid peroxidation status. Methods: Babies at gestational ages of 28-43 weeks were divided into group A (28-32 weeks), group B (33-36 weeks), group C (37-41 weeks), and group D (42-43 weeks). 8-iso-PGF2? in umbilical cord blood (UCB) at birth and urine at 6 hours after birth was and tested by ELISA. Results: UCB and urine 8-iso-PGF2? levels in group C were 130.09 ± 31.73 pg/ml and 27.14 ± 6.73 pg/ml, respectively. UCB 8-iso-PGF2? levels in group A and B were 188.42 ± 59.34 pg/ml and 189.37 ± 68.46 pg/ml, and urine 8-iso-PGF2? were 32.14 ± 7.32 pg/ml and 30.46 ± 8.83 pg/ml, respectively. Blood and urine 8-iso-PGF2? levels in group D (post-term) were 252.01 ± 46.42 pg/ml and 44.00 ± 8.50 pg/ml. For all babies, UCB and urine iso-PGF2? levels were significantly correlated (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). Conclusions: We established blood and urine iso-PGF2? levels in normal full-term babies. Urine 8-iso-PGF2? levels may reflect the extent of lipid peroxidation in babies. In pre-term and post-term babies, there was evidence for increased lipid peroxidation. PMID:25664058

Li, Sitao; Hao, Hu; Zhou, Ping; Gao, Ping Ming; Xiao, Xin

2014-01-01

61

Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for the ultrasensitive determination of interleukin-6 in saliva and urine using poly-HRP streptavidin conjugates as labels for signal amplification.  

PubMed

A novel magnetoimmunosensor design for interleukin-6 (IL-6) which involved the covalent immobilization of anti-IL-6 antibodies onto carboxyl-functionalized magnetic microparticles and a sandwich-type immunoassay with signal amplification using poly-HRP-streptavidin conjugates is reported. All the variables concerning the preparation and the electroanalytical performance of the immunosensor were optimized. The use of poly-HRP-strept conjugates as enzymatic labels instead of conventional HRP-strept allowed enhanced signal-to-blank current ratios to be obtained. A linear calibration plot between the measured steady-state current and the log of IL-6 concentration was achieved in the 1.75 to 500 pg/mL range, which was not feasible when using HRP-strep as label. A limit of detection of 0.39 pg/mL IL-6 was obtained. The anti-IL-6-MB conjugates exhibited an excellent storage stability providing amperometric responses with no significant loss during at least 36 days. The magnetoimmunosensor showed also an excellent selectivity against potentially interfering substances. The immunosensor was used to determine IL-6 in urine samples spiked at three different concentration levels with clinical relevance. Moreover, IL-6 was measured in three different saliva samples corresponding to a periodontitis patient, a smoker volunteer, and a non-smoker volunteer. The obtained results were statistically in agreement with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit. PMID:25081015

Ojeda, I; Moreno-Guzmán, M; González-Cortés, A; Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Pingarrón, J M

2014-10-01

62

PCR applications in identification of saliva samples exposed to different conditions (streptococci detection based).  

PubMed

Oral streptococci represent about 20% of the total oral bacteria, so if it is possible to detect the presence of oral specific bacteria from a forensic specimen by Polymerase chain reaction, this could be used to verify the presence of saliva. Aim of this study is detection of Streptococcus salivarius which is one of the most common streptococci in oral bacteria and Streptococcus mutans which is common in cases of dental caries in various body fluids and skin swabs and assessment of which one of both organisms is more reliable in saliva identification, cross sectional study on Egypt population. Negative control samples (15 samples) were taken from various body fluids (urine, semen) and skin swabs. Mock forensic samples (85 samples) included fresh saliva, saliva, cotton fabrics contaminated with saliva, cigarette butts, bitten apple and semen mixed with saliva samples). DNA extraction was done using DNeasy blood and tissue kit (Qiagen, Tokyo, Japan). Polymerase chain reaction was done for DNA amplification using Polymerase chain reaction master mix then gel electrophoresis was done for samples qualification. Control bacteria were S. salivarius and Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus salivarius was detected in 83.5% of all saliva contained samples and S. mutans was detected in 67% of saliva contained samples. Both bacteria were not detected in other body fluids and skin swabs, so S. salivarius is more reliable in saliva identification as well as differentiating it from other body fluids. Polymerase chain reaction is valuable in detection of saliva by detecting S. salivarius. PMID:24494527

Ali, M M; Shokry, D A; Zaghloul, H S; Rashed, L A; Nada, M G

2013-06-15

63

The determination of ethanol in blood and urine by mass fragmentography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mass fragmentographic technique for a rapid, specific and sensitive determination of ethanol in blood and urine is described. A Varian gas chromatograph coupled through an all-glass membrane separator to a Finnigan quadripole mass spectrometer and interfaced to a computer system is used for ethanol determination in blood and urine samples. A procedure for plotting calibration curves for ethanol quantitation is also described. Quantitation is achieved by plotting the peak area ratios of undeuterated-to-deuterated ethanol fragment ions against the amount of ethanol added. Representative results obtained by this technique are included.

Pereira, W. E.; Summons, R. E.; Rindfleisch, T. C.; Duffield, A. M.

1974-01-01

64

Carbonic Anhydrase I, II, and VI, Blood Plasma, Erythrocyte and Saliva Zinc and Copper Increase After Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used to treat symptoms from many disorders; biochemical changes occurred with this treatment. Preliminary studies with rTMS in patients with taste and smell dysfunction improved sensory function and increased salivary carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI and erythrocyte CA I, II. To obtain more information about these changes after rTMS, we measured changes in several CA enzymes, proteins, and trace metals in their blood plasma, erythrocytes, and saliva. Methods Ninety-three patients with taste and smell dysfunction were studied before and after rTMS in an open clinical trial. Before and after rTMS, we measured erythrocyte CA I, II and salivary CA VI, zinc and copper in parotid saliva, blood plasma, and erythrocytes, and appearance of novel salivary proteins by using mass spectrometry. Results After rTMS, CA I, II and CA VI activity and zinc and copper in saliva, plasma, and erythrocytes increased with significant sensory benefit. Novel salivary proteins were induced at an m/z value of 21.5K with a repetitive pattern at intervals of 5K m/z. Conclusions rTMS induced biochemical changes in specific enzymatic activities, trace metal concentrations, and induction of novel salivary proteins, with sensory improvement in patients with taste and smell dysfunction. Because patients with several neurologic disorders exhibit taste and smell dysfunction, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and multiple sclerosis, and because rTMS improved their clinical symptoms, the biochemical changes we observed may be relevant not only in our patients with taste and smell dysfunction but also in patients with neurologic disorders with these sensory abnormalities. PMID:20090508

Henkin, Robert I.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien M.; Moharram, Ramy; Velicu, Irina; Martin, Brian M.

2010-01-01

65

Detection of suPAR in the Saliva of Healthy Young Adults: Comparison with Plasma Levels.  

PubMed

The soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) has been detected in blood, plasma, serum, urine, ovarian cystic fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. Elevated suPAR levels in plasma have been associated with negative outcomes in various diseases, such as bacteremia, sepsis, SIRS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and tuberculosis. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suPAR can be detected in saliva from healthy individuals and thus, if saliva suPAR can be related to plasma suPAR, CRP, BMI, or gender. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 healthy individuals (10 female and 10 male, median age of 28 years; range 21-41). CRP and suPAR were measured with ELISA in saliva and serum/plasma. suPAR was detected in all saliva samples in the 5.2-28.1 ng/mL range, with a median value of 17.1 ng/mL. Saliva suPAR was significantly higher (P < 0.001) but not correlated to plasma suPAR in healthy young adults with normal plasma suPAR levels. suPAR and CRP levels were correlated in blood but not in saliva. No correlation was found between BMI, age, or gender and suPAR in saliva. PMID:22084570

Gustafsson, Anna; Ajeti, Vjosa; Ljunggren, Lennart

2011-01-01

66

EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

67

ARSENIC LEVELS IN HUMAN BLOOD, URINE, AND HAIR IN RESPONSE TO EXPOSURE VIA DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Five communities with water supplies having arsenic concentrations of 6, 51, 98, 123 and 393 micrograms/liter were selected for study. Samples of blood, hair, urine and tap water were obtained from participants in each community and analyzed for arsenic content. Results showed an...

68

Concentration of Wear Products in Hair, Blood, and Urine after Total Hip Replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raised levels of cobalt and chromium are found in the blood and urine of patients with metallic total hip replacements. When one of the hip components is made of polyethylene much less metal seems to be released from the joint. The long-term effects of the accumulation of chromium in the body need to be studied further.

R. F. Coleman; J. Herrington; John T. Scales

1973-01-01

69

The Effect of Weight Reduction on the Blood and Urine Measurements of College Wrestlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that the weight reduction practices of wrestlers results in kidney and liver problems. To observe the effect of wrestlers' weight reduction, diagnostic tests for kidney and liver problems were done on the blood and urine samples of 22 college wrestlers over the course of a wrestling season. Results obtained after reduction to…

Segurson, Jack

70

Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman  

E-print Network

Chemical concentration measurement in blood serum and urine samples using liquid-core optical fiber Raman spectroscopy Dahu Qi and Andrew J. Berger We report measurements of chemical concentrations to increase the collected signal strength. Both Raman and absorption spectra were acquired in the near

Berger, Andrew J.

71

PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE  

EPA Science Inventory

To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

72

Detection times of drugs of abuse in blood, urine, and oral fluid.  

PubMed

Data on the detection times of drugs of abuse are based on studies of controlled administration to volunteers or on the analysis of biologic samples of subjects who are forced to stop their (often chronic) use of drugs of abuse, eg, because of imprisonment or detoxification. The detection times depend mainly on the dose and sensitivity of the method used and also on the preparation and route of administration, the duration of use (acute or chronic), the matrix that is analyzed, the molecule or metabolite that is looked for, the pH and concentration of the matrix (urine, oral fluid), and the interindividual variation in metabolic and renal clearance. In general, the detection time is longest in hair, followed by urine, sweat, oral fluid, and blood. In blood or plasma, most drugs of abuse can be detected at the low nanogram per milliliter level for 1 or 2 days. In urine the detection time of a single dose is 1.5 to 4 days. In chronic users, drugs of abuse can be detected in urine for approximately 1 week after last use, and in extreme cases even longer in cocaine and cannabis users. In oral fluid, drugs of abuse can be detected for 5-48 hours at a low nanogram per milliliter level. The duration of detection of GHB is much shorter. After a single dose of 1 or 2 ng of flunitrazepam, the most sensitive methods can detect 7-aminoflunitrazepam for up to 4 weeks in urine. PMID:15228165

Verstraete, Alain G

2004-04-01

73

Comparison of human saliva and synthetic histo-blood group antigens usage as ligands in norovirus-like particle binding and blocking assays.  

PubMed

Blocking of norovirus-like particle binding to their cellular ligands, histo-blood group antigens with immune sera, is considered a surrogate norovirus neutralization assay. We compared human secretor positive saliva and synthetic biotinylated carbohydrates as a source of histo-blood group antigens in binding and blocking assays. Six norovirus capsid-derived virus-like particles belonging to genogroup I (GI-1-2001 and GI-3-2002) and genogroup II (GII-4-1999, GII-4-2010 New Orleans, GII-4-2012 Sydney and GII-12-1998) noroviruses were produced by a recombinant baculovirus expression system and binding profile to saliva type A, B and O and to synthetic antigens (A trimer, B trimer, H type 1, H type 3, Lewis(a) and Lewis(b)) was identified. Good correlation between virus-like particle binding to saliva type A and synthetic A trimer (r = 0.66, p < 0.05) and saliva type B and synthetic B trimer (r = 0.75, p < 0.05) was observed. Binding of each norovirus virus-like particle to the selected histo-blood group antigens was blocked by convalescent sera from NoV-infected subjects or type-specific mouse antisera. Our results support the use of either saliva or synthetic antigens in blocking assay to measure the ability of norovirus antisera to block virus-like particle binding to the carbohydrate ligands. PMID:24631874

Uusi-Kerttula, Hanni; Tamminen, Kirsi; Malm, Maria; Vesikari, Timo; Blazevic, Vesna

2014-06-01

74

The relationship of blood- and urine-boron to boron exposure in borax-workers and usefulness of urine-boron as an exposure marker.  

PubMed Central

Daily dietary-boron intake and on-the-job inspired boron were compared with blood- and urine-boron concentrations in workers engaged in packaging and shipping borax. Fourteen workers handling borax at jobs of low, medium, and high dust exposures were sampled throughout full shifts for 5 consecutive days each. Airborne borax concentrations ranged from means of 3.3 mg/m3 to 18 mg/m3, measured gravimetrically. End-of-shift mean blood-boron concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 0.26 microgram/g; end-of-shift mean urine concentrations ranged from 3.16 to 10.72 micrograms/mg creatinine. Creatinine measures were used to adjust for differences in urine-specific gravity such that 1 ml of urine contains approximately 1 mg creatinine. There was no progressive increase in end-of-shift blood- or urine-boron concentrations across the days of the week. Urine testing done at the end of the work shift gave a somewhat better estimate of borate exposure than did blood testing, was sampled more easily, and was analytically less difficult to perform. Personal air samplers of two types were used: one, the 37-mm closed-face, two-piece cassette to estimate total dust and the other, the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler to estimate inspirable particulate mass. Under the conditions of this study, the IOM air sampler more nearly estimated human exposure as measured by blood- and urine-boron levels than did the sampler that measured total dust.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7889874

Culver, B D; Shen, P T; Taylor, T H; Lee-Feldstein, A; Anton-Culver, H; Strong, P L

1994-01-01

75

Urine - bloody  

MedlinePLUS

... sickle cell, bleeding problems, and other blood disorders Urinalysis Urinary cytology Urine culture 24-hour urine collection ... the urologic patient: History, physical examination, and the urinalysis In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ...

76

[Blood and urine chromium: compared values between chromium exposed workers and common people].  

PubMed

Aim of present study is the valutation and quantification of chromium in blood and urine. We compared 3 groups of persons formed by building workers, in particular masons, because cement contains potassium chromate that is dangerous for health, and by common people: urban population and outside the town population. In fact, exposure to CrVI risk is high for people who live near chromate industries. We maked a medical examination, blood and instrumental tests, chromium measuring in blood (recent exposure indicator) and urine (recent and previous indicator). Then we used statistical methods to estimate obtained values of blood and urine chromium among professional exposed people and common people. At the end we think that preventive measures in working environment reduced exposure to CrVI but environmental exposure (for example road dust from catalytic converter erosion, from brake lining erosion, cement dust and tobacco smoke), in the last years, has increased. So there are no difference between urban population and outside the town population and there are also no difference with professional exposed people for work prevention according to law in force, that let down professional risk using safe limits. PMID:18700674

Provenzani, A; Verso, M G; Picciotto, D

2008-01-01

77

Detection of proline-rich proteins for the identification of saliva by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.  

PubMed

Saliva is one of the most common body fluids found at a crime scene. Therefore, identifying saliva is important in forensic science. However, the current protein marker assays used to identify saliva are not sufficiently specific. Although proline-rich proteins (PRPs) are highly specific for saliva, their forensic potential has not yet been investigated. In this study, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect acidic salivary PRP HaeIII subfamily 1/2 (PRH1/2) and basic salivary PRP 2 (PRB2). The specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency of the ELISAs for PRH1/2 and PRB2 were compared with those of the ELISA for statherin (STATH), a known protein marker for saliva. The levels of PRH1/2 were significantly higher in saliva and saliva stains than in other body fluids (nasal secretions, urine, semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and sweat). PRB2 and STATH were detected in both nasal secretions and saliva. The PRH1/2 ELISA showed sensitivity similar to that of STATH ELISA. The detection rate of PRH1/2 ELISA was almost similar to that of STATH ELISA, followed by the ELISA for PRB2. The PRH1/2 ELISA had higher specificity for saliva than STATH ELISA. Therefore, the PRH1/2 ELISA has potential as a method to identify saliva for forensic investigation. PMID:25616553

Igoh, Akihisa; Tomotake, Sho; Doi, Yusuke

2015-05-01

78

Polyamine profiles in tumor, normal tissue of the homologous breast, blood, and urine of breast cancer sufferers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamines are involved in the development of breast cancer. We assayed polyamines in erythrocytes, urines, and breast tissues (tumor tissue and histologically normal breast tissue close to the tumor) of patients with invasive breast cancer (n=174) and benign breast disease (n=71, used as controls). Polyamine levels in red blood cells and urine were similar to the polyamine concentrations found in

Jean Levêque; Fabrice Foucher; Jean-Yves Bansard; Rene Havouis; Jean-Yves Grall; Jacques-Philippe Moulinoux

2000-01-01

79

Changes in Natural Abundance Carbon Stable isotopes of Human Blood and Saliva After 24 Days of Controlled Carbohydrate Supplementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advent of corporate agriculture, large-scale economic decisions have given rise to unique global environmental effects. Emphasis on corn production results in dramatic changes in nitrogen and water cycling via the intensive cultivation practices necessary to support Zea mays (Tilman, 1998). In particular, consumption of corn derived food additive high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased more than 1000% since 1970 and may be associated with the epidemics of obesity and diabetes (Bray et al., 2004). Plausible mechanisms for an adverse effect of fructose load on glucose homeostasis have been proposed (Havel, 2005). The unusually heavy 13C signature of corn, as compared to other plants, offers the opportunity to develop a biomarker for sugar consumption. Among the many experiments that are needed to establish such a technique, the demonstration of change in 13C signature of human tissues with known change in carbohydrate consumption is foremost. Here we report on a controlled feeding study performed in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), to test the effect of supplementation of human diet with carbohydrate of known ?13C value. During this study, 13 individuals were fed a typical American diet (32% calories from fat, 15% calories from protein, 53% carbohydrate) for ~six months. Each participant was fed a random sequence of carbohydrate supplements (50 grams of supplement per day): 1. resistant maltodextrin (?13C = -10.59‰); 2. maltodextrin (?13C = -23.95‰); 3. a 50-50 mixture of the two (?13C = -15.94‰). After 24 days of feeding, subjects showed enrichment in blood serum that was significantly correlated (p = 0.0038) with the ?13C value of the supplement. However, blood clot and saliva showed no such correlation, suggesting that the half-lives of these substrates may render them unsuitable for carbohydrate dietary reconstruction over day-to-month timescales. All subjects of the study showed a net enrichment in the ?13C value of their blood and saliva relative to baseline: blood clot was enriched by 0.27‰; blood serum by 0.50‰ and saliva by 1.12‰. We believe this overall enrichment resulted from a 13C-enriched bulk diet (?13C = - 20.42‰) relative to the subjects free-living diet. Evidence for this derives from inspection of foods within the bulk diet provided, compared to published profiles of the typical American diet. We will discuss possible complicating factors, such as differential absorption and metabolism of the supplements according to solubility and caloric value. These results are encouraging for the development of a ?13C blood serum biomarker that, in the company of other tests, could be used to indicate a change in carbohydrate intake. Bray, G.A., Nielsen, S.J. and Popkin, B.M., 2004. Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79: 537-543. Havel, P.J., 2005. Dietary fructose: Implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrition Reviews, 63(5): 133-157. Tilman D., 1998. The greening of the green revolution. Nature, 396:211-212.

Kraft, R. A.; Jahren, A. H.; Baer, D. J.; Caballero, B.

2008-12-01

80

Extremes of urine osmolality - Lack of effect on red blood cell survival  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rats were allowed a third of normal water intake for 20 days, and food consumption decreased. The reticulocyte count indicated a suppression of erythropoiesis. Urine osmolality increased from 2,000 mosmol/kg to 3,390 mosmol/kg. Random hemolysis and senescence of a cohort of red blood cell (RBC) previously labeled with (2-(C-14)) glycine was monitored via the production of (C-14)O. Neither hemolysis nor senescence was affected. Following water restriction, the polydipsic rats generated a hypotonic urine. Urine osmolality decreased to 1,300 mosmol/kg for at least 6 days; a reticulocytosis occurred, but RBC survival was unaffected. These results contradict those previously reported, which suggest that RBC survival is influenced by the osmotic stress imposed on the RBC by extremes of urine tonicity. This discrepancy, it is concluded, is due to differences in the methods employed for measuring RBC survival. The random-labeling technique employed previously assumes a steady state between RBC production and destruction. The cohort-labeling technique used here measures hemolysis and senescence independent of changes in RBC production, which is known to be depressed by fasting.

Leon, H. A.; Fleming, J. E.

1980-01-01

81

Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

2012-01-01

82

Blood and urine concentrations of aluminium among workers exposed to aluminium flake powders.  

PubMed Central

In a group of workers exposed to aluminium flake powders, blood and urine concentrations of aluminium were assessed before and after vacation. Another group was investigated after retirement. Workers currently exposed to aluminium flake powders had urinary concentrations of the metal 80-90 times higher than those in occupationally non-exposed referents. The calculated half life for concentrations of aluminium in urine was five to six weeks based on four to five weeks of non-exposure. Among the retired workers the half lives varied from less than one up to eight years and were related to the number of years since retirement. These results indicate that aluminium is retained and stored in several compartments of the body and eliminated from these compartments at different rates. PMID:1998604

Ljunggren, K G; Lidums, V; Sjögren, B

1991-01-01

83

Determination of tetrahydrozoline in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

Tetrahydrozoline, a derivative of imidazoline, is widely used for the symptomatic relief of conjunctival and nasal congestion; however, intentional or unintentional high doses can result in toxicity manifested by hypotension, tachycardia, and CNS depression. The detection of the drug in blood and urine is helpful in the diagnosis and management of a toxic patient. For the analysis, plasma, serum, or urine is added to a tube containing alkaline buffer and organic extraction solvents, and tetrahydrozoline from the sample is extracted into the organic phase by gentle mixing. After centrifugation, the upper organic solvent layer containing the drug is removed and dried under stream of nitrogen at 40 degrees C. The residue is reconstituted in a hexane-ethanol mixture and analyzed using gas-chromatography-mass spectrometry. Quantitation of the drug is done by comparing responses of unknown sample to the responses of the calibrators using selected ion monitoring. Naphazoline is used as an internal standard. PMID:20077102

Peat, Judy; Garg, Uttam

2010-01-01

84

Detection of Leishmania siamensis DNA in Saliva by Polymerase Chain Reaction  

PubMed Central

Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Leishmania siamensis DNA from clinical samples collected from six leishmaniasis patients during 2011–2012. The samples used in this study came from bone marrow, blood, buffy coat, saliva, urine, and tissue biopsy specimens. Saliva was a good source for L. siamensis DNA by polymerase chain reaction. L. siamensis DNA was also found in saliva of an asymptomatic case-patient. Levels of L. siamensis DNA in saliva decreased until being undetectable after treatment. These levels could be used as a marker to evaluate efficacy of the treatment. A larger study is needed to evaluate this method as a screening and survey tool to study the silent background of Leishmania infection among the at-risk population. PMID:24062485

Phumee, Atchara; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Chusri, Sarunyou; Noppakun, Nopadon; Vibhagool, Asda; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Tampanya, Vich; Wilde, Henry; Siriyasatien, Padet

2013-01-01

85

Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in Saliva of Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are widely used in a variety of applications, and the potential exists for significant occupational and environmental exposures. They have been associated with more occupational poisoning cases than any other class of insecticides. One of the best approaches for accurately assessing human dosimetry and determining risk from both occupational and environmental exposure is biomonitoring. Biological matrices such as blood and urine have been routinely used for biomonitoring; however, other matrices such as saliva represent a simple and readily obtainable fluid. As a result, saliva has been suggested as an alternative biological matrix for the evaluation of a broad range of biomarkers such as environmental contaminants, drugs of abuse, hormones, chemotherapeutics, heavy metals, and pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), have been quantified in urine and blood as a biomarker for exposure to OP insecticides. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical approach for detecting and quantitating the levels of TCP in saliva obtained from rats exposed to CPF and to evaluate the potential of saliva as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix. Adult male rats were administered CPF, and blood and saliva were humanely collected for analysis of TCP and CPF. TCP was detected and quantitated in saliva using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Initial results indicate that saliva may be potentially utilized as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix to determine exposure to organophosphate insecticides.

Campbell, James A.; Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Wu, Hong; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Hoppe, Eric W.

2005-05-01

86

Genotyping of celiac disease-related-risk haplotypes using a closed-tube polymerase chain reaction analysis of dried blood and saliva disk samples.  

PubMed

Expansion of molecular diagnostics more widely into clinical routines requires simplified methods allowing automation. We developed a homogeneous, multilabel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on time-resolved fluorometry, and studied the use of dried disk samples in PCR. Celiac disease-related HLA-DQA1*05, HLA-DQB1*02, and HLA-DQB1*0302 genotyping was used to verify the method with blood and saliva samples dried on S&S 903 and IsoCode sample collection papers. Three sample preparation procedures, including manufacturer's manual elution, an automated elution, and direct use of disk samples, were compared using dried disk samples. The three procedures gave successful amplification and correct genotyping results. Owing to the simplicity of the direct use of disk samples in PCR, this method was chosen for the subsequent homogeneous analysis of blood (n=194) and saliva (n=30) disk samples on S&S 903 paper. The results revealed that, in addition to DNA samples (n=29), both blood and saliva disk samples were successfully amplified and genotyped using the homogeneous PCR assays for HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1. The homogeneous PCR assays developed provide a useful tool to genotype celiac disease-related HLA-DQA1*05, HLA-DQB1*02, and HLA-DQB1*0302 alleles. Furthermore, the method provides a direct way to perform a closed-tube PCR analysis of dried blood and saliva disk samples enabling simple automation. PMID:19111519

Ollikka, Pia; Raussi, Hanna-Mari; Laitala, Ville; Jaakkola, Lassi; Hovinen, Jari; Hemmilä, Ilkka; Ylikoski, Alice

2009-03-01

87

Genotyping of celiac disease-related-risk haplotypes using a closed-tube polymerase chain reaction analysis of dried blood and saliva disk samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expansion of molecular diagnostics more widely into clinical routines requires simplified methods allowing automation. We developed a homogeneous, multilabel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method based on time-resolved fluorometry, and studied the use of dried disk samples in PCR. Celiac disease-related HLA-DQA1*05, HLA-DQB1*02, and HLA-DQB1*0302 genotyping was used to verify the method with blood and saliva samples dried on S&S 903

Pia Ollikka; Hanna-Mari Raussi; Ville Laitala; Lassi Jaakkola; Jari Hovinen; Ilkka Hemmilä; Alice Ylikoski

2009-01-01

88

Amiloride lowers blood pressure and attenuates urine plasminogen activation in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension.  

PubMed

In conditions with albuminuria, plasminogen is aberrantly filtered across the glomerular barrier and activated along the tubular system to plasmin. In the collecting duct, plasmin activates epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) proteolytically. Hyperactivity of ENaC could link microalbuminuria/proteinuria to resistant hypertension. Amiloride, an ENaC inhibitor, inhibits urokinase-type plasminogen activator. We hypothesized that amiloride (1) reduces blood pressure (BP); (2) attenuates plasminogen-to-plasmin activation; and (3) inhibits urine urokinase-type plasminogen activator in patients with resistant hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).In an open-label, non-randomized, 8-week intervention study, a cohort (n = 80) of patients with resistant hypertension and T2DM were included. Amiloride (5 mg/d) was added to previous triple antihypertensive treatment (including a diuretic and an inhibitor of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system) and increased to 10 mg if BP control was not achieved at 4 weeks. Complete dataset for urine analysis was available in 60 patients. Systolic and diastolic BP measured by ambulatory BP monitoring and office monitoring were significantly reduced. Average daytime BP was reduced by 6.3/3.0 mm Hg. Seven of 80 cases (9%) discontinued amiloride due to hyperkalemia >5.5 mol/L, the most frequent adverse event. Urinary plasmin(ogen) and albumin excretions were significantly reduced after amiloride treatment (P < .0001). Urokinase activity was detectable in macroalbuminuric urine, with a tendency toward reduction in activity after amiloride treatment. Amiloride lowers BP, urine plasminogen excretion and activation, and albumin/creatinine ratio, and is a relevant add-on medication for the treatment of resistant hypertension in patients with T2DM and microalbuminuria. PMID:25492830

Oxlund, Christina S; Buhl, Kristian B; Jacobsen, Ib A; Hansen, Mie R; Gram, Jeppe; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Schousboe, Karoline; Tarnow, Lise; Jensen, Boye L

2014-12-01

89

Surveying Mercury Levels in Hair, Blood and Urine of under 7-Year Old Children from a Coastal City in China  

PubMed Central

Aim: The average mercury load in children under 7-years old was determined in a populated but not overly industrial coastal area in China. Methods: 395 blood samples, 1072 urine samples, and 581 hair samples were collected from 1076 children, aged 0 to 6 years, from eight representative communities of Xiamen, China. Mercury levels in the samples were surveyed. Results: The 95% upper limits of mercury in blood, urine, and hair for the children were 2.30, 1.50 and 2100.00 ?g/kg, respectively. Levels tended to increase with age. Correlation analyses showed that mercury levels in blood and urine correlated with those in hair (n = 132), r = 0.49, p < 0.0001 and r = 0.20, p = 0.0008; however, blood mercury levels did not correlate with urine levels (n = 284), r = 0.07, p = 0.35. Conclusions: Surveying the average mercury load in children 0 to 6 years, and the 95% upper limit value of mercury in their blood, urine, and hair should help guide risk assessment and health management for children. PMID:25419876

Chen, Guixia; Chen, Xiaoxin; Yan, Chonghuai; Wu, Xingdong; Zeng, Guozhang

2014-01-01

90

Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

1987-01-01

91

The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population  

SciTech Connect

Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 ?g/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 ?g/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ? The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ? Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ? There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ? Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 18–44 years, depending on model used. ? Previous data seem to underestimate kidney cadmium at low urinary cadmium.

Akerstrom, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.akerstrom@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Barregard, Lars [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

2013-05-01

92

A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.  

PubMed

Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. An understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. This study characterizes a blood meal-induced I. scapularis (Ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (S)), in-house referred to as IxscS-1E1. The hypothesis that ticks use serpins to evade the host's defense response to tick feeding is based on the assumption that tick serpins inhibit functions of protease mediators of the host's anti-tick defense response. Thus, it is significant that consistent with hallmark characteristics of inhibitory serpins, Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant IxscS-1E1 (rIxscS-1E1) can trap thrombin and trypsin in SDS- and heat-stable complexes, and reduce the activity of the two proteases in a dose-responsive manner. Additionally, rIxscS-1E1 also inhibited, but did not apparently form detectable complexes with, cathepsin G and factor Xa. Our data also show that rIxscS-1E1 may not inhibit chymotrypsin, kallikrein, chymase, plasmin, elastase and papain even at a much higher rIxscS-1E1 concentration. Native IxscS-1E1 potentially plays a role(s) in facilitating I. scapularis tick evasion of the host's hemostatic defense as revealed by the ability of rIxscS-1E1 to inhibit adenosine diphosphate- and thrombin-activated platelet aggregation, and delay activated partial prothrombin time and thrombin time plasma clotting in a dose-responsive manner. We conclude that native IxscS-1E1 is part of the tick saliva protein complex that mediates its anti-hemostatic, and potentially inflammatory, functions by inhibiting the actions of thrombin, trypsin and other yet unknown trypsin-like proteases at the tick-host interface. PMID:24583183

Ibelli, Adriana M G; Kim, Tae K; Hill, Creston C; Lewis, Lauren A; Bakshi, Mariam; Miller, Stephanie; Porter, Lindsay; Mulenga, Albert

2014-05-01

93

Brain–blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

PubMed Central

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632

2014-01-01

94

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites and bradyzoites in blood, urine, and brains of infected mice.  

PubMed Central

Different techniques for identifying Toxoplasma gondii were compared. PCR was used to amplify part of the major surface antigen P30 gene of T. gondii. Amplified-DNA detection with the DNA enzyme immunoassay (PCR-DEIA) was more sensitive than ethidium bromide staining after agarose gel electrophoresis and as sensitive as nested PCR. PCR-DEIA, using common enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods, avoids agarose gel electrophoresis for the identification of amplified products. T. gondii can also be detected with equal sensitivity in infected fibroblasts, but only after at least 8 days of cell culture. PCR-DEIA is thus recommended because of its sensitivity and convenience for detecting early parasitemia in the surveillance of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women and immunocompromised hosts. The courses of infection in mice infected with two strains of T. gondii were compared. Tachyzoites of the virulent strain T. gondii RH, killing the host in 4 days, were identified in urine specimens and blood samples of mice 24 to 94 h after inoculation but not in brains, but no antibodies were detected. After intraperitoneal inoculation with cysts of the low-level virulence Beverley strain of T. gondii, parasites were identified in blood samples 4 days later and up to 17 days (but not in urine specimens) and in the brain from day 6 through day 525. By ELISA, high antibody titers were found from day 11 to day 525, with parasitemia preceding the appearance of antibodies. The usefulness of PCR-DEIA tests in conjunction with the search for circulating antibodies for the early diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in humans is discussed. PMID:8914751

Nguyen, T D; de Kesel, M; Bigaignon, G; Hoet, P; Pazzaglia, G; Lammens, M; Delmee, M

1996-01-01

95

Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.  

PubMed

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

2014-10-01

96

Monitoring of occupational exposure to tetrachloroethene by analysis for unmetabolized tetrachloroethene in blood and urine in comparison with urinalysis for trichloroacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The present study was initiated to examine a quantitative relationship between tetrachloroethene (TETRA) in blood and urine\\u000a with TETRA in air, and to compare TETRA in blood or urine with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in urine as exposure markers. Methods: In total, 44?workers (exposed to TETRA during automated, continuous cloth-degreasing operations), and ten non-exposed subjects\\u000a volunteered to participate in the

K. Furuki; H. Ukai; S. Okamoto; S. Takada; T. Kawai; Y. Miyama; K. Mitsuyoshi; Z.-W. Zhang; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda

2000-01-01

97

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--HUMAN BIOLOGICAL MARKERS:BLOOD AND URINE SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSES (EOHSI-AP-209-040)  

EPA Science Inventory

This procedure describes the process for collecting and analyzing blood and urine samples. The presence of chemical contaminants in biological specimens such as blood, urine, and hair represent a measure of the internal dose or body burden for a given individual derived from the ...

98

Recovery of a Catalase-Negative Staphylococcus epidermidis Strain in Blood and Urine Cultures from a Patient with Pyelonephritis ?  

PubMed Central

This report describes a 60-year-old patient with bilateral nephrolithiasis. A catalase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis strain was recovered from both urine and blood cultures. Although rare, isolates of catalase-negative Staphylococcus spp., including Staphylococcus aureus, have been reported. Here, we describe the first report of a catalase-negative S. epidermidis strain. PMID:21900516

Kallstrom, George; Chang, Tom; Albertson, Marc; Morilla, Daniel; Fisher, Mark A.; Eberly, Bardwell

2011-01-01

99

IN VIVO KINETICS OF PHENYLGLUCURONIDE, A PHASE II CONJUGATE OF PHENOLE, IN BLOOD AND URINE OF RAINBOW TROUT  

EPA Science Inventory

The kinetics of phenylglucuronide (PG) in blood and urine of spinally-transected rainbow trout were investigated using microdialysis sampling techniques. Trout weighing 0.9 to 1.3 kg were dosed continuously with PG for an additional 48 h. PG could not be detected in expired branc...

100

Predictors, Including Blood, Urine, Anthropometry, and Nutritional Indices, of All-Cause Mortality among Institutionalized Individuals with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the life expectancy of people with intellectual disability (ID) increases, it is becoming necessary to understand factors affecting survival. However, predictors that are typically assessed among healthy people have not been examined. Predictors of all-cause mortality, including blood, urine, anthropometry, and nutritional indices, were…

Ohwada, Hiroko; Nakayama, Takeo; Tomono, Yuji; Yamanaka, Keiko

2013-01-01

101

Repeated Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Fly Saliva Induces Local Expression of Interferon-Inducible Genes Both at the Site of Injection in Mice and in Human Blood  

PubMed Central

During a blood meal, Lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit Leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. In experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic Leishmania species together with saliva. In contrast, pre-immunization with Lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co-inoculation of Lu. intermedia SGS and L. braziliensis. These data highlight potential unique features of both L. braziliensis and Lu. intermedia. In this study, we investigated the genes modulated by Lu. intermedia SGS immunization to understand their potential impact on the subsequent cutaneous immune response following inoculation of both SGS and L. braziliensis. The cellular recruitment and global gene expression profile was analyzed in mice repeatedly inoculated or not with Lu. intermedia. Microarray gene analysis revealed the upregulation of a distinct set of IFN-inducible genes, an immune signature not seen to the same extent in control animals. Of note this INF-inducible gene set was not induced in SGS pre-immunized mice subsequently co-inoculated with SGS and L. braziliensis. These data suggest the parasite prevented the upregulation of this Lu. intermedia saliva-related immune signature. The presence of these IFN-inducible genes was further analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from uninfected human individuals living in a L. braziliensis-endemic region of Brazil thus regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites. PBMCs were cultured in presence or absence of Lu. intermedia SGS. Using qRT-PCR we established that the IFN-inducible genes induced in the skin of SGS pre-immunized mice, were also upregulated by SGS in PBMCs from human individuals regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites, but not in PBMCs of control subjects. These data demonstrate that repeated exposure to Lu. intermedia SGS induces the expression of potentially host-protective IFN-inducible genes. PMID:24421912

Weinkopff, Tiffany; de Oliveira, Camila I.; de Carvalho, Augusto M.; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Muniz, Aline C.; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne

2014-01-01

102

Human C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) in blood and urine — Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay method and its clinical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A double-antibody radioimmunoassay method, using synthetic human connecting peptide as an immunizing antigen and standard, was evaluated for clinical assay of blood and urine samples. Normal fasting blood connecting peptide immunoreacivity (CPR) was 2.45±0.96 ng\\/ml, increasing promptly after a 50 g oral glucose load, but somewhat slower than insulin. Molar concentration of CPR exceeded that of insulin. CPR responses to

T. Kuzuya; A. Matsuda; T. Saito; S. Yoshida

1976-01-01

103

Uric acid - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

104

Rapid Antemortem Detection of CWD Prions in Deer Saliva  

PubMed Central

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

Haley, Nicholas J.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Nalls, Amy V.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A.

2013-01-01

105

Heparanase levels are elevated in the urine and plasma of type 2 diabetes patients and associate with blood glucose levels.  

PubMed

Heparanase is an endoglycosidase that specifically cleaves heparan sulfate side chains of heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Utilizing an ELISA method capable of detection and quantification of heparanase, we examined heparanase levels in the plasma and urine of a cohort of 29 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 14 T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, and 47 healthy volunteers. We provide evidence that heparanase levels in the urine of T2DM patients are markedly elevated compared to healthy controls (1162 ± 181 vs. 156 ± 29.6 pg/ml for T2DM and healthy controls, respectively), increase that is statistically highly significant (P<0.0001). Notably, heparanase levels were appreciably decreased in the urine of T2DM patients who underwent kidney transplantation, albeit remained still higher than healthy individuals (P<0.0001). Increased heparanase levels were also found in the plasma of T2DM patients. Importantly, urine heparanase was associated with elevated blood glucose levels, implying that glucose mediates heparanase upregulation and secretion into the urine and blood. Utilizing an in vitro system, we show that insulin stimulates heparanase secretion by kidney 293 cells, and even higher secretion is observed when insulin is added to cells maintained under high glucose conditions. These results provide evidence for a significant involvement of heparanase in diabetic complications. PMID:21364956

Shafat, Itay; Ilan, Neta; Zoabi, Samih; Vlodavsky, Israel; Nakhoul, Farid

2011-01-01

106

PFOS and PFOA in paired urine and blood from general adults and pregnant women: assessment of urinary elimination.  

PubMed

Although levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in human blood are well documented, information on elimination of these chemicals is limited. In this study, PFOS and PFOA were analyzed in 81 whole blood-urine paired samples from general adults and pregnant women in Tianjin, China. PFOS and PFOA were detected in 48 and 76 % of adult urine (AU) samples, with geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 0.011 and 0.008 ng/mL, respectively; whereas relatively low PFOS and PFOA concentrations were found in maternal urine (MU) samples, with GM concentrations of 0.006 and 0.003 ng/mL, respectively. For PFOA, the coefficients of Pearson's correlation between whole blood concentrations and creatinine-adjusted and creatinine-unadjusted urinary concentrations were 0.348 (p?=?0.013) and 0.417 (p?=?0.002), respectively. The GM urinary elimination rates of PFOS (PFOSUER) and PFOA (PFOAUER) were 16 and 25 %, respectively, for adults. These results indicate that urine is an important pathway of excretion of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The partitioning ratios of PFAS concentration between urine and whole blood (PFASU/B) in pregnant women (PFOSU/B, 0.0004; PFOAU/B, 0.0011) were significantly lower (p?=?0.025 for PFOSU/B, p?=?0.017 for PFOAU/B) than the ratios found in non-pregnant women (PFOSU/B, 0.0013; PFOAU/B, 0.0028). Furthermore, our results suggest a clear gender difference in the urinary elimination of PFOA, with male adults (31 %) having significantly higher PFOAUER than that of female adults (19 %). PFOSUER was significantly inversely correlated with age (r?=?-0.334, p?=?0.015); these findings suggest that urinary elimination of PFOS is faster in young adults than in the elderly. PMID:25367642

Zhang, Tao; Sun, Hongwen; Qin, Xiaolei; Gan, Zhiwei; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2015-04-01

107

Analysis of total arsenic in urine and blood by high speed anodic stripping voltammetry.  

PubMed

A method for the measurement of parts per billion levels of total arsenic in urine and blood is described. Samples are wet ashed with a mixture of HNO3, HCIO4, and H2SO4 acids. Ashed materials are subjected to a reductillationTM procedure to reduce As (V) to As (III) and to separate arsenic from the sample matrix. Collected arsenic is then quantitated by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) at a gold film electrode. ASV analysis time is only 2 minutes. By simultaneous reductillation of 4 samples, ppb arsenic determinations can be accomplished at a rate of about 12 per hour. The method is as accurate, precise and reliable at the nanogram level as the more universally accepted colorimetric techniques are at the microgram and milligram levels. For replicate analysis of real samples, method precision ranged from +/- 1.4 ppb at the 5 ppb level to +/- 0.96 ppb at the 25 ppb level. Accuracy is estimated at +/- 6% over the range 5 to 500 ppb arsenic. PMID:685828

Davis, P H; Berlandi, F J; Dullude, G R; Griffin, R M; Matson, W R; Zink, E W

1978-06-01

108

Optimized siRNA-PEG Conjugates for Extended Blood Circulation and Reduced Urine Excretion in Mice  

PubMed Central

Some of the main concerns with in vivo application of naked small interfering RNA are rapid degradation and urinary excretion resulting in a short plasma half-life. In this study we investigated how conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with variable chain length affects siRNA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The PEG chains were conjugated to chemically stabilized siRNA at the 5' terminal end of the passenger strand using click chemistry. The siRNA conjugate remained functionally active and showed significantly prolonged circulation in the blood stream after intravenous injection. siRNA conjugated with 20kDa PEG (PEG20k-siRNA) was most persistent, approximately 50% PEG20k-siRNA remained 1h post-injection, while the uncoupled siRNA was rapidly removed >90% at 15min. In vivo fluorescent imaging of the living animal showed increased concentration of siRNA in peripheral tissue and delayed urine excretion when coupled to PEG 20k. Biodistribution studies by northern blotting revealed equal distribution of conjugated siRNA in liver, kidney, spleen and lung without significant degradation 24 h post-injection. Our study demonstrates that PEG conjugated siRNA can be applied as a delivery system to improve siRNA bioavailability in vivo and may potentially increase the efficiency of siRNA in therapeutic applications. PMID:23471415

Iversen, Frank; Yang, Chuanxu; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Schaffert, David H.; Kjems, Jørgen; Gao, Shan

2013-01-01

109

Urine - abnormal color  

MedlinePLUS

The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine may be cloudy, dark, or blood-colored. ... Abnormal urine color may be caused by infection, disease, medicines, or food you eat. Cloudy or milky urine is a sign ...

110

Blood and urine responses to ingesting fluids of various salt and glucose concentrations. [to combat orthostatic intolerance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To compensate for the reduced blood and fluid volumes that develop during weightlessness, the Space Shuttle crewmembers consume salt tablets and water equivalent to 1 l of normal saline, about 2 hrs before landing. This paper compares the effects on blood, urine, and cardiovascular variables of the ingestion of 1 l of normal (0.9 percent) saline with the effects of distilled water, 1 percent glucose, 0.74 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, 0.9 percent saline with 1 percent glucose, and 1.07 percent saline. It was found that the expansion of plasma volume and the concentration of urine were greater 4 hrs after ingestion of 1.07 percent saline solution than after ingestion of normal saline and that the solutions containig glucose did not enhance any variables as compared with normal saline.

Frey, Mary A.; Riddle, Jeanne; Charles, John B.; Bungo, Michael W.

1991-01-01

111

A reproducible gas chromatographic mass spectrometric assay for low levels of methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in blood and urine.  

PubMed

A rapid, sensitive method of analysis for methylphenidate and ritalinic acid in blood and urine has been developed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring for separation and detection. The methylphenidate is isolated by solvent extraction into chloroform and the ritalinic acid is isolated by salting out into isopropyl alcohol, followed by methylation and subsequent solvent extraction. The method has been applied to the study of methylphenidate metabolism and excretion in adults and hyperactive children undergoing treatment with methylphenidate. PMID:1131389

Milberg, R M; Rinehart, K L; Sprague, R L; Sleator, E K

1975-02-01

112

Statistical analysis of dietary mineral intake, blood serum, and urine constituents in the occurrence of urolithiasis in sheep  

E-print Network

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS UF DIETARY MINERAL INTAKE, BLOOD SERUM, AND URINE CONSTITUENTS IN THE OCCLIRRENCE OI= UROLITHIASIS IN SHEEP A Thesis By NILLIAM OTTO LAMPRECHT, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial... By WILLIAM OTTO LAMPRECHT, JR. Approved as to styi nd content by: (Head of Committee and Hea of Department) , P. r, (Member) (Member) Member) January 1967 42. 5 2, 0 0 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to express his sincere appreciation...

Lamprecht, William Otto

1967-01-01

113

Comparative evaluation of blood and urine analysis as a tool for biological monitoring of n -hexane and toluene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Blood and urine samples were collected from 57 male Japanese solvent workers [exposed to n-hexane (Hex-A), ethyl acetate, and toluene (Tol-A) at 1.5, 2.3, and 2.3 ppm as GM-TWA, respectively] and also from 20 male nonexposed workers at the end of a 8-h shift, and analyzed for n-hexane (Hex-B) and toluene (Tol-B) in blood, and n-hexane (Hex-U), toluene (Tol-U),

Toshio Kawail; Tomojiro Yasugil; Kazunori Mizunuma; Shun'ichi Horiguchi; Masayuki Ikeda

1993-01-01

114

The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez

2013-01-01

115

Testing for drugs of abuse in saliva and sweat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of marijuana, cocaine, opiates, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, PCP, alcohol and nicotine in saliva and sweat is reviewed, with emphasis on forensic applications. The short window of detection and lower levels of drugs present compared to levels found in urine limits the applications of sweat and saliva screening for drug use determination. However, these matrices may be applicable for

David A. Kidwell; Janel C. Holland; Sotiris Athanaselis

1998-01-01

116

Metals in blood and urine, and thyroid function among adults in the United States 2007-2008.  

PubMed

The thyroid is integral to regulation of development and metabolism. Certain metals have been shown to affect thyroid function in occupationally exposed persons, but few studies have been conducted in the general population. This study evaluates the association between biomarkers of metal exposure and thyroid hormones in the US population. Analyses included adults participating in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, with no history of thyroid disease or use of thyroid medications, and with data on metals in blood (lead, cadmium and mercury) and urine (lead, cadmium, mercury, barium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, antimony, thallium, tungsten and uranium), and thyroid hormones (TSH, free and total T3 and T4) in serum (N=1587). Multivariate linear regression was used to model the association between thyroid hormone levels, and metals in either urine (creatinine-adjusted) or blood. Metal concentrations were considered as both continuous and categorical variables. Models were adjusted for: age, sex, race, BMI, serum lipids, serum cotinine, pregnancy and menopausal status, and use of selected medications. Few participants (<5%) had free T3, free T4, or TSH levels outside the reference range. However, 9.2% (SE=1.2%) had low T3 and 9.4% (SE=1.1%) had low T4. Metals were detected in nearly all blood and urine samples, with the highest levels seen for urinary molybdenum (median 42.5?g/L). When including all blood metals, mercury was associated with decreases in T3 and T4, while cadmium was associated with decreased TSH. Urinary cadmium was associated with increases in both T3 and T4 (models including all metals measured in urine). Urinary thallium and barium were associated with decreased T4 (both) and T3 (barium). For TSH, cesium was associated with decreased, and tungsten with increased levels. Given the high prevalence of exposure to metals, associations of the size reported here could indicate an appreciable contribution of metals exposure to the prevalence of thyroid disorders. These findings indicate the importance of further research to further examine these relationships. PMID:23044211

Yorita Christensen, Krista L

2013-11-01

117

RBC urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

118

Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones

2003-01-01

119

A simple {sup 197}Hg RNAA procedure for the determination of mercury in urine, blood, and tissue  

SciTech Connect

Mercury has been implicated as a causal agent in such central nervous system diseases as Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s. Consequently, there has been increased interest in the determination of ultra-trace-level mercury in biological matrices, especially in tissue. While such nonnuclear techniques as cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry have been employed routinely for mercury determinations in urine and blood, there is a paucity of nonnuclear techniques for the determination of mercury in the low parts-per-billion range in biological tissue. As pointed out by Fardy and Warner, instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) require no blank determinations in contrast to nonnuclear analytical techniques employing digestion and/or chemical operations. Therefore, INAA and RNAA become the obvious choices for determination of ultra-trace levels of mercury in tissue. Most separation methods reported in the literature require different and separate methodologies for mercury determinations in urine, blood, or tissue. The purposes of this study are to develop a single methodology for the determination of low levels of mercury in all biological matrices by RNAA and to optimize parameters necessary for an efficacious trace-level determination. Previously, few studies have taken into account the effects of the Szilard-Chalmers reactions of the radioactivatable analyte within a biological matrix. It also would appear that little attention has been given to the optimum postirradiation carrier concentration of the analyte species necessary. This study discusses these various considerations.

Blotcky, A.J. [VA Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Rack, E.P.; Meade, A.G. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

120

Diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by detection of viral DNA in dried blood spots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The reference method of cytomegalovirus (CMV) isolation from urine or saliva is not a feasible routine technique for all newborns, and laboratory diagnosis of this infection would be useful both for epidemiological purposes and to enable prompt institution of adequate measures to identify and correct late sequelae. Extraction and amplification of viral DNA from dried blood spots (DBS) collected

Maria Barbi; Sandro Binda; Valeria Primache; Cristina Luraschi; Carlo Corbetta

1996-01-01

121

A quantitative phenytoin GC-MS method and its validation for samples from human ex situ brain microdialysis, blood and saliva using solid-phase extraction.  

PubMed

This study describes the development and validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method to identify and quantitate phenytoin in brain microdialysate, saliva and blood from human samples. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) was performed with a nonpolar C8-SCX column. The eluate was evaporated with nitrogen (50°C) and derivatized with trimethylsulfonium hydroxide before GC-MS analysis. As the internal standard, 5-(p-methylphenyl)-5-phenylhydantoin was used. The MS was run in scan mode and the identification was made with three ion fragment masses. All peaks were identified with MassLib. Spiked phenytoin samples showed recovery after SPE of ?94%. The calibration curve (phenytoin 50 to 1,200 ng/mL, n = 6, at six concentration levels) showed good linearity and correlation (r² > 0.998). The limit of detection was 15 ng/mL; the limit of quantification was 50 ng/mL. Dried extracted samples were stable within a 15% deviation range for ?4 weeks at room temperature. The method met International Organization for Standardization standards and was able to detect and quantify phenytoin in different biological matrices and patient samples. The GC-MS method with SPE is specific, sensitive, robust and well reproducible, and is therefore an appropriate candidate for the pharmacokinetic assessment of phenytoin concentrations in different human biological samples. PMID:23325763

Hösli, Raphael; Tobler, Andrea; König, Stefan; Mühlebach, Stefan

2013-03-01

122

Immunoelectrophoresis - urine  

MedlinePLUS

Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - urine; Gamma globulin electrophoresis - urine; Urine immunoglobulin electrophoresis; IEP - urine ... is used to measure the amounts of various immunoglobulins in urine. Most often, it is done after ...

123

The relationship between body iron stores and blood and urine cadmium concentrations in US never-smoking, non-pregnant women aged 20-49 years  

SciTech Connect

Background: Cadmium is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant associated with increased risk of leading causes of mortality and morbidity in women, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. Iron deficiency increases absorption of dietary cadmium, rendering women, who tend to have lower iron stores than men, more susceptible to cadmium uptake. We used body iron, a measure that incorporates both serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, as recommended by the World Health Organization, to evaluate the relationships between iron status and urine and blood cadmium. Methods: Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, urine and blood cadmium values in never-smoking, non-pregnant, non-lactating, non-menopausal women aged 20-49 years (n=599) were obtained from the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor, and iron deficiency defined as body iron <0 mg/kg. Robust linear regression was used to evaluate the relationships between body iron and blood and urine cadmium, adjusted for age, race, poverty, body mass index, and parity. Results: Per incremental (mg/kg) increase in body iron, urine cadmium decreased by 0.003 {mu}g/g creatinine and blood cadmium decreased by 0.014 {mu}g/L. Iron deficiency was associated with 0.044 {mu}g/g creatinine greater urine cadmium (95% CI=0.020, 0.069) and 0.162 {mu}g/L greater blood cadmium (95% CI=0.132, 0.193). Conclusions: Iron deficiency is a risk factor for increased blood and urine cadmium among never-smoking, pre-menopausal, non-pregnant US women, independent of age, race, poverty, body mass index and parity. Expanding programs to detect and correct iron deficiency among non-pregnant women merits consideration as a potential means to reduce the risk of cadmium associated diseases. - Highlights: {yields} Body iron was calculated from serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor. {yields} Body iron was inversely associated with blood and urine cadmium in US women. {yields} Inverse associations with blood cadmium were evident in all race/ethnic subsamples. {yields} Inverse associations with urine cadmium were evident in women of other/multi-race. {yields} Black women had lower mean body iron compared to white women.

Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, NY (United States) and Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States); Chen, John J.; Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University, Z-8036, Level 3, HSC, Stony Brook, NY 11794-8036 (United States)

2011-07-15

124

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Testing by Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent and Western Blot Assays Using Serum, Gingival-Crevicular Transudate, and Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible utilization of saliva and urine as alternative samples to serum for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A total of 302 individuals participated in the study: 187 HIV-infected individuals (106 had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] stage II infection, 19 had CDC stage III infection, and 62 had CDC stage IV infection) and 115 noninfected persons (46 of the noninfected persons were blood donors and 69 belonged to a group at high risk of HIV infection). Paired saliva and urine samples were taken from each of the participants in the study. The presence of HIV-specific antibodies was detected by an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and the result was confirmed by Western blot analysis (WB). The ELFA with saliva gave maximum sensitivity and specificity values, while ELFA had lower sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (97.4%) values for detection of HIV antibody in urine samples. WB with all saliva samples fulfilled the World Health Organization criterion for positivity, while only 96.8% of the urine samples were confirmed to be positive by WB. Among the four reactivity patterns found by WB of these alternative samples, the most frequent included bands against three groups of HIV structural proteins (was ENV, POL, and GAG). The reactivity bands most frequently observed were those for the proteins gp160 and gp120. The least common reactivity band was the band for protein p17. The detection of HIV antibodies in saliva samples by means of ELFA with the possibility of later confirmation by WB makes saliva an alternative to serum for possible use in the diagnosis of infection. In contrast, HIV antibody detection in urine samples by the same methodology (ELFA) could be taken into consideration for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:10074532

Martínez, Prudencio Martínez; Torres, Antonio Rodríguez; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raul; Montoya, Ana; Martín, José Francisco; Eiros, José María

1999-01-01

125

Human immunodeficiency virus antibody testing by enzyme-linked fluorescent and western blot assays using serum, gingival-crevicular transudate, and urine samples.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible utilization of saliva and urine as alternative samples to serum for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A total of 302 individuals participated in the study: 187 HIV-infected individuals (106 had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] stage II infection, 19 had CDC stage III infection, and 62 had CDC stage IV infection) and 115 noninfected persons (46 of the noninfected persons were blood donors and 69 belonged to a group at high risk of HIV infection). Paired saliva and urine samples were taken from each of the participants in the study. The presence of HIV-specific antibodies was detected by an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and the result was confirmed by Western blot analysis (WB). The ELFA with saliva gave maximum sensitivity and specificity values, while ELFA had lower sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (97. 4%) values for detection of HIV antibody in urine samples. WB with all saliva samples fulfilled the World Health Organization criterion for positivity, while only 96.8% of the urine samples were confirmed to be positive by WB. Among the four reactivity patterns found by WB of these alternative samples, the most frequent included bands against three groups of HIV structural proteins (was ENV, POL, and GAG). The reactivity bands most frequently observed were those for the proteins gp160 and gp120. The least common reactivity band was the band for protein p17. The detection of HIV antibodies in saliva samples by means of ELFA with the possibility of later confirmation by WB makes saliva an alternative to serum for possible use in the diagnosis of infection. In contrast, HIV antibody detection in urine samples by the same methodology (ELFA) could be taken into consideration for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:10074532

Martínez, P M; Torres, A R; Ortiz de Lejarazu, R; Montoya, A; Martín, J F; Eiros, J M

1999-04-01

126

Measuring cortisol in hair and saliva from dogs: coat color and pigment differences.  

PubMed

Cortisol concentrations are frequently measured from a variety of sources including blood, saliva, urine, and feces to quantify stress in dogs. However, a need still exists for less intrusive collection methods in domestic animals and for more efficient means of measuring basal cortisol. The objectives of the present study were to minimize restraint for saliva sampling, to validate hair for basal cortisol measurement in dogs, and to determine concentrations of cortisol within the hair shaft and in relation to hair color. Using food luring, 79% of dogs required no restraint for saliva collection. Salivary and hair cortisol concentrations were positively correlated (P = 0.001), thus validating hair as a medium for basal cortisol quantification. Black dogs had less cortisol than nonblack dogs (P = 0.039) in hair, but not saliva. Across dogs, the average amount of cortisol did not differ between proximal and distal hair sections (P = 0.348). However, for 7 of the 9 dogs, more cortisol was present in the distal portions of the hair. We observed a difference in cortisol concentrations among hairs of different colors from individual dogs (P = 0.001). From the same 7 x 7 cm ischiatic patch from the same dog, black (eumelanin) hairs were consistently lower in cortisol than yellow (pheomelanin) hairs, and cortisol concentrations of agouti hairs were intermediate. This is the first evidence that hair of different colors might sequester cortisol differently. PMID:20705413

Bennett, A; Hayssen, V

2010-10-01

127

Lithium and sodium in blood plasma and urine of fish and mammals of Lake Baikal  

SciTech Connect

The lithium concentration in body fluids was measured by the massspectrometric technique of isotope dilution in certain species of fish and seals, and also in water from Lake Baikal. The concentration of lithium in the urine of all studied animals was higher than that of sodium in plasma. Appreciable differences were found between Li/sup +/ and Na/sup +/ ions in the exchange between organism and environment in Lake Baikal fish: The Li/Na ratio in plasma was 10- and 100-fold lower than in water. Discrimination between these ions occurred both during their entry into the body (transport through bills) and during their elimination via the kidneys.

Putintseva, V.A.; Fleishman, D.G.

1984-07-01

128

Levels of metals in the blood and specific porphyrins in the urine in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of metals in blood (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg)), as well as the specific porphyrin levels in the urine of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with patients with other neurological disorders. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (N?=?52, average age?=?6.2 years) and a control group of children with other neurological disorders (N?=?22, average age?=?6.6 years), matched in terms of intellectual abilities (Mann-Whitney U?=?565.0, p?=?0.595). Measurement of metals in blood was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry, while the HPLC method via a fluorescence detector was used to test urinary porphyrin levels. Results were compared across groups using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, a generalized linear model was used to establish the impact of group membership on the blood Cu/Zn ratio. In terms of blood levels of metals, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, compared to the control group, ASD group had significantly elevated blood Cu/Zn ratio (Wald ? (2)?=?6.6, df?=?1, p?=?0.010). Additionally, no significant difference between the groups was found in terms of uroporphyrin I, heptacarboxyporphyrin I, hexacarboxyporphyrin and pentacarboxyporphyrin I. However, the levels of coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were lower in the ASD group compared to the controls. Due to observed higher Cu/Zn ratio, it is suggested to test blood levels of Zn and Cu in all autistic children and give them a Zn supplement if needed. PMID:25234471

Macedoni-Lukši?, Marta; Gosar, David; Bjørklund, Geir; Oražem, Jasna; Kodri?, Jana; Lešnik-Musek, Petra; Zupan?i?, Mirjana; France-Štiglic, Alenka; Sešek-Briški, Alenka; Neubauer, David; Osredkar, Joško

2015-02-01

129

Comparison of internal dose measures of solvents in breath, blood and urine and genotoxic changes in aircraft maintenance personnel.  

PubMed

Solvents and fuels are in widespread use both in civilian and military populations. 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), xylene, toluene, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methylene chloride are found in a variety of compounds including degreasing agents, paints, coatings, pesticides and paint strippers. Toluene and xylene are also found in fuels, which are complex mixtures of hundreds of agents. The purpose of this investigation was twofold. The first was to determine the optimum medium to measure internal dose of solvents comparing blood, urine and breath. The second was to determine if low level exposures were associated with genotoxic changes after a short-term exposure of fifteen or thirty weeks. To accomplish the first goal a pilot study was initiated involving eight volunteers who worked in aircraft maintenance including sheet metal, painting and assembly mechanic jobs. Industrial hygiene measurements were evaluated over 30 working days. Breath, blood and a 24-hour urine sample were collected twice to compare internal dose parameters. To achieve the second goal, 58 newly hired subjects were monitored prior to exposure and over 30 weeks to determine if there were genotoxic changes as a result of solvent and/or fuel exposure as measured by sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and micronuclei (MN). Exposure groups included workers involved in sheet metal (fuel cell) activities, painting, fueling operations and flight line. Results of the pilot study demonstrated that industrial hygiene air samples and internal breath measures taken on the same day were highly correlated for measuring TCA (r = 0.93) and toluene (r = 0.90) but was not as well correlated for the other compounds. Breath measures were more sensitive for measuring low level exposure than were either analytes in blood or 24-hour urine samples; these latter two measures were usually below the limit of detection. A small but statistically significant increase in the frequency of SCEs occurred after 30 weeks of exposure for sheet metal workers (p = 0.003) and for painters (p = 0.05). The MN frequency in the sheet metal workers initially showed a significant increase by 15 weeks, but by 30 weeks had decreased. Chance occurrence of exposures to other occupational or non-occupational agents can not be eliminated as a cause of the genotoxic results since between 58 and 93 total analytes could be found in the breath of some aircraft maintenance personnel. PMID:10189578

Lemasters, G K; Lockey, J E; Olsen, D M; Selevan, S G; Tabor, M W; Livingston, G K; New, G R

1999-02-01

130

Carbon isotopes profiles of human whole blood, plasma, red blood cells, urine and feces for biological/biomedical 14C-accelerator mass spectrometry applications.  

PubMed

Radiocarbon ((14)C) is an ideal tracer for in vivo human ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination) and PBPK (physiological-based pharmacokinetic) studies. Living plants peferentially incorporate atmospheric (14)CO(2) versus (13)CO(2) versus (12)CO(2), which result in unique signature. Furthermore, plants and the food chains they support also have unique carbon isotope signatures. Humans, at the top of the food chain, consequently acquire isotopic concentrations in the tissues and body fluids depending on their dietary habits. In preparation of ADME and PBPK studies, 12 healthy subjects were recruited. The human baseline (specific to each individual and their diet) total carbon (TC) and carbon isotope (13)C (?(13)C) and (14)C (F(m)) were quantified in whole blood (WB), plasma, washed red blood cell (RBC), urine, and feces. TC (mg of C/100 ?L) in WB, plasma, RBC, urine, and feces were 11.0, 4.37, 7.57, 0.53, and 1.90, respectively. TC in WB, RBC, and feces was higher in men over women, P < 0.05. Mean ?(13)C were ranked low to high as follows: feces < WB = plasma = RBC = urine, P < 0.0001. ?(13)C was not affected by gender. Our analytic method shifted ?(13)C by only ±1.0 ‰ ensuring our F(m) measurements were accurate and precise. Mean F(m) were ranked low to high as follows: plasma = urine < WB = RBC = feces, P < 0.05. F(m) in feces was higher for men over women, P < 0.05. Only in WB, (14)C levels (F(m)) and TC were correlated with one another (r = 0.746, P < 0.01). Considering the lag time to incorporate atmospheric (14)C into plant foods (vegetarian) and or then into animal foods (nonvegetarian), the measured F(m) of WB in our population (recruited April 2009) was 1.0468 ± 0.0022 (mean ± SD), and the F(m) of WB matched the (extrapolated) atmospheric F(m) of 1.0477 in 2008. This study is important in presenting a procedure to determine a baseline for a study group for human ADME and PBPK studies using (14)C as a tracer. PMID:21452856

Kim, Seung-Hyun; Chuang, Jennifer C; Kelly, Peter B; Clifford, Andrew J

2011-05-01

131

Stability study of the designer drugs "MDA, MDMA and MDEA" in water, serum, whole blood, and urine under various storage temperatures.  

PubMed

A controlled study was undertaken to determine the stability of the designer drugs MDA, MDMA and MDEA in pooled serum, whole blood, water and urine samples over a period of 21 weeks. The concentrations of the individual designer drugs in the various matrices were monitored over time, in the dark at various temperatures (-20, 4 or 20 degrees C), for a low (+/- 6 ng/ml for water, serum and whole blood and +/- 150 ng/ml for urine) and a high concentration level (+/- 550 ng/ml for water, serum and whole blood and +/- 2500 ng/ml for urine). Compound concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC assay with fluorescence detection. Our study demonstrated no significant loss of the designer drugs in water and urine at any of the investigated temperatures for 21 weeks. The same results were observed in serum for up to 17 weeks, and up to 5 weeks in whole blood. After that time, the compounds could no longer be analyzed due to matrix degradation, especially in the low concentration samples that were stored at room temperature. This study demonstrates that the designer drugs, MDA, MDMA and MDEA are stable when stored at -20 degrees C for 21 weeks, even in haemolysed whole blood. PMID:11741758

Clauwaert, K M; Van Bocxlaer, J F; De Leenheer, A P

2001-12-15

132

Speciation of platinum in blood plasma and urine by micelle-mediated extraction and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A highly sensitive and selective technique for the speciation of platinum by cloud point extraction prior to determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was described. The separation of Pt(II) from Pt(IV) was performed in the presence of 4-(p-chlorophenyl)-1-(pyridin-2-yl)thiosemicarbazide (HCPTS) as chelating agent and Triton X-114 as a non-ionic surfactant. The extraction of Pt(II)-HCPTS complex needs temperature higher than the cloud point temperature of Triton X-114 and pH = 7, while Pt(IV) remains in the aqueous phase. The Pt(II) in the surfactant phase was analyzed by GFAAS, and the concentration of Pt(IV) was calculated by subtraction of Pt(II) from total platinum which was directly determined by GFAAS. The effect of pH, concentration of chelating agent, surfactant, and equilibration temperature were investigated. An enrichment factor of 42 was obtained for the preconcentration of Pt(II) with 50 mL solution. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the calibration curve was linear up to 30 ?gL(-1) with detection limit of 0.08 ?gL(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 1.8%. No considerable interference was observed due to the presence of coexisting anions and cations. The accuracy of the results was verified by analyzing different spiked samples (tap water, blood plasma and urine). The proposed method was applied to the speciation analysis of Pt in blood plasma and urine with satisfactory results. PMID:23669311

Mortada, Wael I; Hassanien, Mohammed M; El-Asmy, Ahmed A

2013-10-01

133

Simultaneous determination of morphine, codeine and 6-acetyl morphine in human urine and blood samples using direct aqueous derivatisation: validation and application to real cases.  

PubMed

Opiates play a relevant role in forensic toxicology and their assay in urine or blood is usually performed for example in workplace drug-testing or toxicological investigation of drug impaired driving. The present work describes two new methods for detecting morphine, codeine and 6-monoacethyl morphine in human urine or blood using a single step derivatisation in aqueous phase. Propyl chloroformate is used as the dramatizing agent followed by liquid-liquid extraction and gas-chromatography-mass spectroscopy to detect the derivatives. The methods have been validated both for hydrolysed and unhydrolysed urine. For hydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 2.5ng/ml and 8.5ng/ml for codeine, and 5.2ng/ml and 15.1ng/ml for morphine, respectively. For unhydrolysed urine, the LOD and LOQ were 3.0ng/ml and 10.1ng/ml for codeine, 2.7ng/ml and 8.1ng/ml for morphine, 0.8ng/ml and 1.5ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. In blood, the LOD and LOQ were 0.44ng/ml and 1.46ng/ml for codeine, 0.29ng/ml and 0.98ng/ml for morphine, 0.15ng/ml and 0.51ng/ml for 6-monoacetyl morphine, respectively. The validated methods have been applied to 50 urine samples and 40 blood samples (both positive and negative) and they can be used in routine analyses. PMID:24491926

Chericoni, S; Stefanelli, F; Iannella, V; Giusiani, M

2014-02-15

134

Practical and quality-control aspects of multi-element analysis with quadrupole ICP–MS with special attention to urine and whole blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two screening methods were developed for rapid analysis of a great number of urine and blood samples within the framework of an exposure check of the population after a firework explosion. A total of 56 elements was measured including major elements. Sample preparation consisted of simple dilution. Extensive quality controls were applied including element addition and the use of certified

Jan L. M. de Boer; Rob Ritsema; Sjoerd Piso; Hans van Staden; Wilbert van den Beld

2004-01-01

135

Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

2003-05-01

136

High-throughput analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine with online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

An automated online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS-MS) method for the analysis of amphetamines in blood and urine was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nucleodur Sphinx RP column with an LC gradient (a mixture of 10 mM ammonium formate buffer and acetonitrile), ensuring the elution of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA, PMA, and ephedrine within 11 min. The method was fully validated, according to international guidelines, using only 100 and 50 microL of blood and urine, respectively. The method showed an excellent intra- and interassay precision (relative standard deviation < 11.2% and bias < 13%) for two external quality control samples (QC) for both matrices and three and two 'in house' QCs for blood and urine, respectively. Responses were linear over the investigated range (r(2) > 0.99, 2.5-400 microg/L for blood and 25-1000 microg/L for urine). Limits of quantification were determined to be 2.5 and 25 microg/L for blood and urine, respectively. Limits of detection ranged from 0.05 to 0.5 microg/L for blood and 0.25 to 2.5 microg/L for urine, depending on the compound. Furthermore, the analytes and the processed samples were demonstrated to be stable (in the autosampler for at least 72 h and after three freeze/thaw cycles), and no disturbing matrix effects were observed for all compounds. Moreover, no carryover was observed after the analysis of high concentration samples (15,000 microg/L). The method was subsequently applied to authentic blood and urine samples obtained from forensic cases, which covered a broad range of concentrations. The validation results and actual sample analyses demonstrated that this method is rugged, precise, accurate, and well-suited for routine analysis as more than 72 samples are analyzed non-stop in 24 h with minimum sample handling. The combination of the high-throughput online SPE and the well-known sensitivity and selectivity assured by MS-MS resulted in the elimination of the bottleneck associated with the sample preparation requirements and provided increased sensitivity, accuracy, and precision. PMID:20040132

Fernández, María del Mar Ramírez; Wille, Sarah M R; Samyn, Nele; Wood, Michelle; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; De Boeck, Gert

2009-01-01

137

Blood and urine levels of heavy metal pollutants in female and male patients with coronary artery disease  

PubMed Central

Background Heavy metal pollutants such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) are rarely the subjects of cardiovascular research although they have been suspected for decades to negatively impact the circulatory system. Methods Apart from detailed anamnestic data, urinary levels of Cd and full blood levels of Pb and Hg were measured in 53 female (mean age: 68.04±7.03 years) and 111 male (mean age: 60.68±11.43 years) nonsmoking or never-smoking patients with angiographically verified and precisely quantified coronary artery disease (CAD). Results Although Cd was quantifiable in 68.3% of subjects, only 34.1% of these patients exceeded the critical 1 ?g/L Human Biomonitoring (HBM)-I level. Median Pb (20 ?g/L) and Hg (0.55 ?g/L) levels were lower than the HBM-I, as well as reference levels of Pb. Wine consumption was the main source for Pb, fish and wine consumption for Hg, and previous nicotine abuse for Cd. There was no correlation between Cd, Pb, or Hg and severity of CAD although severity correlated positively with atherosclerosis parameters (uric acid, creatinine, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, C-reactive protein) and negatively with high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusion Cd levels detected in CAD patients were high compared to German and European reference levels but it could not be proven that urine levels of Cd and blood levels of Hg or Pb played a major role in the genesis of CAD, particularly when compared to well-known biomarkers such as blood pressure, glucose, and lipids. PMID:24868163

Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Mittlböck, Martina; Uhl, Maria; Köhler-Vallant, Birgit; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

2014-01-01

138

Bilirubin - urine  

MedlinePLUS

Conjugated bilirubin - urine; Direct bilirubin - urine ... Bilirubin is not normally found in the urine. ... Increased levels of bilirubin in the urine may be due to: Biliary tract disease Cirrhosis Gallstones in the biliary tract Hepatitis Liver disease ...

139

Differences in trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, And Ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.  

PubMed

High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard

2013-11-01

140

Essential and toxic element concentrations in blood and urine and their associations with diet: results from a Norwegian population study including high-consumers of seafood and game.  

PubMed

The first aim of the study was to evaluate calculated dietary intake and concentrations measured in blood or urine of essential and toxic elements in relation to nutritional and toxicological reference values. The second aim was to identify patterns of the element concentrations in blood and urine and to identify possible dietary determinants of the concentrations of these elements. Adults with a known high consumption of environmental contaminants (n=111), and a random sample of controls (n=76) answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Complete data on biological measures were available for 179 individuals. Blood and urine samples were analyzed for selenium, iodine, arsenic, mercury, cadmium and lead. Principal component analysis was used to identify underlying patterns of correlated blood and urine concentrations. The calculated intakes of selenium, iodine, inorganic arsenic and mercury were within guideline levels. For cadmium 24% of the high consumer group and 8% of the control group had intakes above the tolerable weekly intake. Concentrations of lead in blood exceeded the bench-mark dose lower confidence limits for some participants. However, overall, the examined exposures did not give rise to nutritional or toxicological concerns. Game consumption was associated with lead in blood (B(ln) 0.021; 95%CI:0.010, 0.031) and wine consumption. Seafood consumption was associated with urinary cadmium in non-smokers (B(ln) 0.009; 95%CI:0.003, 0.015). A novel finding was a distinct pattern of positively associated biological markers, comprising iodine, selenium, arsenic and mercury (eigenvalue 3.8), reflecting seafood intake (B 0.007; 95%CI:0.004, 0.010). The study clearly demonstrates the significance of seafood as a source of both essential nutrients and toxic elements simultaneously and shows that exposure to various essential and toxic elements can be intertwined. PMID:23867847

Birgisdottir, B E; Knutsen, H K; Haugen, M; Gjelstad, I M; Jenssen, M T S; Ellingsen, D G; Thomassen, Y; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Brantsæter, A L

2013-10-01

141

Quantification of trace elements by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess whether levels of trace metals and oxidative species are involved in Parkinson's disease (PD), Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and V were measured in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum peroxides and antioxidant capacity were determined in 26 patients with PD and 13 control subjects. The quantification of metals was based on the 1+4 water dilution of CSF, serum and urine, the acid-assisted microwave digestion under atmospheric pressure of blood and final determination by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Results indicated a significant increase of Pb and V concentrations in blood and urine ( P?0.03, in both cases) related to the disease. Parkinson disease also seemed to be closely associated ( P?0.003) with a reduction in levels of Al, Cd, Hg and Pb in serum and of Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb in CSF. As regards Mn, a lower mean concentration was found in the CSF and whole blood of PD patients than in control group, although this trend was not statistically significant. Levels of peroxides were also increased ( P?0.001), while antioxidant capacity was lower ( P?0.002) in PD patients than in controls.

Bocca, B.; Alimonti, A.; Petrucci, F.; Violante, N.; Sancesario, G.; Forte, G.; Senofonte, O.

2004-04-01

142

DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene levels in children (in blood and urine samples) from Chiapas and Oaxaca, Mexico.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the DDT, DDE, and 1-hydroxypyrene exposure levels of children living in communities located in southeastern Mexico. The study communities were Lacanja and Victoria in Chiapas state and Ventanilla in Oaxaca state. Children living in Lacanja had total blood DDT levels (mean ± SD, 29,039.6 ± 11,261.4 ng/g lipid) that were significantly higher than those of children in Victoria (10,220.5 ± 7,893.1 ng/g lipid) and Ventanilla (11,659.7 ± 6,683.7 ng/g lipid). With respect to the 1-hydroxypyrene levels in urine samples, the levels in Lacanja (4.8 ± 4.1 ?g/L or 4.5 ± 3.9 ?mol/mol creatinine) and Victoria (4.6 ± 3.8 ?g/L or 3.9 ± 3.0 ?mol/mol Cr) were significantly higher than levels found in Ventanilla (3.6 ± 1.4 ?g/L or 2.5 ± 0.5 ?mol/mol Cr). In conclusion, our data indicate high levels of exposure in children living in the communities studied in this work. The evidence found in this study could be further used as a trigger to revisit local policies on environmental exposures. PMID:23709263

Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N; Trejo-Acevedo, Antonio; Pruneda-Alvarez, Lucia Guadalupe; Gaspar-Ramirez, Octavio; Ruvalcaba-Aranda, Selene; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco Javier

2013-11-01

143

Comparison study of the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in human blood and urine  

SciTech Connect

Although exposure to DDT (2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl1)1,1,1,-trichloroethane) is not normally associated with fatality or chronic adverse effects to human life, it is a known hazard to the ecosystem. Blood levels of DDT and some of its derivatives have been used to assess extent of exposure or the body load of DDT in humans. In experimental studies, ingestion of DDT has been associated with reduced liver stores of vitamin A, and increased serum levels of vitamin A. The same study also revealed a significant correlation of vitamin A and DDE serum levels. Generally an increase in excreted 17-B-hydroxycortisone has been associated with DDT exposure. Increased excretion of 6-B-hydroxycortisol has been noted in workers who were involved in the formulation of DDT. The objective of this study was to compare the sensitivities of some indices of DDT exposure in humans. The indices which were compared are serum vitamin A and DDE levels and urinary 17-B-hydroxycortisol.

Nhachi, C.F.B.; Loewenson, R. (Univ. of Zimbabwe (South Africa))

1989-10-01

144

The pharmacokinetics of cotinine in plasma and saliva from non-smoking healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotinine is a major metabolite of nicotine in man. Its disposition kinetics has been followed in plasma and saliva from nine nonsmokers, 23 to 56 years of age. Cotinine 5, 10 and 20 mg was given intravenously and orally to each subject, and plasma, saliva and urine samples were collected for 96 h.

M. Curvall; C.-E. Elwin; E. Kazemi-Vala; C. Warholm; C. R. Enzell

1990-01-01

145

Urine odor  

MedlinePLUS

Urine odor refers to the smell from your urine. Urine odor varies. Most of the time, urine does not ... Most changes in urine odor are not a sign of disease and go away in time. Some foods and medicines, including vitamins, may affect your ...

146

Maple syrup urine disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Persons with this condition cannot break down the amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. This leads to a ... Plasma amino acid test Urine amino acid test There will be signs of ketosis and excess acid in blood (acidosis).

147

VALIDATION OF A SOLILD PHASE EXTRACTION PROCEDURE FOR THE GC-MS IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTITATION OF COCAINE AND THREE METABOLITES IN BLOOD, URINE, AND MILK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and widely used solid-phase extraction procedure (United Chemical Technologies Method Handbook) was applied for the GC-MS identification and quantitation of cocaine (COC), benzoylecgonine (BE), cocaethylene (COCE), and m-hydroxy- benzoylecgonine (HBE) in blood, urine, and milk. The method which utilizes BSTFA as a derivatizing agent yielded abundant diagnostic ions with high m\\/z values.Linear quantitative response curves were generated for

Imad K. Abukhalaf; Bryan A. Parks; Natalia A. Silvestrov; Daniel A. von Deutsch; Ashraf Mozayani; Hassan Y. Aboul-Enein

2001-01-01

148

Human exposure to mercury due to goldmining in the Tapajos River basin, Amazon, Brazil: Speciation of mercury in human hair, blood and urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain the basic information on human exposure to mercury (Hg) due to gold mining activities in Amazon, total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeI Ig) were determined for human hair, blood and\\/or urine samples collected from populations living in gold mining area and fishing villages upstream of the Tapajos River basin. Abnormally high levels of T-Hg were observed in hair

H. Akagi; O. Malm; F. J. P. Branches; Y. Kinjo; Y. Kashima; J. R. D. Guimaraes; R. B. Oliveira; K. Haraguchi; W. C. Pfeiffer; Y. Takizawa; H. Kato

1995-01-01

149

Saliva, Diagnostics, and Dentistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva, a scientific and clinical entity familiar to every oral health researcher and dental practitioner, has emerged as a translational and clinical commodity that has reached national visibility at the National Institutes of Health and the President’s Office of Science and Technology. “Detecting dozens of diseases in a sample of saliva” was issued by President Obama as one of the

M. S. Urdea; P. D. Neuwald; B. L. Greenberg; M. Glick; J. Galloway; D. Williams; D. T. W. Wong

2011-01-01

150

Development of a cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry-based microplate method for the determination of nitrite in human urine and blood.  

PubMed

A novel and simple method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of nitrite in human urine and blood has been developed by combination of cloud point extraction (CPE) and microplate assay. The method is based on the Griess reaction and the reaction product is extracted into nonionic surfactant Triton-X114 using CPE technique. In this study, decolorization treatment of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity of nitrite detection. Multi-sample can be simultaneously detected thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. The effects of different operating parameters such as type of decolorizing agent, concentration of surfactant (Triton X-114), addition of (NH4)2SO4, extraction temperature and time, interfering elements were studied and optimum conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 10-400 ng mL(-1) of nitrite with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100 ng mL(-1) of nitrite was 2.80%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in the urine and blood samples with recoveries of 92.6-101.2%. PMID:25448978

Zhao, Jiao; Lu, Yunhui; Fan, Chongyang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling

2015-02-01

151

Development of a cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry-based microplate method for the determination of nitrite in human urine and blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and simple method for the sensitive determination of trace amounts of nitrite in human urine and blood has been developed by combination of cloud point extraction (CPE) and microplate assay. The method is based on the Griess reaction and the reaction product is extracted into nonionic surfactant Triton-X114 using CPE technique. In this study, decolorization treatment of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity of nitrite detection. Multi-sample can be simultaneously detected thanks to a 96-well microplate technique. The effects of different operating parameters such as type of decolorizing agent, concentration of surfactant (Triton X-114), addition of (NH4)2SO4, extraction temperature and time, interfering elements were studied and optimum conditions were obtained. Under the optimum conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained in the range of 10-400 ng mL-1 of nitrite with limit of detection (LOD) of 2.5 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100 ng mL-1 of nitrite was 2.80%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of nitrite in the urine and blood samples with recoveries of 92.6-101.2%.

Zhao, Jiao; Lu, Yunhui; Fan, Chongyang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling

2015-02-01

152

Urine culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You may also have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This most often means that you have a ...

153

Spectrophotometric Determination of Thiocyanate in Human Saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The equilibrium constant between iron(III) ion and thiocyanate ion to form a thiocyanatoiron(III) ion can be conveniently measured with visible spectrophotometry because the FeSCN+2 solutions are deep blood-red. Hence this reaction is often used when teaching chemical equilibrium to students of general chemistry. The same reaction can be exploited in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of SCN- ions in solution. The experiment can be easily made more attractive to students when the thiocyanate ion concentration measured is from human saliva. Here is described how qualitative and quantitative analysis of human saliva thiocyanate ion can be performed as a part of the laboratory exercise for the determination of chemical equilibrium between Fe+3 and SCN- ions. For qualitative analysis a few drops of saliva (each student is using his or her own saliva) is treated with a drop of acidic Fe(NO3)3 solution. The deep blood-red color of FeSCN+2 complex is clearly demonstrated. Then each student measures his or her saliva thiocyanate ion concentration with visible spectrophotometry.

Lahti*, Markku; Vilpo, Juhani; Hovinen, Jari

1999-09-01

154

Saliva and dental erosion  

PubMed Central

Dental erosion is a multifactorial condition. The consideration of chemical, biological and behavioral factors is fundamental for its prevention and therapy. Among the biological factors, saliva is one of the most important parameters in the protection against erosive wear. Objective This review discusses the role of salivary factors on the development of dental erosion. Material and Methods A search was undertaken on MEDLINE website for papers from 1969 to 2010. The keywords used in the research were "saliva", "acquired pellicle", "salivary flow", "salivary buffering capacity" and "dental erosion". Inclusion of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were undertaken independently and in duplicate by two members of the review team. Disagreements were solved by discussion and consensus or by a third party. Results Several characteristics and properties of saliva play an important role in dental erosion. Salivary clearance gradually eliminates the acids through swallowing and saliva presents buffering capacity causing neutralization and buffering of dietary acids. Salivary flow allows dilution of the acids. In addition, saliva is supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, providing calcium, phosphate and fluoride necessary for remineralization after an erosive challenge. Furthermore, many proteins present in saliva and acquired pellicle play an important role in dental erosion. Conclusions Saliva is the most important biological factor affecting the progression of dental erosion. Knowledge of its components and properties involved in this protective role can drive the development of preventive measures targeting to enhance its known beneficial effects. PMID:23138733

BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; HANNAS, Angélicas Reis; KATO, Melissa Thiemi

2012-01-01

155

Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.  

PubMed

The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction. PMID:23912828

Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

2014-02-01

156

Discovery of Mosquito Saliva MicroRNAs during CHIKV Infection  

PubMed Central

Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18–24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. PMID:25612225

Maharaj, Payal D.; Widen, Steven G.; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G.; Thangamani, Saravanan

2015-01-01

157

Biomonitoring of 20 trace elements in blood and urine of occupationally exposed workers by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn in whole blood and urine was designed. Microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid was used for blood samples. Urine samples were analyzed after 1/50 (v/v) dilution with 5% (v/v) nitric acid. For beryllium the necessity of medium resolution mode (R=4000) was shown. Method validation was performed using blood and urine reference materials and by analyzing of spiked samples. For the designed method relative standard deviation (RSD) for the concentration range 0.01-1.0 ?g/L was 5-10%. RSD did not exceed 3% when trace elements concentrations were above 1.0 ?g/L. Method detection limits (3?): Ag 0.7 ng/L, Al 16 ng/L, As 3.4 ng/L, Ba 0.02 ng/L, Be 1.5 ng/L, Cd 7.7 ng/L, Co 1.0 ng/L, Cr 2.8 ng/L, Cs 9.8 ng/L, Cu 27 ng/L, Fe 1.1 ng/L, Mn 1.8 ng/L, Ni 17 ng/L, Pb 13 ng/L, Se 0.07 ng/L, Sr 5.7 ng/L, Tl 0.2 ng/L, U 0.1 ng/L, V 0.7 ng/L and Zn 1.2 ng/L. A developed method was applied for trace element biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers of a beryllium processing enterprise. For preliminary risk assessment technological surface dust had been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Based upon results of 50 blood and 40 urine samples analyses occupational exposure evaluation was performed. Exposure risks were found not to exceed acceptable ranges. Possible health hazards were found for Be and also Al, Cr, Mn. Occupational health and safety recommendations for the biomonitored enterprise medical care unit were issued as a result of the current investigation. PMID:24148471

Ivanenko, N B; Ivanenko, A A; Solovyev, N D; Zeimal', A E; Navolotskii, D V; Drobyshev, E J

2013-11-15

158

The analysis of diagnostic markers of genetic disorders in human blood and urine using tandem mass spectrometry with liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method has been developed for the rapid diagnosis of metabolic diseases based on the analysis of characteristic metabolites in body fluids by fast atom bombardment or liquid secondary ion tandem mass spectrometry (FAB-MS--MS or LSIMS--MS). Acylcarnitine profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l urine. 200 [mu]l plasma or 25 [mu]l whole blood spotted onto filter paper by simple solvent extraction, esterification and analysis using a precursor ion scan function on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Specificity and sensitivity were improved by adding a small percentage of sodium octyl sulfate to the liquid matrix, which forms ion pairs with acylcarnitine esters. Acylglycines in urine were specifically detected as a group using a different precursor ion scan function. By forming methyl esters, metabolic profiles of both acylcarnitines and acylglycines were achieved in the same sample loading by application of alternating scan functions. Quantitative analysis of selected metabolites was achieved by use of stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Amino acid profiles were obtained from 100 [mu]l plasma and 25 [mu]l whole blood spots using butyl esters and a neutral loss scan function. The quantitative analysis of phenylalanine and tyrosine was achieved in these samples using stable isotope dilution. This capability will facilitate the diagnosis of phenylketonuria and other amino acidemias. These new methods have the requirements of speed, accuracy and capability for automation necessary for large-scale neonatal screening of inborn errors of matabolism.

Millington, David S.; Kodo, Naoki; Terada, Naoto; Roe, Diane; Chace, Donald H.

1991-12-01

159

Curated MicroRNAs in Urine and Blood Fail to Validate as Predictive Biomarkers for High-Risk Prostate Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if microRNA profiling of urine and plasma at radical prostatectomy can distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancer. Materials and Methods A panel of microRNAs was profiled in the plasma of 70 patients and the urine of 33 patients collected prior to radical prostatectomy. Expression of microRNAs was correlated to the clinical endpoints at a follow-up time of 3.9 years to identify microRNAs that may predict clinical response after radical prostatectomy. A machine learning approach was applied to test the predictive ability of all microRNAs profiled in urine, plasma, and a combination of both, and global performance assessed using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Validation of urinary expression of miRNAs was performed on a further independent cohort of 36 patients. Results The best predictor in plasma using eight miRs yielded only moderate predictive performance (AUC?=?0.62). The best predictor of high-risk disease was achieved using miR-16, miR-21 and miR-222 measured in urine (AUC?=?0.75). This combination of three microRNAs in urine was a better predictor of high-risk disease than any individual microRNA. Using a different methodology we found that this set of miRNAs was unable to predict high-volume, high-grade disease. Conclusions Our initial findings suggested that plasma and urinary profiling of microRNAs at radical prostatectomy may allow prognostication of prostate cancer behaviour. However we found that the microRNA expression signature failed to validate in an independent cohort of patients using a different platform for PCR. This highlights the need for independent validation patient cohorts and suggests that urinary microRNA signatures at radical prostatectomy may not be a robust way to predict the course of clinical disease after definitive treatment for prostate cancer. PMID:24705338

Sapre, Nikhil; Hong, Matthew K. H.; Macintyre, Geoff; Lewis, Heather; Kowalczyk, Adam; Costello, Anthony J.; Corcoran, Niall M.; Hovens, Christopher M.

2014-01-01

160

Simultaneous determination of ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues (GBL, 1.4-BD, GVL) in whole blood and urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method has been developed and validated for simultaneous identification and quantification of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ?-butyrolactone (GBL), 1.4-butanediol (1.4-BD), and ?-valerolactone (GVL) in whole blood from forensic cases. The sample preparation of whole blood involved protein precipitation by acidic methanol. Urine samples were diluted and evaluated in relation to a control at the cutoff concentration. Hexadeutero GHB (GHB-d(6)) was used as the internal standard. Separation was achieved by reversed-phase chromatography, and detection was by MS-MS in MRM mode. The linear range for all compounds was from 1.0 to 100 mg/kg in whole blood with a limit of quantification of about 1 mg/kg. The method was validated with regards to selectivity, recovery, accuracy and precision, and stability. The method is currently applied to investigations on suspected drug-facilitated sexual assaults, driving under the influence of drugs, and general intoxication with these substances. PMID:21219697

Johansen, Sys Stybe; Windberg, Charlotte Norup

2011-01-01

161

Burning mouth and saliva.  

PubMed

Stomatodynia is the complaint of burning, tickling or itching of the oral cavity, and can be associated with other oral and non-oral signs and symptoms. However, the oral mucosa often appears normal, with no apparent underlying organic cause to account for the symptomatology. The etiology is unknown, though evidence points to the participation of numerous local, systemic and psychological factors. Among the local factors, saliva may play an important role in the symptoms of burning mouth. Saliva possesses specific rheological properties as a result of its chemical, physical and biological characteristics - these properties being essential for maintaining balanced conditions within the oral cavity. Patients with burning mouth present evidence of changes in salivary composition and flow, as well as a probable alteration in the oral mucosal sensory perception related particularly to dry mouth and taste alterations. On the other hand, alterations in salivary composition appear to reflect on its viscosity and symptomatology of burning mouth. Saliva is a field open to much research related to burning mouth, and knowledge of its properties (e.g., viscosity) merits special attention in view of its apparent relationship to the symptoms of burning mouth. The present study describes our clinical experience with burning mouth, and discusses some of the aspects pointing to salivary alterations as one of the most important factors underlying stomatodynia. PMID:12134125

Chimenos-Kustner, Eduardo; Marques-Soares, Maria Sueli

2002-01-01

162

Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva  

SciTech Connect

The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. (Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey))

1992-01-01

163

NHEXAS PHASE I ARIZONA STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS, PESTICIDE METABOLITES, AND VOC IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It pro...

164

NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS AND VOCS IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It provide...

165

U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS, PESTICIDE METABOLITES, AND VOC IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pr...

166

NHEXAS PHASE I MARYLAND STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS, PESTICIDE METABOLITES, AND VOCS IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)  

EPA Science Inventory

This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It pro...

167

CADMIUM IN BLOOD AND URINE AMONG SMOKERS AND NON-SMOKERS WITH HIGH CADMIUM INTAKE VIA FOOD  

EPA Science Inventory

In New Zealand a species of oyster (Ostrea lutaria) consumed widely contains on an average 5 micro g Cd/g wet weight. In this study the cadmium intake and blood and urinary cadmium levels in a group of 78 people with a known high oyster consumption has been investigated. A second...

168

21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050...DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A saliva absorber is a device made of paper or...

2010-04-01

169

21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050...DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A saliva absorber is a device made of paper or...

2011-04-01

170

21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050...DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A saliva absorber is a device made of paper or...

2014-04-01

171

21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050...DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A saliva absorber is a device made of paper or...

2012-04-01

172

21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Saliva absorber. 872.6050 Section 872.6050...DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva absorber. (a) Identification. A saliva absorber is a device made of paper or...

2013-04-01

173

Determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) and ?-butyrolactone (GBL) in whole blood and urine samples by UPLC-MSMS.  

PubMed

The demand of high throughput methods for the determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) as well as for pregabalin is increasing. Here we present two analytical methods using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UPLC) and tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) detection for the determination of GHB, beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4BD and GBL in whole blood and urine. Using the 96-well formate, the whole blood method is a simple high-throughput method suitable for screening of large sample amounts. With an easy sample preparation for urine including only dilution and filtration of the sample, the method is suitable for fast screening of urine samples. Both methods showed acceptable linearity, acceptable limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The within-day and between-day precisions of all analytes were lower than 10% RSD. The analytes were extracted from matrices with recoveries near 100%, and no major matrix effects were observed. Both methods have been used as routine screening analyses of whole blood and urine samples since January 2010. PMID:22226469

Dahl, Sandra Rinne; Olsen, Kirsten Midtbøen; Strand, Dag Helge

2012-02-15

174

Calcium - urine  

MedlinePLUS

... best treatment for the most common type of kidney stone , which is made of calcium. This type of ... the kidneys into the urine, which causes calcium kidney stones Sarcoidosis Taking too much calcium Too much production ...

175

SPECTROCHEMICAL DETERMINATION OF STRONTIUM-TO-CALCIUM RATIO IN FOOD, MILK, CREAM, BLOOD, FECES, AND URINE OF COWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A d-c carbon-arc spectrochemical method has been developed for the ; determination of strontium-to-calcium ratios in the food, milk, cream, blood, ; feces, and urofne of cows. In this method sodium is added to the samples to ; preduce uniformly enhanced and reproducible spectral lines in the range of 10\\/sup ; -4\\/ to 5 x 10⁻² strontium-tocalcium ratio. Typical examples

George V. Shalimoff; John G. Conway; Ann E. Pitzer

1958-01-01

176

Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Blood Status and Milk, Urine, and Fecal Excretion in Pregnant and Lactating Camel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten pregnant female camels divided into two groups received, after a 2-week adaptation period, an oral selenium (Se) supplementation\\u000a (0 and 2 mg, respectively) under sodium selenite form for 6 months from the three last months of gestation up to the three\\u000a first months of lactation. Feed intake was assessed daily. Blood samples and body weight were taken on a biweekly basis,

Rabiha Seboussi; Bernard Faye; Mustafa Askar; Khalil Hassan; Ghaleb Alhadrami

2009-01-01

177

Saliva-based system for health and toxicology monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The practical utility of technologies for early detection of human exposure to a variety of toxic agents has been limited in many cases by the absence of instruments suitable for first responders and at field hospitals. Microarrays provide multiplexed assay of a large number of human biomarkers, including cytokines and chemokines, indicators of immune system health. Assay of saliva is less invasive and provides quick indication of exposure especially of the respiratory system. Our pilot clinical study has uncovered an early cytokine response in human saliva. As a model for respiratory exposure, a cohort of 16 adult volunteers was challenged with FluMistTM vaccinations, an FDA approved, attenuated live influenza virus. Blood and saliva cytokine levels were monitored immediately prior to and up to 7 days afterwards. Bead assay found little change in blood cytokine levels while several of those in saliva were frequently elevated above two standard deviations on trial days one and three. We have developed a prototype portable saliva monitoring system consisting of microarray cytokine capture plate, luminescent reporter, and whole plate imaging. Assay is with a commercial 96-well plate spotted with up to 16 distinct biomarkers per well and read by chemiluminescence. A battery-powered, 16-bit, cooled-CCD camera and laptop PC provide imaging and data reduction. Detection limits of common inflammatory cytokines were measured at about 1-5 pg/ml which is within the clinically significant range for saliva of exposed individuals, as verified for samples from the small clinical trial. An expanded study of cytokine response in saliva of therapeutic radiation oncology patients is being launched.

Fenner, D. B.; Stevens, A. E.; Rosen, D. I.; Ferrante, A. A.; Davis, S. J.

2009-05-01

178

Is saliva suitable for therapeutic monitoring of anticonvulsants in children: an evaluation in the routine clinical setting.  

PubMed

Studies performed in the research setting suggested that saliva instead of blood may be used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of anticonvulsants in children. This is an attractive alternative because its collection is painless, and simpler and cheaper than blood drawing. Citric acid stimulation of saliva secretion facilitates sampling in the youngest patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of saliva in routine TDM of anticonvulsants in infants and children with epilepsy. Blood and saliva samples were obtained simultaneously during routine TDM in 170 patients on chronic anticonvulsant drug therapy attending a neurology clinic. Saliva, plasma total, and plasma free concentrations of anticonvulsants were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique. Strong and highly significant correlations between saliva and plasma concentrations were found over a wide range of concentrations for carbamazepine, phenytoin, clobazam, and desmethylclobazam, and for phenobarbital in children > or = 8 years of age (r = 0.90 to 0.97; p < 0.001). Correlations between saliva and plasma concentrations were poor for phenobarbital in children < 8 years of age and for valproate. Correlations between saliva and plasma-free anticonvulsant concentrations were equal or only slightly better than between saliva and plasma total concentrations. Citric acid-stimulated saliva constitutes a convenient alternative for TDM of carbamazepine and phenytoin therapy in pediatric patients and of phenobarbital in children > or = 8 years of age. PMID:9421104

Gorodischer, R; Burtin, P; Verjee, Z; Hwang, P; Koren, G

1997-12-01

179

Development and evaluation of a reagent carrier with a new reaction sequence for the determination of creatinine in blood, plasma, serum and urine.  

PubMed

After a short outline of the history of creatinine determination methods we describe the development of a dry-reagent-carrier system for the reflometric determination of the creatinine concentration in blood, plasma, serum and urine (Reflotron Creatinine (new)). The method is based on a sequence of enzymatically catalyzed reactions producing H2O2, but which in contrast to the previously used procedure do not lead to the formation of creatine as an intermediate. Hence, pretreatment of sample material to eliminate endogenous creatine is no longer necessary. In the indicator reaction, use is made of an imidazole derivative as the chromogen. The dye formed in the presence of peroxidase can be measured by reflectance photometry beyond the long-wave absorption bands of haemoglobin and bilirubin at 642 nm. We present in detail the results of the multicentre evaluation of the analytical properties of this new test principle. The data obtained show that Reflotron Creatinine (new) correlates well with the routine method Creatinine PAP, which was used as a comparison method, with respect to accuracy and precision and even surpasses it with respect to specificity. Advantages over the first generation of Reflotron Creatinine are: shorter reaction time, longer stability of the reagent carrier, no interference by bilirubin and reduced interference by haemoglobin. PMID:8357943

Carstensen, C A; Nagel, R; Knoll, E; Wisser, H; Weidemann, G; Riesen, W F; Seiler, D; Nagel, D

1993-05-01

180

Human saliva proteome: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

Griffin, Timothy J.

2014-06-01

181

Pink urine.  

PubMed

A 55-year-old man was admitted after a suspected hypnotic overdose of valerian extracts. In addition to altered consciousness, the first clinical symptoms included not only diffuse rash on the face, trunk, and limbs, but also an inspiratory dyspnea with a marked hypoxemia. A major laryngeal edema was noted during orotracheal intubation. After correction of hypoxemia, the patient became agitated and propofol was administered by continuous infusion. In addition, the patient passed pink urine staining the urine collection bag. The presence of an unidentified toxic substance was suspected. PMID:25233954

Verhoeven, E; Capron, A; Hantson, P

2014-11-01

182

Urine culture - catheterized specimen  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

183

Study of a novel indolin-2-ketone compound Z24 induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-spectroscopy-based metabonomics of rat urine, blood plasma, and liver extracts  

SciTech Connect

Antiangiogenic compound has been believed to be an ideal drug in the current cancer biological therapy, but the angiogenesis inhibitors suffer setback for unknown toxicity now. A novel synthetic indolin-s-ketone small molecular compound, 3Z-3-[({sup 1} H-pyrrol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-1,3-2H-indol-2-one (Z24) can inhibit angiogenesis in new blood vessels. The hepatotoxicity effects of Z24 oral administration (dosed at 60, 130 and 200 mg/kg) have been investigated in female Wistar rats by using metabonomic analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine, plasma and liver extracts, as well as by clinical chemistry analysis, liver histopathology and electron micrographs examination. The {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the biofluids were analyzed visually and via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis. The metabonomic trajectory analysis on the time-related hepatotoxicity of Z24 was carried out based on the {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine samples, which were collected daily predose and postdose over an 8-day period. Urinary excretion of citrate, lactate, 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate increased following Z24 dosing. Increased plasma levels of lactate, TMAO and lipid were observed, with concomitant decrease in the level of glucose and phosphatidylcholine. Metabolic profiling on aqueous soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed an increase in lactate and glutamine, together with a decrease in glucose, glycogen and choline. On the other hand, studies on lipid soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed increased level in lipid triglycerides and decreased level in unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine. Moreover, the most notable effect of Z24 on the metabolism was the reduction in the urinary levels of creatinine and TMAO and the increase in acetate, citrate, succinate and 2-oxo-glutamate with time dependence. The results indicate that in rats Z24 inhibits mitochondrial function through altering the energy and lipid metabolism, which results in the accumulation of free fatty acids and lactate because of the lack of aerobic respiration. These data show that the metabonomic approach represents a promising new technology for the toxicological mechanism study.

Wang Quanjun [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Jiang Ying [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wu Chunqi [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhao Jianyu [National Center of Biomedical Analysis, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yu Shouzhong [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yuan Benli [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yan Xianzhong [National Center of Biomedical Analysis, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: yanxz@nic.bmi.ac.cn; Liao Mingyang [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: liaomingy@hotmail.com

2006-08-15

184

Simultaneous determination of in total 17 opium alkaloids and opioids in blood and urine by fast liquid chromatography–diode-array detection–fluorescence detection, after solid-phase extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast liquid chromatographic method with tandem diode array–fluorescence detection for the simultaneous determination of in total 17 opium alkaloids and opioids is presented. Blank blood and urine samples (1 ml) were spiked with different concentrations of a standard mixture, as well as with the internal standard, butorphanol (2000 ng\\/ml). After solid-phase extraction, based on weak cation exchange (Bond Elut®

R Dams; T Benijts; W. E Lambert; A. P De Leenheer

2002-01-01

185

Simultaneous LC-MS/MS determination of JWH-210, RCS-4, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, and their main metabolites in pig and human serum, whole blood, and urine for comparing pharmacokinetic data.  

PubMed

A series of new synthetic cannabinoids (SC) has been consumed without any toxicological testing. For example, pharmacokinetic data have to be collected from forensic toxicological case work and/or animal studies. To develop a corresponding model for assessing such data, samples of controlled pig studies with two selected SC (JWH-210, RCS-4) and, as reference, ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) should be analyzed as well as those of human cases. Therefore, a method for determination of JWH-210, RCS-4, THC, and their main metabolites in pig and human serum, whole blood, and urine samples is presented. Specimens were analyzed by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and multiple-reaction monitoring with three transitions per compound. Full validation was carried out for the pig specimens and cross-validation for the human specimens concerning precision and bias. For the pig studies, the limits of detection were between 0.05 and 0.50 ng/mL in serum and whole blood and between 0.05 and 1.0 ng/mL in urine, the lower limits of quantification between 0.25 and 1.0 ng/mL in serum and 0.50 and 2.0 ng/mL in whole blood and urine, and the intra- and interday precision values lower than 15 % and bias values within ±15 %. The applicability was tested with samples taken from a pharmacokinetic pilot study with pigs following intravenous administration of a mixture of 200 ?g/kg body mass dose each of JWH-210, RCS-4, and THC. The cross-validation data for human serum, whole blood, and urine showed that this approach should also be suitable for human specimens, e.g., of clinical or forensic cases. PMID:25772567

Schaefer, Nadine; Kettner, Mattias; Laschke, Matthias W; Schlote, Julia; Peters, Benjamin; Bregel, Dietmar; Menger, Michael D; Maurer, Hans H; Ewald, Andreas H; Schmidt, Peter H

2015-05-01

186

Effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis of intensive treatment and teaching programmes for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus in Moscow—blood glucose versus urine glucose self-monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a prospective controlled trial the effects of a 5-day in-patient treatment and teaching programme for Type 1 (insulin-dependent)\\u000a diabetes mellitus on metabolic control and health care costs were studied in Moscow. Two different intervention programmes\\u000a were compared, one based upon urine glucose self-monitoring (UGSM, n = 61) and one using blood glucose selfmonitoring (BGSM, n = 60). Follow-up was

E. G. Starostina; M. Antsiferov; G. R. Galstyan; Ch. Trautner; V. Jörgens; U. Bott; I. Mühlhauser; M. Berger; I. I. Dedov

1994-01-01

187

Myoglobin - urine  

MedlinePLUS

... clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to wash the area between the lips of the vagina with soapy water and rinse well. As you start to urinate, allow a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl (this ...

188

Mouth Dryness or Thick Saliva  

MedlinePLUS

... candy or chew sugarless gum to stimulate saliva. Lemon drops often work well. Keep your mouth clean. ... and other foods Club soda, hot tea with lemon, fruit-ades, diluted juices, sports drinks Commercial liquid ...

189

Lipid composition of marmoset saliva.  

PubMed

The lipid content and composition of marmoset saliva was investigated. Extraction of the dialyzed and lyophilized saliva with chloroform/methanol yielded 15.6 +/- 3.1 mg of lipids/100 ml of saliva. Of the total lipids, 41.7% were represented by neutral lipids, 50.7% by glycolipids and 7.6% by phospholipids. Neutral lipids had a high content of free fatty acids (67.0%), cholesterol and its esters (20.0%) and triglycerides (11.8%). The glycolipid fraction was comprised of simple glycosphingolipids (13.2%), and of neutral and sulfated glyceroglucolipids (86.8%), whereas sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine accounted for 63.6% of the total phospholipids. The results indicate that marmoset saliva, in comparison to that of human, contains twice as much of total lipids and exhibits an elevated level of phospholipids, and glycolipids. PMID:6148183

Murty, V L; Slomiany, B L; Zdebska, E; Slomiany, A; Mandel, I D; Levy, M

1984-01-01

190

Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

Background Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease affecting humans and domestic ruminants. Mosquito saliva contains compounds that counteract the hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune responses of the host. Modulation of these defensive responses may facilitate virus infection. Indeed, Aedes mosquito saliva played a crucial role in the vector's capacity to effectively transfer arboviruses such as the Cache Valley and West Nile viruses. The role of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. Objective Using a murine model, we explored the potential for mosquitoes to impact the course of RVF disease by determining whether differences in pathogenesis occurred in the presence or absence of mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract. Methods C57BL/6NRJ male mice were infected with the ZH548 strain of RVFV via intraperitoneal or intradermal route, or via bites from RVFV-exposed mosquitoes. The virus titers in mosquitoes and mouse organs were determined by plaque assays. Findings After intraperitoneal injection, RVFV infection primarily resulted in liver damage. In contrast, RVFV infection via intradermal injection caused both liver and neurological symptoms and this route best mimicked the natural infection by mosquitoes. Co-injections of RVFV with salivary gland extract or saliva via intradermal route increased the mortality rates of mice, as well as the virus titers measured in several organs and in the blood. Furthermore, the blood cell counts of infected mice were altered compared to those of uninfected mice. Interpretation Different routes of infection determine the pattern in which the virus spreads and the organs it targets. Aedes saliva significantly increases the pathogenicity of RVFV. PMID:23785528

Le Coupanec, Alain; Babin, Divya; Fiette, Laurence; Jouvion, Grégory; Ave, Patrick; Misse, Dorothee; Bouloy, Michèle; Choumet, Valerie

2013-01-01

191

A magnetic nanoparticles-based method for DNA extraction from the saliva of stroke patients  

PubMed Central

C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a risk factor for stroke, suggesting that widespread detection could help to prevent stroke. DNA from 70 stroke patients and 70 healthy controls was extracted from saliva using a magnetic nanoparticles-based method and from blood using conventional methods. Real-time PCR results revealed that the C677T polymorphism was genotyped by PCR using DNA extracted from both saliva and blood samples. The genotype results were confirmed by gene sequencing, and results for saliva and blood samples were consistent. The mutation TT genotype frequency was significantly higher in the stroke group than in controls. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher than controls in both TT genotype groups. Therefore, this noninvasive magnetic nanoparticles-based method using saliva samples could be used to screen for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in target populations. PMID:25206624

Yi, Li; Huang, Ying; Wu, Ting; Wu, Jun

2013-01-01

192

Development of an Integrated Micro-Analytical System for Lead in Saliva and Linkage to a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model Describing Lead Saliva Secretion  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical instruments for real-time monitoring of trace metals, such as lead (Pb) utilizing readily available non-invasive fluids like saliva. To interpret saliva results, an understanding of the pharmacokinetics of Pb secretion into the saliva is needed. A portable microfluidics/electrochemical device was developed for the rapid analysis of Pb based on square wave anodic stripping voltammetry, where a saliva sample flows over an electrode surface, Pb2+ is chemically reduced, accumulated, and the electric potential of the electrode scanned. To evaluate the relationship between saliva and blood Pb, rats were treated with single oral doses ranging from 20 to 500 mg Pb/kg of body weight, and 24 hours later salivation was induced by administering pilocarpine, a muscarinic agonist. Blood and saliva were collected and analyzed for Pb by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and by the micro-analytical system. The micro-analytical system was slightly less responsive ({approx}75-85%) than ICP-MS, however the response was linear over a concentration range of 1-2000 ppb suggesting that it can be utilized for the quantitation of salivary Pb. To relate saliva levels to internal dose of Pb (e.g. blood) and to total body burden, a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for Pb was modified to incorporate a salivary gland compartment. The model was capable of predicting blood and saliva Pb concentration based on a limited data set. These preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that a fully developed, micro-analytical system can be utilized as an important tool for real-time biomonitoring of Pb for both occupational and environmental exposures.

Timchalk, Charles (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Poet, Torka S. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Lin, Yuehe (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Weitz, Karl K. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Zhao, Rui (ASSOC WESTERN UNIVERSITY); Thrall, Karla D. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

2000-12-01

193

Three-dimensional paper-based microfluidic device for assays of protein and glucose in urine.  

PubMed

The first step in curing a disease is being able to detect the disease effectively. Paper-based microfluidic devices are biodegradable and can make diagnosing diseases cost-effective and easy in almost all environments. We created a three-dimesnional (3D) paper device using wax printing fabrication technique and basic principles of origami. This design allows for a versatile fabrication technique over previously reported patterning of SU-8 photoresist on chromatography paper by employing a readily available wax printer. The design also utilizes multiple colorimetric assays that can accommodate one or more analytes including urine, blood, and saliva. In this case to demonstrate the functionality of the 3D paper-based microfluidic system, a urinalysis of protein and glucose assays is conducted. The amounts of glucose and protein introduced to the device are found to be proportional to the color change of each assay. This color change was quantified by use of Adobe Photoshop. Urine samples from participants with no pre-existing health conditions and one person with diabetes were collected and compared against synthetic urine samples with predetermined glucose and protein levels. Utilizing this method, we were able to confirm that both protein and glucose levels were in fact within healthy ranges for healthy participants. For the participant with diabetes, glucose was found to be above the healthy range while the protein level was in the healthy range. PMID:24147735

Sechi, Deidre; Greer, Brady; Johnson, Jesse; Hashemi, Nastaran

2013-11-19

194

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

195

Blood  

MedlinePLUS

... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

196

Rapid Detection of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum in Saliva of Children with Acute Uncomplicated Malaria  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of malaria in biological fluids other than blood using non-invasive, rapid diagnostic techniques provides a valuable approach in case management and epidemiological studies of malaria. Rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in saliva samples from 130 of 144 children with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection was evaluated using Optimal-IT dipsticks. Genotyping of parasites was also performed in saliva and blood samples from a cohort of patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-blood, whole-saliva, or supernatant of spun saliva samples was 97.2%, 77.9%, and 48.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-saliva samples was significantly higher than in supernatant of spun saliva samples (P < 0.0005). Mutant T76 allele was detectable in 60% and 57% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. This finding shows rapid detection of pLDH in patient saliva. PMID:20810809

Gbotosho, Grace O.; Happi, Christian T.; Folarin, Onikepe; Keyamo, Ochuko; Sowunmi, Akintunde; Oduola, Ayoade M. J.

2010-01-01

197

Excretion of Hypertonic Urine by a Teleost  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the course of adaptation to sea water, Fundulus kansae excretes urine that is hypertonic to the blood, but hypotonic to sea water. During this period the osmotic pressure of the serum is greater than that found in animals adapted to fresh water or sea water. The urine collected from fish adapted to sea water is usually isotonic to the

Jon G. Stanley; Warren R. Fleming

1964-01-01

198

Effects of a beta-blocking agent, timolol maleate, on saliva in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

The effects of timolol maleate on the secretion and composition of human saliva were studied in vivo. Eight healthy volunteers received orally 10 mg timolol maleate. Stimulated parotid saliva samples, resting whole saliva samples, and blood samples were collected immediately before and four times after the drug intake at intervals of 1 h. The levels of total protein, lysozyme, IgA, IgG and IgM, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, lactoferrin, amylase, thiocyanate (SCN-), and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) were analyzed from saliva samples. Drug levels were measured both from parotid saliva and blood samples. Results were compared to the analyses of the samples collected in a similar way but without administration of any drugs. Decreased levels of total protein, lactoferrin, amylase, and salivary peroxidase were observed in parotid saliva after a single oral dose of timolol maleate. No such decrease was found in lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, SCN-, OSCN-, or immunoglobulins. Salivary flow rate was not significantly changed after drug intake. The results suggest that the beta-blocking drug may cause qualitative changes in the composition of saliva by inhibiting the synthesis and/or release of acinar proteins. PMID:2451271

Laurikainen, K; Laurikainen, E; Tenovuo, J; Kaila, T; Vilja, P

1988-04-01

199

MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA.  

EPA Science Inventory

To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

200

MEASURING CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN HUMAN SALIVA  

EPA Science Inventory

To assess the potential for using saliva in pesticide biomonitoring, the consistency of cholinesterase activity in human saliva collected over time was examined. In this pilot study, saliva was collected from 20 healthy adults once per week for 5 consecutive weeks using 2 differe...

201

ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

202

Detectable Dioxins in Human Saliva and Their Effects on Gingival Epithelial Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dioxin, a powerful hormone-disrupting chemical, exhibits serious health effects when it reaches body fat. Here we analyzed coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in human saliva as compared with blood specimens, and examined their effects on human gingival epithelial cells (HGEC). High levels of tri-and tetrachlorinated PCBs were found in saliva, whereas we detected predominantly hexa-and heptachlorinated PCBs in

T. Ogawa; Y. Asai; M. Yamashita; T. Takasuga

2003-01-01

203

Excretion of Hypertonic Urine by a Teleost.  

PubMed

During the course of adaptation to sea water, Fundulus kansae excretes urine that is hypertonic to the blood, but hypotonic to sea water. During this period the osmotic pressure of the serum is greater than that found in animals adapted to fresh water or sea water. The urine collected from fish adapted to sea water is usually isotonkc to the blood. route, presumably the gills. PMID:17729796

Stanley, J G; Fleming, W R

1964-04-01

204

The proteome of human saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

Griffin, Timothy J.

2013-05-01

205

Identification and proteomic profiling of exosomes in human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine provides an alternative to blood plasma as a potential source of disease biomarkers. One urinary biomarker already exploited in clinical studies is aquaporin-2. However, it remains a mystery how aquaporin-2 (an integral membrane protein) and other apical transporters are delivered to the urine. Here we address the hypothesis that these proteins reach the urine through the secretion of exosomes

Trairak Pisitkun; Rong-Fong Shen; Mark A. Knepper

2004-01-01

206

Urine specific gravity test  

MedlinePLUS

Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that measures the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

207

Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.  

PubMed

Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes. PMID:16251790

Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

2005-01-01

208

Immunomodulation of human monocytes following exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Sand fly saliva contains potent and complex pharmacologic molecules that are able to modulate the host's hemostatic, inflammatory,\\u000a and immune systems. In this study, we evaluated the effects of salivary gland sonicate (SGS) ofLutzomyia intermedia, the natural vector ofLeishmania braziliensis, on monocytes obtained from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy volunteers. We investigated the effects\\u000a of sand fly

Maria José Menezes; Dirceu J Costa; Jorge Clarêncio; José Carlos Miranda; Aldina Barral; Manoel Barral-Netto; Cláudia Brodskyn; Camila I de Oliveira

2008-01-01

209

Quantitative and qualitative assessment of DNA extracted from saliva for its use in forensic identification  

PubMed Central

Saliva has long been known for its diagnostic value in several diseases. It also has a potential to be used in forensic science. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the quantity and quality of DNA samples extracted from saliva with those extracted from blood in order to assess the feasibility of extracting sufficient DNA from saliva for its possible use in forensic identification. Materials and Methods: Blood and saliva samples were collected from 20 volunteers and DNA extraction was performed through Phenol Chloroform technique. The quantity and quality of isolated DNA was analyzed by spectrophotometery and the samples were then used to amplify short tandem repeat (STR) F13 using the polymerase chain reaction. Results: Mean quantity of DNA obtained in saliva was 48.4 ± 8.2 ?g/ml and in blood was 142.5 ± 45.9 ?g/ml. Purity of DNA obtained as assessed by the ratio of optical density 260/280, was found to be optimal in 45% salivary samples while remaining showed minor contamination. Despite this positive F13 STR amplification was achieved in 75% of salivary DNA samples. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that saliva may prove to be a useful source of DNA for forensic purpose. PMID:25125913

Khare, Parul; Raj, Vineet; Chandra, Shaleen; Agarwal, Suraksha

2014-01-01

210

Leishmania amazonensis exhibits phosphatidylserine-dependent procoagulant activity, a process that is counteracted by sandfly saliva  

PubMed Central

Leishmania parasites expose phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface, a process that has been associated with regulation of host's immune responses. In this study we demonstrate that PS exposure by metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis favours blood coagulation. L. amazonensis accelerates in vitro coagulation of human plasma. In addition, L. amazonensis supports the assembly of the prothrombinase complex, thus promoting thrombin formation. This process was reversed by annexin V which blocks PS binding sites. During blood meal, Lutzomyia longipalpis sandfly inject saliva in the bite site, which has a series of pharmacologically active compounds that inhibit blood coagulation. Since saliva and parasites are co-injected in the host during natural transmission, we evaluated the anticoagulant properties of sandfly saliva in counteracting the procoagulant activity of L. amazonensis . Lu. longipalpis saliva reverses plasma clotting promoted by promastigotes. It also inhibits thrombin formation by the prothrombinase complex assembled either in phosphatidylcholine (PC)/PS vesicles or in L. amazonensis . Sandfly saliva inhibits factor X activation by the intrinsic tenase complex assembled on PC/PS vesicles and blocks factor Xa catalytic activity. Altogether our results show that metacyclic promastigotes of L. amazonensis are procoagulant due to PS exposure. Notably, this effect is efficiently counteracted by sandfly saliva. PMID:24037188

Rochael, Natalia Cadaxo; Lima, Luize Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria Pereira; Barcinski, Marcello André; Saraiva, Elvira Maria; Monteiro, Robson Queiroz; Pinto-da-Silva, Lucia Helena

2013-01-01

211

Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP  

SciTech Connect

The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 ?g/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ? After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ? Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

Kessler, Winfried, E-mail: kessler@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Numtip, Wanwiwa [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany)] [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany); Csanády, György A. [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany) [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München (Germany); Pütz, Christian [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others

2012-10-15

212

Toward standardization of BK virus monitoring: evaluation of the BK virus R-gene kit for quantification of BK viral load in urine, whole-blood, and plasma specimens.  

PubMed

Screening of BK virus (BKV) replication is recommended to identify patients at increased risk of BKV-associated diseases. However, the heterogeneity of molecular techniques hinders the establishment of universal guidelines for BKV monitoring. Here we aimed to compare the performance of the CE-marked BK virus R-gene kit (R-gene) to the performance of our in-house assay for quantification of BKV DNA loads (BKVL). A 12-specimen panel from the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) organization, 163 urine samples, and 88 paired specimens of plasma and whole blood (WB) from transplant recipients were tested. Both the R-gene and in-house assays showed a good correlation within the QCMD panel (r = 0.995 and r = 0.989, respectively). BKVL were highly correlated between assays, although positive biases were observed with the in-house assay in analysis of urine (0.72 ± 0.83 log10 copies/ml), plasma (1.17 ± 0.63 log10 copies/ml), and WB (1.28 ± 0.37 log10 copies/ml). Recalibration with a common calibrator significantly reduced the bias in comparisons between assays. In contrast, BKVL was underestimated with the in-house PCR in eight samples containing BKV genotype II, presenting point mutations at primer-annealing sites. Using the R-gene assay, plasma and WB specimens were found to be equally suitable for quantification of BKVL, as indicated by the high correlation coefficient (r = 0.965, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the R-gene assay demonstrated reliable performance and higher accuracy than the in-house assay for quantification of BKVL in urine and blood specimens. Screening of BKV replication by a well-validated commercial kit may enable clinical laboratories to assess viral loads with greater reproducibility and precision. PMID:25297334

Sueur, Charlotte; Solis, Morgane; Meddeb, Mariam; Soulier, Eric; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Lepiller, Quentin; Freitag, Rachel; Bahram, Seiamak; Caillard, Sophie; Barth, Heidi; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Fafi-Kremer, Samira

2014-12-01

213

Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance  

PubMed Central

Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interferon-? in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

2014-01-01

214

Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance.  

PubMed

Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interferon-? in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

2014-12-15

215

Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva  

SciTech Connect

Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.

2007-03-01

216

Sodium urine test  

MedlinePLUS

Urinary 24 hours sodium; Urine Na+ ... your kidneys are able to maintain or remove sodium from the urine. It may be used to ... For adults, normal urine sodium values are generally 20 mEq/L in a random urine sample and 40 to 220 mEq/L per day (mEq/ ...

217

Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.  

PubMed

Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

2013-02-01

218

Studies of safe maximal daily dietary Se-intake in a seleniferous area in China. Part II: Relation between Se-intake and the manifestation of clinical signs and certain biochemical alterations in blood and urine.  

PubMed

Selenosis occurs in areas of Enshi county because of the high Se content of the food. Morphological changes in finger-nails were used as the main criterion for clinical diagnosis of selenosis. Pathological nails were observed to occur almost only in adults, not at all in young children and very seldom in teenagers. Symptoms of selenosis in susceptible patients were found at or above an Se-intake of 910 micrograms/d, corresponding to a blood Se level of 1.05 mg/L. There was no evidence for an increased susceptibility to dental caries due to high Se consumption, and an increase in Se-intake seems unlikely to reduce the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries. No abnormalities of liver or heart were seen by supersonic B or electrocardiographic examinations. The biochemical investigations showed that with increasing whole blood Se the ratio of plasma Se to erythrocyte Se tended to decrease. As Se-intake increases to over 750 micrograms daily, the ratio decreases to near a minimal level. Reduced glutathione in whole blood decreases within a blood Se range of 1.01 to 2.28 micrograms in the high Se area. The amount of trimethylselenonium ion excreted in urine increased with the increase of urinary Se. Cases with prolonged prothrombin time occurred as blood Se increased to a level above 1 mg/L. The white blood cell count also increased significantly. Quantitative values were obtained only for ratio of plasma-Se to erythrocyte-Se for prothrombin time and for maintenance of nail Symptoms of susceptible patients. The overall results indicated that a daily Se-intake of 750-850 micrograms [corrected] might be the marginal level of safe intake. When other variable factors are also taken into consideration a daily Se-intake of 400 micrograms [corrected] is suggested as the maximum daily safe intake. At this level of Se-intake the corresponding approximate tissue Se levels are: whole blood 0.559 mg/L, plasma 0.327 mg/L, urine excretion 173 micrograms/d, hair 3.60 mg/kg, toe-nails 4.25 mg/kg, and finger-nails 4.70 mg/kg. PMID:2535331

Yang, G; Yin, S; Zhou, R; Gu, L; Yan, B; Liu, Y; Liu, Y

1989-09-01

219

Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute  

PubMed Central

Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

2015-01-01

220

Rheological properties of saliva substitutes containing mucin, carboxymethylcellulose or polyethylenoxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent viscosities at different shear rates were measured for 3 types of saliva substitutes: (a) mucin-containing saliva; (b) substitutes based upon carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and (c) solution of polyethylenoxide (PEO). The apparent viscosities were compared with those of human whole saliva. Human whole saliva and mucin-containing saliva substitutes appeared to be similar in their rheological properties. Both types of solution are

A. Vissink; H. A. Waterman; E. J.'s-Gravenmade; A. K. Panders; A. Vermey

1984-01-01

221

Peroxidase antimicrobial system of human saliva: hypothiocyanite levels in resting and stimulated saliva.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial oxidizing agent hypothiocyanite ion (OSCN-) was measured in resting (drooling) and stimulated (expectorated) whole saliva. Stimulation of the saliva flow rate resulted in a rapid decrease in OSCN- concentration, whereas the thiocyanate ion (SCN-) concentration and peroxidase activity were increased. The decrease in OSCN- levels was greater than could be accounted for by dilution of the whole saliva volume. Assuming that the antimicrobial activity of the salivary peroxidase system is proportional to OSCN- concentration, this system may be more effective in resting saliva than in stimulated saliva. PMID:6955343

Tenovuo, J; Pruitt, K M; Thomas, E L

1982-08-01

222

Development and validation of an analytical method for determination of 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol in rat blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionization mode.  

PubMed

We have developed a highly selective and sensitive method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization for measuring 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) in rat blood and urine. Samples were adsorbed on silica gel, extracted with ethyl acetate, and derivatized by chemical derivatization with heptafluorobutyric acid anhydride. For quantification, matrix-based calibration curves and 3-MCPD-d (5), as an isotope-labeled internal standard, were used. The relative recoveries of 3-MCPD were between 80 and 110% in most cases and the relative standard deviations were typically less than 10%, with some exceptions. The limit of quantification of the method was found to be about 2 ng/mL. In conclusion, a valuable, robust, and sensitive method for detection of 3-MCPD is now available for biokinetics studies. PMID:20640896

Berger-Preiss, Edith; Gerling, Susanne; Apel, Elisabeth; Lampen, Alfonso; Creutzenberg, Otto

2010-09-01

223

DISTINCT CELLULAR MIGRATION INDUCED BY Leishmania infantum chagasi AND SALIVA FROM Lutzomyia longipalpis IN A HEMORRHAGIC POOL MODEL  

PubMed Central

Recruitment of a specific cell population after Leishmania infection can influence the outcome of the disease. Cellular migration in response to Leishmania or vector saliva has been reported in air pouch model, however, cellular migration induced by Leishmania associated with host's blood and vector saliva in this model has not been described. Herein we investigated cellular migration into air pouch of hamster after stimulation with combination of L. chagasi and host's blood and Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva. Migration induced by saliva was 3-fold more than those induced by L. chagasi alone. Additionally, L. chagasi associated with blood and saliva induced significantly even more leukocytes into air pouch than Leishmania alone. L. chagasi recruited a diverse cell population; however, most of these cells seem to have not migrated to the inflammatory exudate, remaining in the pouch lining tissue. These results indicate that L. chagasi can reduce leukocyte accumulation to the initial site of infection, and when associated with vector saliva in the presence of blood components, increase the influx of more neutrophils than macrophages, suggesting that the parasite has developed a strategy to minimize the initial inflammatory response, allowing an unlimited progression within the host. This work reinforces the importance of studies on the salivary components of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis in the transmission process and the establishment of the infection. PMID:24553604

Vasconcelos, Camila Oliveira; Coêlho, Zirlane C. Branco; Chaves, Cristina de Souza; Teixeira, Clarissa Romero; Pompeu, Margarida M. Lima; Teixeira, Maria Jania

2014-01-01

224

The Proteomes of Human Parotid and Submandibular/Sublingual Gland Salivas Collected as the Ductal Secretions  

PubMed Central

Saliva is a body fluid with important functions in oral and general health. A consortium of three research groups catalogued the proteins in human saliva collected as the ductal secretions: 1166 identifications—914 in parotid and 917 in submandibular/sublingual saliva—were made. The results showed that a high proportion of proteins that are found in plasma and/or tears are also present in saliva along with unique components. The proteins identified are involved in numerous molecular processes ranging from structural functions to enzymatic/catalytic activities. As expected, the majority mapped to the extracellular and secretory compartments. An immunoblot approach was used to validate the presence in saliva of a subset of the proteins identified by mass spectrometric approaches. These experiments focused on novel constituents and proteins for which the peptide evidence was relatively weak. Ultimately, information derived from the work reported here and related published studies can be used to translate blood-based clinical laboratory tests into a format that utilizes saliva. Additionally, a catalogue of the salivary proteome of healthy individuals allows future analyses of salivary samples from individuals with oral and systemic diseases, with the goal of identifying biomarkers with diagnostic and/or prognostic value for these conditions; another possibility is the discovery of therapeutic targets. PMID:18361515

Denny, Paul; Hagen, Fred K.; Hardt, Markus; Liao, Lujian; Yan, Weihong; Arellanno, Martha; Bassilian, Sara; Bedi, Gurrinder S.; Boontheung, Pinmannee; Cociorva, Daniel; Delahunty, Claire M.; Denny, Trish; Dunsmore, Jason; Faull, Kym F.; Gilligan, Joyce; Gonzalez-Begne, Mireya; Halgand, Frédéric; Hall, Steven C.; Han, Xuemei; Henson, Bradley; Hewel, Johannes; Hu, Shen; Jeffrey, Sherry; Jiang, Jiang; Loo, Joseph A.; Ogorzalek Loo, Rachel R.; Malamud, Daniel; Melvin, James E.; Miroshnychenko, Olga; Navazesh, Mahvash; Niles, Richard; Park, Sung Kyu; Prakobphol, Akraporn; Ramachandran, Prasanna; Richert, Megan; Robinson, Sarah; Sondej, Melissa; Souda, Puneet; Sullivan, Mark A.; Takashima, Jona; Than, Shawn; Wang, Jianghua; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Wolinsky, Lawrence; Xie, Yongming; Xu, Tao; Yu, Weixia; Ytterberg, Jimmy; Wong, David T.; Yates, John R.; Fisher, Susan J.

2009-01-01

225

Urine Tests (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Urine Tests KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Sick Kids > Urine Tests Print A ...

226

Quantitation of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, and cocaethylene in urine and blood using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).  

PubMed

Cocaine, a stimulant, is a commonly abused drug. Cocaine and its metabolites are measured in various biological specimens for clinical and forensic purposes. Urine or plasma or serum is spiked with deuterated internal standards cocaine-d3, benzoylecgonine-d3, ecgonine methyl ester-d3, and cocaethylene-d3 and buffered with phosphate buffer. The drugs in the sample are extracted by cation-exchange solid phase extraction. The drugs from the solid phase cartridge are eluted and the eluent is dried under the stream of nitrogen. The residue is incubated with pentafluoropropionic acid anhydride and pentafluoropropanol to form pentafluoropropionyl derivatives of ecgonine methyl ester and benzoylecgonine. Cocaine and cocaethylene are refractory to derivatization. The extract is dried, reconstituted in ethyl acetate, and injected into gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analyzer. Quantitation of the drugs in the samples is made, using selected ion monitoring, from a 3-point calibration curve. PMID:20077067

Fleming, Steven W; Dasgupta, Amitava; Garg, Uttam

2010-01-01

227

[Persistent hematuria after embolization for hemorrhagic complication following percutaneous nephrolithotomy: value of the study of red blood cell volume in urine].  

PubMed

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is associated with a high risk of complications, particularly bleeding, which makes it a potentially invasive technique. Management of haemorrhagic complications sometimes requires the use of embolization. Recurrence after embolization can occur as a result of revascularization or recanalization of vessels, but post-embolization infarction can also lead to persistent haematuria. The authors report the clinical case of a 36-year-old patient presenting with recurrence of severe haematuria after two successive highly selective embolizations. Analysis of the mean corpuscular volume of red cells in the urine confirmed the parenchymal and non-vascular origin of the bleeding, corresponding to a post-embolization syndrome. This analysis therefore constitutes a simple way to avoid repeated embolization or surgical exploration. PMID:12940203

Demey, Alexis; Colomb, Frédéric; Pebeyre, Bruno; Raffaelli, Charles; Garcia, Grégory; Toubol, Jacques; Chevallier, Daniel; Amiel, Jean

2003-06-01

228

Detection of Sub-Clinical CWD Infection in Conventional Test-Negative Deer Long after Oral Exposure to Urine and Feces from CWD+ Deer  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids is a prion disease distinguished by high levels of transmissibility, wherein bodily fluids and excretions are thought to play an important role. Using cervid bioassay and established CWD detection methods, we have previously identified infectious prions in saliva and blood but not urine or feces of CWD+ donors. More recently, we identified very low concentrations of CWD prions in urine of deer by cervid PrP transgenic (Tg[CerPrP]) mouse bioassay and serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA). This finding led us to examine further our initial cervid bioassay experiments using sPMCA. Objectives We sought to investigate whether conventional test-negative deer, previously exposed orally to urine and feces from CWD+ sources, may be harboring low level CWD infection not evident in the 19 month observation period. We further attempted to determine the peripheral PrPCWD distribution in these animals. Methods Various neural and lymphoid tissues from conventional test-negative deer were reanalyzed for CWD prions by sPMCA and cervid transgenic mouse bioassay in parallel with appropriate tissue-matched positive and negative controls. Results PrPCWD was detected in the tissues of orally exposed deer by both sPMCA and Tg[CerPrP] mouse bioassay; each assay revealed very low levels of CWD prions previously undetectable by western blot, ELISA, or IHC. Serial PMCA analysis of individual tissues identified that obex alone was positive in 4 of 5 urine/feces exposed deer. PrPCWD was amplified from both lymphoid and neural tissues of positive control deer but not from identical tissues of negative control deer. Discussion Detection of subclinical infection in deer orally exposed to urine and feces (1) suggests that a prolonged subclinical state can exist, necessitating observation periods in excess of two years to detect CWD infection, and (2) illustrates the sensitive and specific application of sPMCA in the diagnosis of low-level prion infection. Based on these results, it is possible that low doses of prions, e.g. following oral exposure to urine and saliva of CWD-infected deer, bypass significant amplification in the LRS, perhaps utilizing a neural conduit between the alimentary tract and CNS, as has been demonstrated in some other prion diseases. PMID:19956732

Haley, Nicholas J.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Zabel, Mark D.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

2009-01-01

229

Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics  

PubMed Central

Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

Malon, Radha S. P.; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P.

2014-01-01

230

Diagnostic Applications of Saliva in Dentistry  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of saliva to identify individuals with disease and to follow the progress of the affected individual has attracted the attention of numerous investigators. Its noninvasive method of collection, simplicity, and cost effectiveness make it a useful tool not only to the general practitioner but also to the pediatric dentist. Aim: The aim of this paper is to provide the clinician with a comprehensive review of the diagnostic uses of saliva in dentistry. PMID:25206116

AR, Prabhakar; Gulati, Akanksha; Mehta, Deepak; Sugandhan, S

2009-01-01

231

Urine the Know  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity on page 5 of the PDF, learners compare water with artificial urine to see how urinalysis works. Learners use urinalysis test strips to test for glucose and protein in the fake urine. Use this activity to demonstrate why doctors examine urine samples to determine a person's health. Safety notes: Follow the safety notes described in the activity as well as Milli's safety tips on page 2.

American Chemical Society

2004-01-01

232

Specific assays for peroxidases in human saliva.  

PubMed

The peroxidase activity in human whole saliva is due to salivary peroxidase and, in some cases, myeloperoxidase; it is usually determined by spectrophotometric methods based on the rate of oxidation of chromogen substrates. Thiocyanate ion, a normal component of saliva, interferes with these kinetic assays by competing with the chromogen for the available oxidizing equivalents; this results in underestimation of peroxidase activity. Both salivary peroxidase and myeloperoxidase will catalyse the peroxidation of the thiocyanate ion; the product, hypothiocyanite ion, is a reactive oxidizing agent. We have developed an assay for total peroxidase activity in saliva, based on the rate of formation of hypothiocyanite, which is not affected by the concentrations of thiocyanate found in saliva. Myeloperoxidase will catalyse the peroxidation of the chloride ion but salivary peroxidase will not; the product of this in neutral solution is the hypochlorite ion, which is also a reactive oxidizing agent. The specific contribution was determined of myeloperoxidase to total peroxidase activity in saliva by measuring the rate of both hypochlorite and hypothiocyanite formation. Because the thiocyanate ion will compete with the chloride ion, the concentration of thiocyanate in saliva samples must be reduced below 0.05 mM prior to measurements of the rate of hypochlorite formation. PMID:3477210

Mansson-Rahemtulla, B; Baldone, D C; Pruitt, K M; Rahemtulla, F

1986-01-01

233

Rapid and sensitive detection of varicella zoster virus in saliva of patients with herpes zoster  

PubMed Central

VZV reactivation produces zoster (shingles) which may be further complicated by meningoencephalitis, myelopathy, vasculopathy and multiple ocular disorders. Importantly, these neurological and ocular complications of VZV reactivation can occur without rash. In such instances, virological verification relies on detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or less often, the presence of VZV DNA in blood mononuclear cells or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue samples (e.g., saliva or tears) in patients with neurological disease in the absence of rash and shown to correlate with the standard tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. In patients with acute herpes zoster, the yield of cell DNA was greater in saliva collected by passive drool or synthetic swab than by cotton swab. The time to process saliva from collection to obtaining DNA was one hour. VZV DNA was present exclusively in the pelleted fraction of saliva and was found in 100% of patients before antiviral treatment. This rapid sensitive method can be applied readily to saliva from humans with neurologic and other disease that might be caused by VZV in the absence of rash. PMID:23747545

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lechler, Kayla J.; Pierson, Duane L.

2013-01-01

234

Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva  

SciTech Connect

Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

2014-08-07

235

[The influence of alcohol on the oral cavity, salivary glands and saliva].  

PubMed

Ethanol diffuses rapidly into saliva during the drinking, and immediately after its salivary concentration is temporarily much higher than in plasma. Within 30 minutes, salivary ethanol concentration equilibrates with the plasma level, thus suggesting that ethanol easily penetrates the whole body, including oral cavity tissues and salivary glands. After alcohol intake, the level of acetaldehyde in saliva strikingly exceeds the level in systemic blood. From saliva, acetaldehyde and ethanol easily reach all local tissues. Damage to the oral tissues seems to be ascribed mostly to the action of acetaldehyde, although some acute effects depend on a direct action of ethanol and formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). It is known that the oral mucosal surface is the home of numerous normal flora microorganisms and is the portal of entry for the majority of pathogens. The oral cavity and salivary antimicrobial immune defense systems eliminate pathogens and prevent massive overgrowth of microorganisms. An oral defense system participate in the protection of not only oral tissues, but also in the protection of upper digestive and respiratory tracts, against a number of microbial pathogens. Saliva plays the role in the oral cavity lubrication, maintenance of mucosal and tooth integrity, esophageal physiology, digestion and gastric cytoprotection. As alcohol abuse affects the structure and function of oral cavity mucosa, salivary glands and saliva, the maintenance of oral and general health under normal conditions is seriously impaired during the drinking. The severe tissue damage occurs in particular when alcohol abuse coincides with smoking. PMID:21542250

Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Waszkiel, Danuta; Zwierz, Krzysztof

2011-01-01

236

Urine pH test  

MedlinePLUS

A urine pH test measures the level of acid in urine. ... pH - urine ... meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. ... to check for changes in your body's acid levels.It may be done to ... more effective when urine is acidic or non-acidic (alkaline).

237

Physiologically-based toxicokinetic model for cadmium using Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis of concentrations in blood, urine, and kidney cortex from living kidney donors.  

PubMed

The health effects of low-level chronic exposure to cadmium are increasingly recognized. To improve the risk assessment, it is essential to know the relation between cadmium intake, body burden, and biomarker levels of cadmium. We combined a physiologically-based toxicokinetic (PBTK) model for cadmium with a data set from healthy kidney donors to re-estimate the model parameters and to test the effects of gender and serum ferritin on systemic uptake. Cadmium levels in whole blood, blood plasma, kidney cortex, and urinary excretion from 82 men and women were used to calculate posterior distributions for model parameters using Markov-chain Monte Carlo analysis. For never- and ever-smokers combined, the daily systemic uptake was estimated at 0.0063 ?g cadmium/kg body weight in men, with 35% increased uptake in women and a daily uptake of 1.2 ?g for each pack-year per calendar year of smoking. The rate of urinary excretion from cadmium accumulated in the kidney was estimated at 0.000042 day(-1), corresponding to a half-life of 45 years in the kidneys. We have provided an improved model of cadmium kinetics. As the new parameter estimates derive from a single study with measurements in several compartments in each individual, these new estimates are likely to be more accurate than the previous ones where the data used originated from unrelated data sets. The estimated urinary excretion of cadmium accumulated in the kidneys was much lower than previous estimates, neglecting this finding may result in a marked under-prediction of the true kidney burden. PMID:25015660

Fransson, Martin Niclas; Barregard, Lars; Sallsten, Gerd; Akerstrom, Magnus; Johanson, Gunnar

2014-10-01

238

Urine collection device  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

239

Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU): pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status  

PubMed Central

Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes), arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca) salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx), calcium phosphate (CaPi)), supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB) and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF)), in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote) of oxidative metabolism (OM), without and with variation of markers. Results 1) In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite) were unchanged; 2) upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median) numerous stone parameters differed significant!)', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3) a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4) in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5) also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were negatively correlated, whereas in SF plasma Ca/Pi ratio, PTH and body mass index correlated positively; 6) multivariate regression analysis revealed that PTH, body mass index and nitrate together could explain 22 (p = 0.002) and only 7 (p = 0.06) per cent of variation of plasma Ca/Pi in SF and SB, respectively Conclusions In IRCU a) numerous constituents of fasting urine, plasma, blood and blood pressure change in response to variation of OM biomarkers, suggesting involvement of OM imbalance as factor in functional deterioration of tissue; b) in the majority of patients a positive exponential relationship links urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, presumably to accumulate Ca outside tubular lumen, thereby minimizing intratubular and urinary Ca salt crystallization; c) alteration of interactions of low urine nitrate, PTH and Ca/Pi in plasma may be of importance in formation of new Ca stone and co-regulation of dynamics of blood vasculature; d) overweight, combined with OM-modified renal interstitial environment appears to facilitate these processes, carrying the risk that CaPi mineral develops within or/and close to blood vessel tissue, and spreads towards urothelium. For future research focussing on IRCU pathogenesis studies are recommended on the role of affluent lifestyle mediated renal ischemia, mild hypertensive nephropathy, rise of uric acid precursor oxypurines and uricemia, clarifying also why loss of significance of interrelationships of OM biomarkers with traditional Ca stone risk factors is characteristic for SB patients. OM biomarkers Plasma uric acid - Discussed as scavenger of reactive oxygen species, but also as donator (via the xanthine oxido-reductase reaction) Urinary malonedialdehydc - Accepted as indicator of peroxidation of lipids within biological cell membranes Urinaiy nitrate - Accepted as indicator of vasodilation-mediating nitric oxide production by blood vessel endothelium Urinary malonedialdehyde/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of oxidant/antioxidant imbalance Urinary nitrate/Plasma uric acid - Tentative markers of oxidant/antiox

2011-01-01

240

Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.  

PubMed

Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

2014-07-01

241

Cadmium in blood and urine--impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking--association of renal effects.  

PubMed

We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range, 0.065-0.99). The intake of Cd per kilogram body weight did not significantly differ between sexes and did not correlate with BCd or UCd, which may be explained by a low and varying bioavailibility of Cd from food items. However, when a subgroup of the study population, couples of never-smoking men and women, were compared, a lower intake per kilogram body weight was found in the women, but the women had a 1.8 times higher BCd and a 1.4 times higher UCd. The higher female BCd and UCd may be explained by higher absorption due to low iron status. BCd and UCd both increased with age and were higher in the ex-smokers, who had stopped smoking more than 5 years before the study, compared to never-smokers. The contribution of locally produced food to the total Cd intake was relatively low and varied. Males living in areas with low soil Cd had lower UCd than the others. However, Cd levels in kidneys from pigs, fed locally produced cereals, did not predict BCd or UCd in humans at the same farms. The kidney function parameter ss2-microglobulin-creatinine clearance was related to UCd, whereas urinary protein-HC, N-acetyl-ss-glucoseaminidase or albumin-creatinine clearance was not when age was accounted for. Hence, even at the low exposure levels in this study population, there was an indication of effect on biochemical markers of renal function. PMID:12460796

Olsson, Ing-Marie; Bensryd, Inger; Lundh, Thomas; Ottosson, Helena; Skerfving, Staffan; Oskarsson, Agneta

2002-12-01

242

Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

2012-01-01

243

Determination of methylphenidate in plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a phenethylamine derivative used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In adults, clinical monitoring of MPH therapy is usually performed by measuring plasma MPH concentrations. In children blood sampling is however undesirable. Saliva may be an alternative matrix for monitoring MPH concentrations with the advantage that it can be obtained non-invasively. Therefore, we developed an analytical method for the quantification of MPH in both plasma and saliva. We present the validation of a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column (HILIC). In 100 ?L sample, proteins were precipitated with 750 ?L acetonitrile/methanol 84/16 (v/v) containing d9-methylphenidate as the internal standard. Standard curves were prepared over the MPH concentration range of 0.5-100.0 ?g/L. The total analysis time was 45 s. Accuracy and within- and between-run imprecision were in the range of 98-108% and less than 7.0%, respectively. Matrix effects were greater for plasma than saliva with 46% and 8% ionization suppression. The matrix effects were adequately compensated by the use of deuterated MPH as internal standard. MPH significantly degraded in plasma and saliva at room temperature and 5°C. Samples were stable at -20°C for at least 4 weeks. The method was successfully applied for the determination of MPH concentrations in plasma and saliva samples from an adult healthy volunteer. Using protein precipitation and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, this method allows fast, accurate and precise quantification of MPH in both plasma and saliva. PMID:23454305

Seçilir, A; Schrier, L; Bijleveld, Y A; Toersche, J H; Jorjani, S; Burggraaf, J; van Gerven, J; Mathôt, R A A

2013-04-01

244

Effects of radiotherapy on human parotid saliva  

SciTech Connect

Changes in parotide salivary function, as determined by flow rate and protein secretion, were measured in 31 cancer patients given radiotherapy to the head and neck. After the first week of treatment, a 50% decrease in salivary flow rate and a 60% decrease in protein secretion rate were observed. Salivary function remained at or below these levels during the next 3 week of treatment. Proteins in saliva were affected unequally, with the family of glycoproteins exhibiting greater sensitivity than amylase. Chromatography or irradiated (60 Gy) and unirradiated whole parotid saliva suggests that the observed alterations in salivary protein may be due to radiation effects on protein synthesis rather than on the proteins themselves.

Mossman, K.L.; Shatzman, A.R.; Chencharick, J.D.

1981-11-01

245

The Diagnostic Applications of Saliva—A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the diagnostic application of saliva for systemic diseases. As a diagnostic fluid, saliva offers distinctive advantages over serum because it can be collected non-invasively by individuals with modest training. Furthermore, saliva may provide a cost-effective approach for the screening of large populations. Gland-specific saliva can be used for diagnosis of pathology specific to one of the major

Eliaz Kaufman; Ira B. Lamster

2002-01-01

246

DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva  

E-print Network

DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva From: Wirth, M. M., Welsh, K., & Schultheiss saliva samples! (Note: Diluted controls should cover the whole range of expected salivary hormone levels for measurement of serum hormones, but not saliva. Thus, calculate the expected concentrations after dilution

Michigan, University of

247

Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics  

E-print Network

Microfluidic immunoassays as rapid saliva-based clinical diagnostics Amy E. Herr , Anson V. Hatch diagnostic that enables rapid quantitation of an oral disease biomarker in human saliva by using a monolithic facilitates hands-free saliva analysis by integrating sample pretreatment (filtering, enrichment, mixing

Herr, Amy E.

248

Characterization of the differentiated antioxidant profile of human saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva is armed with various defense mechanisms, such as the immunological and enzymatic defense systems. In addition, saliva has the ability to protect the mucosa against mechanical insults and to promote its healing via the activity of epidermal growth factor. However, another defense mechanism, the antioxidant system, exists in saliva and seems to be of paramount importance. The most interesting

Rafael M Nagler; Ifat Klein; Nataly Zarzhevsky; Noam Drigues; Abraham Z Reznick

2002-01-01

249

24-hour urine copper test  

MedlinePLUS

A 24-hour urine sample is needed. On day 1, urinate into the toilet when you get up in the morning. Afterwards, collect all urine in a special container for the next 24 hours. On day 2, urinate into the container when you get up in the morning. Cap ...

250

Cancer detection by native fluorescence of urine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because cancer is a dreaded disease, a number of techniques such as biomarker evaluation, mammograms, colposcopy, and computed tomography scan are currently employed for early diagnosis. Many of these are specific to a particular site, invasive, and often expensive. Hence, there is a definite need for a simple, generic, noninvasive protocol for cancer detection, comparable to blood and urine tests for diabetes. Our objective is to show the results of a novel study in the diagnosis of several cancer types from the native or intrinsic fluorescence of urine. We use fluorescence emission spectra (FES) and stokes shift spectra (SSS) to analyze the native fluorescence of the first voided urine samples of healthy controls (N=100) and those of cancer patients (N=50) of different etiology. We show that flavoproteins and porphyrins released into urine can act as generic biomarkers of cancer with a specificity of 92%, a sensitivity of 76%, and an overall accuracy of 86.7%. We employ FES and SSS for rapid and cost-effective quantification of certain intrinsic biomarkers in urine for screening and diagnosis of most common cancer types with an overall accuracy of 86.7%.

Masilamani, Vadivel; Vijmasi, Trinka; Al Salhi, Mohammad; Govindaraj, Kanagaraj; Vijaya-Raghavan, Ayanam Parthasarathy; Antonisamy, Belavendra

2010-09-01

251

Effects of heavy physical exercise and adaptogens on nitric oxide content in human saliva.  

PubMed

Since heavy physical exercise increases the content of nitric oxide and cortisol in blood and saliva, standardized extracts of the adaptogen herbal drugs Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba roots were applied to several groups of athletes in a placebo controlled double blind study. In the beginning of a test with athletes Schizandra chinensis and Bryonia alba extracts increased the concentration of NO and cortisol in blood plasma and saliva similar to athletes with heavy physical exercise. These results correlate with an increased physical performance in athletes taking adaptogens versus athletes taking placebo. In contrast after treatment with the adaptogen heavy physical exercise does not increase salivary NO and cortisol in athletes, whereas athletes treated with placebo heavy physical exercise increased salivary NO. These results show that the salivary NO test can be used both for evaluation of physical loading and stress protective effect of an adaptogen. PMID:10228607

Panossian, A G; Oganessian, A S; Ambartsumian, M; Gabrielian, E S; Wagner, H; Wikman, G

1999-03-01

252

Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.  

PubMed

Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol. PMID:20648576

White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

2010-12-01

253

Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for detecting tannin-binding proteins in the saliva of herbivores. The method is simple and requires only small quantities of crude saliva. The saliva of deer, a browsing ruminant, has been compared to that of domestic sheep and cow, which are grazing ruminants. The browser, which normally ingests dietary tannin, produces tannin-binding proteins, while the grazers

Paul J. Austin; Lisa A. Suchar; Charles T. Robbins; Ann E. Hagerman

1989-01-01

254

The effects of salivas on occlusal forces.  

PubMed

Contacting surfaces of opposing teeth produce friction that, when altered, changes the contact force direction and/or magnitude. As friction can be influenced by several factors, including lubrication and the contacting materials, the aim of this study was to measure the occlusal load alterations experienced by teeth with the introduction of different salivas and dental restorative materials. Pairs of molar teeth were set into occlusion with a weighted maxillary tooth mounted onto a vertical sliding assembly and the mandibular tooth supported by a load cell. The load components on the mandibular tooth were measured with three opposing pairs of dental restorative materials (plastic denture, all-ceramic and stainless steel), four (human and three artificial) salivas and 16 occlusal configurations. All lateral force component measurements were significantly different (P < 0·0001) from the dry (control) surface regardless of the crown material or occlusal configuration, while the effects of the artificial salivas compared to each other and to human saliva depended on the crown material. PMID:25484034

McCrea, E S; Katona, T R; Eckert, G J

2015-05-01

255

Gustatory adaptation to saliva and sodium chloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human NaCl thesholds were measured under 2 conditions: (a) salivary influence excluded by rinse with distilled water or 1 of 3 weak concentrations of NaCl between stimulations, and (b) salivary influence maximized by using no rinse. Adaptation to distilled water yielded a median threshold for 4 Ss of .00014 M vs. .0043 M for adaptation to saliva. The latter value

Donald H. McBurney; Carl Pfaffmann

1963-01-01

256

A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.  

PubMed

?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20°C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

2014-09-01

257

The Human Urine Metabolome  

PubMed Central

Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

2013-01-01

258

The Mammalian Urine Concentrating Mechanism: Hypotheses and Uncertainties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The urine concentrating mechanism of the mammalian kidney, which can produce a urine that is substantially more concentrated than blood plasma during periods of water deprivation, is one of the enduring mysteries in traditional physiology. Owing to the complex lateral and axial relationships of tubules and vessels, in both the outer and inner medulla, the urine concentrating mechanism may only be fully understood in terms of the kidneyÂ?s three-dimensional functional architecture and its implications for preferential interactions among tubules and vessels.

Anita Layton (Duke University Mathematics)

2009-08-01

259

Toward an Understanding of the Biochemical and Pharmacological Complexity of the Saliva of a Hematophagous Sand Fly Lutzomyia longipalpis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains powerful pharmacologically active substances and may be a vaccine target against some vector-borne diseases. Subtractive cloning combined with biochemical approaches was used to discover activities in the salivary glands of the hematophagous fly Lutzomyia longipalpis. Sequences of nine full-length cDNA clones were obtained, five of which are possibly associated with blood-meal acquisition, each having

Rosane Charlab; Jesus G. Valenzuela; Edgar D. Rowton; Jose M. C. Ribeiro

1999-01-01

260

Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over\\u000a centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach\\u000a sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for

Johan J. Mattelaer

1999-01-01

261

Evaluation of the Murine Immune Response to Xenopsylla cheopis Flea Saliva and Its Effect on Transmission of Yersinia pestis  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Arthropod-borne pathogens are transmitted into a unique intradermal microenvironment that includes the saliva of their vectors. Immunomodulatory factors in the saliva can enhance infectivity; however, in some cases the immune response that develops to saliva from prior uninfected bites can inhibit infectivity. Most rodent reservoirs of Yersinia pestis experience fleabites regularly, but the effect this has on the dynamics of flea-borne transmission of plague has never been investigated. We examined the innate and acquired immune response of mice to bites of Xenopsylla cheopis and its effects on Y. pestis transmission and disease progression in both naïve mice and mice chronically exposed to flea bites. Methods/Principal Findings The immune response of C57BL/6 mice to uninfected flea bites was characterized by flow cytometry, histology, and antibody detection methods. In naïve mice, flea bites induced mild inflammation with limited recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages to the bite site. Infectivity and host response in naïve mice exposed to flea bites followed immediately by intradermal injection of Y. pestis did not differ from that of mice infected with Y. pestis without prior flea feeding. With prolonged exposure, an IgG1 antibody response primarily directed to the predominant component of flea saliva, a family of 36–45 kDa phosphatase-like proteins, occurred in both laboratory mice and wild rats naturally exposed to X. cheopis, but a hypersensitivity response never developed. The incidence and progression of terminal plague following challenge by infective blocked fleas were equivalent in naïve mice and mice sensitized to flea saliva by repeated exposure to flea bites over a 10-week period. Conclusions Unlike what is observed with many other blood-feeding arthropods, the murine immune response to X. cheopis saliva is mild and continued exposure to flea bites leads more to tolerance than to hypersensitivity. The immune response to flea saliva had no detectable effect on Y. pestis transmission or plague pathogenesis in mice. PMID:25255317

Bosio, Christopher F.; Viall, Austin K.; Jarrett, Clayton O.; Gardner, Donald; Rood, Michael P.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

2014-01-01

262

Changes in sodium, calcium and magnesium ion concentrations in sturgeon ( Huso huso ) urine and in kidney morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

During adaptation to brackish water the young great sturgeon Huso huso is able to regulate its serum osmolarity and ion concentrations. After transfer from fresh water to brackish water the ion concentrations in the urine increase and the urine becomes isoosmotic to the blood serum after 24h. The Na+ and K+ concentrations in the urine increase during the first 12

L. S. Krayushkina; A. A. Panov; A. A. Gerasimov; W. T. W. Potts

1996-01-01

263

Urine collection - infants  

MedlinePLUS

... gave you. You will be given a special bag to collect the urine. It will be a plastic bag with a sticky strip on one end, made ... fit over your baby's genital area. Open this bag and place it on the infant. For males, ...

264

Getting a Urine Test  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if you know what to expect, it doesn't have to be embarrassing ... & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

265

Urine Test: Dipstick (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Measles: What to Know Vaccines: FAQs ... Checkups: What to Expect Urine Test: Dipstick KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Urine Test: Dipstick ...

266

Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases  

PubMed Central

Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases. PMID:22368352

Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

2011-01-01

267

SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies  

PubMed Central

A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1?:?1 salt (MX), whose concentration is cMX = (1/2)?ci (ci = analytical concentration of all the ions) and z ion charge calculated as z=±(I/cMX)1/2 = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered. PMID:25733975

De Stefano, Concetta

2015-01-01

268

CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload  

PubMed Central

Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

2013-01-01

269

Distribution, Persistence and Interchange of Epstein-Barr Virus Strains among PBMC, Plasma and Saliva of Primary Infection Subjects  

PubMed Central

Our study aimed at investigating the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), plasma and saliva of primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection subjects. Twelve infectious mononucleosis (IM) patients and eight asymptomatic individuals (AS) with primary EBV infection were followed longitudinally at several time points for one year from the time of diagnosis, when blood and saliva samples were collected and separated into PBMC, plasma and saliva, representing circulating B cell, plasma and epithelial cell compartments, respectively. To survey the viral strains, genotyping assays for the natural polymorphisms in two latent EBV genes, EBNA2 and LMP1, were performed and consisted of real-time PCR on EBNA2 to distinguish type 1 and 2 viruses, fluorescent-based 30-bp typing assay on LMP1 to distinguish deletion and wild type LMP1, and fluorescent-based heteroduplex tracking assays on both EBNA2 and LMP1 to distinguish defined polymorphic variants. No discernible differences were observed between IM patients and AS. Multiple viral strains were acquired early at the start of infection. Stable persistence of dominant EBV strains in the same tissue compartment was observed throughout the longitudinal samples. LMP1-defined strains, China 1, China 2 and Mediterranean+, were the most common strains observed. EBNA2-defined groups 1 and 3e predominated the PBMC and saliva compartments. Concordance of EBNA2 and LMP1 strains between PBMC and saliva suggested ready interchange of viruses between circulating B cell and epithelial cell pools, whilst discordance of viral strains observed between plasma and PBMC/saliva indicated presence of viral pools in other undetermined tissue compartments. Taken together, the results indicated that the distribution, persistence and interchange of viral strains among the tissue compartments are more complex than those proposed by the current model of EBV life cycle. PMID:25807555

Kwok, Hin; Chan, Koon Wing; Chan, Kwok Hung; Chiang, Alan Kwok Shing

2015-01-01

270

Optimization of A Portable Microanalytical System to Reduce Electrode Fouling from Proteins Associated with Biomonitoring of Lead (Pb) in Saliva  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for on-site and real-time biomonitoring of lead (Pb) from both occupational and environmental exposures. Saliva is an appealing matrix since it is easily obtainable, and therefore a potential substitute for blood since there is a reasonably good correlation between Pb levels in both blood and saliva. The microanalytical system is based on stripping voltammetry of Pb at the microelectrochemical cell having a flow injection/flow-onto design. Samples that contain as little as 1% saliva can cause electrode fouling, resulting in significantly reduced responsiveness, irreproducible quantitations, and the need for frequent electrode regeneration. In addition, incomplete Pb release from salivary protein can also yield a lower Pb response than expected. This paper evaluates the extent of in vitro Pb-protein binding and the optimal pre-treatment for releasing Pb from the saliva samples. Even in 50% by volume of rat saliva, the electrode fouling was not observed, due to the appropriate sample pretreatment (with 1.0 M acid, followed by centrifugation at the RCF of 15200?g) and the constant flow of the sample and acidic carrier that prevented passivation by the protein. The system offered a linear response over a low Pb range (1-10 ppb), low detection limit (1 ppb), excellent reproducibility (5% RSD), and reliability. It also yielded the same Pb concentrations in unknown samples as did the ICP-MS. These encouraging results suggest that the microanalytical system represents an important analytical advancement for real-time non-invasive (i.e., saliva) biomonitoring of Pb.

Yantasee, Wassana; Timchalk, Chuck; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Dean A.; Lin, Yuehe

2005-09-15

271

Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva  

PubMed Central

Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota. PMID:22868153

Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Mónica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.

2013-01-01

272

Survival of Airborne MS2 Bacteriophage Generated from Human Saliva, Artificial Saliva, and Cell Culture Medium  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies of virus aerosols have been criticized for generating airborne viruses from artificial nebulizer suspensions (e.g., cell culture media), which do not mimic the natural release of viruses (e.g., from human saliva). The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of human saliva on the infectivity and survival of airborne virus and to compare it with those of artificial saliva and cell culture medium. A stock of MS2 bacteriophage was diluted in one of three nebulizer suspensions, aerosolized, size selected (100 to 450 nm) using a differential mobility analyzer, and collected onto gelatin filters. Uranine was used as a particle tracer. The resulting particle size distribution was measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. The amounts of infectious virus, total virus, and fluorescence in the collected samples were determined by infectivity assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and spectrofluorometry, respectively. For all nebulizer suspensions, the virus content generally followed a particle volume distribution rather than a number distribution. The survival of airborne MS2 was independent of particle size but was strongly affected by the type of nebulizer suspension. Human saliva was found to be much less protective than cell culture medium (i.e., 3% tryptic soy broth) and artificial saliva. These results indicate the need for caution when extrapolating laboratory results, which often use artificial nebulizer suspensions. To better assess the risk of airborne transmission of viral diseases in real-life situations, the use of natural suspensions such as saliva or respiratory mucus is recommended. PMID:24561592

Kuehn, Thomas H.; Bekele, Aschalew Z.; Mor, Sunil K.; Verma, Harsha; Goyal, Sagar M.; Raynor, Peter C.; Pui, David Y. H.

2014-01-01

273

Multiple factor analysis of urine leaks after retroperitoneal laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.  

PubMed

Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) is increasingly becoming a definitive therapeutic option for the treatment of small (less than 4 cm) and select moderate-sized (less than 7 cm) renal tumors. Postoperative hemorrhage and urine leak are the most pertinent complications after nephron-sparing surgery, open or laparoscopic. To our knowledge, the risk factors of urine leaks after retroperitoneal LPN have not been studied. We retrospectively analyzed our experience with retroperitoneal LPN to determine risk factors for postoperative urine leak complications. The records of 236 patients who underwent retroperitoneal LPN for renal tumor from March 2003 to October 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Urine leak was strictly defined as continued urine output from the drain after postoperative day 2. In our series, 39 patients (16.5%) had urine leak complications. On multivariate analysis, mean estimated blood loss (p = 0.0120) and computed tomography angiogram (CTA) examination (p = 0.0286) were independent predictive factors of urine leaks. Moreover, the intraoperative blood loss was significantly reduced in patients undergoing CTA examination (p = 0.0375). Our investigation showed that factors such as intraoperative blood loss and CTA examination are predictors of urine leaks after retroperitoneal LPN. Less intraoperative blood loss to obtain a clear operative field and meticulous suturing technique are necessary to reduce urine leak probability. PMID:22004840

Wang, Ping; Xia, Dan; Wang, Shuo

2011-01-01

274

Ten-minute analysis of drugs and metabolites in saliva by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid analysis of drugs in emergency room overdose patients is critical to selecting appropriate medical care. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative to blood plasma analysis for this application. However, current clinical laboratory analysis methods involve extensive sample extraction followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and typically require as much as one hour to perform. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable lab-on-a-chip format, and generally no more than a drop of sample is required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by six orders of magnitude or more allows detection of microg/mL concentrations. Measurements of cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, and several barbiturates are presented.

Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

2005-11-01

275

Correlations between Numbers of Microf lora in Plaque and Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epidemiologic investigation to reliably identify caries-susceptible subjects by microbiological and chemical assessment of plaque and saliva is currently in progress. As part of that study, the numerical relationships of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and total viable microflora in plaque and saliva among 12- to 15-year-old children in a fluoridated community were determined. Paraffin-stimulated whole saliva and pooled dental plaque were

Sheila A. Mundorff; Arthur D. Eisenberg; Dennis H. Leverett; Mark A. Espeland; Howard M. Proskin

1990-01-01

276

Human saliva exposure modulates bone cell performance in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various situations encountered by a clinician during the daily routine including surgical periodontitis therapy, dental implant\\u000a insertion, or tooth extraction involve the contact of saliva with the jaw bone. However, there are only sparse data concerning\\u000a the influence of saliva on bone cells. Saliva specimens were incorporated within culture medium and administered to murine\\u000a MC3T3 osteoblasts, of which the morphology

Susanne Proksch; Thorsten Steinberg; Constantin Keller; Martin Wolkewitz; Margit Wiedmann-Al-Ahmad; Guenter Finkenzeller; Christian Hannig; Elmar Hellwig; Ali Al-Ahmad

277

Hypothiocyanite ion: detection of the antimicrobial agent in human saliva.  

PubMed

The median concentration of hypothiocyanite (OSCN-) in freshly collected whole saliva was 10 microM. The OSCN- concentration increased to a median value of 36 microM during incubation for one h at 37 degrees in vitro. This increase was partially inhibited by adding certain sugars (especially sucrose). The results suggest that OSCN- is a naturally occurring component of human saliva. Also, dietary carbohydrate may inhibit OSCN- accumulation and antimicrobial action in saliva. PMID:6931123

Thomas, E L; Bates, K P; Jefferson, M M

1980-09-01

278

Saliva suppresses osteoclastogenesis in murine bone marrow cultures.  

PubMed

Saliva can reach mineralized surfaces in the oral cavity; however, the relationship between saliva and bone resorption is unclear. Herein, we examined whether saliva affects the process of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We used murine bone marrow cultures to study osteoclast formation. The addition of fresh sterile saliva eliminated the formation of multinucleated cells that stained positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). In line with the histochemical staining, saliva substantially reduced gene expression of cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, and TRAP. Addition of saliva led to considerably decreased gene expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) and, to a lesser extent, that of c-fms. The respective master regulators of osteoclastogenesis (c-fos and NFATc1) and the downstream cell fusion genes (DC-STAMP and Atp6v0d2) showed decreased expression after the addition of saliva. Among the costimulatory molecules for osteoclastogenesis, only OSCAR showed decreased expression. In contrast, CD40, CD80, and CD86-all costimulatory molecules of phagocytic cells-were increasingly expressed with saliva. The phagocytic capacity of the cells was confirmed by latex bead ingestion. Based on these in vitro results, it can be concluded that saliva suppresses osteoclastogenesis and leads to the development of a phagocytic cell phenotype. PMID:25297116

Caballé-Serrano, J; Cvikl, B; Bosshardt, D D; Buser, D; Lussi, A; Gruber, R

2015-01-01

279

Electrolytic pretreatment of urine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

1977-01-01

280

A Comprehensive Defensin Assay for Saliva  

PubMed Central

Defensins are highly basic cationic peptides that are important components of the innate and adaptive immune response pathways. In addition, these peptides are involved in CD8+ T cell response to HIV-1, increased pulmonary infection risk among cystic fibrosis patients, upregulated levels of HNP-5 for patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, monitoring HNP-3 levels as a tumor classification scheme for cutaneous T cell lymphomas, and have promise in the pharmaceutical field as a new class of antibiotics. Here we present a parallel assay for the ? (HNP1-3) and ? (HBD1-2) classes of defensins in saliva that are naturally observed in the concentration range of 1 ng/mL to 10 ?g/mL. The method utilizes solid phase extraction of saliva samples combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify and quantitate defensin targets. The approach involves limited sample manipulation and is easily amenable to automation. The saliva samples analyzed are derived from a large cohort study focused on examining the role of polymorphisms in genes of innate and adaptive immunity in modulating the response to vaccination for two gastrointestinal tract infections: typhoid and cholera. The ?-defensin levels observed range from 1 to 10 ?g/mL and correlate well with known active concentrations against a wide variety of pathogens. The observed concentration range for ?-defensins was between the detection limit and 33 ng/mL and had a sensitivity level that was comparable to immunoassay-based detection. This method is easily adapted for use in a clinical immunology setting and can be modified for other biological matrices. This assay will facilitate examination of the production, secretion, and regulation of defensin peptides in a direct fashion in order to coordinate levels of these compounds with gender, age, response to vaccination, gene copy number, and oral health. PMID:19072583

Gardner, Michael S.; Rowland, Megan D.; Siu, Amy Y.; Bundy, Jonathan L.; Wagener, Diane K.; Stephenson, James L.

2009-01-01

281

Human saliva-based quantitative monitoring of clarithromycin by flow injection chemiluminescence analysis: a pharmacokinetic study.  

PubMed

Human saliva quantitative monitoring of clarithromycin (CLA) by chemiluminescence (CL) with flow injection analysis was proposed for the first time, which was based on the quenching effect of CLA on luminol-bovine serum albumin (BSA) CL system with a linear range from 7.5 × 10(-4) to 2.0 ng/ml. This proposed approach, offering a maximum sample throughput of 100 h(-1), was successfully applied to the quantitative monitoring of CLA levels in human saliva during 24 h after a single oral dose of 250 mg intake, with recoveries of 95.2 ? 109.0% and relative standard deviations lower than 6.5 % (N = 7). Results showed that CLA reached maximum concentration of 2.28 ± 0.02 ?g/ml at approximately 3 h, and the total elimination ratio was 99.6 % in 24 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters including absorption rate constant (0.058 ± 0.006 h(-1)), elimination rate constant (0.149 ± 0.009 h(-1)) and elimination half-life time (4.66 ± 0.08 h) were obtained. A comparison of human saliva and urine monitoring was also given. The mechanism study of BSA-CLA interaction revealed the binding of CLA to BSA is an entropy driven and spontaneous process through hydrophobic interaction, with binding constant K BSA-CLA of 4.78 × 10(6) l/mol and the number of binding sites n of 0.82 by flow injection-chemiluminescence model. Molecular docking analysis further showed CLA might be in subdomain IIA of BSA, with K BSA-CLA of 6.82 × 10(5) l/mol and ?G of -33.28 kJ/mol. PMID:24166104

Tan, Xijuan; Song, Zhenghua

2014-02-01

282

A preliminary Raman spectroscopic study of urine: diagnosis of breast cancer in animal models.  

PubMed

Prognosis of breast cancer, the most common cancer in females worldwide, has been shown to improve with early detection. Owing to disadvantages like low sensitivity, specificity, tedious sample preparation, long output times and inter-observer variance of currently available screening/diagnostic tools, rapid and objective alternatives such as Raman spectroscopy (RS) are being extensively explored. Body fluid (serum and saliva) based RS assays have shown promising results in diagnosis of oral, lung and nasopharyngeal cancers. The current study aims to explore the feasibility of breast cancer diagnosis using urine based RS. In this study, spectra were acquired from unprocessed as well as concentrated urine of controls (C) and breast tumor bearing (T) rats and analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Principal Component-Linear Discriminant Analysis (PC-LDA). Classification efficiencies of 80% and 72% using unprocessed urine and 78% and 91% using concentrated urine for C and T rats were achieved. Thus, results suggest the possibility of breast cancer diagnosis using urine based RS. Further, spectra were also acquired from concentrated urine samples collected prior to breast tumor development (TT) in rats and from rats that did not develop tumors despite carcinogen treatment (NTT). Concentrated urine of NTT rats could be classified as 'normal' (C or NTT) with ?83% efficiency whereas concentrated urine from visibly and palpably normal rats that eventually developed tumor (TT rats) could be classified as 'abnormal' (TT or T) with ?72.5% efficiency using PC-LDA. These results suggest the possibility of detecting biochemical changes occurring prior to tumor development using urine based RS. PMID:25429666

Bhattacharjee, T; Khan, A; Maru, G; Ingle, A; Krishna, C Murali

2015-01-21

283

Nanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes  

E-print Network

Nanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes Viswanathan Palanisamy1 Background: Exosomes, derived from endocytic membrane vesicles are thought to participate in cell, exosomes secreted in human saliva contain proteins and nucleic acids that could be exploited for diagnostic

Gimzewski, James

284

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE SECRETION OF NITROGEN IN SHEEP SALIVA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements were made on the distribution of nitrogen in the mixed and parotid salivary secretion of sheep and on the amount of nitrogen secreted daily in the parotid saliva.The distribution of nitrogen in the mixed saliva followed the same pattern as that in the parotid secretions obtained when the glands were in a quiescent state. The concentration of nitrogen in

M Somers

1961-01-01

285

A review of saliva: Normal composition, flow, and function  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adequate supply of saliva is critical to the preservation and maintenance of oral tissue. Clinicians often do not value the many benefits of saliva until quantities are decreased. Much is written on the subject of salivary hypofunction, but little attention is paid to normal salivary flow and function. This article is a brief, up-to-date overview of the literature on

Sue P. Humphrey; Russell T. Williamson

2001-01-01

286

Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity  

E-print Network

Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity Alain Le Coupanec1 , Divya contro^le, Centre IRD de Montpellier, Montpellier, France Abstract Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. Objective

Boyer, Edmond

287

Metabolic hormones in saliva: origins and functions  

PubMed Central

The salivary proteome consists of thousands of proteins, which include, among others, hormonal modulators of energy intake and output. Although the functions of this prominent category of hormones in whole body energy metabolism are well characterized, their functions in the oral cavity, whether as a salivary component, or when expressed in taste cells, are less studied and poorly understood. The respective receptors for the majority of salivary metabolic hormones have been also shown to be expressed in salivary glands, taste cells, or other cells in the oral mucosa. This review provides a comprehensive account of the gastrointestinal hormones, adipokines, and neuropeptides identified in saliva, salivary glands, or lingual epithelium, as well as their respective cognate receptors expressed in the oral cavity. Surprisingly, few functions are assigned to salivary metabolic hormones, and these functions are mostly associated with the modulation of taste perception. Because of the well-characterized correlation between impaired oral nutrient sensing and increased energy intake and body mass index, a conceptually provocative point of view is introduced, whereupon it is argued that targeted changes in the composition of saliva could affect whole body metabolism in response to the activation of cognate receptors expressed locally in the oral mucosa. PMID:22994880

Zolotukhin, S.

2012-01-01

288

A dynamic model of saliva secretion  

PubMed Central

We construct a mathematical model of the parotid acinar cell with the aim of investigating how the distribution of K+ and Cl? channels affects saliva production. Secretion of fluid is initiated by Ca2+ signals acting the Ca2+ dependent K+ and Cl? channels. The opening of these channels facilitates the movement of Cl? ions into the lumen which water follows by osmosis. We use recent results into both the release of Ca2+ from internal stores via the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and IP3 dynamics to create a physiologically realistic Ca2+ model which is able to recreate important experimentally observed behaviours seen in parotid acinar cells. We formulate an equivalent electrical circuit diagram for the movement of ions responsible for water flow which enables us to calculate and include distinct apical and basal membrane potentials to the model. We show that maximum saliva production occurs when a small amount of K+ conductance is located at the apical membrane, with the majority in the basal membrane. The maximum fluid output is found to coincide with a minimum in the apical membrane potential. The traditional model whereby all Cl? channels are located in the apical membrane is shown to be the most efficient Cl? channel distribution. PMID:20600135

Palk, Laurence; Sneyd, James; Shuttleworth, Trevor J.; Yule, David I.; Crampin, Edmund J.

2010-01-01

289

Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

2014-09-01

290

Lipid composition of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) saliva.  

PubMed

The content and composition of lipids in saliva of healthy caries-free squirrel monkeys were investigated. The dialyzed and lyophilized saliva on extraction with chloroform/methanol yielded 8.0 +/- 0.9 mg of lipids/100 ml of saliva. Following fractionation on silicic acid column, 30.9% of lipids were found in the neutral lipid fraction, 58.8% in the glycolipid fraction, and 10.3% in the phospholipid fraction. The neutral lipids exhibited high content of free fatty acids (58.8%) and triglycerides (23.3%), the glycolipids consisted mainly of neutral and sulfated glyceroglucolipids (95%), while the phospholipids were rich in sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. The results show that squirrel monkey saliva, while displaying lipid content similar to that of caries-susceptible humans, contains 50% less lipids than saliva of periodontal disease-prone marmoset. PMID:3930141

Murty, V L; Slomiany, B L; Slomiany, A; Jozwiak, Z; Kosmala, M; Mandel, I D

1985-01-01

291

Role of structural organization in the urine concentrating mechanism of an avian kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organization of tubules and blood vessels in the quail medullary cone is highly structured. This structural organization may result in preferential interactions among tubules and vessels, interactions that may enhance urine concentrating capability. In this study, we formulate a model framework for the urine concentrating mechanism of the quail kidney. The model simulates preferential interactions among renal tubules by

Anita T. Layton

2005-01-01

292

Proteome of Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick saliva induced by the secretagogues pilocarpine and dopamine  

PubMed Central

One dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to separate proteins from the saliva of Rhipicephalus sanguineus female ticks fed on rabbits. Gel slices were subjected to tryptic digestion and analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC followed by MS/MS analysis. The data were compared to a database of salivary proteins of the same tick and to the predicted proteins of the host. Saliva was obtained by either pilocarpine or dopamine stimulation of partially-fed ticks. Electrophoretic separations of both yielded products that were identified by mass spectrometry, although the pilocarpine-derived sample was of much better quality. The majority of identified proteins were of rabbit origin, indicating the recycling of the host proteins in the tick saliva, including hemoglobin, albumin, haptoglobin, transferring, and a plasma serpin. The few proteins found that were previously associated with parasitism and blood feeding include 2 glycine-rich, cement-like proteins, 2 lipocalins, and a thyropin protease inhibitor. Among other of the 19 tick proteins identified, albeit with undefined roles, were SPARC and cyclophilin A. This catalog provides a resource that can be mined for secreted molecules that play a role in tick-host interactions. PMID:24029695

Oliveira, C.J.; Anatriello, E.; de Miranda-Santos, I.K.; Francischetti, I.M.; Sá-Nunes, A.; Ferreira, B.R.; Ribeiro, J.M.C.

2013-01-01

293

Difficulties detecting miRNA-203 in human whole saliva by the use of PCR  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic disease of the oral mucosa, and according to the WHO also a pre malignant condition. Micro-RNAs are short non coding RNAs capable of regulating mRNA expression. MiRNA:scan be detected in tissue, blood and human whole saliva (HWS) and recently we have shown miR-203 to be up-regulated in tissue from OLP lesions. Study Design: In order to see whether mRNA as well as miR-203 could be detected also in HWS, saliva from healthy controls and patients with OLP were analysed using two different PCR methods. Results: Results showed low mRNA and miRNA levels in general in HWS samples, making it hard to generate conclusive results. Conclusions: In order to make HWS a valuable source for different analyses, more sensitive PCR techniques capable of detecting very low levels of mRNAand miRNAas well as more efficient methods for extraction of RNA are needed. Key words:miRNA-203, saliva, PCR. PMID:25475777

Lundegard, Martin; Nylander, Karin

2015-01-01

294

Marshmallows used as saliva stimulant do not affect cortisol concentrations: finally a palatable alternative for toddler saliva collection.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to validate marshmallows as a saliva stimulant for use with toddlers. First, cortisol concentrations from 14 subjects (ages 6-46 years) were compared using three saliva collection methods: (1) plain cotton dental roll, (2) dental roll with one mini-marshmallow, and (3) expectorating into a collection tube using no cotton or stimulant. EIA was used for analyses. There were no significant differences among cortisol concentrations. Second, saliva collection compliance rate was compared for 21-month-olds (n = 51) using either flavored drink crystal- (compliance rate = 16.7%) or marshmallow-flavored (compliance rate = 60%) dental rolls for saliva collection (chi(2) (1) = 4.02, p = .045). These studies indicate that marshmallow is a viable option for saliva stimulation to determine toddler cortisol concentrations using EIA. PMID:17943982

Clements, Andrea D; Parker, C Richard; Dixon, Wallace E; Salley, Brenda

2007-11-01

295

Some historical aspects of urinals and urine receptacles.  

PubMed

In the history of mankind the first receptacles for urine were made and employed for diagnostic purposes and developed over centuries to a sophisticated matula. In ancient Greek and Roman history, chamber pots existed and urine was collected to bleach sheets, but it was only in the late medieval and renaissance times that a real urine receptacle or urinal for daily use was developed. We give a short description of the materials used, including clay, pewter, copper, and silver, but more sophisticated receptacles made of china, such as the bourdaloue, and of glass, such as the Kuttrolf, were also developed for use during long church ceremonies. Less known are the wooden "pipes" from Turkestan, used to keep babies dry. In the long history of mankind, urinals sometimes became very original objects. PMID:10418087

Mattelaer, J J

1999-06-01

296

The innate and adaptive response to mosquito saliva and Plasmodium sporozoites in the skin.  

PubMed

A malaria infection begins when an infected mosquito takes a blood meal and inoculates parasites into the skin of its mammalian host. The parasite then has to exit the skin and escape the immune cells that protect the body from infection and alert the system to intruding pathogens. It has become apparent that this earliest stage of infection is amenable to vaccine interventions. Here, we discuss how the innate and adaptive host response to both mosquito saliva and the parasite may interfere with the infection, as well as possible mechanisms the parasite might use to circumvent the host defense. PMID:25694058

Hopp, Christine S; Sinnis, Photini

2015-04-01

297

Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

2012-01-01

298

Microbial community profiling of human saliva using shotgun metagenomic sequencing.  

PubMed

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUS and BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

Hasan, Nur A; Young, Brian A; Minard-Smith, Angela T; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M; McMillan, Nancy J; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M; Faith, Seth A; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L; Cebula, Thomas A; Colwell, Rita R

2014-01-01

299

Microbial Community Profiling of Human Saliva Using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUSand BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

Hasan, Nur A.; Young, Brian A.; Minard-Smith, Angela T.; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M.; Faith, Seth A.; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.

2014-01-01

300

Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques  

SciTech Connect

The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

1993-01-01

301

Chloride secretion drives urine formation in leech nephridia.  

PubMed

The transport mechanisms underlying urine formation in leech nephridia were investigated in situ and in isolated preparations using pharmacological, electrophysiological and micropuncture techniques. Canalicular cells, which secrete the primary urine, function as a Cl(-)-secreting epithelium. An apical Cl- conductance contributes to the lumen-negative potential which drives transcellular K+ transport and paracellular Na+ transport. On the basolateral side, a ouabain-sensitive Na+/K(+)-ATPase contributes substantially to the cellular and transcellular potential and provides the Na+ gradient necessary for a bumetanide-sensitive Na+/K+/2Cl- cotransport. Final urine is formed by subsequent reabsorption of ions along the central canal, where KCl and NaCl are reabsorbed in different portions. The postprandial diuresis is not a consequence of the changes in blood osmolality or ion concentrations. Similar changes in the ionic environment do not promote diuresis in isolated nephridia. Apparently, the composition and volume of the primary urine cannot be separately controlled. Any increase in fluid secretion by leech canalicular cells involves upregulation of the paracellular pathway and stimulation of Cl- entry, which thereby changes the normally K(+)-enriched primary urine to the Na(+)-enriched primary urine characteristic of leeches in diuresis. PMID:9286101

Zerbst-Boroffka, I; Bazin, B; Wenning, A

1997-08-01

302

HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.  

PubMed

Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

2014-05-01

303

HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva  

PubMed Central

Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R.; Phelan, Joan A.; Norman, Robert G.; Fisch, Gene S.; Corby, Patricia M.; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J.; Kokaras, Alexis S.; Malamud, Daniel

2014-01-01

304

Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in saliva of ticks fed on lumpy skin disease virus-infected cattle.  

PubMed

Lumpy skin disease is an economically important disease of cattle that is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus. It is endemic in Africa and outbreaks have also been reported in the Middle-East. Transmission has mostly been associated with blood-feeding insects but recently, the authors have demonstrated mechanical transmission by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus as well as mechanical/intrastadial and transstadial transmission by Amblyomma hebraeum. Saliva is the medium of transmission of pathogens transmitted by biting arthropods and, simultaneously, it potentiates infection in the vertebrate host. This study aimed to detect LSDV in saliva of A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus adult ticks fed, as nymphs or as adults, on LSDV-infected animals, thereby also demonstrating transstadial or mechanical/intrastadial passage of the virus in these ticks. Saliva samples were tested for LSDV by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Supernatants obtained from virus isolation were further tested by real-time PCR to confirm that the cytopathic effects observed were due to LSDV. Lumpy skin disease virus was detected, for the first time, in saliva samples of both A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus ticks. At the same time, mechanical/intrastadial and transstadial passage of the virus was demonstrated and confirmed in R. appendiculatus and A. hebraeum. PMID:23456606

Lubinga, J C; Tuppurainen, E S M; Stoltsz, W H; Ebersohn, K; Coetzer, J A W; Venter, E H

2013-09-01

305

Cortisol urine test  

MedlinePLUS

... is a steroid (glucocorticoid) hormone produced by the adrenal gland. Cortisol can also be measured using a blood ... is a glucocorticoid (steroid) hormone released from the adrenal gland in response to adrenocorticotropic hormone ( ACTH ). This is ...

306

Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm?1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

2013-07-01

307

Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the saliva of patients complaining of halitosis.  

PubMed

Helicobacter pylori infection, which causes peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, is considered a possible cause of halitosis. Recently, the oral cavity was identified as a possible H. pylori reservoir, particularly in the presence of periodontal disease, which is a cause of halitosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate by PCR the prevalence of oral H. pylori in the saliva of subjects complaining of halitosis. Samples were obtained from 326 non-dyspeptic subjects, comprising 251 subjects with actual malodour and 75 subjects without halitosis. DNA was extracted from the samples, and the presence of H. pylori and periodontopathic bacteria including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Prevotella intermedia was examined by PCR. H. pylori was detected in 21 (6.4 %) of 326 samples. The methyl mercaptan concentration and periodontal parameters including tooth mobility, periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and occult blood in the saliva were significantly greater in the H. pylori-positive subjects. Each of the periodontopathic bacteria was also detected at a significantly higher frequency in the H. pylori-positive subjects. Among those patients with a PPD of > or =5 mm and a tongue coating score of < or =2, no difference was observed in oral malodour levels between the H. pylori-positive and -negative subjects. However, the presence of occult blood in the saliva and the prevalence of Prevotella intermedia were significantly greater in the H. pylori-positive subjects. H. pylori was detected in 16 (15.7 %) of 102 subjects with periodontitis, suggesting that progression of periodontal pocket and inflammation may favour colonization by this species and that H. pylori infection may be indirectly associated with oral pathological halitosis following periodontitis. PMID:19018029

Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Naito, Toru; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Masuo, Yousuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Hisama, Kazuhiro; Okada, Ichizo; Hirofuji, Takao

2008-12-01

308

Corrosion Inhibition of Titanium in Artificial Saliva Containing Fluoride  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effect of eugenol on the titanium corrosion in artificial saliva enriched with eugenol at different concentration. The corrosion behaviour and titanium surface characterization were investigated by electrochemical measurements and SEM.

Latifa Kinani; Rachida Najih; Abdelilah Chtaini

309

Antibacterial Activity of the Purified Peroxidase from Human Parotid Saliva  

PubMed Central

The peroxidase of human parotid saliva has been purified by concentration, gel filtration on Sephadex G-200, and ion exchange chromatography on Amberlite CG-50. The purified product was devoid of amylase activity, lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin A (IgA). However, it had an inhibitory effect on the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus in complete growth medium and on lysine accumulation by L. acidophilus in a buffer-glucose medium, when combined with thiocyanate ions. The concentrations of peroxidase and thiocyanate ions employed were within the range found in saliva. The fractions which contained IgA did not have an anti-bacterial effect on L. acidophilus under the conditions employed. Parotid saliva also contained low molecular weight inhibitors of peroxidase activity. These studies support the involvement of the salivary peroxidase in an antibacterial system in saliva. PMID:4183966

Slowey, R. R.; Eidelman, S.; Klebanoff, S. J.

1968-01-01

310

Chondroitin sulfate and kallikrein in saliva: markers for glossodynia.  

PubMed

Glossodynia or burning mouth syndrome is a multifunctional disorder. The oral mucosa is apparently normal but patients report burning and dried mouth and painful tongue and lips. The present study reports biochemical and physiological markers in saliva of patients presenting glossodynia compared to normal subjects. Saliva-buffering capacity and contents of protein and hyaluronic (HA) acid were similar in both groups. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate (CS) concentration was decreased in the saliva of patients with glossodynia when compared to control group (p=0.0036). On the other hand glandular kallikrein showed increased activity in the saliva of patients compared to normal subjects (p<0.0001). The data suggest involvement of the kinin system, possibly related to the low levels of CS. Depression could explain the low level of serotonin in patient serum (p=0.0478). PMID:18486918

Loeb, L M; Naffah-Mazzacoratti, M G; Porcionatto, M A; Martins, J R M; Kouyoumdjian, M; Weckx, L M; Nader, H B

2008-07-01

311

Lubricating properties of human whole saliva as affected by ?-lactoglobulin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ?-lactoglobulin (?-LG) at pH 3.5 and 7.0 on lubricating property of saliva as related to astringency perception was investigated using tribology. Saliva was adsorbed onto surfaces of a rotating poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) ball and disc to form a film under conditions that mimic the rubbing contacts in the oral cavity (Bongaerts, Rossetti, & Stokes, 2007) and the

B. Vardhanabhuti; P. W. Cox; I. T. Norton; E. A. Foegeding

2011-01-01

312

The demand control model and circadian saliva cortisol variations in a Swedish population based sample (The PART study)  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies of the relationship between job strain and blood or saliva cortisol levels have been small and based on selected occupational groups. Our aim was to examine the association between job strain and saliva cortisol levels in a population-based study in which a number of potential confounders could be adjusted for. Methods The material derives from a population-based study in Stockholm on mental health and its potential determinants. Two data collections were performed three years apart with more than 8500 subjects responding to a questionnaire in both waves. In this paper our analyses are based on 529 individuals who held a job, participated in both waves as well as in an interview linked to the second wave. They gave saliva samples at awakening, half an hour later, at lunchtime and before going to bed on a weekday in close connection with the interview. Job control and job demands were assessed from the questionnaire in the second wave. Mixed models were used to analyse the association between the demand control model and saliva cortisol. Results Women in low strain jobs (high control and low demands) had significantly lower cortisol levels half an hour after awakening than women in high strain (low control and high demands), active (high control and high demands) or passive jobs (low control and low demands). There were no significant differences between the groups during other parts of the day and furthermore there was no difference between the job strain, active and passive groups. For men, no differences were found between demand control groups. Conclusion This population-based study, on a relatively large sample, weakly support the hypothesis that the demand control model is associated with saliva cortisol concentrations. PMID:17129377

Alderling, Magnus; Theorell, Töres; de la Torre, Bartolomé; Lundberg, Ingvar

2006-01-01

313

Antimicrobial factors in whole saliva of human infants.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial factors were analyzed in samples of whole saliva from 31 children, aged 0.8 to 3.8 years. When compared with the adult reference group, the children displayed similar levels of lysozyme, salivary peroxidase, and hypothiocyanite (OSCN-), whereas the amounts of immunoglobulins (isotypes A, G, and M), lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, thiocyanate (SCN-), amylase, and protein were significantly lower than the adult values. The child's behavior during the collection period noticeably influenced the composition of the saliva. Children who were restless and crying during the collection had significantly more immunoglobulins, lysozyme, lactoferrin, salivary peroxidase, myeloperoxidase, and protein in their saliva samples, obviously due to the contamination of saliva mixed with nasal or lacrimal secretions. Therefore, the normal values for saliva could be determined for the noncrying children only. These salivary defense systems did not show any relation to the length of breast-feeding or to the previous history of antibiotic treatment. Thus, with the exception of lactoferrin and myeloperoxidase, the nonimmunoglobulin antimicrobial saliva systems studied here seem to be already at the adult level during early childhood, when the protective antibody systems are still immature. PMID:2416690

Tenovuo, J; Lehtonen, O P; Aaltonen, A S; Vilja, P; Tuohimaa, P

1986-01-01

314

Total antioxidant capacity of saliva and dental caries  

PubMed Central

Objective: Dental caries is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Saliva has many functions in the oral cavity and is the first line defense against dental caries. Oxidative stress can affect initiation and progression of many inflammatory and infectious diseases such as dental caries. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of saliva and dental caries. Study Design: 100 healthy high school students (50 female and 50 male) with age range of 15 -17 years were randomly selected, divided to four groups. Unstimulated whole saliva specimens were collected at the morning. TAC of saliva was evaluated by spectrophotometric assay. Statistical comparisons were performed using Student’s t-test, by SPSS 13. Results: The level of TAC was significantly higher in the saliva of caries active group relative to the caries free subjects. Statistical analysis for male and female groups showed a statistically significant reduction of TAC level in female group. Conclusion: TAC was higher in caries active group. Thus this result showed that total antioxidant capacity may influence in dental caries and activity can be measured by salivary factors and this may be helpful in preventive dentistry. Key words:Dental caries, saliva, total antioxidant capacity. PMID:23524431

Goodarzi, Mohammad T.; Hendi, Seyedeh S.; Kasraei, Shahin; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

2013-01-01

315

Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

2007-01-01

316

Urine sample used for congenital toxoplasmosis diagnosis by PCR.  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in congenitally infected infants can be difficult; serology is unreliable, and diagnosis must be based on the combination of symptomatology and direct demonstration of the parasite. Four infants suspected of having Toxoplasma gondii infection were studied by serological analysis, tissue culture, and PCR determination. T. gondii was isolated from the urine of one patient. The parasite was detected by PCR in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of three infants and in the urine in all patients. Because nested PCR proved to be a sensitive, relatively rapid, and specific method and because it can be applied to a variety of different clinical samples, PCR can be a valuable technique for the identification of T. gondii infections in children. The present study indicates that PCR examination of urine, a fluid never before used for diagnosis in this age group, may be valuable in diagnosing cases of congenital toxoplasmosis. PMID:8880481

Fuentes, I; Rodriguez, M; Domingo, C J; del Castillo, F; Juncosa, T; Alvar, J

1996-01-01

317

Urine collection apparatus. [feminine hygiene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A urine collection device for females comprises an interface body with an interface surface for engagement with the user's body. The interface body comprises a forward portion defining a urine-receiving bore which has an inlet in the interface surface adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. The interface body also has a rear portion integrally adjoining the forward portion and a non-invasive vaginal seal on the interface surface for sealing the vagina of the user from communication with the urine-receiving bore. An absorbent pad is removably supported on the interface body and extends laterally therefrom. A garment for supporting the urine collection is also disclosed.

Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

1981-01-01

318

Treating urine by Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

319

Protein Biomarkers of Periodontitis in Saliva  

PubMed Central

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the tissues that surround and support the teeth and is initiated by inappropriate and excessive immune responses to bacteria in subgingival dental plaque leading to loss of the integrity of the periodontium, compromised tooth function, and eventually tooth loss. Periodontitis is an economically important disease as it is time-consuming and expensive to treat. Periodontitis has a worldwide prevalence of 5–15% and the prevalence of severe disease in western populations has increased in recent decades. Furthermore, periodontitis is more common in smokers, in obesity, in people with diabetes, and in heart disease patients although the pathogenic processes underpinning these links are, as yet, poorly understood. Diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis rely on traditional clinical examinations which are inadequate to predict patient susceptibility, disease activity, and response to treatment. Studies of the immunopathogenesis of periodontitis and analysis of mediators in saliva have allowed the identification of many potentially useful biomarkers. Convenient measurement of these biomarkers using chairside analytical devices could form the basis for diagnostic tests which will aid the clinician and the patient in periodontitis management; this review will summarise this field and will identify the experimental, technical, and clinical issues that remain to be addressed before such tests can be implemented. PMID:24944840

Taylor, John J.

2014-01-01

320

Urine biomarkers in prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deficiencies of serum PSA as a prostate-cancer-specific diagnostic test are well recognized. Thus, the development of novel biomarkers for prostate cancer detection remains an important and exciting challenge. Noninvasive urine-based tests are particularly attractive candidates for large-scale screening protocols, and biomarker discovery programs using urine samples have emerged for detecting and predicting aggressiveness of prostate cancer. Some new biomarkers

Guillaume Ploussard; Alexandre de la Taille

2010-01-01

321

A urine volume measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved urine volume measurement system for use in the unusual environment of manned space flight is reported. The system utilizes a low time-constant thermal flowmeter. The time integral of the transient response of the flowmeter gives the urine volume during a void as it occurs. In addition, the two phase flows through the flowmeter present no problem. Developments of the thermal flowmeter and a verification of the predicted performance characteristics are summarized.

Poppendiek, H. F.; Mouritzen, G.; Sabin, C. M.

1972-01-01

322

Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria New study links bacteria found in urine in bladder to urinary incontinence (* ... News) -- Though it's commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new ...

323

Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah

2011-12-01

324

RNAi-mediated gene silencing to assess the role of synaptobrevin and cystatin in tick blood feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to being the conduit for pathogens into hosts, tick saliva contains a broad array of secretory products that facilitate prolonged tick attachment and blood feeding. Proteins found in tick saliva modulate host hemostasis and immune responses. However, it is not clear whether ticks manipulate the immune responses of their hosts by disrupting the antigen-processing pathways of the hosts.

Shahid Karim; Nathan J. Miller; Jesus Valenzuela; John R. Sauer; Thomas N. Mather

2005-01-01

325

Molecular sabotage of plant defense by aphid saliva.  

PubMed

Aphids, which constitute one of the most important groups of agricultural pests, ingest nutrients from sieve tubes, the photoassimilate transport conduits in plants. Aphids are able to successfully puncture sieve tubes with their piercing mouthparts (stylets) and ingest phloem sap without eliciting the sieve tubes' normal occlusion response to injury. Occlusion mechanisms are calcium-triggered and may be prevented by chemical constituents in aphid saliva injected into sieve tubes before and during feeding. We recorded aphid feeding behavior with the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique and then experimentally induced sieve tube plugging. Initiation of sieve tube occlusion caused a change in aphid behavior from phloem sap ingestion to secretion of watery saliva. Direct proof of "unplugging" properties of aphid saliva was provided by the effect of aphid saliva on forisomes. Forisomes are proteinaceous inclusions in sieve tubes of legumes that show calcium-regulated changes in conformation between a contracted state (below calcium threshold) that does not occlude the sieve tubes and a dispersed state (above calcium threshold) that occludes the sieve tubes. We demonstrated in vitro that aphid saliva induces dispersed forisomes to revert back to the nonplugging contracted state. Labeling Western-blotted saliva proteins with 45Ca2+ or ruthenium red inferred the presence of calcium-binding domains. These results demonstrate that aphid saliva has the ability to prevent sieve tube plugging by molecular interactions between salivary proteins and calcium. This provides aphids with access to a continuous flow of phloem sap and is a critical adaptation instrumental in the evolutionary success of aphids. PMID:17553961

Will, Torsten; Tjallingii, W Fred; Thönnessen, Alexandra; van Bel, Aart J E

2007-06-19

326

Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n?=?15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P?=?0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r?=?0.347, P?=?0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P?=?0.001 stimulated; P?=?0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P?=?0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

2014-06-11

327

Children's noncompliance during saliva collection predicts measures of salivary cortisol.  

PubMed

Salivary cortisol has been useful for evaluating children's physiological responses to stress and for identifying factors that predict their magnitude and duration. However, results have been somewhat equivocal across studies, and this has motivated researchers to identify sources of variance and error. Here, we examined the prevalence of preschoolers' noncompliance during saliva collection and aimed to learn about noncompliant children in terms of their hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function, behavior in other situations, and symptoms of behavioral problems. Results were based on measures of cortisol, children's behavior during saliva collection and a mother-child teaching interaction, and ratings of problem behavior by teachers and parents. Results show that 12% (21/174) of the sample was noncompliant on at least one of the collection trials. Children, who were noncompliant but did not outright refuse saliva collection, had higher cortisol than did compliant children. Children who were noncompliant during saliva collection were likely to be noncompliant during the teaching episode, and they were perceived as having more internalizing symptoms than compliant children. These results suggest that children's noncompliance during saliva collection can be a source of nonrandom missing data or extreme cortisol values, which should be considered in future studies. PMID:21761405

Kaitz, Marsha; Sabato, Reut; Shalev, Idan; Ebstein, Richard; Mankuta, David

2012-03-01

328

Saliva Microbiota Carry Caries-Specific Functional Gene Signatures  

PubMed Central

Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. PMID:24533043

Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; Chen, Zhenggang; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian

2014-01-01

329

A new device for collecting saliva for cortisol determination.  

PubMed

Saliva for measurement of cortisol is generally sampled by swabbing the mouth with a cotton roll, but this method has drawbacks. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an eye sponge as an oral collection device for saliva cortisol. The eye sponge was compared with commercial cotton rolls, and tested for use in infants as well as adults. Our results show that the eye sponge has adequate cortisol recoveries, even after samples have been kept at 4-8 degrees C for up to a week. In adults, volumes of 200-250 microl are obtained without problem; although smaller volumes are obtained in young infants, they are sufficient for assays requiring only 50-100 microl of saliva. In conclusion, the eye sponge is a valid and adequate collection device for saliva cortisol. Additional advantages as compared to cotton rolls are: more comfortable sampling, tastelessness, no need to manipulate the absorbing material, and the ease with which the untrained eye can determine that enough saliva has been collected. PMID:17850983

de Weerth, Carolina; Jansen, Jarno; Vos, Mariska H; Maitimu, Inge; Lentjes, Eef G W M

2007-01-01

330

Effects of resistance exercise on plasma, erythrocyte, and urine Zn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve healthy male volunteers performed two resistance exercise sessions: a moderate resistance (MR) exercise session and\\u000a a heavy resistance (HR) exercise session. Blood was collected before exercise and 5 min, 30 min, and 24 h after exercise.\\u000a Urine was collected for 24 h before and 24 h after exercise. Plasma zinc (Zn) was markedly increased both 5 min and 30

Thomas G. Mundie; Brian Hare

2001-01-01

331

Blood spots as an alternative to whole blood collection and the effect of a small monetary incentive to increase participation in genetic association studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Collection of buccal cells from saliva for DNA extraction offers a less invasive and convenient alternative to venipuncture blood collection that may increase participation in genetic epidemiologic studies. However, dried blood spot collection, which is also a convenient method, offers a means of collecting peripheral blood samples from which analytes in addition to DNA can be obtained. METHODS: To

Parveen Bhatti; Diane Kampa; Bruce H Alexander; Christopher McClure; Danny Ringer; Michele M Doody; Alice J Sigurdson

2009-01-01

332

Longistatin in tick saliva blocks advanced glycation end-product receptor activation  

PubMed Central

Ticks are notorious hematophagous ectoparasites and vectors of many deadly pathogens. As an effective vector, ticks must break the strong barrier provided by the skin of their host during feeding, and their saliva contains a complex mixture of bioactive molecules that paralyze host defenses. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates immune cell activation at inflammatory sites and is constitutively and highly expressed in skin. Here, we demonstrate that longistatin secreted with saliva of the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis binds RAGE and modulates the host immune response. Similar to other RAGE ligands, longistatin specifically bound the RAGE V domain, and stimulated cultured HUVECs adhered to a longistatin-coated surface; this binding was dramatically inhibited by soluble RAGE or RAGE siRNA. Treatment of HUVECs with longistatin prior to stimulation substantially attenuated cellular oxidative stress and prevented NF-?B translocation, thereby reducing adhesion molecule and cytokine production. Recombinant longistatin inhibited RAGE-mediated migration of mouse peritoneal resident cells (mPRCs) and ameliorated inflammation in mouse footpad edema and pneumonia models. Importantly, tick bite upregulated RAGE ligands in skin, and endogenous longistatin attenuated RAGE-mediated inflammation during tick feeding. Our results suggest that longistatin is a RAGE antagonist that suppresses tick bite–associated inflammation, allowing successful blood-meal acquisition from hosts. PMID:25401185

Anisuzzaman; Hatta, Takeshi; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Islam, M. Khyrul; Alim, M. Abdul; Anas, M. Abu; Hasan, M. Mehedi; Matsumoto, Yasunobu; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Fujisaki, Kozo; Tsuji, Naotoshi

2014-01-01

333

Five-minute analysis of chemotherapy drugs and metabolites in saliva: evaluating dosage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional cancer treatment, surgical removal and gamma- or x-ray irradiation, is often augmented by the use of chemotherapy drugs. Theses drugs prevent cancer cell growth through a variety of biochemical mechanisms, but are not target specific and kill other cells. Consequently, the amount administered has a narrow range of safe and effective use. Furthermore, because of the dangerous side-effects of these drugs, clinical trials can not be performed, and a statistical basis for dosage is not available. Instead, the concentration of the drugs and their metabolites are monitored during treatment of cancer patients, Unfortunately current practices require 10-20 mL of blood per analysis, and multiple samples to profile pharmacokinetics may further jeopardize the patient's health. Saliva analysis has long been considered an attractive alternative, but the large sample volumes are difficult to obtain. In an effort to overcome this limitation we have been investigating metal-doped sol-gels to both separate drugs and their metabolites from saliva and generate surface-enhanced Raman spectra. We have incorporated the sol-gel in a disposable pipette format, and generally no more than two drops (100 ?L) of sample are required. The detailed molecular vibrational information allows chemical identification, while the increase in Raman scattering by four to six orders of magnitude allows detection of nanomolar concentrations. Preliminary measurements will be presented.

Gift, Alan; Shende, Chetan; Inscore, Frank E.; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

2004-03-01

334

Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.  

PubMed

Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ?19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ?81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ?18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (?3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (?6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (?31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (?24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

Lewis, Lauren A; Radulovi?, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

2015-04-01

335

Titres of specific antibodies to poliovirus type 3 and tetanus toxoid in saliva and serum of children with recurrent upper respiratory tract infections.  

PubMed

A study of antibody levels (in saliva and blood) against common vaccine antigens was performed in a population of 32 children suffering from recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). None of the patients had primary or secondary immunodeficiency syndromes or other known predisposing factors for respiratory diseases. Titres of the isotype-specific antibodies immunoglobulin A (IgA), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin G (IgG) against two vaccine antigens--poliovirus type 3 (P3) and tetanus toxoid (TT), a viral antigen and a bacterial antigen, respectively--were measured in unstimulated saliva and serum, both in patients and in 24 healthy children (controls), by using a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, levels of total IgA and avidity of IgA antibodies to both P3 and TT in saliva were evaluated. No difference was found between patients and controls as to levels of total IgA, or specific IgA and IgM antibodies against both P3 and TT in saliva. Furthermore, the avidity of salivary IgA antibodies against the two antigens did not differ between the two populations. However, the average concentrations of saliva-specific IgG antibodies to both the viral and the bacterial antigen were significantly lower (p <0.01 for P3 and p <0.05 for TT, respectively) in saliva of children with recurrent URTI, whereas no difference was found in serum for any immunoglobulin isotype determined compared with healthy individuals. The results of the present study provide suggestive evidence for the existence of subtle IgG-restricted defects in antibody responses at the mucosal level, but not at the serum level, in some children with undue susceptibility to URTI. PMID:11251864

Cardinale, F; Gentile, V; Brunetti, L; Hanson, L A; Armenio, L

2001-02-01

336

Measurements of Several Metallic Elements and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs) in Saliva from Patients with Taste Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have measured and compared several metallic elements and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in saliva from patients with taste disorder and healthy subjects. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 20 patients and 35 healthy subjects. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the determination of metallic elements in saliva. Amounts of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9 and IL-1a, IL-6 in saliva

Mamoru Watanabe; Masumi Asatsuma; Akihiro Ikui; Minoru Ikeda; Yoshiaki Yamada; Shuichi Nomura; Atsuko Igarashi

2005-01-01

337

Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum,

Richard O. Musser; Sue M. Hum-Musser; Herb Eichenseer; Michelle Peiffer; Gary Ervin; J. Brad Murphy; Gary W. Felton

2002-01-01

338

Purification of a serine protease and evidence for a protein C activator from the saliva of the tick, Ixodes scapularis.  

PubMed

The saliva of ticks is critical to their survival as parasites and hematophagous animals. In this study, we have purified an enzyme with trypsin-like activity from the saliva of the tick vector of Lyme Disease, Ixodes scapularis. This enzyme, named as IXOSP (I. scapularis salivary serine protease), is a 29.9 kDa molecule with N-terminus FPxMVxLRIKxR. A BLAST search identified IXOSP as a secreted serine protease (AAY66740) with a conserved catalytic triad His, Asp, and Ser. In vitro studies demonstrated that IXOSP cleaves chromogenic substrates with arginine in the P1 position, by a mechanism inhibited by PMSF or aprotinin. Gene expression studies revealed that IXOSP is expressed at different tick developmental stages, including eggs, and unfed or fed adult tick salivary glands, but not in nymphs or in the midgut. While the physiological substrate for IXOSP remains to be identified, we demonstrated that I. scapularis saliva activate protein C (PC) resulting in the production of activated PC, a potent anticoagulant that also regulates a myriad of inflammatory responses through protease activated receptors. In contrast, the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles albimanus, Aedes aegypti, Lutzomyia longipalpis, and Phlebotomus ariasi did not activate protein C. These discoveries are discussed in the context of blood coagulation, inflammation and vector-host interactions. PMID:24184517

Pichu, Sivakamasundari; Ribeiro, José M C; Mather, Thomas N; Francischetti, Ivo M B

2014-01-01

339

What's behind a sand fly bite? The profound effect of sand fly saliva on host hemostasis, inflammation and immunity.  

PubMed

Sand flies are blood-feeding insects and vectors of the Leishmania parasite. For many years, saliva of these insects has represented a gold mine for the discovery of molecules with anti-hemostatic and immuno-modulatory activities. Furthermore, proteins in sand fly saliva have been shown to be a potential vaccine against leishmaniasis and also markers of vector exposure. A bottleneck to progress in these areas of research has been the identification of molecules responsible for the observed activities and properties of saliva. Over the past decade, rapid advances in transcriptomics and proteomics resulted in the completion of a number of sialomes (salivary gland transcriptomes) and the expression of several recombinant salivary proteins from different species of sand fly vectors. This review will provide readers with a comprehensive update of recent advances in the characterization of these salivary molecules and their biological activities and offer insights pertaining to their protective effect against leishmaniasis and their potential as markers of vector exposure. PMID:25117872

Abdeladhim, Maha; Kamhawi, Shaden; Valenzuela, Jesus G

2014-12-01

340

Assessment of serum and urine ghrelin levels in patients with acute stroke  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Ghrelin is a novel brain-gut peptide hormone consisted of 28 amino-acid. In the plasma, it exists in two major molecular forms, acylated and des-acyled ghrelin, filtered in glomeruli or secreted by nephrons. Primary biological effects of hormones are regulating appetite, foods intake and energy metabolism. We investigated the changing and relationships between serum and urine ghrelin levels in acute stroke patients to provide more information whether diagnostic parameter. Methods: Thirty acute stroke patients and thirty consecutive volunteers included in study prospectively. To analyze serum and urine ghrelin levels, at the time of diagnose, all of participant blood and fresh urine (1 ml serum, 2 ml urine respectively) samples were obtained. Serum ghrelin levels analyzed ELISA technique, and urine ghrelin levels studied by validation technique. To compare quantitative data student’s t test, and for qualitative data chi-square and Fisher’s Exact Chi-square test was used. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Urine acyl ghrelin levels found statistically significant between patient and control groups (P=0.001), but there were no statistically significant differences between both groups (P>0.05) in serum acyl gherelin, des-acyl ghrelin and urine des-acyle ghrelin levels. Conclusions: The results indicate that urine acyl ghrelin levels may be considered as a diagnostic parameter in acute ischemic stroke patients. Further studies delineating the mechanism of these observed results are warranted.

Seyhanli, Eyyup Sabri; Lok, Ugur; Gulacti, Umut; Buyukaslan, Hasan; Atescelik, Metin; Yildiz, Mustafa; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Goktekin, Mehmet Cagri; Ayd?n, Suleyman

2015-01-01

341

Human Cellular Immune Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi Is Mediated by IL-10-Producing  

E-print Network

Human Cellular Immune Response to the Saliva of Phlebotomus papatasi Is Mediated by IL-10-Producing of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia Abstract Background: The saliva of sand flies strongly enhances the infectivity of Leishmania in mice. Additionally, pre-exposure to saliva can protect mice from disease progression probably

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

342

DPC Coat-A-Count Total Testosterone modified protocol for saliva (male & female)  

E-print Network

DPC Coat-A-Count Total Testosterone modified protocol for saliva (male & female) Adapted from for use of DPC Coat-A-Count total testosterone assay with saliva. Clin. Biochem. 32(1), 83-85. 1. Bring standards/controls). Do NOT dilute saliva samples! (Note: Diluted controls should cover the whole range

Michigan, University of

343

ForPeerReview The salivary glands and saliva of Anopheles gambiae as an essential step  

E-print Network

ForPeerReview The salivary glands and saliva of Anopheles gambiae as an essential step.1002/pmic.200700334 #12;ForPeerReview 1 The salivary glands and saliva of Anopheles gambiae as an essential and saliva contents, we combined several techniques: 1-DE, 2-DE and LC MS/MS. This study has identified five

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

344

Journal of Insect Physiology 53 (2007) 126131 Evidence of protease in the saliva of the butterfly  

E-print Network

Journal of Insect Physiology 53 (2007) 126­131 Evidence of protease in the saliva of the butterfly as a source of amino acids. Saliva plays a major role in the process of extracting amino acids and proteins from the pollen grains. In this investigation, we obtained samples of saliva from adult Heliconius

Krenn, Harald W.

2007-01-01

345

Chikungunya Virus and Aedes Mosquitoes: Saliva Is Infectious as soon as Two Days after Oral Infection  

E-print Network

Chikungunya Virus and Aedes Mosquitoes: Saliva Is Infectious as soon as Two Days after Oral in their saliva. We found that Ae. aegypti as well as Ae. albopictus ensured a high replication of the virus which: Saliva Is Infectious as soon as Two Days after Oral Infection. PLoS ONE 4(6): e5895. doi:10.1371/journal

Boyer, Edmond

346

Chemical measurement of urine volume  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

Sauer, R. L.

1978-01-01

347

Luminol Chemiluminescence in Urine Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present review is to sketch out the scope of luminol chemiluminescence in human urine analysis. Practical considerations and experimental requirements are indicated. The literature revised covers the papers of analytical interest that have appeared in approximately the last six years.

Ana María Jiménez Moreno; María José Navas Sánchez

2006-01-01

348

Detection of Feline Leukemia Virus RNA in Saliva from Naturally Infected Cats and Correlation of PCR Results with Those of Current Diagnostic Methods  

PubMed Central

A novel diagnostic test for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) RNA in saliva from naturally infected cats is described in this study. We evaluated different diagnostic tests and compared them with the widely used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of p27 in the diagnosis of FeLV. Blood samples from 445 cats were tested for the presence of provirus by real-time PCR and plasma and saliva specimens from those cats were tested for the presence of viral RNA by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and for the presence of p27 by ELISA. In comparison to conventional ELISA, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the detection of salivary FeLV RNA by real-time RT-PCR were found to be 98.1 and 99.2%, respectively. Detection of viral RNA in saliva had a positive predictive value of 94.6% and a negative predictive value of 99.7%. The kappa value was 0.96, demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between both tests. Furthermore, we confirmed previous results showing that a number of cats which tested negative for the presence of p27 in plasma were in fact positive for the presence of DNA provirus in blood specimens (5.4%). However, 96.4% of these latently infected cats did not shed viral RNA in saliva; therefore, we assume that these cats are of relatively low clinical importance at the time of testing. This study shows considerable diagnostic value of the detection of saliva FeLV RNA in naturally infected cats. This new diagnostic method has advantages over the conventional ELISA, such as less invasive sample collection and no requirement for trained personnel. PMID:16517876

Gomes-Keller, M. A.; Gönczi, E.; Tandon, R.; Riondato, F.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Meli, M. L.; Lutz, H.

2006-01-01

349

Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub ?g/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

2014-05-01

350

Electrochemical behaviour of titanium in fluoride-containing saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fluoride on the electrochemical behaviour of titanium was studied. Open circuit potentials, breakdown potentials (Eb) and potentiostatic transient currents were measured in synthetic salivas of different compositions. Optical and scanning electron microscopic observations were also made. Results show that the growth rate of Ti oxide layer is affected by fluoride anions and tensile stresses are developed. The

M. Fernández Lorenzo de Mele; M. C. Cortizo

2000-01-01

351

Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

Niaura, Raymond; And Others

1992-01-01

352

The relationship between serum and saliva trimethobenzamide concentrations in man.  

PubMed

Six healthy volunteers provided simultaneous serum and mixed saliva specimens at various time intervals after receiving three different concentrations of trimethobenzamide HCI (total dose 800 mg) via rectal syringe on three separate occasions. Specimens were analyzed for trimethobenzamide content and the results subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis and other statistical procedures to identify characteristics of the relationship between distribution processes in these specimen types. On the basis of linear regression analysis there was a significant correlation (P less than 0.01) between saliva and serum drug content for both mean values (r = 0.94) at each sampling time and all individuals' paired data points (r = 0.72). Because of the large degree of scatter in individual pairs, the data were subjected to analysis of variance in an attempt to determine a potential source of this divergence. The relationship between serum and saliva drug concentrations was found to depend upon the time after drug administration. We conclude that a nonuniform process determines the relative degree of partitioning trimethobenzamide between serum and saliva. PMID:7061726

Robert, T A; Daigneault, E A; Hinton, P; Hagardorn, A N

1982-01-01

353

EXCRETION OF CADMIUM AND MERCURY IN RAT SALIVA  

EPA Science Inventory

The excretion of cadium and mercury in saliva was studied in urethane-anesthetized male rats given single intravenous injections of 109CdCl2 or 203HgCl2 (0.1 or 1.0 mg divalent cation/kg). Pilocarpine (20 mg/kg, ip) was used to stimulate salivation. All doses produced a distinct ...

354

Immunological detection of glassy-winged sharpshooter saliva in grapevine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis, is a major vector for transmission of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf), the causative agent of Pierce’s Disease in grapevine. During the feeding process of stylet penetration and xylem fluid ingestion, GWSS inject saliva into the plant. Inoculation...

355

[The formation of the urine proteome in healthy human].  

PubMed

In the review it was represented the modern ideas on the processes involved in the formation of the protein composition of the urine of healthy people. In the last decade the development of highly sensitive mass spectrometric methods for the detection of proteins has given impetus to the study of the protein composition of human body fluids, including urine. Modern methods of separation of complex protein mixtures and determination of the individual components of these mixtures that are used in proteomics, can detect in urine significant number of proteins and peptides of different origin. Little-known, but very important problem for biomedical research is a physiological variation of the protein composition of urine revealed by proteomics. Under physiological conditions, there are many factors that affect the filtration of plasma proteins in the glomeruli and reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the nephron. These include hypoxia, oxidative stress, changes in acid-base balance and blood pressure, the effects of parathyroid hormone, angiotensin-II and other regulators of water and electrolyte metabolism. It is shown that the close structural and functional relationship of processes of reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the nephron causes dependence modulation of sodium reabsorption, water, chloride, phosphate, bicarbonate, and changes in the various parts of the process of re-absorption of the protein. PMID:23789384

Larina, I M; Pastushkova, L Kh; Kureev, K S; Grigor'ev, A I

2013-01-01

356

Combining urine separation with waste design: an analysis using a stochastic model for urine production  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the stochastic properties of human urine production in order to assess the potential of combining urine separation with waste design. The aim is to provide specific information about the dynamics of urine production at a microscopic level for the design and the control of the urine waste stream. Based on measured data a stochastic model is developed

Wolfgang Rauch; Doris Brockmann; Irene Peters; Tove A Larsen; Willi Gujer

2003-01-01

357

Detection of Zika Virus in Urine  

PubMed Central

We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections. PMID:25530324

Gourinat, Ann-Claire; O’Connor, Olivia; Calvez, Elodie; Goarant, Cyrille

2015-01-01

358

Inflammatory mediators in saliva associated with arterial stiffness and subclinical atherosclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective: Whereas circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) have been associated with, for example, arterial stiffness, subclinical atherosclerosis and metabolic syndrome, other inflammatory biomarkers with potential interest for these conditions may not be measurable systemically. The predictive value of salivary biomarkers in these contexts has remained largely unexplored. The aim of the present study was to establish the association of different salivary biomarkers of inflammation with subclinical cardiovascular disease. Methods: Two hundred and fifty-nine individuals were included in the study. Saliva and plasma samples were collected, and each individual underwent carotid ultrasound and measures of pulse wave velocity and blood pressure. Medical history of previous cardiovascular disease, current medications and smoking were collected by questionnaire. Results: Salivary levels of CRP, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), creatinine and lysozyme were measured. Salivary levels of CRP were significantly correlated with plasma levels (r?=?0.73, P?blood pressure, pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity, BMI, metabolic syndrome, waist-to-hip ratio and intima–media thickness. Increasing age and sex-adjusted salivary CRP tertiles were in addition associated with carotid plaques. In a multivariate analysis, CRP and MMP-9 were associated with intima–media thickness, LTB4 and PGE2 with arterial stiffness, and lysozyme with hypertension. Conclusion: Saliva may represent an alternative mean for evaluation of cardiovascular risk. PMID:23868086

Labat, Carlos; Temmar, Mohamed; Nagy, Edit; Bean, Kathy; Brink, Charles; Benetos, Athanase; Bäck, Magnus

2013-01-01

359

Saliva, salivary gland, and hemolymph collection from Ixodes scapularis ticks.  

PubMed

Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) (1-8). To be properly transmitted into the host these infectious agents differentially regulate gene expression, interact with tick proteins, and migrate through the tick (3,9-13). For example, the Lyme disease agent, Borrelia burgdorferi, adapts through differential gene expression to the feast and famine stages of the tick's enzootic cycle (14,15). Furthermore, as an Ixodes tick consumes a bloodmeal Borrelia replicate and migrate from the midgut into the hemocoel, where they travel to the salivary glands and are transmitted into the host with the expelled saliva (9,16-19). As a tick feeds the host typically responds with a strong hemostatic and innate immune response (11,13,20-22). Despite these host responses, I. scapularis can feed for several days because tick saliva contains proteins that are immunomodulatory, lytic agents, anticoagulants, and fibrinolysins to aid the tick feeding (3,11,20,21,23). The immunomodulatory activities possessed by tick saliva or salivary gland extract (SGE) facilitate transmission, proliferation, and dissemination of numerous tick-borne pathogens (3,20,24-27). To further understand how tick-borne infectious agents cause disease it is essential to dissect actively feeding ticks and collect tick saliva. This video protocol demonstrates dissection techniques for the collection of hemolymph and the removal of salivary glands from actively feeding I. scapularis nymphs after 48 and 72 hours post mouse placement. We also demonstrate saliva collection from an adult female I. scapularis tick. PMID:22371172

Patton, Toni G; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D

2012-01-01

360

Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.

2002-04-01

361

Plants Can Benefit from Herbivory: Stimulatory Effects of Sheep Saliva on Growth of Leymus chinensis  

PubMed Central

Background Plants and herbivores can evolve beneficial interactions. Growth factors found in animal saliva are probably key factors underlying plant compensatory responses to herbivory. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how animal saliva interacts with herbivory intensities and how saliva can mobilize photosynthate reserves in damaged plants. Methodology/Principal Findings The study examined compensatory responses to herbivory and sheep saliva addition for the grass species Leymus chinensis in three experiments over three years. The first two experiments were conducted in a factorial design with clipping (four levels in 2006 and five in 2007) and two saliva treatment levels. The third experiment examined the mobilization and allocation of stored carbohydrates following clipping and saliva addition treatments. Animal saliva significantly increased tiller number, number of buds, and biomass, however, there was no effect on height. Furthermore, saliva effects were dependent on herbivory intensities, associated with meristem distribution within perennial grass. Animal saliva was found to accelerate hydrolyzation of fructans and accumulation of glucose and fructose. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated a link between saliva and the mobilization of carbohydrates following herbivory, which is an important advance in our understanding of the evolution of plant responses to herbivory. Herbivory intensity dependence of the effects of saliva stresses the significance of optimal grazing management. PMID:22235277

Liu, Jushan; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Bonser, Stephen P.; Sun, Fang; Zhou, Yifa; Gao, Ying; Teng, Xing

2012-01-01

362

Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)  

PubMed Central

We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W.

2014-01-01

363

THE ROLE OF SALIVA IN TICK FEEDING  

PubMed Central

When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble from http://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/tick_review/Sup-Table-1.xls.gz. PMID:19273185

Francischetti, Ivo M.B; Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J.; Santos, Isabel M.; Ribeiro, José M.C.

2009-01-01

364

On-Demand Urine Analyzer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

2010-01-01

365

Urine Bag as a Modern Day Matula  

PubMed Central

Since time immemorial uroscopic analysis has been a staple of diagnostic medicine. It received prominence during the middle ages with the introduction of the matula. Urinary discoloration is generally due to changes in urochrome concentration associated with the presence of other endogenous or exogenous pigments. Observation of urine colors has received less attention due to the advances made in urinalysis. A gamut of urine colors can be seen in urine bags of hospitalized patients that may give clue to presence of infections, medications, poisons, and hemolysis. Although worrisome to the patient, urine discoloration is mostly benign and resolves with removal of the offending agent. Twelve urine bags with discolored urine (and their predisposing causes) have been shown as examples. Urine colors (blue-green, yellow, orange, pink, red, brown, black, white, and purple) and their etiologies have been reviewed following a literature search in these databases: Pubmed, EBSCO, Science Direct, Proquest, Google Scholar, Springer, and Ovid. PMID:24959539

Viswanathan, Stalin

2013-01-01

366

Analysis of the urine of the okapi (Okapia johnstoni).  

PubMed

The urine of six adult and two juvenile okapis housed in The Royal Rotterdam Zoological and Botanical Gardens were analysed qualitatively for the presence of protein, glucose, bilirubin, nitrite, blood and ketones and the pH was measured. Quantitative analyses were undertaken for osmolality, urea, creatinine and glucose. The results of the analyses were generally unremarkable with the exceptions of pH, glucose and in some cases the urea/creatinine ratios. However, with the exception of the glucose these other results are physiologically normal. One possible explanation for the presence of glucose in the urine of the okapis is dietary. In the wild these animals are folivorous and thus they may not be able to cope with the high level of sugar presented to them in their captive diet. However, it must be emphasised that this condition has no apparent ill effects on the animals which are in good health and are breeding successfully. PMID:7258039

Glatston, A R; Smit, S

1980-10-01

367

Concentrations of major elements and mercury in unstimulated human saliva.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was a preliminary assessment of a possible role of human saliva in the diagnosis of some physiological and pathological changes in oral and body functions. Reliable procedures for collection and analysis of samples were established in order to assess total concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, and Hg in whole unstimulated saliva. Possible relationships between element concentrations and sex, age, smoking, illness conditions, or side effects resulting from the use of drugs were investigated. The effects of stimulated or unstimulated collection procedures, dental prosthesis, and amalgam fillings were also evaluated. Total concentrations of major cations and Hg in whole saliva from 33 healthy adults living in the Siena district showed a coefficient of variation ranging from 11% (P) to 53% (Na) and average values were in the same range of those previously reported for unstimulated saliva. Healthy males had significantly higher concentrations of K, Na, P, and Na/K, Na/Ca, Na/Mg, and Na/P values than females. Age, smoking, dental prosthesis, and amalgam fillings had no significant effects on the concentrations of major elements. On the contrary, concentrations of Hg were positively correlated to the number of amalgam fillings and increased at a rate of about 1.9 microg/L for each filling. No correlations were found between Hg concentrations and those of major elements. Comparisons with literature data showed a different composition (particularly for Na and Hg concentrations) between unstimulated and stimulated saliva. Samples from patients affected by idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis had significantly higher concentrations of K and the maximum value was measured in a patient affected by acute pulmonary edema. This increase was likely the result of pharmacological treatments with tricyclic antidepressants and/or saline solutions. Data reported in this study, although preliminary, contribute to the assessment of levels of major cations (some of them very little investigated) and Hg in whole unstimulated human saliva and provides consistent support for further research on the possible use of this easy accessible matrix as a diagnostic tool of body function changes. PMID:12462743

Monaci, F; Bargagli, E; Bravi, F; Rottoli, P

2002-12-01

368

Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: new biologic reagents for drug discovery.  

PubMed

The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. PMID:24434629

Guan, Xuan; Mack, David L; Moreno, Claudia M; Strande, Jennifer L; Mathieu, Julie; Shi, Yingai; Markert, Chad D; Wang, Zejing; Liu, Guihua; Lawlor, Michael W; Moorefield, Emily C; Jones, Tara N; Fugate, James A; Furth, Mark E; Murry, Charles E; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Santana, Luis F; Childers, Martin K

2014-03-01

369

Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: new biologic reagents for drug discovery  

PubMed Central

The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. PMID:24434629

Guan, Xuan; Mack, David L.; Moreno, Claudia M.; Strande, Jennifer L.; Mathieu, Julie; Shi, Yingai; Markert, Chad D.; Wang, Zejing; Liu, Guihua; Lawlor, Michael W.; Moorefield, Emily C.; Jones, Tara N.; Fugate, James A; Furth, Mark E.; Murry, Charles E.; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Santana, Luis F.; Childers, Martin K.

2014-01-01

370

46 CFR 4.06-5 - Responsibility of individuals directly involved in serious marine incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...be directly involved in an SMI must provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen for chemical testing when directed to do...b) If the individual refuses to provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen, this refusal must be noted on...

2013-10-01

371

46 CFR 4.06-5 - Responsibility of individuals directly involved in serious marine incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...be directly involved in an SMI must provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen for chemical testing when directed to do...b) If the individual refuses to provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen, this refusal must be noted on...

2014-10-01

372

46 CFR 4.06-5 - Responsibility of individuals directly involved in serious marine incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...be directly involved in an SMI must provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen for chemical testing when directed to do...b) If the individual refuses to provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen, this refusal must be noted on...

2011-10-01

373

46 CFR 4.06-5 - Responsibility of individuals directly involved in serious marine incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...be directly involved in an SMI must provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen for chemical testing when directed to do...b) If the individual refuses to provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen, this refusal must be noted on...

2012-10-01

374

46 CFR 4.06-5 - Responsibility of individuals directly involved in serious marine incidents.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...be directly involved in an SMI must provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen for chemical testing when directed to do...b) If the individual refuses to provide a blood, breath, saliva, or urine specimen, this refusal must be noted on...

2010-10-01

375

Saliva secretion and ionic composition of saliva in the cockroach Periplaneta americana after serotonin and dopamine stimulation, and effects of ouabain and bumetamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated salivary glands of Periplaneta americana were used to measure secretion rates and, by quantitative capillary electrophoresis, Na+, K+, and Cl? concentrations in saliva collected during dopamine (1 ?M) and serotonin (1 ?M) stimulation in the absence and presence of ouabain (100 ?M) or bumetanide (10 ?M). Dopamine stimulated secretion of a NaCl-rich hyposmotic saliva containing (mM): Na+ 95 ±

K. Rietdorf; I. Lang; B. Walz

2003-01-01

376

Characterization of the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Detergent: Laboratory Practicals for Studying the Activity and Stability of Amylase from Saliva and Various Commercial Detergents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents two integrated laboratory exercises intended to show students the role of [alpha]-amylases (AAMYs) in saliva and detergents. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the enzymatic activity of amylase from saliva and different detergents using the Phadebas test (quantitative) and the Lugol test…

Valls, Cristina; Rojas, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

2012-01-01

377

Aphid Gel Saliva: Sheath Structure, Protein Composition and Secretory Dependence on Stylet-Tip Milieu  

PubMed Central

In order to separate and analyze saliva types secreted during stylet propagation and feeding, aphids were fed on artificial diets. Gel saliva was deposited as chains of droplets onto Parafilm membranes covering the diets into which watery saliva was secreted. Saliva compounds collected from the diet fluid were separated by SDS-PAGE, while non-soluble gel saliva deposits were processed in a novel manner prior to protein separation by SDS-PAGE. Soluble (watery saliva) and non-soluble (gel saliva) protein fractions were significantly different. To test the effect of the stylet milieu on saliva secretion, aphids were fed on various diets. Hardening of gel saliva is strongly oxygen-dependent, probably owing to formation of sulfide bridges by oxidation of sulphydryl groups. Surface texture of gel saliva deposits is less pronounced under low-oxygen conditions and disappears in dithiothreitol containing diet. Using diets mimicking sieve-element sap and cell-wall fluid respectively showed that the soluble protein fraction was almost exclusively secreted in sieve elements while non-soluble fraction was preferentially secreted at cell wall conditions. This indicates that aphids are able to adapt salivary secretion in dependence of the stylet milieu. PMID:23056521

Will, Torsten; Steckbauer, Kathrin; Hardt, Martin; van Bel, Aart J. E.

2012-01-01

378

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

SciTech Connect

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 {+-} 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 {+-} 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at Sao Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN - CNEN/SP Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242- 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lewgoy, H. R. [Universidade Anhanguera Bandeirante, UNIBAN R. Maria Candida, 1813, Bloco G / 6o andar - 02071-013 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06

379

Pregnancy-related changes in human whole saliva.  

PubMed

Flow rate, pH, buffer capacity, viscosity, sialic acid, selected proteins (amylase, lysozyme, peroxidase, lactoferrin) and anions (thiocyanate, hypothiocyanite) were analysed in paraffin-stimulated whole saliva of 16 women during the three trimesters of pregnancy and post partum. Salivary pH and buffer capacity decreased towards late pregnancy, followed by a rapid and significant (p less than 0.01) increase after delivery. The specific activity of salivary peroxidase increased significantly (p less than 0.05) during the third trimester, thus supporting the concept of oestrogen-dependency of this enzyme. None of the other parameters changed significantly during pregnancy or lactation. The results suggest that the composition of human saliva is influenced by female sex steroids during pregnancy. PMID:3256298

Laine, M; Tenovuo, J; Lehtonen, O P; Ojanotko-Harri, A; Vilja, P; Tuohimaa, P

1988-01-01

380

Investigation of Secretory Immunoglobulins in Saliva from Germfree Mice  

PubMed Central

We investigated the effect of oral immunization on the serum and salivary immunoglobulin levels in axenic and conventional NIH mice. Specific antibacterial and antifungal antibodies were measured by passive hemagglutination, and differences in the immunoglobulin classes were measured by radial immunodiffusion. After an oral immunization regimen with either intact Escherichia coli or Candida albicans, a significant increase in specific antibody above the base-line reciprocal titer of 32 was observed in conventional mouse saliva. Saliva from axenic mice immunized with the formalized microorganisms yielded reciprocal antibody titers of 256, as compared with an absence of specific antibodies in control animals. Assay of the sera of both groups of immunized mice revealed no increase in antibody levels specific for E. coli lipopolysaccharide or Candidin. PMID:4215756

Molinari, J. A.; Ebersole, J. L.; Platt, D.

1974-01-01

381

Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

2013-05-01

382

Detection and use of salivary hemagglutinins for forensic blood grouping.  

PubMed

A sensitive method for the detection of anti-A and anti-B hemagglutinins in fresh saliva has been developed. The method utilizes a bromelin treated erythrocyte suspension as indicator cells and includes a simple procedure to concentrate these hemagglutinins. Antiserum directed against immunoglobulin A enhances the hemagglutination assay. We find that these salivary hemagglutinins are present in over 90% of the population and that their titer remains stable over a period of two months. These hemagglutinins can be used to blood type the donor of a saliva sample and can be used in a confirmatory test that complements the commonly used absorption-inhibition test which is used to detect salivary blood group agglutinogens. In preliminary studies we have determined that hemagglutinins can be successfully isolated and analyzed from dried saliva stains. PMID:3373156

Kobilinsky, L; Harrington, J J

1988-03-01

383

The Activity of Glucosyltransferase Adsorbed onto Saliva-coated Hydroxyapatite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine physical and kinetic properties of glucosyltransferase (GTF) adsorbed onto hydroxyapatite (HA) surfaces. For development of a solid-phase enzyme assay, 4.0-mg samples of washed HA powder were exposed to centrifuged whole saliva (WSHA) or buffer, and subsequently exposed to a GTF solution. The activities of GTF adsorbed to HA and that remaining in solution were measured.

K. M. Schilling; W. H. Bowen

1988-01-01

384

SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF METALLIC BRACKETS: INFLUENCE OF SALIVA CONTAMINATION  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the influence of saliva contamination on shear bond strength and the bond failure pattern of 3 adhesive systems (Transbond XT, AdheSE and Xeno III) on orthodontic metallic brackets bonded to human enamel. Material and Methods: Seventy-two permanent human molars were cut longitudinally in a mesiodistal direction, producing seventy-two specimens randomly divided into six groups. Each system was tested under 2 different enamel conditions: no contamination and contaminated with saliva. In T, A and X groups, the adhesive systems were applied to the enamel surface in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. In TS, AS and XS groups, saliva was applied to enamel surface followed by adhesive system application. The samples were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h, and then tested for shear bond strength in a universal testing machine (Emic, DL 2000) running at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. After bond failure, the enamel surfaces were observed under an optical microscope at 40x magnification. Results: The control and contaminated groups showed no significant difference in shear bond strength for the same adhesive system. However, shear bond strength of T group (17.03±4.91) was significantly higher than that of AS (8.58±1.73) and XS (10.39±4.06) groups (p<0.05). Regarding the bond failure pattern, TS group had significantly higher scores of no adhesive remaining on the tooth in the bonding area than other groups considering the adhesive remnant index (ARI) used to evaluate the amount of adhesive left on the enamel. Conclusion: Saliva contamination showed little influence on the 24-h shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. PMID:19466249

Retamoso, Luciana Borges; Collares, Fabrício Mezzomo; Ferreira, Eduardo Silveira; Samuel, Susana Maria Werner

2009-01-01

385

Effect of a chlorhexidine varnish on Streptococcus mutans in saliva.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of a thymol/chlorhexidine varnish at 1% on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in saliva applied after teaching and evaluating an oral hygiene technique and dressing the cavities to reduce the bacterial load. Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva samples and dental status were evaluated in 38 girls between 6 and 13 years of age with high risk of caries. The girls were then trained and assessed in oral hygiene. On day seven, oral hygiene assessment was repeated and supragingival plaque control was performed. After 15 days (day 21) another culture was performed and the level of S. mutans in saliva samples was determined. Evaluation and reinforcement of the oral hygiene technique were repeated and the cavities were dressed to reduce the bacterial load. At 36 days from the onset of the experiment, culture S. mutans counts were performed; evaluation and reinforcement of the oral hygiene technique were undertaken and the girls were divided randomly into two groups: 1 The teeth of the experimental group were painted with a varnish containing 1% chlorhexidine and thymol. 2 The teeth of the control group were painted with a placebo varnish containing only thymol. After a further 15 days (day 51), another culture and S. mutans counts were performed. The results showed a gradual reduction in the S. mutans counts in saliva in each subsequent experimental period analyzed. Significant differences between the experimental group and the control group were recorded after treatment. It can be concluded that the levels of S. mutans decreased in each subsequent experimental period and that the application of a 1% chlorhexidine varnish elicited a significant reduction in S. mutans levels. PMID:16302455

Piovano, Susana; Marcantoni, Mabel; Doño, Raquel; Bellagamba, Hebe

2005-01-01

386

Substrate Specificity of Fucosyltransferase Purified from Human Parotid Saliva  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purified fucosyltransferase from human parotid saliva was shown to transfer fucose from GDP-fucose onto the oligosaccharide chains containing the Gal?l?3GlcNAc or Gal ? 1?4GlcNAc\\/Glc sequences. Competition studies between asialotransferrin and either lacto-N-fucopentaose 1 or 2'-fucosyllactose provided evidence that both the substrates competed for a common enzyme active site. These results suggest that the fucosyltransferase activities for the three acceptors

H. Tamagawa; K. Iwakura; A. Amano; S. Shizukuishi; A. Tsunemitsu

1987-01-01

387

Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein.  

PubMed

We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C(23)-X7/9-C(33)-X23/24-C(58)-X8-C(67)-X7-C(75)-X23-C(99)-X15-C(115)-X10-C(126)-X24/25/33-C(150)C(151)-X7-C(159)-X8-C(168)-X23/24-C(192)-X9/10-C(202) predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by Western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 and 48 h tick saliva proteins. Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ? 160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ? 16% and caused ? 24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (? 44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24h Ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. PMID:23428900

Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini

2013-05-01

388

Corrosion behaviour of ?-Ti20Mo alloy in artificial saliva.  

PubMed

To evaluate the potential of ?-Ti20Mo alloy as a dental material, we tested its corrosion behaviour in artificial saliva in comparison to that of cp-Ti. Open-circuit potential (E(OC)), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used as electrochemical methods to characterize the corrosion behaviour of Ti20Mo alloy and cp-Ti, respectively. Corrosion current and passive current densities obtained from the polarization curves showed low values indicating a typical passive behaviour for Ti20Mo alloy. The EIS technique enabled us to study the nature of the passive film formed on the binary Ti20Mo alloy at various imposed potentials. The Bode phase spectra obtained for Ti20Mo alloy in artificial saliva exhibited two-time constants at higher potential (0.5 V, 1.0 V), indicating a two-layer structure. According to our experimental measurements, Ti20Mo alloy appears to possess superior corrosion resistance to that of cp-Ti in artificial saliva. PMID:20711847

Mareci, Daniel; Chelariu, Romeu; Dan, Ioan; Gordin, Doina-Margareta; Gloriant, Thierry

2010-11-01

389

Human saliva-derived exosomes: comparing methods of isolation.  

PubMed

ExoQuick-TC(TM) (EQ), a chemical-based agent designed to precipitate exosomes, was calibrated for use on saliva collected from healthy individuals. The morphological and molecular features of the precipitations were compared with those obtained using the classical, physical-based method of ultracentrifugation (UC). Electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy with anti-CD63 showed vesicular nanoparticles surrounded by bi-layered membrane, compatible with exosomes in EQ, similar to that observed with UC. Atomic force microscopy highlighted larger, irregularly shaped/aggregated EQ nanoparticles that contrasted with the single, round-shaped UC nanoparticles. ELISA (performed on 0.5 ml of saliva) revealed a tendency for a higher expression of the specific exosomal markers (CD63, CD9, CD81) in EQ than in UC (p>0.05). ELISA for epithelial growth factor receptor, a non-exosomal-related marker, showed a significantly higher concentration in EQ than in UC (p=0.04). Western blotting of equal total-protein concentrations revealed bands of CD63, CD9 and CD81 in both types of preparations, although they were less pronounced in EQ compared with UC. This may be related to a higher fraction of non-exosomal proteins in EQ. In conclusion, EQ is suitable and efficient for precipitation of salivary exosomes from small volumes of saliva; however, EQ tends to be associated with considerably more biological impurities (non-exosomal-related proteins/microvesicles) as compared with UC. PMID:25473095

Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Dayan, Dan; Chaushu, Gavriel; Korvala, Johanna; Salo, Tuula; Sormunen, Raija; Vered, Marilena

2015-03-01

390

Antimicrobial factors in saliva: ontogeny and relation to oral health.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial agents (antibody and non-antibody) present in human saliva protect oral tissues by a variety of mechanisms, such as prevention of bacterial adhesion, agglutination of micro-organisms, and inhibition of multiplication and metabolism. However, studies in which the concentrations of various salivary antimicrobial agents have been correlated to the presence and severity of oral diseases--of dental caries, in particular--have produced controversial data, and it seems evident, also on the basis of the present study, that no single salivary antimicrobial factor (except flow rate) affects oral health to a significant degree. In the present study, we report the levels of some selected salivary antimicrobial agents in predentate and dentate human infants, with a comparison to the levels found in young adults' saliva. Salivary lysozyme, peroxidase, and hypothiocyanite concentrations were already at the adult level at the time when the primary teeth erupt, whereas immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, and IgM), lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, and thiocyanate concentrations were significantly lower in children than in adults. Dentate children had more IgG, thiocyanate, and protein in whole saliva than did predentate children. PMID:3040824

Tenovuo, J; Gråhn, E; Lehtonen, O P; Hyyppä, T; Karhuvaara, L; Vilja, P

1987-02-01

391

Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40+/-1.7) and postflight (44+/-5) phases. Eighteen control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

2003-01-01

392

Ion chromatographic determination of calcium and magnesium cations in human saliva and urine with a piezoelectric detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid sample extraction procedure for the determination of ascorbic acid (AA) by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in multivitamin-mineral formulations containing interfering copper has been developed. The method takes special precautions to prevent degradation of AA in contact with high concentrations of interfering elements such as copper. Sample preparation involved addition of pyrogallol, citric acid solution and short time

Bing-Sheng Yu; Qian-Gen Yuan; Li-Hua Nie; Shou-Zhuo Yao

2001-01-01

393

Driving under the influence of drugs — evaluation of analytical data of drugs in oral fluid, serum and urine, and correlation with impairment symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was performed to acquire urine, serum and oral fluid samples in cases of suspected driving under the influence of drugs of abuse. Oral fluid was collected using a novel sampling\\/testing device (Dräger DrugTest® System). The aim of the study was to evaluate oral fluid and urine as a predictor of blood samples positive for drugs and impairment symptoms.

Stefan W. Toennes; Gerold F. Kauert; Stefan Steinmeyer; Manfred R. Moeller

2005-01-01

394

Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the Presence of Human Saliva  

PubMed Central

Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72×41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was also restored when saliva-inhibited cells were subsequently exposed to DTT. The inclusion of catalase in the saliva incubation mixtures resulted in protection equal to that obtained with DTT. The S. mitis strains were also inhibited by saliva but to a far lesser extent that S. mutans. DTT and catalase also protected S. mitis from saliva inhibition. Both A. viscosus strains were completely refractory to saliva inhibition of glucose uptake. Based on (i) the sensitivity of the catalase-negative streptococci and the resistance of catalase-positive actinomyces to saliva inhibition and (ii) the equal and complete protection to saliva inhibition afforded by DTT and catalase, we conclude that the lactoperoxidase-SCN?-H2O2 system in saliva was the only antibacterial system expressed under our experimental conditions. The relative resistance of S. mitis 9811 (compared with S. mutans BHT) to saliva inhibition was shown not to result from poor H2O2 production in either glucose-supplemented buffer or saliva solutions. S. mitis produced inhibitory quantities of H2O2 that equaled or exceeded S. mutans H2O2 accumulation. It is suggested that S. mitis might possess a greater ability to repair lactoperoxidase-mediated damage than does S. mutans. Every organism studied exhibited a saliva concentration-dependent, cell growth-independent stimulation of glucose uptake after 60 to 90 min of incubation. The A. viscosus and S. mitis strains showed saliva stimulation (or stabilization) of glucose uptake with unsupplemented saliva. In the case of S. mutans, saliva stimulation was only observed when DTT was present. The possible role of salivary lactoperoxidase as a modulator of the intraoral site specificities exhibited by S. mutans is discussed. PMID:7152663

Germaine, Greg, R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

1982-01-01

395

Papain: a novel urine adulterant.  

PubMed

The estimated number of employees in the United Stated screened annually for illicit drugs is approximately 20 million, with marijuana being the most frequently abused drug. Urine adulterants provide an opportunity for illicit drug users to obtain a false-negative result on commonly used primary drug screening methods such as the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique and the fluorescence polarized immunoassay technique (FPIA). Typical chemical adulterants such as nitrites are easily detected or render the urine specimen invalid as defined in the proposed SAMHSA guidelines for specimen validity testing based on creatinine, specific gravity, and pH. Papain is a cysteine protease with intrinsic ester hydrolysis capability. The primary metabolite of the psychoactive chemical in marijuana, 11-norcarboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannibinol (THC-COOH), was assayed by FPIA in concentrations ranging from 25 to 500 ng/mL, at pH values ranging from 4.5 to 8, over the course of 3 days with papain concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 mg/mL. FPIA analysis of other frequently abused drugs: amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine, along with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of THC-COOH and high-pressure liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) of nordiazepam was performed in order to determine if the mechanism of urine adulteration by papain was analyte specific. Control and adulterated urine specimens (n = 30) were assayed for creatinine, specific gravity, and pH to determine if papain rendered the specimens invalid based on the proposed SAMHSA guidelines. There was a direct pH, temperature, and time-dependent correlate between the increase in papain concentration and the decrease in THC-COOH concentration from the untreated control groups (p < 0.01). The average 72-h THC-COOH concentration decrease at pH 6.2 with a papain concentration of 10 mg/mL was 50%. Papain did not significantly decrease the concentration of the other drugs analyzed with the exception of nordiazepam. GC-MS of THC-COOH and HPLC-UV of nordiazepam revealed a 66% and 24% decrease in concentration of the respective analyte with 10 mg/mL papain after 24 h at room temperature (approximately 23 degrees C). No adulterated specimens were rendered invalid based on the SAMHSA guidelines. Immediate FPIA analysis is suggested to minimize the interfering effects of papain with regards to primary drug screening. PMID:16105251

Burrows, David L; Nicolaides, Andrea; Rice, Peter J; Dufforc, Michelle; Johnson, David A; Ferslew, Kenneth E

2005-01-01

396

Home blood glucose monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether home blood glucose monitoring as used by non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients followed in\\u000a primary care nonresearch clinics improves glycemic control or reduces utilization of the outpatient laboratory.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design: A retrospective chart reviewfor 229 patients receiving outpatient supplies for home testing of either blood or urine.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting: A variety of nonresearch clinics at a Veterans Affairs Medical

Catherine E. Klein; Sylvia K. Oboler; Allan Prochazka; Steven Oboler; Marian Frank; Michael Glugla; Sheila Winters

1993-01-01

397

Blood Types  

MedlinePLUS

... immune system to attack the transfused blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. ... Cells Platelets Plasma White Blood Cells and Granulocytes Blood Transfusions Types of Blood Transfusions Reasons People Receive Blood ...

398

Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral midazolam in plasma and saliva in humans: usefulness of saliva as matrix for CYP3A phenotyping  

PubMed Central

AIMS To compare midazolam kinetics between plasma and saliva and to find out whether saliva is suitable for CYP3A phenotyping. METHODS This was a two way cross-over study in eight subjects treated with 2 mg midazolam IV or 7.5 mg orally under basal conditions and after CYP3A induction with rifampicin. RESULTS Under basal conditions and IV administration, midazolam and 1?-hydroxymidazolam (plasma, saliva), 4-hydroxymidazolam and 1?-hydroxymidazolam-glucuronide (plasma) were detectable. After rifampicin, the AUC of midazolam [mean differences plasma 53.7 (95% CI 4.6, 102.9) and saliva 0.83 (95% CI 0.52, 1.14) ng ml?1 h] and 1?-hydroxymidazolam [mean difference plasma 11.8 (95% CI 7.9, 15.7) ng ml?1 h] had decreased significantly. There was a significant correlation between the midazolam concentrations in plasma and saliva (basal conditions: r = 0.864, P < 0.0001; after rifampicin: r = 0.842, P < 0.0001). After oral administration and basal conditions, midazolam, 1?-hydroxymidazolam and 4-hydroxymidazolam were detectable in plasma and saliva. After treatment with rifampicin, the AUC of midazolam [mean difference plasma 104.5 (95% CI 74.1, 134.9) ng ml?1 h] and 1?-hydroxymidazolam [mean differences plasma 51.9 (95% CI 34.8, 69.1) and saliva 2.3 (95% CI 1.9, 2.7) ng ml?1 h] had decreased significantly. The parameters separating best between basal conditions and post-rifampicin were: (1?-hydroxymidazolam + 1?-hydroxymidazolam-glucuronide)/midazolam at 20–30 min (plasma) and the AUC of midazolam (saliva) after IV, and the AUC of midazolam (plasma) and of 1?-hydroxymidazolam (plasma and saliva) after oral administration. CONCLUSIONS Saliva appears to be a suitable matrix for non-invasive CYP3A phenotyping using midazolam as a probe drug, but sensitive analytical methods are required. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THE SUBJECTMidazolam is a frequently used probe drug for CYP3A phenotyping in plasma. Midazolam and its hydroxy-metabolites can be detected in saliva. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS The concentrations of midazolam and its hydroxy-metabolites are much lower in saliva than in plasma, but the midazolam concentrations in both matrices show a significant linear correlation.Saliva appears to be a suitable matrix for CYP3A phenotyping with midazolam, but very sensitive methods are required due to the low concentrations of midazolam and its hydroxy-metabolites. PMID:18537963

Link, Bettina; Haschke, Manuel; Grignaschi, Nathalie; Bodmer, Michael; Aschmann, Yvonne Zysset; Wenk, Markus; Krähenbühl, Stephan

2008-01-01

399

Determination of Cyclosporine in Saliva using Liquid Chromatography???Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saliva may offer an alternative specimen for the therapeu- tic monitoring of cyclosporine (CsA) in children and patients with difficult venous access. For a highly protein-bound drug such as CsA, saliva may also provide a practical approach for measuring the un- bound concentration. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spec- trometry (LC-MS\\/MS) is ideally suited for the measurement of drugs in saliva. A

Anisha Mendonza; Reginald Gohh; Fatemeh Akhlaghi

2004-01-01

400

Brief Functional Analysis and Intervention Evaluation for Treatment of Saliva-Play  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a brief (8 days) functional analysis to identify sources of control over persistent saliva-play displayed by a 6-year old child with autism in a school setting. The functional analysis suggested that saliva-play was maintained by automatic reinforcement, leading to an intervention evaluation (3 days) that compared two methods of providing alternative sensory consequences. Saliva-play was eliminated when the

James K. Luiselli; Joseph N. Ricciardi; Sarah Schmidt; Melissa Tarr

2004-01-01

401

Metronidazole as a radiosensitizer: a preliminary report on estimation in serum and saliva  

SciTech Connect

Some studies indicate the clinical benefit of hypoxic radiosensitizers in patients who are undergoing radiotherapy. Serum level of sensitizers are usualy advised; however they are very demanding on the patient. Saliva level of the sensitizers may be an alternative method. This study correlated serum level of metronidazole to the saliva level in 10 patients who were undergoing radiotherapy with the sensitizer. A change to the saliva level method appears to relieve the patients.

Karim, A.B.M.F.; Faber, D.B.; Haas, R.E.; Hoekstra, F.H.; Njo, K.H.

1980-09-01

402

Protopine alkaloids in horse urine.  

PubMed

Protopine was extracted from Fumaria officinalis and purified by column chromatography. Urine samples were collected from horses and a human volunteer that had been administered either F. officinalis or protopine free base. Plant and urine samples were acetylated and analysed by GCMS after solid-phase extraction (SPE). The urinary metabolites of protopine were identified as 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9,10-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-l,3-benzodioxolo [4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-1][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one and 4,6,7,13-tetrahydro-9-hydroxy-10-methoxy-5-methyl-benzo[e]-1,3-benzodioxolo[4,5-l][2] benzazecin-12(5H)-one, chelianthifoline, isochelianthifoline and 2-O-desmethylchelianthifoline. The metabolic formation of the tetrahydroprotoberberines by closure of the bridge across N5 and C13 is rate limited and protopine-like metabolites accumulate only when the route is overloaded. Metabolism was qualitatively similar in the horse and human. PMID:15458726

Wynne, Paul M; Vine, John H; Amiet, R Gary

2004-11-01

403

ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE POISONINGS IN HUMANS: DETERMINATION OF RESIDUES AND METABOLITES IN TISSUES AND URINE  

EPA Science Inventory

The analyses of four organophosphorus pesticide poisoning cases, three of which resulted in death, are reported. The case histories of the subjects, along with the analysis of tissues, urine, and blood for the levels of pesticides and metabolites are given. The pesticides involve...

404

Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.

2015-01-01

405

Spot urine estimations are equivalent to 24-hour urine assessments of urine protein excretion for predicting clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26-41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J C

2015-01-01

406

Understanding of xerostomia and strategies for the development of artificial saliva.  

PubMed

Xerostomia is becoming a major issue in dental and medical clinics with an increase of aged population. Medication is the most common etiology of xerostomia, while the most severe xerostomia generally occurs in patients with a history of head and neck radiotherapy. Xerostomic patients usually suffer from diminished quality of life due to various symptoms and complications. Decreased salivary output is a definite objective sign, but oral mucosal wetness is a more reliable factor for the evaluation of xerostomia. At present there are no effective therapeutic methods for the treatment of xerostomia. Sialogogues may have problematic side effects and their therapeutic effects last only brief duration. Artificial saliva typically does not produce satisfactory results in therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, further research and development of better therapeutic modalities are necessary. The basic concept for the development of ideal and functional artificial saliva is the mimicry of natural human saliva. We need proper candidate molecules and antimicrobial supplements to simulate the rheological and biological properties of human saliva. We also need better understanding of the interactions between the ingredients of artificial saliva themselves and between the ingredients and components of human saliva both in solution and on surface phases. In addition, we need accepted measures to evaluate the efficacy of artificial saliva. In conclusion, for the development of ideal artificial saliva, research based on the understanding of pathophysiology of xerostomia and knowledge about rheological and biological functions of human saliva are necessary. PMID:25531014

Kho, Hong-Seop

2014-12-01

407

Probing viscosity of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva by magnetic rotational spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic rotational spectroscopy was employed for rheological analysis of nanoliter droplets of butterfly saliva. Saliva viscosity of butterflies is 4-5 times greater than that of water and similar to that of 30%-40% sucrose solutions at 25 °C. Hence, viscosity stratification would not be expected when butterflies feed on nectar with 30%-40% sugar concentrations. We did not observe any viscoelastic effects or non-Newtonian behavior of saliva droplets. Thus, butterfly saliva is significantly different rheologically from that of humans, which demonstrates a viscoelastic behavior.

Tokarev, Alexander; Kaufman, Bethany; Gu, Yu; Andrukh, Taras; Adler, Peter H.; Kornev, Konstantin G.

2013-01-01

408

KetoAcid Content of Human Blood and Urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE common procedure used to detect the keto-acid content in a biological material is usually confined to the isolation of the dinitrophenylhydrazone derivatives from a deproteinized sample, followed by the photometric evaluation of the red colour which they develop with addition of alkali. The results are expressed as milligrams of pyruvic acid, which is believed to be the main biological

Doriano Cavallini; Nora Frontali; Giovanni Toschi

1949-01-01

409

Column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography of ofloxacin in human saliva and correlation of ofloxacin level in saliva and serum.  

PubMed

A column-switching high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay was developed for the determination of ofloxacin in saliva. The saliva samples were directly introduced into a C8 HPLC column using a C18 precolumn. Ofloxacin and lomefloxacin as internal standards were detected spectrophotometrically at 300 nm. Determination of ofloxacin was possible in the concentration range 50-3,000 ng/ml, and the limit of detection was 20 ng/ ml. The recovery of ofloxacin added to saliva was 96.9-101.2% with a coefficient of variation of < 2.9%. These pharmacokinetic studies were made of healthy volunteers after treatment with ofloxacin. The maximum concentration of saliva and serum ofloxacin was 513.3-2,053.0 ng/ml and 768.2-3,089.0 ng/ml for dose of 100 mg or 200 mg, respectively. The AUC0-6 was 1,736.8-6,519.9 ng/h/ml in saliva and 2,875.5-10,086.0 ng/h/ml in serum, respectively. The saliva versus serum concentration ratio was 0.4-0.7 for doses of 100 and 200 mg. A good correlation between saliva and serum level of ofloxacin was obtained by this HPLC method (r = 0.949). PMID:8885126

Ohkubo, T; Suno, M; Kudo, M; Uno, T; Sugawara, K

1996-10-01

410

Excretion of free amino acids with the urine as a test for early diagnosis of radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the case of 30 individuals who were subjected to combined radiation therapy for treatment of cancer of the uterus, the excretion of free amino acids with the urine and the change in their level in the blood were studied. The increase in amount of several free amino acids in the urine is an early and sensitive indicator of radiation action on the human organism.

Tyutin, L. A.

1973-01-01

411

Incidence of opiates, amphetamines, and cocaine in hair and blood in fatal cases of heroin overdose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the occurrence in hair, of some drugs of abuse in deaths caused by heroin overdose, in comparison to findings in blood. Blood, urine and hair samples were obtained during routine post mortem examinations. Samples were analysed for amphetamines, opiates, and cocaine. Immunometric drug screening was performed in urine and positive results

Robert Kronstrand; Robert Grundin; John Jonsson

1998-01-01

412

Determination of ibuprofen in human plasma and urine by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

This paper describes a GC/MS method for the determination of ibuprofen in human plasma and urine. Ibuprofen and internal standard naproxen were extracted from plasma and urine by using a liquid-liquid extraction method. Derivatization was carried out using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.05-5.0 and 0.1-10.0 microg/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. Intraday and interday precision (RSD) values for ibuprofen in plasma and urine were less than 6.31%, and accuracy (relative error) was better than 12.00%. The mean recovery of ibuprofen was 89.53% for plasma and 93.73% for urine. The LOD was 0.015 and 0.03 microg/mL and the LOQ was 0.05 and 0.1 microg/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The method was successfully applied to blood samples from three healthy male volunteers who had been given an oral tablet of 600 mg ibuprofen. PMID:24830154

Yilmaz, Bilal; Erdem, Ali Fuat

2014-01-01

413

Measurement of Menadione in urine by HPLC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Menadione may be an important metabolite of vitamin K that is excreted in urine. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with a C30 column, fluorescence detection and post-column zinc reduction was developed to measure menadione in urine. The mobile phase was composed of 95% methanol...

414

Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples  

PubMed Central

Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation. PMID:5768462

Porter, I. A.; Brodie, J.

1969-01-01

415

Exosomes in urine biomarker discovery.  

PubMed

Nanovesicles present in urine the so-called urinary exosomes have been found to be secreted by every epithelial cell type lining the urinary tract system in human. Urinary exosomes are an appealing source for biomarker discovery as they contain molecular constituents of their cell of origin, including proteins and genetic materials, and they can be isolated in a non-invasive manner. Following the discovery of urinary exosomes in 2004, many studies have been performed using urinary exosomes as a starting material to identify biomarkers in various renal, urogenital, and systemic diseases. Here, we describe the discovery of urinary exosomes and address the issues on the collection, isolation, and normalization of urinary exosomes as well as delineate the systems biology approach to biomarker discovery using urinary exosomes. PMID:25355568

Huebner, Alyssa R; Somparn, Poorichaya; Benjachat, Thitima; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Avihingsanon, Yingyos; Fenton, Robert A; Pisitkun, Trairak

2015-01-01

416

Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

2011-01-01

417

Effect of Human Saliva on Glucose Uptake by Streptococcus mutans and Other Oral Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of human whole salivary supernatant and parotid fluid on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The following three effects of saliva were observed: (i) inhibition of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), (ii) promotion of a transient, rapid (0 to 30 s) burst of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), and (iii) enhancement of glucose uptake (S. mitis, A. viscosus, S. aureus, E. coli). We observed no differences between the effects of whole salivary supernatant and the effects of parotid fluid. Heat treatment (80°C, 10 min) of saliva or the addition of dithiothreitol abolished inhibition of glucose uptake. Supplementation of saliva with H2O2 potentiated inhibition of glucose uptake. S. mitis and A. viscosus, which were stimulated by saliva alone, were inhibited by H2O2-supplemented saliva; 50% inhibition of glucose uptake by S. mutans and S. mitis required ca. 10 ?M H2O2 in 50% (vol/vol) saliva. Loss of the inhibitory action of saliva occurred at about 5% (vol/vol) saliva. Supplementation of saliva dilutions with SCN? and H2O2 extended the inhibitory activity to solutions containing ca. 0.2% (vol/vol) saliva. We suggest that the salivary lactoperoxidase-SCN?-H2O2 system is responsible for the inhibitory activity of saliva reported here. Furthermore, we concluded that lactoperoxidase and SCN? are present in saliva specimens in concentrations that exceed minimal inhibitory levels by factors of ca. 500 and 10 to 20, respectively. The resistance of A. viscosus, S. aureus, and E. coli to the inhibitory potential of saliva alone was probably due to the production of catalase by these organisms. The resistance of S. mitis may have been due to special effects of saliva on H2O2 accumulation by this organism compared with S. mutans and S. sanguis. The basis of saliva-dependent enhancement of glucose uptake and the basis of promotion of a transient, rapid burst of glucose uptake are unknown. The role of the salivary lactoperoxidase-SCN?-H2O2 system in the oral microbial ecosystem is discussed. PMID:7012014

Germaine, Greg R.; Tellefson, Lois M.

1981-01-01

418

Blood Transfusion  

MedlinePLUS

... time to test a person's Rh type. Blood Banks Blood banks collect, test, and store blood. They carefully screen ... Are the Risks of a Blood Transfusion?" ) Blood bank staff also screen each blood donation to find ...

419

Intake of polyphenol-rich pomegranate pure juice influences urinary glucocorticoids, blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in human volunteers.  

PubMed

Pomegranate juice (PJ; also known as pomegreat pure juice) provides a rich and varied source of polyphenolic compounds that may offer cardioprotective, anti-atherogenic and antihypertensive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PJ consumption on glucocorticoids levels, blood pressure (BP) and insulin resistance in volunteers at high CVD risk. Subjects (twelve males and sixteen females) participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study (BMI: 26·77 (sd 3·36) kg/m(2); mean age: 50·4 (sd 6·1) years). Volunteers were assessed at baseline, and at weeks 2 and 4 for anthropometry, BP and pulse wave velocity. Cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva were determined by specific ELISA methods, and the cortisol/cortisone ratio was calculated. Fasting blood samples were obtained to assess plasma lipids, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Volunteers consumed 500 ml of PJ or 500 ml of a placebo drink containing a similar amount of energy. Cortisol urinary output was reduced but not significant. However, cortisol/cortisone ratios in urine (P = 0·009) and saliva (P = 0·024) were significantly decreased. Systolic BP decreased from 136·4 (sd 6·3) to 128·9 (sd 5·1) mmHg (P = 0·034), and diastolic BP from 80·3 (sd 4·29) to 75·5 (sd 5·17) mmHg (P = 0·031) after 4 weeks of fruit juice consumption. Pulse wave velocity decreased from 7·5 (sd 0·86) to 7·44 (sd 0·94) m/s (P = 0·035). There was also a significant reduction in fasting plasma insulin from 9·36 (sd 5·8) to 7·53 (sd 4·12) mIU/l (P = 0·025) and of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (from 2·216 (sd 1·43) to 1·82 (sd 1·12), P = 0·028). No significant changes were seen in the placebo arm of the study. These results suggest that PJ consumption can alleviate key cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects that might be due to a reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP, possibly through the inhibition of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity as evidenced by the reduction in the cortisol/cortisone ratio. The reduction in insulin resistance might have therapeutic benefits for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25191556

Tsang, Catherine; Smail, Nacer F; Almoosawi, S; Davidson, I; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

2012-01-01

420

Computational Prediction of Human Salivary Proteins from Blood Circulation and Application to Diagnostic Biomarker Identification  

PubMed Central

Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer. PMID:24324552

Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying

2013-01-01

421

Comparison of saliva and serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody testing in Uganda using a rapid recombinant assay.  

PubMed Central

The accuracy and acceptability of saliva human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody testing were compared with serum testing in a study of paired specimens from HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative Ugandan adults attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Saliva collection was performed with the Omni-sal device (Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Vancouver, Wash.), and antibody testing was performed by a rapid filter paper assay (Test-Pack; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). Relative to serum testing, the sensitivity of saliva testing was 95% (195 of 205) and the specificity was 99% (295 of 297). The sensitivity of saliva testing was higher for patients with elevated levels of beta-2 microglobulin in sera and greater numbers of HIV-1-related symptoms. Pre- and poststudy interviews indicated that saliva testing did not foster inordinate fears of saliva exposure. The development of saliva tests that are inexpensive and do not require electricity is needed. PMID:8914752

Grant, R M; Piwowar, E M; Katongole-Mbidde, E; Muzawalu, W; Rugera, S; Abima, J; Stramer, S L; Kataaha, P; Jackson, B

1996-01-01

422

Development of a Multispecies Oral Bacterial Community in a Saliva-Conditioned Flow Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial communities within the human oral cavity are dynamic associations of more than 500 bacterial species that form biofilms on the soft and hard tissues of the mouth. Understanding the development and spatial organization of oral biofilms has been facilitated by the use of in vitro models. We used a saliva- conditioned flow cell, with saliva as the sole nutritional

Jamie S. Foster; Paul E. Kolenbrander

2004-01-01

423

Detection of Rabies Virus Antigen in Dog Saliva Using a Latex Agglutination Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dog bites are responsible for more than 90% of human rabies deaths in Asia. We developed a simple and inexpensive test based on latex agglutination (LA) for rabies virus antigen detection in dog saliva. Rabies virus antigen could be detected by agglutination on a glass slide using latex particles coated with gamma globulin. By evaluation of paired saliva-brain specimens from

S. KASEMPIMOLPORN; W. SAENGSEESOM; B. LUMLERTDACHA; V. SITPRIJA

2000-01-01

424

Effects of saliva on starch-thickened drinks with acidic and neutral pH.  

PubMed

Powdered maize starch thickeners are used to modify drink consistency in the clinical management of dysphagia. Amylase is a digestive enzyme found in saliva which breaks down starch. This action is dependent on pH, which varies in practice depending on the