Sample records for blood urine saliva

  1. Isoflavones in urine, saliva and blood of infants – data from a pilot study on the estrogenic activity of soy formula

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yang; Calafat, Antonia M.; Doerge, Daniel R.; Umbach, David M.; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Ye, Xiaoyun; Rogan, Walter J.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, about 25% of infant formula sold is based on soy protein, which is an important source of estrogenic isoflavones in the human food supply. Nevertheless, few studies report isoflavones levels in infants. We did a partly cross-sectional, partly longitudinal pilot study to examine children’s exposure to isoflavones from different feeding methods. One hundred sixty-six full term infants between birth and 1 year of age were recruited into soy formula, cow milk formula or breast milk regimens according to their feeding histories. Three hundred eighty-one urine, 361 saliva and 88 blood samples were collected at 382 visits. We used automated online SPE coupled to HPLC-MS/MS for measuring three isoflavones (daidzein, genistein, and equol) in urine, and use similar LC/MS/MS techniques for saliva and blood spots . Concentrations of daidzein and genistein were undetectable in most blood or saliva samples from children fed breast milk or cow-milk formula. The proportion of non-detectable values was somewhat lower in urine than the other matrices. Concentrations of equol were detectable in only a few urine samples. For both daidzein and genistein, urine contained the highest median concentrations, followed by blood, and then saliva. Urinary concentrations of genistein and daidzein were about 500 times higher in the soy-formula-fed infants than in the cow-milk-formula-fed infants. The correlations between matrices for either analyte were strikingly lower than the correlation between the two analytes in any single matrix. We did not find significant correlations between isoflavone concentrations and the levels of certain hormones in children fed soy formula. Our results, based on much larger numbers of infants, strongly confirm previous reports, but whether the phytoestrogens in soy formula are biologically active in infants is still an open question. We plan further longitudinal studies focusing on physical and developmental findings reflecting the effects of estrogen exposure. PMID:18665197

  2. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Olmedo; A. Pla; A. F. Hernández; O. López-Guarnido; L. Rodrigo; F. Gil

    2010-01-01

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our

  3. Variation in protein levels obtained from human blood cells and biofluids for platelet, peripheral blood mononuclear cell, plasma, urine and saliva proteomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Katie Crosley; Susan J. Duthie; Abigael C. Polley; Freek G. Bouwman; Carolin Heim; Francis Mulholland; Graham Horgan; Ian T. Johnson; Edwin C. Mariman; Ruan M. Elliott; Hannelore Daniel; Baukje de Roos

    2009-01-01

    Blood cells and biofluid proteomics are emerging as a valuable tool to assess effects of interventions on health and disease.\\u000a This study is aimed to assess the amount and variability of proteins from platelets, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC),\\u000a plasma, urine and saliva from ten healthy volunteers for proteomics analysis, and whether protein yield is affected by prolonged\\u000a fasting. Volunteers

  4. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2015-01-01

    An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under IND (Investigational New Drug) guidelines. The aim of the project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationships among plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial protocol with INSCOP. Twelve healthy human subjects were administered at three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. PK compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling time, were established using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on a likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL (i.e. log-likelihood ratio test)) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. The results: Predictable correlations among scopolamine concentrations in compartments of plasma, saliva and urine were established, and for the first time the model satisfactorily predicted the population and individual PK of INSCOP in plasma, saliva and urine. The model can be utilized to predict the INSCOP plasma concentration by saliva and urine data, and it will be useful for monitoring the PK of scopolamine in space and other remote environments using non-invasive sampling of saliva and/or urine.

  5. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Chow, D. S. L.; Tam, V.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials for an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP. METHODS: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min to 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model discrimination was performed, by minimizing the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), maximizing the coefficient of determination (r²) and by comparison of the quality of fit plots. RESULTS: The best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition after INSCOP administration (minimal AIC =907.2) consisted of one compartment for plasma, saliva and urine respectively that were inter-connected with different rate constants. The estimated values of PK parameters were compiled in Table 1. The model fitting exercises revealed a nonlinear PK for scopolamine between plasma and saliva compartments for K21, Vmax and Km. CONCLUSION: PK model for INSCOP was developed and for the first time it satisfactorily predicted the PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after INSCOP administration. Using non-linear PK yielded the best structural model to describe scopolamine disposition between plasma and saliva compartments, and inclusion of non-linear PK resulted in a significant improved model fitting. The model can be utilized to predict scopolamine plasma concentration using saliva and/or urine data that allows non-invasive assessment of pharmacotherapeutics of scopolamine in space and other remote environments without requiring blood sampling.

  6. Examining a possibility of usage of saliva for blood sugar tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min-Soo Kang; Hee-Cheol Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we examine a possibility of blood sugar tests with the saliva used. When saliva is employed, patients firstly feel little pain. Secondly, it is more convenient than urine tests. Thirdly, monitoring blood sugar continuously is possible by inserting a sensor within the mouth. Hence, it is very desirable to investigate into potential of blood-sugar tests by saliva,

  7. Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candace K. Mathiason; Jenny G. Powers; Sallie J. Dahmes; David A. Osborn; Karl V. Miller; Robert J. Warren; Gary L. Mason; Sheila A. Hays; Jeanette Hayes-Klug; Davis M. Seelig; Margaret A. Wild; Lisa L. Wolfe; Terry R. Spraker; Michael W. Miller; Christina J. Sigurdson; Glenn C. Telling; Edward A. Hoover

    2006-01-01

    A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route)

  8. Cortisol in urine and saliva: relations to the intima media thickness, IMT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nanna Hurwitz Eller; Bo Netterstrøm; Åse Marie Hansen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the study was to analyse the relations between excretion of cortisol in urine and saliva and the intima media thickness (IMT) of the artery carotis communis. Design and methods: In a cross-sectional study, 121 healthy participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Additionally, three samples of urine and four samples of saliva were collected in the 24 h

  9. Infectious Prions in the Saliva and Blood of Deer with Chronic Wasting Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathiason, Candace K.; Powers, Jenny G.; Dahmes, Sallie J.; Osborn, David A.; Miller, Karl V.; Warren, Robert J.; Mason, Gary L.; Hays, Sheila A.; Hayes-Klug, Jeanette; Seelig, Davis M.; Wild, Margaret A.; Wolfe, Lisa L.; Spraker, Terry R.; Miller, Michael W.; Sigurdson, Christina J.; Telling, Glenn C.; Hoover, Edward A.

    2006-10-01

    A critical concern in the transmission of prion diseases, including chronic wasting disease (CWD) of cervids, is the potential presence of prions in body fluids. To address this issue directly, we exposed cohorts of CWD-naïve deer to saliva, blood, or urine and feces from CWD-positive deer. We found infectious prions capable of transmitting CWD in saliva (by the oral route) and in blood (by transfusion). The results help to explain the facile transmission of CWD among cervids and prompt caution concerning contact with body fluids in prion infections.

  10. A Population Pharmacokinetic Model for Disposition in Plasma, Saliva and Urine of Scopolamine after Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V. H.; Chow, D. S. L.; Putcha, L.

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND) protocol. The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trials with INSCOP. Methods: Twelve healthy human subjects were administered three dose levels (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg) of INSCOP. Serial blood, saliva and urine samples were collected between 5 min and 24 h after dosing and scopolamine concentrations were measured by using a validated LC-MS-MS assay. Pharmacokinetic Compartmental models, using actual dosing and sampling times, were built using Phoenix (version 1.2). Model selection was based on the likelihood ratio test on the difference of criteria (-2LL) and comparison of the quality of fit plots. Results: The best structural model for INSCOP (minimal -2LL= 502.8) was established. It consisted of one compartment each for plasma, saliva and urine, respectively, which were connected with linear transport processes except the nonlinear PK process from plasma to saliva compartment. The best-fit estimates of PK parameters from individual PK compartmental analysis and Population PK model analysis were shown in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: A population PK model that could predict population and individual PK of scopolamine in plasma, saliva and urine after dosing was developed and validated. Incorporating a non-linear transfer from plasma to saliva compartments resulted in a significantly improved model fitting. The model could be used to predict scopolamine plasma concentrations from salivary and urinary drug levels, allowing non-invasive therapeutic monitoring of scopolamine in space and other remote environments.

  11. Blood, Saliva Tests May Spot Head and Neck Cancers Early

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tumors in patients' blood and saliva samples, a development that potentially could lead to early diagnosis of these malignancies. Although not yet ready for real-world use, such tests could also help in planning ...

  12. Amylase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is a test that measures the amount of amylase in urine. Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It ... the pancreas and the glands that make saliva. Amylase may also be measured with a blood test .

  13. Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Intranasal Scopolamine in Plasma Saliva and Urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Tam, V.; Chow, Diana S. L.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2014-01-01

    An intranasal gel formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed for the treatment of Space Motion Sickness. The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) were evaluated under the Food and Drug Administration guidelines for clinical trials with an Investigative New Drug (IND). The aim of this project was to develop a PK model that can predict the relationship between plasma, saliva and urinary scopolamine concentrations using data collected from the IND clinical trial with INSCOP.

  14. Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tract is the body’s drainage system for removing wastes and extra water. The urinary tract includes two kidneys, two ureters, ... 1 to 2 quarts of urine, composed of wastes and extra water. The urine flows from the kidneys to the ...

  15. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A PESCH; M WILHELM; U ROSTEK; N SCHMITZ; M WEISHOFF-HOUBEN; U RANFT; H IDEL

    2002-01-01

    Mercury levels measured in urine, hair, and saliva of 245 German children (8–10 years old) are reported. Mercury concentrations in urine ranged between <0.1 and 5.3 ?g\\/l [geometric mean (GM) 0.26 ?g\\/l or 0.25 ?g\\/g creatinine; median for both, 0.22 in ?g\\/l and ?g\\/g, respectively]. Using multiple linear regression analysis, two predictors have been found accounting for 25.3% of the

  16. Blood in the Urine (Hematuria)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from Nemours for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & ... Date reviewed: May 2013 Back 1 ? 2 For Teens For ... Tract Infections Urine Test (Video) Kidneys and Urinary Tract Glomerulonephritis Kidney Stones Contact ...

  17. Detection of congenital cytomegalovirus infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of saliva or urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Ross, Shannon A; Ahmed, Amina; Palmer, April L; Michaels, Marian G; Sánchez, Pablo J; Bernstein, David I; Tolan, Robert W; Novak, Zdenek; Chowdhury, Nazma; Fowler, Karen B; Boppana, Suresh B

    2014-11-01

    Viral culture of urine or saliva has been the gold standard technique for the diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Results of rapid culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of urine and saliva specimens from 80 children were compared to determine the clinical utility of a real-time PCR assay for diagnosis of congenital CMV infection. Results of urine PCR were positive in 98.8% of specimens. Three PCR-positive urine samples were culture negative. Results of saliva PCR and culture were concordant in 78 specimens (97.5%). Two PCR-positive saliva samples were culture negative. These findings demonstrate that PCR performs as well as rapid culture of urine or saliva specimens for diagnosing congenital CMV infection and saliva specimens are easier to collect. Because PCR also offers more rapid turnaround, is unlikely to be affected by storage and transport conditions, has lower cost, and may be adapted to high-throughput situations, it is well suited for targeted testing and large-scale screening for CMV. PMID:24799600

  18. Hepatitis B virus DNA in saliva, urine, and seminal fluid of carriers of hepatitis B e antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Karayiannis, P; Novick, D M; Lok, A S; Fowler, M J; Monjardino, J; Thomas, H C

    1985-01-01

    Concentrated samples of saliva, urine, and seminal fluid from 23 men with chronic liver disease who were positive for hepatitis B e antigen were examined for the presence of hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV-DNA) by molecular hybridisation. HBV-DNA was detected in saliva from 15 of 17 men (88%), urine from 12 of 22 men (55%), and seminal fluid from 13 of 21 men (62%). The presence of hepatitis B virus in such secretions has important epidemiological implications for heterosexual and homosexual contact. Images p1854-a PMID:3924282

  19. saliva and urine samples were collected before and 4, 5, 6,7 and 8 h after labeling 41

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    saliva and urine samples were collected before and 4, 5, 6,7 and 8 h after labeling 41 healthy a determination of TBW using 10% 180 water (enrichment of TBW increased by 307 ppm). Isotopic enrichments were measured by gas-chromatography isotope ratio mass spectrometry. TBW (in % of body weight) did not differ

  20. Nitrite in saliva increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness

    PubMed Central

    Björne, Håkan; Petersson, Joel; Phillipson, Mia; Weitzberg, Eddie; Holm, Lena; Lundberg, Jon O.

    2004-01-01

    Salivary nitrate from dietary or endogenous sources is reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. In the acidic stomach, nitrite is further reduced to NO and related compounds, which have potential biological activity. We used an in vivo rat model as a bioassay to test effects of human saliva on gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness. Gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness were measured after topical administration of human saliva in HCl. The saliva was collected either after fasting (low in nitrite) or after ingestion of sodium nitrate (high in nitrite). In additional experiments, saliva was exchanged for sodium nitrite at different doses. Mucosal blood flow was increased after luminal application of nitrite-rich saliva, whereas fasting saliva had no effects. Also, mucus thickness increased in response to nitrite-rich saliva. The effects of nitrite-rich saliva were similar to those of topically applied sodium nitrite. Nitrite-mediated effects were associated with generation of NO and S-nitrosothiols. In addition, pretreatment with an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase markedly inhibited nitrite-mediated effects on blood flow. We conclude that nitrite-containing human saliva given luminally increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness in the rat. These effects are likely mediated through nonenzymatic generation of NO via activation of guanylyl cyclase. This supports a gastroprotective role of salivary nitrate/nitrite. PMID:14702114

  1. Global Methylation and Hydroxymethylation in DNA from Blood and Saliva in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tabish, Ali; Hoet, Peter; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Van Landuyt, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Aims. We describe a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantify and compare simultaneously global methylation and hydroxymethylation in human DNA of different tissues. Materials and Methods. Blood and saliva DNA from fourteen volunteers was processed for epigenetic endpoints using LC-MS/MS and PCR-pyrosequencing technology. Results. Global DNA methylation was significantly lower in saliva (mean 4.61%?±??0.80%), compared to blood samples (5.70%?±?0.22%). In contrast, saliva (0.036%?±?0.011%) revealed significantly higher hydroxymethylation compared to blood samples (mean 0.027%?±?0.004%). Whereas we did not find significant correlations for both epigenetic measures between the tissues, a significant association was observed between global methylation and global hydroxymethylation in saliva DNA. Neither LINE-1 nor Alu elements of blood and saliva correlated, nor were they correlated with the DNA hydroxymethylation of blood or saliva, respectively. Conclusion. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation of cytosine can be quantified simultaneously by LC-MS/MS. Saliva DNA cannot be considered as a surrogate for blood DNA to study epigenetic endpoints.

  2. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  3. Quantification of cortisol, cortisol immunoreactive metabolites, and immunoglobulin A in serum, saliva, urine, and feces for noninvasive assessment of stress in reindeer

    PubMed Central

    Rehbinder, Claes

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed to develop reliable methods for quantification of cortisol and cortisol immunoreactive metabolites (C-CIM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in reindeer serum, saliva, urine, and feces as tools for the objective noninvasive assessment of well-being and immunocompetence in reindeer. Although C-CIM was readily quantifiable by radioimmunoassay in serum, urine, and feces, the levels in saliva samples were low, rendering quantification unreliable. Whereas IgA concentrations were high in feces samples, they were much lower, albeit quantifiable, in serum and urine; the levels in saliva samples were too low for quantification with the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that we developed. Further studies are in progress to validate the usefulness of fecal levels of C-CIM and IgA in the assessment of welfare in reindeer. PMID:16639949

  4. Biomonitoring of arsenic in urine and saliva of children playing on playgrounds constructed from chromated copper arsenate-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Lew, Kristi; Acker, Jason P; Gabos, Stephan; Le, X Chris

    2010-05-15

    Children may be exposed to arsenic during contact with structures treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). A high frequency of hand-to-mouth activity may increase their risk of ingesting arsenic. Previous work showed that arsenic concentrations in the hand-wash samples of children playing on CCA playgrounds were four times higher than those playing on non-CCA playgrounds. It is not clear whether playing on CCA playgrounds results in elevated overall exposure to arsenic. The objective of this study was to perform arsenic biomonitoring in children to determine whether playing on CCA-treated playgrounds substantially contributes to their overall exposure to arsenic. One hundred and twenty five saliva samples from 61 children and 101 urine samples from 45 children were collected after children played on 8 CCA and 8 non-CCA playgrounds. Arsenic speciation analysis was conducted using high performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The arsenic species detected in the urine and saliva samples from children playing on CCA and non-CCA playgrounds were similar. Dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine were the main arsenic species found in urine samples. The sum of inorganic trivalent and pentavalent arsenic, monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid in urine was 15 +/- 28 microg/L in the CCA group and 12 +/- 23 microg/L in the non-CCA group (p = 0.60). The sum of these species in saliva was 1.1 +/- 2.1 microg/L in the CCA group and 1.4 +/- 1.1 microg/L in the non-CCA group (p = 0.32). These results show that there is no significant difference in the concentration or speciation of arsenic between the samples from children playing on CCA and non-CCA playgrounds. Contact with CCA playgrounds is not likely to significantly contribute to the overall arsenic exposure in children; other sources such as dietary arsenic may be a main contributor to their overall exposure. PMID:20377243

  5. Absorbing and diffusive properties of blood plasma and urine proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guminetsky, S. G.; Pishak, Olga V.; Pishak, Vasyl P.; Grigorishin, P. M.

    1997-12-01

    An analysis of absorbing and scattering properties of blood and urine plasma proteins is presented. Assessment methods of their spectroscopic parameters, such as extinction, absorption and scattering coefficients, are described. Possibilities for a separate assessment of the albumin and globulin concentrations in biological media are considered.

  6. The use of forensic tests to distinguish blowfly artifacts from human blood, semen, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated whether routinely used forensic tests can distinguish 3-day-old or 2-week-old fly artifacts, produced after feeding on human blood, semen, or saliva, from the biological fluid. Hemastix(®) , Hemident(™) , and Hemascein(™) were unable to distinguish blood from artifacts. Hemastix(®) returned false positives from negative controls. ABAcard(®) Hematrace(®) and Hexagon OBTI could distinguish blood from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Phadebas(®) and SALIgAE(®) were unable to distinguish saliva from artifacts. RSID(™) -Saliva was able to distinguish saliva from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Semen tests Seminal Acid Phosphatase, RSID(™) -Semen, and ABAcard(®) p30 were all able to distinguish semen from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. The tests investigated cannot be relied upon to distinguish artifacts from biological fluids. However, if an artifact is identified by its morphology, a positive result may indicate which biological fluid the fly consumed, and this knowledge may prove useful for investigators searching for DNA. PMID:25407611

  7. ABH and Lewis antigen distributions in blood, saliva and gastric mucosa and H pylori infection in gastric ulcer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luisa Caricio Martins; Tereza Cristina de Oliveira Corvelo

    AIM: To investigate the ABH and Lewis antigen expres- sion in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric epithelium, as well as the association between H pylori and the pres- ence of gastric epithelial lesions. METHODS: The distribution of ABH and Lewis blood group antigens in erythrocytes, saliva and gastric mu- cosa of H pylori -infected gastric ulcer patients was ana- lyzed. Forty-two

  8. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2011-11-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  9. Liver cancer diagnosis by fluorescence spectra of blood and urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Al Mehmadi, Abdulaziz Mayuof; Abdoo, Aiman; Masilamani, Vadivel

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a serious malady with only 10% survival rate. HCC incidence and mortality both are highest in China. This disease is detected and diagnosed by ultra sound, CT or MRI scans which are quite expensive. Also the discrimination between cirrhosis and HCC are poor by this imaging technique. The conventional tissue biopsy is quite invasive and painful. In this context, in the new diagnostic procedure presented in this paper, all the three liver malfunctions, particularly liver cancer, could be detected and discriminated by the spectral feature of blood and urine with accuracy about 80%. All that we need are 5 ml of blood and 5 ml of urine. Hence this inexpensive non invasive, optical technique will have significant impact in screening, diagnosis and also prognosis of HCC in large segment of people in the populous Asian countries.

  10. Vanadium in the blood and urine of workers in a ferroalloy plant.

    PubMed

    Gylseth, B; Leira, H L; Steinnes, E; Thomassen, Y

    1979-09-01

    The concentration of vanadium in the blood and urine of both nonexposed and occupationally exposed workers have been determined by neutron activation analysis. A comparison of the exposure data and the corresponding blood and urine values shows that the urine vanadium concentration adjusted for creatinine concentration is the most reliable exposure indicator. The normal levels of vanadium in blood are less than 20 nmol/l. The corresponding urine values are less than 3.5 nmol/mmol of creatinine. PMID:20120566

  11. Wild chimpanzee infant urine and saliva sampled noninvasively usable for DNA analyses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eiji Inoue; Miho Inoue-Murayama; Osamu Takenaka; Toshisada Nishida

    2007-01-01

    In many genetic studies on the great apes, fecal or hair samples have been used as sources of DNA. However, feces and hairs\\u000a are difficult to collect from chimpanzee infants under 3 years of age. As alternative DNA sources, we investigated the efficiency\\u000a of collecting urine samples from infants compared with fecal samples, as well as the validity of the DNA

  12. Blood-feeding and immunogenic Aedes aegypti saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Patramool, Sirilaksana; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Surasombatpattana, Pornapat; Doucoure, Souleymane; Mouchet, François; Séveno, Martial; Remoue, Franck; Demettre, Edith; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Jouin, Patrick; Biron, David G; Thomas, Frédéric; Missé, Dorothée

    2010-05-01

    Mosquito-transmitted pathogens pass through the insect's midgut (MG) and salivary gland (SG). What occurs in these organs in response to a blood meal is poorly understood, but identifying the physiological differences between sugar-fed and blood-fed (BF) mosquitoes could shed light on factors important in pathogens transmission. We compared differential protein expression in the MGs and SGs of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes after a sugar- or blood-based diet. No difference was observed in the MG protein expression levels but certain SG proteins were highly expressed only in BF mosquitoes. In sugar-fed mosquitoes, housekeeping proteins were highly expressed (especially those related to energy metabolism) and actin was up-regulated. The immunofluorescence assay shows that there is no disruption of the SG cytoskeletal after the blood meal. We have generated for the first time the 2-DE profiles of immunogenic Ae. aegypti SG BF-related proteins. These new data could contribute to the understanding of the physiological processes that appear during the blood meal. PMID:19882664

  13. High-purity neutrophil isolation from human peripheral blood and saliva for transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Lakschevitz, Flavia S; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The oral cavity is a source of readily available neutrophils and can be used as a model to better understand the role of neutrophils in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bronchitis, periodontitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this chapter we describe reproducible methods to obtain highly purified neutrophil samples from blood and saliva in humans to enable cell analysis using whole-genome microarrays. PMID:24504969

  14. A micromethod for the determination of fluoride in blood plasma and saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Ekstrand

    1977-01-01

    Summary A simple and accurate technique for the determination of fluoride (F?) in capillary-sampled blood is presented. The method is based on the known addition-slope determination technique using the fluoride electrode is required. A standard deviation of 1.3–5.6% in the range 300–10 ng F\\/ml was given by 259 duplicate determinations on human plasma. Measurements of parotid saliva showed that it

  15. Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry: A single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam S. Ptolemy; Emma Tzioumis; Arjun Thomke; Sami Rifai; Mark Kellogg

    2010-01-01

    Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and\\/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS\\/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized

  16. Determination of nicotine, cotinine, and related alkaloids in human urine and saliva by automated in-tube solid-phase microextraction coupled with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Kataoka; Reiko Inoue; Katsuharu Yagi; Keita Saito

    2009-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method for the determination of nicotine, cotinine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine in human urine and saliva was developed. These compounds were analyzed by on-line in-tube solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS). Nicotine, cotinine and related alkaloids were separated within 7min by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a Synergi 4u POLAR-RP 80A

  17. Development of ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for determination of thiocynate ion in human urine and saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Mahdi; Daryanavard, Seyed Mosayeb; Abdolhosseini, Sana

    2013-02-15

    Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (USAE-ME) procedure coupled with UV-vis spectrophotometric measurement has been developed for determination of thiocyanate ion (SCN(-)) in water and biological fluids samples. The method is based on protonation of SCN(-) ions in acidic medium and extraction of thiocyanic acid into fine droplets of chloroform as an extraction solvent contains rhodamine B (RhB). The RhB was protonated in presence of thiocynanic acid to form highly colored ion-pair complex of [thiocynate][RhBH(+)] in chloroform, which used for subsequent spectrophotometric determination of SCN(-) ions. Experimental parameters for both spectrophotometric reaction and USAE-ME procedure have been optimized. Under optimized conditions the calibration curve for SCN(-) showed good linearity in the range of 38.0-870.0ngmL(-1) (R(2)=0.9967). The limit of detection (S/N=3) and preconcentration factor were 5.0ngmL(-1) and 40, respectively. Relative standard deviation for determination of 200ngmL(-1) of SCN(-) was 2.8% (n=5). The proposed method has been successfully applied for determination of SCN(-) ion in tap water, mineral bottled water and human saliva and urine samples with an average recovery of 99.2%. PMID:23353810

  18. Blood doping: potential of blood and urine sampling to detect autologous transfusion.

    PubMed

    Segura, J; Lundby, C

    2014-05-01

    The collection of blood, its storage as red blood cell (RBC) concentrates and its reinjection is prohibited; until now, the practice cannot be reliably detected. A recent innovation-the haematological module of the athlete's biological passport-can provide authorities with indications towards autologous blood transfusion. In situations where a given athlete has been exposed to altitude, heat stress, sickness, etc, additional evidence may be needed to establish beyond any reasonable doubt that a blood transfusion may actually have occurred. Additional evidence may be obtained from at least three different approaches using parameters related to blood and urine matrices.Genomics applied to mRNA or miRNA is one of the most promising analytical tools. Proteomics of changes associated with RBC membranes may reveal the presence of cells stored for some time, as can an abnormal pattern of size distribution of aged cells. In urine, high concentrations of metabolites of plasticisers originating from the blood storing bags strongly suggest a recent blood transfusion. We emphasise the usefulness of simultaneously obtaining and then analysing blood and urine for complementary evidence of autologous blood transfusion ('blood doping'). PMID:24764552

  19. Methods for analysis of citrinin in human blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Muñoz, Katherine; Degen, Gisela H

    2013-06-01

    Citrinin (CIT), produced by several Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus species, has been detected as contaminant in feeds, grains, and other food commodities. CIT can co-occur with ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin also known for its nephrotoxicity, and this raises concern regarding possible combined effects. But, in contrast to OTA, data on CIT contamination in foods for human consumption are scarce, and CIT biomonitoring has not been conducted so far due a lack of suitable methods for human specimen. Thus, it was the aim of the present study to develop sensitive methods for the analysis of CIT in human blood and urine to investigate human exposure. To this end, we assessed different methods of sample preparation and instrumental analysis for these matrices. Clean-up of blood plasma by protein precipitation followed by LC-MS/MS-based analysis allowed robust detection of CIT (LOD 0.07 ng/mL, LOQ 0.15 ng/mL). For urine, sample clean-up by an immunoaffinity column (CitriTest(®)) proved to be clearly superior to SPE with RP(18) material for subsequent analysis by LC-MS/MS. For CIT and its metabolite dihydrocitrinone (HO-CIT), the LOD and LOQ determined by external calibration curves in matrix were 0.02 and 0.05 ng/mL for CIT, and those for HO-CIT were 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL urine. The newly developed method was applied in a small pilot study: CIT was present in all plasma samples from 8 German adults, at concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 0.26 ng/mL. The molar (nM) concentrations of CIT are similar to those measured for OTA in these samples as a result of dietary mycotoxin intake. CIT was detected in 8/10 urines (from 4 adults and 6 infants) in a range of 0.16-0.79 ng/mL, and HO-CIT was present in 5/10 samples at similar concentrations. Thus, CIT is excreted in urine as parent compound and also as metabolite. These first results in humans point to the need for further studies on CIT exposure. PMID:23354378

  20. Systematic study on STR profiling on blood and saliva traces after visualization of fingerprint marks.

    PubMed

    Grubwieser, Petra; Thaler, Alexandra; Köchl, Silvano; Teissl, Roger; Rabl, Walter; Parson, Walther

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a systematic study of the influence of optical, physical, and chemical methods used for fingerprint enhancement on subsequent DNA analysis of biological stains. Latent fingerprints as well as fingerprints in contact with blood and saliva on different surfaces were treated with dactyloscopic methods. As a general finding, subsequent STR profiling of the blood/saliva traces led to good results after all the enhancement methods included in this study. Concerning blood enhancement procedures, the airbrush technique showed deleterious effects on subsequent STR analysis in some cases. We therefore recommend the implementation of the layer technique, as it brings advantages for fingerprint enhancement as well. It could also be shown that, as can be necessary in practical casework, two enhancement methods can be performed on a single stain without having influence on STR profiling. In terms of methodological variety, this paper reflects a comprehensive study performed on STR profiling after fingerprint enhancement methods, including rare methods and variations of techniques, which can be a useful alternative in certain case scenarios. PMID:12877288

  1. Detection of tumor cell-specific mRNA and protein in exosome-like microvesicles from blood and saliva.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieping; Wei, Fang; Schafer, Christopher; Wong, David T W

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of disease-specific biomarkers in oral fluids has revealed a new dimension in molecular diagnostics. Recent studies have reported the mechanistic involvement of tumor cells derived mediators, such as exosomes, in the development of saliva-based mRNA biomarkers. To further our understanding of the origins of disease-induced salivary biomarkers, we here evaluated the hypothesis that tumor-shed secretory lipidic vesicles called exosome-like microvesicles (ELMs) that serve as protective carriers of tissue-specific information, mRNAs, and proteins, throughout the vasculature and bodily fluids. RNA content was analyzed in cell free-saliva and ELM-enriched fractions of saliva. Our data confirmed that the majority of extracellular RNAs (exRNAs) in saliva were encapsulated within ELMs. Nude mice implanted with human lung cancer H460 cells expressing hCD63-GFP were used to follow the circulation of tumor cell specific protein and mRNA in the form of ELMs in vivo. We were able to identify human GAPDH mRNA in ELMs of blood and saliva of tumor bearing mice using nested RT-qPCR. ELMs positive for hCD63-GFP were detected in the saliva and blood of tumor bearing mice as well as using electric field-induced release and measurement (EFIRM). Altogether, our results demonstrate that ELMs carry tumor cell-specific mRNA and protein from blood to saliva in a xenografted mouse model of human lung cancer. These results therefore strengthen the link between distal tumor progression and the biomarker discovery of saliva through the ELMs. PMID:25397880

  2. Development and validation of a novel derivatization method for the determination of lactate in urine and saliva by liquid chromatography with UV and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Davide; Onor, Massimo; Degano, Ilaria; Bramanti, Emilia

    2014-12-01

    We developed a novel and straightforward derivatization method for the determination of lactate by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with fluorescence and UV detection in biological matrices as urine and saliva. The derivatization of lactate was achieved employing 9-chloromethyl anthracene (9-CMA) as fluorescence reagent, which has never been previously used to obtain a lactate derivative. Lactate reacts with 9-CMA with high selectivity in a very short time, without requiring extraction procedures from the aqueous solution, and the reaction reaches 70% completion in 30 min. The ester derivative obtained can be easily determined by RP-HPLC with fluorescence detection at 410 nm (? ex=365 nm) and UV detection at 365 nm. The method was also optimized in order to allow for the simultaneous determination of lactate and creatinine for the application to urine samples. The lactate calibration curve was linear in the investigated range 2 × 10(-4)-3 × 10(-2)mM and the limit of detection, calculated as three times the standard deviation of the blank divided by the calibration curve slope, was 50 nM for both fluorescence and UV detection. Intra-day and inter-day repeatability were lower than 5% and 6%, respectively. The method proposed was successfully applied to the analysis of urine and saliva samples. PMID:25159410

  3. Quantification of theobromine and caffeine in saliva, plasma and urine via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: a single analytical protocol applicable to cocoa intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Ptolemy, Adam S; Tzioumis, Emma; Thomke, Arjun; Rifai, Sami; Kellogg, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Targeted analyses of clinically relevant metabolites in human biofluids often require extensive sample preparation (e.g., desalting, protein removal and/or preconcentration) prior to quantitation. In this report, a single ultra-centrifugation based sample pretreatment combined with a designed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) protocol provides selective quantification of 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) and 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine (caffeine) in human saliva, plasma and urine samples. The optimized chromatography permitted elution of both analytes within 1.3 min of the applied gradient. Positive-mode electrospray ionization and a triple quadruple MS/MS instrument operated in multiple reaction mode were used for detection. (13)C(3) isotopically labeled caffeine was included as an internal standard to improve accuracy and precision. Implementing a 20-fold dilution of the isolated low MW biofluid fraction prior to injection effectively minimized the deleterious contributions of all three matrices to quantitation. The assay was linear over a 160-fold concentration range from 2.5 to 400 micromol L(-1) for both theobromine (average R(2) 0.9968) and caffeine (average R(2) 0.9997) respectively. Analyte peak area variations for 2.5 micromol L(-1) caffeine and theobromine in saliva, plasma and urine ranged from 5 and 10% (intra-day, N=10) to 9 and 13% (inter-day, N=25) respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision of theobromine and caffeine elution times were 3 and <1% for all biofluids and concentrations tested. Recoveries for caffeine and theobromine ranged from 114 to 118% and 99 to 105% at concentration levels of 10 and 300 micromol L(-1). This validated protocol also permitted the relative saliva, plasma and urine distribution of both theobromine and caffeine to be quantified following a cocoa intervention. PMID:20045386

  4. Rapid analysis of benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and cocaethylene in urine, serum, and saliva by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Foulon; M.-C. Menet; N. Manuel; C. Pham-Huy; H. Galons; J.-R. Claude; F. Guyon

    1999-01-01

    Summary  An isocratic high-performance liquid-chromatographic (HPLC) procedure with diode-array detection has been developed for the\\u000a determination of benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and cocaethylene in urine, serum, and saliva. After solid-phase extraction with\\u000a mixed-mode extraction cartridges the three solutes are separated, in less than 20 min, by HPLC on a Supelcosil ABZ+column\\u000a with 17?83 (v\\/v) acetonitrile-0.04 M phosphate buffer, pH 2.3, as mobile phase.

  5. Thorium in human blood serum, clot, and urine comparison with ICRP excretion model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Sunta; H. S. Dang; D. D. Jaiswal; S. D. Soman

    1990-01-01

    Neutron activation followed by a simple radio-chemical separation procedure was employed to determine the concentrations of thorium (232Th) in human blood serum, clot, and urine of normal subjects and three groups of occupationally exposed persons. The thorium concentrations in the blood serum, clot, and urine samples of the exposed groups were distinctly higher than those of the other study groups

  6. Effect of sample matrix on sensitivity of mercury and methylmercury quantitation in human urine, saliva, and serum using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Zachariadis, George A; Kapsimali, Dimitra C

    2008-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of monomethylmercury (MMHg) and inorganic mercury (iHg) in human body fluids. The procedure is based on in situ derivatization of MMHg and iHg with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) directly in aqueous solutions followed by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The extracted species from spiked human urine, saliva, and serum are separated by capillary gas chromatography and detected by quadrupole MS (GC-MS). The optimization of the HS-SPME conditions like temperature, sample volume, extraction duration, and amount of alkylation agent, was performed in urinary solutions and aqueous solutions similarly buffered. The gas chromatographic conditions like injection temperature, helium flow rate, temperature program, and pressure conditions were also optimized. The recovery was ranged between 85 and 96% for MMHg and 88 and 98% for iHg. The LODs achieved were 10 and 15 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in urine, respectively, 54 and 60 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in saliva, respectively, and 61 and 81 ng/L for iHg and MMHg in serum, respectively. The RSD was ranged between 6.2 and 9.2% for MMHg and 5.0 and 8.2% for iHg. PMID:19021164

  7. The saliva proteome of the blood-feeding insect Triatoma infestans is rich in platelet-aggregation inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charneau, Sébastien; Junqueira, Magno; Costa, Camila M.; Pires, Daniele L.; Fernandes, Ellen S.; Bussacos, Ana C.; Sousa, Marcelo V.; Ricart, Carlos André O.; Shevchenko, Andrej; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.

    2007-12-01

    The saliva of the bloodsucking bug Triatoma infestans vector of Chagas disease contains an anti-hemostatic molecular cocktail that prevents coagulation, vasoconstriction and platelet aggregation in a vertebrate prey. In order to characterize T. infestans saliva proteome, we separated the secreted saliva by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). More than 200 salivary proteins were detected on the 2-DE map, mainly in the alkaline region. By nanoLC-MS/MS analysis using a LTQ-Orbitrap equipment followed by a combination of conventional and sequence-similarity searches, we identified 58 main protein spots. Most of such proteins possess potential blood-feeding associated functions, particularly anti-platelet aggregation proteins belonging to lipocalin and apyrase families. The saliva protein composition indicates a highly specific molecular mechanism of early response to platelet aggregation. This first proteome analysis of the T. infestans secreted saliva provides a basis for a better understanding of this fluid protein composition highly directed to counterpart hemostasis of the prey, thus promoting the bug's blood-feeding.

  8. Determination of endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) levels in antemortem urine and blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert A. Elian

    2002-01-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid’s (GHB’s) natural presence in the body has made the interpretation of its levels a challenging task for the forensic toxicologist. This study was designed to measure endogenous GHB levels in antemortem urine and blood samples. The range detected in urine was from 34 to 575?g\\/dl and in blood from 17 to 151?g\\/dl. The results indicate that the concentration

  9. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 and human cytomegalovirus in blood and saliva from patients with acute leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nefzi, Faten; Ben Salem, Nabil Abid; Khelif, Abderrahim; Feki, Salma; Aouni, Mahjoub; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-03-01

    Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNAs were quantified by real-time PCR assays in blood and saliva obtained from 50 patients with acute leukemia at the time of diagnosis (50 of each matrix), aplasia (65 of each matrix), remission (55 of each matrix), and relapse (20 of each matrix) to evaluate which biological matrix was more suitable to identify a viral reactivation, search for a possible link between HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations, and evaluate the relations between viral loads and count of different leukocyte types in blood. The median HHV-6 loads were 136; 219; 226, and 75 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 193 and 317 copies/million cells in blood at diagnosis and remission. In the saliva samples, the HHV-6 loads were 22,165; 15,238; 30,214, and 17,454 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HCMV loads were 8,991; 1,461; 2,980, and 4,283 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission, and relapse, respectively. The HHV-6 load in the blood was correlated to the counts of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (R(2) ?=?0.5; P?Saliva appears to be a more sensitive biological matrix than whole blood in the detection of HHV-6 or HCMV reactivations. The HHV-6 and HCMV reactivations were linked only in saliva. PMID:25163462

  10. Calcium kinetics with microgram stable isotope doses and saliva sampling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Wastney, M. E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C. Y.; Wiesmann, H.; Nillen, J. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of calcium kinetics require administration of tracer doses of calcium and subsequent repeated sampling of biological fluids. This study was designed to develop techniques that would allow estimation of calcium kinetics by using small (micrograms) doses of isotopes instead of the more common large (mg) doses to minimize tracer perturbation of the system and reduce cost, and to explore the use of saliva sampling as an alternative to blood sampling. Subjects received an oral dose (133 micrograms) of 43Ca and an i.v. dose (7.7 micrograms) of 46Ca. Isotopic enrichment in blood, urine, saliva and feces was well above thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement precision up to 170 h after dosing. Fractional calcium absorptions determined from isotopic ratios in blood, urine and saliva were similar. Compartmental modeling revealed that kinetic parameters determined from serum or saliva data were similar, decreasing the necessity for blood samples. It is concluded from these results that calcium kinetics can be assessed with micrograms doses of stable isotopes, thereby reducing tracer costs and with saliva samples, thereby reducing the amount of blood needed.

  11. A pharmacokinetic study of ethyl glucuronide in blood and urine: Applications to forensic toxicology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gudrun Høiseth; Jean Paul Bernard; Ritva Karinen; Lene Johnsen; Anders Helander; Asbjørg S. Christophersen; Jørg Mørland

    2007-01-01

    This pharmacokinetic study investigated the kinetics of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in blood and urine during the whole time course of absorption and elimination. There are few previous studies on the kinetics of EtG in blood, and we wanted to evaluate whether such knowledge could yield valuable information regarding the time of ethanol ingestion in forensic cases,

  12. Porphyrins - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Porphyrins help form many important substances in the body. One of these is hemoglobin, the protein in ... blood cells that carries oxygen in the blood. Porphyrins can be found in urine. A urine porphyrins ...

  13. A specific ELISA method for determining chloroquine in urine or dried blood spots*

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, V.; Rowell, F. J.; Baker, A.; Laurie, D.; Sidki, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reported is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that has been optimized and validated for the determination of chloroquine in urine or dried blood spots. The assay employs antisera raised in sheep to a chloroquine derivative conjugated to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and chloroquine conjugated to porcine thyroglobulin adsorbed onto the wells of a microtitration plate. The competitive binding of the antiserum to the wells was monitored using an alkaline-phosphatase-conjugated second antibody and a specific substrate. The assay exhibits no cross-reactivity with known chloroquine metabolites, other antimalarials, and commonly used drugs. The method was used to determine chloroquine in dried blood spot extracts and urine from a patient who was receiving a prescribed prophylactic chloroquine regimen. The drug was detected in the urine for 17 weeks and in the dried blood spots for 4 weeks after termination of the therapy. PMID:3260830

  14. Human Excretion of Bisphenol A: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef; Lobo, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an ubiquitous chemical contaminant that has recently been associated with adverse effects on human health. There is incomplete understanding of BPA toxicokinetics, and there are no established interventions to eliminate this compound from the human body. Using 20 study participants, this study was designed to assess the relative concentration of BPA in three body fluids—blood, urine, and sweat—and to determine whether induced sweating may be a therapeutic intervention with potential to facilitate elimination of this compound. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for various environmental toxicants including BPA. Results. BPA was found to differing degrees in each of blood, urine, and sweat. In 16 of 20 participants, BPA was identified in sweat, even in some individuals with no BPA detected in their serum or urine samples. Conclusions. Biomonitoring of BPA through blood and/or urine testing may underestimate the total body burden of this potential toxicant. Sweat analysis should be considered as an additional method for monitoring bioaccumulation of BPA in humans. Induced sweating appears to be a potential method for elimination of BPA. PMID:22253637

  15. Electrochemical magnetoimmunosensor for the ultrasensitive determination of interleukin-6 in saliva and urine using poly-HRP streptavidin conjugates as labels for signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, I; Moreno-Guzmán, M; González-Cortés, A; Yáñez-Sedeño, P; Pingarrón, J M

    2014-10-01

    A novel magnetoimmunosensor design for interleukin-6 (IL-6) which involved the covalent immobilization of anti-IL-6 antibodies onto carboxyl-functionalized magnetic microparticles and a sandwich-type immunoassay with signal amplification using poly-HRP-streptavidin conjugates is reported. All the variables concerning the preparation and the electroanalytical performance of the immunosensor were optimized. The use of poly-HRP-strept conjugates as enzymatic labels instead of conventional HRP-strept allowed enhanced signal-to-blank current ratios to be obtained. A linear calibration plot between the measured steady-state current and the log of IL-6 concentration was achieved in the 1.75 to 500 pg/mL range, which was not feasible when using HRP-strep as label. A limit of detection of 0.39 pg/mL IL-6 was obtained. The anti-IL-6-MB conjugates exhibited an excellent storage stability providing amperometric responses with no significant loss during at least 36 days. The magnetoimmunosensor showed also an excellent selectivity against potentially interfering substances. The immunosensor was used to determine IL-6 in urine samples spiked at three different concentration levels with clinical relevance. Moreover, IL-6 was measured in three different saliva samples corresponding to a periodontitis patient, a smoker volunteer, and a non-smoker volunteer. The obtained results were statistically in agreement with those provided by a commercial ELISA kit. PMID:25081015

  16. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  17. EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN FAT, SKIN, NAILS, HAIR, BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program surveyed and evaluated the methods and procedures to identify and quantitate chemical constituents in human tissues and fluids including fat, skin, nails, hair, blood, and urine. These methods have been evaluated to determine their ease and rapidity, as well ...

  18. Analysis of acetylene in blood and urine using cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Hara, Kenji; Fujii, Hiroshi; Kageura, Mitsuyoshi; Takamoto, Mutsuo; Matsusue, Aya; Sugimura, Tomoko; Kubo, Shin-ichi

    2009-09-01

    A method for quantitative analysis of acetylene in blood and urine samples was investigated. Using cryogenic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), acetylene was measured with isobutane as the internal standard in the headspace method, which revealed a linear response over the entire composite range with an excellent correlation coefficient, both in blood (R = 0.9968, range = 5.39-43.1 microg/ml) and urine (R = 0.9972, range = 2.16-10.8 microg/ml). The coefficients of variation (CV) for blood ranged from 2.62 to 11.6% for intra-day and 4.55 to 10.4% for inter-day. The CV for urine ranged from 2.38 to 3.10% for intra-day and 4.83 to 11.0% for inter-day. The recovery rate as an index of accuracy ranged from 83 to 111%. The present method showed good reliability, and is also simple and rapid. In actual samples from a charred cadaver due to acetylene explosion, the measured concentrations of acetylene by this method were 21.5 microg/ml for femoral vein blood, 17.9 microg/ml for right atrial blood, 25.5 microg/ml for left atrial blood and 7.49 microg/ml for urine. Quantification of acetylene provides important information, because the acetylene concentration is a vital reaction or sign. For example, when acetylene is filled in a closed space and then explodes, in antemortem explosion, the blood acetylene concentration of the cadaver might be significant. On the other hand, in postmortem explosion, acetylene is not detected in blood. Furthermore, when several victims are involved in one explosion, comparison of the sample concentrations can also provide useful information to establish the conditions at the accident scene; therefore, the present method is useful in forensics. PMID:19423404

  19. Stability of ethyl glucuronide in urine, post-mortem tissue and blood samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haiko Schloegl; Sebastian Dresen; Karin Spaczynski; Mylène Stoertzel; Friedrich Martin Wurst; Wolfgang Weinmann

    2006-01-01

    The stability of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) under conditions of degradation was examined in urine samples of nine volunteers\\u000a and in post-mortem tissue (liver, skeletal muscle) and blood taken from seven corpses at autopsies. Analysis was performed\\u000a via LC-MS\\/MS. EtG concentrations in urine samples ranged from 2.5 to 296.5 mg\\/l. When stored at 4°C in airtight test tubes,\\u000a EtG concentrations remained relatively

  20. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, Matthew A; Pleil, Joachim D; Sobus, Jon R; Morgan, Marsha K; Madden, Michael C

    2015-02-01

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, methodology was developed for measuring a suite of 10 different cytokines in human blood, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and urine using an electrochemiluminescent multiplex Th1/Th2 cytokine immunoassay platform. Measurement distributions and correlations for eight interleukins (IL) (1?, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13), interferon-? (IFN-?), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were evaluated using 90 blood plasma, 77 EBC, and 400 urine samples collected from nominally healthy adults subjects in North Carolina in 2008-2012. The in vivo results show that there is sufficient sensitivity for characterizing all 10 cytokines at levels of 0.05-0.10??g/ml with a dynamic range up to 100?ng/ml across all three of these biological media. The measured in vivo results also show that the duplicate analysis of blood, EBC and urine samples have average estimated fold ranges of 2.21, 3.49, and 2.50, respectively, which are similar to the mean estimated fold range (2.88) for the lowest concentration (0.610??g/ml) from a series of spiked control samples; the cytokine method can be used for all three biological media. Nine out of the 10 cytokines measured in EBC were highly correlated within one another with Spearman ? coefficients ranging from 0.679 to 0.852, while the cytokines measured in blood had a mix of negative and positive correlations, ranging from -0.620 to 0.836. Almost all correlations between EBC and blood were positive. This work also represents the first successful within- and between-person evaluation of ultra trace-level inflammatory markers in blood, EBC, and urine. PMID:25495125

  1. Management of diabetics with the use of a microprocessor: comparison of insulin treatments based on blood and urine glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Hermányi, I; Tamás, G

    1988-01-01

    The insulin treatment of 8 insulin-dependent diabetics was controlled with a microprocessor (Better Control Medical Computer, BCMC, Inc., Toronto, Canada) with information derived from blood or first voided urine glucose concentrations assessed by reagent strips four times a day, before the three main meals and bedtime snack. The microprocessor recommends modification of the insulin doses so as to reach a pre-prandial blood glucose value of 110 mg/dl or a urine glucose concentration of 0.1 g/dl. During the first two weeks self-management was uniformly applied by the patients, based on their blood glucose concentration. Subsequently, it was continued by the patients who were divided into two groups, one using the blood, the other the urine glucose concentrations, each for three weeks, alternately. During microprocessor treatment the patients' mean blood glucose profiles decreased from 152 +/- 37 mg/dl to 126 +/- 28 mg/dl. No difference was found between treatments based on blood or urine glucose concentrations concerning either the mean blood glucose profiles or the number of hypoglycemic episodes in the presence of an average glucose threshold and good renal function. The first voided urine glucose concentration and mean and maximal blood glucose values obtained at the time of urine filtration were closely correlated (r = 0.82 and 0.86, p less than 0.001). PMID:3043988

  2. Green and black tea consumption by humans: impact on polyphenol concentrations in feces, blood and urine.

    PubMed

    He, Y H; Kies, C

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of green tea, black tea and decaffeinated black tea consumption on urinary and fecal excretions and whole blood and blood serum concentrations of polyphenols. The 56 day study was divided into four randomly arranged experimental periods of 14 days each during which the 10 healthy adult subjects consumed a laboratory controlled, constant, measured diet based on ordinary foods. During separate periods, subjects received no tea, green tea, regular black tea or decaffeinated black tea beverages at the three daily meals. Subjects made complete collections of urine and stools throughout the study and fasting blood samples were drawn at the beginning of the study and at the end of each experimental period. Polyphenols contained in urine, feces, whole blood, blood serums, food and tea were analyzed by the spectrophotometry method of Wah Lau et al. (1989). Green tea consumption resulted in highest intakes in greatest fecal and urinary excretions, highest retentions, and high whole blood concentrations of polyphenols followed by effects of regular black tea, decaffeinated black tea and no tea treatments. These results indicate that polyphenols from tea are at least partly absorbable. Hence, both positive and negative effects of dietary polyphenol may occur internal to the body proper and not only as effects within the intestines. PMID:7855093

  3. Determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or medicaments in blood and urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Kraemer; Hans H Maurer

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews procedures for the determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine and amphetamine-derived designer drugs or medicaments in blood and urine. Papers published from 1991 to early 1997 were taken into consideration. Gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic procedures with different detectors (e.g., mass spectrometer or diode array) were considered as well as the seldom used thin-layer chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. Enantioselective

  4. Simultaneous analysis of cardiac glycosides in blood and urine by thermoresponsive LC-MS-MS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanae Kanno; Kanako Watanabe; Itaru Yamagishi; Seishiro Hirano; Kayoko Minakata; Kunio Gonmori; Osamu Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    A new thermoresponsive polymer separation column was applied to simultaneous analysis of four cardiac glycosides (CGs) being\\u000a widely used for the treatment of arrhythmias and heart failure in human blood and urine. This column is composed of an N-isopropylacrylamide polymer, the surface of which undergoes a reversible alteration from hydrophilic to hydrophobic by changing\\u000a temperature. The chromatographic separation and retention

  5. Application of ICP-OES to the determination of barium in blood and urine in clinical and forensic analysis.

    PubMed

    Lech, Teresa

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to barium (Ba) mostly occurs in the workplace or from drinking water, but it may sometimes be due to accidental or intentional intoxication. This paper presents a reliable, sensitive method for the determination of Ba in blood and urine: inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave digestion of samples. The overall procedure was checked using Seronorm Whole Blood L-2, Trace Elements Urine and spiked blood and urine samples (0.5-10 µg/mL of Ba). The accuracy of the whole procedure (relative error) was 4% (blood) and 7% (urine); the recovery was 76-104% (blood) and 85-101% (urine). The limits of detection and quantification (Ba ? = 455.403 nm) were 0.11 and 0.4 µg/L of Ba, respectively; precision (relative standard deviation) was below 6% at the level of 15 µg/L of Ba for blood. This method was applied to a case of the poisoning of a man who had been exposed at the workplace for over two years to powdered BaCO3, and who suffered from paralysis and heart disorders. The concentrations of Ba, in ?g/L, were 160 (blood), 460 (serum) and 1,458 (urine) upon his admission to the hospital, and 6.1 (blood) and 4.9 (urine) after 11 months (reference values: 3.34 ± 2.20 µg/L of Ba for blood and 4.43 ± 4.60 µg/L of Ba for urine). PMID:23471954

  6. A pharmacokinetic study of ethyl glucuronide in blood and urine: applications to forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Bernard, Jean Paul; Karinen, Ritva; Johnsen, Lene; Helander, Anders; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Mørland, Jørg

    2007-10-25

    This pharmacokinetic study investigated the kinetics of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in blood and urine during the whole time course of absorption and elimination. There are few previous studies on the kinetics of EtG in blood, and we wanted to evaluate whether such knowledge could yield valuable information regarding the time of ethanol ingestion in forensic cases, such as, for instance, drunk driving. Ten male volunteers consumed ethanol at a fixed dose of 0.5 g/kg body weight in a fasted state. Blood samples were collected for 14 h and urine samples were collected for 45-50 h after the start of drinking. EtG reached its maximum concentration (C(max)) in blood after a median of 4 h (range 3.5-5), a median of 3 h (range 2-4.5) after C(max) for ethanol. The ethanol-to-EtG ratios in blood (ethanol in g/L, EtG in mg/L) were >1 only for the first median 3.5 h (range 2.5-3.5) after drinking. EtG elimination occurred with a median half-life of 2.2 h (range 1.7-3.1 h), and the renal clearance was 8.32 L/h (median, range 5.25-20.86). The concentrations of EtG were always much higher in urine than in blood. The total amount of EtG excreted in the urine was median 30 mg (range 21.5-39.7), representing 0.017% (median, range 0.013-0.022) of the ethanol given, on a molar basis. The information from the present study may be a valuable supplement to determine the time of ethanol ingestion. For this purpose, two subsequent increasing EtG values and a high ethanol-to-EtG ratio in blood would support information of recent drinking. PMID:17306943

  7. Human Elimination of Phthalate Compounds: Blood, Urine, and Sweat (BUS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Lobo, Rebecca A.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Background. Individual members of the phthalate family of chemical compounds are components of innumerable everyday consumer products, resulting in a high exposure scenario for some individuals and population groups. Multiple epidemiological studies have demonstrated statistically significant exposure-disease relationships involving phthalates and toxicological studies have shown estrogenic effects in vitro. Data is lacking in the medical literature, however, on effective means to facilitate phthalate excretion. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for parent phthalate compounds as well as phthalate metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some parent phthalates as well as their metabolites were excreted into sweat. All patients had MEHP (mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate) in their blood, sweat, and urine samples, suggesting widespread phthalate exposure. In several individuals, DEHP (di (2-ethylhexl) phthalate) was found in sweat but not in serum, suggesting the possibility of phthalate retention and bioaccumulation. On average, MEHP concentration in sweat was more than twice as high as urine levels. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may be useful to facilitate elimination of some potentially toxic phthalate compounds including DEHP and MEHP. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of accrued DEHP in the human body. PMID:23213291

  8. [Evaluation of visualization of biological stains with the use of alternative light source (ALS) for the purpose of genetic identification. Part I. Blood and saliva stains analysis].

    PubMed

    Szeremeta, Micha?; Pepi?ski, Witold; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Skawro?ska, Ma?gorzata; Sackiewicz, Adam; Ptaszy?ska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Ok?ota, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was evaluation of visualization of human blood and saliva stains with the use of alternative light source for the purpose of genetic identification. Experimental bloodstains on the bright base were the most clearly seen in the natural light and white light, up to blood dilution of 1:600. Complete typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles was obtained from bloodstains at dilution 1:1500. Partial AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles were typed from bloodstains at dilutions 1:1750 and 1:2000. Experimental saliva stains on the light-colored base were completely invisible in the natural light and white light, while they were visualized at wavelength range 300-415 nm through yellow goggles, and at wavelength range 300-455 nm through orange goggles at saliva dilution 1: 600. Complete typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit loci was obtained from saliva stains at dilution 1:1750. Partial AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit profiles were typed from saliva stains at dilution 1:2000. The wavelength of 455 nm and orange goggles were the optimal set for visualization of bloodstains on various, noncontrasting materials. Other useful wavelength/combinations of goggles were CSS light/red goggles. In case of saliva, the most useful general condition for visualization of stains on various, non-contrasting materials was with the wavelength set to 300-415 nm, while wearing yellow goggles. Other useful combinations of wavelength/goggles were 300-455 nm/orange or red goggles, and also CSS light/orange or red goggles. PMID:21863732

  9. Closer correlation of cadmium in urine than that of cadmium in blood with tubular dysfunction markers in urine among general women populations in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Ikeda; Fumiko Ohashi; Yoshinari Fukui; Sonoko Sakuragi; Jiro Moriguchi

    2011-01-01

    Objectives  The objectives of the present study are to investigate whether cadmium in blood (Cd-B) and cadmium in urine (Cd-U) correlate\\u000a with each other irrespective of age among general populations and which one of Cd-B or Cd-U correlates more closely with three\\u000a renal tubular dysfunction markers in urine of ?1-microglobulin (?1-MG-U), ?2-microglobulin (?2-MG-U) and N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase (NAG-U).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Data on two exposure markers

  10. Organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and urine of women and newborns living in an agricultural community

    PubMed Central

    Huen, Karen; Bradman, Asa; Harley, Kim; Yousefi, Paul; Barr, Dana Boyd; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used and recent studies suggest associations of in utero exposures with adverse birth outcomes and neurodevelopment. Few studies have characterized organophosphate pesticides in human plasma or established how these levels correlate to urinary measurements. We measured organophosphate pesticide metabolites in maternal urine and chlorpyrifos and diazinon in maternal and cord plasma of subjects living in an agricultural area to compare levels in two different biological matrices. We also determined paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotypes (PON1192 and PON1-108) and PON1 substrate-specific activities in mothers and their newborns to examine whether PON1 may affect organophosphate pesticide measurements in blood and urine. Chlorpyrifos levels in plasma ranged from 0-1726 ng/mL and non-zero levels were measured in 70.5% and 87.5% of maternal and cord samples, respectively. Diazinon levels were lower (0-0.5 ng/mL); non-zero levels were found in 33.3% of maternal plasma and 47.3% of cord plasma. Significant associations between organophosphate pesticide levels in blood and metabolite levels in urine were limited to models adjusting for PON1 levels. Increased maternal PON1 levels were associated with decreased odds of chlorpyrifos and diazinon detection (odds ratio(OR): 0.56 and 0.75, respectively). Blood organophosphate pesticide levels of study participants were similar in mothers and newborns and slightly higher than those reported in other populations. However, compared to their mothers, newborns have much lower quantities of the detoxifying PON1 enzyme suggesting that infants may be especially vulnerable to organophosphate pesticide exposures. PMID:22683313

  11. Detection of Leishmania siamensis DNA in Saliva by Polymerase Chain Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phumee, Atchara; Kraivichian, Kanyarat; Chusri, Sarunyou; Noppakun, Nopadon; Vibhagool, Asda; Sanprasert, Vivornpun; Tampanya, Vich; Wilde, Henry; Siriyasatien, Padet

    2013-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Leishmania siamensis DNA from clinical samples collected from six leishmaniasis patients during 2011–2012. The samples used in this study came from bone marrow, blood, buffy coat, saliva, urine, and tissue biopsy specimens. Saliva was a good source for L. siamensis DNA by polymerase chain reaction. L. siamensis DNA was also found in saliva of an asymptomatic case-patient. Levels of L. siamensis DNA in saliva decreased until being undetectable after treatment. These levels could be used as a marker to evaluate efficacy of the treatment. A larger study is needed to evaluate this method as a screening and survey tool to study the silent background of Leishmania infection among the at-risk population. PMID:24062485

  12. [Developments in determination of elements using ICP-MS in blood and urine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Su-Jing; Zhuo, Xian-Yi; Ma, Dong

    2012-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is the most common technique for elements analysis at present. ICP-MS with high sensitivity and wide linear range can be applied to multi-elements analysis in blood and urine. This paper reviews the common means of sample pretreatment (direct dilution method and wet digestion method), the method for correction of mass spectral interference and non-interference, the main influence factors of analysis results, and provides an outlook of the application of ICP-MS in forensic toxicological analysis. PMID:23484331

  13. Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in Saliva of Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, James A.; Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Wu, Hong; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Hoppe, Eric W.

    2005-05-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are widely used in a variety of applications, and the potential exists for significant occupational and environmental exposures. They have been associated with more occupational poisoning cases than any other class of insecticides. One of the best approaches for accurately assessing human dosimetry and determining risk from both occupational and environmental exposure is biomonitoring. Biological matrices such as blood and urine have been routinely used for biomonitoring; however, other matrices such as saliva represent a simple and readily obtainable fluid. As a result, saliva has been suggested as an alternative biological matrix for the evaluation of a broad range of biomarkers such as environmental contaminants, drugs of abuse, hormones, chemotherapeutics, heavy metals, and pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), have been quantified in urine and blood as a biomarker for exposure to OP insecticides. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical approach for detecting and quantitating the levels of TCP in saliva obtained from rats exposed to CPF and to evaluate the potential of saliva as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix. Adult male rats were administered CPF, and blood and saliva were humanely collected for analysis of TCP and CPF. TCP was detected and quantitated in saliva using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Initial results indicate that saliva may be potentially utilized as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix to determine exposure to organophosphate insecticides.

  14. Determination of paroxetine in blood and urine using micellar liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Nitasha; Marco-Peiró, Sergio; Esteve-Romero, Josep; Durgbanshi, Abhilasha; Bose, Devasish; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Carda-Broch, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Paroxetine is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor used for the treatment of depression and related mood disorders. A micellar liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of paroxetine in serum and urine. Detection of paroxetine was carried out using a C18 column and a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate, 6% 1-pentanol at pH 3 (buffer salt 0.01 M NaH2PO4) running under isocratic mode at 1.0 mL/min and electrochemical detection at 0.8 V. The analyte was eluted without interferences in <15 min. The proposed methodology was validated under the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use in matrix in terms of specificity, linearity (r(2) > 0.9999; 0.5-5 ?g/mL range), accuracy (88-97.5%, recovery), repeatability (RSD < 0.54%), intermediate precision (RSD < 0.54%), limit of detection and quantification (0.001 and 0.005 ?g/mL, respectively) and robustness (RSD < 3.63%). Developed method was successfully applied to real blood and urine samples as well as in spiked serum and urine samples. The developed method was specific, rapid, precise, reliable, accurate, inexpensive and then suitable for routine analysis of paroxetine in monitorized samples. PMID:24448669

  15. Sample collection guidelines for trace elements in blood and urine. IUPAC Commission of Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Cornelis, R; Heinzow, B; Herber, R F; Christensen, J M; Poulsen, O M; Sabbioni, E; Templeton, D M; Thomassen, Y; Vahter, M; Vesterberg, O

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents an organized system for element-specific sample collection and handling of human blood (whole blood, serum or plasma, packed cells or erythrocytes) and urine also indicating a proper definition of the subject and sample. Harmonized procedures for collection, preparation, analysis and quality control are suggested. The aim is to assist scientists worldwide to produce comparable data which will be useful on a regional, national and international scale. The guidelines are directed to the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium and zinc. These include the most important elements measured for their occupational or clinical significance, and serve as examples of principles that will guide development of methods for other elements in the future. PMID:8829133

  16. Analysis of UR-144 and its pyrolysis product in blood and their metabolites in urine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz; Seku?a, Karolina

    2013-12-10

    UR-144 [(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl)methanone] is a synthetic cannabinoid, which has been detected in many herbal blends, resinous samples and powders seized from the Polish drug market since the beginning of 2012. This paper presents the case of intoxication by this substance. A complete picture of the symptoms observed by a witness, paramedics and medical doctors are given. In the analysis of powder residues from the plastic bag seized from the intoxicated person by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), UR-144 and its major pyrolysis product [1-(1-pentyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-3-methyl-2-(propan-2-yl)but-3-en-1-one] were detected. Both substances were also identified in a blood sample collected on admission of the patient to hospital using liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS). Blood concentration of UR-144 was 6.1 ng/mL. A urine sample collected at the same time was analyzed by liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The parent substance and its pyrolysis products were not detected in urine, while their five metabolites were found. The experiments allowed the location of derivative groups to be established, and thus elucidate rough structures of the metabolites; a dihydroxylated metabolite of UR-144 and mono-, dihydroxylated and carboxylated metabolites of its pyrolysis product were identified. PMID:24314536

  17. Effects of feeding and fasting on wolf blood and urine characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.

    1987-01-01

    Feeding and fasting trials were conducted with 2 groups (A and B) of 4 gray wolves (Canis lupus) each during January 1980. The groups were fed for 9 days and fasted for 10 days in a cross-over design. Blood and urine samples and weight data were collected every 2-3 days during each trial. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations, red blood cell (RBC) counts, and hematocrits (HCT) were elevated in both groups during fasting. White blood cell (WBC) counts, serum urea nitrogen (SUN), triiodothyronine (T3), and insulin concentrations decreased during fasting in Groups A and B. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and iron (Fe) concentrations were diminished in fasted Group A wolves compared to fed Group B. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) concentrations were elevated in fed Group A wolves. Serum creatinine (C) concentrations were reduced in both groups during feeding. Urinary urea: creatinine (U:C), potassium:creatine (K:C), and sodium:creatinine (Na:C, pooled Group A and B data) ratios decreased in fasted wolves. Differences were not found between fed and fasted wolves for mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum cortisol, glucose, calcium (Ca), bilirubin, serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase, and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and urinary calcium: creatine (Ca:C) ratios. Analysis of multiple blood or urine samples collected from free-ranging wolves would be useful in enabling researches and managers to identify the nutritional status and general health of wolves over time.

  18. Effects of nickel-chrome dental alloys used in dentistry on saliva and serum nickel levels, peripheral T-lymphocytes and some other blood parameters.

    PubMed

    Arikan, A

    1992-07-01

    Epidemiological investigations have shown that nickel is a potent sensitivity producing agent. However, it is not known if intra-oral use of nickel-chrome alloys can cause any sensitization reaction. The purpose of this study was to determine if nickel-chrome alloys used in dentistry influence nickel levels in saliva and serum and whether there were associated changes of some blood parameters such as lymphocyte, T-lymphocyte, neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil and monocyte. The study was performed on 10 patients all of whom had no medical and dental history of using nickel containing drugs or restorations. Four unit fixed partial prostheses containing 22.97% nickel and 22.65% chrome were constructed and worn by the patients. Blood and unstimulated whole saliva samples were taken from the patients before insertion of the prostheses and then 1 month and 6 months post-insertion. Hematocrit determinations, total and differential leucocyte count, total T-lymphocyte counts and serum nickel concentrations were determined from the blood samples and salivary nickel concentrations from the saliva samples. It was found that there were no significant changes in circulating T-lymphocyte and monocyte population but a decrease was found in circulating eosinophil and an increase in circulating neutrophil and basophil populations. PMID:1432350

  19. Monitoring of occupational exposure to tetrachloroethene by analysis for unmetabolized tetrachloroethene in blood and urine in comparison with urinalysis for trichloroacetic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Furuki; H. Ukai; S. Okamoto; S. Takada; T. Kawai; Y. Miyama; K. Mitsuyoshi; Z.-W. Zhang; K. Higashikawa; M. Ikeda

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The present study was initiated to examine a quantitative relationship between tetrachloroethene (TETRA) in blood and urine\\u000a with TETRA in air, and to compare TETRA in blood or urine with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in urine as exposure markers. Methods: In total, 44?workers (exposed to TETRA during automated, continuous cloth-degreasing operations), and ten non-exposed subjects\\u000a volunteered to participate in the

  20. Post mortem concentrations of endogenous gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and in vitro formation in stored blood and urine samples.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Bertol, Elisabetta; Vaiano, Fabio; Baglio, Giovanni; Montana, Angelo; Barbera, Nunziata; Zaami, Simona; Romano, Guido

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant, primarily used as a recreational drug of abuse with numerous names. It has also been involved in various instances of drug-facilitated sexual assault due to its potential incapacitating effects. The first aim of this paper is to measure the post-mortem concentration of endogenous GHB in whole blood and urine samples of 30 GHB free-users, who have been divided according to the post-mortem interval (PMI) in three groups (first group: 24-36h; second group: 37-72h; third group: 73-192h), trying to evaluate the role of PMI in affecting post mortem levels. Second, the Authors have evaluated the new formation of GHB in vitro in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month. The concentrations were measured by GC-MS after liquid-liquid extraction according to the method validated and published by Elliot (For. Sci. Int., 2003). For urine samples, GHB concentrations were creatinine-normalized. In the first group the GHB mean concentration measured after autopsy was: 2.14mg/L (range 0.54-3.21mg/L) in blood and 3.90mg/g (range 0.60-4.81mg/g) in urine; in the second group it was: 5.13mg/L (range 1.11-9.60mg/L) in blood and 3.93mg/g (range 0.91-7.25mg/g) in urine; in the third group it was: 11.8mg/L (range 3.95-24.12mg/L) in blood and 9.83mg/g (range 3.67-21.90mg/g) in urine. The results obtained in blood and urine samples showed a statistically significant difference among groups (p<0.001) in the first analysis performed immediately after autopsy. Throughout the period of investigation up to 4 weeks, the comparison of storage temperatures within each group showed in blood and urine samples a mean difference at 20°C compared to -20°C not statistically significant at the 10% level. These findings allow us to affirm that the PMI strongly affects the post mortem production of GHB in blood and urine samples. Regarding the new formation of GHB in vitro both in blood and urine samples of the three groups, which have been stored at -20°C, 4°C and 20°C over a period of one month, although there was no significant increases of GHB levels throughout the period of investigation, the lowest increases were found both in blood and urine at -20°C, therefore we recommend the latter as optimal storage temperature. PMID:25123534

  1. Bilirubin - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... jaundice. Bilirubin may also be measured with a blood test. ... urinated into it. Drain the urine from the bag into the container provided by your health care provider. Deliver the sample to the laboratory or to your health care provider as soon as possible.

  2. Effect of Hormonal Treatments Prior to Lactation on Hormones in Blood Plasma, Milk, and Urine during Early Lactation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Erb; B. P. Chew; H. F. Keller; P. V. Malven

    1977-01-01

    Hormonal changes in blood plasma, colostrum, milk, and urine were studied through day 25 of lactation in 6, 6, and 2 Holsteins, respectively, to compare nor- mal calving, premature calving induced with 25 mg of dexamethasone and estra- dio1-173, and lactation induced with ex- ogenous estradiol-173 and progesterone. Treatments had no effect on concentra- tions of prolactin in plasma, but

  3. Human C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) in blood and urine — Evaluation of a radioimmunoassay method and its clinical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kuzuya; A. Matsuda; T. Saito; S. Yoshida

    1976-01-01

    Summary  A double-antibody radioimmunoassay method, using synthetic human connecting peptide as an immunizing antigen and standard, was evaluated for clinical assay of blood and urine samples. Normal fasting blood connecting peptide immunoreacivity (CPR) was 2.45±0.96 ng\\/ml, increasing promptly after a 50 g oral glucose load, but somewhat slower than insulin. Molar concentration of CPR exceeded that of insulin. CPR responses to

  4. A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting.

    PubMed

    Ibelli, Adriana M G; Kim, Tae K; Hill, Creston C; Lewis, Lauren A; Bakshi, Mariam; Miller, Stephanie; Porter, Lindsay; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. An understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. This study characterizes a blood meal-induced I. scapularis (Ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (S)), in-house referred to as IxscS-1E1. The hypothesis that ticks use serpins to evade the host's defense response to tick feeding is based on the assumption that tick serpins inhibit functions of protease mediators of the host's anti-tick defense response. Thus, it is significant that consistent with hallmark characteristics of inhibitory serpins, Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant IxscS-1E1 (rIxscS-1E1) can trap thrombin and trypsin in SDS- and heat-stable complexes, and reduce the activity of the two proteases in a dose-responsive manner. Additionally, rIxscS-1E1 also inhibited, but did not apparently form detectable complexes with, cathepsin G and factor Xa. Our data also show that rIxscS-1E1 may not inhibit chymotrypsin, kallikrein, chymase, plasmin, elastase and papain even at a much higher rIxscS-1E1 concentration. Native IxscS-1E1 potentially plays a role(s) in facilitating I. scapularis tick evasion of the host's hemostatic defense as revealed by the ability of rIxscS-1E1 to inhibit adenosine diphosphate- and thrombin-activated platelet aggregation, and delay activated partial prothrombin time and thrombin time plasma clotting in a dose-responsive manner. We conclude that native IxscS-1E1 is part of the tick saliva protein complex that mediates its anti-hemostatic, and potentially inflammatory, functions by inhibiting the actions of thrombin, trypsin and other yet unknown trypsin-like proteases at the tick-host interface. PMID:24583183

  5. A blood meal-induced Ixodes scapularis tick saliva serpin inhibits trypsin and thrombin, and interferes with platelet aggregation and blood clotting

    PubMed Central

    Ibelli, Adriana M.G.; Kim, Tae K.; Hill, Creston C.; Lewis, Lauren A.; Bakshi, Mariam; Miller, Stephanie; Porter, Lindsay; Mulenga, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is a medically important tick species that transmits causative agents of important human tick-borne diseases including borreliosis, anaplasmosis and babesiosis. An understanding of how this tick feeds is needed prior to the development of novel methods to protect the human population against tick-borne disease infections. This study characterizes a blood meal-induced I. scapularis (Ixsc) tick saliva serine protease inhibitor (serpin (S)), in-house referred to as IxscS-1E1. The hypothesis that ticks use serpins to evade the host's defense response to tick feeding is based on the assumption that tick serpins inhibit functions of protease mediators of the host's anti-tick defense response. Thus, it is significant that consistent with hallmark characteristics of inhibitory serpins, Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant IxscS-1E1 (rIxscS-1E1) can trap thrombin and trypsin in SDS- and heat-stable complexes, and reduce the activity of the two proteases in a dose-responsive manner. Additionally, rIxscS-1E1 also inhibited, but did not apparently form detectable complexes with, cathepsin G and factor Xa. Our data also show that rIxscS-1E1 may not inhibit chymotrypsin, kallikrein, chymase, plasmin, elastase and papain even at a much higher rIxscS-1E1 concentration. Native IxscS-1E1 potentially plays a role(s) in facilitating I. scapularis tick evasion of the host's hemostatic defense as revealed by the ability of rIxscS-1E1 to inhibit adenosine diphosphate (ADP)- and thrombin-activated platelet aggregation, and delay activated partial prothrombin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) plasma clotting in a dose-responsive manner. We conclude that native IxscS-1E1 is part of the tick saliva protein complex that mediates its anti-hemostatic, and potentially inflammatory, functions by inhibiting the actions of thrombin, trypsin and other yet unknown trypsin-like proteases at the tick-host interface. PMID:24583183

  6. Repeated Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Fly Saliva Induces Local Expression of Interferon-Inducible Genes Both at the Site of Injection in Mice and in Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Weinkopff, Tiffany; de Oliveira, Camila I.; de Carvalho, Augusto M.; Hauyon-La Torre, Yazmin; Muniz, Aline C.; Miranda, Jose Carlos; Barral, Aldina; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    During a blood meal, Lutzomyia intermedia sand flies transmit Leishmania braziliensis, a parasite causing tegumentary leishmaniasis. In experimental leishmaniasis, pre-exposure to saliva of most blood-feeding sand flies results in parasite establishment in absence of any skin damages in mice challenged with dermotropic Leishmania species together with saliva. In contrast, pre-immunization with Lu. intermedia salivary gland sonicate (SGS) results in enhanced skin inflammatory exacerbation upon co-inoculation of Lu. intermedia SGS and L. braziliensis. These data highlight potential unique features of both L. braziliensis and Lu. intermedia. In this study, we investigated the genes modulated by Lu. intermedia SGS immunization to understand their potential impact on the subsequent cutaneous immune response following inoculation of both SGS and L. braziliensis. The cellular recruitment and global gene expression profile was analyzed in mice repeatedly inoculated or not with Lu. intermedia. Microarray gene analysis revealed the upregulation of a distinct set of IFN-inducible genes, an immune signature not seen to the same extent in control animals. Of note this INF-inducible gene set was not induced in SGS pre-immunized mice subsequently co-inoculated with SGS and L. braziliensis. These data suggest the parasite prevented the upregulation of this Lu. intermedia saliva-related immune signature. The presence of these IFN-inducible genes was further analyzed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) sampled from uninfected human individuals living in a L. braziliensis-endemic region of Brazil thus regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites. PBMCs were cultured in presence or absence of Lu. intermedia SGS. Using qRT-PCR we established that the IFN-inducible genes induced in the skin of SGS pre-immunized mice, were also upregulated by SGS in PBMCs from human individuals regularly exposed to Lu. intermedia bites, but not in PBMCs of control subjects. These data demonstrate that repeated exposure to Lu. intermedia SGS induces the expression of potentially host-protective IFN-inducible genes. PMID:24421912

  7. Rapid antemortem detection of CWD prions in deer saliva.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Davin M; Manca, Matteo; Haley, Nicholas J; Denkers, Nathaniel D; Nalls, Amy V; Mathiason, Candace K; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

  8. Rapid Antemortem Detection of CWD Prions in Deer Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Nicholas J.; Denkers, Nathaniel D.; Nalls, Amy V.; Mathiason, Candace K.; Caughey, Byron; Hoover, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is an efficiently transmitted prion disease of cervids, now identified in 22 United States, 2 Canadian provinces and Korea. One hallmark of CWD is the shedding of infectious prions in saliva, as demonstrated by bioassay in deer. It is also clear that the concentration of prions in saliva, blood, urine and feces is much lower than in the nervous system or lymphoid tissues. Rapid in vitro detection of CWD (and other) prions in body fluids and excreta has been problematic due to the sensitivity limits of direct assays (western blotting, ELISA) and the presence of inhibitors in these complex biological materials that hamper detection. Here we use real-time quaking induced conversion (RT-QuIC) to demonstrate CWD prions in both diluted and prion-enriched saliva samples from asymptomatic and symptomatic white-tailed deer. CWD prions were detected in 14 of 24 (58.3%) diluted saliva samples from CWD-exposed white-tailed deer, including 9 of 14 asymptomatic animals (64.2%). In addition, a phosphotungstic acid enrichment enhanced the RT-QuIC assay sensitivity, enabling detection in 19 of 24 (79.1%) of the above saliva samples. Bioassay in Tg[CerPrP] mice confirmed the presence of infectious prions in 2 of 2 RT-QuIC-positive saliva samples so examined. The modified RT-QuIC analysis described represents a non-invasive, rapid ante-mortem detection of prions in complex biologic fluids, excreta, or environmental samples as well as a tool for exploring prion trafficking, peripheralization, and dissemination. PMID:24040235

  9. Bisphenol A levels in blood and urine in a Chinese population and the personal factors affecting the levels.

    PubMed

    He, Yonghua; Miao, Maohua; Herrinton, Lisa J; Wu, Chunhua; Yuan, Wei; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, De-Kun

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the background bisphenol A (BPA) levels in urine and serum of a Chinese population without occupational exposure and to examine the personal characteristics influencing these levels. Workers from 10 factories and their family members were recruited and their peripheral blood and spot urine samples were collected. The conjugated and free BPA of the samples was assayed with high-performance liquid chromatography. The exposure levels were checked with 2-independent-samples test, and the potential personal factors influencing exposure levels were analyzed using nonlinear correlation. Of the total of 952 subjects participating in the study, urine and blood samples were taken from 97% and 93% of them, respectively. The detectable rates were 50% for urine samples and 17% for serum samples, given the detection limit of 0.31 microg/L for urine and 0.39 microg/L for serum. The arithmetic mean (AM) and geometric mean (GM) of non-creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA level were 10.45 and 0.87 microg/L, which became 24.93 and 0.38 microg/g Cr after the creatinine level was adjusted; serum BPA levels were 2.84 microg/L (AM) and 0.18 microg/L (GM). Males and those with smoking habit had higher biological burden of BPA. The results indicated that half of the study subjects had detectable BPA in their urine samples. BPA levels were influenced by gender and smoking status. The sources of non-occupational BPA exposures should be explored. PMID:19426969

  10. Biomonitoring and Elimination of Perfluorinated Compounds and Polychlorinated Biphenyls through Perspiration: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Beesoon, Sanjay; Birkholz, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are man-made organofluorine chemicals manufactured and marketed for their stain-resistant properties. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are anthropogenic organochlorine compounds previously used in various industrial and chemical applications prior to being banned in the Western world in the 1970s. Both PFCs and PCBs are persistent contaminants within the human organism and both have been linked to adverse health sequelae. Data is lacking on effective means to facilitate clearance of PFCs and PCBs from the body. Methods. Blood, urine, and sweat were collected from 20 individuals (10 healthy participants and 10 participants with assorted health problems) and analyzed for PFCs and PCBs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Some individual PCB congeners, but not all, were released into sweat at varying concentrations. None of the PFCs found in serum testing appeared to be excreted efficiently into perspiration. Conclusions. Induced perspiration may have some role in facilitating elimination of selected PCBs. Sweat analysis may be helpful in establishing the existence of some accrued PCBs in the human body. Sweating does not appear to facilitate clearance of accrued PFHxS (perfluorohexane sulfonate), PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), or PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), the most common PFCs found in the human body. PMID:24083032

  11. Genotoxic effects in peripheral blood and urine of workers exposed to low level benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Yardley-Jones, A; Anderson, D; Jenkinson, P C; Lovell, D P; Blowers, S D; Davies, M J

    1988-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from a population of refinery workers representing different age groups. Sixty six men with low average exposure to benzene and 33 male controls were investigated. An examination of cell cycle kinetics and sister chromatid exchange was carried out on control and exposed individuals. No significant differences were found between groups of individuals varying in their drinking and smoking habits or their exposure to diagnostic x rays. Individuals with the lowest and highest phenol values were examined for urine mutagenicity, with urinary phenol used here as an indicator of benzene exposure. There was no difference in the number of revertant colonies in strains TA98 and 100 between the high and low urinary phenol groups. There were also no differences in any of the biochemical measures or haematological parameters investigated in all the individuals except that higher values for mean corpuscular volume were found in exposed than in control individuals. These values, however, were within the normal clinical range. PMID:3196663

  12. Optimized siRNA-PEG conjugates for extended blood circulation and reduced urine excretion in mice.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Frank; Yang, Chuanxu; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Schaffert, David H; Kjems, Jørgen; Gao, Shan

    2013-01-01

    Some of the main concerns with in vivo application of naked small interfering RNA are rapid degradation and urinary excretion resulting in a short plasma half-life. In this study we investigated how conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with variable chain length affects siRNA pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The PEG chains were conjugated to chemically stabilized siRNA at the 5' terminal end of the passenger strand using click chemistry. The siRNA conjugate remained functionally active and showed significantly prolonged circulation in the blood stream after intravenous injection. siRNA conjugated with 20kDa PEG (PEG20k-siRNA) was most persistent, approximately 50% PEG20k-siRNA remained 1h post-injection, while the uncoupled siRNA was rapidly removed >90% at 15min. In vivo fluorescent imaging of the living animal showed increased concentration of siRNA in peripheral tissue and delayed urine excretion when coupled to PEG 20k. Biodistribution studies by northern blotting revealed equal distribution of conjugated siRNA in liver, kidney, spleen and lung without significant degradation 24 h post-injection. Our study demonstrates that PEG conjugated siRNA can be applied as a delivery system to improve siRNA bioavailability in vivo and may potentially increase the efficiency of siRNA in therapeutic applications. PMID:23471415

  13. Low-volume, high-sensitivity assay for cadmium in blood and urine using conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    SciTech Connect

    Cerny, E. A.; Bhattacharyya, M. H.; Biosciences Division

    2003-03-15

    An assay for cadmium in whole blood and urine using deuterium background-correction electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (D2-ETAAS) was developed. Cadmium (in a 1- to 2-ml sample) was bound to 15 mg anion-exchange resin, interfering ions were removed in a 2-ml Bio-Spin column, and cadmium was extracted into 100 {mu}l 1 M nitric acid for analysis. Cadmium in the sample extract was concentrated 7-fold for blood and 10-fold for urine over the starting material. These steps produced cadmium atomic absorption traces with high signal to background ratios and allowed analysis against aqueous standards. At {approx}0.1 ng Cd/ml, mean intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11-12%. Cadmium recovery for 0.1 to 0.6 ng added cadmium was 107{+-}4% for blood and 94{+-}4% for urine (mean{+-}SE, n=3). The mean detection limit (mean + 3x SD of blank) was 0.008 ng/ml for blood and 0.003 ng/ml for urine. Samples from 'unexposed' animals including humans ranged from 0.051{+-}0.000 to 0.229{+-}0.035 ng/ml. Values were approximately 10-fold lower than those obtained by the method of Stoeppler and Brandt using Zeeman background-correction ETAAS. This new high-sensitivity, low-volume assay will be useful for epidemiological studies, even those involving children, and will provide a means to help determine the contribution of cadmium to disease incidence in the general population.

  14. Determination of zoledronic acid in human urine and blood plasma using liquid chromatography\\/electrospray mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katrin Veldboer; Torsten Vielhaber; Helmut Ahrens; Jendrik Hardes; Arne Streitbürger; Uwe Karst

    2011-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of 1-hydroxy-2-imidazol-1-yl-phosphonoethyl phosphoric acid (zoledronic acid) in urine and blood samples has been developed. It consists of a derivatisation of the bisphosphonate with trimethylsilyl diazomethane under multiple methylester formation. The formed derivative can, in contrast to the non-derivatised analyte, easily be separated by reversed phase liquid chromatography due to its reduced polarity. Detection is

  15. Oestradiol in saliva during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Evans, J J; Stewart, C R; Merrick, A Y

    1980-07-01

    Sixteen women provided saliva samples throughout a menstrual cycle and the concentration of oestradiol was measured. Blood samples were taken around mid-cycle and the luteinizing hormone peak was used to diagnose the timing of ovulation. The levels of oestradiol in saliva followed the same pattern as in blood. The peak of oestradiol in saliva could be used to predict accurately the time of onset of the next menstrual period. The analysis of saliva could be useful in the investigation of women in whom serial venepunctures are not possible. PMID:7426520

  16. Comparison of breath, blood and urine concentrations in the biomonitoring of environmental exposure to 1,3-butadiene, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and benzene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Perbellini; Andrea Princivalle; Marzia Cerpelloni; Francesco Pasini; Francesco Brugnone

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To investigate and compare alveolar, blood, and urine concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, 2,5 dimethylfuran, and benzene, in non-occupational exposure to these products. Methods Benzene, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 1,3-butadiene were measured in the breath, blood, and urine samples of 61 subjects living in small mountain villages. All 61 were regularly employed as forestry workers. Sampling was done during the long winter-season non-working

  17. The Oxidant-Scavenging Abilities in the Oral Cavity May Be Regulated by a Collaboration among Antioxidants in Saliva, Microorganisms, Blood Cells and Polyphenols: A Chemiluminescence-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ginsburg, Isaac; Kohen, Ron; Shalish, Miri; Varon, David; Shai, Ella; Koren, Erez

    2013-01-01

    Saliva has become a central research issue in oral physiology and pathology. Over the evolution, the oral cavity has evolved the antioxidants uric acid, ascorbate reduced glutathione, plasma-derived albumin and antioxidants polyphenols from nutrients that are delivered to the oral cavity. However, blood cells extravasated from injured capillaries in gingival pathologies, or following tooth brushing and use of tooth picks, may attenuate the toxic activities of H2O2 generated by oral streptococci and by oxidants generated by activated phagocytes. Employing a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence, the DPPH radical and XTT assays to quantify oxidant-scavenging abilities (OSA), we show that saliva can strongly decompose both oxygen and nitrogen species. However, lipophilic antioxidant polyphenols in plants, which are poorly soluble in water and therefore not fully available as effective antioxidants, can nevertheless be solubilized either by small amounts of ethanol, whole saliva or also by salivary albumin and mucin. Plant-derived polyphenols can also act in collaboration with whole saliva, human red blood cells, platelets, and also with catalase-positive microorganisms to decompose reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, polyphenols from nutrient can avidly adhere to mucosal surfaces, are retained there for long periods and may function as a “slow- release devises” capable of affecting the redox status in the oral cavity. The OSA of saliva is due to the sum result of low molecular weight antioxidants, albumin, polyphenols from nutrients, blood elements and microbial antioxidants. Taken together, saliva and its antioxidants are considered regulators of the redox status in the oral cavity under physiological and pathological conditions. PMID:23658797

  18. RBC urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Red blood cells in urine; Hematuria test; Urine - red blood cells ... A normal result is 4 RBC/HPF (red blood cells per high power field) or less when the sample is examined under a microscope. The example above is a common measurement ...

  19. Growth of Microorganisms from Supragingival Dental Plaque on Saliva Agar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. De Jong; J. S. Van Der Hoeven; J. H. Van Os

    1986-01-01

    The role of saliva in supporting the growth of dental plaque has scarcely been investigated. We have studied the growth and recovery of micro-organisms from dental plaque samples on saliva-agar plates, prepared from filter-sterilized wax-stimulated whole saliva. Under optimal conditions, the mean recovery of plaque samples on saliva agar was about 50% (range, 22-77) of the recovery on blood agar.

  20. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in two successive urinary voids from drinking drivers: relationship to creatinine content and blood and urine ethanol concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Bergström; A Helander; A. W Jones

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of alcohol in blood (BAC) and two successive urine voids (UAC) from 100 drunk drivers were compared with the concentration of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), a minor metabolite of ethanol in urine, and the urinary creatinine content as an indicator of dilution. The subjects consisted of 87 men with mean age 42.2±14.2 years (±standard deviation, S.D.) and 13 women

  1. Observation of steady state in blood and urine following human ingestion of hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Paustenbach, D.J. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Alameda, CA (United States); Hays, S.M.; Brien, B.A. [McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-06

    The uptake and elimination of Cr(VI) in a male volunteer who ingested 2 L/d of water containing 2 mg/L for 17 consecutive days was measured. Total chromium was measured in urine, plasma, and red blood cells (RBCs) for 4 d prior to and 2 wk after dosing (34 d total). The estimated bioavailability (2%) and the plasma elimination half-life (36 h) were consistent with our previous studies of Cr(VI) ingestion in humans. Steady-state chromium concentrations in urine and blood were achieved after 7 d of Cr(VI) ingestion. Both plasma and redblood cell (RBC) chromium concentrations returned rapidly to background levels within a few days after cessation of dosing. Since the concentration of chromium in the RBC should not decrease quickly if the chromium had entered the RBC as Cr(VI), these data support our prior work suggesting that concentrations of 10 mg Cr(VI)/L or less in drinking water of exposed humans appears to be completely reduced to Cr(III) prior to systemic distribution. Clinical chemistry data indicate that no toxicity occurred. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Determination of platinum in blood and urine as a tool for the biological monitoring of internal exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Karl H.; Angerer, Juergen; Alt, Friedrich; Messerschmidt, Juergen; Weber, Andreas

    1993-03-01

    The increased industrial use of platinum has led to a growing need for the determination of platinum levels in biological materials. Concern about the release of toxic material from catalytic converters in motor vehicles in the environment and about occupational platinum exposure of employees working in the assembly of motor vehicle catalyzers and recycling led us to establish background and internal exposure levels in human body fluids. The development of an analytical procedure, based on adsorptive voltammetry with an extremely high power of detection (2 pg Pt absolute) for the determination in body fluids made population studies reliable and practicable. The methods are described and the reliability criteria are presented. For 13 not occupationally exposed persons the platinum levels ranged in urine from blood from urine, 2 - 180 ng/l blood and 4 - 280 ng/l plasma. This was in agreement with the external exposure levels, which exceeded the German MAK value of 2 (mu) g/m3. Platinum concentrations in human biological materials seem to be suitable as internal exposure indicators.

  3. Structure and ligand-binding properties of the biogenic amine-binding protein from the saliva of a blood-feeding insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xueqing; Chang, Bianca W. [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Mans, Ben J. [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States); Agricultural Research Council, Onderstepoort 0110 (South Africa); Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Andersen, John F., E-mail: jandersen@niaid.nih.gov [NIH/NIAID, 12735 Twinbrook Parkway, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic amine-binding proteins mediate the anti-inflammatory and antihemostatic activities of blood-feeding insect saliva. The structure of the amine-binding protein from R. prolixus reveals the interaction of biogenic amine ligands with the protein. Proteins that bind small-molecule mediators of inflammation and hemostasis are essential for blood-feeding by arthropod vectors of infectious disease. In ticks and triatomine insects, the lipocalin protein family is greatly expanded and members have been shown to bind biogenic amines, eicosanoids and ADP. These compounds are potent mediators of platelet activation, inflammation and vascular tone. In this paper, the structure of the amine-binding protein (ABP) from Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of the trypanosome that causes Chagas disease, is described. ABP binds the biogenic amines serotonin and norepinephrine with high affinity. A complex with tryptamine shows the presence of a binding site for a single ligand molecule in the central cavity of the ?-barrel structure. The cavity contains significant additional volume, suggesting that this protein may have evolved from the related nitrophorin proteins, which bind a much larger heme ligand in the central cavity.

  4. Review of Biologic Matrices (Urine, Blood, Hair) as Indicators of Recent or Ongoing Cannabis Use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Musshoff; Burkhard Madea

    2006-01-01

    Especially for cannabinoids, analytical procedures for the verification of recent use and generally for the assessment of the extent of drug abuse are of interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. For confirmation of abstinence, urine analysis seems to be a useful tool. Serial monitoring of THC-COOH to creatinine ratios can differentiate between recent drug use and residual THC-COOH excretion (THC-COOH\\/creatinine

  5. Modulation of aflatoxin biomarkers in human blood and urine by green tea polyphenols intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lili Tang; Meng Tang; Li Xu; Haitao Luo; Tianren Huang; Jiahua Yu; Lisheng Zhang; Weimin Gao; Stephen B. Cox; Jia-Sheng Wang

    To evaluate the efficacy of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) in mod- ulating aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) biomarkers, a total of 352 serum samples and 352 urine samples collected from a 3 month chemo- prevention trial with 500 mg GTPs, 1000 mg GTPs and a placebo were measured for AFB1-albumin adducts (AFB-AA), aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and aflatoxin B1-mercapturic acid (AFB-NAC). Lev- els

  6. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    PubMed

    ?ukasik-G??bocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Han?, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Bara?kiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Micha?; Zieli?ska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. PMID:24794066

  7. HCG in urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in blood serum - qualitative HCG in blood serum - quantitative Pregnancy test ... Urine HCG tests are a common method of determining if a woman is pregnant. The best time to test for pregnancy at home is after you miss your period.

  8. Leukocyte esterase urine test

    MedlinePLUS

    Leukocyte esterase is a urine test to look for white blood cells and other signs of infection. ... Leukocyte esterase is a screening test used to detect a substance that suggests there are white blood ...

  9. Levels of metals in the blood and specific porphyrins in the urine in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Macedoni-Lukši?, Marta; Gosar, David; Bjørklund, Geir; Oražem, Jasna; Kodri?, Jana; Lešnik-Musek, Petra; Zupan?i?, Mirjana; France-Štiglic, Alenka; Sešek-Briški, Alenka; Neubauer, David; Osredkar, Joško

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of metals in blood (zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg)), as well as the specific porphyrin levels in the urine of patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared with patients with other neurological disorders. The study was performed in a group of children with ASD (N?=?52, average age?=?6.2 years) and a control group of children with other neurological disorders (N?=?22, average age?=?6.6 years), matched in terms of intellectual abilities (Mann-Whitney U?=?565.0, p?=?0.595). Measurement of metals in blood was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry, while the HPLC method via a fluorescence detector was used to test urinary porphyrin levels. Results were compared across groups using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). In addition, a generalized linear model was used to establish the impact of group membership on the blood Cu/Zn ratio. In terms of blood levels of metals, no significant difference between the groups was found. However, compared to the control group, ASD group had significantly elevated blood Cu/Zn ratio (Wald ? (2)?=?6.6, df?=?1, p?=?0.010). Additionally, no significant difference between the groups was found in terms of uroporphyrin I, heptacarboxyporphyrin I, hexacarboxyporphyrin and pentacarboxyporphyrin I. However, the levels of coproporphyrin I and coproporphyrin III were lower in the ASD group compared to the controls. Due to observed higher Cu/Zn ratio, it is suggested to test blood levels of Zn and Cu in all autistic children and give them a Zn supplement if needed. PMID:25234471

  10. Platinum concentrations in urban road dust and soil, and in blood and urine in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Farago, M E; Kavanagh, P; Blanks, R; Kelly, J; Kazantzis, G; Thornton, I; Simpson, P R; Cook, J M; Delves, H T; Hall, G E

    1998-03-01

    Increasing Pt concentrations from vehicle catalysts have been reported from a number of countries. Analysis of Pt and Pd in soils and road dusts taken from areas of high and low traffic flows in SE England show concentrations of Pt in the range < 0.30-40.1 ng g-1 and Pd in the range < 2.1-57.9 ng g-1. Higher concentrations of Pt are associated with high traffic densities. Samples taken from streets of lower traffic flows were found to contain the lower concentrations of the ranges. Pilot studies of Pt concentrations in blood and urine using ICP-MS have been carried out. Platinum concentrations in whole blood were: precious metal workers, 780-2170, mean 1263 pmol l-1 (0.152-0.423, mean 0.246 microgram l-1); motorway maintenance workers, 645-810, mean 744 pmol l-1 (0.126-0.158, mean 0.145 microgram l-1); Imperial College staff, 590-713, mean 660 pmol l-1 (0.115-0.139, mean 0.129 microgram l-1). Platinum concentrations in urine in pmol Pt per mmol creatinine were: precious metal workers, 122-682, mean 273 [0.21-1.18, mean 0.47 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]; motorway maintenance workers, 13-78, mean 33.7 [0.022-0.135, mean 0.058 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]; Imperial College staff, 28-130, mean 65.6 [0.048-0.224, mean 0.113 microgram Pt (g creatinine)-1]. Detection limits were 0.03 microgram l-1 for both blood and urine. The possible health effects of increasing Pt in the environment are discussed. Platinum provides an excellent example of the significance of speciation in metal toxicity. Platinum allergy is confined to a small group of charged compounds that contain reactive ligand systems, the most effective of which are chloride ligand systems. Metallic Pt is considered to be biologically inert and non allergenic and since the emitted Pt is probably in the metallic or oxide form, the sensitising potential is probably very low. Platinum from road dusts, however, can be solubilised, and enter waters, sediments, soils and the food chain. There is at present no evidence for any adverse health effects from Pt in the general environment, particularly allergic reactions. PMID:9659707

  11. A Fluorometric method for the determination of praziquantel in blood-plasma and urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pütter

    1979-01-01

    Summary  Some physicochemical data of praziquantel which may have analytical relevance are reported.\\u000a \\u000a For the quantitative determination praziquantel is extracted from plasma or urine by means of organic solvents and then hydrolyzed\\u000a in an aqueous alkaline solution. The hydrolyzed product is reacted with dansyl-chloride (5-dimethylaminonaphthalene-sulfonylchloride).\\u000a The dansylated compound is separated and quantified fluorometrically.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The limit of determination is 3 JUg\\/1 in

  12. Lithium and sodium in blood plasma and urine of fish and mammals of Lake Baikal

    SciTech Connect

    Putintseva, V.A.; Fleishman, D.G.

    1984-07-01

    The lithium concentration in body fluids was measured by the massspectrometric technique of isotope dilution in certain species of fish and seals, and also in water from Lake Baikal. The concentration of lithium in the urine of all studied animals was higher than that of sodium in plasma. Appreciable differences were found between Li/sup +/ and Na/sup +/ ions in the exchange between organism and environment in Lake Baikal fish: The Li/Na ratio in plasma was 10- and 100-fold lower than in water. Discrimination between these ions occurred both during their entry into the body (transport through bills) and during their elimination via the kidneys.

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Antibody Testing by Enzyme-Linked Fluorescent and Western Blot Assays Using Serum, Gingival-Crevicular Transudate, and Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Prudencio Martínez; Torres, Antonio Rodríguez; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raul; Montoya, Ana; Martín, José Francisco; Eiros, José María

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible utilization of saliva and urine as alternative samples to serum for the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A total of 302 individuals participated in the study: 187 HIV-infected individuals (106 had Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] stage II infection, 19 had CDC stage III infection, and 62 had CDC stage IV infection) and 115 noninfected persons (46 of the noninfected persons were blood donors and 69 belonged to a group at high risk of HIV infection). Paired saliva and urine samples were taken from each of the participants in the study. The presence of HIV-specific antibodies was detected by an enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA), and the result was confirmed by Western blot analysis (WB). The ELFA with saliva gave maximum sensitivity and specificity values, while ELFA had lower sensitivity (95.2%) and specificity (97.4%) values for detection of HIV antibody in urine samples. WB with all saliva samples fulfilled the World Health Organization criterion for positivity, while only 96.8% of the urine samples were confirmed to be positive by WB. Among the four reactivity patterns found by WB of these alternative samples, the most frequent included bands against three groups of HIV structural proteins (was ENV, POL, and GAG). The reactivity bands most frequently observed were those for the proteins gp160 and gp120. The least common reactivity band was the band for protein p17. The detection of HIV antibodies in saliva samples by means of ELFA with the possibility of later confirmation by WB makes saliva an alternative to serum for possible use in the diagnosis of infection. In contrast, HIV antibody detection in urine samples by the same methodology (ELFA) could be taken into consideration for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:10074532

  14. Elimination of matrix and spectral interferences in the measurement of lead and cadmium in urine and blood by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction

    SciTech Connect

    D'Haese, P.C.; Lamberts, L.V.; Liang, L.; Van de Vyver, F.L.; De Broe, M.E. (University of Antwerp, Department of Nephrology-Hypertension (Belgium))

    1991-09-01

    Direct measurement of lead and cadmium in blood and urine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction (D2-AAS) is prone to severe matrix and spectral interferences. The authors overcame these effects by coating the L'vov platform with ammonium molybdate, reducing the atomization time, introducing a post-atomization cooling step, carefully selecting ashing and atomization temperatures, and using an appropriate procedure for matrix modification. To determine Pb and Cd in blood and urine, they used matrix-matched calibration curves. With the proposed procedure for sample preparation, both Pb and Cd in whole blood can be determined in the same diluted sample. Results obtained by D2-AAS correlate closely with those by Zeeman-corrected AAS. Detection limits (mean blank + 3 SDblank) for Pb in urine and blood were 4 micrograms/L. For cadmium, the detection limits were 0.4 and 0.1 micrograms/L for urine and blood analysis, respectively. Between-run CVs were less than 5.0%.

  15. Levels of ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulfate in oral fluid, blood, and urine after use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid and both EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) in blood and urine following intense use of mouthwash and ingestion of nonalcoholic wine, which are proven to contain 3 mg/L EtG, 1.5 mg/L EtS, and 0.2 g/L ethanol. Twelve subjects participated in a controlled experiment. All subjects ingesting nonalcoholic wine showed urine samples negative for EtG but positive for EtS (Cmax 2.15 mg/L). All four subjects using mouthwash were negative for EtG and EtS in urine. All samples of oral fluid were negative for EtG and all samples of blood were negative for EtG and EtS. This study showed that ingestion of EtG and EtS as components of nonalcoholic wine lead to detection of urine EtS only, suggesting superior bioavailability of orally ingested EtS compared to EtG. This possibility of false-positive EtS results in urine after ingestion of nonalcoholic wine is important to remember when using EtG and EtS as relapse markers for alcohol. Finally, the study showed that a positive EtG or EtS result after accidental alcohol exposure is unlikely in blood and oral fluid. PMID:20223100

  16. Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2014-02-28

    A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (<15min) preparation of lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS. PMID:24491523

  17. Concentrations of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 11-nor-9-carboxytetrahydrocannabinol in blood and urine after passive exposure to Cannabis smoke in a coffee shop.

    PubMed

    Röhrich, J; Schimmel, I; Zörntlein, S; Becker, J; Drobnik, S; Kaufmann, T; Kuntz, V; Urban, R

    2010-05-01

    Cannabinoid concentrations in blood and urine after passive exposure to cannabis smoke under real-life conditions were investigated in this study. Eight healthy volunteers were exposed to cannabis smoke for 3 h in a well-attended coffee shop in Maastricht, Netherlands. An initial blood and urine sample was taken from each volunteer before exposure. Blood samples were taken 1.5, 3.5, 6, and 14 h after start of initial exposure, and urine samples were taken after 3.5, 6, 14, 36, 60, and 84 h. The samples were subjected to immunoassay screening for cannabinoids and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-hydroxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH). It could be demonstrated that all volunteers absorbed THC. However, the detected concentrations were rather small. None of the urine samples produced immunoassay results above the cutoff concentration of 25 ng/mL. THC-COOH concentrations up to 5.0 and 7.8 ng/mL before and after hydrolysis, respectively, were found in the quantitative GC-MS analysis of urine. THC could be detected in trace amounts close to the detection limit of the used method in the first two blood samples after initial exposure (1.5 and 3.5 h). In the 6 h blood samples, THC was not detectable anymore. THC-COOH could be detected after 1.5 h and was still found in 3 out of 8 blood samples after 14 h in concentrations between 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL. PMID:20465865

  18. Evaluation of Dietary Nitrogen Utilization in Dairy Cows Based on Urea Concentrations in Blood, Urine and Milk, and on Urinary Concentration of Purine Derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Horacio Leandro Gonda; Jan Erik Lindberg

    1994-01-01

    The effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on urea in blood, urine and milk, and on the urinary purine derivatives and creatinine in dairy cows, were studied. Diurnal variation in urinary concentration of urea, allantoin and creatinine was also studied. A total of 24 multiparous lactating dairy cows were selected from a production experiment and divided into two

  19. Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low polluted districts of Saint-Petersburg. The elements concentrations and health of children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakovleva, E. M.; Ganeev, A. A.; Ivanenko, A. A.; Ivanenko, N. B.; Nosova, E.; Molodkina, E. V.; Kuzmenkov, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    At present time rapt attention is attended on child health. One of the main factors of child health is environmental condition and possibility of toxic elements consuniption by children from air, water, and food. The ain of our investigation is to detennine Pb, Cd, Se, As in blood and urine of children from high and low level polluted districts of St.-Petersburg. And then to estimate urine and blood toxic elements concentration correlation. ln order to examine large child groups it is necessary to use effective, express analycal methods. Wc chose Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation as such a method. New technique Zeeman Modulation Polarization Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with High-Frequency Modulation allow io determine many etements directly (without additional compounds and reagents or with there minimum use) in blood, plasma and urine. Highcst spectrometry selectivity allows working with high background level. The matrix effects are reduced in great deal the aid of L'vov platform, sample pyrolysis and palladium modifier using. We present the results of our investigation the concentration of toxic éléments in blood and urine of children from high Polluted district is above permitted level.

  20. Simple and rapid quantification of gadolinium in urine and blood plasma samples by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF).

    PubMed

    Telgmann, Lena; Holtkamp, Michael; Künnemeyer, Jens; Gelhard, Carsten; Hartmann, Marcel; Klose, Annika; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2011-10-01

    A simple and rapid method to determine gadolinium (Gd) concentrations in urine and blood plasma samples by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was developed. With a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 ?g L(-1) in urine and 80 ?g L(-1) in blood plasma and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 330 ?g L(-1) in urine and 270 ?g L(-1) in blood plasma, it allows analyzing urine samples taken from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients during a period of up to 20 hours after the administration of Gd-based MRI contrast agents by means of TXRF. By parallel determination of the urinary creatinine concentration, it was possible to monitor the excretion kinetics of Gd from the patient's body. The Gd concentration in blood plasma samples, taken immediately after an MRI examination, could be determined after rapid and easy sample preparation by centrifugation. All measurements were validated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). TXRF is considered to be an attractive alternative for fast and simple Gd analysis in human body fluids during daily routine in clinical laboratories. PMID:21847492

  1. Identification and quantification of 34 drugs and toxic compounds in blood, urine, and gastric content using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Chen; Ye, Haiying; Wang, Rong; Ni, Chunfang; Rao, Yulan; Zhang, Yurong

    2015-05-01

    A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous screening of 34 drugs and poisons in forensic cases. Blood (0.5 mL, diluted 1:1 with water) or 1.0 mL of urine was purified by solid-phase extraction. Gastric contents (diluted 1:1 with water) were treated with acetonitrile, centrifuged, and supernatant injected. Detection was achieved using a Waters Alliance 2695/Quattro Premier XE liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry system equipped with electrospray ionization, operated in the multiple reaction monitoring modes. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, linearity, and recovery. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in blood was greater than 51% with the limit of detection in the range of 0.02-20 ng/mL. The absolute recovery of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was greater than 61% with limit of detection in the range of 0.01-10 ng/mL. The matrix effect of drugs and toxic compounds in urine was 65-117% and 67-121% in blood. The limit of detection of drugs and toxic compounds in gastric content samples were in the range of 0.05-20 ng/mL. This method was applied to the routine analysis of drugs and toxic compounds in postmortem blood, urine, and gastric content samples. The method was applied to actual forensic cases with examples given. PMID:25781422

  2. Microsphere based saliva diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rissin, David M.; DiCesare, Christopher; Hayman, Ryan B.; Blicharz, Timothy M.; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Saliva presents a minimally invasive alternative medium to blood for performing diagnostics1. Microsphere sensors for ions, small organic molecules, and proteins are currently being developed and optical microarrays containing thousands of these sensors will be used for simultaneous multi-analyte analysis. The fiber bundle platform in use is 1mm in diameter and contains approximately 50,000 individually addressable 3.1?m fibers, each with an etched well capable of housing a single 3.1?m microsphere sensor. Micron-sized bead-based chemistries are produced in house, followed by deposition onto a fiber-optic bundle platform, allowing for multiplexed analysis. The ultimate goal is to develop a universal diagnostic system using saliva as the diagnostic medium. This platform will permit multiplexed analysis of a sample by integrating microfluidics with the optical arrays loaded with sensors capable of detecting relevant biomarkers associated with a wide range of disease states. Disease states that are currently under investigation include end stage renal disease (ESRD) and Sjoegrens Syndrome (SS).

  3. Validation and application of a highly specific and sensitive ELISA for the estimation of cortisone in saliva, urine and in vitro cell-culture media by using a novel antibody.

    PubMed

    Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Baghdadi, Hussam H S; Howie, Forbes; Mason, J Ian

    2012-05-01

    It is generally acknowledged that local tissue concentrations of cortisol and cortisone are modulated by site-specific actions of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD) isoenzymes 1 and 2. Cortisone, the inactive metabolite of cortisol is produced by 11?HSD type 2. To assess 11?-HSD types 1 and 2 activities, the cortisol/cortisone ratio has to be accurately determined. Immunoassays to measure cortisone levels are not widely available and tend to lack specificity. The aim of this project was to develop a highly specific and sensitive ELISA method for the estimation of free cortisone levels in urine, saliva and in vitro media samples without chromatographic separation. Antibodies against cortisone were raised in rabbits using cortisone-3-CMO-KLH as immunogen. HRP-goat anti-rabbit IgG conjugate was used as enzyme tracer. Cross-reactivities of the untreated cortisone antiserum with major interfering steroids were minimal except for cortisol (3.15%). However, following an immune-affinity purification of the antibodies using CNBr-activated sepharose-cortisol-3-CMO-BSA, cross-reactivity of the purified cortisone antibody with cortisol was reduced to 0.27%. The minimum detection limit of cortisone ELISA was 28 pg/mL (77.7 pM). The validity of the cortisone ELISA was confirmed by the excellent correlation obtained before and after an HPLC fractionation step (Y=1.09X-0.21, R2=0.98). Intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision were 5.5-11.7% and 8.7-12.8% CV, respectively. Using this assay, salivary cortisone levels showed a circadian rhythm in men and women (11.2±7.3 nM at 08.00 h and 5.1±3.6 nM at 18.00 h), and the levels were reduced following liquorice ingestion. In media of adrenocortical H295 cell line incubations, basal cortisone levels were 4.24±0.22 nM that increased to 8.6±1.2 nM post forskolin treatment. Urinary free cortisone excretion levels in healthy subjects were 56.66±36.9 nmol/day. In human volunteers following ingestion of green coffee bean extract for 2 weeks, urinary free cortisol excretion reduced significantly from 66.67±22.3 to 42.66±17.5 nmol/day (p=0.02) and the cortisol/cortisone ratio from 2.04±1.33 to 1.49±1.13, p=0.05. In conclusion, a simple and highly specific and sensitive ELISA has been developed and applied to estimate cortisone levels in biological fluids and culture media. PMID:22429925

  4. Differences in trace metal concentrations (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, And Ni) in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children.

    PubMed

    B?a?ewicz, Anna; Klatka, Maria; Astel, Aleksander; Partyka, Ma?gorzata; Kocjan, Ryszard

    2013-11-01

    High-performance ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry methods have been applied to estimate the content of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, and Ni in whole blood, plasma, and urine of obese and nonobese children. The study was conducted on a group of 81 Polish children of age 6-17 years (37 males, 44 females). Obese children were defined as those with body mass index (BMI) >95th percentile in each age-gender-specific group. Statistical testing was done by the use of nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis's and Mann-Whitney's U) and Spearman's correlation coefficient. Significant correlations appeared for control group in plasma (Mn-Cd, Ni-Co), urine (Cu-Co), and blood (Fe-Cu), while for obese patients in plasma (Cd-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Zn) and urine (Fe-Cd, Co-Mn). Sex criteria did not influence correlations between metals' content in plasma and urine of obese patients. Metals' abundance was correlated in non-corresponding combinations of body fluids. Rare significant differences between content of metals according to sex and the type of body fluids were discovered: Zn in plasma from obese patients of both sexes, and Zn, Co, and Mn in blood, Mn in plasma from healthy subjects. Negative correlations between BMI and Zn in blood, Cu in plasma, and Fe in urine were discovered for girls (control group). Positive correlation between Co content in plasma and BMI was discovered for obese boys. The changes in metals' content in body fluids may be indicators of obesity. Content of zinc, copper, and cobalt should be monitored in children with elevated BMI to avoid deficiency problems. PMID:23975578

  5. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in oral fluid, blood, and urine after volunteers drank 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg doses of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Høiseth, Gudrun; Yttredal, Borghild; Karinen, Ritva; Gjerde, Hallvard; Mørland, Jørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the concentrations of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in oral fluid, blood, and urine after healthy volunteers drank two doses of ethanol, 0.5 (n = 11) and 1.0 g/kg (n = 10), after an overnight fast. Samples of oral fluid, blood, and urine were collected before drinking started and at 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 8.5, 11.5, and 24 h post-dosing. Following ingestion of low dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 0.36 mg/L (range 0.28-0.41 mg/L) in blood and 69.8 mg/L (range 47.1-96.5 mg/L) in urine. In oral fluid, the concentrations were < 1% of those in blood, and only three subjects exceeded the limit of quantification for EtG in oral fluid. After ingestion of the high dose of ethanol, the Cmax for EtG was 1.06 mg/L (range 0.8-1.22 mg/L) in blood, 159.9 mg/L (range 97.2-225.5 mg/L) in urine, and 0.032 mg/L (range 0.013-0.059 mg/L) in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood ratio was 0.029 (range 0.012-0.054) for EtG. The detection time for EtG was median 11.5 h (range 3.5-11.5 h) in oral fluid. According to this, the detection time for EtG in oral fluid is therefore only a few hours longer than for ethanol itself and represents limited additional value. PMID:20663284

  6. Differential distribution of cobalt, chromium, and nickel between whole blood, plasma and urine in patients after metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Newton, Ashley W; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan; Armstrong, Catherine; Peter, Viju; Roberts, Norman B

    2012-10-01

    Evidence shows that raised cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) whole blood concentrations correlate with poor device outcome in patients following metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty. To understand the local and systemic pathological effects of these raised metal concentrations it is important to define their distribution between whole blood, plasma, and urine. The metals were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS). Two hundred and five plasma, 199 whole blood, and 24 sets of urine samples were analyzed from 202 patients with Co-Cr alloy MoM hip prostheses implanted between 8 months to 12 years (mean 6.0 years) prior to analysis. Plasma Co (median 39.1 nmol/L) showed significantly positive 1:1 correlation with whole blood Co (median 45.9 nmol/L; R(2) ?= 0.98, p < 0.001, slope = 1.0). Plasma Cr (median 53.8 nmol/L) and whole blood Cr (median 40.3 nmol/L) were also correlated; however, concentrations were significantly higher in plasma indicating relatively little blood cell uptake (R(2) ?= 0.96, p < 0.001, slope = 1.6). Urinary Co was up to threefold higher than Cr (median 334.0 vs. 97.3 nmol/L respectively). Nickel concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine were low relative to Co and Cr. The analysis shows fundamental differences in the physiological handling of these metals: Co is distributed approximately equally between blood cells and plasma, whereas Cr is mainly in plasma, despite which, Cr had far less renal excretion than Co. PMID:22447496

  7. [Screening saliva].

    PubMed

    Deutsch, O; Palmon, A; Aframian, D J

    2013-04-01

    Oral Fluids (OF) are a complex mixture including components deriving from, salivary glands, blood, nasal and bronchial secretions, mucosal lining cells and microbiota. Therefore, OF as a mirror of the body, were suggested as an important diagnostic fluid for the detection of both, oral and systemic diseases. OF as diagnostic fluids have several advantages; their collection is easy, inexpensive and noninvasive, they are suitable for home use and for epidemiology researches, they are easy to store and ship, do not clot and enable fast detection. OF based diagnostics research accomplished a great advance during the last decade. This is mainly due to biotechnology improvements such as 2-D Fluorescence Difference Gel Electrophoresis, quantitative Mass Spectrometry and bioinformatics systems. These technologies enabled the detection of more than 3000 proteins in oral fluids, as well as the establishment of a panel of biomarkers to different human pathological conditions (i.e. periodontitis, Sjögren's Syndrome, oral cancer, pancreatic cancer etc). However, this diagnostic field has several drawbacks, mainly due to oral fluids variance composition, blood contamination as a result of gingivitis or mucosal injuries, the lack of a single established collection protocol and the presence of high abundant components in OF. This article summarizes the current research, and provides an outlook toward the foundation of this unique body fluid as a major player in the diagnostic field. PMID:24020242

  8. Quantification of trace elements by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinson's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocca, B.; Alimonti, A.; Petrucci, F.; Violante, N.; Sancesario, G.; Forte, G.; Senofonte, O.

    2004-04-01

    To assess whether levels of trace metals and oxidative species are involved in Parkinson's disease (PD), Al, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and V were measured in urine, serum, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum peroxides and antioxidant capacity were determined in 26 patients with PD and 13 control subjects. The quantification of metals was based on the 1+4 water dilution of CSF, serum and urine, the acid-assisted microwave digestion under atmospheric pressure of blood and final determination by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Results indicated a significant increase of Pb and V concentrations in blood and urine ( P?0.03, in both cases) related to the disease. Parkinson disease also seemed to be closely associated ( P?0.003) with a reduction in levels of Al, Cd, Hg and Pb in serum and of Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Pb in CSF. As regards Mn, a lower mean concentration was found in the CSF and whole blood of PD patients than in control group, although this trend was not statistically significant. Levels of peroxides were also increased ( P?0.001), while antioxidant capacity was lower ( P?0.002) in PD patients than in controls.

  9. Biomarkers of primary dysmenorrhea and herbal formula intervention: an exploratory metabonomics study of blood plasma and urine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei; Duan, Jinao; Wang, Peijuan; Qian, Dawei; Guo, Jianming; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Tang, Yuping; Tang, Zongxiang

    2013-01-27

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), a common clinical endocrine disorder affecting young women, is associated with endocrinopathy and metabolic abnormalities. Although some physiological and pathological function parameters have been investigated, little information about the changes of small metabolites in biofluids has been reported, which may cause poor diagnosis and treatment for PDM. The Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Formula (XFSWF) is a Chinese herbal formula used to treat PDM for hundreds of years. The aim of this study was to establish the metabolic profile of PDM and investigate the action mechanism of XFSWF effect. In this cross-sectional study of 25 patients with PDM and 12 healthy controls, contents of small molecular endogenous metabolites in blood plasma and urine samples were measured by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF/MS) and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (QqQ/MS) based techniques and analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. The levels of LPCs including lypso (16?:?1), lysoPC(20?:?4), lysoPC(18?:?2), lysoPC(16?:?0), lysoPC(18?:?1), lysoPC(10?:?1), estrone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, myristoylglycine and palmitoylglycine increased significantly (p < 0.05) in PDM, while the levels of phytosphingosine, dihydrocortisol and sphingosine decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the healthy controls. These significant perturbations are involved in glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism, as well as steroid hormone biosynthesis. The metabolic deviations recovered to the normal level after XFSWF intervention. The results demonstrated that biofluids metabonomics was a powerful tool in clinical diagnosis and treatment of PDM for providing information on changes in metabolites and neural, endocrinal and immune pathways. XFSWF can be used for the treatment of PDM cases, especially for those adolescents who do not desire a contraceptive method, to reduce the risk of secondary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23111557

  10. Detection of Cervical Cancer Biomarker Patterns in Blood Plasma and Urine by Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Merchant, Michael L.; Helm, C. William; Jenson, Alfred B.; Klein, Jon B.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer health. PMID:24416269

  11. Quantitative analysis of myo-inositol in urine, blood and nutritional supplements by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kit-Yi; Mills, Kevin; Burren, Katie A.; Copp, Andrew J.; Greene, Nicholas D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Myo-inositol plays key physiological functions, necessitating development of methodology for quantification in biological matrices. Limitations of current mass spectrometry-based approaches include the need for a derivatisation step and/or sample clean-up. In addition, co-elution of glucose may cause ion suppression of myo-inositol signals, for example in blood or urine samples. We describe an HPLC-MS/MS method using a lead-form resin based column online to a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer, which requires minimum sample preparation and no derivatisation. This method allows separation and selective detection of myo-inositol from other inositol stereoisomers. Importantly, inositol was also separated from hexose monosaccharides of the same molecular weight, including glucose, galactose, mannose and fructose. The inter- and intra-assay variability was determined for standard solutions and urine with inter-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.1% and 3.5% respectively, while intra-assay CV was 2.3% and 3.6%. Urine and blood samples from normal individuals were analysed. PMID:21856255

  12. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the detection of lysergide and a major metabolite, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD, in urine and blood.

    PubMed

    Sklerov, J H; Magluilo, J; Shannon, K K; Smith, M L

    2000-10-01

    A method is presented for the quantitative measurement of lysergide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (O-H-LSD) in urine and blood. O-H-LSD has been reported to have urinary concentrations many times higher than LSD. Measuring its presence in urine would significantly extend the detection time for confirming LSD abuse. A single-step liquid-liquid extraction was performed on 5-mL urine samples prior to separation by gradient liquid chromatography (LC). Electrospray ionization was used to produce the positively charged ions of O-H-LSD, 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LAMPA (O-H-LAMPA, internal standard), LSD, and iso-LSD. Varying the orifice voltage in the intermediate-pressure region of the source generated the fragmentation necessary to produce qualifying ions. Selected ion monitoring allowed detection limits of 400 pg/mL and 100 pg/mL for O-H-LSD and LSD, respectively. The method was linear for O-H-LSD from 400 to 8000 pg/mL and for LSD from 100 to 6000 pg/mL. LSD-positive samples (n = 9) analyzed by the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method were found to contain mean concentrations of 6378 pg/mL O-H-LSD (332-21371 pg/mL) and 844 pg/mL LSD (177-2456 pg/mL). O-H-LSD urinary concentrations were between 0.9 and 19.8 times higher than LSD (mean = 10.2). Whole-blood samples were also analyzed following additional sample cleanup. LSD was measured in the blood samples, but no O-H-LSD was detected. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on LSD-positive samples (n = 6) to evaluate the existence of conjugated O-H-LSD. Beta-glucuronidase from Helix pomatia was incubated with urine samples at 37 degrees C, pH 5.2 for 24 h. At an enzymatic activity of approximately 4000 units per milliliter of urine, no significant (p = 0.05) difference was seen between hydrolyzed and nonhydrolyzed samples suggesting an absence of O-H-LSD-glucuronic acid conjugation. PMID:11043657

  13. Enhancing the sensitivity of the LC-MS/MS detection of propofol in urine and blood by azo-coupling derivatization.

    PubMed

    Vaiano, Fabio; Mari, Francesco; Busardò, Francesco P; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2014-06-01

    Propofol is a low-polarity, volatile molecule that is difficult for an electrospray ion source (ESI) to ionize in either negative ion mode (NIM) or positive ion mode (PIM), which hampers its detection via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The aim of the present study was to use a new derivatization agent to improve ionization efficiency and to develop an efficient liquid chromatography-multiple mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of propofol in urine and blood, taking advantage of an electrophilic aromatic substitution. An azo-coupling reaction with a diazonium salt from aniline was performed to introduce a protonation site into the molecule. The diazonium salt was generated by aniline in water solution by HCl and sodium nitrite; derivatization was achieved by stirring a mixture of the diazonium salt and propofol in sodium hydroxide solution for 30 min below 5 °C. A liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane and ethyl acetate was performed to obtain the azo derivative (molecular composition: C18H22ON2; molecular weight: 282 Da) in high yield. The compound provided very high ionization yields in both PIM and NIM ESI, and the protonated or deprotonated molecule gave intense signals. The transitions m/z 283???77, 241 and m/z 281???176, 161 were chosen for the PIM and NIM, respectively, in order to develop quantitative methods of detecting propofol in urine and blood via triple-quadrupole LC-MS/MS. These methods proved to be highly sensitive, with limits of quantification of 0.4 pg/mL and 0.1 ng/mL obtained in the NIM when analyzing 1 mL of urine and 100 ?L of blood, respectively. PMID:24414741

  14. Discovery of mosquito saliva microRNAs during CHIKV infection.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Payal D; Widen, Steven G; Huang, Jing; Wood, Thomas G; Thangamani, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the first time, the identification of exogenous microRNAs from mosquito saliva. MicroRNAs are short, 18-24 nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression, and are generally intracellular. However, circulating miRNAs have been described from serum and saliva of humans. Exogenous miRNAs have not been reported from hematophagous arthropod saliva. We sought to identify miRNAs in the mosquito saliva and their role in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Next generation sequencing was utilized to identify 103 exogenous miRNAs in mosquito saliva of which 31 miRNAs were previously unidentified and were designated novel. Several miRNAs that we have identified are expressed only in the CHIKV infected mosquitoes. Five of the saliva miRNAs were tested for their potential to regulated CHIKV infection, and our results demonstrate their functional role in the transmission and establishment of infection during blood feeding on the host. PMID:25612225

  15. Endogenous lithium determination in blood plasma and urine by isotope dilution mass spectrometry and preliminary isolation of lithium fraction using paper chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fleishman, D G; Nikiforov, V A; Saulus, A A

    1992-02-01

    A version of isotope dilution mass spectrometric technique elaborated for measuring endogenous lithium concentrations in human blood plasma and urine (10(-7) M region) and applicable in clinical practice is described. A tracer solution of lithium (LiCl) enriched in 6Li (with abundances 6Li 92%, 7Li 8%) is added to a certain volume of human plasma (0.2-0.4 ml) or urine (0.05-0.1 ml) and dried under an infrared lamp. Thereupon a soluble part extracted from dried plasma with the aid of 0.1 N HCl is dried as well. Dry extracts from plasma and dried samples of urine are processed by 30% H2O2 and subsequently subjected to paper chromatography (with ethanol as a solvent). Such processing of samples is simple and short (about an hour, 3 min of chromatographic process inclusive), achieving a good separation from organic matrix and interfering macroelements. Contamination of sample in processing is about 2-5 pmol; routine control of contamination and account of their influence are accomplished by measuring two different volumes of each sample. Measurements are made with high precision: cyclic repeated scanning of 7Li and 6Li peaks have a standard deviation of 7Li/6Li ratio no more than 0.7%. The method described was used to determine endogenous lithium clearance of hypertensive patients and patients with transplanted kidney. PMID:1606185

  16. Review: The physiology of saliva and transfer of drugs into saliva.

    PubMed

    Aps, Johan K M; Martens, Luc C

    2005-06-10

    Although saliva or oral fluid "lacks the drama of blood, the sincerity of sweat and the emotional appeal of tears", quoting Mandel in 1990 [I.D. Mandel, The diagnostic uses of saliva, J. Oral Pathol. Med. 19 (1990) 119-125], it is now meeting the demand for inexpensive, non-invasive and easy-to-use diagnostic aids for oral and systemic diseases, drug monitoring and detection of illicit use of drugs of abuse, including alcohol. As the salivary secretion is a reflex response controlled by both parasympathetic and sympathetic secretomotor nerves, it can be influenced by several stimuli. Moreover, patients taking medication which influences either the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system, or medication which mimic the latter as a side effect, will have an altered salivary composition and salivary volume. Patients suffering from certain systemic diseases may present the same salivary alterations. The circadian rhythm determines both the volume of saliva that will and can be secreted and the salivary electrolyte concentrations. Dietary influences and the patient's age also have an impact on composition and volume of saliva. The latter implies a wide variation in composition both inter- and intra-individually. Sampling must therefore be performed under standardized conditions. The greatest advantage, when compared to blood sample collection, is that saliva is readily accessible and collectible. Consequently, it can be used in clinically difficult situations, such as in children, handicapped and anxious patients, where blood sampling could be a difficult act to perform. PMID:15944052

  17. Content of the selected trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in blood, urine and hair of blood donors without occupational exposure to these metals.

    PubMed

    Buchancová, J; Knizková, M; Hýllová, D; Vrlík, M; Mesko, D; Klimentová, G; Gáliková, E

    1994-12-01

    The trace element content in biological samples from blood donors (BD) has not been studied in detail so far. In everyday practice minimum attention is paid to the occupational history of blood donors from different social strata. In addition to clinical and elementary haematological and biochemical examinations, the authors assessed levels of Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) in two groups of BD--from the Orava (n = 19) and Prievidza region (n = 29). The examined blood donors were never exposed to the risk of metal exposure. No significant differences were found in age and smoking habits between the groups. In analyses electrothermic atomization (AAS-GTA) was mostly used. Hg in urine was assessed, using the technique of hydride vapour formation (VGA). Comparing the results of both BD groups, using Student's t-test, some significant differences between the two regions were found in As, Pb, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni levels. The authors discuss the possible influence of artificial metal sources from the plants contaminating the environment of the regions for prolonged periods (power plant using coal containing As, metallurgy plant producing ferrochromium and ferromanganese alloys and lead metallurgy plant. Blood levels of metals in BD compared with control groups of the non-exposed population (data obtained from the literature) were within a similar or often lower range. In BD studied very low values of Hg in urine were found (0.015 +/- 0.004 mumol.l-1, 0.021 +/- 0.001 mumol.l-1 of urine -mean +/- SE) with the maximum recorded value of 1.0 mumol Pb.l-1 of blood. PMID:7697027

  18. [Determining progesterone in saliva].

    PubMed

    Herges, H; Klinger, W; Gethmann, U; Knuppen, R

    1992-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the determination of progesterone in saliva using a 125J-labelled progesterone derivate has been developed. The assay is characterized by the excellent sensitivity of 3.12 pg progesterone/ml. During the menstrual cycle of normal women the biphasic rhythm of progesterone in saliva could not been clearly demonstrated. In the follicle phase high peaks of progesterone have been shown and even in the luteal phase individual low values have been observed. The circadian rhythms of progesterone in saliva are characterized by irregular oscillations. The saliva flow rate is not responsible for the progesterone concentration. The measurement of progesterone in serum seems to be more useful in the diagnosis of sterility. PMID:1481584

  19. Commercial saliva collections tools.

    PubMed

    Slowey, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    Saliva has been used as a specimen for diagnostics purposes for many years, but it has only been in the last 10 years that a number of new tools have been developed that promise to greatly increase the use of oral specimens for broad-based diagnosis and potentially screening applications. This article focuses on tools that are commercially viable or can play a role in whole saliva collection and future testing for critical diseases. PMID:23505755

  20. Oxidatively damaged guanosine in white blood cells and in urine of welders: associations with exposure to welding fumes and body iron stores.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Koch, Holger M; Marczynski, Boleslaw; Casjens, Swaantje; Käfferlein, Heiko U; Welge, Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Behrens, Thomas; Raulf, Monika; Hartwig, Andrea; Weiss, Tobias; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-08-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer considers the carcinogenicity of welding fume of priority for re-evaluation. Genotoxic effects in experimental animals are still inconclusive. Here, we investigated the association of personal exposure to metals in respirable welding fumes during a working shift with oxidatively damaged guanosine in DNA of white blood cells (WBC) and in postshift urine samples from 238 welders. Medians of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) were 2.35/10(6) dGuo in DNA of WBC and 4.33 µg/g creatinine in urine. The median of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo) was 7.03 µg/g creatinine in urine. The extent of both urinary parameters was higher in welders applying techniques with high particle emission rates to stainless steel than in tungsten inert gas welders (8-oxodGuo: 9.96 vs. 4.49 µg/L, 8-oxoGuo: 15.7 vs. 7.7 µg/L), but this apparent difference diminished after creatinine adjustment. We applied random intercept models to estimate the influence of airborne and systemic exposure to metals on oxidatively damaged guanosine in WBC and urine together with covariates. We observed a highly significant nonlinear association of urinary 8-oxoGuo with serum ferritin (P < 0.0001) and higher 8-oxoGuo concentrations for respirable iron >1,000 µg/m(3) compared to ?57 µg/m(3). Similar effects were found for manganese. Airborne chromium but not nickel was associated with all oxidatively modified guanosine measures, whereas urinary chromium as well as nickel showed associations with urinary modified guanosines. In summary, oxidatively damaged urinary guanosine was associated with airborne and systemic exposure to metals in welders and showed a strong relation to body iron stores. PMID:25107450

  1. Immunofixation - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infant: Thoroughly wash the area where the urine exits the body. Open a urine collection bag (a ... eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  2. A novel rapid genotyping technique for Collie eye anomaly: SYBR Green-based real-time polymerase chain reaction method applicable to blood and saliva specimens on Flinders Technology Associates filter paper.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hye-Sook; Mizukami, Keijiro; Yabuki, Akira; Hossain, Mohammad A; Rahman, Mohammad M; Uddin, Mohammad M; Arai, Toshiro; Yamato, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    Collie eye anomaly (CEA) is a canine inherited ocular disease that shows a wide variety of manifestations and severity of clinical lesions. Recently, a CEA-associated mutation was reported, and a DNA test that uses conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has now become available. The objective of the current study was to develop a novel rapid genotyping technique by using SYBR Green-based real-time PCR for future large-scale surveys as a key part in the strategy to eradicate CEA by selective breeding. First, a SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assay for genotyping of CEA was developed and evaluated by using purified DNA samples from normal, carrier, and affected Border Collies in which genotypes had previously been determined by conventional PCR. This real-time PCR assay demonstrated appropriate amplifications in all genotypes, and the results were consistent with those of conventional PCR. Second, the availability of Flinders Technology Associates filter paper (FTA card) as DNA templates for the real-time PCR assay was evaluated by using blood and saliva specimens to determine suitability for CEA screening. DNA-containing solution prepared from a disc of blood- or saliva-spotted FTA cards was available directly as templates for the real-time PCR assay when the volume of solution was 2.5% of the PCR mixture. In conclusion, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR combined with FTA cards is a rapid genotyping technique for CEA that can markedly shorten the overall time required for genotyping as well as simplify the sample preparation. Therefore, this newly developed technique suits large-scale screening in breeding populations of Collie-related breeds. PMID:20807925

  3. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) detected in abnormally high concentrations in postmortem blood and urine from two persons found dead inside a car containing a gasoline spill.

    PubMed

    Karinen, Ritva; Vindenes, Vigdis; Morild, Inge; Johnsen, Lene; Le Nygaard, Ilah; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2013-09-01

    Two deep frozen persons, a female and a male, were found dead in a car. There had been an explosive fire inside the car which had extinguished itself. On the floor inside the car were large pools of liquid which smelled of gasoline. The autopsy findings and routine toxicological analyses could not explain the cause of death. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in the blood samples were <10%. Analysis with a headspace gas chromatography revealed methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) concentrations of 185 mg/L (female victim) and 115 mg/L (male victim) in peripheral blood. The urine MTBE concentrations were 150 mg/L and 256 mg/L, respectively. MTBE is a synthetic chemical which is added to gasoline as a fuel oxygenate. Gasoline poisoning is likely to be the cause of the death in these two cases, and MTBE can be a suitable marker of gasoline exposure, when other volatile components have vaporized. PMID:23879346

  4. The Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Human Urine and Blood by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Cloud-Point Extraction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiao; Wang, Jun; Yang, Yaling; Lu, Yunhui

    2015-08-01

    A simple efficient and practical separation/preconcentration coupled with HPLC method for the determination nitrate and low concentrations of nitrite in human urine and blood was investigated. The method is based on precolumn derivatization using the Griess reaction and cloud-point extraction (CPE) of nitrite anion and direct determination of nitrate using its UV absorbance by ion-pair HPLC. The chromatographic process with detection at two wavelengths (510 and 220 nm) allows the determination of nitrite and nitrate. Decolorization and protein precipitation of urine and blood was applied to overcome the interference of matrix and enhance the sensitivity. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range of nitrite from 10 to 1,000 ng/mL and nitrate from 0.1 to 10 µg/mL. Product recoveries ranged from 92.4 to 99.9%. The limits of detection were 1 ng/mL and 0.1 µg/mL for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. Therefore, the technique was simple and reliable, with potential application in biological sample analysis of nitrate and nitrite. PMID:25616990

  5. Human inhalation exposures to toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene and physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of exposure biomarkers in exhaled air, blood, and urine.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Axelle; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Tardif, Robert; Nong, Andy; Haddad, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Urinary biomarkers of exposure are used widely in biomonitoring studies. The commonly used urinary biomarkers for the aromatic solvents toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and m-xylene (X) are o-cresol, mandelic acid, and m-methylhippuric acid. The toxicokinetics of these biomarkers following inhalation exposure have yet to be described by physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. Five male volunteers were exposed for 6?h in an inhalation chamber to 1/8 or 1/4 of the time-weighted average exposure value (TWAEV) for each solvent: toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-xylene were quantified in blood and exhaled air and their corresponding urine biomarkers were measured in urine. Published PBPK model for parent compounds was used and simulations were compared with experimental blood and exhaled air concentration data. If discrepancies existed, Vmax and Km were optimized. Urinary excretion was modeled using parameters found in literature assuming simply stoichiometric yields from parent compound metabolism and first-order urinary excretion rate. Alternative models were also tested for (1) the possibility that CYP1A2 is the only enzyme implicated in o-cresol and (2) a 2-step model for describing serial metabolic steps for mandelic acid. Models adapted in this study for urinary excretion will be further used to interpret urinary biomarker kinetic data from mixed exposures of these solvents. PMID:25601989

  6. Curated MicroRNAs in Urine and Blood Fail to Validate as Predictive Biomarkers for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sapre, Nikhil; Hong, Matthew K. H.; Macintyre, Geoff; Lewis, Heather; Kowalczyk, Adam; Costello, Anthony J.; Corcoran, Niall M.; Hovens, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if microRNA profiling of urine and plasma at radical prostatectomy can distinguish potentially lethal from indolent prostate cancer. Materials and Methods A panel of microRNAs was profiled in the plasma of 70 patients and the urine of 33 patients collected prior to radical prostatectomy. Expression of microRNAs was correlated to the clinical endpoints at a follow-up time of 3.9 years to identify microRNAs that may predict clinical response after radical prostatectomy. A machine learning approach was applied to test the predictive ability of all microRNAs profiled in urine, plasma, and a combination of both, and global performance assessed using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC). Validation of urinary expression of miRNAs was performed on a further independent cohort of 36 patients. Results The best predictor in plasma using eight miRs yielded only moderate predictive performance (AUC?=?0.62). The best predictor of high-risk disease was achieved using miR-16, miR-21 and miR-222 measured in urine (AUC?=?0.75). This combination of three microRNAs in urine was a better predictor of high-risk disease than any individual microRNA. Using a different methodology we found that this set of miRNAs was unable to predict high-volume, high-grade disease. Conclusions Our initial findings suggested that plasma and urinary profiling of microRNAs at radical prostatectomy may allow prognostication of prostate cancer behaviour. However we found that the microRNA expression signature failed to validate in an independent cohort of patients using a different platform for PCR. This highlights the need for independent validation patient cohorts and suggests that urinary microRNA signatures at radical prostatectomy may not be a robust way to predict the course of clinical disease after definitive treatment for prostate cancer. PMID:24705338

  7. Duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects the recovery from a bout of ruminal acidosis: short-chain fatty acid and lactate absorption, saliva production, and blood metabolites.

    PubMed

    Schwaiger, T; Beauchemin, K A; Penner, G B

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine if the duration of time that beef cattle are fed a high-grain diet affects short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption, saliva production, and blood metabolites before, during, and following an induced bout of ruminal acidosis. Sixteen Angus heifers were assigned to 1 of 4 blocks and within block to 1 of 2 treatments designated as long adapted (LA) or short adapted (SA). Long adapted and SA heifers were fed a backgrounding diet [forage:concentrate (F:C) = 60:40] for 33 and 7 d, respectively, and then transitioned over 20 d to a high-grain diet (F:C = 9:91) with the timing of dietary transition staggered such that the LA and SA heifers were fed the high-grain diet for 34 and 8 d, respectively, before inducing ruminal acidosis. Ruminal acidosis was induced by restricting feed to 50% of DMI:BW for 24 h followed by an intraruminal infusion of ground barley at 10% DMI:BW. Heifers were then given their regular diet allocation 1 h after the intraruminal infusion. Data were collected during an 8 d baseline period (BASE), on the day of the acidosis challenge (CHAL), and during 2 consecutive 8 d recovery periods (REC1 and REC2). When pooled across periods, the fractional rates of propionate (42 vs. 34%/h; P = 0.045) and butyrate (45 vs. 36%/h; P = 0.019) absorption, measured using the isolated and washed reticulorumen technique, were greater for LA than SA heifers. Moreover, overall, LA heifers tended to have greater absolute rates of butyrate absorption (94 vs. 79 mmol/h; P = 0.087) and fractional rates of total SCFA absorption (37 vs. 32%/h; P = 0.100). Treatment × period interactions for lactate absorption (P = 0.024) and serum D-lactate concentration (P = 0.003) were detected with LA heifers having greater D-lactate concentrations during CHAL and greater fractional rates of lactate absorption during REC1 than SA. The absolute and fractional absorption of acetate, propionate, and butyrate increased between REC1 and REC2, with intermediate values for BASE (P ? 0.05). Although fractional rates of SCFA absorption were low during REC1, saliva production (P = 0.018) increased between BASE and REC1, with intermediate values for REC2. These results suggest that the duration of time that animals are fed a high-grain diet may increase propionate, butyrate, and lactate absorption, and that cattle may decrease SCFA absorption and increase saliva production shortly after an acute bout of ruminal acidosis. PMID:24158368

  8. Amylase - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is produced in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  9. Saliva testing after single and chronic administration of dihydrocodeine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Skopp; L. Pötsch; K. Klinder; B. Richter; R. Aderjan; R. Mattern

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, concentrations of dihydrocodeine and its metabolites in saliva and serum were compared after single\\u000a low-dose and chronic high-dosage administration of the drug. In the first investigation, blood and saliva were collected periodically\\u000a from six subjects after oral administration of 60 mg dihydrocodeine. In the second study, 20 subjects on oral dihydrocodeine\\u000a maintenance provided single samples of

  10. Saliva Stimulation and Caries Prevention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. M. Edgar; S. M. Higham; R. H. Manning

    1994-01-01

    The protective role of saliva is demonstrated by the rampant caries seen in human subjects with marked salivary hypofunction, and in desalivated animals. In normal cases, however, the relationship between saliva flow and coronal or root caries experience is doubtful, and to examine the concept that stimulation of saliva might have protective effects against caries, one must look beyond a

  11. [The high pressure liquid chromatography of corticoids. II. Analysis of synthetic corticoids in blood and urine (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Saito, Z; Amatsu, E; Ono, T; Hihumi, S; Mimou, T; Hashiba, T; Sakato, S; Miyamoto, M; Takeda, R

    1979-10-20

    The high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) technique was developed to separate and quantitate the synthetic corticosteroids (s-CS) which are widely used clinically. 1) 12 kinds of s-CS in alcoholic solvent and 2) some of their metabolites in the plasma and urine of healthy subjects with oral administration of s-CS were investigated for the preliminary work. The results are summarized as follows: 1) Cortisol sodium phosphate, Dexamethasone 21, disodium phosphate, Paramethasone acetate, Cortisol acetate, Cortisone acetate, Methylprednisolone acetate, Prednisone, Dexamethasone, 9 alpha-fluorocortisol, Betamethasone, Triamcinolone, and Prednisolone in ethanol were clearly separated by HPLC from Cortisol (F). In the suitable condition of the HPLC (LC-2 type) with a Zorbax SIL column, organic solvent (cyclohexane:dichloromethane:ethanol = 9:4:1)-carrier mobile phases and UV detector, the retention time of each s-CS was obviously different from that of F. The calibration curve was obtained in a linear line with regards to each s-CS. The mean recovery was 97.6% and the coefficient of variation were 1.6 (intraassay) and 7.2 (interassay)%. The sensitivity of the steroid determination was 200pg order. 2) The serial changes in plasma concentrations of s-CS; CS-metabolites and endogenous F were shown in 3 healthy males and 2 females following oral administration of the s-CS. The separated metabolites in number and quality depended on the kind of s-CS. Prednisone and other kinds of the acidified products were separated from prednisolone in the plasma and urinary samples of the healthy subjects as well as Addisonian patients. In conclusion, the HPLC method is useful for the separation and quantitation of the UV-absorbing CS of human plasma and urine. The obtained chromatograms may be an indication of the metabolic state of the subject with treatment of s-CS. PMID:510630

  12. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS, PESTICIDE METABOLITES, AND VOC IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for the collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The pr...

  13. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE--COMPENDIUM OF METHOD SUMMARIES FOR COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF METALS AND VOCS IN BLOOD AND URINE (CDC-COMPENDIUM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This compendium includes method summaries provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Center for Environmental Health (CDC/NCEH) for collection and shipping of blood and urine samples for analysis of metals and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It provide...

  14. The use of saliva markers in psychobiology: mechanisms and methods.

    PubMed

    Bosch, Jos A

    2014-01-01

    In the social sciences, the use of saliva parameters has greatly expanded in recent years from the measurement of steroid hormones, like cortisol, and now includes a wide range of biochemical parameters. These salivary constituents can be broadly classified into two groups: (1) constituents that enter saliva from plasma (e.g. hormones, inflammatory markers, drug chemicals) and (2) constituents that are produced locally by the saliva glands (e.g. ?-amylase, secretory IgA). Reliable measurement of blood-borne constituents assumes a constant saliva/plasma ratio (SPR), which implies that the concentration in saliva truthfully follows intra- and interindividual variations in plasma. The first part of this review discusses the main determinants of the SPR: the mechanism by which plasma constituents enter saliva (i.e. passive diffusion, active transport, ultrafiltration, leakage) and associated physiochemical factors. The second part of this review provides an overview of central and peripheral neural mechanisms that regulate saliva gland function and the release of glandular proteins. This section provides a neurobiological underpinning for a section, which addresses methodological implications for the assessment of glandular secretions. Salivary psychophysiology is a fast-growing field and the time seems ripe for more rigorous methodological studies that may help this discipline to reach its full potential. PMID:24862598

  15. SPME–GC analysis of THC in saliva samples collected with “EPITOPE” device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Fucci; N De Giovanni; M Chiarotti; S Scarlata

    2001-01-01

    In this study we examined the presence of cannabinoids in saliva samples obtained from 24 drug-abusers. The saliva specimens were collected by “EPITOPE” system and the subsequent elution of samples was achieved by centrifugation. The resulting ultrafiltrates have been directly sampled with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and then analyzed by GC\\/MS. Saliva sampling is less invasive than collection of blood.

  16. A Rapid Centrifugation-Assisted Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography Method for Determination of Loureirin A and Loureirin B of Dragon's Blood Capsules in Rat Plasma and Urine After Oral Administration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoshuang; Li, Gaofeng; Ma, Shangfang; Hu, Xujia

    2015-07-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid centrifugation-assisted solid-phase extraction (SPE) with high-performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC) method was developed for simultaneous determination of the metabolites loureirin A and loureirin B from Dragon's blood in rat plasma and urine. The development of the extraction procedure included optimization of some important extraction phases. After evaluation, the metabolites of Dragon's blood were extracted by centrifugation-assisted SPE and separated by using HPLC. This method showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.99), and in the rat plasma and urine, the recoveries were 93.1 and 95.7% for loureirin A and were 90.1 and 94.2% for loureirin B. The relative standard deviation (RSD) values of intraday and interday precision in rat plasma and urine for loureirin A were <3.84 and 2.01%, respectively. The RSD values of the intraday and interday precision in rat plasma and urine for loureirin B were below 4.25 and 5.83%, respectively. Thus, the established method is suitable for metabolism studies of loureirin A and loureirin B in rat plasma and urine. PMID:25575508

  17. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    PubMed

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine. PMID:18762178

  18. Headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of hydroxylic methyl-derivatized and volatile organic compounds in blood and urine.

    PubMed

    Rasanen, Ilpo; Viinamäki, Jenni; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2010-04-01

    A novel headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ITEX-GC-MS) approach was developed for broad-scale analysis of low molecular weight organic compounds in blood and/or urine. One sample was analyzed following in-vial derivatization with dimethyl sulfate for ethylene glycol (EG), glycolic acid (GA), formic acid (FA), other hydroxylic compounds, and another sample for underivatized volatile organic compounds. Tenax adsorbent resin was used in the microtrap, and a porous layer, open tubular GC capillary column was used for separation. MS was operated in the full-scan mode, identification was based on the Automated Mass Spectral Deconvolution and Identification System, and quantification was based on extracted ions. The limits of quantification for EG, GA, and FA in blood were 10, 50, and 30 mg/L, respectively, and the expanded uncertainties of measurement were 20%, 16%, and 14%, respectively. The procedure allowed for the first time the inclusion of EG and GA as their methyl derivatives within a quantitative HS analysis. The ITEX method described here was more sensitive for analysis of volatile organic compounds than the corresponding static headspace analysis as demonstrated for 11 representative compounds. PMID:20406534

  19. Fluorimetric detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in human blood, saliva, and organ biopsies and kinetic differentiation between class I and class III isozymes.

    PubMed

    Wierzchowski, J; Wroczynski, P; Laszuk, K; Interewicz, E

    1997-02-01

    Two highly fluorogenic aldehydes, 7-methoxy-1-naphthaldehyde (MONAL-71) and 6-methoxy-2-naphthaldehyde (MONAL-62), were examined as indicators of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in human tissue homogenates and accessible body fluids. Both compounds were previously found to be excellent substrates for the ALDH from erythrocytes and for the purified class I (cytosolic) ALDH from human liver. By contrast, only MONAL-62, but not the isomeric MONAL-71, was oxidized by class III ALDH present in human saliva. The apparent Km for the former compound reacting with salvia ALDH is 0.24 microM, with the reaction rate (Vmax) close to that of benzaldehyde oxidation. There is also a fully competitive inhibition of the fluorogenic oxidation of the MONAL-62 by benzaldehyde. Both NAD+ and NADP+ can be used as oxidants in this reaction, with comparable rates, a fact previously reported for the human class III aldehyde dehydrogenase. In human liver homogenate (cytosolic + microsomal fraction), the ALDH activity is easily detectable using either MONAL-71 or MONAL-62, with specific activities of approximately 2.5 and 3.2 units per gram of protein, respectively. The low apparent Km values, 0.85 and < 0.03 microM, respectively, together with the inhibition profile by propionic aldehyde (ID50 in the micromolar range) indicate that both compounds are oxidized primarily by the class I ALDH, further confirmed by low activity (0.4 U/g) with NADP+ as oxidant. By contrast, in human stomach, containing mostly class III ALDH, the activity measured with MONAL-71, 0.4 U/g, is much lower than that with MONAL-62 (5.1 U/g with NAD+ and 3.1 U/g with NADP+), the latter being virtually insensitive to 1 mM propionic aldehyde. Hence, in a stomach homogenate, class I and class III ALDH activities can be measured selectively with the two fluorogenic substrates described. In all experiments, the activity of aldehyde oxidase was at least 10-fold lower than that of the ALDH. Addition of 5 mM 4-methylpyrazole, a known inhibitor of the alcohol dehydrogenase, did not change the resultant ALDH activities by more than 10%, indicating lack of interference by the former enzyme. A preliminary screening of two liver tumour samples showed diminished class I ALDH activities (0.7 and 0.03 U/g), but no evidence for class III ALDH induction. The above observations are discussed in relation to the mechanism of detoxication of cyclophosphamide. PMID:9025970

  20. Saliva, diagnostics, and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Urdea, M S; Neuwald, P D; Greenberg, B L; Glick, M; Galloway, J; Williams, D; Wong, D T W

    2011-10-01

    Saliva, a scientific and clinical entity familiar to every oral health researcher and dental practitioner, has emerged as a translational and clinical commodity that has reached national visibility at the National Institutes of Health and the President's Office of Science and Technology. "Detecting dozens of diseases in a sample of saliva" was issued by President Obama as one of the 14 Grand Challenges for biomedical research in the 21(st) Century (National Economic Council, 2010). In addition, NIH's 2011 Government Performance Report Act (GPRA) listed 10 initiatives in the high-risk long-term category (Collins, 2011). The mandate is to determine the efficacy of using salivary diagnostics to monitor health and diagnose at least one systemic disease by 2013. The stage is set for the scientific community to capture these national and global opportunities to advance and substantiate the scientific foundation of salivary diagnostics to meet these goals. A specific calling is to the oral, dental, and craniofacial health community. Three areas will be highlighted in this paper: the concept of high-impact diagnostics, the role of dentists in diagnostics, and, finally, an infrastructure currently being developed in the United Kingdom--The UK Biobank--which will have an impact on the translational and clinical utilizations of saliva. PMID:21917745

  1. Osmolality - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... body fluids (dehydration) Narrowing of the kidney artery (renal artery stenosis) Shock Sugar, or glucose, in the urine Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion ( SIADH ) Lower-than-normal ... renal tubular necrosis ) Drinking too much fluid Kidney failure ...

  2. Frequent Urination

    MedlinePLUS

    ... make you urinate more frequently. Avoid beverages like coffee, tea, colas and other caffeinated drinks. Do Kegel ... them. more Explore Prematurity Research Peristats Product catalog Shop Professionals Partners Careers Annual Report © March of Dimes ...

  3. Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M. (Inventor); Nillen, Jeannie (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed is CPG, a combination of a chlorhexidine salt (such as chlorhexidine digluconate, chlorhexidine diacetate, or chlorhexidine dichloride) and n-propyl gallate that can be used at ambient temperatures as a urine preservative.

  4. GHB Pharmacology and Toxicology: Acute Intoxication, Concentrations in Blood and Urine in Forensic Cases and Treatment of the Withdrawal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Busardò, Francesco P.; Jones, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    The illicit recreational drug of abuse, ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a potent central nervous system depressant and is often encountered during forensic investigations of living and deceased persons. The sodium salt of GHB is registered as a therapeutic agent (Xyrem®), approved in some countries for the treatment of narcolepsy-associated cataplexy and (Alcover®) is an adjuvant medication for detoxification and withdrawal in alcoholics. Trace amounts of GHB are produced endogenously (0.5-1.0 mg/L) in various tissues, including the brain, where it functions as both a precursor and a metabolite of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Available information indicates that GHB serves as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the GABAergic system, especially via binding to the GABA-B receptor subtype. Although GHB is listed as a controlled substance in many countries abuse still continues, owing to the availability of precursor drugs, ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (BD), which are not regulated. After ingestion both GBL and BD are rapidly converted into GHB (t½ ~1 min). The Cmax occurs after 20-40 min and GHB is then eliminated from plasma with a half-life of 30-50 min. Only about 1-5% of the dose of GHB is recoverable in urine and the window of detection is relatively short (3-10 h). This calls for expeditious sampling when evidence of drug use and/or abuse is required in forensic casework. The recreational dose of GHB is not easy to estimate and a concentration in plasma of ~100 mg/L produces euphoria and disinhibition, whereas 500 mg/L might cause death from cardiorespiratory depression. Effective antidotes to reverse the sedative and intoxicating effects of GHB do not exist. The poisoned patients require supportive care, vital signs should be monitored and the airways kept clear in case of emesis. After prolonged regular use of GHB tolerance and dependence develop and abrupt cessation of drug use leads to unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. There is no evidence-based protocol available to deal with GHB withdrawal, apart from administering benzodiazepines. PMID:26074743

  5. Assay of physiological levels of 2,3-butanediol diastereomers in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J A; Jetté, M; Brunengraber, H

    1990-02-15

    We present an assay for 2,3-butanediol by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of its trimethylsilyl ethers. 2R,3R- and/or 2S,3S-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol are quantitated with corresponding internal standards of [2,3-2H2]butanediol. Limits of detection are 1 and 0.1 microM for split and splitless injections, respectively. Blood concentrations of 2,3-butanediol in nonalcoholics are 0.5 +/- 0.3 (SD) microM for 2R,3R- and/or 2S,3S-2,3-butanediol and 0.8 +/- 0.4 microM for meso-2,3-butanediol (n = 9). Two hours after alcohol ingestion, blood levels had risen in eight of nine subjects to 1.2 +/- 0.7 microM for 2R,3R-/2S,3S-2,3-butanediol and to 1.2 +/- 0.6 microM for meso-2,3-butanediol. Baseline urinary excretion of 2,3-butanediol is 0.4 +/- 0.2 mumol/mmol creatinine for 2R,3R-/2S,3S-2,3-butanediol and 0.9 +/- 0.5 mumol/mmol creatinine for meso-2,3-butanediol. PMID:2344048

  6. Optimization of a portable microanalytical system to reduce electrode fouling from proteins associated with biomonitoring of lead (Pb) in saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wassana Yantasee; Charles Timchalk; Karl K. Weitz; Dean A. Moore; Yuehe Lin

    2005-01-01

    There is a need to develop reliable portable analytical systems for on-site and real-time biomonitoring of lead (Pb) from both occupational and environmental exposures. Saliva is an appealing matrix since it is easily obtainable, and therefore a potential substitute for blood due to existing reasonably good correlation between Pb levels in blood and saliva. The microanalytical system is based on

  7. Urination - difficulty with flow

    MedlinePLUS

    Difficulty starting or maintaining a urine stream is called urinary hesitancy. ... men have some trouble with dribbling, weak urine stream, and starting urination. Another common cause is infection ...

  8. Proteome analysis for rat saliva.

    PubMed

    Inenaga, Kiyotoshi; Yamada, Naoyuki; Yuji, Reiko; Kawai, Misako; Uneyama, Hisayuki; Ono, Kentaro; Suzuki, Ei-ichiro; Torii, Kunio

    2009-01-01

    Proteome analysis is a popular method to discover biomarkers for the prevention and diagnosis of diseases. Since saliva is a non-invasively available body fluid, gathering of saliva causes minimal harm to patients. Therefore, detection of proteins for the prevention and diagnosis from the saliva sample may be the preferred method, especially for children and elderly people. However, the abundance of salivary proteins and contaminant proteins from food and mouth bacteria obscure identification of proteins present in the saliva at low concentrations. To address this problem, we developed a shotgun proteomic method using two-dimensional nano-flow LC tandem mass spectrometry. We report here that our method is able to detect proteins quantitatively even in small sample volumes of saliva. PMID:20224185

  9. Is saliva suitable for therapeutic monitoring of anticonvulsants in children: an evaluation in the routine clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Gorodischer, R; Burtin, P; Verjee, Z; Hwang, P; Koren, G

    1997-12-01

    Studies performed in the research setting suggested that saliva instead of blood may be used for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of anticonvulsants in children. This is an attractive alternative because its collection is painless, and simpler and cheaper than blood drawing. Citric acid stimulation of saliva secretion facilitates sampling in the youngest patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of saliva in routine TDM of anticonvulsants in infants and children with epilepsy. Blood and saliva samples were obtained simultaneously during routine TDM in 170 patients on chronic anticonvulsant drug therapy attending a neurology clinic. Saliva, plasma total, and plasma free concentrations of anticonvulsants were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique. Strong and highly significant correlations between saliva and plasma concentrations were found over a wide range of concentrations for carbamazepine, phenytoin, clobazam, and desmethylclobazam, and for phenobarbital in children > or = 8 years of age (r = 0.90 to 0.97; p < 0.001). Correlations between saliva and plasma concentrations were poor for phenobarbital in children < 8 years of age and for valproate. Correlations between saliva and plasma-free anticonvulsant concentrations were equal or only slightly better than between saliva and plasma total concentrations. Citric acid-stimulated saliva constitutes a convenient alternative for TDM of carbamazepine and phenytoin therapy in pediatric patients and of phenobarbital in children > or = 8 years of age. PMID:9421104

  10. Study of a novel indolin-2-ketone compound Z24 induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-spectroscopy-based metabonomics of rat urine, blood plasma, and liver extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Quanjun [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Jiang Ying [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Wu Chunqi [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Zhao Jianyu [National Center of Biomedical Analysis, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yu Shouzhong [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yuan Benli [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China); Yan Xianzhong [National Center of Biomedical Analysis, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: yanxz@nic.bmi.ac.cn; Liao Mingyang [Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)]. E-mail: liaomingy@hotmail.com

    2006-08-15

    Antiangiogenic compound has been believed to be an ideal drug in the current cancer biological therapy, but the angiogenesis inhibitors suffer setback for unknown toxicity now. A novel synthetic indolin-s-ketone small molecular compound, 3Z-3-[({sup 1} H-pyrrol-2-yl)-methylidene]-1-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-1,3-2H-indol-2-one (Z24) can inhibit angiogenesis in new blood vessels. The hepatotoxicity effects of Z24 oral administration (dosed at 60, 130 and 200 mg/kg) have been investigated in female Wistar rats by using metabonomic analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine, plasma and liver extracts, as well as by clinical chemistry analysis, liver histopathology and electron micrographs examination. The {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the biofluids were analyzed visually and via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis. The metabonomic trajectory analysis on the time-related hepatotoxicity of Z24 was carried out based on the {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urine samples, which were collected daily predose and postdose over an 8-day period. Urinary excretion of citrate, lactate, 2-oxo-glutarate and succinate increased following Z24 dosing. Increased plasma levels of lactate, TMAO and lipid were observed, with concomitant decrease in the level of glucose and phosphatidylcholine. Metabolic profiling on aqueous soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed an increase in lactate and glutamine, together with a decrease in glucose, glycogen and choline. On the other hand, studies on lipid soluble extracts of liver tissues with the high dose level of Z24 showed increased level in lipid triglycerides and decreased level in unsaturated fatty acids and phosphatidylcholine. Moreover, the most notable effect of Z24 on the metabolism was the reduction in the urinary levels of creatinine and TMAO and the increase in acetate, citrate, succinate and 2-oxo-glutamate with time dependence. The results indicate that in rats Z24 inhibits mitochondrial function through altering the energy and lipid metabolism, which results in the accumulation of free fatty acids and lactate because of the lack of aerobic respiration. These data show that the metabonomic approach represents a promising new technology for the toxicological mechanism study.

  11. Validated method for the simultaneous determination of ? 9THC and ? 9THC-COOH in oral fluid, urine and whole blood using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Teixeira; Alain Verstraete; Paula Proença; Francisco Corte-Real; Paula Monsanto; Duarte Nuno Vieira

    2007-01-01

    A fully validated, sensitive and specific method for the extraction and quantification of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-?9-THC (THC-COOH) and for the detection of 11-hydroxy-?9-THC (11-OH THC) in oral fluid, urine and whole blood is presented. Solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) technique were used, with electrospray ionization. Three ions were monitored for THC and THC-COOH and two for 11-OH

  12. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of pharmacologically active substances in urine and blood samples by use of a continuous solid-phase extraction system and microwave-assisted derivatization.

    PubMed

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine 22 pharmacologically active substances (frequently used in the treatment of human and animal's diseases) including analgesics, antibacterials, anti-epileptics, antiseptics, ?-blockers, hormones, lipid regulators and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in blood and urine samples. Samples were subjected to continuous solid-phase extraction in a sorbent column (Oasis HLB), and then the target analytes were eluted with ethyl acetate and derivatized in a household microwave oven at 350 W for 3 min. Finally, these products were determined in a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. The analyte detection limits thus obtained ranged from 0.2 to 1.3 ng L?¹ for urine samples and 0.8-5.6 ng L?¹ for blood samples. Recoveries from both blood and urine ranged from 85 to 102%, and within-day and between-day relative standard deviations were all less than 7.5%. The proposed method offers advantages in reduction of the exposure danger to toxic solvents used in conventional sample pretreatment, simplicity of the extraction processes, rapidity, and sensitivity enhancement. The method was successfully used to quantify pharmacologically active substances in human and animal (lamb, veal and pig) blood and urine. The hormones estrone and 17?-estradiol were detected in virtually all samples, and so were other analytes such as acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and triclosan in human samples, and florfenicol, pyrimethamine and phenylbutazone in animal samples. PMID:22391330

  13. Simultaneous determination of in total 17 opium alkaloids and opioids in blood and urine by fast liquid chromatography–diode-array detection–fluorescence detection, after solid-phase extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Dams; T Benijts; W. E Lambert; A. P De Leenheer

    2002-01-01

    A fast liquid chromatographic method with tandem diode array–fluorescence detection for the simultaneous determination of in total 17 opium alkaloids and opioids is presented. Blank blood and urine samples (1 ml) were spiked with different concentrations of a standard mixture, as well as with the internal standard, butorphanol (2000 ng\\/ml). After solid-phase extraction, based on weak cation exchange (Bond Elut®

  14. Human saliva proteome: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2014-06-01

    Human saliva contains a rich mixture of biomolecules. Proteins are a major component of this mixture. Given their role as the molecular effectors within biological systems, ranging from catalysis to transport to structure, proteins have great potential as biomarkers of health and disease. The ability to collect these salivary biomarkers easily using non-invasive means makes saliva proteins even more attractive for diagnostic applications. Thousands of proteins are now to be known to be present in human saliva - discovered using proteomic technologies. Emerging technologies are now making it possible to go beyond large-scale cataloging of salivary proteins. These include approaches to catalog protein contributions from the community of microorganisms residing in the oral cavity (metaproteomics) that may reflect the health state of the human host. New mass spectrometry-based proteomics methods are also emerging, shifting the emphasis from large-scale discovery experiments to hypothesis-driven assays for profiling proteins of interest within saliva, enabling validation of their association with specific health conditions. This paper provides a brief overview of efforts to catalog the proteome of human saliva. Recent developments making possible characterization of the metaproteome of human saliva will be discussed, and technologies driving new mass spectrometry-based assays for targeted analysis of proteins within complex samples, such as saliva.

  15. Rapid determination of nicotine in urine by direct thermal desorption ion trap mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, M.B.; Ilgner, R.H.; Guerin, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of nicotine and cotinine in physiological fluids (urine, blood serum, and saliva) is widely used as a means of assessing human exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Although numerous analytical methods exist for these measurements, they generally involve extensive sample preparation which increases cost and decreases sample throughput. We report the use of thermal desorption directly into an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) for the rapid determination of nicotine and cotinine in urine. A 1{mu}L aliquot of urine is injected into a specially designed inlet and flash vaporized directly into an ITMS through an open-split capillary restrictor interface. Isobutane chemical ionization is used to generate (M+H){sup +} ions of the analytes and collision induced dissociation is used to generate characteristic fragment ions which are used to confirm their identity. Quantification is achieved by integrating the ion current for the characteristic ions and comparing with an external working curve. Detection limits are approximately 50 pg per analyte and the sample turnaround time is approximately 3 minutes without the need for extensive sample preparation. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Rapid noninvasive measurement of hormones in transdermal exudate and saliva.

    PubMed

    Cook, Christian J

    Experiments were conducted in both sheep and humans to evaluate techniques for rapid sampling and measurement of testosterone, insulin, 17-beta estradiol, cortisol and glucose collected in saliva or transdermal exudate. Ultrasound and an electric current facilitated the latter collection. All but insulin were successfully measured in saliva, under resting conditions, and the measured hormones correlated best with blood levels 20-40 min prior to the saliva collection. With imposition of, and recovery from, an exercise stress, this correlation was weakened irrespective of considering the time lag between blood measures during this period and subsequent changes in saliva values. Provided an initial transdermal flux was established, all the hormones and glucose were successfully measured in the transdermal exudate at levels correlating with blood measures at the time of collection, and this held across stressor application and recovery. The transdermal exudate sampling and measurement apparatus is relatively portable, enabling noninvasive collection and analyte measurement, rapidly, at the site where the experiment is being conducted with minimal interference to subjects. This potentially offers a tool of considerable value to endocrine studies. PMID:11890965

  17. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a mixture of blood cells and plasma. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (RBCs, and also ... conditions involving the blood include: Diseases of the Red Blood Cells The most common condition affecting the ...

  18. Determination of -3858G?A and -164C?A genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A2 in blood and saliva by rapid allelic discrimination: large difference in the prevalence of the -3858G?A mutation between Caucasians and Asians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liliane Todesco; Michael Török; Stephan Krähenbühl; Markus Wenk

    2003-01-01

    IntroductionTwo mutations in CYP1A2, -164C?A (allele CYP1A2*F) and -3858G?A (allele CYP1A2*C), affecting the inducibility of the enzyme, have been published. The aim of this study was to develop a high throughput allelic discrimination assay for these mutations in both saliva and blood and to determine their frequency in Caucasians.MethodsAn allelic discrimination assay, based on the fluorogenic 5'-nuclease activity (TaqMan), was

  19. A magnetic nanoparticles-based method for DNA extraction from the saliva of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Li; Huang, Ying; Wu, Ting; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    C677T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene is a risk factor for stroke, suggesting that widespread detection could help to prevent stroke. DNA from 70 stroke patients and 70 healthy controls was extracted from saliva using a magnetic nanoparticles-based method and from blood using conventional methods. Real-time PCR results revealed that the C677T polymorphism was genotyped by PCR using DNA extracted from both saliva and blood samples. The genotype results were confirmed by gene sequencing, and results for saliva and blood samples were consistent. The mutation TT genotype frequency was significantly higher in the stroke group than in controls. Homocysteine levels were significantly higher than controls in both TT genotype groups. Therefore, this noninvasive magnetic nanoparticles-based method using saliva samples could be used to screen for the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in target populations. PMID:25206624

  20. Values of water-soluble vitamins in blood and urine of Japanese young men and women consuming a semi-purified diet based on the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Ohta, Mari; Okamoto, Hidemi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Fukui, Tooru; Nishimuta, Mamoru; Totani, Masayuki; Kimura, Mieko; Ohishi, Nobuko; Nakashima, Mieko; Watanabe, Fumio; Miyamoto, Emi; Shigeoka, Shigeru; Takeda, Tooru; Murakami, Megumi; Ihara, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Naotaka

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the levels of water-soluble vitamins except for vitamin B6 in the blood and urine of Japanese college male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) students. They consumed for 7 d a semi-purified diet based on Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes to assess the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for water-soluble vitamins and to present some new normal values for blood and urine levels of water-soluble vitamins in Japanese. The blood and the 24-h urine samples were collected on the last day of the experiment and measured. The values of total vitamin B1 in whole blood, total vitamin B2 in whole blood, total cyanocobalamin in serum, total nicotinamide in whole blood, total pantothenic acid in whole blood, total folates in serum, total biotin in serum, and ascorbic acid in plasma were 104+/-17 pmol/mL (mean+/-SD), 216+/-25 pmol/mL, 0.34+/-0.05 pmol/mL, 59.1+/- 5.0 nmol/ mL, 2.45+/-0.37 nmol/mL, 15.6+/-4.6 pmol/mL, 8.3+/-0.5 pmol/mL, and 62+/-10 nmol/mL, respectively, in males, and 90+/-23, 234+/-18, 0.67+/-0.20, 61.9+/-6.0, 2.48+/-0.30, 30.2+/-8.6, 8.4+/-0.3, and 67+/-14, respectively, in females. There was a significant difference in the values of cyanocobalamin and total folates between men and women. The urinary excretion of vitamin B1, vitamin B2, cyanocobalamin, sum of the catabolic metabolites of nicotinamide, pantothenic acid, folates, biotin, and ascorbic acid were 665+/-114 nmol/d, 562+/-325 nmol/d, 93+/-31 pmol/d, 84+/-26 micromol/d, 9.3+/-2.3 micromol/d, 19.4+/-2.8 nmol/d, 83+/-18 pmol/d, and 148+/-51 micromol/d, respectively, in males, and 495+/-212, 580+/-146, 145+/-49, 83+/-19, 16.9+/-1.3, 22.7+/-2.7, 83+/-23, and 140+/-51, respectively, in females. There was a significant difference in the urinary excretion of cyanocobalamin, pantothenic acid and total folates between men and women. These values will be useful for the nutritional assessment of water-soluble vitamins for Japanese, although the examination period was short. In future, an experiment with various age groups and re-evaluation by repeated experiments will provide more accurate values. PMID:16392702

  1. Urine therapy through the centuries.

    PubMed

    Savica, Vincenzo; Calò, Lorenzo A; Santoro, Domenico; Monardo, Paolo; Mallamace, Agostino; Bellinghieri, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Urine has always interested and attracted the attention of people. It was in fact never considered a waste product of the body but rather as a distilled product selected from the blood and containing useful substances for the care of the body. It was referred to as the "gold of the blood" and "elixir of long life," indicating its therapeutic potential. This paper reports on the practice of urine therapy since its origin attributed to the Indian culture, and briefly reviews its use through the centuries and different cultures and traditions. Records from the Egyptians to Jews, Greeks, Romans and from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance testify to the practice of urine therapy--a practice that continues to be found in more recent times, from the 18th century to the present. Experiences with the practice of urine therapy have even been discussed and shared recently in 2 different conferences: in 1996 in India and in 1999 in Germany, where people from different countries shared and presented their own research on urine therapy. PMID:21614793

  2. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePLUS

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  3. Kinetics of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in blood and of DEHP metabolites in urine of male volunteers after single ingestion of ring-deuterated DEHP

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, Winfried, E-mail: kessler@helmholtz-muenchen.de [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Numtip, Wanwiwa [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Völkel, Wolfgang; Seckin, Elcim [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany)] [Department of Chemical Safety and Toxicology, Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Pfarrstrasse 3, D-80538 München (Germany); Csanády, György A. [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany) [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Institut für Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene, Technische Universität München, München (Germany); Pütz, Christian [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)] [Institute of Molecular Toxicology and Pharmacology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); and others

    2012-10-15

    The plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is suspected to induce antiandrogenic effects in men via its metabolite mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP). However, there is only little information on the kinetic behavior of DEHP and its metabolites in humans. The toxikokinetics of DEHP was investigated in four male volunteers (28–61 y) who ingested a single dose (645 ± 20 ?g/kg body weight) of ring-deuterated DEHP (DEHP-D{sub 4}). Concentrations of DEHP-D{sub 4}, of free ring-deuterated MEHP (MEHP-D{sub 4}), and the sum of free and glucuronidated MEHP-D{sub 4} were measured in blood for up to 24 h; amounts of the monoesters MEHP-D{sub 4}, ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and ring-deuterated mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate were determined in urine for up to 46 h after ingestion. The bioavailability of DEHP-D{sub 4} was surprisingly high with an area under the concentration-time curve until 24 h (AUC) amounting to 50% of that of free MEHP-D{sub 4}. The AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} normalized to DEHP-D{sub 4} dose and body weight (AUC/D) was 2.1 and 8.1 times, that of DEHP-D{sub 4} even 50 and 100 times higher than the corresponding AUC/D values obtained earlier in rat and marmoset, respectively. Time courses of the compounds in blood and urine of the volunteers oscillated widely. Terminal elimination half-lives were short (4.3–6.6 h). Total amounts of metabolites in 22-h urine are correlated linearly with the AUC of free MEHP-D{sub 4} in blood, the parameter regarded as relevant for risk assessment. -- Highlights: ? After DEHP intake, DEHP and MEHP in blood show oscillating time courses. ? Dose-related blood levels of DEHP are 50 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Dose-related blood levels of free MEHP are 2 times higher in humans than in rats. ? Elimination of DEHP and its metabolites is short with half-lives of 4.3-6.6 h.

  4. Saliva assays in clinical and research biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Lac

    2001-01-01

    This paper is an update of the current knowledges about saliva components whose assays are of biological interest and have been validated. It begins by a recall of saliva physiology: role, flow rate, main components and their mode of entry into saliva. Infectious agents and their markers are not reviewed. Peptidic molecules (catecholamines, short hormonal peptides), lipids, minerals (Na, K,

  5. ARSENIC SPECIATION ANALYSIS IN HUMAN SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Determination of arsenic species in human saliva is potentially useful for biomonitoring of human exposure to arsenic and for studying arsenic metabolism. However, there is no report on the speciation analysis of arsenic in saliva. Methods: Arsenic species in saliva ...

  6. The weak spots of saliva buffering tests.

    PubMed

    Buchgraber, Barbara; Kqiku, Lumnije; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Städtler, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Saliva buffering test is in need of improvements. This article illustrates the most commonly used saliva buffering capacity tests and its major problems. Starting with Ericsson and his laboratory buffer capacity test and all the way to Kitasako a lot of issues are to release. The aim of this paper is to put saliva buffering tests up to serious discussion. PMID:24308249

  7. Toward Standardization of BK Virus Monitoring: Evaluation of the BK Virus R-gene Kit for Quantification of BK Viral Load in Urine, Whole-Blood, and Plasma Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Sueur, Charlotte; Solis, Morgane; Meddeb, Mariam; Soulier, Eric; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Lepiller, Quentin; Freitag, Rachel; Bahram, Seiamak; Caillard, Sophie; Barth, Heidi; Stoll-Keller, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Screening of BK virus (BKV) replication is recommended to identify patients at increased risk of BKV-associated diseases. However, the heterogeneity of molecular techniques hinders the establishment of universal guidelines for BKV monitoring. Here we aimed to compare the performance of the CE-marked BK virus R-gene kit (R-gene) to the performance of our in-house assay for quantification of BKV DNA loads (BKVL). A 12-specimen panel from the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) organization, 163 urine samples, and 88 paired specimens of plasma and whole blood (WB) from transplant recipients were tested. Both the R-gene and in-house assays showed a good correlation within the QCMD panel (r = 0.995 and r = 0.989, respectively). BKVL were highly correlated between assays, although positive biases were observed with the in-house assay in analysis of urine (0.72 ± 0.83 log10 copies/ml), plasma (1.17 ± 0.63 log10 copies/ml), and WB (1.28 ± 0.37 log10 copies/ml). Recalibration with a common calibrator significantly reduced the bias in comparisons between assays. In contrast, BKVL was underestimated with the in-house PCR in eight samples containing BKV genotype II, presenting point mutations at primer-annealing sites. Using the R-gene assay, plasma and WB specimens were found to be equally suitable for quantification of BKVL, as indicated by the high correlation coefficient (r = 0.965, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the R-gene assay demonstrated reliable performance and higher accuracy than the in-house assay for quantification of BKVL in urine and blood specimens. Screening of BKV replication by a well-validated commercial kit may enable clinical laboratories to assess viral loads with greater reproducibility and precision. PMID:25297334

  8. Toward standardization of BK virus monitoring: evaluation of the BK virus R-gene kit for quantification of BK viral load in urine, whole-blood, and plasma specimens.

    PubMed

    Sueur, Charlotte; Solis, Morgane; Meddeb, Mariam; Soulier, Eric; Domingo-Calap, Pilar; Lepiller, Quentin; Freitag, Rachel; Bahram, Seiamak; Caillard, Sophie; Barth, Heidi; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Fafi-Kremer, Samira

    2014-12-01

    Screening of BK virus (BKV) replication is recommended to identify patients at increased risk of BKV-associated diseases. However, the heterogeneity of molecular techniques hinders the establishment of universal guidelines for BKV monitoring. Here we aimed to compare the performance of the CE-marked BK virus R-gene kit (R-gene) to the performance of our in-house assay for quantification of BKV DNA loads (BKVL). A 12-specimen panel from the Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD) organization, 163 urine samples, and 88 paired specimens of plasma and whole blood (WB) from transplant recipients were tested. Both the R-gene and in-house assays showed a good correlation within the QCMD panel (r = 0.995 and r = 0.989, respectively). BKVL were highly correlated between assays, although positive biases were observed with the in-house assay in analysis of urine (0.72 ± 0.83 log10 copies/ml), plasma (1.17 ± 0.63 log10 copies/ml), and WB (1.28 ± 0.37 log10 copies/ml). Recalibration with a common calibrator significantly reduced the bias in comparisons between assays. In contrast, BKVL was underestimated with the in-house PCR in eight samples containing BKV genotype II, presenting point mutations at primer-annealing sites. Using the R-gene assay, plasma and WB specimens were found to be equally suitable for quantification of BKVL, as indicated by the high correlation coefficient (r = 0.965, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the R-gene assay demonstrated reliable performance and higher accuracy than the in-house assay for quantification of BKVL in urine and blood specimens. Screening of BKV replication by a well-validated commercial kit may enable clinical laboratories to assess viral loads with greater reproducibility and precision. PMID:25297334

  9. Effects of sucking acidic candy on whole-mouth saliva composition.

    PubMed

    Jensdottir, T; Nauntofte, B; Buchwald, C; Bardow, A

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WSbeta). Ten healthy young males (24 +/- 2 years) sucked a rhubarb-flavoured acidic hard-boiled candy with tartaric acid available on the Danish market. The whole saliva was collected into a closed system, regarding CO2, at different times as follows: firstly, unstimulated saliva for 5 min (baseline), secondly stimulated saliva for 4 min upon sucking the candy, and finally post-stimulated saliva for 10 min. Saliva pH was determined on a blood gas analyser and WSbeta was estimated from the saliva bicarbonate concentration obtained by the analyser and by ionic balance calculation. The erosive potential of the candy in saliva was estimated from the saliva pH values and degree of saturation with respect to hydroxyapatite (DS(HAp)). The results showed that saliva pH dropped from 6.5 (baseline) down to 4.5 at the fourth minute of sucking the candy, and returned to pH 6.5 five minutes after stimulation (post-stimulated). DS(HAp) decreased upon sucking the candy and saliva from all subjects became undersaturated with respect to HAp. Significant positive correlations were obtained between pH and WSFR (r(s) = 0.47; p < 0.05) and between pH and WSbeta (r(s) = 0.65; p < 0.01). In relation to WSbeta we found that 70% of the buffer capacity originating from the bicarbonate buffer system upon sucking the candy was exerted as phase buffering. We conclude that sucking this type of acidic candies changes whole-mouth saliva composition so that it may have erosive potential and that high WSFR and WSbeta have protective effects against these salivary changes. PMID:16251790

  10. Position Paper on urine alkalinization.

    PubMed

    Proudfoot, A T; Krenzelok, E P; Vale, J A

    2004-01-01

    This Position Paper was prepared using the methodology agreed by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (AACT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT). All relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using set criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not considered. A draft Position Paper was then produced and presented at the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology in October 2001 and at the EAPCCT Congress in May 2002 to allow participants to comment on the draft after which a revised draft was produced. The Position Paper was subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the AACT and the EAPCCT, and a final draft was approved by the boards of the two societies. The Position Paper includes a summary statement (Position Statement) for ease of use, which will also be published separately, as well as the detailed scientific evidence on which the conclusions of the Position Paper are based. Urine alkalinization is a treatment regimen that increases poison elimination by the administration of intravenous sodium bicarbonate to produce urine with a pH > or = 7.5. The term urine alkalinization emphasizes that urine pH manipulation rather than a diuresis is the prime objective of treatment; the terms forced alkaline diuresis and alkaline diuresis should therefore be discontinued. Urine alkalinization increases the urine elimination of chlorpropamide, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, diflunisal, fluoride, mecoprop, methotrexate, phenobarbital, and salicylate. Based on volunteer and clinical studies, urine alkalinization should be considered as first line treatment for patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization cannot be recommended as first line treatment in cases of phenobarbital poisoning as multiple-dose activated charcoal is superior. Supportive care, including the infusion of dextrose, is invariably adequate in chlorpropamide poisoning. A substantial diuresis is required in addition to urine alkalinization in the chlorophenoxy herbicides, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and mecoprop, if clinically important herbicide elimination is to be achieved. Volunteer studies strongly suggest that urine alkalinization increases fluoride elimination, but this is yet to be confirmed in clinical studies. Although urine alkalinization is employed clinically in methotrexate toxicity, currently there is only one study that supports its use. Urine alkalinization enhances diflunisal excretion, but this technique is unlikely to be of value in diflunisal poisoning. In conclusion, urine alkalinization should be considered first line treatment in patients with moderately severe salicylate poisoning who do not meet the criteria for hemodialysis. Urine alkalinization and high urine flow (approximately 600 mL/h) should also be considered in patients with severe 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and mecoprop poisoning. Administration of bicarbonate to alkalinize the urine results in alkalemia (an increase in blood pH or reduction in its hydrogen ion concentration); pH values approaching 7.70 have been recorded. Hypokalemia is the most common complication but can be corrected by giving potassium supplements. Alkalotic tetany occurs occasionally, but hypocalcemia is rare. There is no evidence to suggest that relatively short-duration alkalemia (more than a few hours) poses a risk to life in normal individuals or in those with coronary and cerebral arterial disease. PMID:15083932

  11. The proteome of human saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Timothy J.

    2013-05-01

    Human saliva holds tremendous potential for transforming disease and health diagnostics given its richness of molecular information and non-invasive collection. Enumerating its molecular constituents is an important first step towards reaching this potential. Among the molecules in saliva, proteins and peptides arguably have the most value: they can directly indicate biochemical functions linked to a health condition/disease state, and they are attractive targets for biomarker assay development. However, cataloging and defining the human salivary proteome is challenging given the dynamic, chemically heterogeneous and complex nature of the system. In addition, the overall human saliva proteome is composed of several "sub-proteomes" which include: intact full length proteins, proteins carrying post-translational modifications (PTMs), low molecular weight peptides, and the metaproteome, derived from protein products from nonhuman organisms (e.g. microbes) present in the oral cavity. Presented here will be a summary of communal efforts to meet the challenge of characterizing the multifaceted saliva proteome, focusing on the use of mass spectrometry as the proteomic technology of choice. Implications of these efforts to characterize the salivary proteome in the context of disease diagnostics will also be discussed.

  12. Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance.

    PubMed

    Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

    2014-12-15

    Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and interferon-? in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

  13. Determination of saliva trough levels for monitoring voriconazole therapy in immunocompromised children and adults.

    PubMed

    Michael, Claudia; Bierbach, Uta; Frenzel, Katrin; Lange, Thoralf; Basara, Nadezda; Niederwieser, Dietger; Mauz-Körholz, Christine; Preiss, Rainer

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the reliability and practical use of saliva for therapeutic drug monitoring of the antifungal agent voriconazole in immunocompromised patients, a paired-sample study was conducted. Plasma and saliva trough levels were measured in seven children and nine adults who required treatment for the prevention or therapy of systemic fungal infections. The pediatric patients received a voriconazole dosage of 7 mg/kg intravenously twice a day. Adults were treated with two loading doses of 6 mg/kg intravenously followed by a maintenance dose of 4 mg/kg intravenously twice a day. Based on 104 paired plasma/saliva specimens, we found a significant correlation between the voriconazole concentrations in blood and saliva (r > 0.95). The median saliva/plasma voriconazole concentration ratio was 0.34 in children and 0.40 in adults. Intra- and interpatient variability in the saliva/plasma ratios were 22% and 23% in children and 16% and 24% in adults, respectively. Thirty-three percent of plasma trough levels were below 1.0 microg/mL or above 6.0 microg/mL and occurred in six pediatric and four adult patients. Monitoring of salivary concentrations proved to be a realistic alternative in patients when blood drawing is difficult. Especially in therapeutic drug monitoring, an easier sample collection being noninvasive and painless is more acceptable to patients, particularly children. PMID:20216120

  14. Therapeutic drug monitoring of antiepileptic drugs by use of saliva.

    PubMed

    Patsalos, Philip N; Berry, Dave J

    2013-02-01

    Blood (serum/plasma) antiepileptic drug (AED) therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) has proven to be an invaluable surrogate marker for individualizing and optimizing the drug management of patients with epilepsy. Since 1989, there has been an exponential increase in AEDs with 23 currently licensed for clinical use, and recently, there has been renewed and extensive interest in the use of saliva as an alternative matrix for AED TDM. The advantages of saliva include the fact that for many AEDs it reflects the free (pharmacologically active) concentration in serum; it is readily sampled, can be sampled repetitively, and sampling is noninvasive; does not require the expertise of a phlebotomist; and is preferred by many patients, particularly children and the elderly. For each AED, this review summarizes the key pharmacokinetic characteristics relevant to the practice of TDM, discusses the use of other biological matrices with particular emphasis on saliva and the evidence that saliva concentration reflects those in serum. Also discussed are the indications for salivary AED TDM, the key factors to consider when saliva sampling is to be undertaken, and finally, a practical protocol is described so as to enable AED TDM to be applied optimally and effectively in the clinical setting. Overall, there is compelling evidence that salivary TDM can be usefully applied so as to optimize the treatment of epilepsy with carbamazepine, clobazam, ethosuximide, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, oxcarbazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, topiramate, and zonisamide. Salivary TDM of valproic acid is probably not helpful, whereas for clonazepam, eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, and vigabatrin, the data are sparse or nonexistent. PMID:23288091

  15. Sensitivity of HIV antibody detection in saliva.

    PubMed

    Stark, K; Warnecke, C; Brinkmann, V; Gelderblom, H R; Bienzle, U; Pauli, G

    1993-07-01

    To assess the sensitivity and specificity of HIV antibody detection in saliva we tested matched serum and saliva samples from HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. Saliva specimens were collected by two different devices of the Salivette system and stored at different temperatures. Samples were tested for HIV antibodies by two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs; Wellcome, Biotest). HIV antibodies were detected in 98.5% (Wellcome) and 97.8% (Biotest) of the saliva samples (standard Salivettes) from 135 seropositive individuals. Using the Salivettes flavoured with citric acid the sensitivity was only 22.9%. No reactions in ELISA were found in saliva from HIV-seronegative individuals. Salivary HIV-specific IgA was detected in 90% of seropositive individuals. All positive saliva samples stored at room temperature were still reactive after 20 days; of those stored at 37 degrees C, 23 out of 24 were positive when retested on day 5. Sensitivity of HIV antibody detection in saliva samples dried onto filter paper was 100% when a minimum of 100 microliters of saliva was used. HIV antibody testing in saliva is an efficient tool for large scale epidemiological studies when standard Salivettes are used for sample collection. Saliva samples can be stored in Salivettes or dried onto filter paper for several days at room temperature and under tropical conditions (37 degrees C). PMID:8232068

  16. Validity and reproducibility of a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire to assess isoflavone intake in a japanese population in comparison with dietary records and blood and urine isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S; Sobue, T; Sasaki, S; Kobayashi, M; Arai, Y; Uehara, M; Adlercreutz, H; Watanabe, S; Takahashi, T; Iitoi, Y; Iwase, Y; Akabane, M; Tsugane, S

    2001-10-01

    Valid food-frequency questionnaires (FFQ) need to be developed to assess isoflavone intake in investigations of its possible association with the lower incidence of breast and prostate cancer in Asian countries. We investigated the validity and reproducibility of isoflavone (daidzein and genistein) intakes from self-administered semiquantitative FFQ used in the JPHC Study (Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study on Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases). We also investigated the number of food items that would be sufficient to ensure validity and reproducibility. We collected FFQ, dietary records (DR), blood and urine samples from 215 subjects among JPHC Study participants, estimated isoflavone intakes from FFQ and DR, and measured serum isoflavone concentration and urine isoflavone excretion. For daidzein, mean intakes estimated from FFQ and DR, serum concentration and urine excretion were 18.3 mg/d, 14.5 mg/d, 119.9 nmol/L and 17.0 micromol/d and for genistein, 31.4 mg/d, 23.4 mg/d, 475.3 nmol/L and 14.2 micromol/d, respectively. Results were similar when analyzed by sex. Spearman correlation coefficients for daidzein of energy-adjusted intakes from FFQ with those from DR, serum concentration and creatinine-adjusted urinary excretion were 0.64, 0.31 and 0.43, respectively. Correlations between two FFQ estimates with a 1-y interval were 0.76. Results were similar for genistein. The shorter version of the FFQ with three items (natto, miso and tofu for miso soup) showed a similar correlation. The original FFQ and the shorter versions have sufficient validity and reproducibility to be used in epidemiologic studies. PMID:11584098

  17. Saliva electrolytes as a useful tool for anaerobic threshold determination.

    PubMed

    Chicharro, J L; Legido, J C; Alvarez, J; Serratosa, L; Bandres, F; Gamella, C

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the anaerobic threshold by analysis of changes in saliva composition during an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Thirteen healthy males underwent a submaximal test with an initial load of 50 W and load increases of 50 W per 3 min, until capillary blood lactate exceeded 4 mmol.l-1. A maximal test for maximum O2 uptake (VO2max) determination (initial load of 100 W and load increases of 50 W per 2 min) was also performed. Saliva and blood samples were obtained only in the submaximal test. Saliva threshold (Thsa) was defined as the point at which the first increase in either Cl- or Na+ occurred. Catecholamine threshold (Thca) was defined as the point at which a nonlinear increase occurred in either adrenaline or noradrenaline. The lactate (Thla) and ventilatory (Thve) thresholds were determined according to published criteria. No significant differences were found between Thsa values and the other methods of threshold determination. A high correlation was found between Thsa and Thla (r = 0.82, P < 0.01), and Thsa and Thca (r = 0.75, P < 0.05). These results support the validity of Thsa as a new method for noninvasive determination of the anaerobic threshold. PMID:8039517

  18. Molecular insights of saliva in solving paternity dispute.

    PubMed

    Patidar, Madhvika; Agrawal, Suraksha; Parveen, Farah; Khare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Everyone is born with a unique genetic blueprint i.e. its own genome. Special locations called loci on different chromosomes display predictable inheritance patterns that could be used to determine biological relationships. These locations contain specific DNA sequences, called markers, which forensic scientists use as identifying marks for individuals. Saliva is a potentially useful source of genomic DNA for genetic studies. Paternity testing is based on the premise that we inherit half our DNA from our father and half from our mother. Therefore, persons who are biologically related must share similar DNA profile. Conversely, the absence of similarities in the DNA profiles of the child and the alleged father is used as proof that no biological relationship exists. In this paper, a female complained for being raped a year back by Mr. X and accused him of being father of her 3-months-old baby girl. DNA testing was done using saliva for the child and blood sample from the mother and the suspected father. The finding presented here allows the use of saliva as an alternative source of blood. PMID:25709326

  19. Extensional rheology of human saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon J. Haward; Jeff A. Odell; Monica Berry; Tim Hall

    We have developed an oscillatory cross-slot extensional rheometer capable of performing measurements with unprecedentedly\\u000a small volumes of test fluids (?10–100 ?L). This provides the possibility of studying exotic and precious or scarce bio-fluids,\\u000a such as synovial fluid. To test our system, we have looked at a relatively abundant and accessible biological fluid, namely\\u000a human saliva; a complex aqueous mixture of high

  20. Shortcomings of Urine-Preferred Drug Screening on Post-Mortem Specimens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry J. Carson; Mary H. Dudley; Steven W. Fleming; Donald J. Linder

    2011-01-01

    In counties with limited budgets, in order to save money on toxicology work, the request often comes from local medical examiners that screening for drugs on decedents be performed initially on urine and, if positive, to send blood for confirmation; negative urine results are not further evaluated. A study of known urine and blood drug screens was performed to evaluate

  1. Evaluation of urine acidification by urine anion gap and urine osmolal gap in chronic metabolic acidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gheun-Ho Kim; Jin Suk Han; Yon Su Kim; Kwon Wook Joo; Suhnggwon Kim; Jung Sang Lee

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the clinical significance of urine anion gap and urine osmolal gap as indirect markers of urine acidification in chronic metabolic acidosis, we evaluated urine ammonium (NH4+), net acid excretion (NAE), urine anion gap (Na+ + K+ ? Cl?), and urine osmolal gap (urine osmolality ? [2(Na+ + K+) + urea]) in 24 patients with chronic renal failure (CRF),

  2. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  3. Urine concentration test

    MedlinePLUS

    A urine concentration test measures the ability of the kidneys to appropriately conserve or excrete water. ... Increased urine concentration may be due to different conditions, such as: Heart failure Loss of body fluids (dehydration) from diarrhea or ...

  4. PH urine test (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    The urine is tested for acidity or alkalinity (pH) because certain medications are more effective in acidic or alkaline environments. Medications for urinary tract infections are more effective when the urine ...

  5. Getting a Urine Test

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the Body Works Main Page Getting a Urine Test (Video) KidsHealth > Kids > Movies & More > Movies > Getting a Urine Test (Video) Print A A A Text Size It ... cup, but docs learn a lot from urine tests. Obviously, this test doesn't hurt. And if ...

  6. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the aerobic and facultative bacterial flora of voided canine urine

    E-print Network

    Biggerstaff, Jane

    1978-01-01

    fields abnormal crystals, cellular components, or bacteria were seen in the urine sediment ; and screening for urobilinogen, b nitrite, bilirubin, ketone, glucose, protein, pH, and blood with the urinary dipstick . Specific gravity of c the urine..., 000 bacteria/ml of urine using brain heart infusion agar. 11 TABLE 1--Summary of Urine Examination of Canine No. 1 (male) Date of Examination 28 Peb. 1978 18 Nar. lg78 Urobilinogen Nitrite Blood Bilirubin Ketone Glucose Protein 1. 0 0. 1...

  7. Anti-Sdx: a "new" auto-agglutinin related to the Sda blood group.

    PubMed

    Marsh, W L; Johnson, C L; Oyen, R; Nichols, M E; DiNapoli, J; Young, H; Brassel, J; Cusumano, I; Bazaz, G R; Haber, J M; Wolf, C F

    1980-01-01

    Two examples of a "new" IgM saline-agglutinating auto-antibody are described. The antibodies bind complement, have the ability to cause in vivo hemolysis, and are most active at room temperature at a pH of about 6.5. Despite tests on more than 5,000 people, no nonreactive cell sample has been found. The reactive antigen is not denatured by neuraminidase, papain, or ficin, and is present on i adult red blood cells. The antibodies appear to be slightly inhibited by human saliva and milk, and more convincingly inhibited by urine from Sd(a+) persons. They are not inhibited by urine from Sd(a-) persons, but are strongly inhibited by guinea pig urine. The serologic characteristics indicate a relationship to the Sda blood group and the auto-antibody has been named antiSdx. Sdx antigen is present on red blood cells from some higher primates and is absent from rabbit, rhesus monkey, dog and sheep cells. PMID:7355457

  8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of human saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. K.; Mantsch, Henry H.

    1994-01-01

    FT-IR spectra of male and female dried human saliva were obtained. The assignments of the observed spectral peaks are presented. The possibility of the application of FT-IR spectroscopy of human saliva in monitoring the status of a wide variety of human diseases is discussed.

  9. Saliva diagnostics: utilizing oral fluids to determine health status.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Christopher A; Schafer, Jason J; Yakob, Maha; Lima, Patricia; Camargo, Paulo; Wong, David T W

    2014-01-01

    Imagine a time where your health status could be available to you without the pain, discomfort and inconvenience of a physical examination. Distant vision of an inconceivable future or impending reality with potentially immeasurable impact? Recent advancements in the field of molecular diagnostics indicate this is not only possible, but closer than we think. Novel discoveries and substantial advancements have revealed that saliva may contain real-time information describing our overall physiological condition. Researchers are now reporting that, like blood and tissue biopsies, oral fluids could be a source of biochemical data capable of detecting certain diseases. What is even more intriguing is that this phenomenon not only applies to local disorders like oral cancer and Sjögren's syndrome, but distant pathologies like autoimmune, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as viral/bacterial infections and even some cancers. These revelations have provided a foundation for the burgeoning field of salivary diagnostics and hence spurred the onset of investigations poised at deciphering the salivary milieu. This paper overviews salivary diagnostics from biomarker development to the multitude of techniques utilized in identifying saliva-based molecular indicators of disease. In doing so, we present oral fluids as an easily accessible noninvasive alternative to traditional diagnostic avenues and not just an essential component of the digestive process. Determining saliva as a credible means of evaluating health status represents a considerable leap forward in health care, one that could lead to enormous translational advantages and significant clinical opportunities. PMID:24862597

  10. The saliva microbiome of Pan and Homo

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is increasingly recognized that the bacteria that live in and on the human body (the microbiome) can play an important role in health and disease. The composition of the microbiome is potentially influenced by both internal factors (such as phylogeny and host physiology) and external factors (such as diet and local environment), and interspecific comparisons can aid in understanding the importance of these factors. Results To gain insights into the relative importance of these factors on saliva microbiome diversity, we here analyze the saliva microbiomes of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) from two sanctuaries in Africa, and from human workers at each sanctuary. The saliva microbiomes of the two Pan species are more similar to one another, and the saliva microbiomes of the two human groups are more similar to one another, than are the saliva microbiomes of human workers and apes from the same sanctuary. We also looked for the existence of a core microbiome and find no evidence for a taxon-based core saliva microbiome for Homo or Pan. In addition, we studied the saliva microbiome from apes from the Leipzig Zoo, and found an extraordinary diversity in the zoo ape saliva microbiomes that is not found in the saliva microbiomes of the sanctuary animals. Conclusions The greater similarity of the saliva microbiomes of the two Pan species to one another, and of the two human groups to one another, are in accordance with both the phylogenetic relationships of the hosts as well as with host physiology. Moreover, the results from the zoo animals suggest that novel environments can have a large impact on the microbiome, and that microbiome analyses based on captive animals should be viewed with caution as they may not reflect the microbiome of animals in the wild. PMID:24025115

  11. Detection of cortisol in saliva with a flow-filtered, portable surface plasmon resonance biosensor system.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Richard C; Soelberg, Scott D; Near, Steve; Furlong, Clement E

    2008-09-01

    Saliva provides a useful and noninvasive alternative to blood for many biomedical diagnostic assays. The level of the hormone cortisol in blood and saliva is related to the level of stress. We present here the development of a portable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor system for detection of cortisol in saliva. Cortisol-specific monoclonal antibodies were used to develop a competition assay with a six-channel portable SPR biosensor designed in our laboratory. The detection limit of cortisol in laboratory buffers was 0.36 ng/mL (1.0 nM). An in-line filter based on diffusion through a hollow fiber hydrophilic membrane served to separate small molecules from the complex macromolecular matrix of saliva prior to introduction to the sensor surface. The filtering flow cell provided in-line separation of small molecules from salivary mucins and other large molecules with only a 29% reduction of signal compared with direct flow of the same concentration of analyte over the sensor surface. A standard curve for detection of cortisol in saliva was generated with a detection limit of 1.0 ng/mL (3.6 nM), sufficiently sensitive for clinical use. The system will also be useful for a wide range of applications where small molecular weight analytes are found in complex matrixes. PMID:18656950

  12. Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Malon, Radha S. P.; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

  13. Saliva-based biosensors: noninvasive monitoring tool for clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Malon, Radha S P; Sadir, Sahba; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

  14. Monitoring of Cytomegalovirus Infection and Disease in Bone Marrow Recipients by Reverse Transcription-PCR and Comparison with PCR and Blood and Urine Cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. GOZLAN; J. P. LAPORTE; S. LESAGE; M. LABOPIN; A. NAJMAN; N. C. GORIN; C. PETIT

    1996-01-01

    Preemptive therapy is a promising strategy for the prevention of serious cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease afterbonemarrow(BM)transplantationbutrequiresrelevantdiagnostictests.Wecomparedtheclinicalvalue of a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method, which detected a late viral mRNA in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL),withaPCRmethodthatdetectedtheviralDNAinPBLandwithviralculturefromleukocytesandurine for the diagnosis of symptomatic CMV infection after BM transplantation. Forty-five consecutive BM recipi- ents were prospectively tested at weekly intervals by the four methods. CMV infection, demonstrated

  15. The German Environmental Survey 1990\\/1992 (GerES II): reference concentrations of selected environmental pollutants in blood, urine, hair, house dust, drinking water and indoor air

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BERND SEIFERT; KERSTIN BECKER; DIETER HELM; CHRISTIAN KRAUSE; CHRISTINE SCHULZ; MARGARETE SEIWERT

    2000-01-01

    The German Environmental Survey (GerES) is a large-scale, representative population study that has been carried out three times up to now with a time interval of about 7 years. GerES I was performed in 1985\\/1986, GerES IIa in 1990\\/1991 in West Germany, and GerES IIb in 1991\\/1992 in East Germany, the former German Democratic Republic (GDR). In GerES II, blood,

  16. Neutralizing Activity of Saliva against Cytomegalovirus?

    PubMed Central

    Saccoccio, Frances M.; Gallagher, Mary K.; Adler, Stuart P.; McVoy, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is the leading cause of permanent disability in neonates in the United States. Neutralizing antibodies in saliva may protect against maternal CMV infection by blocking viral entry into oral epithelial cells, but the antibody response to CMV in the saliva following natural infection is not well characterized. Saliva specimens from naturally infected individuals were tested for CMV-neutralizing activity using epithelial and fibroblast cells. Saliva from seronegative adults had no inherent anti-CMV activity. Neutralizing activity of saliva from naturally infected adults was not detectable using fibroblast cells, and saliva from young children, adolescents, and Towne vaccine recipients did not have activity using either cell type. However, when using epithelial cells, neutralizing activity was present in saliva from 50% of seropositive adults, correlated with serum-neutralizing activity, and was more prevalent in mothers of children in day care than in non-day care-associated adults. Three day care mothers with high salivary neutralizing activities (>1:20) had exceptionally high serum-neutralizing titers (3- to 8-fold higher than typical seropositives) and were immunoblot positive for serum antibodies to the epithelial entry mediator UL130. These results suggest that salivary neutralizing activities are attainable by induction of high serum IgG levels and could be utilized to evaluate candidate cytomegalovirus vaccines. PMID:21795465

  17. Cozart Rapiscan System: our experience with saliva tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadia De Giovanni; Nadia Fucci; Marcello Chiarotti; Salvatore Scarlata

    2002-01-01

    International literature has devoted many contributions to the evaluation of alternative biological matrices (such as saliva) as diagnostic tools in drug testing. The immunoassay Cozart Rapiscan saliva drug system, has been studied in recent years. In the present paper we report our experience with saliva collection and the quali–quantitative determination of drugs of abuse. Fifty-nine saliva samples were collected by

  18. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate providing the proper concentration in the collected urine. To implement the solid tablet in a bag approach, a design concept was completed with prototype drawings of the complete urine pretreat prefilter assembly. A successful fabrication technique was developed for retaining the Oxone tablets in a fabric casing attached to the end of the existing Space Station Waste Collection System urine prefilter assembly. The final pretreat prefilter configuration held sufficient Oxone in a tablet form to allow normal scheduled daily (or twice daily) change out of the urine filter depending on the use rate of the Space Station urine collection system. The actual tests to prove the concept were conducted using the Urine Fan/Separator assembly that was originally used in the STS-52 Design Test Objective (DTO) urinal assembly. Other related tests were conducted to demonstrate the actual minimum ratio of Oxone to urine that will control microbial growth.

  19. The evaluation of the applicability of a high pH mobile phase in ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis of benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-like hypnotics in urine and blood.

    PubMed

    Verplaetse, Ruth; Cuypers, Eva; Tytgat, Jan

    2012-08-01

    A sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for simultaneous detection of benzodiazepines, benzodiazepine-like hypnotics and some metabolites (7-aminoflunitrazepam, alprazolam, bromazepam, brotizolam, chlordiazepoxide, chlornordiazepam, clobazam, clonazepam, clotiazepam, cloxazolam, diazepam, ethylloflazepate, flunitrazepam, flurazepam, loprazolam, lorazepam, lormetazepam, midazolam, N-desmethylflunitrazepam, nitrazepam, N-methylclonazepam (internal standard), nordiazepam, oxazepam, prazepam, temazepam, tetrazepam, triazolam, zaleplon, zolpidem, zopiclone) in urine and whole blood. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction cartridge. Electrospray ionization was found to be more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher retention and higher electrospray ionization signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. Considering the benefits of a high pH mobile phase on both chromatography and mass spectrometry, its use should be encouraged. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed on a small particle column (Acquity C18, 1.7 ?m, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). The optimized method was fully validated. PMID:22749457

  20. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva...intended to absorb moisture from the oral cavity during dental procedures. (b) Classification....

  1. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva...intended to absorb moisture from the oral cavity during dental procedures. (b) Classification....

  2. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva...intended to absorb moisture from the oral cavity during dental procedures. (b) Classification....

  3. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva...intended to absorb moisture from the oral cavity during dental procedures. (b) Classification....

  4. 21 CFR 872.6050 - Saliva absorber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6050 Saliva...intended to absorb moisture from the oral cavity during dental procedures. (b) Classification....

  5. Antioxidant activity of saliva and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Moore, S; Calder, K A; Miller, N J; Rice-Evans, C A

    1994-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of saliva has been investigated in 28 apparently healthy individuals and seven dental patients with periodontal disease. The results show that the major aqueous antioxidant component of whole saliva is uric acid, with lesser contributions from ascorbic acid and albumin. All are present at lower concentrations than those found in the plasma water. The total antioxidant activity (TAA) of saliva correlates (r2 = 0.972) with the concentration of uric acid, which contributes more than 70% of the TAA. Stimulation of salivary flow is associated with increased production of antioxidants. The antioxidant potential of saliva does not appear to be compromised in patients with periodontal disease but this may relate to the antioxidant flow from the gingival crevicular fluid. PMID:7834056

  6. Urine collection device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaud, R. B. (inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A urine collection device for females is described. It is comprised of a collection element defining a urine collection chamber and an inlet opening into the chamber and is adapted to be disposed in surrounding relation to the urethral opening of the user. A drainage conduit is connected to the collection element in communication with the chamber whereby the chamber and conduit together comprise a urine flow pathway for carrying urine generally away from the inlet. A first body of wicking material is mounted adjacent the collection element and extends at least partially into the flow pathway. The device preferably also comprise a vaginal insert element including a seal portion for preventing the entry of urine into the vagina.

  7. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Aguilar Pierle, Sebastian; Turse, Joshua E.; Scoles, Glen A.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Clauss, Therese RW; Ueti, Massaro W.; Brown, Wendy C.; Brayton, Kelly A.

    2014-08-07

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5 days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5 day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified.

  8. Proteomics informed by transcriptomics identifies novel secreted proteins in Dermacentor andersoni saliva.

    PubMed

    Mudenda, Lwiindi; Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Turse, Joshua E; Scoles, Glen A; Purvine, Samuel O; Nicora, Carrie D; Clauss, Therese R W; Ueti, Massaro W; Brown, Wendy C; Brayton, Kelly A

    2014-11-01

    Dermacentor andersoni, known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick, is found in the western United States and transmits pathogens that cause diseases of veterinary and public health importance including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Colorado tick fever and bovine anaplasmosis. Tick saliva is known to modulate both innate and acquired immune responses, enabling ticks to feed for several days without detection. During feeding ticks subvert host defences such as hemostasis and inflammation, which would otherwise result in coagulation, wound repair and rejection of the tick. Molecular characterization of the proteins and pharmacological molecules secreted in tick saliva offers an opportunity to develop tick vaccines as an alternative to the use of acaricides, as well as new anti-inflammatory drugs. We performed proteomics informed by transcriptomics to identify D. andersoni saliva proteins that are secreted during feeding. The transcript data generated a database of 21,797 consensus sequences, which we used to identify 677 proteins secreted in the saliva of D. andersoni ticks fed for 2 and 5days, following proteomic investigations of whole saliva using mass spectrometry. Salivary gland transcript levels of unfed ticks were compared with 2 and 5day fed ticks to identify genes upregulated early during tick feeding. We cross-referenced the proteomic data with the transcriptomic data to identify 157 proteins of interest for immunomodulation and blood feeding. Proteins of unknown function as well as known immunomodulators were identified. PMID:25110293

  9. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-01-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  10. Impact of urine concentration adjustment method on associations between urine metals and estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Virginia M; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Silbergeld, Ellen K; Rothenberg, Stephen J; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Parsons, Patrick J; Steuerwald, Amy J; Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo

    2014-07-01

    Positive associations between urine toxicant levels and measures of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) have been reported recently in a range of populations. The explanation for these associations, in a direction opposite that of traditional nephrotoxicity, is uncertain. Variation in associations by urine concentration adjustment approach has also been observed. Associations of urine cadmium, thallium and uranium in models of serum creatinine- and cystatin-C-based estimated GFR (eGFR) were examined using multiple linear regression in a cross-sectional study of adolescents residing near a lead smelter complex. Urine concentration adjustment approaches compared included urine creatinine, urine osmolality and no adjustment. Median age, blood lead and urine cadmium, thallium and uranium were 13.9 years, 4.0 ?g/dL, 0.22, 0.27 and 0.04 g/g creatinine, respectively, in 512 adolescents. Urine cadmium and thallium were positively associated with serum creatinine-based eGFR only when urine creatinine was used to adjust for urine concentration (? coefficient=3.1 mL/min/1.73 m(2); 95% confidence interval=1.4, 4.8 per each doubling of urine cadmium). Weaker positive associations, also only with urine creatinine adjustment, were observed between these metals and serum cystatin-C-based eGFR and between urine uranium and serum creatinine-based eGFR. Additional research using non-creatinine-based methods of adjustment for urine concentration is necessary. PMID:24815335

  11. Nonhazardous Urine Pretreatment Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Holtsnider, John T.

    2012-01-01

    A method combines solid phase acidification with two non-toxic biocides to prevent ammonia volatilization and microbial proliferation. The safe, non-oxidizing biocide combination consists of a quaternary amine and a food preservative. This combination has exhibited excellent stabilization of both acidified and unacidified urine. During pretreatment tests, composite urine collected from donors was challenged with a microorganism known to proliferate in urine, and then was processed using the nonhazardous urine pre-treatment method. The challenge microorganisms included Escherichia coli, a common gram-negative bacteria; Enterococcus faecalis, a ureolytic gram-positive bacteria; Candida albicans, a yeast commonly found in urine; and Aspergillus niger, a problematic mold that resists urine pre-treatment. Urine processed in this manner remained microbially stable for over 57 days. Such effective urine stabilization was achieved using non-toxic, non-oxidizing biocides at higher pH (3.6 to 5.8) than previous methods in use or projected for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). ISS urine pretreatment methods employ strong oxidants including ozone and hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), a carcinogenic material, under very acidic conditions (pH = 1.8 to 2.4). The method described here offers a much more benign chemical environment than previous pretreatment methods, and will lower equivalent system mass (ESM) by reducing containment volume and mass, system complexity, and crew time needed to handle pre-treatment chemicals. The biocides, being non-oxidizing, minimize the potential for chemical reactions with urine constituents to produce volatile, airborne contaminants such as cyanogen chloride. Additionally, the biocides are active under significantly less acidic conditions than those used in the current system, thereby reducing the degree of required acidification. A simple flow-through solid phase acidification (SPA) bed is employed to overcome the natural buffering capacity of urine, and to lower the pH to levels that fix ammoniacal nitrogen in the non-volatile and highly water soluble NH4 + form. Citric acid, a highly soluble, solid tricarboxylic acid essential to cellular metabolism, and typically used as a food preservative, has also been shown to efficiently acidify urine in conjunction with non-oxidizing biocides to provide effective stabilization with respect to both microbial growth and ammonia volatilization.

  12. Urine drug screen

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a "clean-catch" (midstream) urine sample: Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry your hands with a clean ... the health care provider or assistant. Wash your hands again with soap and water. The sample is then taken to ...

  13. Urine Blockage in Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the ureter joins the kidney, only the kidney swells. The ureter remains a normal size. UPJ obstruction ... urine backs up and causes the ureters to swell, called hydroureter, and hydronephrosis. Swelling in the kidney ...

  14. Urinating more at night

    MedlinePLUS

    ... you to urinate more often during the night. Caffeine and alcohol after dinner can also lead to ... or urinary tract Drinking a lot of alcohol, caffeine, or other fluids before bedtime Enlarged prostate gland ( ...

  15. Detection of Novel Polyomaviruses, TSPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, HPyV9 and MWPyV in Feces, Urine, Blood, Respiratory Swabs and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Rockett, Rebecca J.; Sloots, Theo P.; Bowes, Sharleen; O’Neill, Nicholas; Ye, Suifang; Robson, Jenny; Whiley, David M.; Lambert, Stephen B.; Wang, David; Nissen, Michael D.; Bialasiewicz, Seweryn

    2013-01-01

    Eight novel human polyomaviruses have been discovered since 2007. Prevalence rates and tissue tropism for the most recent members HPyV 6, 7, 9, TSPyV and MWPyV are largely unknown. We used real-time PCR to determine the presence of HPyV 6, 7, 9, TSPyV and MWPyV in feces (n?=?263), urine (n?=?189), blood (n?=?161), respiratory swabs (n?=?1385) and cerebrospinal fluid (n?=?171) from both healthy control children and children and adults undergoing diagnostic testing. Whole genome sequencing was able to be performed on 9 MWPyV positive specimens. Novel polyomaviruses were only detected in respiratory swabs and feces, with no detections of HPyV 9 in any sample type. MWPyV was found to be the most prevalent novel polyomavirus, being detected in 18 (1.5%) respiratory specimens from symptomatic patients, 16 (9.8%) respiratory sample from healthy control children, 11 (5.9%) fecal specimens from patient suffering gastrointestinal illness, and in 13 (15.3%) of feces from healthy control children. MWPyV was found only in respiratory and fecal specimens from children, the oldest being 9 years old. HPyV 6, 7, 9 and TSPyV were also detected in respiratory specimens and fecal specimens at low prevalence (<1.3%). The majority of these detections were found in immunocompromised patients. Our findings suggest that MWPyV can result in a subclinical infection, persistent or intermittent shedding, particularly in young children. The other novel polyomaviruses were also found in respiratory and fecal specimens, but at lower prevalence and most commonly in immunocompromised individuals. PMID:23667518

  16. Determining times to maximum urine excretion of 1-aminopyrene after diesel exhaust exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Huyck; Pamela Ohman-Strickland; Lin Zhang; Jian Tong; X U Xu

    2010-01-01

    Biomonitoring of exposures to toxins is an important tool for monitoring public health and safety. Using this tool, exposures are typically measured by the collection of biological specimens such as blood and urine samples. Urine sampling represents a more convenient and less-invasive alternative to blood sampling; however, less work has been published on methodologies for characterizing the time course of

  17. A direct radioimmunoassay for free progesterone in saliva.

    PubMed

    Vienravi, V; Amatayakul, K; Kanluan, T; Uttavichai, C; Andres, R

    1994-03-01

    The direct radioimmunoassay using iodinated tracer (125I-HIS-3CMO) has been developed for the determination of salivary progesterone of healthy volunteers with regular menstrual cycles. Lack of significant diurnal variation either in the follicular or luteal phase indicated that collections of saliva could be tailored to the need of individuals making the study somewhat easier. Salivary progesterone has shown to correlate significantly with free serum progesterone reflecting the unbound biologically active progesterone fraction in blood. Moreover, salivary progesterone concentration ranges are similar to those found in other studies. Our findings indicated that determination of progesterone in saliva could be used in place of serum or plasma. Since firstly, it is non-invasive, easy for sample collection and a stress-free technique. Secondly, it is much more accurate in prediction of corpus luteum function and ovulation than the basal-body temperature or endometrial biopsy or other clinical predictors currently in use. Finally, determination of daily salivary progesterone levels throughout the menstrual cycle may be advantageously employed as a non-invasive serial sampling technique for the assessment of corpus luteum and ovarian functions. PMID:7798848

  18. Direct radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y C; Chatterton, R T; Vogelsong, K M; May, L K

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a simple, direct radioimmunoassay for progesterone in saliva. The correlation coefficient (r) between the direct assay and an extraction procedure was 0.92 (n = 65, P < 0.001), and the correlation between concurrent serum and salivary progesterone concentrations in the luteal phases of menstrual cycles of 48 women was 0.75 (P < 0.001). Whereas certain polystyrene and polyethylene vials and tubes were found to bind and remove up to 87% of the progesterone from saliva, other plastic and glass surfaces were satisfactory for the procedure. Intraassay and interassay CVs from values greater than 300 pmol/L were 12.0 and 12.4%, respectively. The assay sensitivity was 48 pmol/L. Collection of saliva is a more convenient and less invasive technique for frequent sample collection than phlebotomy, and is useful for monitoring ovulation and assessment of luteal function in women clinically. PMID:9134474

  19. Detection of hydatid antigen in urine by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Parija, S C; Ravinder, P T; Rao, K S

    1997-01-01

    Hydatid antigen was demonstrated for the first time in the urine of patients with hydatid disease by countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP). The antigen was detected in the concentrated urine of 7 of 16 (43.75% positive) patients with surgically confirmed hydatid disease, 4 of 10 (40% positive) patients with ultrasound-proven hydatid disease (daughter cysts or prominent septation and hydatid sands demonstrated by ultrasound), and 8 of 14 (57.14% positive) patients with clinically diagnosed (presumptive) hydatid disease. No antigen was detected in the concentrated urine from 24 patients with parasitic diseases other than hydatid disease. However, antigen was detected in 2 (8% false positive) of 25 concentrated urine samples collected from healthy control subjects (blood donors and students). These result suggest that the detection of hydatid antigen in the urine by CIEP is a simple, rapid, and noninvasive method of diagnosis of hydatid disease. PMID:9163484

  20. Influence of human saliva on the development of artificial erosions.

    PubMed

    Hellwig, E; Lussi, A; Goetz, F

    2013-01-01

    It was hypothesized that saliva from patients with erosion exhibits lower protective efficacy compared to saliva from patients without erosion, based on in vitro enamel softening studies. A total of 645 enamel specimens were distributed among seven experimental groups. Saliva was gathered from each of 10 volunteers without clinical signs of dental erosion and from 10 patients exhibiting severe erosive defects. Aliquots of 50 ml of saliva from each patient were mixed with sour drops or citric acid, respectively. Pooled saliva, sour drops and citric acid mixed with water served as controls. The enamel specimens were soaked in the respective mixture for 5 min and were subsequently incubated in pure saliva for 2 min. This cycle was repeated three times, then the specimens were kept in 100 ml of saliva for 8 h. Surface microhardness was evaluated at the beginning of the experiment and after each cycle. During the experiments, microhardness decreased significantly in all groups except for the pure saliva group. For sour drops and citric acid mixed with saliva from patients without erosion, the final microhardness was higher compared to the mixture of the two erosive compounds with saliva from patients with erosion. The storage of saliva for 8 h resulted in a certain amount of rehardening, with the highest level of rehardening being observed in the group that was least demineralized (sour drops plus saliva from patients without erosion). It is concluded that salivary components play a crucial role in the development of dental erosion. PMID:23838437

  1. Response to Rodent Saliva by Two Species of Rodentiophagous Snakes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Chiszar; William Lukas; Hobart M. Smith

    1997-01-01

    Brown tree snakes (Boiga irregularis) and prairie rattlesnakes (Crotalus viridis) responded with higher rates of tongue flicking to rodent saliva than to water. Both materials were presented on cotton-tipped applicators touched gently to the snakes' lips. Rattlesnakes also struck more frequently at applicators bearing saliva than at control applicators. Since rodents frequently lick themselves during bouts of grooming behavior, saliva

  2. Proposal of Noninvasive Liver Function Measurement Method via Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kawabata, Yuji; Hatakeyama, Toyomasa; Kashii, Yoshiro

    The authors studied the correlation between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity and salivary ALT activity using ten healthy young adults and ten liver disease patients. Firstly, in order to establish the experimental conditions, we investigated the influence of occult blood and salivary secretion rate on the salivary ALT activity using healthy subjects. Then, simultaneous analysis of the serum and salivary ALT activities were conducted to investigate the correlation using the twenty subjects. As the results, although salivary ALT activity was as low as one third of serum ALT activity, the presence of salivary ALT activity was confirmed in healthy young adults whose saliva was not contaminated with serum. The salivary ALT activity of liver disease patients showed higher values than that of healthy young adults. In other word, if a threshold of salivary ALT activity was established, healthy young adults could be distinguished from liver disease patients.

  3. A surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method for the determination of ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human urine and variation of endogenous urinary concentrations of GHB.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soyoung; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Lee, Sooyeun

    2014-09-01

    ?-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse with a strong anesthetic effect; however, proving its ingestion through the quantification of GHB in biological specimens is not straightforward due to the endogenous presence of GHB in human blood, urine, saliva, etc. In the present study, a surrogate analyte approach was applied to accurate quantitative determination of GHB in human urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in order to overcome this issue. For this, (2)H6-GHB and (13)C2-dl-3-hydroxybutyrate were used as a surrogate standard and as an internal standard, respectively, and parallelism between the surrogate analyte approach and standard addition was investigated at the initial step. The validation results proved the method to be selective, accurate, and precise, with acceptable linearity within calibration ranges (0.1-1?g/ml). The limit of detection and the limit of quantification of (2)H6-GHB were 0.05 and 0.1?g/ml, respectively. No significant variations were observed among urine matrices from different sources. The stability of (2)H6-GHB was satisfactory under sample storage and in-process conditions. However, in vitro production of endogenous GHB was observed when the urine sample was kept under the in-process condition for 4h and under the storage conditions of 4 and -20°C. In order to facilitate the practical interpretation of urinary GHB, endogenous GHB was accurately measured in urine samples from 79 healthy volunteers using the surrogate analyte-based LC-MS/MS method developed in the present study. The unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations in 74 urine samples with quantitative results ranged from 0.09 to 1.8?g/ml and from 4.5 to 530?g/mmol creatinine, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between the unadjusted and creatinine-adjusted GHB concentrations. The urinary endogenous GHB concentrations were affected by gender and age while they were not significantly influenced by habitual smoking, alcohol drinking, or caffeine-containing beverage drinking. PMID:24929871

  4. Tannin-binding proteins in saliva of deer and their absence in saliva of sheep and cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. Austin; Lisa A. Suchar; Charles T. Robbins; Ann E. Hagerman

    1989-01-01

    A method has been developed for detecting tannin-binding proteins in the saliva of herbivores. The method is simple and requires only small quantities of crude saliva. The saliva of deer, a browsing ruminant, has been compared to that of domestic sheep and cow, which are grazing ruminants. The browser, which normally ingests dietary tannin, produces tannin-binding proteins, while the grazers

  5. The effects of salivas on occlusal forces.

    PubMed

    McCrea, E S; Katona, T R; Eckert, G J

    2015-05-01

    Contacting surfaces of opposing teeth produce friction that, when altered, changes the contact force direction and/or magnitude. As friction can be influenced by several factors, including lubrication and the contacting materials, the aim of this study was to measure the occlusal load alterations experienced by teeth with the introduction of different salivas and dental restorative materials. Pairs of molar teeth were set into occlusion with a weighted maxillary tooth mounted onto a vertical sliding assembly and the mandibular tooth supported by a load cell. The load components on the mandibular tooth were measured with three opposing pairs of dental restorative materials (plastic denture, all-ceramic and stainless steel), four (human and three artificial) salivas and 16 occlusal configurations. All lateral force component measurements were significantly different (P < 0·0001) from the dry (control) surface regardless of the crown material or occlusal configuration, while the effects of the artificial salivas compared to each other and to human saliva depended on the crown material. PMID:25484034

  6. Steroid Analysis in Saliva: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, John G

    2006-01-01

    The first report of steroid analysis in saliva was more than thirty years ago. Since that time its popularity has increased due to the attractiveness of non-invasive, repeated and simple stress-free sampling. It has proved a popular sampling fluid for psychobiology, sports medicine, pharmacology and paediatric studies as well as in the area of complementary medicine. In the diagnostic laboratory, salivary progesterone and oestradiol have been used for assessing ovarian function and 17?-OH progesterone for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Salivary cortisol is used for investigating adrenal function and recently there has been considerable interest in the use of bedtime salivary cortisol levels as a screening test for Cushing’s disease. However, there are several caveats on the use of saliva including collection techniques, the variable matrix of saliva, sensitivity, steroid stability, the presence of binding proteins and reference range anomalies. This brief review will attempt to address these issues and provide a balanced approach to steroid analysis in saliva. PMID:17268582

  7. The Human Urine Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bouatra, Souhaila; Aziat, Farid; Mandal, Rupasri; Guo, An Chi; Wilson, Michael R.; Knox, Craig; Bjorndahl, Trent C.; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Saleem, Fozia; Liu, Philip; Dame, Zerihun T.; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Yallou, Faizath S.; Psychogios, Nick; Dong, Edison; Bogumil, Ralf; Roehring, Cornelia; Wishart, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Urine has long been a “favored” biofluid among metabolomics researchers. It is sterile, easy-to-obtain in large volumes, largely free from interfering proteins or lipids and chemically complex. However, this chemical complexity has also made urine a particularly difficult substrate to fully understand. As a biological waste material, urine typically contains metabolic breakdown products from a wide range of foods, drinks, drugs, environmental contaminants, endogenous waste metabolites and bacterial by-products. Many of these compounds are poorly characterized and poorly understood. In an effort to improve our understanding of this biofluid we have undertaken a comprehensive, quantitative, metabolome-wide characterization of human urine. This involved both computer-aided literature mining and comprehensive, quantitative experimental assessment/validation. The experimental portion employed NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), direct flow injection mass spectrometry (DFI/LC-MS/MS), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments performed on multiple human urine samples. This multi-platform metabolomic analysis allowed us to identify 445 and quantify 378 unique urine metabolites or metabolite species. The different analytical platforms were able to identify (quantify) a total of: 209 (209) by NMR, 179 (85) by GC-MS, 127 (127) by DFI/LC-MS/MS, 40 (40) by ICP-MS and 10 (10) by HPLC. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to identify several previously unknown urine metabolites and to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage. It also allowed us to critically assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of different platforms or technologies. The literature review led to the identification and annotation of another 2206 urinary compounds and was used to help guide the subsequent experimental studies. An online database containing the complete set of 2651 confirmed human urine metabolite species, their structures (3079 in total), concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.urinemetabolome.ca. PMID:24023812

  8. Non-Coding RNAs in Saliva: Emerging Biomarkers for Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Majem, Blanca; Rigau, Marina; Reventós, Jaume; Wong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA) profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases). Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information. PMID:25898412

  9. Non-coding RNAs in saliva: emerging biomarkers for molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Majem, Blanca; Rigau, Marina; Reventós, Jaume; Wong, David T

    2015-01-01

    Saliva is a complex body fluid that comprises secretions from the major and minor salivary glands, which are extensively supplied by blood. Therefore, molecules such as proteins, DNA, RNA, etc., present in plasma could be also present in saliva. Many studies have reported that saliva body fluid can be useful for discriminating several oral diseases, but also systemic diseases including cancer. Most of these studies revealed messenger RNA (mRNA) and proteomic biomarker signatures rather than specific non-coding RNA (ncRNA) profiles. NcRNAs are emerging as new regulators of diverse biological functions, playing an important role in oncogenesis and tumor progression. Indeed, the small size of these molecules makes them very stable in different body fluids and not as susceptible as mRNAs to degradation by ribonucleases (RNases). Therefore, the development of a non-invasive salivary test, based on ncRNAs profiles, could have a significant applicability to clinical practice, not only by reducing the cost of the health system, but also by benefitting the patient. Here, we summarize the current status and clinical implications of the ncRNAs present in human saliva as a source of biological information. PMID:25898412

  10. Advanced Urine Toxicology Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Tenore

    2010-01-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond

  11. Advanced urine toxicology testing.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2010-10-01

    Urine toxicology screening testing is an important standard of care in the addiction and pain treatment setting, offering a reproducible, unbiased, and accurate laboratory test to monitor patients and provide objective support for clinical observations. It has been shown that physicians do not have proficiency in the ordering or interpretation of these tests. This article is an attempt to respond to that need. Current antibody-based enzymatic immunoassays (EIAs) used for urine toxicology screening are useful to detect classes of drugs (ex., opiate) but cannot determine which specific drug (ex., morphine) is present. Gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy can determine exactly which drugs are present, allowing prescribed (or illicit) opiates and benzodiazepines to be identified. This article will discuss principles and details of opiate and benzodiazepine EIA and gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy urine toxicology testing. The approach to detecting patients attributing positive opiate EIAs to prescription opiates who are using heroin or other opioids will be reviewed. Cases of controlled prescription drugs that do not produce the expected positive urine tests (ex., oxycodone producing negative opiate screening tests) will be discussed. How to differentiate codeine from heroin and the role of poppy seeds in toxicology will be examined. The case of an anti-depressant drug that produces false-positive benzodiazepine results and antibiotics that cause positive opiate urine toxicology results will be reviewed. Common benzodiazepines (ex., clonazepam and lorazepam) that do not reliably produce positive benzodiazepine EIAs will be discussed. The approach to detection and management of all these types of toxicology cases will be reviewed, and it is hoped that the analyses presented will impart an adequate information base to medical providers and staff members of drug treatment and pain centers, enabling them to order and interpret these tests in the clinic more effectively as an integrated part of whole patient care. PMID:20924879

  12. A translational study of urine miRNAs in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yunhui; Wang, Xiaobin; Yang, Jian; Duan, Xiaoxia; Yao, Yi; Shi, Xiaoling; Chen, Zhuang; Fan, Zhongcai; Liu, Xiaojun; Qin, Shanshan; Tang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chunxiang

    2015-01-01

    The currently used biomarkers for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are blood creatinine phosphokinase-muscle band (CPK-MB), troponin-T (TnT), and troponin I (TnI). However, no good biomarkers are identified in urine after AMI, because these blood protein biomarkers are difficult to be filtered into urine. In this study, the role of urine microRNAs in the diagnosis of AMI and the mechanism involved were determined. We found that urine miR-1 was quickly increased in rats after AMI with peak at 24 h after AMI, in which an over 50-fold increase was demonstrated. At 7 days after AMI, the urine miR-1 level was returned to the basal level. No miR-208 was found in normal urine. In urine from rats with AMI, miR-208 was easily detected. To determine the mechanism involved, we determined the levels of heart-released miR-1 in the liver, spleen and kidney after AMI in rats and found that the kidney was an important metabolic organ. To determine the renal elimination of blood miRNAs, we isolated serum exosomes from rats after AMI and injected these exosomes into the circulating blood of normal rats. We found that the urine miR-1 was significantly increased in exosome-injected animals. Moreover, PKH67-labeled exosomes injected into circulating blood could enter into the kidney tissues and cells, as well as urine. Furthermore, the levels of urine miR-1 were significantly increased in patients with AMI. The results suggest that urine miRNAs such as miR-1 could be novel urine biomarkers for AMI. PMID:22921780

  13. Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_151843.html Urine Isn't Free of Bacteria New study links bacteria found in urine in bladder to urinary incontinence ... News) -- Though it's commonly believed that urine is bacteria-free, normal urine is not sterile, a new ...

  14. 62 FR 45292 - Urine Surveillance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-08-26

    ...28 CFR Part 550 Urine Surveillance; Final Rule Federal Register / Vol...BOP-1072-F] RIN 1120-AA68 Urine Surveillance AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice...its regulations on the use of urine surveillance to detect and deter illegal drug...

  15. Detection of potential markers for systemic disease in saliva of pigs by proteomics: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, A M; Nöbauer, K; Soler, L; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Gemeiner, M; Cerón, J J; Miller, I

    2013-01-15

    Animals with different health status have been studied in order to extend the knowledge about protein composition of porcine saliva samples and to discover potential salivary markers for systemic disease in porcine production. Clinical examination of animals was performed at farm level where 10 healthy pigs and 10 animals with evident clinical signs of disease were randomly selected. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and afterwards animals were humanely sacrificed to perform a complete necropsy. Levels of two acute phase proteins, haptoglobin and C-reactive protein, were used to identify possible active infections of the animals. Moreover, serological analysis, to the main porcine infectious diseases in the area, was performed. Salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for the identification of specific proteins. A total of 58 spots out of 75 were successfully identified by MS, which correspond to 20 unique proteins. Two different approaches were used to perform a statistical comparison of saliva protein patterns from healthy and diseased animals using the relative spot volume (% spot volume/total volume of all spot in the gel, approach "A") or taking also into account the total protein content of each saliva sample (?g of spot/mL of saliva, approach "B"). Both analyses showed three proteins in common that are differentially regulated between states. However, approach B was selected for biomarker searching since it gave an estimation of protein concentration and showed differential expression of proteins between both health states in a total of 10 proteins, which were up-regulated in disease. Mass spectrometric analysis identified those proteins as salivary lipocalin, lipocalin 1, double headed protease inhibitor protein, adenosine deaminase, haptoglobin, albumin fragments, S100-A8, S100-A9, S100-A12 and pancreatic alpha amylase. These proteins could be considered as potential salivary markers of disease. PMID:23177629

  16. Dog saliva – an important source of dog allergens

    PubMed Central

    Polovic, N; Wadén, K; Binnmyr, J; Hamsten, C; Grönneberg, R; Palmberg, C; Milcic-Matic, N; Bergman, T; Grönlund, H; van Hage, M; Crameri, Reto

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergy to dog (Canis familiaris) is a worldwide common cause of asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, dander extract in routine diagnostics is not an optimal predictor of IgE-mediated dog allergy. Our objective was to evaluate saliva as an allergen source for improved diagnostics of allergy to dog. Methods IgE-binding proteins in dog saliva and dander extract were analysed by immunoblot and mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using pooled or individual sera from dog-allergic patients (n = 13). Sera from 59 patients IgE positive to dander and 55 patients IgE negative to dander but with symptoms to dog were analysed for IgE against saliva and dander by ELISA. Basophil stimulation with dog saliva and dander extract was measured by flow cytometry among three dog-allergic patients. Additionally, IgE-binding protein profiles of saliva from different breeds were investigated by immunoblot. Results Greater number and diversity of IgE-binding proteins was found in saliva compared to dander extract and varied among dog breeds. In saliva, Can f 1, 2, 3 and 6 were identified but also four new saliva allergen candidates. The majority of the 59 dog dander–positive sera (n = 44) were IgE positive to dog saliva. Among patients IgE negative to dander, but with symptoms to dog, 20% were IgE positive to saliva. The biological activity of saliva was confirmed by basophil degranulation. Conclusions Dog saliva is an allergen source for improved diagnostics of dog allergy. The IgE-binding protein profile of saliva from different dogs varies. PMID:23464525

  17. Amoxycillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Anderson, Isobel M. E.; Jones, G. R.; Calder, Margaret A.; Pratt, C.; Malcolm, Margaret G. G.

    1974-01-01

    Stewart, Sheila M., Anderson, Isobel M. E., Jones, G. R., and Calder, Margaret A. (1974).Thorax, 29, 110-114. Amoxycillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva. The levels of amoxycillin in sputum, saliva, and serum from 22 patients were estimated. Fifteen patients had pneumonia and seven had acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The drug was given orally in a dose of 500 mg four times daily. There was considerable variation in the levels in specimens from different patients. The mean sputum levels two to three hours and six hours after the dose were 0·52 and 0·53 ?g/ml respectively. The mean two-hour saliva level was 0·32 ?g/ml. The mean serum levels two and six hours after the test dose were 11·0 and 3·5 ?g/ml respectively. The higher levels of amoxycillin were usually associated with the presence of more pus in the sputum. The mean levels of amoxycillin at comparable times were significantly greater than those found in a previous study after the same dose of ampicillin. Clinical response to treatment occurred more rapidly in those patients with sputum levels of 0·25 ?g amoxycillin per ml or above than in those with lower levels. The time taken to clear potential pathogens from the sputum was related to the pathogen rather than to the amoxycillin level, Haemophilus influenzae persisting for longer than Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:4545190

  18. Saliva: A diagnostic biomarker of periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Priti Basgauda; Patil, Basgauda Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role in successful therapy. Early diagnosis and management reduces the severity and possible complications of the disease process. To overcome this challenge, medical researchers are devoted to finding molecular disease biomarkers that reveal a hidden lethal threat before the disease becomes complicated. Saliva, an important physiologic fluid, containing a highly complex mixture of substances, is rapidly gaining popularity as a diagnostic tool. Periodontal disease is a chronic disease of the oral cavity comprising a group of inflammatory conditions affecting the supporting structures of the dentition. In the field of periodontology, traditional clinical criteria are often insufficient for determining sites of active disease, for monitoring the response to therapy, or for measuring the degree of susceptibility to future disease progression. Saliva, as a mirror of oral and systemic health, is a valuable source for clinically relevant information because it contains biomarkers specific for the unique physiologic aspects of periodontal diseases. This review highlights the various potentials of saliva as a diagnostic biomarker for periodontal diseases. PMID:22368352

  19. SALMO and S3M: A Saliva Model and a Single Saliva Salt Model for Equilibrium Studies

    PubMed Central

    De Stefano, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    A model of synthetic saliva (SALMO, SALiva MOdel) is proposed for its use as standard medium in in vitro equilibrium and speciation studies of real saliva. The concentrations come out from the literature analysis of the composition of both real saliva and synthetic saliva. The chief interactions of main inorganic components of saliva, as well as urea and amino acids, are taken into account on the basis of a complex formation model, which also considers the dependence of the stability constants of these species on ionic strength and temperature. These last features allow the modelling of the speciation of saliva in different physiological conditions deriving from processes like dilution, pH, and temperature changes. To simplify equilibrium calculations, a plain approach is also proposed, in order to take into account all the interactions among the major components of saliva, by considering the inorganic components of saliva as a single 1?:?1 salt (MX), whose concentration is cMX = (1/2)?ci (ci = analytical concentration of all the ions) and z ion charge calculated as z=±(I/cMX)1/2 = ±1.163. The use of the Single Saliva Salt Model (S3M) considerably reduces the complexity of the systems to be investigated. In fact, only four species deriving from internal ionic medium interactions must be considered. PMID:25733975

  20. Electrolytic pretreatment of urine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Electrolysis has been under evaluation for several years as a process to pretreat urine for ultimate recovery of potable water in manned spacecraft applications. The conclusions that were drawn from this investigation are the following: (1) A platinum alloy containing 10 percent rhodium has been shown to be an effective, corrosion-resistant anode material for the electrolytic pretreatment of urine. Black platinum has been found to be suitable as a cathode material. (2) The mechanism of the reactions occurring during the electrolysis of urine is two-stage: (a) a total Kjeldahl nitrogen and total organic carbon (TOC) removal in the first stage is the result of electrochemical oxidation of urea to CO2, H2O, and ammonia followed by chloride interaction to produce N2 from ammonia, (b) after the urea has been essentially removed and the chloride ions have no more ammonia to interact with, the chloride ions start to oxidize to higher valence states, thus producing perchlorates. (3) Formation of perchlorates can be suppressed by high/low current operation, elevated temperature, and pH adjustment. (4) UV-radiation showed promise in assisting electrolytic TOC removal in beaker tests, but was not substantiated in limited single cell testing. This may have been due to non-optimum configurations of the single cell test rig and the light source.

  1. Immunoreactive pattern of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm against human whole saliva.

    PubMed

    Carvalhais, Virginia; Amado, Francisco; Cerveira, Frederico; Ferreira, Rita; Vilanova, Manuel; Cerca, Nuno; Vitorino, Rui

    2015-05-01

    Saliva is essential to interact with microorganisms in the oral cavity. Therefore, the interest in saliva antimicrobial properties is on the rise. Here, we used an immunoproteomic approach, based on protein separation of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms by 2DE, followed by Western-blotting, to compare human serum and saliva reactivity profile. A total of 17 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Serum and saliva presented a distinct pattern of immunoreactive proteins. Our results suggest that saliva seems to have higher propensity to react against S. epidermidis proteins with oxidoreductase activity and proteins involved with L-serine metabolic processes. We show that saliva was a powerful tool for the identification of potential S. epidermidis biofilms proteins. PMID:25782040

  2. Susceptibility of anthocyanins to ex vivo degradation in human saliva

    PubMed Central

    Kamonpatana, Kom; Giusti, M. Mónica; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; MorenoCruz, Maria; Riedl, Ken M.; Kumar, Purnima; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Some fruits and their anthocyanin-rich extracts have been reported to exhibit chemopreventive activity in the oral cavity. Insights regarding oral metabolism of anthocyanins remain limited. Anthocyanin-rich extracts from blueberry, chokeberry, black raspberry, red grape, and strawberry were incubated ex vivo with human saliva from 14 healthy subjects. All anthocyanins were partially degraded in saliva. Degradation of chokeberry anthocyanins in saliva was temperature dependent and decreased by heating saliva to 80 °C and after removal of cells. Glycosides of delphinidin and petunidin were more susceptible to degradation than those of cyanidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin in both intact and artificial saliva. Stability of di- and tri-saccharide conjugates of anthocyanidins slightly, but significantly, exceeded that of monosaccharide compounds. Ex vivo degradation of anthocyanins in saliva was significantly decreased after oral rinsing with antibacterial chlorhexidine. These results suggest that anthocyanin degradation in the mouth is structure-dependent and largely mediated by oral microbiota. PMID:22868153

  3. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kidney disease is diagnosed with urine and blood tests. Health care providers measure blood pressure with a blood pressure ... the sample to a lab for analysis. A health care provider may order a blood test to estimate how much blood the kidneys filter ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of human urine

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Donald

    1968-01-01

    The fate of bacteria in human urine was studied after inoculation of small numbers of Escherichia coli and other bacterial strains commonly implicated in urinary tract infection. Urine from normal individuals was often inhibitory and sometimes bactericidal for growth of these organisms. Antibacterial activity of urine was not related to lack of nutrient material as addition of broth did not decrease inhibitory activity. Antibacterial activity was correlated with osmolality, urea concentration and ammonium concentration, but not with organic acid, sodium, or potassium concentration. Between a pH range of 5.0-6.5 antibacterial activity of urine was greater at lower pH. Ultrafiltration and column chromatography to remove protein did not decrease antibacterial activity. Urea concentration was a more important determinant of antibacterial activity than osmolality or ammonium concentration. Increasing the urea of a noninhibitory urine to equal that of an inhibitory urine made the urine inhibitory. However, increasing osmolality (with sodium chloride) or increasing ammonium to equal the osmolality or ammonium of an inhibitory urine did not increase antibacterial activity. Similarly, dialysis to decrease osmolality or ammonium but preserve urea did not decrease inhibitory activity. Decreasing urea with preservation of ammonium and osmolality decreased antibacterial activity. Removal of ammonium with an ion exchanger did not decrease antibacterial activity, whereas conversion of urea to ammonium with urease and subsequent removal of the ammonium decreased antibacterial activity. Urine collected from volunteers after ingestion of urea demonstrated a marked increase in antibacterial activity, as compared with urine collected before ingestion of urea. PMID:4877682

  5. The effect of pretreatment of saliva on steroid hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Meulenberg, E P; Hofman, J A

    1990-12-01

    We investigated the effect of the pretreatment (sonification or centrifugation) of saliva samples on the concentration of several steroid hormones as measured with highly specific RIA after extraction and chromatography. It appeared that sonification of saliva resulted in significantly higher values for progesterone, cortisone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone and oestradiol (10-49% increase), compared with the levels recorded after centrifugation. No differences were demonstrated for the concentrations of cortisol and androstenedione, except that a sex-dependent difference effect was observed in the values for androstenedione: concentrations measured in sonificated male saliva were lower than those measured in supernatant saliva. PMID:2081963

  6. Analysis of the human urine endogenous peptides by nanoparticle extraction and mass spectrometry identification.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaomin; Hu, Lianghai; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-06-01

    Peptides in urine are excreted by kidney from the blood and tissues, which are composed of a large amount of hormones, cytokines, regulatory factors and the metabolized fragments of proteins. The peptide distribution in urine will reflect the physiological and pathophysiological processes in body. In past, limited information was reported about the composition of the peptides in urine. One possible reason is that the peptides in urine are fairly low abundant and there are high concentrations of salts and organic metabolites in the urine. In this report, we extracted the peptides from human urine by highly ordered mesoporous silica particles with the pore size of 2 nm, which will exclude the high molecular weight proteins over 12 kDa. The extracted peptides were then separated into fractions according to their molecular weight by size exclusion chromatography. Each of the fractions was further analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS and ?RPLC-MS/MS. Totally, 193 peptides were identified by two-dimensional SEC/?RPLC-MS/MS analysis. By analyzing the progenitor protein of the peptides; we found that two-thirds of the proteins differed from the reported urine proteome database, and the high abundant proteins in urine proteome were less detected in the urine peptidome. The developed extraction and separation methods were efficient for the profiling of the endogenous peptides in human urine. The peptidome in human urine was complementary to the human urinary proteome and may provide an emerging field for biomarker discovery. PMID:24856401

  7. Proteomic profiling of urine for the detection of colon cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas G Ward; Stephen Nyangoma; Howard Joy; Emma Hamilton; Wenbin Wei; Chris Tselepis; Neil Steven; Michael JO Wakelam; Philip J Johnson; Tariq Ismail; Ashley Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background  Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death in the developed world. To date, no blood or stool\\u000a biomarkers with both high sensitivity and specificity for potentially curable early stage disease have been validated for\\u000a clinical use. SELDI and MALDI profiling are being used increasingly to search for biomarkers in both blood and urine. Both\\u000a techniques

  8. Urine Antibody Tests: New Insights into the Dynamics of HIV1 Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard B. Urnovitz; Jerrilyn C. Sturge; Toby D. Gottfried; William H. Murphy

    Background: Noninvasive methodologies provide alter- natives to diagnostic blood tests and have high patient acceptance, increased safety, and reduced costs. Such tests may supplement or replace blood diagnostic assays currently in use. Methods: Using a licensed urine-based test for antibody to HIV-1, we performed 25 991 HIV-1 urine antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening tests (confirm- able by HIV-1 Western blot

  9. Proteins in Whole Saliva during the First Year of Infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ruhl; S. A. Rayment; G. Schmalz; K.-A. Hiller; R. F. Troxler

    2005-01-01

    During the first year of an infant's life, the oral environment is subject to drastic changes that coincide with the eruption of teeth. Proteins in saliva are important for protecting oral surfaces and provide receptors for bacterial adhesins. The objective of this longitudinal study was to monitor the general composition and expression of proteins in whole saliva of infants, to

  10. Nanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes

    E-print Network

    Gimzewski, James

    , transferring their genetic information to human oral keratinocytes to alter gene expression at a new locationNanostructural and Transcriptomic Analyses of Human Saliva Derived Exosomes Viswanathan Palanisamy1, exosomes secreted in human saliva contain proteins and nucleic acids that could be exploited for diagnostic

  11. Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Aedes Mosquito Saliva Modulates Rift Valley Fever Virus Pathogenicity Alain Le Coupanec1 , Divya contro^le, Centre IRD de Montpellier, Montpellier, France Abstract Background: Rift Valley fever (RVF of mosquito saliva in the transmission of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) has not been investigated. Objective

  12. Different Saliva Substitutes for Treatment of Xerostomia Following Radiotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Momm; Natalja Jurievna Volegova-Neher; Jürgen Schulte-Mönting; Roland Guttenberger

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Xerostomia is an important chronic side effect of radiotherapy in the head and neck area. The authors investigated the efficacy of different artificial saliva compounds in patients with postirradiation xerostomia. Patients and Methods: In 120 patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, four different saliva substitute compounds (gel, carmellose spray, oil, mucin spray) were

  13. Whole saliva proteases: development of methods for determination of origins.

    PubMed

    Germaine, G R; Tellefson, L M; Johnson, G L

    1978-01-01

    1) Recognition and characterization of protease activities present in saliva by PAGE examination of substrate protein cleavage patterns appears possible. 2) BSA proteolysis by whole saliva is not due to activities present in the major gland secretions and may be due, in part, to the oral microflora. PMID:742517

  14. Rapid screening method for cocaine and benzoylecgonine in saliva samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D Campiglia; T Vo-Dinh

    1998-01-01

    We are presenting a new method for cocaine and benzoylecgonine analysis in saliva samples based on room temperature phosphorimetry. The determination of the drugs is performed on filter paper, which is a suitable substrate for most saliva collection procedures. Extraction from the solid substrate is not necessary, since both compounds are detected on the paper substrate. Complete analysis can be

  15. Infection with dengue-2 virus alters proteins in naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus (DENV) is responsible for up to approximately 300 million infections and an increasing number of deaths related to severe manifestations each year in affected countries throughout the tropics. It is critical to understand the drivers of this emergence, including the role of vector-virus interactions. When a DENV-infected Aedes aegypti mosquito bites a vertebrate, the virus is deposited along with a complex mixture of salivary proteins. However, the influence of a DENV infection upon the expectorated salivary proteome of its vector has yet to be determined. Methods Therefore, we conducted a proteomic analysis using 2-D gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry based protein identification comparing the naturally expectorated saliva of Aedes aegypti infected with DENV-2 relative to that of uninfected Aedes aegypti. Results Several proteins were found to be differentially expressed in the saliva of DENV-2 infected mosquitoes, in particular proteins with anti-hemostatic and pain inhibitory functions were significantly reduced. Hypothetical consequences of these particular protein reductions include increased biting rates and transmission success, and lead to alteration of transmission potential as calculated in our vectorial capacity model. Conclusions We present our characterizations of these changes with regards to viral transmission and mosquito blood-feeding success. Further, we conclude that our proteomic analysis of Aedes aegypti saliva altered by DENV infection provides a unique opportunity to identify pro-viral impacts key to virus transmission. PMID:24886023

  16. Difficulties detecting miRNA-203 in human whole saliva by the use of PCR

    PubMed Central

    Lundegard, Martin; Nylander, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic disease of the oral mucosa, and according to the WHO also a pre malignant condition. Micro-RNAs are short non coding RNAs capable of regulating mRNA expression. MiRNA:scan be detected in tissue, blood and human whole saliva (HWS) and recently we have shown miR-203 to be up-regulated in tissue from OLP lesions. Study Design: In order to see whether mRNA as well as miR-203 could be detected also in HWS, saliva from healthy controls and patients with OLP were analysed using two different PCR methods. Results: Results showed low mRNA and miRNA levels in general in HWS samples, making it hard to generate conclusive results. Conclusions: In order to make HWS a valuable source for different analyses, more sensitive PCR techniques capable of detecting very low levels of mRNAand miRNAas well as more efficient methods for extraction of RNA are needed. Key words:miRNA-203, saliva, PCR. PMID:25475777

  17. Saliva as a medium for investigating intra- and interindividual differences in sex hormone levels in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gann, P H; Giovanazzi, S; Van Horn, L; Branning, A; Chatterton, R T

    2001-01-01

    Repeated measurement of ovarian steroids in saliva could provide an advantage in studies estimating long-term sex steroid exposure in premenopausal women, by reducing the measurement error associated with collection of serum or urine samples. We previously reported on characteristics of ultrasensitive RIAs adapted for extraction-free measurement of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PG) in saliva. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the consistency of E2 and PG levels in saliva in the same women across menstrual cycles, and to compare this with the variation observed between women. We also evaluated the effect of altering the number of consecutive daily samples considered and the method for locating a particular cycle day in relation to ovulation (day 0). Study participants included 12 healthy women who provided daily saliva samples for two consecutive, ovulatory menstrual cycles. A single midluteal serum sample was collected 7-8 days after detection of a luteinizing hormone (LH) peak in urine. We plotted individual cycle profiles and computed intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for various definitions of peak and cumulative daily hormone level. For peak PG, determined as the maximal running 3-day mean, ICC was 0.68. For cumulative PG, based on 8 consecutive cycle days (+2 to +9), ICCs were 0.72-0.76 when reverse dating LH peak or rise in salivary PG determined day 0. For E2, ICCs ranged from 0.74 to 0.79 by various dating methods for the 5 preovulatory days (-4-0), and from 0.85 to 0.92 for the 15 days about the center of the cycle (-6 to +8). With exclusion of just the first 5 days of the cycle, the ICC for E2 was 0.91. For both E2 and PG, selection of 5 or 7 days for the estimation of the midluteal mean level provided separation of within and between subject variance that was comparable with a LH-timed serum sample. These results indicate that daily saliva samples can be combined to clarify the interindividual differences in E2 and PG levels in premenopausal women, and that these interindividual differences may be greater than previously imagined. PMID:11205490

  18. Lubrication of selected salivary molecules and artificial salivas.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A; Mendoza, B; Reddy, M S; Scannapieco, F A; Levine, M J; Hatton, M N

    1989-01-01

    The lubrication regime displayed by human salivas (parotid and submandibular-sublingual), purified salivary molecules (the mucins MG1 and MG2 and alpha-amylases), and selected artificial salivas (Oracare D, Saliva Substitute, and Orthana) was assessed in vitro using a friction-testing device. Thin-film (boundary) lubrication was observed for all of the salivary samples and two of the artificial salivas examined. Oracare D, a glycerol-based artificial saliva, was the exception since it lubricated by a thick-film (hydrodynamic) regime. On a molar basis, the best lubricants of the purified salivary molecules were MG1 greater than MG2 approximately nonglycosylated alpha-amylases approximately glycosylated alpha-amylases. PMID:2484182

  19. Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Maowen; Chen, Yuanxiang; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Wei; Lin, Jinyong; Weng, Guo-Xing; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a rapidly non-invasive technique with great potential for biomedical research. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy of human saliva for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) detection. Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed on two groups of saliva samples: one group from patients (n=30) with confirmed AMI and the other group from healthy controls (n=31). The diagnostic performance for differentiating AMI saliva from normal saliva was evaluated by multivariate statistical analysis. The combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) of the measured Raman spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps, rendering the sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 80.6%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that Raman spectroscopy of human saliva can serve as a potentially clinical tool for rapid AMI detection and screening.

  20. Ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Sheila M.; Fisher, Mary; Young, Joy E.; Lutz, W.

    1970-01-01

    The ampicillin levels in sputum, serum, and saliva from 40 patients receiving a dose of 250 mg., 26 patients receiving a dose of 500 mg., and 11 patients receiving a dose of 1 g. were estimated. The ampicillin was given orally four times daily. The 1-2 hour and 2-3 hour sputum levels were similar in individual patients. There was no difference in the range or mean sputum or saliva levels between specimens from patients receiving 250 mg. and 500 mg., but the levels were significantly higher after the 1 g. dose. The mean serum level showed a small increase after 500 mg. ampicillin as compared with the 250 mg. dose and a big increase after the 1 g. dose: only the latter difference was significant. The sputum levels were approximately 30 to 40 times lower than the corresponding serum levels. There was considerable scatter in the sputum level for any level of ampicillin in the serum: in only two of the 1-2 hour sputum specimens was there no detectable ampicillin. There was no correlation between the sputum levels and either the body weight or the dose in milligrams per kilogram. There was no evidence that corticosteroids or diuretics affected the sputum level. It was not possible to demonstrate any relationship between the purulence of the sputum and the level of ampicillin after doses of 250 mg. or 500 mg., but higher levels were found in the more purulent specimens after 1 g. doses. PMID:4318047

  1. Leucine aminopeptidase - urine

    MedlinePLUS

    Leucine aminopeptidase is a type of protein called an enzyme. It is normally found in liver cells ... Increased levels of leucine aminopeptidase can be seen in ... Hepatitis Liver cancer Liver ischemia (reduced blood flow to the ...

  2. Computational strategy for quantifying human pesticide exposure based upon a saliva measurement

    PubMed Central

    Timchalk, Charles; Smith, Jordan N.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative exposure data is important for evaluating toxicity risk and biomonitoring is a critical tool for evaluating human exposure. Direct personal monitoring provides the most accurate estimation of a subject’s true dose, and non-invasive methods are advocated for quantifying exposure to xenobiotics. In this regard, there is a need to identify chemicals that are cleared in saliva at concentrations that can be quantified to support the implementation of this approach. This manuscript reviews the computational modeling approaches that are coupled to in vivo and in vitro experiments to predict salivary uptake and clearance of xenobiotics and provides additional insight on species-dependent differences in partitioning that are of key importance for extrapolation. The primary mechanism by which xenobiotics leave the blood and enter saliva involves paracellular transport, passive transcellular diffusion, or transcellular active transport with the majority of xenobiotics transferred by passive diffusion. The transcellular or paracellular diffusion of unbound chemicals in plasma to saliva has been computationally modeled using compartmental and physiologically based approaches. Of key importance for determining the plasma:saliva partitioning was the utilization of the Schmitt algorithm that calculates partitioning based upon the tissue composition, pH, chemical pKa, and plasma protein-binding. Sensitivity analysis identified that both protein-binding and pKa (for weak acids and bases) have significant impact on determining partitioning and species dependent differences based upon physiological variance. Future strategies are focused on an in vitro salivary acinar cell based system to experimentally determine and computationally predict salivary gland uptake and clearance for xenobiotics. It is envisioned that a combination of salivary biomonitoring and computational modeling will enable the non-invasive measurement of chemical exposures in human populations. PMID:26074822

  3. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePLUS

    ... limited. Search Help? Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... UACR Formal name: Urine Albumin; Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Creatinine ; Glucose ; A1c ; Urine Protein ; ...

  4. Exploring the anti-tumoral effects of tick saliva and derived components.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana Carolina Prado; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan; Oliveira, Carlo Jose Freire; Silva, Marcelo José Barbosa

    2015-08-01

    Ticks are blood-feeding arthropods with an outstanding ability to remain attached to its host for considerable periods while blood-feeding and remaining unnoticed. Their success results from the ability to modulate hemostatic and host immune responses. The ability to "bypass" a host's defenses, prevent blood clotting and wound healing makes ticks utterly interesting animals for the development of new drugs. Studies worldwide on various tick species have shown that tick saliva possesses a wide array of lipidic and proteic biomolecules with useful properties. These include not only immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and anti-clotting properties, but also cytotoxic and cytolitic properties that act against various cell types, and anti-angiogenic properties, which have gained increasing prominence. We searched PubMed, Science Direct, Elsevier and other sites for publications regarding tick saliva and its effects on cancer cells and angiogenesis. Our aim was to compile a list of molecules with potential for host adaptation and for the development of new cancer treatment drugs. PMID:26079950

  5. Detection of lumpy skin disease virus in saliva of ticks fed on lumpy skin disease virus-infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Lubinga, J C; Tuppurainen, E S M; Stoltsz, W H; Ebersohn, K; Coetzer, J A W; Venter, E H

    2013-09-01

    Lumpy skin disease is an economically important disease of cattle that is caused by the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), which belongs to the genus Capripoxvirus. It is endemic in Africa and outbreaks have also been reported in the Middle-East. Transmission has mostly been associated with blood-feeding insects but recently, the authors have demonstrated mechanical transmission by Rhipicephalus appendiculatus as well as mechanical/intrastadial and transstadial transmission by Amblyomma hebraeum. Saliva is the medium of transmission of pathogens transmitted by biting arthropods and, simultaneously, it potentiates infection in the vertebrate host. This study aimed to detect LSDV in saliva of A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus adult ticks fed, as nymphs or as adults, on LSDV-infected animals, thereby also demonstrating transstadial or mechanical/intrastadial passage of the virus in these ticks. Saliva samples were tested for LSDV by real-time PCR and virus isolation. Supernatants obtained from virus isolation were further tested by real-time PCR to confirm that the cytopathic effects observed were due to LSDV. Lumpy skin disease virus was detected, for the first time, in saliva samples of both A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus ticks. At the same time, mechanical/intrastadial and transstadial passage of the virus was demonstrated and confirmed in R. appendiculatus and A. hebraeum. PMID:23456606

  6. Raman spectroscopy of saliva as a perspective method for periodontitis diagnostics Raman spectroscopy of saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Minaeva, S.

    2012-01-01

    In view of its potential for biological tissues analyses at a molecular level, Raman spectroscopy in optical range has been the object of biomedical research for the last years. The main aim of this work is the development of Raman spectroscopy for organic content identifying and determination of biomarkers of saliva at a molecular level for periodontitis diagnostics. Four spectral regions were determined: 1155 and 1525 cm-1, 1033 and 1611 cm-1, which can be used as biomarkers of this widespread disease.

  7. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  8. Microbial Community Profiling of Human Saliva Using Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Nur A.; Young, Brian A.; Minard-Smith, Angela T.; Saeed, Kelly; Li, Huai; Heizer, Esley M.; McMillan, Nancy J.; Isom, Richard; Abdullah, Abdul Shakur; Bornman, Daniel M.; Faith, Seth A.; Choi, Seon Young; Dickens, Michael L.; Cebula, Thomas A.; Colwell, Rita R.

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva is clinically informative of both oral and general health. Since next generation shotgun sequencing (NGS) is now widely used to identify and quantify bacteria, we investigated the bacterial flora of saliva microbiomes of two healthy volunteers and five datasets from the Human Microbiome Project, along with a control dataset containing short NGS reads from bacterial species representative of the bacterial flora of human saliva. GENIUS, a system designed to identify and quantify bacterial species using unassembled short NGS reads was used to identify the bacterial species comprising the microbiomes of the saliva samples and datasets. Results, achieved within minutes and at greater than 90% accuracy, showed more than 175 bacterial species comprised the bacterial flora of human saliva, including bacteria known to be commensal human flora but also Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Gamma proteobacteria. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) analysis in parallel, reported ca. five times more species than those actually comprising the in silico sample. Both GENIUSand BLAST analyses of saliva samples identified major genera comprising the bacterial flora of saliva, but GENIUS provided a more precise description of species composition, identifying to strain in most cases and delivered results at least 10,000 times faster. Therefore, GENIUS offers a facile and accurate system for identification and quantification of bacterial species and/or strains in metagenomic samples. PMID:24846174

  9. Substantiation of an artificial saliva formulated for use in a masticatory apparatus.

    PubMed

    Roger-Leroi, V; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Woda, A; Marchand, M; Peyron, M A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to substantiate artificial saliva prepared for use in a masticator apparatus. Mastication's goal is to produce a viscous and plastic food bolus where these properties authorize a safe swallow. Apart from its biochemical contribution, saliva is mainly used in this kind of apparatus to provide a viscous component to the bolus. Artificial saliva was prepared with water and minerals, and completed with mucin and amylase. Different physico-chemical conditions were applied and the resultant viscosity was compared to that of human saliva. Mechanically- or chemically-stimulated salivas of ten healthy subjects were collected. Viscosity was measured with a capillary viscometer in response to changes in measurement's temperature, air exposure or pH. The effects of circadian saliva collection and the stimulation type on viscosity of human saliva were also studied. Viscosity of artificial and human salivas was comparable. An increase in the measurement's temperature or a 30 min-exposure of saliva to air led to a significant decrease in viscosity of both types of saliva. Amylase in artificial saliva did not change viscosity. The viscosity of human saliva displayed important subject variability as well as a dependence on the stimulation type of saliva production. This work allowed a useful evaluation of the formulated artificial saliva. It exhibited similar viscosity as the natural saliva in response to different methodological conditions. Therefore the proposed artificial saliva satisfies the major requirement of viscosity for a use in the masticator apparatus designed to prepare a food bolus. PMID:22988786

  10. HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R.; Phelan, Joan A.; Norman, Robert G.; Fisch, Gene S.; Corby, Patricia M.; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J.; Kokaras, Alexis S.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

  11. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm?1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  12. Recombinant erythropoietin in urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Françoise Lasne; Jacques de Ceaurriz

    2000-01-01

    Erythropoietin is a hormone that stimulates the production of new red blood cells (erythropoiesis). Although athletes use recombinant human erythropoietin illicitly to boost the delivery of oxygen to the tissues and enhance their performance in endurance sports, this widespread doping practice cannot be controlled in the absence of a reliable analytical procedure to monitor it. Here we describe a new

  13. Treating urine by Spirulina platensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenliang; Liu, Hong; Li, Ming; Yu, Chengying; Yu, Gurevich

    In this paper Spirulina platensis with relatively high nutrition was cultivated to treat human urine. Batch culture showed that the consumption of N in human urine could reach to 99%, and the consumption of P was more than 99.9%, and 1.05 g biomass was obtained by treating 12.5 ml synthetic human urine; continuous culture showed that S. platensis could consume N, Cl, K and S in human urine effectively, and the consumption could reach to 99.9%, 75.0%, 83.7% and 96.0%, respectively, and the consumption of P was over 99.9%, which is very important to increase the closure and safety of the bioregenerative life support system (BLSS).

  14. Immunoreactive LH in long-term frozen human urine samples.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurmeet Kaur Surindar; Jimenez, Mark; Newman, Ron; Handelsman, David J

    2014-04-01

    Urine provides a convenient non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for measurement of certain hormones. Urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) measurements have been used for endocrinology research and anti-doping testing. However, the commercially available LH immunoassays are developed and validated for human blood samples but not urine so that LH assays intended for use with urine samples need thorough validation. Therefore, the present study evaluated the measurement of urinary LH immunoreactivity using previously validated immunofluorometric (IF) and immunochemiluminometric (ICL) LH assays after prolonged frozen storage. LH was measured in serial urine samples following administration of a single injection of one of two doses of recombinant human chorionic hormone (rhCG) with assays run at the end of study (2008) and again after four years of frozen (-20?°C) storage where samples were stored without adding preservatives. The ICL assay showed quantitatively reproducible LH measurements after prolonged -20?°C storage. However, the IF immunoassay gave consistently lower LH levels relative to ICL (2008) with a further proportionate reduction after four years of sample storage (2012). Yet, both the assays displayed similar patterns of the time-course of urine LH measurement both before and after four years of frozen storage. In conclusion, we found that both immunoassays are suitable for urinary LH measurements with ICL assay being more robust for quantitative urinary LH measurement such as for anti-doping purposes, whereas the IF could be applicable for research studies where urine LH levels are compared within-study but not in absolute terms. PMID:23606665

  15. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA in saliva of patients with active infection not associated with periodontal or liver disease severity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mainly transmitted by parenteral route, being blood transfusion and intravenous drug use the most frequent risk factors. However, it has been suggested that there are other routes of transmission. There are several studies where HCV RNA has been detected in saliva of patients infected with HCV, and epidemiological studies have proposed the dental treatments as possible risk factors for HCV transmission. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of HCV RNA in saliva of patients with active infection and associating with periodontal or liver disease. Methods Patients with quantifiable HCV-RNA in serum were enrolled in the study. Periodontal disease was assessed using the modified gingival index (MGI). Presence of dental plaque was assessed with the use of disclosing tablets. Patients were clinically and laboratory evaluated to identify the stage of liver disease, the HCV RNA was determinate in saliva by nested RT-PCR. To determine associations between different parameters univariate and multivariate analysis were used. Results A total of 45 patients were included. Of these patients, 21 (46.6%) had hepatitis, 23 (51.1%) had cirrhosis and one patient (2.4%) presented hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Viral loads in serum ranged from 2.31–6.68 log IU/ml with a mean of 5.46 log IU/ml (95% CI 5.23–5.70). HCV RNA was positive in saliva of 29 patients (64.4%) and was not detected in 16 (35.6%). For univariate analysis three independent variables were associated with the detection of HCV-RNA in saliva: gender, viral load and dental plaque and multivariate analysis only one independent variable viral load >5.17 log IU/mL remained significantly associated with the detection of HCV in saliva (p?=?0.0002). A statistical difference was observed when viral load was analyzed, log 5.85 IU/mL (95% CI 5.67–6.02) for patients with HCV in saliva vs. log 4.77 IU/mL (95% CI 4.35–5.19) for patients without HCV in saliva (p?=?0.0001). The detection of HCV-RNA in saliva was more frequent in patients with relatively high serum viral loads. Conclusion HCV-RNA in saliva was associated with the level of serum viral load but not with periodontal or liver disease severity. PMID:24512371

  16. The implications of urine drug testing in pain management.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Chen, Isabel L; Kodumudi, Vijay; Ortigosa, Esperanza; Gudin, Maria Teresa

    2010-07-01

    In the treatment of pain management, physicians employ a variety of drugs, ranging from low-impact to highly potent, and to maximize patient health, urine toxicology analyses can significantly improve the delivery of pain treatment. Drugs such as opioids that are used for pain management are peculiar in that they provide effective pain relief and have a high risk of addiction. The use of illicit drugs in the general population has been on the rise; however, self-reporting and close monitoring of patient behavior are insufficient means to detect drug abuse and confirm compliance. Therefore, in order to create more effective drug treatment plans, physicians must understand and account for the implications of patient drug use history. Urine toxicology analysis is an important tool for pain physicians because it is more sensitive than most alternative blood tests, more efficient and cost-effective. Urine testing in addition to improving patient pain management also has forensic and legal implications. There are however limitations to urine toxicology methods as they can produce false-positive and false-negative results and are prone to human error and sample contamination There is also a need for more specific and rapid urine drug testing. Healthcare professionals should therefore be familiar with the limitations of various urine drug testing methods, and possess skills necessary to properly interpret these results. This review suggests that the overall benefits incurred by both the patient's short-term and long-term health support the routine integration of urine toxicology analysis in routine clinical care. In addition to improving health care and patient health, it has a strong potential to improve patient-physician relationships and protects the interest of involved healthcare practitioners. PMID:20394568

  17. Uncertainties of Mayak urine data

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Guthrie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vostrotin, Vadim [SUBI; Vvdensky, Vladimir [SUBI

    2008-01-01

    For internal dose calculations for the Mayak worker epidemiological study, quantitative estimates of uncertainty of the urine measurements are necessary. Some of the data consist of measurements of 24h urine excretion on successive days (e.g. 3 or 4 days). In a recent publication, dose calculations were done where the uncertainty of the urine measurements was estimated starting from the statistical standard deviation of these replicate mesurements. This approach is straightforward and accurate when the number of replicate measurements is large, however, a Monte Carlo study showed it to be problematic for the actual number of replicate measurements (median from 3 to 4). Also, it is sometimes important to characterize the uncertainty of a single urine measurement. Therefore this alternate method has been developed. A method of parameterizing the uncertainty of Mayak urine bioassay measmements is described. The Poisson lognormal model is assumed and data from 63 cases (1099 urine measurements in all) are used to empirically determine the lognormal normalization uncertainty, given the measurement uncertainties obtained from count quantities. The natural logarithm of the geometric standard deviation of the normalization uncertainty is found to be in the range 0.31 to 0.35 including a measurement component estimated to be 0.2.

  18. Determination of ovarian steroid hormone levels in saliva. An overview.

    PubMed

    Riad-Fahmy, D; Read, G F; Walker, R F; Walker, S M; Griffiths, K

    1987-04-01

    Assessment of ovarian activity based on saliva samples has proven particularly useful in studies of women in well-developed countries and is potentially of even greater value in women of lower socioeconomic status in Third World countries. Assay techniques suitable for measuring low concentrations of steroids in saliva have become available only recently, so data derived from salivary sampling regimens are far less extensive than those based on plasma or urinary sampling procedures. Collecting saliva is an attractive alternative to the more conventional procedures because of the ease of frequent collection and freedom from religious and social constraints. Simple, direct assays for salivary progesterone have been established, but those for estradiol require considerably more research before becoming useful in routine practice. Predicting ovulation with data derived from saliva sampling awaits the development of more suitable assays for salivary estradiol. PMID:3585869

  19. Measuring DHEA-S in saliva: time of day differences and positive correlations between two different types of collection methods

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The anabolic steroid, dehydroepiandosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), is secreted from the adrenal cortex. It plays a significant role in the body as a precursor to sex steroids as well as a lesser known role in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress. DHEA-S can be measured reliably in saliva, making saliva collection a valuable tool for health research because it minimizes the need for invasive sampling procedures (e.g., blood draws). Typical saliva collection methods include the use of plain cotton swab collection devices (e.g., Salivette®) or passive drool. There has been some speculation that the plain saliva cotton collection device may interfere with determination of DHEA-S by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) bringing this saliva collection method into question. Because of the increasing popularity of salivary biomarker research, we sought to determine whether the cotton swab interferes with DHEA-S determination through EIA techniques. Findings Fifty-six healthy young adult men and women aged 18-30 years came to the lab in the morning (0800 hrs; 14 men, 14 women) or late afternoon (1600 hrs; 14 men, 14 women) and provided saliva samples via cotton Salivette and passive drool. Passive drool collection was taken first to minimize particle cross contamination from the cotton swab. Samples were assayed for DHEA-S in duplicate using a commercially available kit (DSL, Inc., Webster, TX). DHEA-S levels collected via Salivette and passive drool were positively correlated (r = + 0.83, p < 0.05). Mean DHEA-S levels were not significantly different between collection methods. Salivary DHEA-S levels were significantly higher in males than in females, regardless of saliva collection method (p < 0.05), and morning DHEA-S values were higher than evening levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions Results suggest that DHEA-S can be measured accurately using passive drool or cotton Salivette collection methods. Results also suggest that DHEA-S levels change across the day and that future studies need to take this time of day difference into account when measuring DHEA-S. PMID:20646292

  20. Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva of Patients With Herpes Zoster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Gilden, Donald H.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Leal, Melanie J.; Castro, Victoria A.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Background. VZV DNA is present in saliva of healthy astronauts and patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome (geniculate zoster). We hypothesized that a prospective analysis of patients with zoster would detect VZV in saliva independent of zoster location. Methods. We treated 54 patients with valacyclovir. On the first treatment day, 7- and 14-days later, pain was scored and saliva examined for VZV DNA. Saliva from six subjects with chronic pain and 14 healthy subjects was similarly studied. Results. Follow-up data was available for 50/54 patients. Pain decreased in 43/50 (86 percent), disappeared in 37 (74 percent), recurred after disappearing in three (6 percent) and increased in four (8 percent). VZV DNA was found in every patient the day treatment was started, decreased in 47/50 (94 percent), transiently increased in three (6 percent) before decreasing, increased in two (4 percent) and disappeared in 41 (82 percent). There was a positive correlation between the presence of VZV DNA and pain, as well as between the VZV DNA copy number and pain (P<0.0005). Saliva of two patients was cultured, and infectious VZV was isolated from one. VZV DNA was present in one patient before rash and in four patients after pain resolved, and not in any control subjects. Conclusion. VZV DNA is present in saliva of zoster patients.

  1. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress.

    PubMed

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Al Khatib, Philipp; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

  2. Small bite, large impact-saliva and salivary molecules in the medicinal leech, Hirudo medicinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrandt, Jan-Peter; Lemke, Sarah

    2011-12-01

    Blood-sucking leeches have been used for medical purposes in humans for hundreds of years. Accordingly, one of the most prominent species has been named Hirudo medicinalis by Carl Linne in 1758. Feeding on vertebrate blood poses some serious problems to blood-sucking ectoparasites, as they have to penetrate the body surface of the host and to suppress the normal reactions of the host to such injuries (swelling, pain, inflammation) to remain undetected during the feeding period. Furthermore, the parasites have to take measures to inhibit the normal reactions in host tissues to blood vessel damage, namely hemostasis and blood coagulation (platelet aggregation and activation, activation of thrombin and formation of fibrin clots). During evolution, leeches have acquired the ability to control these processes in their hosts by transferring various bioactive substances to the host. These substances are supposedly produced in unicellular salivary gland cells and injected into the wound at the feeding site through tiny salivary ductule openings in the jaws that the leech uses to slice open the host body surface and to cut blood vessels in the depth of the wound. This review summarizes current knowledge about the salivary gland cells and the biological effects of individual saliva components as well as hints to the potential usefulness of some of these compounds for medical purposes.

  3. Frequency of Urination and Its Effects on Metabolism, Pharmacokinetics, Blood Hemoglobin Adduci Formation, and Liver and Urinary Bladder DNA Adduct Levels in Beagle Dogs Given the Carcinogen 4Aminobiphenyl1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fred F. Kadlubar; Kenneth L. Dooley; Candee H. Teitel; Dean W. Roberts; R. Wayne Benson; Mary Ann Butler; John R. Bailey; John F. Young; Paul W. Skipper; Steven R. Tannenbaum

    The human urinary bladder carcinogen, 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), is known to undergo hepatic metabolism to an A-hydroxy arylamine and its corresponding \\/V-glucuronide. It has been proposed that these metabolites are both transported through the blood via renal filtration to the urinary bladder lumen where acidic pH can facilitate the hydrolysis of the \\\\- glucuronide and enhance the conversion of A\\

  4. Saliva: An emerging biofluid for early detection of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Hsiang; Wong, David T.

    2010-01-01

    The capability to assess physiological states, detect morbidity initiation and progression, and monitor post-treatment therapeutic outcomes through a noninvasive approach is one of the most desirable goals for healthcare research and delivery. Saliva, a multi-constituent oral fluid, has high potential for the surveillance of general health and disease. To reach the above goal through saliva-based diagnostics, two prerequisites must be fulfilled: (1) discovering biomarker(s) for different diseases among the complicated components of saliva, and (2) advancing sensitivity and specificity of biomarker(s) through persistent development of technologies. Under the support and research blueprint initiated by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), salivary diagnostics has not only steadily progressed with respect to accuracy and availability, but has also bridged up-to-date nanotechnology to expand the areas of application. With collective efforts over several years, saliva has been demonstrated to be a promising bodily fluid for early detection of diseases, and salivary diagnostics has exhibited tremendous potential in clinical applications. This review presents an overview of the value of saliva as a credible diagnostic tool, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the development of salivary diagnostics now and in the future. PMID:19824562

  5. Saliva Microbiota Carry Caries-Specific Functional Gene Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xingzhi; Yuan, Xiao; Tu, Qichao; Yuan, Tong; Deng, Ye; Hemme, Christopher L.; Van Nostrand, Joy; Cui, Xinping; He, Zhili; Chen, Zhenggang; Guo, Dawei; Yu, Jiangbo; Zhang, Yue; Zhou, Jizhong; Xu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Human saliva microbiota is phylogenetically divergent among host individuals yet their roles in health and disease are poorly appreciated. We employed a microbial functional gene microarray, HuMiChip 1.0, to reconstruct the global functional profiles of human saliva microbiota from ten healthy and ten caries-active adults. Saliva microbiota in the pilot population featured a vast diversity of functional genes. No significant distinction in gene number or diversity indices was observed between healthy and caries-active microbiota. However, co-presence network analysis of functional genes revealed that caries-active microbiota was more divergent in non-core genes than healthy microbiota, despite both groups exhibited a similar degree of conservation at their respective core genes. Furthermore, functional gene structure of saliva microbiota could potentially distinguish caries-active patients from healthy hosts. Microbial functions such as Diaminopimelate epimerase, Prephenate dehydrogenase, Pyruvate-formate lyase and N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase were significantly linked to caries. Therefore, saliva microbiota carried disease-associated functional signatures, which could be potentially exploited for caries diagnosis. PMID:24533043

  6. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n?=?15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P?=?0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r?=?0.347, P?=?0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P?=?0.001 stimulated; P?=?0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P?=?0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. PMID:24917276

  7. Solid-phase enzymoimmunoassay of estrone in saliva.

    PubMed

    Folan, J; Gosling, J P; Finn, M F; Fottrell, P F

    1989-04-01

    In this solid-phase enzymoimmunoassay for estrone in saliva, microtiter plates are used after extraction of the sample with diethyl ether. No chromatographic step is involved. The detection limit of the assay is 450 fg per well (33 pmol/L). Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation for the assay of low, medium, and high concentrations of estrone in saliva were respectively 4.2, 12.7; 5.2, 8.7; and 2.7, 5.8%. Using this assay, we found a highly significant correlation (P less than 0.001) between estrone concentrations in time-matched serum and saliva samples. The analytical procedure is rapid and relatively simple. One person can assay 50-60 saliva samples during a normal working day. We conclude that the assay is very suitable, even in small laboratories, for saliva estrone measurements, which, in facilitating serial sampling, enables dynamic observations of estrone concentrations and ovarian activity to be more easily made. PMID:2649274

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Urination Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anD human services national institutes of health Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Urination Changes Call your doctor or ... urine to change color or smell different during chemotherapy. Talk with your doctor or nurse to learn ...

  9. Chemical measurement of urine volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Chemical method of measuring volume of urine samples using lithium chloride dilution technique, does not interfere with analysis, is faster, and more accurate than standard volumetric of specific gravity/weight techniques. Adaptation of procedure to urinalysis could prove generally practical for hospital mineral balance and catechoamine determinations.

  10. HSV-1 DNA in Tears and Saliva of Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Herbert E.; Azcuy, Ann M.; Varnell, Emily D.; Sloop, Gregory D.; Thompson, Hilary W.; Hill, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the frequency of shedding of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) DNA in tears and saliva of asymptomatic individuals. Methods Fifty subjects without signs of ocular herpetic disease participated. Serum samples from all subjects were tested for HSV IgG antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for HSV-1 by neutralization assay. HSV-1 DNA copy number and frequency of shedding were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of tear and saliva samples collected twice daily for 30 consecutive days. Results Thirty-seven (74%) of the 50 subjects were positive for HSV IgG by ELISA. The percentages of positive eye and mouth swabs were approximately equivalent: 33.5% (941/2806) and 37.5% (1020/2723), respectively. However, the percentage of samples with high HSV-1 genome copy numbers was greater in saliva than in tears, which may have been a result of the sample volume collected. Shedding frequency in tears was nearly the same in men (347/1003; 34.6%) and women (594/1705; 34.8%); in saliva, men had a higher frequency of shedding (457/1009; 45.3% vs. 563/1703; 33.1%, men versus women). Overall, 49 (98%) of 50 subjects shed HSV-1 DNA at least once during the course of the 30-day study. Conclusions The percentage of asymptomatic subjects who intermittently shed HSV-1 DNA in tears or saliva was higher than the percentage of subjects with positive ELISA or neutralization antibodies to HSV. Because most HSV transmission occurs during asymptomatic shedding, further knowledge of the prevalence of HSV-1 DNA in tears and saliva is warranted to control its spread. Shedding is simple to study, and its suppression may be an efficient way to evaluate new antivirals in humans. PMID:15623779

  11. Identification of 24h Ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Lauren A; Radulovi?, Željko M; Kim, Tae K; Porter, Lindsay M; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the United States. This tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA: Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, B. miyamotoi, Babesia microti, and Powassan virus disease. Except for the Powassan virus disease, I. scapularis-vectored TBD agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. This study describes identification of 24h immunogenic I. scapularis tick saliva proteins, which could provide opportunities to develop strategies to stop tick feeding before transmission of the majority of pathogens. A 24h fed female I. scapularis phage display cDNA expression library was biopanned using rabbit antibodies to 24h fed I. scapularis female tick saliva proteins, subjected to next generation sequencing, de novo assembly, and bioinformatic analyses. A total of 182 contigs were assembled, of which ?19% (35/182) are novel and did not show identity to any known proteins in GenBank. The remaining ?81% (147/182) of contigs were provisionally identified based on matches in GenBank including ?18% (27/147) that matched protein sequences previously annotated as hypothetical and putative tick saliva proteins. Others include proteases and protease inhibitors (?3%, 5/147), transporters and/or ligand binding proteins (?6%, 9/147), immunogenic tick saliva housekeeping enzyme-like (17%, 25/147), ribosomal protein-like (?31%, 46/147), and those classified as miscellaneous (?24%, 35/147). Notable among the miscellaneous class include antimicrobial peptides (microplusin and ricinusin), myosin-like proteins that have been previously found in tick saliva, and heat shock tick saliva protein. Data in this study provides the foundation for in-depth analysis of I. scapularis feeding during the first 24h, before the majority of TBD agents can be transmitted. PMID:25825233

  12. Urine dipstick analysis for identification of runners susceptible to acute kidney injury following an ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Martin D; Stuempfle, Kristin J; Fogard, Kevin; Hew-Butler, Tamara; Winger, James; Weiss, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether urine dipstick testing might be useful to predict the development of acute kidney injury after an ultramarathon. Participants in the 2011 161-km Western States Endurance Run underwent post-race blood and urine dipstick analyses. Of the 310 race finishers, post-race urine dipstick testing was completed on 152 (49%) and post-race blood also was obtained from 150 of those runners. Based on "injury" and "risk" criteria for acute kidney injury of blood creatinine 2.0 and 1.5 times estimated baseline, respectively, 4% met the criteria for injury and an additional 29-30% met the criteria for risk of injury. Those meeting the injury criteria had higher creatine kinase concentrations (P < 0.001) than those not meeting the criteria. Urine dipstick tests that read positive for at least 1+ protein, 3+ blood, and specific gravity ? 1.025 predicted those meeting the injury criteria with sensitivity of 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-1.00), specificity of 0.76 (95% CI 0.69-0.83), positive predictive value of 0.15 (95% CI 0.06-0.30), negative predictive value of 1.00 (95% CI 0.97-1.00), and likelihood ratio for a positive test of 4.2. We conclude that urine dipstick testing was successfully able to identify those individuals meeting injury criteria for acute kidney injury with excellent sensitivity and specificity. PMID:23035796

  13. Experimental animal urine collection: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biji T. Kurien; Nancy E. Everds; R. Hal Scofield

    2004-01-01

    Summary Animal urine collection is a vital part of veterinary practice for ascertaining animal health and in scientific investigations for assessing the results of experimental manipulations. Untainted animal urine collection is very challenging, especially with small rodents, and is an almost impossible task under conditions of microgravity. The fundamental aspects of urine collection are: (1) ease of collection, (2) quality

  14. Simple and rapid procedure for the selective removal of lysozyme from human saliva.

    PubMed

    Germaine, G R; Tellefson, L M

    1979-12-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for the removal of lysozyme from human whole salivary supernatant. Saliva specimens were adsorbed with Micrococcus lysodeikticus. The saliva so treated was depleted of 95% of the lysozyme activity. Changes in total protein, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, immunoglobulin A, and the proportions of several anionic proteins were less than 10%. It is concluded that adsorption of saliva with M. lysodeikticus is a suitable procedure for the preparation of saliva that is selectively deficient in lysozyme. PMID:528061

  15. Effects of Sucking Acidic Candy on Whole-Mouth Saliva Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Jensdottir; B. Nauntofte; C. Buchwald; A. Bardow

    2005-01-01

    Limited information is available on the effects of sucking acidic candies on saliva composition and the protective role of saliva in this relation. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine salivary effects of sucking acidic candies in vivo in relation to individual variations in whole-saliva flow rate (WSFR) and buffer capacity (WS?). Ten healthy young males (24 ±

  16. Bacterial 16S rRNA\\/rDNA Profiling in the Liquid Phase of Human Saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Gu; Y. Li; C. Zhou; D. T. W. Wong; C. M. Ho; F. Qi; W. Shi

    2009-01-01

    Human saliva can be separated by centrifugation into cell pellet and cell-free supernatant, which are called cellu- lar phase and liquid phase in this study. While it is well documented that the cellular phase of saliva contains hundreds of oral bacteria species, little is known whether the liquid phase of saliva contains any information related to oral microbiota. In this

  17. Use of Saliva as a Lubricant in Anal Sexual Practices Among Homosexual Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa M. Butler; Dennis H. Osmond; Alison Graves Jones; Jeffrey N. Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Compared with other sexually active adults, men who have sex with men (MSM) are more frequently infected with several pathogens including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Because one common element between these organisms is their presence in saliva, we evaluated saliva exposure among MSM in a heretofore relatively unrecognized route—via use of saliva as a lubricant

  18. Quality of Measurement of Smoking Status by Self-Report and Saliva Cotinine Among Pregnant Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neal Richard Boyd; Richard A. Windsor; Laura L. Perkins; John B. Lowe

    1998-01-01

    Objective. The objectives of this paper were to determine the rate of misclassification of smoking and nonsmoking status by self-reports and saliva cotinine of pregnant women participating in a smoking cessation trial, determine the relationship of the number of cigarettes smoked per day and saliva cotinine, and examine whether misclassification was due to an inappropriate saliva cotinine cutoff point. Methods.

  19. High-sensitivity detection of short-chain fatty acids in porcine ileal, cecal, portal and abdominal blood by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Matsukawa, Noriko; Tomonaga, Shozo; Inoue, Ryo; Ushida, Kazunari; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    2014-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, propionate and n-butyrate, are the main end-products of fermentation in the large intestine. SCFA are rapidly absorbed from the large intestinal mucosa to provide energy to the host. In this study, high-sensitivity detection of SCFA was demonstrated in blood using the gas chromatometry with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Few studies have measured SCFA in porcine blood. Therefore, SCFA concentrations in the ileal (IV), cecal (CV), portal (PV) and abdominal (AV) vein blood, urine (Ur) and saliva (Sa) were measured by GC-MS. All body fluids were collected from four 5-month-old pigs. Cecal (CD) and ileal (ID) digesta, and cecal (CM) and ileal (IM) mucosa were also collected and their corresponding SCFA concentrations were measured using ion-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. GC-MS analyses were successful to determine the SCFA concentrations in the porcine body fluids. n-Butyrate concentration was surprisingly high in CV and its proportion remained higher in CV than that in CD and CM. Acetate showed a constantly high proportion in all porcine body fluids. Propionate was detected at a relatively high proportion in CV, IV and PV, but was low in AV. PMID:24612389

  20. Detection of illicit drugs in impaired driver saliva by a field-usable SERS analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-05-01

    One of the greatest dangers of drug use is in combination with driving. According to the most recent National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) studies, more than 11% of drivers tested positive for illicit drugs, while 18% of drivers killed in accidents tested positive for illicit, prescription or over-the-counter drugs. Consequently, there is a need for a rapid, noninvasive, roadside drug testing device, similar to the breathalyzers used by law enforcement officials to estimate blood alcohol levels of impaired drivers. In an effort to satisfy this need we have been developing a sampling kit that allows extraction of drugs from 1 mL of saliva and detection by surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy using a portable Raman analyzer. Here we describe the development of the sampling kit and present measurements of diazepam at sub ?g/mL concentrations measured in ~15 minutes.

  1. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  2. Use of serial maternal urine cytomegalovirus PCR to detect primary CMV infection in seronegative pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Khare, Milind; Sharland, Mike; Manyonda, Isaac; Rice, Phil; Bland, J Martin; Griffiths, Paul

    2004-07-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if serial maternal urine polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests can detect primary CMV infection during pregnancy. This was a prospective study conducted from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 1999 in an antenatal clinic setting of a teaching hospital. The study group included women who were CMV IgG negative and aged <30 years or had a pre-school child. They were invited to self-collect urine samples monthly and send them to the laboratory by post. Cord bloods were tested for CMV IgG to detect seroconversion. An anxiety questionnaire was sent to all study participants. At first attendance, 1549 (42%) women were CMV IgG negative. Of the 696 eligible women, 609 (88%) participated in the urine PCR study. PCR was performed on 2263 urine samples (median of 4/pregnancy). Primary CMV infection was identified in one woman by urine PCR at 36 weeks (baby CMV negative). Cord blood samples were available from 152/609 infants (25%). Seroconversion was noted in only one woman. Replies to the questionnaire were received from 264/609 women (43%): 214 (81%) had little or no anxiety, and 220 (83%) felt reassured by their study participation. Serial urine PCR is a feasible method of detecting primary maternal CMV infection during pregnancy which has potential for evaluation in further studies. PMID:15109818

  3. Conservation of streptococcal CRISPRs on human skin and saliva

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPRs) are utilized by bacteria to resist encounters with their viruses. Human body surfaces have numerous bacteria that harbor CRISPRs, and their content can provide clues as to the types and features of viruses they may have encountered. Results We investigated the conservation of CRISPR content from streptococci on skin and saliva of human subjects over 8-weeks to determine whether similarities existed in the CRISPR spacer profiles and whether CRISPR spacers were a stable component of each biogeographic site. Most of the CRISPR sequences identified were unique, but a small proportion of spacers from the skin and saliva of each subject matched spacers derived from previously sequenced loci of S. thermophilus and other streptococci. There were significant proportions of CRISPR spacers conserved over the entire 8-week study period for all subjects, and salivary CRISPR spacers sampled in the mornings showed significantly higher levels of conservation than any other time of day. We also found substantial similarities in the spacer repertoires of the skin and saliva of each subject. Many skin-derived spacers matched salivary viruses, supporting that bacteria of the skin may encounter viruses with similar sequences to those found in the mouth. Despite the similarities between skin and salivary spacer repertoires, the variation present was distinct based on each subject and body site. Conclusions The conservation of CRISPR spacers in the saliva and the skin of human subjects over the time period studied suggests a relative conservation of the bacteria harboring them. PMID:24903519

  4. Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptides are Expressed in Salivary Glands and Saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Murakami; T. Ohtake; R. A. Dorschner; R. L. Gallo

    2002-01-01

    The expression of antimicrobial peptides at epithelial surfaces such as skin, lung, and intestine is thought to provide protection against infection. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides are essential for the protection of skin against invasive bacterial infection. To determine if cathelicidins are also present in the oral cavity, we examined the expression of both mRNA and protein in mice and human saliva.

  5. Increased Saliva Cotinine Concentrations in Smokers during Rapid Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niaura, Raymond; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined association between saliva cotinine levels and weight loss in nine obese female smokers during participation in protein-sparing modified fast. A significant weight loss was noted at three and six months, yet cotinine level increased significantly during this time. Results suggest that smoking-related health risks may increase during…

  6. DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva

    E-print Network

    Michigan, University of

    DPC Coat-A-Count Cortisol modified protocol for saliva From: Wirth, M. M., Welsh, K., & Schultheiss, O. C. (in preparation). Implicit power motivation predicts cortisol increases after social defeat. 1 to overestimate true levels by about 15%) 6. Add 1.0 ml 125 I cortisol tracer to each tube. Centrifuge all tubes

  7. EXCRETION OF CADMIUM AND MERCURY IN RAT SALIVA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The excretion of cadium and mercury in saliva was studied in urethane-anesthetized male rats given single intravenous injections of 109CdCl2 or 203HgCl2 (0.1 or 1.0 mg divalent cation/kg). Pilocarpine (20 mg/kg, ip) was used to stimulate salivation. All doses produced a distinct ...

  8. Entry of Four Tetracyclines into Saliva and Tears

    PubMed Central

    Hoeprich, Paul D.; Warshauer, David M.

    1974-01-01

    Although meningococci are susceptible to the tetracyclines by testing in vitro, oxytetracycline (OC) and doxycycline (DC) have failed to eliminate carriage, whereas minocycline (MC) has been effective. Because these congeners differ in lipophilicity, they and tetracycline (TC) were studied in volunteers by assay of serum, saliva, and tears obtained after 5 days of treatment. OC and TC were undetectable or attained concentrations subinhibitory for meningococci in saliva and tears. The concentrations of MC in saliva and tears were equal to or greater than the average minimal inhibitory concentration as long as 12 h post-dose. Near inhibitory concentrations resulted with DC at 100 mg/day; yet, doubling the dose to 100 mg/12 h did not yield concentrations that exceeded the average minimal inhibitory concentration for meningococci. The previous reports of failure or meager entry of DC and MC into saliva probably reflected extraction of these drugs in the paraffin chewed by subjects to stimulate salivary flow. The efficiency of entry of the tetracyclines into the secretions of the noninflamed upper respiratory tract correlates with lipophilicity at physiological pH, enabling prediction of meningococcal chemoprophylactic efficacy. PMID:4840441

  9. Dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes derived from human urine: new biologic reagents for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xuan; Mack, David L; Moreno, Claudia M; Strande, Jennifer L; Mathieu, Julie; Shi, Yingai; Markert, Chad D; Wang, Zejing; Liu, Guihua; Lawlor, Michael W; Moorefield, Emily C; Jones, Tara N; Fugate, James A; Furth, Mark E; Murry, Charles E; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Santana, Luis F; Childers, Martin K

    2014-03-01

    The ability to extract somatic cells from a patient and reprogram them to pluripotency opens up new possibilities for personalized medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been employed to generate beating cardiomyocytes from a patient's skin or blood cells. Here, iPSC methods were used to generate cardiomyocytes starting from the urine of a patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Urine was chosen as a starting material because it contains adult stem cells called urine-derived stem cells (USCs). USCs express the canonical reprogramming factors c-myc and klf4, and possess high telomerase activity. Pluripotency of urine-derived iPSC clones was confirmed by immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and teratoma formation. Urine-derived iPSC clones generated from healthy volunteers and a DMD patient were differentiated into beating cardiomyocytes using a series of small molecules in monolayer culture. Results indicate that cardiomyocytes retain the DMD patient's dystrophin mutation. Physiological assays suggest that dystrophin-deficient cardiomyocytes possess phenotypic differences from normal cardiomyocytes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of generating cardiomyocytes from a urine sample and that urine-derived cardiomyocytes retain characteristic features that might be further exploited for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. PMID:24434629

  10. Relationship between salt excretion and blood pressure in various regions of China*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, L. S.; Tao, S. C.; Lai, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    Overnight urine samples were collected on three consecutive days from 3105 persons in 12 regions of China, and analysed for levels of sodium and potassium. The mean 9-hour overnight urine sodium level ranged from 49.51 to 139.12 mmol, and urine potassium from 6.32 to 18.43 mmol. Univariate regression, simple correlation analysis, and multivariate ridge regression analysis were carried out on the data. A positive correlation between blood pressure and urine sodium or sodium/potassium ratio was found in each of the twelve regions. Urine potassium showed a negative correlation with blood pressure in three regions. PMID:6610494

  11. Plants Can Benefit from Herbivory: Stimulatory Effects of Sheep Saliva on Growth of Leymus chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jushan; Wang, Ling; Wang, Deli; Bonser, Stephen P.; Sun, Fang; Zhou, Yifa; Gao, Ying; Teng, Xing

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants and herbivores can evolve beneficial interactions. Growth factors found in animal saliva are probably key factors underlying plant compensatory responses to herbivory. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how animal saliva interacts with herbivory intensities and how saliva can mobilize photosynthate reserves in damaged plants. Methodology/Principal Findings The study examined compensatory responses to herbivory and sheep saliva addition for the grass species Leymus chinensis in three experiments over three years. The first two experiments were conducted in a factorial design with clipping (four levels in 2006 and five in 2007) and two saliva treatment levels. The third experiment examined the mobilization and allocation of stored carbohydrates following clipping and saliva addition treatments. Animal saliva significantly increased tiller number, number of buds, and biomass, however, there was no effect on height. Furthermore, saliva effects were dependent on herbivory intensities, associated with meristem distribution within perennial grass. Animal saliva was found to accelerate hydrolyzation of fructans and accumulation of glucose and fructose. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrated a link between saliva and the mobilization of carbohydrates following herbivory, which is an important advance in our understanding of the evolution of plant responses to herbivory. Herbivory intensity dependence of the effects of saliva stresses the significance of optimal grazing management. PMID:22235277

  12. Insights into the Saliva of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Peiffer, Michelle; Felton, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the salivary gland structure of the brown marmorated stink bug (Pentatomidae: Halyomorpha halys) and developed methods for independent collection of watery saliva and sheath saliva. This stink bug has become a serious invasive pest of agriculture in the United States and its saliva is largely responsible for the damage it causes. We determined by protein gel analysis and shotgun proteomics that the suite of proteins comprising the sheath and watery saliva are very distinct. Our results indicate that a substantial amount of sheath proteins are derived from tomato when stink bugs feed on tomato fruit. Consequently, the sheath saliva is comprised of both insect and plant-derived proteins. Both sheath and watery saliva possessed amylase activities, but polyphenol oxidase and glucose oxidase activities were not detected in either saliva. Peroxidase activity was only detected in salivary sheaths, but only when stink bugs fed on tomato. Proteomic analysis indicated that the peroxidase was likely of plant origin. We also determined that sheath saliva, but not watery saliva elicited the jasmonate inducible defense gene proteinase inhibitor 2 (Pin2), but this induction was only observed when sheaths had been collected from tomato. This indicates that the eliciting factor of the saliva is likely of plant origin. Lastly, neither watery or sheath saliva affected the expression of the salicylate inducible gene pathogenesis related gene (Pr1a-P4). PMID:24586332

  13. Evidence of protease in the saliva of the butterfly Heliconius melpomene (L.) (Nymphalidae, Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Eberhard, S H; Hrassnigg, N; Crailsheim, K; Krenn, H W

    2007-02-01

    Butterflies of the genus Heliconius are well known for their peculiar habits of utilizing pollen as a source of amino acids. Saliva plays a major role in the process of extracting amino acids and proteins from the pollen grains. In this investigation, we obtained samples of saliva from adult Heliconius melpomene by placing pumpkin pollen or fine glass-beads on the proboscis, which stimulates the butterflies to release saliva. Proteolytic activity was determined in the saliva by an insoluble protein-dye that turns blue when cleaved by proteases. Its extinction value was measured with a spectrophotometer at 595 nm. Both the saliva sampled with pollen and the saliva obtained from inert glass-beads exhibit proteolytic activity demonstrating that the saliva contains proteases. The proteolytic activity of the pollen/saliva samples was higher than that of the glass-bead/saliva samples, which we attribute to the stimulating effects of pollen, such as taste, smell, and texture, and not to proteases which might have been liberated from the pollen. This is indicated by the fact that pollen samples without saliva showed only a negligible indication for proteolytic activity. In general, females exhibit higher proteolytic activities than males, presumably due to their greater amino acid investment in reproduction. We present here first evidence for the existence of proteases in the saliva of a butterfly species and suggest that these enzymes are crucial for the use of amino acids and proteins from pollen in Heliconius butterflies. PMID:17210163

  14. Herbivory: Caterpillar saliva beats plant defences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musser, Richard O.; Hum-Musser, Sue M.; Eichenseer, Herb; Peiffer, Michelle; Ervin, Gary; Murphy, J. Brad; Felton, Gary W.

    2002-04-01

    Blood-feeding arthropods secrete special salivary proteins that suppress the defensive reaction they induce in their hosts. This is in contrast to herbivores, which are thought to be helpless victims of plant defences elicited by their oral secretions. On the basis of the finding that caterpillar regurgitant can reduce the amount of toxic nicotine released by the tobacco plant Nicotiana tabacum, we investigate here whether specific salivary components from the caterpillar Helicoverpa zea might be responsible for this suppression. We find that the enzyme glucose oxidase counteracts the production of nicotine induced by the caterpillar feeding on the plant.

  15. The role of saliva in tick feeding.

    PubMed

    Francischetti, Ivo M B; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; Mans, Ben J; Santos, Isabel M; Ribeiro, Jose M C

    2009-01-01

    When attempting to feed on their hosts, ticks face the problem of host hemostasis (the vertebrate mechanisms that prevent blood loss), inflammation (that can produce itching or pain and thus initiate defensive behavior on their hosts) and adaptive immunity (by way of both cellular and humoral responses). Against these barriers, ticks evolved a complex and sophisticated pharmacological armamentarium, consisting of bioactive lipids and proteins, to assist blood feeding. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered that hard ticks have hundreds of different proteins expressed in their salivary glands, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families (e.g., their primary structure is unique to ticks). This review will address the vertebrate mechanisms of these barriers as a guide to identify the possible targets of these large numbers of known salivary proteins with unknown function. We additionally provide a supplemental Table that catalogues over 3,500 putative salivary proteins from various tick species, which might assist the scientific community in the process of functional identification of these unique proteins. This supplemental file is accessble fromhttp://exon.niaid.nih.gov/transcriptome/tick_review/Sup-Table-1.xls.gz. PMID:19273185

  16. Human antibody response to Anopheles saliva for comparing the efficacy of three malaria vector control methods in Balombo, Angola.

    PubMed

    Brosseau, Laura; Drame, Papa Makhtar; Besnard, Patrick; Toto, Jean-Claude; Foumane, Vincent; Le Mire, Jacques; Mouchet, François; Remoue, Franck; Allan, Richard; Fortes, Filomeno; Carnevale, Pierre; Manguin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    Human antibody (Ab) response to Anopheles whole saliva, used as biomarker of Anopheles exposure, was investigated over a period of two years (2008-2009), in children between 2 to 9 years old, before and after the introduction of three different malaria vector control methods; deltamethrin treated long lasting impregnated nets (LLIN) and insecticide treated plastic sheeting (ITPS)--Zero Fly®) (ITPS-ZF), deltamethrin impregnated Durable (Wall) Lining (ITPS-DL--Zerovector®) alone, and indoor residual spraying (IRS) with lambdacyhalothrin alone. These different vector control methods resulted in considerable decreases in all three entomological (82.4%), parasitological (54.8%) and immunological criteria analyzed. The highest reductions in the number of Anopheles collected and number of positive blood smears, respectively 82.1% and 58.3%, were found in Capango and Canjala where LLIN and ITPS-ZF were implemented. The immunological data based on the level of anti-saliva IgG Ab in children of all villages dropped significantly from 2008 to 2009, except in Chissequele. These results indicated that these three vector control methods significantly reduced malaria infections amongst the children studied and IRS significantly reduced the human-Anopheles contact. The number of Anopheles, positive blood smears, and the levels of anti-saliva IgG Ab were most reduced when LLIN and ITPS-ZF were used in combination, compared to the use of one vector control method alone, either ITPS-DL or IRS. Therefore, as a combination of two vector control methods is significantly more effective than one control method only, this control strategy should be further developed at a more global scale. PMID:23028499

  17. The relationship between interleukin-6 in saliva, venous and capillary plasma, at rest and in response to exercise.

    PubMed

    Cullen, T; Thomas, A W; Webb, R; Hughes, M G

    2015-02-01

    IL-6 plays a mechanistic role in conditions such as metabolic syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome and clinical depression and also plays a major role in inflammatory and immune responses to exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of resting and post exercise IL-6 when measured in venous plasma, saliva and capillary plasma. Five male and five females completed 2 separate exercise trials, both of which involved standardized exercise sessions on a cycle ergometer. Venous blood and saliva samples were taken immediately before and after Trial A, venous and capillary blood samples were taken immediately before and after Trial B. IL-6 values were obtained using a high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In Trial A venous plasma IL-6 increased significantly from 0.4±0.14pg/ml to 0.99±0.29pg/ml (P<0.01) while there was no increase in salivary IL-6. Venous plasma and salivary IL-6 responses were not correlated at rest, post exercise or when expressed as an exercise induced change. In Trial B venous and capillary plasma IL-6 increased significantly (venous: 0.22±0.18 to 0.74±0.28pg/ml (P?0.01); capillary: 0.37±0.22 to 1.08±0.30pg/ml (P<0.01). Venous and capillary plasma responses did not correlate at rest (r=0.59, P=0.07) but did correlate post exercise (r=0.79, P?0.001) and when expressed as an exercise induced change (r=0.71, P=0.02). Saliva does not appear to reflect systemic IL-6 responses, either at rest or in response to exercise. Conversely, capillary plasma responses are reflective of systemic IL-6 responses to exercise. PMID:25464926

  18. Age-related variations of protein carbonyls in human saliva and plasma: is saliva protein carbonyls an alternative biomarker of aging?

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Yanyi; Liu, Hongchen; Che, Yuwei; Xu, Yingying; E, Lingling

    2015-06-01

    Free radical hypothesis which is one of the most acknowledged aging theories was developed into oxidative stress hypothesis. Protein carbonylation is by far one of the most widely used markers of protein oxidation. We studied the role of age and gender in protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma among 273 Chinese healthy subjects (137 females and 136 males aged between 20 and 79) and discussed the correlation between protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma. Protein carbonyl content of saliva and plasma were, respectively, 2.391 ± 0.639 and 0.838 ± 0.274 nmol/mg. Variations of saliva and plasma different age groups all reached significant differences in both male and female (all p < 0.05) while both saliva and plasma protein carbonyls were found to be significantly correlated with age (r = 0.6582 and r = 0.5176, all p < 0.001). Gender was discovered to be unrelated to saliva and plasma protein carbonyl levels (all p > 0.05). Saliva and plasma protein carbonyls were positively related (r = 0.4405, p < 0.001). Surprisingly, saliva and plasma protein carbonyls/ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) ratios were proved to be significantly correlated with age (r = 0.7796 and r = 0.6938, all p < 0.001) while saliva protein carbonyls/FRAP ratio and plasma protein carbonyls/FRAP ratio were also correlated (r = 0.5573, p < 0.001). We concluded that saliva protein carbonyls seem to be an alternative biomarker of aging while the mechanisms of protein carbonylation and oxidative stress and the relationship between saliva protein carbonyls and diseases need to be further investigated. PMID:25943699

  19. Crystallization of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine.

    PubMed

    Doremus, R H; Teich, S; Silvis, P X

    1978-05-01

    The precipitation of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine was followed from the disappearance of radioactive oxalate from solution. Rates of precipitation were also estimated from the time of appearance of crystals. Synthetic urine inhibited the rate of crystallization of calcium oxalate; this inhibition was a combined effect of ionic strength and specific inhibition by one or mroe components of the synthetic urine. Polyphosphate and polyacrylate ions strongly inhibited crystallization of calcium oxalate from synthetic urine; phosphonates, heparin, and polystyrene sulfonate showed much less inhibition. Inasmuch as citrate and pyrophosphate ions showed some inhibition, it seems that carboxylate and phosphate groups on a polymer chain are the most effective inhibitors. PMID:649296

  20. Use of Saliva as a Lubricant in Anal Sexual Practices Among Homosexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Lisa M.; Osmond, Dennis H.; Graves Jones, Alison; Martin, Jeffrey N.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Compared with other sexually active adults, men who have sex with men (MSM) are more frequently infected with several pathogens including cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Because one common element between these organisms is their presence in saliva, we evaluated saliva exposure among MSM in a heretofore relatively unrecognized route—via use of saliva as a lubricant in anal sex. Methods MSM in a San Francisco population–based cohort were interviewed regarding use of saliva by the insertive partner as a lubricant in various anal sexual practices. Results Among 283 MSM, 87% used saliva as a lubricant in insertive or receptive penile–anal intercourse or fingering/fisting at some point during their lifetime; 31%–47% did so, depending upon the act, in the prior 6 months. Saliva use as a lubricant was more common among younger men and among HIV-infected men when with HIV-infected partners. Even among MSM following safe sex guidelines by avoiding unprotected penile–anal intercourse, 26% had anal exposure to saliva via use as a lubricant. Conclusions Among MSM, use of saliva as a lubricant is a common, but not ubiquitous, practice in anal sex. The findings provide the rationale for formal investigation of whether saliva use in this way contributes to transmission of saliva-borne pathogens in MSM. PMID:19131893

  1. [Chemiluminescence of whole saliva in antioxidant treatment of prosthetic bed tissues].

    PubMed

    Tunian, M Iu; Lalaian, B K; Zakarian, A E; Grigorian, K L; Pogosian, G A; Egiazarian, A V

    2010-03-01

    Inflammatory reaction is always accompanied by increased intensity of free-radical oxidation, especially when the phenomena of hypoxia and microcirculatory disorders that occur during the development of side-effects of acrylic removable dentures. This study determined the effectiveness of adaptogens, antioxidants in the complex treatment of diseases of tissues prosthetic field and their influence on the processes of LPO in whole mixed unstimulated saliva. Formed in the reaction to initiate the process of oxygen radicals (OH, RO, O(2)), initiate the formation of lipid peroxide radicals RO(2) biological substrate, the recombination of which leads to the emergence of unsustainable tetroxids, which decays with the release of light quanta. This luminescence is recorded as an amplified current of the photomultiplier, the registration systems. The results suggest the intensive formation of free radicals and peroxides in diseased tissue prosthetic field. Probably the main reason for increasing free-radical oxidation is the release of peroxidase from the crumbling inflammation, phagocytes (mainly neutrophils). The process of peroxidation contributes to an increase in blood supply to inflamed tissues, leading to local enrichment of oxygen, as well as toxic effects of acrylic bases of partial and complete removable dentures in the prosthetic field of tissue. Effect of antioxidants in combination with traditional treatment in 70 patients with periodontal disease and prosthetic bed was assessed by chemiluminescence analysis of whole mixed unstimulated saliva. The level of lipid peroxidation and chemiluminescence activity exceeded the normal values in the 1,5-2 - twice before the treatment. After treatment with antioxidants, these parameters decreased and increased during remission. Thus, studies to determine the status of saliva chemiluminescence method to treat and monitor the dynamics after treatment of periodontitis tissues supporting teeth prosthetic field in the control group and the main observation, revealed the following pattern: the approach of all the indices to normal in patients with a core group, which corresponded to the clinical dynamic index parameters of periodontal tissues supporting teeth prosthetic field, and a similar core group of the positive dynamics of the intensity values of chemiluminescence-indicators in the control group up to 3 months of observation, with a significant deterioration of the same indicators at a later time dynamic monitoring. PMID:20413812

  2. The caries environment: saliva, pellicle, diet, and hard tissue ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Hara, Anderson T; Zero, Domenick T

    2010-07-01

    The pathogenicity of the dental biofilm is modified by salivary and dietary factors, as well as by the characteristics of the tooth structure. The composition of the acquired pellicle can modify the mineral homeostasis of the tooth surfaces and the attachment of bacteria for the development of the biofilm. The substitution of sucrose from the diet by other less cariogenic sugars and/or sugar substitutes can contribute to reducing the pathogenicity of the biofilm. Saliva clears, dilutes, neutralizes, and buffers acids produced by the biofilm. In addition, saliva provides the biofilm/tooth structure with Ca(2+) PO(4)(3-) and F(-) ions, which can positively affect the equilibrium between demineralization-remineralization toward the remineralization and modify the susceptibility of the tooth structure to caries progression. PMID:20630189

  3. Changes in saliva testosterone after psychological stimulation in men.

    PubMed

    Hellhammer, D H; Hubert, W; Schürmeyer, T

    1985-01-01

    Saliva testosterone (ST) concentration was measured in 20 young adult and healthy men before, during and after the presentation of five different films. The films were selected to provoke erotic, sexual, aggressive, stressful and neutral stimulation, respectively. An increase in ST was found 15 min after the onset of both the erotic and the sexual stimulation, while a decline of ST levels was observed during the stressful movie showing dental surgery. No changes were found for either the neutral or the aggressive stimulant. Furthermore, no differences were found between ST levels before and after the showing of any of the films. Thus, saliva testosterone responds quickly to psychological stimulation, and may provide a practical alternative to testosterone measurements in serum under psychological test situations. PMID:4001279

  4. Investigation of saliva of patients with periodontal disease using NAA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamboni, C. B.; Metairon, S.; Medeiros, I. M. M. A.; Lewgoy, H. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this study the non-stimulated whole saliva of 26 healthy subjects (mean age 33.9 ± 11.0 years, range: 26 to 49 years) and 11 patients with periodontal disease (mean age 41.7 ± 11.5 years; range 29 to 55 years) was investigated using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) technique. The samples were obtained from donors at São Paulo city (Brazil). The analyses were performed in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 (3.5-4.5MW, pool type) at IPEN/CNEN-SP (Brazil). Considerable changes in Ca and S saliva's level were identified in patients with periodontal disease suggesting they can be used as monitors of periodontal diseases.

  5. Variability of urine albumin excretion in normal and diabetic children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana M. Gibb; Vanita Shah; Michael Preece; T. Martin Barratt

    1989-01-01

    The variability of urine albumin excretion (UAE) was studied in normal and diabetic children and, in addition, the best method of expressing the data was investigated. In 39 timed overnight urine samples from diabetic children, the urine albumin creatinine clearance ratio (CA\\/CC) was compared with the urine albumin creatinine concentration ratio (UA\\/UC), the urine albumin excretion rate (UAER) and the

  6. Spot Urine Estimations Are Equivalent to 24-Hour Urine Assessments of Urine Protein Excretion for Predicting Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Boon Wee; Loh, Ping Tyug; Wong, Weng Kin; Ho, Peh Joo; Choi, Kwok Pui; Toh, Qi Chun; Xu, Hui; Saw, Sharon; Lau, Titus; Sethi, Sunil; Lee, Evan J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The use of spot urine protein to creatinine ratios in estimating 24?hr urine protein excretion rates for diagnosing and managing chronic kidney disease (CKD) predated the standardization of creatinine assays. The comparative predictive performance of spot urine ratios and 24?hr urine collections (of albumin or protein) for the clinical outcomes of CKD progression, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality in Asians is unclear. We compared 4 methods of assessing urine protein excretion in a multiethnic population of CKD patients. Methods. Patients with CKD (n = 232) provided 24?hr urine collections followed by spot urine samples the next morning. We created multiple linear regression models to assess the factors associated with GFR decline (median follow-up: 37 months, IQR 26–41) and constructed Cox proportional-hazards models for predicting the combined outcome of ESRD and death. Results. The linear regression models showed that 24?hr urine protein excretion was most predictive of GFR decline but all other methods were similar. For the combined outcomes of ESRD and death, the proportional hazards models had similar predictive performance. Conclusions. We showed that all methods of assessments were comparable for clinical end-points, and any method can be used in clinical practice or research. PMID:25649135

  7. RAPID DIAGNOSIS OF TYPHOID FEVER BY ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY DETECTION OF SALMONELLA SEROTYPE TYPHI ANTIGENS IN URINE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MOUSTAFA ABDEL FADEEL; JOHN A. CRUMP; FRANK J. MAHONEY; ISABELLE A. NAKHLA; ADEL M. MANSOUR; BAHEIA REYAD; DAWLAT EL MELEGI; YEHIA SULTAN; ERIC D. MINTZ; WILLIAM F. BIBB

    We developed and evaluated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using monoclonal anti- bodies to capture somatic antigen 9 (O9), flagellar antigen d (Hd), and the Vi capsular polysaccharide antigen (Vi) from the urine of persons with and without typhoid fever. Sequential urine samples were collected from 44 patients with blood culture-confirmed typhoid fever and from two control groups. The first

  8. Impact of Prolonged Cannabinoid Excretion in Chronic Daily Cannabis Smokers’ Blood on Per Se Drugged Driving Laws

    PubMed Central

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M.; Karschner, Erin L.; Goodwin, Robert S.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Hirvonen, Jussi; Queiroz, Regina H.C.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cannabis is the illicit drug most frequently reported with impaired driving and motor vehicle accidents. Some “per se” laws make it illegal to drive with any amount of drug in the body, while others establish blood, saliva, or urine concentrations above which it is illegal to drive. The persistence of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in chronic daily cannabis smokers’ blood is unknown. METHODS Thirty male chronic daily cannabis smokers resided on a secure research unit for up to 33 days, with daily blood collection. Samples were processed in an ice bath during sample preparation to minimize cannabinoid adsorption onto precipitant material. We quantified THC by 2-dimensional GC-MS. RESULTS Of the 30 participants, 27 were THC-positive on admission, with a median (range) concentration of 1.4 ?g/L (0.3–6.3). THC decreased gradually; only 1 of 11 participants was negative at 26 days, 2 of 5 remained THC-positive (0.3 ?g/L) for 30 days, and 5.0% of participants had THC ?1.0 ?g/L for 12 days. Median 11-hydroxy-THC concentrations were 1.1 ?g/L on admission, with no results ?1.0 ?g/L 24 h later. 11-Nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) detection rates were 96.7% on admission, decreasing slowly to 95.7% and 85.7% on days 8 and 22, respectively; 4 of 5 participants remained THCCOOH positive (0.6–2.7 ?g/L) after 30 days, and 1 remained positive on discharge at 33 days. CONCLUSIONS Cannabinoids can be detected in blood of chronic daily cannabis smokers during a month of sustained abstinence. This is consistent with the time course of persisting neurocognitive impairment reported in recent studies. PMID:23449702

  9. 2-DE-based proteomic investigation of the saliva of the Amazonian triatomine vectors of Chagas disease: Rhodnius brethesi and Rhodnius robustus.

    PubMed

    Costa, Camila M; Sousa, Marcelo V; Ricart, Carlos André O; Santana, Jaime M; Teixeira, Antonio R L; Roepstorff, Peter; Charneau, Sébastien

    2011-08-24

    The triatomine bugs are obligatory haematophagous organisms that act as vectors of Chagas disease by transmitting the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Their feeding success is strongly related to salivary proteins that allow these insects to access blood by counteracting host haemostatic mechanisms. Proteomic studies were performed on saliva from the Amazonian triatomine bugs: Rhodnius brethesi and R. robustus, species epidemiologically relevant in the transmission of T. cruzi. Initially, salivary proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The average number of spots of the R. brethesi and R. robustus saliva samples were 129 and 135, respectively. The 2-DE profiles were very similar between the two species. Identification of spots by peptide mass fingerprinting afforded limited efficiency, since very few species-specific salivary protein sequences are available in public sequence databases. Therefore, peptide fragmentation and de novo sequencing using a MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer were applied for similarity-driven identifications which generated very positive results. The data revealed mainly lipocalin-like proteins which promote blood feeding of these insects. The redundancy of saliva sequence identification suggested multiple isoforms caused by gene duplication followed by gene modification and/or post-translational modifications. In the first experimental assay, these proteins were predominantly phosphorylated, suggesting functional phosphoregulation of the lipocalins. PMID:21362504

  10. Leaching of 210 Po in human saliva from smokeless tobacco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umme-Farzana Syed; Abdul Bari; Liaquat Husain

    2009-01-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with cancer of the oral cavity. 210Po, a known carcinogen present in SLT may leach into the saliva when the snuff is held in the mouth. Alpha emission from leached\\u000a 210Po can cause oral tissue damage, especially in the presence of non healing ulcers seen frequently in snuff users’ mouth. Leaching\\u000a of 210Po

  11. Saliva/Pathogen Biomarker Signatures and Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, J.S.; Morelli, T.; Braun, T.; Ramseier, C.A.; Herr, A.E.; Sugai, J.V.; Shelburne, C.E.; Rayburn, L.A.; Singh, A.K.; Giannobile, W.V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of saliva-derived biomarkers and periodontal pathogens during periodontal disease progression (PDP). One hundred human participants were recruited into a 12-month investigation. They were seen bi-monthly for saliva and clinical measures and bi-annually for subtraction radiography, serum and plaque biofilm assessments. Saliva and serum were analyzed with protein arrays for 14 pro-inflammatory and bone turnover markers, while qPCR was used for detection of biofilm. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was used to group study participants based on clinical, microbiological, salivary/serum biomarkers, and PDP. Eighty-three individuals completed the six-month monitoring phase, with 44 exhibiting PDP, while 39 demonstrated stability. Participants assembled into three clusters based on periodontal pathogens, serum and salivary biomarkers. Cluster 1 members displayed high salivary biomarkers and biofilm; 82% of these individuals were undergoing PDP. Cluster 2 members displayed low biofilm and biomarker levels; 78% of these individuals were stable. Cluster 3 members were not discriminated by PDP status; however, cluster stratification followed groups 1 and 2 based on thresholds of salivary biomarkers and biofilm pathogens. The association of cluster membership to PDP was highly significant (p < 0.0002). The use of salivary and biofilm biomarkers offers potential for the identification of PDP or stability (ClinicalTrials.gov number, CT00277745). PMID:21406610

  12. Tongue-mandible coupling movements during saliva swallowing.

    PubMed

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tongue and mandible positions and displacements in relation to the maxilla in the midsagittal plane to characterize the different saliva swallowing patterns by recording their kinematics. A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health. During 170 s sequences recorded at a frequency of 100 Hz, subjects were at rest, silently reading a text they had chosen. The subjects were free to swallow during the sequence. Deglutition of accumulated saliva was analysed after averaging all values obtained during successive 250 ms periods. We identified three elementary swallowing patterns. Mean duration of tongue-mandible movements were 1·51 ± 0·17 s, 1·63 ± 0·14 s and 2·00 ± 0·08 s for the first, second and third patterns respectively. In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue-mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in-mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. PMID:24443935

  13. Increased EBV Shedding in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2003-01-01

    Shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) by astronauts before, during, and after space shuttle missions was quantified. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA by PCR analysis. Of the saliva specimens collected before flight, 29% were positive for EBV DNA and of those collected during or after flight, 16% were EBV-positive. The number of EBV DNA copies from samples taken during the flight was 417+/-31, significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40+/-1.7) and postflight (44+/-5) phases. Eighteen control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a copy number of 40+/-2 per ml saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, antibody titers to EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary level of cortiso1 and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight value. Results suggested that stress associated with spaceflight decreases cellular immunity and thereby leads to increased viral reactivation.

  14. Human saliva-derived exosomes: comparing methods of isolation.

    PubMed

    Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Dayan, Dan; Chaushu, Gavriel; Korvala, Johanna; Salo, Tuula; Sormunen, Raija; Vered, Marilena

    2015-03-01

    ExoQuick-TC(TM) (EQ), a chemical-based agent designed to precipitate exosomes, was calibrated for use on saliva collected from healthy individuals. The morphological and molecular features of the precipitations were compared with those obtained using the classical, physical-based method of ultracentrifugation (UC). Electron microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy with anti-CD63 showed vesicular nanoparticles surrounded by bi-layered membrane, compatible with exosomes in EQ, similar to that observed with UC. Atomic force microscopy highlighted larger, irregularly shaped/aggregated EQ nanoparticles that contrasted with the single, round-shaped UC nanoparticles. ELISA (performed on 0.5 ml of saliva) revealed a tendency for a higher expression of the specific exosomal markers (CD63, CD9, CD81) in EQ than in UC (p>0.05). ELISA for epithelial growth factor receptor, a non-exosomal-related marker, showed a significantly higher concentration in EQ than in UC (p=0.04). Western blotting of equal total-protein concentrations revealed bands of CD63, CD9 and CD81 in both types of preparations, although they were less pronounced in EQ compared with UC. This may be related to a higher fraction of non-exosomal proteins in EQ. In conclusion, EQ is suitable and efficient for precipitation of salivary exosomes from small volumes of saliva; however, EQ tends to be associated with considerably more biological impurities (non-exosomal-related proteins/microvesicles) as compared with UC. PMID:25473095

  15. Glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, and Actinomyces viscosus in the presence of human saliva.

    PubMed

    Germaine, G R; Tellefson, L M

    1982-12-01

    Glucose uptake was examined by using whole-cell suspensions of Streptococcus mutans (strains BHT, Ingbritt, and GS-5), Streptococcus mitis (strains 9811 and 72x41), and Actinomyces viscosus (strains T6 and WVU626) incubated for up to 90 min in 0 to 82% (vol/vol) human whole salivary supernatant. Glucose uptake by the S. mutans strains was completely inhibited at all saliva concentrations. Dithiothreitol (DTT), present during saliva incubation, prevented saliva inhibition. Glucose uptake was also restored when saliva-inhibited cells were subsequently exposed to DTT. The inclusion of catalase in the saliva incubation mixtures resulted in protection equal to that obtained with DTT. The S. mitis strains were also inhibited by saliva but to a far lesser extent that S. mutans. DTT and catalase also protected S. mitis from saliva inhibition. Both A. viscosus strains were completely refractory to saliva inhibition of glucose uptake. Based on (i) the sensitivity of the catalase-negative streptococci and the resistance of catalase-positive actinomyces to saliva inhibition and (ii) the equal and complete protection to saliva inhibition afforded by DTT and catalase, we conclude that the lactoperoxidase-SCN(-)-H(2)O(2) system in saliva was the only antibacterial system expressed under our experimental conditions. The relative resistance of S. mitis 9811 (compared with S. mutans BHT) to saliva inhibition was shown not to result from poor H(2)O(2) production in either glucose-supplemented buffer or saliva solutions. S. mitis produced inhibitory quantities of H(2)O(2) that equaled or exceeded S. mutans H(2)O(2) accumulation. It is suggested that S. mitis might possess a greater ability to repair lactoperoxidase-mediated damage than does S. mutans. Every organism studied exhibited a saliva concentration-dependent, cell growth-independent stimulation of glucose uptake after 60 to 90 min of incubation. The A. viscosus and S. mitis strains showed saliva stimulation (or stabilization) of glucose uptake with unsupplemented saliva. In the case of S. mutans, saliva stimulation was only observed when DTT was present. The possible role of salivary lactoperoxidase as a modulator of the intraoral site specificities exhibited by S. mutans is discussed. PMID:7152663

  16. Carbohydrate Chains Specific for Blood Group Antigens in Differentiation of Human Oral Epithelium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Dabelsteen; Poul Vedtofte; Sen-Itiroh Hakomori; William W. Young

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of A, B, and H blood group antigens and 2 blood group precursor carbohydrate chains (N-acetyl-lactosamine and lacto-N-triosyl-group) was examined in human buccal epithelium. The material included tissue from persons with blood group A, B, and O, 9 from each group.Six patients in each group were secretors of blood group antigens in the saliva and 3 were nonsecretors.

  17. Plasma disappearance, urine excretion, and tissue distribution of ribavirin in rats and rhesus monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrara, E.A.; Oishi, J.S.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr.; Stephen, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    Ribavirin has been shown to have broad-spectrum antiviral. To study its tissue distribution and disappearance rate, a single dose of 10 mg/kg which contained 10 microCi of (14C)ribavirin was injected intravenously into rhesus monkeys and intramuscularly into monkeys and rats. Except for peak plasma concentrations and the initial phases of the plasma disappearance and urine excretion curves, no significant difference was observed between plasma, tissue, or urine values for intramuscularly or intravenously injected monkeys. Plasma disappearance curves were triphasic; plasma concentrations of ribavirin were similar for both monkeys and rats. Rats excreted ribavirin in the urine more rapidly and to a greater extent (82% excreted in 24 h) than did monkeys (60% excreted in 72 h). In the rat, only 3% of the injected (14C)ribavirin was detected in expired CO2. Therefore, for both species, urine was the major route for the elimination of labeled ribavirin and its metabolites from the body. In monkeys, the amount of parent drug in blood cells increased through 48 h and remained stable for 72 h, whereas in rats, ribavirin decreased at a rate similar to the plasma disappearance curve. Concentrations of ribavirin at 8 h were consistently higher in monkeys than in rats for all tissues except the brain. Thus, these differences in blood cellular components and organ content and in urine excretion suggested that there was greater tissue retention of ribavirin in monkeys than in rats.

  18. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Willers; P. J. Hobbs; N. W. M. Ogink

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in a packed bed scrubber. Before entering the scrubber,

  19. Boric Acid Preservation of Urine Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Porter; J. Brodie

    1969-01-01

    Comparison of the results of bacteriological culture and microscopic examination of urine samples transported over a distance by the dip-inoculum transport medium, ice-box, and boric acid preservation with “natural” urine specimens showed that the last, in a final concentration of 1·8%, gives satisfactory preservation.

  20. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Procedures for urine surveillance. 550.42 Section 550.42 ...DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Services (Urine Surveillance and Counseling for Sentenced Inmates... § 550.42 Procedures for urine surveillance. (a) Contractor...

  1. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  2. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  3. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section...PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...donor shall provide his or her urine specimen in the privacy...

  4. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  5. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the...disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for...disciplinary hearings and a copy of positive urine testing results which the inmate cannot...

  6. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section...PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...donor shall provide his or her urine specimen in the privacy...

  7. 28 CFR 550.42 - Procedures for urine surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Center staff shall have each positive urine test validated to substantiate the...disciplinary report if the inmate's urine test shows a positive result for...disciplinary hearings and a copy of positive urine testing results which the inmate cannot...

  8. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. ...drug and validity testing; and (3) The...splitting of the urine specimen and...only if sufficient urine is available for this testing after the...

  9. Green urine in a critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Carpenito, Gerardo; Kurtz, Ira

    2002-04-01

    The development of discolored urine in the critically ill patient, although uncommon, may have many possible causes, with the most likely source related to medication administration. Studies were undertaken in a 39-year-old man who developed dark green urine while in the intensive care unit for neutropenic sepsis. Although the patient had developed prior nonoliguric renal failure stemming from his sepsis, his renal function at the time of presentation of urine discoloration was considered normal. Review of his medications and intravenous infusions suggested the most likely cause was the food dye placed in his enteral tube feedings. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the urine confirmed the presence of Food Dye and Color Blue Number 1 (FD&C Blue No. 1). This case shows that significant gastrointestinal absorption of FD&C Blue No. 1 can occur. FD&C Blue No. 1 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dark green discolored urine. PMID:11920362

  10. Perspiration versus saliva – basic aspects concerning their use in roadside drug testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Skopp; L. Pötsch

    1999-01-01

    Various aspects concerning the practical application and forensic interpretation of data obtained by saliva drug testing\\u000a and drug monitoring from the skin surface are discussed. Basic information on the composition of saliva and skin secretions\\u000a and their particular transport mechanisms, as far as known, are given. For drugs of abuse secretion into saliva is suggested\\u000a to be by passive diffusion

  11. Intake of polyphenol-rich pomegranate pure juice influences urinary glucocorticoids, blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Catherine; Smail, Nacer F.; Almoosawi, S.; Davidson, I.; Al-Dujaili, Emad A. S.

    2012-01-01

    Pomegranate juice (PJ; also known as pomegreat pure juice) provides a rich and varied source of polyphenolic compounds that may offer cardioprotective, anti-atherogenic and antihypertensive effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PJ consumption on glucocorticoids levels, blood pressure (BP) and insulin resistance in volunteers at high CVD risk. Subjects (twelve males and sixteen females) participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled cross-over study (BMI: 26·77 (sd 3·36) kg/m2; mean age: 50·4 (sd 6·1) years). Volunteers were assessed at baseline, and at weeks 2 and 4 for anthropometry, BP and pulse wave velocity. Cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva were determined by specific ELISA methods, and the cortisol/cortisone ratio was calculated. Fasting blood samples were obtained to assess plasma lipids, glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance). Volunteers consumed 500 ml of PJ or 500 ml of a placebo drink containing a similar amount of energy. Cortisol urinary output was reduced but not significant. However, cortisol/cortisone ratios in urine (P = 0·009) and saliva (P = 0·024) were significantly decreased. Systolic BP decreased from 136·4 (sd 6·3) to 128·9 (sd 5·1) mmHg (P = 0·034), and diastolic BP from 80·3 (sd 4·29) to 75·5 (sd 5·17) mmHg (P = 0·031) after 4 weeks of fruit juice consumption. Pulse wave velocity decreased from 7·5 (sd 0·86) to 7·44 (sd 0·94) m/s (P = 0·035). There was also a significant reduction in fasting plasma insulin from 9·36 (sd 5·8) to 7·53 (sd 4·12) mIU/l (P = 0·025) and of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (from 2·216 (sd 1·43) to 1·82 (sd 1·12), P = 0·028). No significant changes were seen in the placebo arm of the study. These results suggest that PJ consumption can alleviate key cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese subjects that might be due to a reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP, possibly through the inhibition of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme activity as evidenced by the reduction in the cortisol/cortisone ratio. The reduction in insulin resistance might have therapeutic benefits for patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25191556

  12. Remineralization of softened human enamel in mucin- or CMC-containing artificial salivas.

    PubMed

    Gelhard, T B; Fidler, V; s-Gravenmade, E J; Vissink, A

    1983-10-01

    The rehardening properties of four saliva substitutes on artificially softened human enamel have been investigated by microhardness measurements. The saliva substitutes were all based on the same formula, containing calcium, phosphate and fluoride as the main electrolytes, and mucin or carboxymethylcellulose as the main macromolecules. It has been shown that a rehardening potential exists in the saliva substitutes when calcium and phosphate are present. Omitting F- greatly reduces the rehardening potential. The rehardening is better in case of the CMC-containing saliva than in that containing mucin. PMID:6415255

  13. The functions of human saliva: A review sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI.

    PubMed

    Dawes, C; Pedersen, A M L; Villa, A; Ekström, J; Proctor, G B; Vissink, A; Aframian, D; McGowan, R; Aliko, A; Narayana, N; Sia, Y W; Joshi, R K; Jensen, S B; Kerr, A R; Wolff, A

    2015-06-01

    This narrative review of the functions of saliva was conducted in the PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases. Additional references relevant to the topic were used, as our key words did not generate references which covered all known functions of saliva. These functions include maintaining a moist oral mucosa which is less susceptible to abrasion, and removal of micro-organisms, desquamated epithelial cells, leucocytes and food debris by swallowing. The mucins form a slimy coating on all surfaces in the mouth and act as a lubricant during such processes as mastication, formation of a food bolus, swallowing and speaking. Saliva provides the fluid in which solid tastants may dissolve and distributes tastants around the mouth to the locations of the taste buds. The hypotonic unstimulated saliva facilitates taste recognition. Salivary amylase is involved in digestion of starches. Saliva acts as a buffer to protect oral, pharyngeal and oesophageal mucosae from orally ingested acid or acid regurgitated from the stomach. Saliva protects the teeth against acid by contributing to the acquired enamel pellicle, which forms a renewable lubricant between opposing tooth surfaces, by being supersaturated with respect to tooth mineral, by containing bicarbonate as a buffer and urea and by facilitating clearance of acidic materials from the mouth. Saliva contains many antibacterial, antiviral and antifungal agents which modulate the oral microbial flora in different ways. Saliva also facilitates the healing of oral wounds. Clearly, saliva has many functions which are needed for proper protection and functioning of the human body. PMID:25841068

  14. Activation of defense mechanism in wheat by polyphenol oxidase from aphid saliva.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Chen, Ju-Lian; Cheng, Deng-Fa; Sun, Jing-Rui

    2010-02-24

    The saliva of two cereal aphids, Sitobion avenae and Schizaphis graminum in third-instar nymphs, was collected after 24 h of feeding by 30 aphids, separately, on artificial diet sachets, and the salivary enzymes were determined. The result showed that polyphenol oxidase (PPO) existed in the saliva of both aphid species, and the enzymatic activities were 6.2 x 10(-3) U/g for S. avenae and 2.37 x 10(-1) U/g for S. graminum, revealing a 38-fold higher activity in the saliva of S. graminum than in the saliva of S. avenae. It was speculated that the higher PPO activity in S. graminum saliva was a contributing factor to the light yellow spot left on the feeding site of the wheat leaf by S. graminum; no such spot was left by S. avenae. After treatment of a wheat seedling with the saliva of S. avenae and S. graminum and PPO at the concentration of aphid saliva, transcript profiling data showed that aphid saliva and PPO significantly induced expression of the genes aos and fps. Because genes aos and fps encode the key enzymes in the defense signal pathways jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways, respectively, it was deduced that PPO from aphid saliva, as the main elicitor, triggers an appropriate defense response in wheat through jasmonic acid and terpene signal pathways. PMID:20112908

  15. Urine toxicology testing in chronic pain management.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H

    2009-07-01

    Treatment guidelines for chronic noncancer pain recommend opioids for carefully selected, closely monitored patients. However, many primary care physicians have a limited understanding of urine toxicology testing, which is the standard for monitoring opioid therapy. This article describes the technical aspects of urine toxicology testing and provides recommendations for monitoring patients to maximize the safety of opioid therapy. Articles were identified in PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE (January 1980-November 2008) using the search term opioid in combination with the terms urine toxicology, compliance monitoring, abuse, and diversion. Articles characterizing the pharmacology of individual opioids and practice guidelines for the management of chronic pain were also identified. Articles selected for inclusion discussed technical aspects of urine toxicology testing, clinical aspects of monitoring, and issues related to abuse and diversion. Urine tests can detect prescribed and illicit substances that are present above a specific threshold, but they provide limited data about the source, dose, or route of administration of substances detected. Effective monitoring requires careful test selection, an understanding of pharmacologic and metabolic factors influencing test results, and awareness of methods by which patients who are substance abusers may tamper with test specimens to escape detection. All patients prescribed opioids, not just those considered at risk for abuse, should undergo urine toxicology testing. Given its inherent complexities, effective urine testing requires close collaboration between the primary care physician and a reliable laboratory to develop an appropriate test protocol for each patient and to interpret test results. PMID:19641275

  16. Effect of human saliva on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans and other oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Germaine, G R; Tellefson, L M

    1981-02-01

    We examined the effects of human whole salivary supernatant and parotid fluid on glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The following three effects of saliva were observed: (i) inhibition of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), (ii) promotion of a transient, rapid (0 to 30 s) burst of glucose uptake (S. mutans, S. sanguis), and (iii) enhancement of glucose uptake (S. mitis, A. viscosus, S. aureus, E. coli). We observed no differences between the effects of whole salivary supernatant and the effects of parotid fluid. Heat treatment (80 degrees C, 10 min) of saliva or the addition of dithiothreitol abolished inhibition of glucose uptake. Supplementation of saliva with H(2)O(2) potentiated inhibition of glucose uptake. S. mitis and A. viscosus, which were stimulated by saliva alone, were inhibited by H(2)O(2)-supplemented saliva; 50% inhibition of glucose uptake by S. mutans and S. mitis required ca. 10 muM H(2)O(2) in 50% (vol/vol) saliva. Loss of the inhibitory action of saliva occurred at about 5% (vol/vol) saliva. Supplementation of saliva dilutions with SCN(-) and H(2)O(2) extended the inhibitory activity to solutions containing ca. 0.2% (vol/vol) saliva. We suggest that the salivary lactoperoxidase-SCN(-)-H(2)O(2) system is responsible for the inhibitory activity of saliva reported here. Furthermore, we concluded that lactoperoxidase and SCN(-) are present in saliva specimens in concentrations that exceed minimal inhibitory levels by factors of ca. 500 and 10 to 20, respectively. The resistance of A. viscosus, S. aureus, and E. coli to the inhibitory potential of saliva alone was probably due to the production of catalase by these organisms. The resistance of S. mitis may have been due to special effects of saliva on H(2)O(2) accumulation by this organism compared with S. mutans and S. sanguis. The basis of saliva-dependent enhancement of glucose uptake and the basis of promotion of a transient, rapid burst of glucose uptake are unknown. The role of the salivary lactoperoxidase-SCN(-)-H(2)O(2) system in the oral microbial ecosystem is discussed. PMID:7012014

  17. Viscoelasticity of human whole saliva collected after acid and mechanical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Jason R; Davies, Georgina A

    2007-01-01

    The rheology of saliva is highly important due to its influence on oral health and physiochemical processes within the oral environment. While the rheology of human whole saliva (HWS) is considered important for its functionality, its measurement is often performed erroneously and/or limited to the viscosity at a single shear rate. To ensure accurate rheological measurements, it is necessary to test HWS immediately after expectoration and to apply a thin layer of surfactant solution around the rim of the rheometer plates so that protein adsorption is minimized at the air-liquid interface. It is shown for the first time that the viscosity and viscoelasticity of HWS depends greatly upon the method of stimulation. Mechanical action stimulates slightly shear-thinning and relatively inelastic saliva, while acidic solutions (e.g. 0.25% citric acid) stimulate secretion of saliva that is highly elastic and shear-thinning. However, both acidic solutions and mechanical action stimulate similar volumes of saliva. For acid-stimulated saliva, the ratio of the primary normal stress difference to the shear stress is of order 100 and the viscosity at high shear rates is only marginally above that of water. This extremely high stress ratio for such a low viscosity fluid indicates that saliva's elastic properties dominate its flow behavior and may assist in facilitating lubrication within the oral cavity. It is anticipated that the variation in saliva rheology arises because the individual glands secrete saliva of different rheology, with the proportion of saliva secreted from each gland depending on the method of stimulation. The steady-shear rheology and linear viscoelasticity of HWS are described reasonably well using a FENE-P constitutive model and a 3-mode Maxwell model respectively. These models indicate that there are several long relaxation modes within saliva, possibly arising from the presence of large flexible macromolecules such as mucin glycoproteins. PMID:17851164

  18. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus in Saliva

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Don H.; Harding, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chicken pox on first exposure (usually in children), and reactivates from latency causing shingles (usually in adults). Shingles can be extremely painful, causing nerve damage, organ damage, and blindness in some cases. The virus can be life-threatening in immune-compromised individuals. The virus is very difficult to culture for diagnosis, requiring a week or longer. This invention is a rapid test for VZV from a saliva sample and can be performed in a doctor s office. The kit is small, compact, and lightweight. Detec tion is sensitive, specific, and noninvasive (no needles); only a saliva sample is required. The test provides results in minutes. The entire test is performed in a closed system, with no exposure to infectious materials. The components are made mostly of inexpensive plastic injection molded parts, many of which can be purchased off the shelf and merely assembled. All biological waste is contained for fast, efficient disposal. This innovation was made possible because of discovery of a NASA scientists flight experiment showing the presence of VZV in saliva during high stress periods and disease. This finding enables clinicians to quickly screen patients for VZV and treat the ones that show positive results with antiviral medicines. This promotes a rapid recovery, easing of pain and symptoms, and reduces chances of complications from zoster. Screening of high-risk patients could be incorporated as part of a regular physical exam. These patients include the elderly, pregnant women, and immune-compromised individuals. In these patients, VZV can be a life-threatening disease. In both high- and low-risk patients, early detection and treatment with antiviral drugs can dramatically decrease or even eliminate the clinical manifestation of disease.

  19. In vivo imaging of microvascular changes in inflammatory human skin induced by tape stripping and mosquito saliva using optical microangiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, Utku; Choi, Woo J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Tape stripping on human skin induces mechanical disruptions of the epidermal barrier that lead to minor skin inflammation which leads to temporary changes in microvasculature. On the other hand, when mosquitoes probe the skin for blood feeding, they inject saliva in dermal tissue. Mosquito saliva is known to exert various biological activities, such as dermal mast cell degranulation, leading to fluid extravasation and neutrophil influx. This inflammatory response remain longer than the tape stripping caused inflammation. In this study, we demonstrate the capabilities of swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting in vivo microvascular response of inflammatory human skin. Optical microangiography (OMAG), noninvasive volumetric microvasculature in vivo imaging method, has been used to track the vascular responses after tape stripping and mosquito bite. Vessel density has been quantified and used to correlate with the degree of skin irritation. The proved capability of OMAG technique in visualizing the microvasculature network under inflamed skin condition can play an important role in clinical trials of treatment and diagnosis of inflammatory skin disorders as well as studying mosquito bite's perception by the immune system and its role in parasite transmission.

  20. Health Care Workers: Avoiding Infections at Work

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can avoid getting them. What are blood-borne pathogens, and how can I protect myself from getting ... workplace. Do all body fluids carry blood-borne pathogens? Body fluids such as tears, sweat, saliva, urine ...

  1. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  2. Blood Transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their blood . Donors give blood at local blood banks, at community centers during blood drives, or through ... in the world. Many organizations, including community blood banks and the federal government, work hard to ensure ...

  3. Blood Tests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... t have serious reactions to having blood drawn. Laboratory (lab) workers draw the blood and analyze it. They use either whole blood to count blood cells, or they separate the blood cells from the ...

  4. Comparison of saliva and serum for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antibody testing in Uganda using a rapid recombinant assay.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, R M; Piwowar, E M; Katongole-Mbidde, E; Muzawalu, W; Rugera, S; Abima, J; Stramer, S L; Kataaha, P; Jackson, B

    1996-01-01

    The accuracy and acceptability of saliva human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody testing were compared with serum testing in a study of paired specimens from HIV-1-seropositive and HIV-1-seronegative Ugandan adults attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases. Saliva collection was performed with the Omni-sal device (Saliva Diagnostic Systems, Vancouver, Wash.), and antibody testing was performed by a rapid filter paper assay (Test-Pack; Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Ill.). Relative to serum testing, the sensitivity of saliva testing was 95% (195 of 205) and the specificity was 99% (295 of 297). The sensitivity of saliva testing was higher for patients with elevated levels of beta-2 microglobulin in sera and greater numbers of HIV-1-related symptoms. Pre- and poststudy interviews indicated that saliva testing did not foster inordinate fears of saliva exposure. The development of saliva tests that are inexpensive and do not require electricity is needed. PMID:8914752

  5. Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications

    E-print Network

    Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

    2004-01-01

    with generally positive results. This paper will discuss the design, applications, operation, maintenance, advantages, and disadvantages of waterless urinals. The results of two surveys of current users will be shared. A case study from a Texas school district...

  6. INGESTED MINERAL FIBERS: ELIMINATION IN HUMAN URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment in human urine examined by transmission electron microscopy contains amphibole fibers which originate from the ingestion of drinking water contaminated with these mineral fibers. The ingestion of filtered water results in the eventual disappearance of amphibole fibers fr...

  7. Influence of mastication and saliva on aroma release in a model mouth system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M van Ruth; J. P. Roozen

    2000-01-01

    The influence of mastication, saliva composition and saliva volume on aroma release from rehydrated diced bell peppers and French beans was studied in a model mouth system. Released volatile compounds were analysed by gas chromatography combined with sniffing port and flame ionisation detection. Compounds were identified by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry, resulting in more than 40 compounds to be identified in

  8. Total Protein of Whole Saliva as a Biomarker of Anaerobic Threshold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortolini, Miguel Junior Sordi; De Agostini, Guilherme Gularte; Reis, Ismair Teodoro; Lamounier, Romeu Paulo Martins Silva; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Espindola, Foued Salmen

    2009-01-01

    Saliva provides a convenient and noninvasive matrix for assessing specific physiological parameters, including some biomarkers of exercise. We investigated whether the total protein concentration of whole saliva (TPWS) would reflect the anaerobic threshold during an incremental exercise test. After a warm-up period, 13 nonsmoking men performed a…

  9. Electrolyte concentrations in saliva of children aged 6-10 years with Down syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Luiz Siqueira; Elisabeth de Oliveira; Zan Mustacchi; José Nicolau

    2004-01-01

    Study designIn this study sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and magnesium ion concentration was analyzed in stimulated whole saliva in 22 children with Down syndrome aged 6 to 10 years. These children were compared with 21 healthy children of the same age. Stimulated saliva was collected by chewing a piece of parafilm for 10 minutes. The pH was measured with

  10. Aerobic Exercise Reduced Oxidative Stress in Saliva of Persons With Down Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean C. Zambrano; Ramón Marquina; Nancy Sulbarán; Antonio J. Rodríguez-Malaver; Rafael A. Reyes

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise (AE) on uric acid (UA), total antioxidant activity (TAA), oxidative stress (OS) and nitrite a stable nitric oxide (NO) metabolite in saliva from persons with Down syndrome (DS). Stimulated saliva was sampled from 12 participants 1 hour before and immediately after a 1,600-meter walking test. Uric acid

  11. Estradiol in saliva for monitoring follicular stimulation in an in vitro fertilization program.

    PubMed

    Belkien, L D; Bordt, J; Möller, P; Hano, R; Nieschlag, E

    1985-09-01

    A rapid and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed to compare serum and saliva estradiol (E2) levels in patients undergoing ovulation induction in an in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) program. Serum and saliva E2 were compared in 23 patients. The sensitivity of the saliva RIA standard curve was 11 fmol/tube (equal to 3.2 pg/tube). There was a highly significant correlation between serum and saliva E2 throughout the stimulated cycles (r = 0.769; P less than 0.001). The ratio of serum to saliva E2 was constant throughout the stimulated cycles (1.7% +/- 0.3%, mean +/- standard deviation [SD]). The E2 concentration per follicle was 1548 pmol/l in serum and 23 pmol/l in saliva. Mean E2 levels in saliva (+/- SD) were 74 +/- 21 pmol/l at midcycle and 46 +/- 12 pmol/l at midluteal phase. The findings indicate that measurement of saliva E2 provides a reliable, noninvasive method and may replace serum measurements for monitoring stimulated cycles in an IVF-ET program. PMID:4029421

  12. Brief Functional Analysis and Intervention Evaluation for Treatment of Saliva-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luiselli, James K.; Ricciardi, Joseph N.; Schmidt, Sarah; Tarr, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a brief (8 days) functional analysis to identify sources of control over persistent saliva-play displayed by a 6-year old child with autism in a school setting. The functional analysis suggested that saliva-play was maintained by automatic reinforcement, leading to an intervention evaluation (3 days) that compared two methods of…

  13. Waterless Urinals: Features, Benefits and Applications 

    E-print Network

    Bristow, G.; McClure, J. D.; Fisher, D.

    2004-01-01

    . Regular upkeep includes cleaning all surfaces, and drain care, whether the drain contains a cartridge type trap or one cast into the urinal. Custodial staffs can perform these tasks. Cleaning involves using a nonabrasive cleanser, followed by wiping... with waterless urinals, proper maintenance is the key to satisfaction. Since there is no flushing to clean the fixtures, they must be wiped down and cleaned regularly. Cleaning must be done according to manufacturer?s instructions for the best results...

  14. Adherence of Streptococcus sanguis to hydroxyapatite coated with lysozyme and lysozyme-supplemented saliva.

    PubMed

    Tellefson, L M; Germaine, G R

    1986-03-01

    The adherence of [3H]thymidine-labeled Streptococcus sanguis strains to bare hydroxyapatite and to hydroxyapatite coated with a range of concentrations of lysozyme, poly-L-lysine, poly-L-glutamic acid, whole saliva supernatant, and combinations of some of the above was studied. Adherence of several strains of S. sanguis to bare hydroxyapatite and saliva-coated hydroxyapatite was compared. Saliva present as a pellicle on the hydroxyapatite inhibited adherence of some strains (903, M-5, 73X11) and stimulated that of others (S35, B-4, 66X49). Strains 903 and S35 were chosen for further study. Adherence of both strains was stimulated up to fivefold by the presence of adsorbed lysozyme or poly-L-lysine on the hydroxyapatite, whereas poly-L-glutamic acid inhibited adherence (80 to 95%). Adherence of strain S35 to hydroxyapatite coated with combinations of saliva and (i) lysozyme, (ii) poly-L-lysine, or (iii) poly-L-glutamic acid was unaffected compared with adherence to hydroxyapatite coated with saliva alone. In contrast, adherence of strain 903 to hydroxyapatite coated with combinations of saliva and either lysozyme or poly-L-lysine was inhibited up to ca. 90% compared with hydroxyapatite coated with saliva alone. Strain 903 was also unaffected by combinations of poly-L-glutamic acid and saliva on the hydroxyapatite. Adherent cells of both strains were completely (greater than 90%) eluted with high-ionic-strength buffer from either bare hydroxyapatite or hydroxyapatite coated with lysozyme alone. Adherent cells of strain S35 were only poorly eluted (25%) from hydroxyapatite coated with either saliva alone or saliva and lysozyme. Strain 903 elution from hydroxyapatite coated with either saliva alone or saliva and lysozyme was essentially complete. These observations were taken to indicate that the two test strains adhered to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite by different mechanisms. Protein-coated hydroxyapatite was shown not to be saturated under the conditions described here. Examination by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the variously supplemented salivary pellicles formed on the hydroxyapatite demonstrated that major changes in salivary protein composition did not occur when lysozyme, poly-L-lysine, or poly-L-glutamic acid was used to supplement saliva. Lysozyme-dependent aggregation of strain 903 was shown not to occur under the conditions of our experiments. We suggest that the basis for stimulation of adherence to hydroxyapatite coated only with lysozyme is an increase in the cationic surface area available for electrostatic adherence of the microorganisms.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2419251

  15. Diagnostic monitoring of urine by means of synchronous fluorescence spectrum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katar??na Dubayová; Jaroslav Kušn??r; L'udmila Podracká

    2003-01-01

    A novel approach to clinical–biochemical analysis of urine is presented in this work. Urine composition is defined graphically as a record of synchronous fluorescence spectra (SFS). The graphical standard has been made from SFS of urine samples from healthy children. Simple comparison of a standard record with that of an analyzed urine sample will immediately reveal changes in its composition.Reproducibility

  16. Practical method to facilitate estimation of Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Köhler, B; Bratthall, D

    1979-01-01

    A method was developed to facilitate the estimation of Streptococcus mutans levels in saliva. Saliva-contaminated wodden spatulas were pressed directly against an elevated agar plate containing a selective medium. The results were compared with the number of S. mutans per 1 ml of paraffin-stimulated saliva. It was shown that the spatula method gave a good estimation of the level of S. mutans infection. The incubation was also made in expired air instead of 95% N2-5% CO2. The outgrowth was in good agreement with that after conventional incubation. The method is useful in epidemiological studies or in selecting persons at a high caries risk, and when ordinary saliva sampling cannot be done, for example in small children. Compared with conventional saliva sampling, this method requires less time and material at sampling as well as at the laboratory. Images PMID:383745

  17. Saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for nasopharyngeal cancer detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Duo; Lin, Juqiang; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Li, Yongzeng; Huang, Shaohua; Zhao, Jianhua; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2014-02-01

    A method for saliva analysis combining membrane protein purification with silver nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for non-invasive nasopharyngeal cancer detection was present in this paper. In this method, cellulose acetate membrane was used to obtain purified whole proteins from human saliva while removing other native saliva constituents and exogenous substances. The purified proteins were mixed with silver nanoparticle for SERS analysis. A diagnostic accuracy of 90.2% can be achieved by principal components analysis combined with linear discriminate analysis, for saliva samples obtained from patients with nasopharyngeal cancer (n = 62) and healthy volunteers (n = 30). This exploratory study demonstrated the potential for developing non-invasive, rapid saliva SERS analysis for nasopharyngeal cancer detection.

  18. [Foam in urine: from Hippocrates to the Medical School of Salerno].

    PubMed

    Iorio, Luigi; Lamagna, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The formation of persistent little bubbles in urine, similar to those of beer, was noticed since ancient times by the first scholars of uroscopy. The diagnostic interest, rare and uncertain in Hippocrates, has increased over time. The Hippocratic school limited itself to observe the sign without interpreting the pathophysiology and they did not compare it with other clinical signs. Hippocratic texts only expressed an opinion on the severity and prognosis of the pathology which had produced it. Galen does not differ much from the Hippocratic school, however he tries to interpret the cause of the formation of bubbles in urine. Certainly, because of being unfamiliar to the laws of fluids and to the surperficial tension of liquids, he believes that the air contained in the bubbles of the foam in the urine comes from inside the organism. However, he realizes that the foam in urine is formed only when the urine is denser (more viscous).The Byzantine uroscopy, with Theophilus Protospatharius and Stephen of Athens considers the presence of foam quite important. In fact, they state that the bubbles appear in the urine when there is a severe failure of the organism. It is a sign of the attempt of the body to eliminate the bad humours produced in the different zones where digestion takes place. Several authors from the School of Salerno express different opinions on the production of foam in urine. Cofone affirms it derives from the putrefied blood in dense urine and he also uses this sign for diagnostic and prognostic results. Mattheus Archiepiscopus confirms Galens belief that the foam derives from wind bubbles produced in the stomach. The "De Urinis" of Maestro Mauro is strongly influenced by the writings of Constantine the African, who reports the experience of Isaac. The "humani corporis regiones" and the "regiones urine" are described and therefore Mauro tries to localize in which region of the body the bad humours were produced. In particular, the chapter on "De ycteritia" is an exact description of the foam in urine generated by the elimination of bad humours produced in excess by the liver (bile salts). PMID:24777927

  19. Wounds of the hand contaminated by human or animal saliva.

    PubMed

    Peeples, E; Boswick, J A; Scott, F A

    1980-05-01

    A prospective and retrospective evaluation of 75 patients with hand wounds contaminated by human saliva (35) or animal saliva (40) demonstrates that a program of outpatient management can be sufficient for optimal care in many patients. This series challenges the proposition that hospitalization, radiographs, and surgical debridement are necessary for most such wounds. Sixty-seven per cent did not have surgical intervention and no complications resulted. Ninety-two per cent received antibiotics. Radiographs were obtained only when bony injury or entry into a joint was suspected. Delay in seeking treatment until obvious signs of infection or pain are present is common. Literature review details the anatomic factors important in the natural history and control of these infections, and the changes with respect to modes of treatment for these potentially dangerous wounds. The injury is caused by bites with the hand extended or, in fight-bite wounds, with the metacarpal-phalangeal and interphalangeal joints flexed, allowing deeper penetration and then sealing of the wound when the first is opened. Staphylococcus and Streptococcus are the organisms most frequently found in human bites, and in animal bites; Pasteurella multocida should be considered in dog and cat bites. PMID:7365851

  20. Comparison of two liquid preservatives for SurePath™ slides prepared from voided urine.

    PubMed

    Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Shigematsu, Yumie; Irino, Satoshi; Hirakawa, Eiichiro; Norimatsu, Yoshiaki

    2014-05-01

    Blood-rich gynecologic specimens can be problematic in the processing of liquid-based cytology. However, little is known about the influence of erythrocytes and protein on urine specimens. In addition, the SurePath™ system has two preservatives for non-gynecologic specimens. In this study, we compared the epithelial cell counts and cytomorphology obtained from CytoRich™ (CR) Red and CR Blue. A total of 98 voided urine samples were processed using both CR Red and CR Blue. We made an assessment of the epithelial cell counts, fixation, and staining quality, and backgrounds of both slides. Urine protein and urine erythrocyte counts were analyzed, and those data were compared with the epithelial cell counts in CR Red and CR Blue slides. Overall, epithelial cell counts were equivalent for both CR Red and CR Blue slides. However, in high-level proteinuria cases, the CR Red slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Blue slides. On the other hand, in microscopic hematuria cases, the CR Blue slides showed higher epithelial cell counts than the CR Red slides. We have found both CR Red and CR Blue to be available for urine cytology. However, it is important to note that CR Blue is inferior to CR Red in epithelial cell recovery rates in cases of high-level proteinuria. PMID:24574372

  1. Role of urea in the postprandial urine concentration cycle of the insectivorous bat Antrozous pallidus.

    PubMed

    Bassett, John E

    2004-02-01

    Insectivorous bats, which feed once daily, produce maximally concentrated urine only after feeding. The role of urea as an osmolyte in this process was investigated in pallid bats (Antrozous pallidus) in the laboratory. Following a 24-h fast, plasma and urine were sampled before and 2 h after feeding in postprandial (PP) animals and before and 2 h after similar treatment without feeding in nonfed (NF) animals. Food consumption by PP animals and handling of NF animals had no effect on blood water content as measured by hematocrit and plasma oncotic pressure. Food consumption increased both plasma osmolality (P(osm)) and plasma urea (P(urea)) by as much as 15%. Food consumption also increased urine osmolality (U(osm)) and urine urea (U(urea)) by 50-100%. Feeding increased U(osm) regardless of changes in P(osm), and elevation of U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). In NF bats, P(osm) and P(urea) were unchanged, while U(osm) and U(urea) increased by as much as 25%. Again, increased U(osm) resulted primarily from increased U(urea). The PP urine concentration cycle of pallid bats resulted from increased urea excretion in response to apparent rapid urea synthesis. Bats rapidly metabolized protein and excreted urea following feeding when body water was most plentiful. PMID:15123201

  2. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  3. Research article Using the new Phadebas1 Forensic Press test to find crime scene saliva stains suitable for DNA analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Hedman; Karin Gustavsson; Ricky Ansell

    The Phadebas1 Forensic Press test is a new product that detects saliva stains by reacting with amylase. When the paper is pressed against a saliva stain a blue spot occurs. To test the sensitivity of the paper, a set of dilution series of saliva down to 1:500 was prepared on cotton fabric. Blue spots could be seen for dilutions of

  4. Using the new Phadebas ® Forensic Press test to find crime scene saliva stains suitable for DNA analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes Hedman; Karin Gustavsson; Ricky Ansell

    2008-01-01

    The Phadebas® Forensic Press test is a new product that detects saliva stains by reacting with amylase. When the paper is pressed against a saliva stain a blue spot occurs. To test the sensitivity of the paper, a set of dilution series of saliva down to 1:500 was prepared on cotton fabric. Blue spots could be seen for dilutions of

  5. Determination of three carcinogenic aromatic amines in urine of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Kirsten; Scherer, Gerhard; Engl, Johannes; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Tricker, Anthony R

    2006-04-01

    Aromatic amines (arylamines) such as o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 4-aminobiphenyl occur in the environment and are constituents of tobacco smoke. Human exposure to these aromatic amines has long been associated with an elevated risk of bladder cancer. A validated, specific, and sensitive method for measuring o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 4-aminobiphenyl in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers was developed. The method uses acid hydrolysis of the arylamine conjugates in urine, extraction with n-hexane, derivatization with pentafluoropropionic anhydride, and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry using negative ion chemical ionization. The limits of detection were 4 ng/L for o-toluidine and 1 ng/L for 2-aminonaphthalene and 4-aminobiphenyl. Smokers (N = 10) excreted significantly higher amounts of o-toluidine (204 versus 104 ng/24 h), 2-aminonaphthalene (20.8 versus 10.7 ng/24 h), and 4-aminobiphenyl (15.3 versus 9.6 ng/24 h) than nonsmokers (N = 10). Urinary arylamine excretion in smokers was associated with the extent of smoking as assessed by daily cigarette consumption, urinary excretion of nicotine equivalents (nicotine plus its five major metabolites), cotinine in saliva, and carbon monoxide in exhaled breath. All nonsmokers investigated had quantifiable amounts of o-toluidine, 2-aminonaphthalene, and 4-aminobiphenyl in their urine, confirming that other environmental sources of exposure to these compounds also occur. In conclusion, the analytical method is suitable for measuring short-term exposure to arylamines in urine of non-occupationally exposed smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:16803653

  6. Saliva from Obese Individuals Suppresses the Release of Aroma Compounds from Wine

    PubMed Central

    Piombino, Paola; Genovese, Alessandro; Esposito, Silvia; Moio, Luigi; Cutolo, Pier Paolo; Chambery, Angela; Severino, Valeria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Smith, Daniel P.; Owens, Sarah M.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Ercolini, Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent evidence suggests that a lower extent of the retronasal aroma release correspond to a higher amount of ad libitum food intake. This has been regarded as one of the bases of behavioral choices towards food consumption in obese people. In this pilot study we investigated the hypothesis that saliva from obese individuals could be responsible for an alteration of the retro-nasal aroma release. We tested this hypothesis in vitro, by comparing the release of volatiles from a liquid food matrix (wine) after its interaction with saliva from 28 obese (O) and 28 normal-weight (N) individuals. Methods and Findings Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region indicated that Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were more abundant in O, while Proteobacteria and Fusobacteria dominated in N. Streptococcaceae were significantly more abundant in the O subjects and constituted 34% and 19% on average of the saliva microbiota of O and N subjects, respectively. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was higher in O vs N saliva samples. A model mouth system was used to test whether the in-mouth wine aroma release differs after the interaction with O or N saliva. In O samples, a 18% to 60% significant decrease in the mean concentration of wine volatiles was detected as a result of interaction with saliva, compared with N. This suppression was linked to biochemical differences in O and N saliva composition, which include protein content. Conclusion Microbiological and biochemical differences were found in O vs N saliva samples. An impaired retronasal aroma release from white wine was detected in vitro and linked to compositional differences between saliva from obese and normal-weight subjects. Additional in vivo investigations on diverse food matrices could contribute to understanding whether a lower olfactory stimulation due to saliva composition can be a co-factor in the development/maintenance of obesity. PMID:24465618

  7. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers' urine.

    PubMed

    Finn, M B; Hallenbeck, W H

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. First morning void urine samples were obtained from six workers (occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos in a factory producing roof coatings) and from a control group (six individuals with no occupational exposure). The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Field blanks were designed to detect asbestos in the urine samples due to contamination which might occur during urine collection. Also, the workers' urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group (both on a number and mass basis). Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors. PMID:2986442

  8. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers' urine.

    PubMed

    Finn, M B; Hallenbeck, W H

    1984-11-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration through the lung or gastrointestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. First morning void urine samples were obtained from six workers (occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos in a factory producing roof coatings) and from a control group (six individuals with no occupational exposure). The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Field blanks were designed to detect asbestos in the urine samples due to contamination which might occur during urine collection. Also, the workers' urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group (both on a number and mass basis). Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks (both on a number and mass basis). Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors. PMID:6095633

  9. Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein

    PubMed Central

    Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini

    2013-01-01

    We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C23-X7/9-C33-X23/24-C58-C8-C67X7-X75-X23-C99-X15-C115-X10-C126X24/25/33-C150C151-X7-C159-X8-X168-X23/24-C192-X9/10-C202 predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24 h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 h and 48 h tick saliva proteins (TSPs). Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ~160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ~16% and caused ~24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (~44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24 h Ixodes scapularis TSPs specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. PMID:23428900

  10. The role of crude human saliva and purified salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins in the inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 in an inhibition assay

    PubMed Central

    Habte, Habtom H; Mall, Anwar S; de Beer, Corena; Lotz, Zoë E; Kahn, Delawir

    2006-01-01

    Background Despite the continuous shedding of HIV infected blood into the oral cavity and the detectable presence of the AIDS virus at a high frequency, human saliva is reported to inhibit oral transmission of HIV through kissing, dental treatment, biting, and aerosolization. The purpose of this study was to purify salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins from crude saliva and determine their anti-HIV-1 activities. Methods Following Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and caesium chloride isopycnic density-gradient ultra-centrifugation, the purity and identity of the mucins was determined by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting analysis respectively. Subsequently an HIV-1 inhibition assay was carried out to determine the anti-HIV-1 activity of the crude saliva and purified salivary mucins by incubating them with subtype D HIV-1 prior to infection of the CD4+ CEM SS cells. Results Western blotting analysis confirmed that the mucin in the void volume is MUC5B and the mucin in the included volume is MUC7. The HIV inhibition assay revealed that both the crude saliva and salivary MUC5B and MUC7 mucins inhibited HIV-1 activity by 100%. Conclusion Although the mechanism of action is not clear the carbohydrate moieties of the salivary mucins may trap or aggregate the virus and prevent host cell entry. PMID:17125499

  11. Steroid concentrations in antepartum and postpartum saliva: normative values in women and correlations with serum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Saliva has been advocated as an alternative to serum or plasma for steroid monitoring. Little normative information is available concerning expected concentrations of the major reproductive steroids in saliva during pregnancy and the extended postpartum. Methods Matched serum and saliva specimens controlled for time of day and collected less than 30?minutes apart were obtained in 28 women with normal singleton pregnancies between 32 and 38?weeks of gestation and in 43 women during the first six months postpartum. Concentrations of six steroids (estriol, estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone) were quantified in saliva by enzyme immunoassay. Results For most of the steroids examined, concentrations in antepartum saliva showed linear increases near end of gestation, suggesting an increase in the bioavailable hormone component. Observed concentrations were in agreement with the limited data available from previous reports. Modal concentrations of the ovarian steroids were undetectable in postpartum saliva and, when detectable in individual women, approximated early follicular phase values. Only low to moderate correlations between the serum and salivary concentrations were found, suggesting that during the peripartum period saliva provides information that is not redundant to serum. Conclusions Low correlations in the late antepartum may be due to differential rates of change in the total and bioavailable fractions of the circulating steroid in the final weeks of the third trimester as a consequence of dynamic changes in carrier proteins such as corticosteroid binding globulin. PMID:23575245

  12. Elastase and metalloproteinase-9 concentrations in saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Kostrzewa-Janicka, Jolanta; Górska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Elastase and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) are two of numerous proteolytic enzymes released by neutrophilic granulocytes in the course of periodontitis. The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of elastase and MMP-9 in saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy individuals. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was employed to determine the concentrations of elastase and MMP-9 in saliva in patients with chronic periodontitis and with pocket depth (PD) ? 6 mm and PD < 6 mm, as well as in saliva of healthy individuals. Significantly higher concentrations of elastase and MMP-9 were observed in patients with periodontitis compared to healthy individuals (p < 0.01). Also a significant difference in elastase concentration in saliva was observed between the PD ? 4 mm and PD < 6 mm groups and between the PD ? 6 mm and control groups, and statistically significant differences in MMP-9 concentrations between the PD ? 6 mm and control groups. No statistically significant differences were observed between the PD < 6 mm and control groups for elastase concentrations in saliva as well as between the PD ? 6 mm and PD < 6 mm groups, and also between the PD < 6 mm and control groups for MMP-9 concentrations in saliva. Elastase and MMP-9 concentrations in saliva can be considered as biochemical indicators of severity of periodontitis.

  13. Radioimmunoassay of progesterone in saliva: application to the assessment of ovarian function.

    PubMed

    Walker, R F; Read, G F; Riad-Fahmy, D

    1979-12-01

    We report a specific radioimmunoassay that has the required sensitivity (7 pg per assay tube) for determining progesterone concentrations in 400 microL of mixed saliva collected from normal women. The assay is precise: intra and inter-assay variation (CV) never exceeded 11.0 and 8.0%, respectively. The assay was used to determine progesterone in saliva samples collected daily for not less than 28 days by normal women and by patients having abnormal ovarian function. Four normal women provided matched saliva and plasma samples for accurate dating of the menstrual cycle by plasma progesterone, estradiol, lutropin, and follitropin. Nine further subjects collected saliva samples only, and from these data a provisional "normal range" was established. Progesterone concentrations in saliva during the follicular phase of the cycle were low (less than 100 pmol/L) but rose beginning on day 12 to reach peak values of 230-550 pmol/L on day 21. Thereafter, progesterone concentrations in saliva declined to values generally less than 170 pmol/L at the commencement of menses. Saliva samples from three patients attending an infertility clinic were also studied to assess ovarian function. PMID:509701

  14. Oral environmental factors affecting number of microbes in saliva of complete denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Ryu, M; Ueda, T; Saito, T; Yasui, M; Ishihara, K; Sakurai, K

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify which oral environmental factors affected number of microbes in saliva in an edentulous environment. We enrolled 68 edentulous subjects in the study. Numbers of total anaerobic bacteria and Candida species in saliva were determined. Age, sex, un-stimulated salivary flow rate, pH and viscosity of saliva, histatin level in saliva, tongue coating status, tongue pressure, denture plaque status, material of denture base, duration of edentulism, frequency of self oral health care and number of cigarettes per day were also investigated as oral environmental factors. Correlation between number of total anaerobic bacteria or Candida species and each oral environmental factor was determined with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to identify which factors were significantly associated with level of total anaerobic bacteria and Candida species. Correlation and stepwise logistic regression analyses revealed associations between un-stimulated salivary flow rate, tongue coating status, denture plaque status or frequency of self oral health care and number of total anaerobic bacteria. The correlation analysis showed a significant correlation between age and number of total anaerobic bacteria. Stepwise logistic analysis revealed associations between pH of saliva or viscosity of saliva and level of anaerobic bacteria; it also revealed associations between histatin level in saliva or un-stimulated salivary flow rate and level of Candida species. We conclude that salivary flow rate, in particular, affects number of salivary microbes in an edentulous environment. PMID:20050985

  15. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  16. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A blood transfusion is a safe, common ... Very rarely, serious problems develop. Important Information About Blood The heart pumps blood through a network of ...

  17. Blood clotting

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  18. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Let's find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- rith - ... Most of the cells in the blood are red blood cells. They carry around an important chemical ...

  19. Risk factors for bacteremia with uropathogen not cultured from urine in adults with febrile urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    van Nieuwkoop, Cees; Bonten, Tobias N; Wout, Jan W Van't; Becker, Martin J; Groeneveld, Geert H; Jansen, Casper L; van der Vorm, Eric R; Ijzerman, Ed P; Rothbarth, Philip H; Termeer-Veringa, Etel M; Kuijper, Ed J; van Dissel, Jaap T

    2010-06-01

    In a prospective study involving 642 patients with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI), we found antimicrobial pretreatment (odds ratio [OR], 3.3), an indwelling urinary catheter (OR, 2.8), and malignancy (OR, 2.7) to be independent risk factors for bacteremia with a uropathogen that was not cultured or recognized in the urine. Although the diagnostic value of blood cultures has been questioned in UTI, we advocate performing blood cultures for patients with these risk factors. PMID:20420504

  20. Determination of loperamide in human plasma and saliva by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Tawfiq; Arafat, Basil; awad, Riad; awwad, Ahmad Abu

    2014-12-01

    A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantification of loperamide in human plasma and saliva was developed and validated, and then successfully applied in pharmacokinetic clinical study to investigate and correlate bioavailability of Imodium(®) 2mg quartet tablet dose in both human plasma and saliva. Loperamide with labeled internal standard was extracted from its biological matrix by methanol as protein direct precipitant in single extraction step. Adequate chromatographic separation for analytes from plasma and saliva matrices was achieved using ACE C18 (50mm×2.1mm, 5?m) column, eluted by water/methanol/formic acid (30:70:0.1%, v/v), delivered isocratically at constant flow rate of 0.75ml/min. The method validation intends to investigate specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, recovery, matrix effect and stability according to European guideline, and partial validation was applied on saliva, specificity, matrix effect, recovery, sensitivity, within and between day precision and accuracy. The calibration curve was linear through the range of 20-3000pg/ml in both plasma and saliva using a 50?l sample volume. The partial validation sections outcome in saliva was so close to those in plasma. The within- and between-day precisions were all below 8.7% for plasma and below 11.4% for saliva. Accuracies ranged from 94 to 105% for both matrices. In this study, 26 healthy volunteers participated in the clinical study, and 6 of gave their saliva samples in addition to plasma at the same time schedule. The pharmacokinetic parameters of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-?, Tmax and T1/2 in both plasma and saliva were calculated and correlated. PMID:25444541

  1. Inhibition of bacterial degradation of EtG by collection as dried urine spots (DUS).

    PubMed

    Redondo, Ana Hernández; Körber, Christiane; König, Stefan; Längin, Andreas; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2012-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) are direct alcohol consumption markers widely used nowadays for clinical and forensic applications. They are detectable in blood and urine even after consumption of trace amounts of ethanol and for a longer time frame, being detectable even when no more ethanol is present. The instability of EtG against bacterial degradation in contaminated urine samples and/or the possible postcollection synthesis of this metabolite in samples containing, e.g., Escherichia coli and ethanol, may cause false identification of alcohol uptake. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to constrict these error sources by inhibition of any bacterial growth causing hydrolization or synthesis of EtG. This study evaluates a new method of collecting urine samples on filter paper, dried urine spots (DUS), for simultaneous detection of EtG, EtS and creatinine, having the great advantage of inhibiting bacterial activity. In addition, a method validation for the determination of EtG and EtS in DUS was performed according to the FDA guidelines. Sterile-filtered urine was spiked with EtG and EtS, inoculated with E. coli and incubated. Liquid and dried urine samples were collected after various time intervals up to 96 h. Liquid samples were frozen immediately after collection, whereas aliquots for DUS were pipetted onto filter paper, allowed to dry and stored at RT until analysis 1 week after. The specimens were analyzed by LC-ESI-MS/MS. As expected, degradation of EtG, but not of EtS, was observed in contaminated liquid urine samples. However, the specimens collected on filter paper and stored at RT showed no degradation during storage. Therefore, collecting urine samples on filter paper for EtG and EtS analysis turns out to be a reliable method to avoid bacterial degradation of EtG and EtS, and consequently, stabilization of these ethanol metabolites is achieved. In addition, simultaneous measurement of creatinine content as an indicator of urine dilution helps to interpret the results. Method validation for EtG and EtS in DUS was satisfactory, showing the linearity of the calibration curves in the studied concentration range, good precision, accuracy and selectivity. PMID:22249418

  2. Assessing genetic polymorphisms using DNA extracted from cells present in saliva samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Technical advances following the Human Genome Project revealed that high-quality and -quantity DNA may be obtained from whole saliva samples. However, usability of previously collected samples and the effects of environmental conditions on the samples during collection have not been assessed in detail. In five studies we document the effects of sample volume, handling and storage conditions, type of collection device, and oral sampling location, on quantity, quality, and genetic assessment of DNA extracted from cells present in saliva. Methods Saliva samples were collected from ten adults in each study. Saliva volumes from .10-1.0 ml, different saliva collection devices, sampling locations in the mouth, room temperature storage, and multiple freeze-thaw cycles were tested. One representative single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the catechol-0-methyltransferase gene (COMT rs4680) and one representative variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region) were selected for genetic analyses. Results The smallest tested whole saliva volume of .10 ml yielded, on average, 1.43 ± .77 ?g DNA and gave accurate genotype calls in both genetic analyses. The usage of collection devices reduced the amount of DNA extracted from the saliva filtrates compared to the whole saliva sample, as 54-92% of the DNA was retained on the device. An "adhered cell" extraction enabled recovery of this DNA and provided good quality and quantity DNA. The DNA from both the saliva filtrates and the adhered cell recovery provided accurate genotype calls. The effects of storage at room temperature (up to 5 days), repeated freeze-thaw cycles (up to 6 cycles), and oral sampling location on DNA extraction and on genetic analysis from saliva were negligible. Conclusions Whole saliva samples with volumes of at least .10 ml were sufficient to extract good quality and quantity DNA. Using 10 ng of DNA per genotyping reaction, the obtained samples can be used for more than one hundred candidate gene assays. When saliva is collected with an absorbent device, most of the nucleic acid content remains in the device, therefore it is advisable to collect the device separately for later genetic analyses. PMID:22182470

  3. Concentration of urine by the hibernating marmot.

    PubMed

    Zatzman, M L; South, F E

    1975-05-01

    Studies wer performed with marmots (Marmota flaviventris) of both sexes that had chronic arterial, venous, and bladder catheters. Urine collection was performed during hibernation and urine osmolalities (611.6 not equal to 166.1 SD) were found to be lower than those of aroused animals (1264 not equal to 472.9 SD), but hypertonic to plasma. Peak osmolality of meduallary slices was found to be in the range of osmotic pressures of urine obtained from hibernating or aroused animals. After single injections of a mixture of rho-aminohippurate and inulin, or during constant infusion of inulin, steady-state excretion by hibernators was not achieved for several days. Indirect evidence indicateds that the hibernating marmot is capable of PAH secretion. PMID:1130537

  4. Color recognition system for urine analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; Wang, Zicai; Lin, Qian; Dong, Mingli

    2010-08-01

    In order to increase the speed of photoelectric conversion, a linear CCD is applied as the photoelectric converter instead of the traditional photodiode. A white LED is used as the light source of the system. The color information of the urine test strip is transferred into the CCD through a reflecting optical system. It is then converted to digital signals by an A/D converter. The test results of urine analysis are obtained by a data processing system. An ARM microprocessor is selected as the CPU of the system and a CPLD is employed to provide a driving timing for the CCD drive and the A/D converter. Active HDL7.2 and Verilog HDL are used to simulate the driving timing of the CPLD. Experimental results show that the correctness rate of the test results is better than 90%. The system satisfies the requirements of the color information collection of urine analyzer.

  5. Presence of Donor and Recipient-derived DNA in Cell-free Urine Samples of Renal Transplantation Recipients: Urinary DNA Chimerism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhang; Kwok-Lung Tong; Philip K. T. Li; Albert Y. W. Chan; Chung-Kwong Yeung; Calvin C. P. Pang; Teresa Y. H. Wong; Kam-Cheong Lee; Y. M. Dennis Lo

    1999-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have indicated that mi- crochimerism is present in body tissues, peripheral blood, and plasma of recipients after organ transplanta- tion. We hypothesize that donor-derived DNA may also be present in cell-free urine of renal transplant recipi- ents and that the concentrations of urine DNA may be correlated with graft rejection. Methods: Thirty-one female patients who had renal

  6. Are They Bloody Guilty? Blood Doping with Simulated Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Parker E.; Lees, Kelsey D.; Milanick, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In this practice-based lab, students are provided with four Olympic athlete profiles and simulated blood and urine samples to test for illegal substances and blood-doping practices. Throughout the course of the lab, students design and conduct a testing procedure and use their results to determine which athletes won their medals fairly. All of the…

  7. Immunoglobulin A antibodies to mutans streptococci in human saliva and serum comparing fresh and subcultivated strains and activity in repeated saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Widerström, L; Bratthall, D; Hamberg, K

    1994-10-01

    The aims of this study were i) to characterize and compare the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein patterns of reference Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus strains, subcultivated for years, with fresh isolates of the same serotype; ii) to study possible differences between the human salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) activity to reference strains and to fresh bacterial isolates of the saliva donors; iii) to examine for potential differences in the salivary IgA activity to the streptococcal antigens during 1 week; and iv) to map, in the same individuals, the serum IgA activity against the selected bacteria. S. mutans reference and fresh isolated strains showed a similar protein pattern with few exceptions. The immunoblot also revealed similarity in saliva IgA response, with only one subject's saliva displaying clearly one band's difference. For S. sobrinus a larger discrepancy was seen. The antibody activity during the one week interval was essentially unchanged. When incubated with serum, a different immunoblot profile was seen compared with saliva, although most bands revealed by saliva were also displayed by serum. PMID:7808769

  8. [Air pollution by sevoflurane in operating room and serum and urine inorganic fluoride of anesthetists].

    PubMed

    Takeda, J; Sato, M; Shimada, M; Ochiai, R; Takahashi, J; Fukushima, K; Shibata, K

    1995-07-01

    Since lower blood-gas partition coefficient of sevoflurane provides rapid induction and emergence from anesthesia, sevoflurane has been used widely for inhalational anesthesia. However, because higher minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane requires a large dosage of anesthetic than other volatile anesthetics, air pollution with sevoflurane in the operating room might be of great concern. Anesthetists may keep inhaling the low concentration of anesthetics every day, even though scavenging system is equipped in the operating room. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects on anesthetists of the low concentration of anesthetics by measuring the inorganic fluoride concentration in the urine and serum of anesthetists and operating room nurses. Healthy 29 anesthesiologists and two operating room nurses were studied. Informed consent was obtained. Inorganic fluoride ions in the serum and urine were measured. Simultaneously sevoflurane concentration in operating room was measured in three operating rooms, at two places in the corridor and in the recovery room. Sevoflurane concentrations in three operating rooms were 1.22 ppm, 2.13 ppm and 6.05 ppm respectively. Concentration in the recovery room was 0.544 ppm. Serum and urine concentrations of inorganic fluoride were 1.1 +/- 0.1 mumol.l-1 and 36.2 +/- 17.1 mumol.l-1, respectively (mean +/- SD). Serum concentration of inorganic fluoride was within normal ranges. Although it is possible that fluoride concentration in urine is influenced by urine volume and a half of fluoride deposits in bone, no abnormal values in urine were found in this study. These results suggest that long term exposure to low concentration of sevoflurane and isoflurane causes no significant increase in their metabolites in operating room staffs. PMID:7637181

  9. Use of genital inspection and female urine tests to detect oestrus in captive Asian elephants.

    PubMed

    Thitaram, Chatchote; Chansitthiwet, Saran; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Brown, Janine L; Wongkalasin, Waroot; Daram, Prachayarat; Roongsri, Ronnachit; Kalmapijit, Anchalee; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Rojanasthien, Suvichai; Colenbrander, Ben; van der Weijden, Gysbert C; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M

    2009-10-01

    Captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) populations are decreasing due to low birth rates compared to wild elephants. Improving oestrous detection in female elephants is required to ensure successful mating in captive and semi-captive herds. Responsive behaviours of eight semi-captive bull elephants to the uro-genital area (genital inspection test) or urinary pheromones (urine test) of 14 female elephants throughout the oestrous cycle were evaluated. Weekly blood samples were collected for 27 consecutive months (14 months for the genital inspection test and 13 months for the urine test) from female elephants to characterize the patterns of circulating progestagen. Responsive behaviours of bulls were compared between females in the follicular versus the luteal phase of the cycle. The sensitivity and specificity of the genital inspection test were 65% and 68%, while those of the urine test were 52% and 61%, respectively. The bulls showed significantly higher "genital inspection", "flehmen from genital area" and "trunk on back" behaviours during the genital inspection test, and "flehmen" behaviours during the urine test in oestrous than in non-oestrous females. In sum, this study showed that monitoring sexual behaviours of Asian elephant bulls towards females or their urine can be used to detect the oestrous period. Although the sensitivity and specificity of both tests were not as high as expected, still, these methods appear to be more efficient at detecting oestrous than traditional methods based on mahout estimations of female receptivity. The use of genital inspection and urine tests may lead to more successful matings and thus to creating self-sustaining populations of captive elephants in range countries. PMID:19131193

  10. Detection of proteinase K resistant proteins in the urine of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob and other neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zerr, Inga; Heinemann, Uta; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2008-01-01

    Recent concern about the possible secondary spread of vCJD through blood transfusion and blood products has highlighted the need for a sensitive test for the identification of PrPTSE/res in clinical specimens collected in a non-invasive way. In addition, a more accurate estimate of the prevalence of pre-clinical vCJD in the population may be possible if there were a test that could be applied to easily available material such as urine. As a step towards this goal, the detection of putative PrPTSE/res in the urine of CJD patients has been improved, based on Proteinase K digestion of samples and western blotting. The modified western blot uses concentrated urine as a starting material. After proteolytic treatment followed by electrophoresis and western blotting, membranes are incubated with an anti-PrP antibody conjugated directly with horseradish peroxidase. This study was conducted on urine samples of CJD and other neurodegenerative disease affected individuals. Proteinase K resistant high molecular weight proteins were detected, which are suggested to be a complex of urinary PrP and immunoglobulin proteins. Whether urine can be used as a diagnostic tool for the detection of PrP could not be answered in this study. PMID:19263593

  11. [Saliva pH and galvanic current ways in mouth tissues and liquids].

    PubMed

    Poniakina, I D; Lebedev, K A; Maksimovski?, Iu M; Mitronin, A V; Sagan, L G; Sagan, N N

    2009-01-01

    In the group of 290 human having metal artificial limbs in an oral cavity, decrease in average value pH the mixed saliva in comparison with the persons who are not having metal inclusions was due to increase of percent of persons with sour reaction of saliva. Thus the degree of decrease the mixed saliva pH did not depend up on size of galvanic currents and presence of galvanic symptoms. The hypothesis was put forward, that decrease of saliva pH and development of galvanism was connected with local changes in a biofilm contacting to metal artificial prosthetic devices. Galvanic currents extended both on a surface of oral mucous membrane and in tissue. Clinical symptoms of galvanism we more expressed when galvanic currents flow manly in oral tissue. PMID:19365345

  12. Bacterial aggregating activity in human saliva: simultaneous determination of free and bound cells.

    PubMed Central

    Golub, E E; Thaler, M; Davis, C; Malamud, D

    1979-01-01

    Two new assays for saliva-mediated aggregation of oral bacteria have been developed, based on the use of [3H]thymidine-labeled cells. One assay separates free cells from aggregated cells by centrifugation through sucrose, whereas the other utilizes membrane filters (8 micrometers, Nuclepore) to effect the separation. Comparison of these assays with the turbidity method reveals that they are faster (X20 to 40) and require 10 times less saliva and bacteria. The aggregation of Streptococcus sanguis M5, as determined with these assays, is complete in 5 min and is dose dependent on added cells and saliva. The reaction exhibits a temperature optimum of 42 degrees C with no reaction at 0 degrees C. If the pH is reduced to below 5, saliva-dependent aggregation is inhibited. The salivary factor(s) are heat labile, losing 100% of their activity after 100 degrees C, 10 min or 70 degrees C, 30 min. PMID:43286

  13. A simple pharmacokinetic model of alendronate developed using plasma concentration and urine excretion data from healthy men.

    PubMed

    Chae, Jung-Woo; Seo, Jeong-Won; Mahat, Bimit; Yun, Hwi-Yeol; Baek, In-Hwan; Lee, Byung-Yo; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Kwon, Kwang-Il

    2014-10-01

    The study of pharmacokinetics of alendronate has been hampered by difficulties in accurately and reproducibly determining their concentrations in serum and urine. Thus, pharmacokinetic characteristics of alendronate have been described in many reports based on urinary excretion data; and plasma pharmacokinetics and the simultaneous pharmacokinetic models of alendronate in plasma and urine are not available. The aims of this study were to measure alendronate concentration in plasma and excretion in urine concurrently and to develop compartmental pharmacokinetic model using urine data. In open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study, 10 healthy male volunteers received oral dose of alendronate (70?mg tablet). Blood and urine alendronate concentrations were determined using validated high-performance liquid chromatography method. Non-compartmental analysis was performed using WinNonlin program (Pharsight Inc., Apex, NC). A one-compartment pharmacokinetic model was applied to describe pharmacokinetics of alendronate. A peak plasma alendronate concentration of 33.10?±?14.32?ng/mL was attained after 1.00?±?0.16?h. The cumulative amount of alendronate excreted in urine and peak excretion rate were 731.28?±?654.57??g and 314.68?±?395.43??g/h, respectively. The model, which included first-order absorption rate for oral dosing, showed good fit to alendronate data obtained from plasma and urine. The absorption rate constant was 2.68?±?0.95?h(-1). The elimination rate constants Kurine and Knon-ur were 0.005?±?0.004?h(-1) and 0.42?±?0.08?h(-1), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of alendronate in plasma and urine of healthy men can be predicted using one-compartment model, and thus the behavior of drug in plasma can be estimated from urinary excretion data. PMID:23886303

  14. Salivary IgA in minor-gland saliva of children, adolescents, and young adults.

    PubMed

    Sonesson, Mikael; Hamberg, Kristina; Wallengren, Marie-Louise Lundin; Matsson, Lars; Ericson, Dan

    2011-02-01

    According to previous studies, minor glands produce about 35% of the total salivary immunoglobulin A (salivary IgA). The age-dependent increase in whole-saliva salivary IgA concentrations has been studied extensively, but we found no published reports comparing the minor-gland saliva concentrations of salivary IgA in children, adolescents, and adults. In this study we measured the concentration of salivary IgA in saliva from the labial and the buccal minor glands of children, adolescents, and adults. Three age groups donated saliva for analysis: 3-yr-old children, 14-yr-old adolescents, and 20- to 25-yr-old adults. Minor-gland saliva was collected on filter paper and unstimulated whole saliva was collected by draining into a tube, and the salivary IgA concentration was determined by ELISA. The salivary IgA concentration in labial saliva was significantly lower among 3-yr-old children (0.037 mg 100 ml(-1), SD = 0.035) than among 14-yr-old adolescents (0.126 mg 100 ml(-1), SD = 0.128) and adults (0.128 mg 100 ml(-1), SD = 0.13). The 3-yr-old children also had significantly lower whole-saliva salivary IgA values compared with the other age groups (0.09 mg 100 ml(-1), SD = 0.091; 0.179 mg 100 ml(-1), SD = 0.149; and 0.170 mg 100 ml(-1), SD = 0.099, respectively). This increase in salivary IgA concentrations with age might reflect a developing immune response in the growing child. PMID:21244506

  15. Antibodies from dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis recognise two proteins from the saliva of Lutzomyia longipalpis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Bahia; Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo; Ileana Rodríguez León; Jonas Perales; Marcos Horácio Pereira; Guilherme Oliveira; Rodrigo Corrêa-Oliveira; Alexandre Barbosa Reis

    2007-01-01

    The saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, a major vector of Leishmania, exhibits pharmacological and immunomodulatory activities that may facilitate entry and establishment of parasites into the\\u000a vertebrate host. Salivary gland components of the sand fly are, therefore, potential candidates in the development of a vaccine\\u000a against human leishmaniasis. With the objective of identifying sand fly saliva proteins that

  16. Effect of human saliva on the fluoride sensitivity of glucose uptake by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Germaine, G R; Tellefson, L M

    1981-12-01

    The fluoride (F) sensitivity of glucose uptake by whole cell suspensions of streptococcus mutans in the presence and absence of human whole salivary supernatant was studied. It was observed that dithiothreitol (DTT) and other thiols markedly reduced the F sensitivity of cells when saliva (50%, vol/vol) was present during glucose uptake. In the absence of saliva, cells were sensitive to 2 to 2.5 mM F regardless of the presence of thiols. Supplementation of cells in phosphate or tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-hydrochloride buffers with physiological concentrations of calcium or phosphate had no effect on the F sensitivity of the organism. Experiments with permeabilized cells suggested that thiols themselves had no direct effect on the F sensitivity of enolase (a principal F target). Cells pretreated with DDT subsequently exhibited decreased F sensitivity when examined in the presence of saliva but not in the absence of saliva. Cells pretreated with whole salivary supernatant were found to be subsequently less sensitive to F in the absence of saliva during glucose uptake. Furthermore, in cases where cells were pretreated with saliva, subsequent additions of DDT were unnecessary to obtain maximal reduction in the F sensitivity of glucose uptake. It was concluded that the saliva-dependent reduction in F sensitivity of glucose uptake was not due to sequestration of available F by salivary constituents. The data suggest that a salivary component(s) interacts directly with the microorganism in some manner which results in reduced F sensitivity of the process under study. Possible mechanisms of saliva action are discussed. PMID:7333673

  17. A Review of the Salivary Proteome and Peptidome and Saliva-derived Peptide Therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Laila Huq; Keith J. Cross; Men Ung; Helen Myroforidis; Paul D. Veith; Dina Chen; David Stanton; Huiling He; Brent R. Ward; Eric C. Reynolds

    2007-01-01

    Saliva is a glandular secretion that is vital in the maintenance of healthy oral tissues. In this review we outline the high\\u000a abundance salivary proteins, summarise the status of the salivary proteome and peptidome, the genetic origin and recognised\\u000a functions of these proteins, the diseases associated with salivary disorders, and the emerging saliva-derived peptide therapeutics.\\u000a Different proteomic approaches have reported

  18. Saliva Composition in Indian Children with Chronic Protein-Energy Malnutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Johansson; M. Lenander-Lumikaril; A.-K. Saellström

    1994-01-01

    The composition of paraffin-stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva was compared between two groups of 8-12-year-old Indian children—one group with severe to moderate chronic protein-energy malnutrition (PEM group) and an age- and sex-matched control group with normal protein status or mild PEM. The classification of PEM was based on anthropometric measurements compared with Indian standards. Stimulated saliva was analyzed for the

  19. Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What to Know Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio KidsHealth > Parents > Doctors & Hospitals > Medical Tests & Exams > Urine Test: Microalbumin-to-Creatinine Ratio Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  20. 10 CFR 26.105 - Preparing for urine collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Preparing for urine collection. 26.105 Section 26.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.105 Preparing for urine collection. (a) The...

  1. 10 CFR 26.113 - Splitting the urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Splitting the urine specimen. 26.113 Section 26.113 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.113 Splitting the urine specimen. (a) Licensees...

  2. 10 CFR 26.107 - Collecting a urine specimen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Collecting a urine specimen. 26.107 Section 26.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.107 Collecting a urine specimen. (a) The...

  3. Urine--a waste or the future of regenerative medicine?

    PubMed

    Kloskowski, T; Nowacki, M; Pokrywczy?ska, M; Drewa, T

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, urine has emerged as a source of urine cells. Two different types of cells can be isolated from urine: urine derived stem cells (USCs) and renal tubular cells called urine cells (UCs). USCs have great differentiation properties and can be potentially used in genitourinary tract regeneration. Within this paper, we attempt to demonstrate that such as easily accessible source of cells, collected during completely non-invasive procedures, can be better utilized. Cells derived from urine can be isolated, stored, and used for the creation of urine stem cell banks. In the future, urine holds great potential to become a main source of cells for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:25649852

  4. Saliva versus plasma bioequivalence of rusovastatin in humans: validation of class III drugs of the salivary excretion classification system.

    PubMed

    Idkaidek, Nasir; Arafat, Tawfiq

    2015-03-01

    Bioequivalence of rusovastatin in healthy human volunteers was done using saliva and plasma matrices in order to investigate the robustness of using saliva instead of plasma as a surrogate for bioequivalence of class III drugs according to the salivary excretion classification system (SECS). Saliva and plasma samples were collected for 72 h after oral administration of rusovastatin 40 mg to 12 healthy humans. Saliva and plasma pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental analysis. Analysis of variance, 90 % confidence intervals, and intra-subject and inter-subject variability values of pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using Kinetica program V5. Human effective intestinal permeability was also calculated by SimCYP program V13. Rusovastatin falls into class III (high permeability/low fraction unbound to plasma proteins) and hence was subjected to salivary excretion. A correlation coefficient of 0.99 between saliva and plasma concentrations, and a saliva/plasma concentration ratio of 0.175 were observed. The 90 % confidence limits of area under the curve (AUClast) and maximum concentration (C max) showed similar trends in both saliva and plasma. On the other hand, inter- and intra-subject variability values in saliva were higher than in plasma, leading to the need for a slightly higher number of subjects to be used in saliva studies. Non-invasive saliva sampling instead of the invasive plasma sampling method can be used as a surrogate for bioequivalence of SECS class III drugs when an adequate sample size is used. PMID:25666686

  5. A simple, inexpensive urine test of smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Peach; G A Ellard; P J Jenner; R W Morris

    1985-01-01

    Three novel colorimetric methods of detecting urinary nicotine metabolites called the barbituric acid, diethylthiobarbituric acid (DETB), and DETB extraction methods were evaluated for use as a simple, cheap, objective test of smoking. Urine samples were collected from 103 male smokers and 78 male non-smokers working at two London factories. The smokers recorded the number of cigarettes smoked over the previous

  6. Urine drug testing in pain medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Howard A Heit; Douglas L Gourlay

    2004-01-01

    The use of urine drug testing (UDT) has increased over recent years. UDT results have traditionally been used in legal proceedings under supervision of a medical review officer (MRO). In this context, testing has been required by statute or regulation and so is typically not in the “donor's” interest. Physicians, however, can use UDT to assist in monitoring their patient's

  7. Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zee, David S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

  8. The anti-transglutaminase auto-antibodies in children’s saliva with a suspect coeliac disease: clinical study

    PubMed Central

    CONDÒ, R.; COSTACURTA, M.; DOCIMO, R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The coeliac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by an ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. Like some other systemic diseases (Crohn’s disease, Sjögren’s syndrome) the celiac disease is able to alter the oral ecosystem and the composition of the saliva. Aim. The aim of this retrospective study has been to examine the incidence of coeliac disease (CD) in paediatric population and to search the presence of anti-transglutaminase auto-antibodies (anti-tTG) in saliva, comparing and quantifying the concentration regard to the serum values of the anti-tTG auto-antibodies, before and after six months from the beginning of the free gluten diet. Materials and Methods. 105 children (G0), aged between 5 and 13 years, belonging to the Paediatric Gastroenterology-Endoscopy Unit of PTV Hospital, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, have been examined for a diagnosis of suspected CD. Results. Of a total of 105 pediatric patients (G0), only the 16.2% (G1) has showed to be positive. About the evaluation of the anti-tTG auto-antibodies in the serum, obtained from the second blood sample (T1), we can observe that 10 (G2) out of 17 children (G1) show positivity and for this reason they have been subjected to a sampling of intestinal villi to confirm the diagnosis of CD; in addition the 6.7% has been resulted positive at the first sampling of serum (T0), but negative to the second one (T1). The incidence of the CD has been resulted to be equal to 9.5%. About the evaluation of anti-tTG in the G1, we can observe that 58.8% of children are “definitely positive” to the salivary anti-tTG, while 11.8% appear to be weakly positive. About the correspondence of serum and salivary anti-tTG in Group G1, we can observe, that children positive to the anti-tTG in the serum have also the anti-tTG in the salivary fluid (sensibility 100%, specificity 71.4%). The results show that the anti-tTG salivary are present in children with CD, even though they have continued to follow the gluten free diet for 6 months. Conclusions. The presence of anti-tTG in the saliva may be considered, an additional and useful diagnostic dental marker for an initial, reproducible, non invasive, inexpensive and highly sensitive screening of CD having a predictive and precocious value compared to anti-tTG contained in the serum, as it has been already demonstrated. PMID:24175054

  9. An automated integrated platform for rapid and sensitive multiplexed protein profiling using human saliva samples.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuai; Henley, W Hampton; Miller, Scott E; Zhang, Huaibin; Mayer, Kathryn M; Dennis, Patty J; Oblath, Emily A; Alarie, Jean Pierre; Wu, Yue; Oppenheim, Frank G; Little, Frédéric F; Uluer, Ahmet Z; Wang, Peidong; Ramsey, J Michael; Walt, David R

    2014-03-21

    During the last decade, saliva has emerged as a potentially ideal diagnostic biofluid for noninvasive testing. In this paper, we present an automated, integrated platform useable by minimally trained personnel in the field for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases using human saliva as a sample specimen. In this platform, a saliva sample is loaded onto a disposable microfluidic chip containing all the necessary reagents and components required for saliva analysis. The chip is then inserted into the automated analyzer, the SDReader, where multiple potential protein biomarkers for respiratory diseases are measured simultaneously using a microsphere-based array via fluorescence sandwich immunoassays. The results are read optically, and the images are analyzed by a custom-designed algorithm. The fully automated assay requires as little as 10 ?L of saliva sample, and the results are reported in 70 min. The performance of the platform was characterized by testing protein standard solutions, and the results were comparable to those from the 3.5 h lab bench assay that we have previously reported. The device was also deployed in two clinical environments where 273 human saliva samples collected from different subjects were successfully tested, demonstrating the device's potential to assist clinicians with the diagnosis of respiratory diseases by providing timely protein biomarker profiling information. This platform, which combines noninvasive sample collection and fully automated analysis, can also be utilized in point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:24448498

  10. Effects of anesthetics pentobarbital sodium and chloral hydrate on urine proteome

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mindi; Li, Xundou; Li, Menglin

    2015-01-01

    Urine can be a better source than blood for biomarker discovery since it accumulates many changes. The urine proteome is susceptible to many factors, including anesthesia. Pentobarbital sodium and chloral hydrate are commonly used anesthetics in animal experiments. This study demonstrated the effects of these two anesthetics on the rat urine proteome using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). With anesthesia, the urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio of all rats increased twofold. The relative abundance of 22 and 23 urinary proteins were changed with pentobarbital sodium or chloral hydrate anesthesia, respectively, as determined by label-free quantification. Among these changed proteins, fifteen had been considered as candidate biomarkers such as uromodulin, and sixteen had been considered stable in healthy human urine, which are more likely to be considered as potential biomarkers when changed, such as transferrin. The pattern of changed urinary proteins provides clues to the discovery of urinary proteins regulatory mechanisms. When determining a candidate biomarker, anesthetic-related effects can be excluded from future biomarker discovery studies. Since anesthetics take effects via nervous system, this study is the first to provide clues that the protein handling function of the kidney may possibly be regulated by the nervous system. PMID:25789206

  11. Urine as a material for evaluation of exposure to manganese in methcathinone users.

    PubMed

    Golasik, Magdalena; Wodowski, Grzegorz; Gomó?ka, Ewa; Herman, Ma?gorzata; Piekoszewski, Wojciech

    2014-07-01

    Chronic exposure even to low doses of manganese may lead to development of neurological syndrome similar to parkinsonism. The aim of this research is to assess the possibility of manganese poisoning based on the level of metal in the urine of long-term methcathinone users from Poland. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) was used to determine manganese in urine, while the detection of the psychoactive drugs was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results of survey on longitudinal patterns of drug use showed that users of traditional illicit drugs now turn to cheaper alternatives, such as methcathinone. Parkinsonian features were observed in almost half of methcathinone users. The subjects had a higher mean level of Mn in their urine (8.68±9.27 ?g L(-1)) than the controls (4.27±1.91 ?g L(-1)). The presence of numerous psychoactive substances (in unchanged forms and their metabolites) was confirmed in all of the samples, with only one exception. The elevated level of manganese in urine (in 29.2% of patients) can be used as a primary marker of recent methcathinone administration, especially in the case of long time intravenous drug users where blood sampling is complicated. PMID:24867657

  12. A method for studying inhibitory activity in whole urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Ryall; C. M. Hibberd; V. R. Marshall

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed for inducing and quantifying calcium oxalate crystallisation in whole human urine. The propensity of a given urine to induce crystal formation was described in two ways: 1) its ability to resist spontaneous nucleation of calcium oxalate crystals was assessed by titrating 20 mls of the urine with increasing quantities of sodium oxalate (0–150 µmol) to

  13. Blood Clots

    MedlinePLUS

    ... masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through veins and arteries . Some blood clotting, or coagulation , is ... Venous clots are those that form in the veins. Venous clots typically form slowly over a period ...

  14. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  15. Bilirubin - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... made by the liver. This article discusses the laboratory test that is done to measure bilirubin in the blood. A small amount of older red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells every day. ...

  16. Blood Components

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of volume) suspended in plasma (~55% of volume). Red cells Red cells, or erythrocytes , carry oxygen from the lungs ... frozen plasma. Transfusable Blood Components Summary Whole Blood Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma Cryoprecipitated AHF COLOR OF ...

  17. Role of saliva proteinase 3 in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Teng-Yu; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Du, Yue; Wu, Song-Tao; Yuan, Wen-Wen; Yu, Yu; Su, Lin; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Jie-Hua; Lu, Wan-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Qian; Chen, Jiao; Feng, Yun; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Salivary analysis can be used to assess the severity of caries. Of the known salivary proteins, a paucity of information exists concerning the role of proteinase 3 (PR3), a serine protease of the chymotrypsin family, in dental caries. Whole, unstimulated saliva was collected from children with varying degrees of active caries and tested using a Human Protease Array Kit and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A significantly decreased concentration of salivary PR3 was noted with increasing severity of dental caries (P<0.01); a positive correlation (r=0.87; P<0.01; Pearson's correlation analysis) was also observed between salivary pH and PR3 concentration. In an antibacterial test, a PR3 concentration of 250 ng·mL(-1) or higher significantly inhibited Streptococcus mutans UA159 growth after 12 h of incubation (P<0.05). These studies indicate that PR3 is a salivary factor associated with the severity of dental caries, as suggested by the negative relationship between salivary PR3 concentration and the severity of caries as well as the susceptibility of S. mutans to PR3.International Journal of Oral Science (2015) 6, doi:10.1038/ijos.2015.8; published online 29 May 2015. PMID:26022119

  18. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  19. Identification of Putative Natriuretic Hormones Isolated from Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Herbert J.

    2015-01-01

    This brief review describes some representative methodological approaches to the isolation of putative endogenous inhibitors of epithelial sodium transport – i.e., as ouabain-like factors (OLF) that inhibit the sodium transport enzyme Na-K-ATPase or inhibit the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). Gel chromatography and reverse-phase (RP)-high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of lyophilized and reconstituted 24 h-urine from salt-loaded healthy humans led to two active fractions, a hydrophilic OLF-1 and a lipophilic OLF-2, whose mass (Ms)-spectroscopic data indicate a Mr of 391 (1, 2). Further identification was attempted by Ms-, infrared (IR)-, ultraviolet (UV)-, and 1H-NMR-spectroscopy. OLF-1 and OLF-2 may be closely related if not identical to (di)ascorbic acid or its salts such as vanadium (V)-Vv-diascorbate with Mr 403 (3) and VIV-diascorbate. OLF-1 and Vv-diascorbate are about 10-fold stronger inhibitors of Na-K-ATPase than OLF-2 and VIV-diascorbate, respectively. In conscious rats, i.v. infusion of OLF-1 and OLF-2 resulted in a strong natriuresis. In a similar study, Cain et al. (4) isolated a sodium transport inhibitor from the urine of uremic patients by gel chromatography and RP-HPLC. In uremic rats, a natriuretic response to the injection of the active material was found. Xanthurenic acid 8-O-?-d-glucoside (Mr 368) and xanthurenic acid 8-O-sulfate (Mr 284) were identified as endogenous inhibitors of sodium transport acting, e.g., by ENaC blockade. No definite relation to blood pressure, body fluid volume, or sodium balance has been reported for any of these above factors, and further studies to identify the natriuretic and/or ouabain-like compound(s) or hormone(s) will be needed.

  20. Effects of ph and thiocyanate on hydrogen peroxide-induced evolution of molecular oxygen in human mixed saliva

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nishioka; M. Kimura; U. Takahama

    1996-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide-induced evolution of molecular oxygen was measured with a Clark-type electrode in a buffered reaction mixture containing mixed whole or dialysed saliva. The optimum pH for oxygen evolution in mixed whole saliva was around 8. Oxygen evolution was also observed in dialysed saliva, suggesting that free SCN? is not essential. The optimum pH was around pH 6. Sodium thiocyanate

  1. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.

    PubMed

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20?017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122?N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:25231213

  2. Human submandibular-sublingual saliva promotes adhesion of Candida albicans to polymethylmethacrylate.

    PubMed Central

    Edgerton, M; Scannapieco, F A; Reddy, M S; Levine, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify components of saliva that interact with Candida albicans in solution and that may modulate adhesion to dental acrylic (polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]) surfaces. Saliva-derived pellicles extracted from C. albicans blastoconidia and hyphal-form cells mixed with fresh human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) contained predominantly high- and low-molecular-weight mucins (MG1 and MG2, respectively). In contrast, few components from fresh human parotid saliva were adsorbed to yeast cells. Coating PMMA beads with HSMSL significantly enhanced (10-fold) adhesion of both growth forms of C. albicans compared with human parotid saliva (2-fold), suggesting a role for mucins in adhesion. HSMSL-enhanced adhesion was completely abolished by preadsorbing HSMSL with either blastoconidia or hyphal-form cells prior to coating PMMA. However, coating PMMA with purified salivary mucins or the addition of mucin to preadsorbed saliva did not enhance or restore adhesion to levels found with fresh HSMSL. Adhesion assays employing guanidine-treated fresh HSMSL showed a complete lack of Candida binding, suggesting that subjecting HSMSL to dissociating conditions may alter a property of salivary mucins crucial for C. albicans adhesion. Protease and glycosidase treatment of yeast cells significantly reduced adhesion to HSMSL-coated PMMA. In addition, preincubation of C. albicans with mannose and galactose inhibited adhesion to HSMSL-coated PMMA. These results suggest that mucins may play a role in C. albicans adhesion to saliva-coated PMMA and that a glycoprotein on the yeast surface may be involved in these events. Images PMID:8500903

  3. Developing an outcome measure for excessive saliva management in MND and an evaluation of saliva burden in Sheffield.

    PubMed

    McGeachan, Alexander J; Hobson, Esther V; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

    2015-03-01

    There are few studies providing evidence to guide the management of oropharyngeal secretion problems in motor neuron disease (MND). There is a lack of a suitable outcome measure for evaluating management strategies. We applied several potential outcome measures for assessing excessive secretions to patients with MND who attended the Sheffield Care and Research Centre for Motor Neurone Disease between 21 November 2012 and 15 May 2013. These measures were the CSS-MND, a symptom rating scale, and the Drool and Wipe quotient, which were designed to semi-objectively measure patients' drooling. Of the 143 patients seen in clinic during the study period, 58 had symptoms of excessive secretions, and of whom 50 agreed to participate in the study. Semi-objective measures failed to effectively identify patients complaining of secretion problems. The CSS-MND had a relatively low internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha 0.539; n = 50); however, analysis of the inter-item correlations suggested the appearance of low internal consistency was because the scale was measuring a variety of saliva related symptoms that did not necessarily influence each other. The scale correlated well with patient reported symptom impact (r = 0.673, n = 50). In conclusion, the CSS-MND would be a useful outcome measure in studies assessing the management of oropharyngeal secretion problems. PMID:25225845

  4. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  5. Human Prominin-1 (CD133) Is Detected in Both Neoplastic and Non-Neoplastic Salivary Gland Diseases and Released into Saliva in a Ubiquitinated Form

    PubMed Central

    Karbanová, Jana; Laco, Jan; Marzesco, Anne-Marie; Janich, Peggy; Voborníková, Magda; Mokrý, Jaroslav; Fargeas, Christine A.; Huttner, Wieland B.; Corbeil, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Prominin-1 (CD133) is physiologically expressed at the apical membranes of secretory (serous and mucous) and duct cells of major salivary glands. We investigated its expression in various human salivary gland lesions using two distinct anti-prominin-1 monoclonal antibodies (80B258 and AC133) applied on paraffin-embedded sections and characterized its occurrence in saliva. The 80B258 epitope was extensively expressed in adenoid cystic carcinoma, in lesser extent in acinic cell carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma, and rarely in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. The 80B258 immunoreactivity was predominately detected at the apical membrane of tumor cells showing acinar or intercalated duct cell differentiation, which lined duct- or cyst-like structures, and in luminal secretions. It was observed on the whole cell membrane in non-luminal structures present in the vicinity of thin-walled blood vessels and hemorrhagic areas in adenoid cystic carcinoma. Of note, AC133 labeled only a subset of 80B258–positive structures. In peritumoral salivary gland tissues as well as in obstructive sialadenitis, an up-regulation of prominin-1 (both 80B258 and AC133 immunoreactivities) was observed in intercalated duct cells. In most tissues, prominin-1 was partially co-expressed with two cancer markers: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and mucin-1 (MUC1). Differential centrifugation of saliva followed by immunoblotting indicated that all three markers were released in association with small membrane vesicles. Immuno-isolated prominin-1–positive vesicles contained CEA and MUC1, but also exosome-related proteins CD63, flotillin-1, flotillin-2 and the adaptor protein syntenin-1. The latter protein was shown to interact with prominin-1 as demonstrated by its co-immunoisolation. A fraction of saliva-associated prominin-1 appeared to be ubiquitinated. Collectively, our findings bring new insights into the biochemistry and trafficking of prominin-1 as well as its immunohistochemical profile in certain types of salivary gland tumors and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24911657

  6. Urine drug testing for pain management.

    PubMed

    Magnani, Barbarajean; Kwong, Tai

    2012-09-01

    An epidemic of prescription drug abuse in the United States has increased the burden on clinical toxicology testing laboratories. Urine drug testing provides objective evidence for compliance and aberrant drug behavior in patients on chronic (non-cancer) pain management. This article describes the testing menu, drug testing assays including tandem mass spectrometry and their limitations, interpretation of opiate results and clinical considerations. PMID:22939297

  7. Outbound MTA MTA@dfci.harvard.edu

    E-print Network

    Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    (e.g. blood, serum, urine, saliva, bone marrow or tissue sample or any tangible material isolated, and shall not be used for in-vivo testing in human subjects or for profit-making or commercial purposes. 3

  8. A New Method for Measuring Meal Intake in Humans via Automated Wrist Motion Tracking

    E-print Network

    Hoover, Adam

    (e.g. blood, serum, urine, saliva, bone marrow or tissue sample or any tangible material isolated, and shall not be used for in-vivo testing in human subjects or for profit-making or commercial purposes. 3

  9. 46 CFR 4.03-7 - Chemical test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... The term chemical test means a scientifically recognized test which analyzes an individual's breath, blood, urine, saliva, bodily fluids, or tissues for evidence of dangerous drug or alcohol use. [CGD 86-067, 53 FR 47077, Nov. 21,...

  10. 46 CFR 4.03-7 - Chemical test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... The term chemical test means a scientifically recognized test which analyzes an individual's breath, blood, urine, saliva, bodily fluids, or tissues for evidence of dangerous drug or alcohol use. [CGD 86-067, 53 FR 47077, Nov. 21,...

  11. Evaluation of the saliva cortisol levels in patients under prosthetic treatment due to functional disorders of the masticatory organ.

    PubMed

    Pihut, M; Dziurkowska, E; Wisniewska, G; Szewczyk, M; Bieganska, J

    2015-02-01

    One of the main etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction is stress and psychoemotional disorders. During stressful situations, there is an increase in the level of cortisol, the so-called stress hormone. Literature data indicate the existence of a correlation between blood cortisol levels and its amount in the saliva. This spurred an inspiration to undertake open, non-randomised studies, the objective of which was to conduct a comparative assessment of the saliva cortisol levels in patients with functional disorders of the masticatory system and in healthy volunteers, as well as to compare the results of cortisol levels with the results of survey-based tests with the use of Endler and Parker's CISS survey. Cortisol level was assessed due to its association with stress present in the body as one of the primary etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunction, and hence the association of elevated cortisol levels assessed in the morning with the occurrence of dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system. The subject of the study is a group of 30 patients, of both sexes, aged between 20 and 46, who reported to the Dental Prosthetic Out-Patient Clinic of the Institute of Dentistry, Jagiellonian University in Cracow, for prosthetic treatment due to the painful form of functional masticatory organ disorders. The control group consisted of 30 subjects, aged between 19 and 41, in whom dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system were excluded. Collection of saliva for testing was performed at a fixed hour (9 am) into plastic test tubes with a stopper. Immediately after collection, the saliva was frozen at the temperature of -18 °C. The assessment of the cortisol levels was conducted by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection at the Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Laboratory Medicine of the Gdansk Medical University. Moreover, a 20-minute psychological test was conducted with the use of the CISS (coping inventory for stressful situations) survey in order to assess the patients in terms of their abilities to cope with stressful situations. The results obtained were submitted to a statistical analysis based on the conventional calculation procedures. The test group revealed significantly higher cortisol levels compared with the results obtained by the control group. The findings of the CISS survey confirmed the predominance of the emotion-focused strategy of coping with stressful situations in the test group. The results support the view that the psychoemotional factor is, to a considerable extent, conducive to the development of functional disorders. The elevated cortisol levels in patients with psychological disorders concur with the findings by other authors. The results obtained confirm that psychoemotional disorders may be one of the etiological factors of the stomatognathic system dysfunctions. The CISS survey, which was not used in similar studies before, makes it possible to obtain information on the subject's method of coping with stress, thus allowing for the initiation of a relevant psychological therapy aiding the prosthetic treatment. PMID:25716974

  12. Evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by simple urine analysis after oral administration of a new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Kropp, J; Knapp, F F; Weyenberg, A; McPherson, D W; Ambrose, K R; Callahan, A P; von Bergmann, K; Biersack, H J

    1994-11-01

    A new iodine-131-labeled triglyceride analogue called "MIPAG" [1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-[(15-p-iodophenyl) pentadecan-1-oyl]rac-glycerol] has been prepared in which 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) is attached to position-3. MIPAG has been developed for the evaluation of pancreatic exocrine function by simple urine analysis and has been evaluated in rats and humans. After oral administration, IPPA is released from the triglyceride by the action of pancreatic lipases followed by intestinal absorption and the principal IPPA metabolite (p-iodobenzoic acid, IBA) is primarily excreted in the urine. Excretion in the urine and feces was evaluated in rats, as well as the biodistribution in various organs over 21 days. Twenty patients without pancreatic disease (normals) and four patients without pancreatic insufficiency were also investigated. Following oral administration of 30 microCi of MIPAG, urine was collected for two successive 24-h periods. Blood samples were drawn and thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) analysis was performed on the serum lipid extracts. Urine from normals contained 44.9% +/- 7.7% and 61.8% +/- 8.4% of the administered activity after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The patients with pancreatic insufficiency excreted 13.1 +/- 5.6% and 18.9% +/- 6.2%, respectively, which was significantly decreased (P < 0.001) compared with normals. The TLC profiles showed an increasing proportion of IBA with time. Urine analysis after oral administration of MIPAG thus appears to be an attractive new techniques for the evaluation of pancreatic lipase activity by a simple urine analysis. PMID:7859776

  13. NADPH oxidase of neutrophils elevates o,o'-dityrosine cross-links in proteins and urine during inflammation.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, S; Pennathur, S; Byun, J; Crowley, J; Mueller, D; Gischler, J; Hotchkiss, R S; Heinecke, J W

    2001-11-01

    Reactive intermediates generated by phagocytic white blood cells are of central importance in destroying microorganisms, but they may also damage normal tissue at sites of inflammation. To investigate the potential role of such oxidants in tissue injury, we used gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to quantify levels of o,o'-dityrosine in mouse peritoneal neutrophils and urine. In wild-type animals, neutrophils markedly increased their content of protein-bound dityrosine when they were activated in vivo. This increase failed to occur in mice that were deficient in the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Levels of o,o'-dityrosine in urine mirrored those in neutrophil proteins. When o,o'-[(14)C]dityrosine was injected intravenously into mice, the radiolabel was not metabolized or incorporated into tissue proteins: instead, it was recovered in urine with near-quantitative yield. Patients with sepsis markedly increased their output of o,o'-dityrosine into urine, suggesting that systemic inflammation also may be a potent source of oxidative stress in humans. These observations demonstrate that activated neutrophils produce o,o'-dityrosine cross-links in tissue proteins, which may subsequently be degraded into free amino acids and excreted into urine. Our results indicate that mouse phagocytes use oxidants produced by the NADPH oxidase to create o,o'-dityrosine cross-links in vivo and raise the possibility that reactive intermediates produced by this pathway promote inflammatory tissue damage in humans. PMID:11673867

  14. Direct tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous assay of opioids, cocaine and metabolites in dried urine spots.

    PubMed

    Otero-Fernández, Mara; Cocho, José Ángel; Tabernero, María Jesús; Bermejo, Ana María; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio

    2013-06-19

    A micro-analytical method based on spotting urine samples (20?L) onto blood/urine spot collection cards followed by air-drying and extraction (dried urine spot, DUS) was developed and validated for the screening/confirmation assay of morphine, 6-methylacetylmorphine (6-MAM), codeine, cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BZE). Acetonitrile (3 mL) was found to be a useful solvent for target extraction from DUSs under an orbital-horizontal stirring at 180 rpm for 10 min. Determinations were performed by direct electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) under positive electrospray ionization conditions, and by using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with one precursor ion/product ion transition for the identification and quantification (deuterated analogs of each target as internal standards) of each analyte. The limits of detection of the method were 0.26, 0.94, 1.5, 1.1, and 2.0 ng mL(-1), for cocaine, BZE, codeine, morphine and 6-MAM, respectively; whereas, relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day precision were lower than 8 and 11%, respectively, and intra- and inter-day analytical recoveries ranged from 94±4 to 105±3%. The small volume of urine required (20 ?L), combined with the simplicity of the analytical technique makes it a useful procedure for screening/quantifying drugs of abuse. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of urine from polydrug abusers. PMID:23746404

  15. Analysis of age and gender associated N-glycoproteome in human whole saliva

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glycoproteins comprise a large portion of the salivary proteome and have great potential for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. However, the rate of production and the concentration of whole saliva change with age, gender and physiological states of the human body. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the salivary glycoproteome of healthy individuals of different ages and genders is a prerequisite for saliva to have clinical utility. Methods Formerly N-linked glycopeptides were isolated from the pooled whole saliva of six age and gender groups by hydrazide chemistry and hydrophilic affinity methods followed by mass spectrometry identification. Selected physiochemical characteristics of salivary glycoproteins were analyzed, and the salivary glycoproteomes of different age and gender groups were compared based on their glycoprotein components and gene ontology. Results and discussion Among 85?N-glycoproteins identified in healthy human saliva, the majority were acidic proteins with low molecular weight. The numbers of salivary N-glycoproteins increased with age. Fifteen salivary glycoproteins were identified as potential age- or gender-associated glycoproteins, and many of them have functions related to innate immunity against microorganisms and oral cavity protection. Moreover, many salivary glycoproteins have been previously reported as disease related glycoproteins. This study reveals the important role of salivary glycoproteins in the maintenance of oral health and homeostasis and the great potential of saliva for biomarker discovery and disease diagnosis. PMID:24994967

  16. Diagnosis of parvovirus B19 infection by detection of specific immunoglobulin M antibody in saliva.

    PubMed Central

    Cubel, R C; Oliveira, S A; Brown, D W; Cohen, B J; Nascimento, J P

    1996-01-01

    Serum and saliva samples were simultaneously collected from patients with B19 infection. Specimens were collected in a period of 1 to 18 days after the onset of symptoms. Saliva samples were collected with a commercial device, OraSure. The quality of these samples was evaluated by determining the concentration of total immunoglobulin G (IgG) by an enzyme immunoassay. The concentration of IgG in these samples ranged from 4.8 to > 250 mg/liter. B19 infection was confirmed for 20 patients by testing sera in a 1: 100 dilution by an IgM capture enzyme immunoassay (MACEIA) and an IgM capture hemadherence test (MACHAT). Saliva samples from these IgM-positive patients were tested neat by MACEIA and MACHAT. IgM could be detected in 11 of 20 (55%) samples by MACEIA and in 15 of 18 (83%) samples by MACHAT. Serum and saliva samples from a further 17 patients with rash were also tested. All of these specimens were unreactive by both assays. These results show that saliva may be a convenient alternative to serum for the diagnosis of recent B19 infection. PMID:8748306

  17. Nonsporing, anaerobic, gram-positive rods in saliva and the gingival crevice of humans.

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, B; Russell, C

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative and qualitative examination of anaerobically isolated flora of the gingival crevice and saliva was carried out. It was found that half the organisms were anaerobes and that there were twice as many gram-positive organisms as there were gram-negative ones. Rods were predominant in the gingival crevice (60.5%) and cocci in saliva (69.1%). Of the total organisms, nonsporing, gram-positive anaerobic rods accounted for 24% in the gingival crevice and 9.7% in saliva. These organisms were characterized on the basis of the type of fatty acids produced from glucose and various biochemical reactions. They belonged to the following genera: Actinomyces, Propionibacterium, Arachnia, Lactobacillus, Eubacterium, and Bifidobacterium. Bifidobacteria were present only in saliva. Although members of the other genera were present both in the gingival crevice and saliva, there were considerable differences in the proportion of any particular organism (in relation to the total anaerobic viable count) between the two sites. The result of this study also indicates a greater than previously appreciated level of Propionibacterium and Arachnia in the human mouth. PMID:646354

  18. Saliva Ontology: An ontology-based framework for a Salivaomics Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Salivaomics Knowledge Base (SKB) is designed to serve as a computational infrastructure that can permit global exploration and utilization of data and information relevant to salivaomics. SKB is created by aligning (1) the saliva biomarker discovery and validation resources at UCLA with (2) the ontology resources developed by the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry, including a new Saliva Ontology (SALO). Results We define the Saliva Ontology (SALO; http://www.skb.ucla.edu/SALO/) as a consensus-based controlled vocabulary of terms and relations dedicated to the salivaomics domain and to saliva-related diagnostics following the principles of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry. Conclusions The Saliva Ontology is an ongoing exploratory initiative. The ontology will be used to facilitate salivaomics data retrieval and integration across multiple fields of research together with data analysis and data mining. The ontology will be tested through its ability to serve the annotation ('tagging') of a representative corpus of salivaomics research literature that is to be incorporated into the SKB. PMID:20525291

  19. Detection of Mycobacterium leprae in saliva and the evaluation of oral sensitivity in patients with leprosy

    PubMed Central

    da Rosa, Fernanda Borowsky; de Souza, Victor Costa; de Almeida, Tatiana Amaral Pires; do Nascimento, Valdinete Alves; Vásquez, Felicien Gonçalves; Cunha, Maria da Graça Souza; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate sensitivity disorders in the oral cavity related to the presence of Mycobacterium leprae in the saliva of treatment-naïve patients with leprosy in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 subjects with leprosy. The subjects were interviewed to evaluate the sensitivity of the oral cavity. For the detection of M. leprae, saliva and slit-skin smear samples were collected. The samples were analysed using a bacteriological index (BI) protocol and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results indicated that 15 of the 45 (33.3%) subjects with leprosy showed decreased oral sensitivity, which confirmed the importance of the oral cavity sensitivity evaluation. There was not a direct relationship between the presence of M. leprae in saliva and changes in oral sensitivity. Positive saliva qPCR results from six (31.6%) of 19 paucibacillary (PB) patients suggested the possibility of a new site for sample collection. Positive results using these diagnostic techniques (BI, slit-skin smear and saliva qPCR) increased to 55.5%, thus opening the possibility of combining these different techniques to increase the rate of positive diagnoses, especially in PB patients. PMID:23903971

  20. Diagnostic Efficacy of Saliva For Dengue - A Reality in Near Future? A Piloting Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ravi Banavar, Spoorthi; G.S., Vidya

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dengue, a mosquito-transmitted viral infection presents variable symptoms, including death. Due to their increasing incidences, early detection and improved diagnoses of severe cases are of prime importance. Currently, viral antigens and antibodies are detected by traditional serological tests. However, the introduction of oral fluid as an alternative, has led to many researches. Hence, this prompted us to carry out a pilot study to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of saliva in detecting dengue antibody by using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Aim and objectives: To evaluate the presence of Dengue antibody in saliva and its sensitivity and specificity through ELISA. Methodology and Results: Twenty seropositive patients and twenty seronegative patients of Dengue were considered individually. Saliva samples collected from these patients were subjected to ELISA test for detection of Dengue antibody. A sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% were obtained for making a diagnosis of Dengue infection. Conclusion: Many studies have been conducted by utilizing saliva as a diagnostic tool, especially in western population. Its advantages over venipuncture are many, especially as it is less invasive, safe, less expensive and as it allows large numbers of samples to be collected easily for screening and epidemiological purposes. In a developing tropical country like India, such a diagnostic tool has to be encouraged. Further research necessitates the implementation of saliva as a diagnostic tool. PMID:24783144

  1. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Hiroki; Obata, Akiko N.; Moda, Ichiro; Ozaki, Kazutaka; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamamoto, Yukari; Kiguchi, Masashi; Maki, Atsushi; Kubota, Kisou; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-04-01

    We aim to test the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for indirect measurement of human saliva secretion in response to taste stimuli for potential application to organoleptic testing. We use an NIRS system to measure extracranial hemodynamics (Hb-signals around the temples) of healthy participants when taste stimuli are taken in their mouths. First, the Hb-signals and volume of expelled saliva (stimulated by distilled-water or sucrose-solution intake) are simultaneously measured and large Hb-signal changes in response to the taste stimuli (Hb-responses) are found. Statistical analysis show that both the Hb response and saliva volume are larger for the sucrose solution than for the distilled water with a significant correlation between them (r = 0.81). The effects of swallowing on the Hb-signals are investigated. Similar Hb responses, differing from the sucrose solution and distilled water, are obtained even though the participants swallow the mouth contents. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to identify possible sources of the Hb signals corresponding to salivation. Statistical analysis indicates similar responses in the extracranial regions, mainly around the middle meningeal artery. In conclusion, the identified correlation between extracranial hemodynamics and the saliva volume suggests that NIRS is applicable to the measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.

  2. Proteome Analysis of Watery Saliva Secreted by Green Rice Leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Makoto; Komatsu, Setsuko; Noda, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Yukiko

    2015-01-01

    The green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps, is a vascular bundle feeder that discharges watery and gelling saliva during the feeding process. To understand the potential functions of saliva for successful and safe feeding on host plants, we analyzed the complexity of proteinaceous components in the watery saliva of N. cincticeps. Salivary proteins were collected from a sucrose diet that adult leafhoppers had fed on through a membrane of stretched parafilm. Protein concentrates were separated using SDS-PAGE under reducing and non-reducing conditions. Six proteins were identified by a gas-phase protein sequencer and two proteins were identified using LC-MS/MS analysis with reference to expressed sequence tag (EST) databases of this species. Full -length cDNAs encoding these major proteins were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends-PCR (RACE-PCR) and degenerate PCR. Furthermore, gel-free proteome analysis that was performed to cover the broad range of salivary proteins with reference to the latest RNA-sequencing data from the salivary gland of N. cincticeps, yielded 63 additional protein species. Out of 71 novel proteins identified from the watery saliva, about 60 % of those were enzymes or other functional proteins, including GH5 cellulase, transferrin, carbonic anhydrases, aminopeptidase, regucalcin, and apolipoprotein. The remaining proteins appeared to be unique and species- specific. This is the first study to identify and characterize the proteins in watery saliva of Auchenorrhyncha species, especially sheath-producing, vascular bundle-feeders. PMID:25909947

  3. Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staden, Raluca-Ioana Stefan-Van; Gugoa??, Livia Alexandra; Calenic, Bogdan; Legler, Juliette

    2014-07-01

    Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva. The main advantage of utilization of such tools is the possibility to identify and quantify all three hormones within minutes in small volumes of childen's saliva. The limits of quantification obtained for DHT, T2, and E2 (1 fmol/L for DHT, 1 pmol/L for T2, and 66 fmol/L for E2) determined using the proposed tools allows the utilization of these new methods with high reliability for the screening of saliva samples from children. This new method proposed for the assay of the three hormones overcomes the limitations (regarding limits of determination) of ELISA method which is the standard method used in clinical laboratories for the assay of DHT, T2, and E2 in saliva samples. The main feature of its utilization for children's saliva is to identify earlier problems related to early puberty and obesity.

  4. Proteomic Profiling of Cereal Aphid Saliva Reveals Both Ubiquitous and Adaptive Secreted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Tom L.

    2013-01-01

    The secreted salivary proteins from two cereal aphid species, Sitobion avenae and Metopolophium dirhodum, were collected from artificial diets and analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Protein identification was performed by searching MS data against the official protein set from the current pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome assembly and revealed 12 and 7 proteins in the saliva of S. avenae and M. dirhodum, respectively. When combined with a comparable dataset from A. pisum, only three individual proteins were common to all the aphid species; two paralogues of the GMC oxidoreductase family (glucose dehydrogenase; GLD) and ACYPI009881, an aphid specific protein previously identified as a putative component of the salivary sheath. Antibodies were designed from translated protein sequences obtained from partial cDNA sequences for ACYPI009881 and both saliva associated GLDs. The antibodies detected all parent proteins in secreted saliva from the three aphid species, but could only detect ACYPI009881, and not saliva associated GLDs, in protein extractions from the salivary glands. This result was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using whole and sectioned salivary glands, and in addition, localised ACYPI009881 to specific cell types within the principal salivary gland. The implications of these findings for the origin of salivary components and the putative role of the proteins identified are discussed in the context of our limited understanding of the functional relationship between aphid saliva and the plants they feed on. The mass spectrometry data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange and can be accessed under the identifier PXD000113. PMID:23460852

  5. Determination of poliovirus-specific IgA in saliva by ELISA tests.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander; Dragunsky, Eugenia; Ivanova, Olga; Rezapkin, Gennady; Potapova, Svetlana; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2005-06-01

    This study describes three ELISA methods for detection of immunoglobulin A (IgA) specific to three types of Sabin strains of poliovirus in saliva taken from 70 children aged 6-7 years vaccinated with a full course of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). Of the three ELISA methods (conventional IgA ELISA and two new methods described in this communication, the alpha-capture ELISA and Inhibition ELISA), alpha-capture ELISA demonstrated the highest sensitivity, with all saliva samples testing positive for Sabin poliovirus strains specific IgA antibodies of 1-3 types. Of 62 available alpha-capture ELISA positive saliva samples, all were also positive by the inhibition ELISA, and a significant correlation was found between the results. Fifty-two available saliva samples were screened by the three ELISA tests with positive results, and a significant correlation was found between the alpha-capture ELISA and the IgA ELISA; the correlation between the IgA ELISA and inhibition ELISA was not significant. The results of this study suggest that determination of Sabin poliovirus-specific IgA in human saliva by the ELISA techniques (especially by the novel alpha-capture ELISA) can be used reliably for evaluation of mucosal immunity in large groups of people immunized with poliovirus vaccines and for epidemiological studies. PMID:15847918

  6. Soluble toll like receptor 2 (TLR-2) is increased in saliva of children with dental caries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries is the most common microbial disease affecting mankind. Caries risk assessment methods, identification of biomarkers and vaccine development strategies are being emphasized to control the incidence of the largely preventable disease. Pattern recognition receptors such as the toll like receptors (TLR) have been implicated as modulators of host-microbial interactions. Soluble TLR-2 and its co-receptor, CD14 identified in saliva can bind the cell wall components of cariogenic bacteria and modulate the disease process. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of salivary sTLR-2 and sCD14 as biomarkers of caries activity and indirect measures of the cariogenic bacterial burden. Methods Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from twenty caries free and twenty caries active children between the ages of 5 and 13 years. The concentration of sCD14 and sTLR-2 together with that of the cytokine IL-8 reported to be increased in dental caries was assessed by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Results While the level of sCD14 and that of IL-8 was equivocal between the two groups, the sTLR-2 concentration in caries active saliva was significantly higher than that in caries free saliva. Conclusions The sTLR-2 in saliva could serve as a potential biomarker for caries activity. PMID:25174416

  7. Influence of Sublethal Antibiotic Concentrations on Bacterial Adherence to Saliva-Treated Hydroxyapatite

    PubMed Central

    Peros, W. J.; Gibbons, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of growth in the presence of sublethal concentrations of nine antibiotics on the ability of certain potentially odontopathic bacteria to attach to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite surfaces which mimic teeth was studied. Cells of Actinomyces viscosus LY7 and S2, Bacteroides gingivalis 381, Capnocytophaga ochraceus 6, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans N27 attached in lower numbers to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite when grown in the presence of 50% of the minimum inhibitory concentration of tetracycline. Electron microscopic observations of negatively stained preparations indicated that tetracycline-grown A. viscosus LY7 cells had fewer fimbriae than did untreated cells, which may account for the impaired ability of the treated cells to attach. However, cells of Actinomyces naeslundii L13 and S4 attached in higher numbers when grown in the presence of tetracycline, clindamycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, or neomycin. Streptococcus mutans strains H12 and JBP also exhibited increased adherence to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite when grown in the presence of 50 or 25% of the minimum inhibitory concentration of penicillin. Thus, growth in the presence of sublethal antibiotic concentrations could increase as well as decrease the adherence of bacteria to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite. Antibiotic-grown cells of the Actinomyces strains showed enhanced hemagglutination activity, but this did not correlate with their ability to attach to saliva-treated hydroxyapatite. Sublethal concentrations of antibiotics in the growth media also affected the coaggregation reactions of several organisms; the effects were specific for one member of the coaggregation pair. Images PMID:6274799

  8. Interferon-? and interleukin-4 detected in serum and saliva from patients with oral lichen planus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wen-Zhao; He, Ming-Jing; Long, Long; Mu, Dong-Liang; Xu, Ming-Shu; Xing, Xue; Zeng, Xin; Liao, Ga; Dan, Hong-Xia; Chen, Qian-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Our previous salivary study had demonstrated an apparent T helper 2 (Th2)-predominance in saliva of oral lichen planus (OLP) patients and suggested a potential of salivary interleukin-4 (IL-4) as a biomarker for monitoring disease severity. To further determine the consistency of Th1/Th2 bias of OLP, this study investigated the expression profile of interferon-? (IFN-?) and IL-4 in serum and the relationship of the serum levels of these cytokines with their saliva partners. Sixty ethnic Chinese patients with OLP (40 of the erythematous/ulcerative form and 20 of the reticular form) were recruited for this study, with 40 age–sex-matched healthy volunteers as control group. IFN-? and IL-4 levels in serum and paired saliva samples were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. OLP patient showed a low-level IFN-? but high-level IL-4 expression profile in both serum and saliva, with a lower IFN-?/IL-4 ratio. Serum IL-4 level in the erythematous/ulcerative group was significantly higher than that in the reticular group. Serum levels of IFN-? and IL-4 were significantly and positively correlated with their saliva partners. These results provided more evidence for Th2 cytokine-predominant immune imbalance in OLP, as well as the potential of IL-4 as the biomarker for monitoring severity of OLP. PMID:24158143

  9. Looking at the urine: the renaissance of an unbroken tradition.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2007-06-01

    The science of looking at the urine for diagnostic purposes, uroscopy, is as ancient as disease. Throughout history, urine, the first bodily fluid to be examined, has continuously and persistently provided medicine with an increasing body of knowledge about the workings of the inner body. For most of its history, uroscopy was a visual science; this focus peaked in the Middle Ages, when the vessel used to examine urine, the matula, became a symbol of the medical profession. Over time, the practice of uroscopy spread into the hands of quacks and apothecaries, who prescribed and sold their potions by merely looking at the urine. The consequent reformation measures of the 16th and 17th centuries coincided with the first attempts at analyzing the contents of urine. As a result, many of the chemical components now reported in metabolic profiles were first analyzed and identified in urine during the first half of the 18th century. In the process, what started as a science that bordered on divination laid the foundations of chemical analysis and spawned the disciplines of urology, endocrinology, and, after the use of urine in clearance studies, nephrology. The analytical methods and remarkable achievements of each of these disciplines have increased the value of examining urine. A renaissance of this oldest diagnostic tool of medicine is now under way in the proteomic profiling and detection of biomarkers in the urine, an approach which promises to further extend the merits of the unbroken tradition of looking at the urine. PMID:17533032

  10. High rates of non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Maciej; White, Christobelle; Patel, Prashanth; Masca, Nicholas; Damani, Ravi; Hepworth, Joanne; Samani, Nilesh J; Gupta, Pankaj; Madira, Webster; Stanley, Adrian; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Non-adherence to therapy is an important cause of suboptimal blood pressure control but few practical tools exist to accurately and routinely detect it. We used a simple urine-based assay to evaluate the prevalence of antihypertensive treatment non-adherence and its impact on blood pressure in a specialist hypertension centre. Methods 208 hypertensive patients (125 new referrals, 66 follow-up patients with inadequate blood pressure control and 17 renal denervation referrals) underwent assessment of antihypertensive drug intake using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis at the time of clinical appointment. A total of 40 most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications (or their metabolites) were screened for in spot urine samples. Results Overall, 25% of patients were totally or partially non-adherent to antihypertensive treatment (total non-adherence 10.1%, partial non-adherence 14.9%). The highest prevalence of partial and total non-adherence was among follow-up patients with inadequate blood pressure control (28.8%) and those referred for consideration of renal denervation (23.5%), respectively. There was a linear relationship between blood pressure and the numerical difference in detected/prescribed antihypertensive medications—every unit increase in this difference was associated with 3.0 (1.1) mm?Hg, 3.1 (0.7) mm?Hg and 1.9 (0.7) mm?Hg increase in adjusted clinic systolic blood pressure, clinic diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and 24?h mean daytime DBP (p=0.0051, p=8.62×10?6, p=0.0057), respectively. Conclusions Non-adherence to blood pressure lowering therapy is common, particularly in patients with suboptimal blood pressure control and those referred for renal denervation. HP LC-MS/MS urine analysis could be used to exclude non-adherence and better stratify further investigations and intervention. PMID:24694797

  11. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on Control- and Thrombostasin-Vaccinated Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is an anticlotting protein found in saliva of Haematobia irritans (horn flies). The polymorphic nature of the ts gene was first associated with success of horn flies blood feeding on a laboratory host, New Zealand White rabbits. In this study, we report results of similar studies ...

  12. Incidence of Epstein-Barr Virus in Astronaut Saliva During Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, Deborah A.; Mehta, Satish K.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Stowe, Raymond P.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in re-activation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crew members. The shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts will increase during spaceflight. A total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva, assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), was used to determine shedding patterns before, during, and after spaceflight. EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during (p less than 0.001) or after (p less than 0.01) flight. No significant difference between the in-flight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. The increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.

  13. Influence of self-made saliva substitutes on tribological characteristics of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Andrysewicz, Edyta; Mystkowska, Joanna; D?browski, Jan Ryszard; Olchowik, Rafa?

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of tests on the influence of human saliva and its substitutes on tribological characteristics of friction pairs. Each pair consists of enamel and one of the following materials: ceramics, the Meridian B2 dental composite, the GK dental amalgam, and Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The saliva substitutes used were prepared using pyrophosphates, xanthan gum, and mucins dissolved in a saline buffer. The results of the tribological tests show that the values of the parameters under investigation (coefficient of friction and linear wear) were different from each other. Some similarity was observed between the evaluated level of wear characteristics after the friction process in the environment of human saliva and that in the environment of one of the mucins tested. Microscopic observations of the surfaces of the enamel samples after friction revealed varied forms of tribological wear. PMID:25088699

  14. Spectral analysis of human saliva for detection of lung cancer using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Lin, Junxiu

    2012-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has been shown to be able to detect low-concentration biofluids. Saliva SERS readings of 21 lung cancer patients and 20 normal people were measured and differentiated. Most of the Raman peak intensities decrease for lung cancer patients compared with that of normal people. Those peaks were assigned to proteins and nucleic acids, which indicate a corresponding decrease of those substances in saliva. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to reduce and discriminate between the two groups of data, and the study resulted in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity being 80%, 78%, and 83%, respectively. In conclusion, SERS of saliva showed the ability to predict lung cancer in our experiment.

  15. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy differences of saliva between lung cancer patients and normal people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaozhou; Yang, Tianyue; Li, Siqi; Yu, Ting

    2011-07-01

    Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has shown the advantage of detecting low concentration biofluids presently. Saliva SERS of 21 lung cancer patients and 22 normal people were measured and differentiated in this paper. Intensities of most peaks of lung cancer patients are weaker than that of normal people, some are stronger but with a small change rate. Those peaks were assigned to proteins and nucleic acids which indicate a corresponding decrease of substance in saliva. Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to deduce and discriminate the two groups of data, resulted in accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity being 84%, 94%, and 81%, respectively. In conclusion, SERS of saliva has the ability of predicting lung cancer.

  16. Performance of Multiplex Cytokine Assays in Serum and Saliva among Community-Dwelling Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Richard W.; Kantarci, Alpdogan; LaMonte, Michael J.; Andrews, Christopher A.; Hovey, Kathleen M.; Falkner, Karen L.; Cekici, Ali; Stephens, Danielle; Genco, Robert J.; Scannapieco, Frank A.; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2013-01-01

    Multiplexing arrays increase the throughput and decrease sample requirements for studies employing multiple biomarkers. The goal of this project was to examine the performance of Multiplex arrays for measuring multiple protein biomarkers in saliva and serum. Specimens from the OsteoPerio ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study were used. Participants required the presence of at least 6 teeth and were excluded based on active cancer and certain bone issues but were not selected on any specific condition. Quality control (QC) samples were created from pooled serum and saliva. Twenty protein markers were measured on five multiplexing array panels. Sample pretreatment conditions were optimized for each panel. Recovery, lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and imprecision were determined for each analyte. Statistical adjustment at the plate level was used to reduce imprecision estimates and increase the number of usable observations. Sample pre-treatment improved recovery estimates for many analytes. The LLOQ for each analyte agreed with manufacturer specifications except for MMP-1 and MMP-2 which were significantly higher than reported. Following batch adjustment, 17 of 20 biomarkers in serum and 9 of 20 biomarkers in saliva demonstrated acceptable precision, defined as <20% coefficient of variation (<25% at LLOQ). The percentage of cohort samples having levels within the reportable range for each analyte varied from 10% to 100%. The ratio of levels in saliva to serum varied from 1?100 to 28?1. Correlations between saliva and serum were of moderate positive magnitude and significant for CRP, MMP-2, insulin, adiponectin, GM-CSF and IL-5. Multiplex arrays exhibit high levels of analytical imprecision, particularly at the batch level. Careful sample pre-treatment can enhance recovery and reduce imprecision. Following statistical adjustments to reduce batch effects, we identified biomarkers that are of acceptable quality in serum and to a lesser degree in saliva using Multiplex arrays. PMID:23577067

  17. Improving Ambulatory Saliva-Sampling Compliance in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Julian; Lieb, Roselind; Meyer, Andrea H.; Loetscher, Katharina Quack; Krastel, Bettina; Meinlschmidt, Gunther

    2014-01-01

    Objective Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. Methods We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring) and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders) improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. Results Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%), F(1,60) ?=?17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%), F(1,60) ?=?0.78, p?=?0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64)?=?8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705)?=?7.38, p?=?0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. Conclusions The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest informing women about objective compliance monitoring but discourage use of acoustical reminders. PMID:24465958

  18. Alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase and beta-glucuronidase in saliva of cyclic women.

    PubMed

    Boyer, K G; France, J T

    1976-01-01

    Levels of the enzymes alkaline phosphatase, arylsulfatase, and beta-glucuronidase have been measured in whole unstimulated saliva samples collected daily during normal menstrual cycles. The cellular content of the saliva has been shown to be a major source of the three enzymes. The enzymes were found to have peak maximum levels of activity during the periovulatory -hase of the cycle. This observation can be attributed to the presence of increased numbers of exfoliated cells from the oral mucosa resulting from the pre-ovulatory estrogen stimulus to cell proliferation. PMID:8394

  19. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of volatile constituents in saliva.

    PubMed

    Lochner, A; Weisner, S; Zlatkis, A; Middleditch, B S

    1986-06-13

    Present methods for the development of metabolic profiles are limited to the use of headspace techniques and solvent extraction methods. A new method for the development of saliva profiles which provides information complementary to existing analyses has been developed. The results of the developed methodology provide a reliable, reproducible method for metabolic profiling. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of the volatile constituents provided positive identification of 39 compounds. Application of the developed protocol toward the investigation of saliva as a vehicle for the non-invasive detection of certain pathological states, specifically diabetes mellitus and liver disorders, may be possible. PMID:3733987

  20. Ethical considerations in urine drug testing.

    PubMed

    Passik, Steven D; Kirsh, Kenneth L

    2011-01-01

    Recent passage of a House Bill in the state of Washington led to a commentary on whether mandates for urine drug testing of pain patients represented a breach of the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendment rights of patients. Issues over true consent to such tests and potential view of warrantless searches were discussed. The authors address these concerns in a broader context of risk management and stratification efforts, along with discussion about the need for a tailored approach in this arena and consideration of cost burden for such tests. Finally, the argument is made that social justice issues need to be considered (along with issues of autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence). PMID:21810007