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Sample records for blood vessel branching

  1. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  2. Tumor Blood Vessel Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munn, Lance

    2009-11-01

    ``Normalization'' of tumor blood vessels has shown promise to improve the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. In theory, anti-angiogenic drugs targeting endothelial VEGF signaling can improve vessel network structure and function, enhancing the transport of subsequent cytotoxic drugs to cancer cells. In practice, the effects are unpredictable, with varying levels of success. The predominant effects of anti-VEGF therapies are decreased vessel leakiness (hydraulic conductivity), decreased vessel diameters and pruning of the immature vessel network. It is thought that each of these can influence perfusion of the vessel network, inducing flow in regions that were previously sluggish or stagnant. Unfortunately, when anti-VEGF therapies affect vessel structure and function, the changes are dynamic and overlapping in time, and it has been difficult to identify a consistent and predictable normalization ``window'' during which perfusion and subsequent drug delivery is optimal. This is largely due to the non-linearity in the system, and the inability to distinguish the effects of decreased vessel leakiness from those due to network structural changes in clinical trials or animal studies. We have developed a mathematical model to calculate blood flow in complex tumor networks imaged by two-photon microscopy. The model incorporates the necessary and sufficient components for addressing the problem of normalization of tumor vasculature: i) lattice-Boltzmann calculations of the full flow field within the vasculature and within the tissue, ii) diffusion and convection of soluble species such as oxygen or drugs within vessels and the tissue domain, iii) distinct and spatially-resolved vessel hydraulic conductivities and permeabilities for each species, iv) erythrocyte particles advecting in the flow and delivering oxygen with real oxygen release kinetics, v) shear stress-mediated vascular remodeling. This model, guided by multi-parameter intravital imaging of tumor vessel structure and function, provides a tool for identifying the structural and functional determinants of tumor vessel normalization.

  3. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  4. Probe Follower for Moving Blood Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.; Andrews, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    Probes track vessel expansion and contraction with minimal perturbation. Nozzle back-pressure changes at cuff on blood vessel basis for monitoring position of probe in blood vessel. Fluidic amplifiers use signals to control three-axis servo that centers measuring probe between sensing-nozzle pairs at cuff.

  5. Two-photon lifetime imaging of blood and blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grauw, Cees J.; van Zandvoort, Marc M.; oude Egbrink, M. G.; Slaaf, Dick W.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2001-04-01

    We investigated the potential of two-photon excitation microscopy for the imaging in large blood vessels. Experiments were carried out on isolated rat aorta, labeled with a DNA/RNA dye. Images of the vessel wall indicated that a penetration depth of more than 200 micrometers could be reached. Moreover, blood cells and platelets inside blood vessels could be imaged through the vessel wall. Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM) was used as a contrast mechanism for discrimination of autofluorescence from fluorescence of labeled blood cells. We were able to observe labeled blood cells through the vessel wall and identify them by their morphology and characteristic fluorescent lifetimes.

  6. Molecular control of endothelial cell behaviour during blood vessel morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Shane P.; Stainier, Didier Y.R.

    2012-01-01

    The vertebrate vasculature forms an extensive branched network of blood vessels that supplies tissues with nutrients and oxygen. During vascular development, coordinated control of endothelial cell behaviour at the levels of cell migration, proliferation, polarity, differentiation and cell–cell communication is critical for functional blood vessel morphogenesis. Recent data uncover elaborate transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms that fine-tune key signalling pathways (such as the vascular endothelial growth factor and Notch pathways) to control endothelial cell behaviour during blood vessel sprouting (angiogenesis). These emerging frameworks controlling angiogenesis provide unique insights into fundamental biological processes common to other systems, such as tissue branching morphogenesis, mechanotransduction and tubulogenesis. PMID:21860391

  7. Unsteady Flow in Stenotic Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Devi Williamson, Shobha; Berger, Stanley A.; Saloner, David

    2003-11-01

    Recent studies show that many heart attacks and strokes occur from sudden rupture of partially occluding atherosclerotic plaque rather than total vessel occlusion. Our goal is to understand how the mechanical forces induced by blood flow on specific plaque deposits makes them vulnerable to rupture. Models of severely stenotic carotid bifurcations are created from MR images and grids generated for the flow domains. The three-dimensional, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in finite-volume form are solved numerically using physiological boundary conditions. During systole a high velocity jet forms at the stenotic throat in one of the branches, and a long recirculation zone is observed downstream of the plaque. During diastole the flow is more stagnant. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady with chaotic streamlines. Whereas flow in healthy arteries is laminar, irregular geometries and sharp changes in vessel diameter of a severely stenotic artery significantly disrupt the flow, with consequences for shear and normal wall stresses at the wall, and important implications for plaque stability. Supported by NIH Grant HL61823

  8. Dynamic mechanisms of blood vessel growth

    PubMed Central

    Merks, Roeland M H; Glazier, James A

    2009-01-01

    The formation of a polygonal configuration of proto-blood-vessels from initially dispersed cells is the first step in the development of the circulatory system in vertebrates. This initial vascular network later expands to form new blood vessels, primarily via a sprouting mechanism. We review a range of recent results obtained with a Monte Carlo model of chemotactically migrating cells which can explain both de novo blood vessel growth and aspects of blood vessel sprouting. We propose that the initial network forms via a percolation-like instability depending on cell shape, or through an alternative contact-inhibition of motility mechanism which also reproduces aspects of sprouting blood vessel growth. PMID:19526066

  9. Designer blood vessels and therapeutic revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Joseph D; Galis, Zorina S

    2003-01-01

    Inadequate vascular perfusion leads to fatal heart attacks, chronic ulcers, and other serious clinical conditions. The body's capacity to restore vascular perfusion through angiogenesis and arteriogenesis is often impaired by pre-existing disease, and availability of native replacements for nonfunctional arteries is limited in many patients. Thus, recreating blood vessels of various calibres through novel engineering technologies has emerged as a radical option among therapeutic strategies for revascularization. Ranging from artificial, recycled or reassembled natural conduits to sophisticated microdevices, we refer to these as ‘designer blood vessels'. Our common efforts to continuously improve vascular replacement design have provided many clues about our own blood vessels, but nature's ability to create nonthrombogenic, immunocompatible, strong, yet biologically responsive blood vessels remains unparalleled. Just as art reproductions never equal the original masterpiece, designer blood vessels may never attain nature's perfection. Nevertheless, they will provide a valuable option as long as they come close enough and are available to many. PMID:14534146

  10. Classification & Structure of Blood Vessels

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands Review Quiz Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the Heart Blood Classification & Structure of Blood ...

  11. Readdressing the issue of thermally significant blood vessels using a countercurrent vessel network.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Devashish; Roemer, Robert B

    2006-04-01

    A physiologically realistic arterio-venous countercurrent vessel network model consisting of ten branching vessel generations, where the diameter of each generation of vessels is smaller than the previous ones, has been created and used to determine the thermal significance of different vessel generations by investigating their ability to exchange thermal energy with the tissue. The temperature distribution in the 3D network (8178 vessels; diameters from 10 to 1000 microm) is obtained by solving the conduction equation in the tissue and the convective energy equation with a specified Nusselt number in the vessels. The sensitivity of the exchange of energy between the vessels and the tissue to changes in the network parameters is studied for two cases; a high temperature thermal therapy case when tissue is heated by a uniformly distributed source term and the network cools the tissue, and a hypothermia related case, when tissue is cooled from the surface and the blood heats the tissue. Results show that first, the relative roles of vessels of different diameters are strongly determined by the inlet temperatures to those vessels (e.g., as affected by changing mass flow rates), and the surrounding tissue temperature, but not by their diameter. Second, changes in the following do not significantly affect the heat transfer rates between tissue and vessels; (a) the ratio of arterial to venous vessel diameter, (b) the diameter reduction coefficient (the ratio of diameters of successive vessel generations), and (c) the Nusselt number. Third, both arteries and veins play significant roles in the exchange of energy between tissue and vessels, with arteries playing a more significant role. These results suggest that the determination of which diameter vessels are thermally important should be performed on a case-by-case, problem dependent basis. And, that in the development of site-specific vessel network models, reasonable predictions of the relative roles of different vessel diameters can be obtained by using any physiologically realistic values of Nusselt number and the diameter reduction coefficient. PMID:16524332

  12. Automated computational framework of blood vessel quantification in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Peng; Hong, Jinsheng; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong

    2014-10-01

    Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay has been widely used for finding drugs targeting new blood vessel development in cancer research. In addition to the setup materials and protocols, laboratory findings depend on the quantification and analysis of microscopic blood vessel images. However, it is still a challenging problem because of the high complexity of blood vessel branching structures. We applied preprocessing on CAM microscopic images by keeping the integrity of minor branches in the vessel structure. We then proposed an efficient way to automatically extract blood vessel centerlines based on vector tracing starting from detected seed points. Finally, all branches were coded to construct an abstract model of the branching structure, which enabled more accurate modeling for in-depth analysis. The framework was applied in quantifying Icaritin (ICT) inhibition effects on angiogenesis in a CAM model. Experimental results showed the high accuracy in blood vessel quantification and modeling compared with semimanual measurements. Meanwhile, a set of blood vessel growth indicators were extracted to provide fully automated analysis for angiogenesis assays. Further analysis proved that ICT took effect in a dose-dependent manner which could be applied in suppressing tumor blood vessel growth.

  13. Microvascular Branching as a Determinant of Blood Flow by Intravital Particle Imaging Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Wernet, Mark P.; Myers, Jerry G.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of microvascular branching on blood flow were investigated in vivo by microscopic particle imaging velocimetry (micro-PIV). We use micro-PIV to measure blood flow by tracking red blood cells (RBC) as the moving particles. Velocity flow fields, including flow pulsatility, were analyzed for the first four branching orders of capillaries, postcapillary venules and small veins of the microvascular network within the developing avian yolksac at embryonic day 5 (E5). Increasing volumetric flowrates were obtained from parabolic laminar flow profiles as a function of increasing vessel diameter and branching order. Maximum flow velocities increased approximately twenty-fold as the function of increasing vessel diameter and branching order compared to flow velocities of 100 - 150 micron/sec in the capillaries. Results from our study will be useful for the increased understanding of blood flow within anastomotic, heterogeneous microvascular networks.

  14. Rasip1 is essential to blood vessel stability and angiogenic blood vessel growth.

    PubMed

    Koo, Yeon; Barry, David M; Xu, Ke; Tanigaki, Keiji; Davis, George E; Mineo, Chieko; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-04-01

    Cardiovascular function depends on patent, continuous and stable blood vessel formation by endothelial cells (ECs). Blood vessel development initiates by vasculogenesis, as ECs coalesce into linear aggregates and organize to form central lumens that allow blood flow. Molecular mechanisms underlying in vivo vascular 'tubulogenesis' are only beginning to be unraveled. We previously showed that the GTPase-interacting protein called Rasip1 is required for the formation of continuous vascular lumens in the early embryo. Rasip1(-/-) ECs exhibit loss of proper cell polarity and cell shape, disrupted localization of EC-EC junctions and defects in adhesion of ECs to extracellular matrix. In vitro studies showed that Rasip1 depletion in cultured ECs blocked tubulogenesis. Whether Rasip1 is required in blood vessels after their initial formation remained unclear. Here, we show that Rasip1 is essential for vessel formation and maintenance in the embryo, but not in quiescent adult vessels. Rasip1 is also required for angiogenesis in three models of blood vessel growth: in vitro matrix invasion, retinal blood vessel growth and directed in vivo angiogenesis assays. Rasip1 is thus necessary in growing embryonic blood vessels, postnatal angiogenic sprouting and remodeling, but is dispensable for maintenance of established blood vessels, making it a potential anti-angiogenic therapeutic target. PMID:26897025

  15. Trends in Tissue Engineering for Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nemeno-Guanzon, Judee Grace; Lee, Soojung; Berg, Johan Robert; Jo, Yong Hwa; Yeo, Jee Eun; Nam, Bo Mi; Koh, Yong-Gon; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, cardiovascular diseases continue to increase and affect not only human health but also the economic stability worldwide. The advancement in tissue engineering is contributing a lot in dealing with this immediate need of alleviating human health. Blood vessel diseases are considered as major cardiovascular health problems. Although blood vessel transplantation is the most convenient treatment, it has been delimited due to scarcity of donors and the patient's conditions. However, tissue-engineered blood vessels are promising alternatives as mode of treatment for blood vessel defects. The purpose of this paper is to show the importance of the advancement on biofabrication technology for treatment of soft tissue defects particularly for vascular tissues. This will also provide an overview and update on the current status of tissue reconstruction especially from autologous stem cells, scaffolds, and scaffold-free cellular transplantable constructs. The discussion of this paper will be focused on the historical view of cardiovascular tissue engineering and stem cell biology. The representative studies featured in this paper are limited within the last decade in order to trace the trend and evolution of techniques for blood vessel tissue engineering. PMID:23251085

  16. The effects of blood vessels on electrocorticography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleichner, M. G.; Vansteensel, M. J.; Huiskamp, G. M.; Hermes, D.; Aarnoutse, E. J.; Ferrier, C. H.; Ramsey, N. F.

    2011-08-01

    Electrocorticography, primarily used in a clinical context, is becoming increasingly important for fundamental neuroscientific research, as well as for brain-computer interfaces. Recordings from these implanted electrodes have a number of advantages over non-invasive recordings in terms of band width, spatial resolution, smaller vulnerability to artifacts and overall signal quality. However, an unresolved issue is that signals vary greatly across electrodes. Here, we examine the effect of blood vessels lying between an electrode and the cortex on signals recorded from subdural grid electrodes. Blood vessels of different sizes cover extensive parts of the cortex causing variations in the electrode-cortex connection across grids. The power spectral density of electrodes located on the cortex and electrodes located on blood vessels obtained from eight epilepsy patients is compared. We find that blood vessels affect the power spectral density of the recorded signal in a frequency-band-specific way, in that frequencies between 30 and 70 Hz are attenuated the most. Here, the signal is attenuated on average by 30-40% compared to electrodes directly on the cortex. For lower frequencies this attenuation effect is less pronounced. We conclude that blood vessels influence the signal properties in a non-uniform manner.

  17. Complete Blood Count and Retinal Vessel Diameters

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Lee, Kristine E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations of components of the complete blood count with retinal vessel diameters. Methods The data are from the 1988–1990 baseline examination of the Beaver Dam Eye Study cohort (n=4730). Blood pressure was measured, a medical history including questions on smoking was obtained, and fundus photographs centered on the optic disc were taken and digitized. Retinal arteriole and venule diameters were measured using computer-assisted software. The central retinal arteriole equivalent (CRAE) and central retinal venule equivalent (CRVE) were computed. A complete blood count was done. Results In age and sex adjusted analyses, red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin, hematocrit, and white blood cell (WBC) count were all statistically significantly associated with CRVE and CRAE, while platelet count was associated only with CRVE. These relationships persisted in more fully adjusted models, except platelet count became statistically significantly associated with both CRAE and CRVE. Conclusions Blood components as measured in a complete blood count are significant correlates of retinal vessel diameters and should be considered in analyses where retinal blood vessel diameters are outcomes. PMID:21482874

  18. Videodensitometry for measuring blood vessel diameter.

    PubMed

    Hoornstra, K; Hanselman, J M; Holland, W P; De Wey Peters, G W; Zwamborn, A W

    1980-01-01

    A method employing a special computer for determining the internal diameters of blood vessels from photofluorographic image is described; in vitro and in vivo experiments are performed with the system. The amount of contrast medium injected is restricted to 4 times 3 ml, and it is possible to determine the diameter (in the range from 2 to 16 mm) at any place where blood vessels can be catheterized. In the in vivo experiments the maximum systematic error is +/-5 percent in the 7 to 8 mm range. PMID:7424549

  19. Effect of branchings on blood flow in the system of human coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Wiwatanapataphee, Benchawan; Wu, Yong Hong; Siriapisith, Thanongchai; Nuntadilok, Buraskorn

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the behavior of the pulsatile blood flow in the system of human coronary arteries. Blood is modeled as an incompressible non-Newtonian fluid. The transient phenomena of blood flow through the coronary system are simulated by solving the three dimensional unsteady state Navier-Stokes equations and continuity equation. Distributions of velocity, pressure and wall shear stresses are determined in the system under pulsatile conditions on the boundaries. Effect of branching vessel on the flow problem is investigated. The numerical results show that blood pressure in the system with branching vessels of coronary arteries is lower than the one in the system with no branch. The magnitude of wall shear stresses rises at the bifurcation. PMID:22229404

  20. Blackworms, Blood Vessel Pulsations and Drug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiuk, Nalena M.; Drewes, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the freshwater oligochaete worm, lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworms), an organism that is well suited for classroom study because of its closed circulatory system. Describes a set of simple, fast, noninvasive, and inexpensive methods for observing pulsations of the worm's dorsal blood vessels under baseline conditions, and…

  1. Blackworms, Blood Vessel Pulsations and Drug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiuk, Nalena M.; Drewes, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the freshwater oligochaete worm, lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworms), an organism that is well suited for classroom study because of its closed circulatory system. Describes a set of simple, fast, noninvasive, and inexpensive methods for observing pulsations of the worm's dorsal blood vessels under baseline conditions, and

  2. Automated measurement of retinal blood vessel tortuosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vinayak; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2010-03-01

    Abnormalities in the vascular pattern of the retina are associated with retinal diseases and are also risk factors for systemic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. The three-dimensional retinal vascular pattern is mostly formed congenitally, but is then modified over life, in response to aging, vessel wall dystrophies and long term changes in blood flow and pressure. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e. how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. We developed a new quantitative metric for vascular tortuosity, based on the vessel's angle of curvature, length of the curved vessel over its chord length (arc to chord ratio), number of curvature sign changes, and combined these into a unidimensional metric, Tortuosity Index (TI). In comparison to other published methods this method can estimate appropriate TI for vessels with constant curvature sign and vessels with equal arc to chord ratios, as well. We applied this method to a dataset of 15 digital fundus images of 8 patients with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and to the other publically available dataset of 60 fundus images of normal cases and patients with hypertensive retinopathy, of which the arterial and venous tortuosities have also been graded by masked experts (ophthalmologists). The method produced exactly the same rank-ordered list of vessel tortuosity (TI) values as obtained by averaging the tortuosity grading given by 3 ophthalmologists for FSHD dataset and a list of TI values with high ranking correlation with the ophthalmologist's grading for the other dataset. Our results show that TI has potential to detect and evaluate abnormal retinal vascular structure in early diagnosis and prognosis of retinopathies.

  3. Zinc oxide nanoflowers make new blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barui, Ayan Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sudip; Manna, Joydeb; Patel, Ajay Kumar; Patra, Sujata; Pal, Krishnendu; Murali, Shruthi; Rana, Rohit K.; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role.It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32369a

  4. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    Dilation of blood vessels in response to a large number of agents has been shown to be dependent on an intact vascular endothelium. The present studies examine some aspects of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in blood vessels of the rabbit and rat. Using the rabbit ear artery and the subtype-selective muscarinic antagonist pirenzepine, muscarinic receptors of the endothelium and smooth muscle cells were shown to be of the low affinity M/sub 2/ subtype. Inhibition of (/sup 3/H)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate was used to determine affinity for the smooth muscle receptors while antagonism of methacholine induced vasodilation yielded the endothelial cell receptor affinity. The effect of increasing age (1-27 months) on endothelium-dependent relaxation was studied in aortic rings, perfused tail artery and perfused mesenteric bed of the Fisher 344 rat. The influence of endothelium on contractile responses was examined using the perfused caudal artery.

  5. A probe for blood-vessel and spinal interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Probe design allows insertion into lumen of blood vessels to perform oximetry and investigate plaque on interior vessel walls. Probe is more accurate than standard oximetry procedures of determining oxygenation of circulating blood.

  6. Zinc oxide nanoflowers make new blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Barui, Ayan Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sudip; Manna, Joydeb; Patel, Ajay Kumar; Patra, Sujata; Pal, Krishnendu; Murali, Shruthi; Rana, Rohit K; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-12-21

    It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role. PMID:23152079

  7. Toward completely constructed and cellularized blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Menu, Patrick; Stoltz, Jean-François; Kerdjoudj, Halima

    2012-01-01

    Vascular tissue engineering aims to develop implantable blood-vessels, exhibiting biological and biomechanical characteristics close to those of the native vessels. The ultimate goal of our group is to engineer suitable blood vessel substitutes which could be stored for a long time in vascular bank conditions.First attempts tried to develop coating procedures allowing endothelial cells (EC) differentiation, adhesion and retention on current vascular substitutes but the weak in vivo patency of these grafts was related. Since 2003, our group have been evaluated a new surface modification of internal surface of blood vessels based on polyelectrolyte films coating. The layer-by-layer self-assembly and the resulting polyelectrolyte multiplayer films (PEM) is a simple and versatile way to engineer surfaces with highly specific properties. Previous studies indicated that the poly(sodium-4 styrene sulfonate)/poly (allylamine hydrochloride) PSS/PAH multilayered films when ended by PAH, induce strong adhesion and retention of mature EC which spread and keep their phenotype as well on glass, on expanded polytetrafluoroethylene ePTFE and on cryopreserved arteries. The mechanical properties (compliance), leading to early intimal hyperplasia and graft failure, were lost after artery cryopreservation. We have demonstrated that the compliance and elasticity restoration of PEM treated cryopreserved arteries close to native arteries.In other respect, the use of the circulating progenitor which could be differentiated into matures vascular cell offers new opportunities in vascular engineering. Currents protocols, expend at least 1 month to observe both smooth muscle (SMCs) and endothelium (ECs)-like morphology and about two months for confluent monolayer cells. The progenitor cells cultivated on PEM treated glass showed mature and functional vascular cells (SMCs and ECs) development after only 14 days of culture. The morphological appearance, mature and healthy phenotype markers expression and repartition of differentiated cells are close to mature cells.Challenge now is to build up in less a month, an autologous cellularized vascular graft using patient peripheral stem cells. PMID:22766698

  8. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R.; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Celliers, Peter M.; London, Richard A.; Maitland, IV, Duncan J.; Esch, Victor C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  9. Method and device for supporting blood vessels during anastomosis

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1985-05-20

    A device and method for preventing first and second severed blood vessels from collapsing during attachment to each other. The device comprises a dissolvable non-toxic stent that is sufficiently rigid to prevent the blood vessels from collapsing during anastomosis. The stent can be hollow or have passages to permit blood flow before it dissolves. A single stent can be inserted with an end in each of the two blood vessels or separate stents can be inserted into each blood vessel. The stent may include a therapeutically effective amount of a drug which is slowly released into the blood stream as the stent dissolves. 12 figs.

  10. Study of retinal vessel oxygen saturation in ischemic and non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lei-Lei; Dong, Yan-Min; Zong, Yao; Zheng, Qi-Shan; Fu, Yue; Yuan, Yong-Guang; Huang, Xia; Qian, Garrett; Gao, Qian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore how oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels is altered in ischemic and non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS Fifty BRVO eyes were divided into ischemic (n=26) and non-ischemic (n=24) groups, based on fundus fluorescein angiography. Healthy individuals (n=52 and n=48, respectively) were also recruited as controls for the two groups. The mean oxygen saturations of the occluded vessels and central vessels were measured by oximetry in the BRVO and control groups. RESULTS In the ischemic BRVO group, the occluded arterioles oxygen saturation (SaO2-A, 106.0%±14.3%), instead of the occluded venule oxygen saturation (SaO2-V, 60.8%±9.4%), showed increases when compared with those in the same quadrant vessels (SaO2-A, 86.1%±16.5%) in the contralateral eyes (P<0.05). The oxygen saturations of the central vessels showed similar trends with those of the occluded vessels. In the non-ischemic BRVO group, the occluded and central SaO2-V and SaO2-A showed no significant changes. In both the ischemic and non-ischemic BRVOs, the central SaO2-A was significantly increased when compared to healthy individuals. CONCLUSION Obvious changes in the occluded and central SaO2-A were found in the ischemic BRVO group, indicating that disorders of oxygen metabolism in the arterioles may participate in the pathogenesis of ischemic BRVO. PMID:26949618

  11. Prevent Diabetes Problems: Keep Your Heart and Blood Vessels Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lung and Blood Institute American Diabetes Association JDRF Diabetes Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support to patients ... PDF, 293 KB). Alternate Language URL Español Prevent diabetes problems: Keep your heart and blood vessels healthy ...

  12. Segmentation of Retinal Blood Vessels Based on Cake Filter.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xi-Rong; Ge, Xin; She, Li-Huang; Zhang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels is significant to diagnosis and evaluation of ocular diseases like glaucoma and systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. To solve this problem, a new method based on cake filter is proposed. Firstly, a quadrature filter band called cake filter band is made up in Fourier field. Then the real component fusion is used to separate the blood vessel from the background. Finally, the blood vessel network is got by a self-adaption threshold. The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate. PMID:26636095

  13. Segmentation of Retinal Blood Vessels Based on Cake Filter

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xi-Rong; Ge, Xin; She, Li-Huang; Zhang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels is significant to diagnosis and evaluation of ocular diseases like glaucoma and systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. To solve this problem, a new method based on cake filter is proposed. Firstly, a quadrature filter band called cake filter band is made up in Fourier field. Then the real component fusion is used to separate the blood vessel from the background. Finally, the blood vessel network is got by a self-adaption threshold. The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate. PMID:26636095

  14. Simulation of Blood Flow at Vessel Bifurcation by Lattice Boltzmann Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Xiu-Ying; Liu, Da-He; Zhou, Jing; Jin, Yong-Juan

    2005-11-01

    The application of the lattice Boltzmann method to the large vessel bifurcation blood flow is investigated in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. The velocity, shear stress and pressure distributions at the bifurcation are presented in detail. The flow separation zones revealed with increase of Reynolds number are located in the areas of the daughter branches distal to the outer corners of the bifurcation where some deposition of particular blood components might occur to form arteriosclerosis. The results also demonstrate that the lattice Boltzmann method is adaptive to simulating the flow in larger vessels under a high Reynolds number.

  15. Avian Blood-Vessel Formation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the developmental anomalies observed in the past might be related to or caused by delayed or improper vascular development. The objective of our research is to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity during space flight cause delayed or improper vascular development during embryogenesis. The effects of microgravity on the time course and extent of avian blood-vessel formation are assessed using two models, one for angiogenesis and one for vasculogenesis. The methodological approach is dictated by the constraints of the tissue preservation method used in space. Thus, both in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the adrenal, we will evaluate microscopically the vascular architecture and immunostain endothelial cells with specific antibodies (anti- vWF and QH1). The extent of ECM protein deposition will be assessed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the degree of vascularization, using computer-based image analysis. Also, the cellular source for ECM proteins will be assessed by in situ hybridization.

  16. Glucose metabolism in diabetic blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.J.; Crass, M.F. III

    1986-03-05

    Since glycolysis appears to be coupled to active ion transport in vascular smooth muscle, alterations in glucose metabolism may contribute to cellular dysfunction and angiopathy in diabetes. Uptake and utilization of glucose were studied in perfused blood vessels in which pulsatile flow and perfusion pressure were similar to those measured directly in vivo. Thoracic aortae isolated from 8-wk alloxan diabetic (D) and nondiabetic control rabbits were cannulated, tethered, and perfused with oxygenated buffer containing 7 or 25 mM glucose and tracer amounts of glucose-U/sup -14/ C. Norepinephrine (NE) (10/sup -6/ M) and/or insulin (I) (150 ..mu..U/ml) and albumin (0.2%) were added. NE-induced tension development increased glucose uptake 39% and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and lactate production 2.3-fold. With 7 mM glucose, marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%), and tissue phospholipids (70%) were observed in D. Addition of I or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. Thus, in D, there was a marked depression of vascular glucose metabolism that was partially reversed by addition of low concentrations of insulin or D levels of glucose.

  17. Contact-inhibited chemotaxis in de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth.

    PubMed

    Merks, Roeland M H; Perryn, Erica D; Shirinifard, Abbas; Glazier, James A

    2008-01-01

    Blood vessels form either when dispersed endothelial cells (the cells lining the inner walls of fully formed blood vessels) organize into a vessel network (vasculogenesis), or by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels (angiogenesis). Although they are closely related biologically, no current model explains both phenomena with a single biophysical mechanism. Most computational models describe sprouting at the level of the blood vessel, ignoring how cell behavior drives branch splitting during sprouting. We present a cell-based, Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model (also called Cellular Potts Model) simulation of the initial patterning before the vascular cords form lumens, based on plausible behaviors of endothelial cells. The endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant, which attracts other endothelial cells. As in the classic Keller-Segel model, chemotaxis by itself causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. However, including experimentally observed VE-cadherin-mediated contact inhibition of chemotaxis in the simulation causes randomly distributed cells to organize into networks and cell aggregates to sprout, reproducing aspects of both de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth. We discuss two branching instabilities responsible for our results. Cells at the surfaces of cell clusters attempting to migrate to the centers of the clusters produce a buckling instability. In a model variant that eliminates the surface-normal force, a dissipative mechanism drives sprouting, with the secreted chemical acting both as a chemoattractant and as an inhibitor of pseudopod extension. Both mechanisms would also apply if force transmission through the extracellular matrix rather than chemical signaling mediated cell-cell interactions. The branching instabilities responsible for our results, which result from contact inhibition of chemotaxis, are both generic developmental mechanisms and interesting examples of unusual patterning instabilities. PMID:18802455

  18. Contact-Inhibited Chemotaxis in De Novo and Sprouting Blood-Vessel Growth

    PubMed Central

    Merks, Roeland M. H.; Perryn, Erica D.; Shirinifard, Abbas; Glazier, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Blood vessels form either when dispersed endothelial cells (the cells lining the inner walls of fully formed blood vessels) organize into a vessel network (vasculogenesis), or by sprouting or splitting of existing blood vessels (angiogenesis). Although they are closely related biologically, no current model explains both phenomena with a single biophysical mechanism. Most computational models describe sprouting at the level of the blood vessel, ignoring how cell behavior drives branch splitting during sprouting. We present a cell-based, Glazier–Graner–Hogeweg model (also called Cellular Potts Model) simulation of the initial patterning before the vascular cords form lumens, based on plausible behaviors of endothelial cells. The endothelial cells secrete a chemoattractant, which attracts other endothelial cells. As in the classic Keller–Segel model, chemotaxis by itself causes cells to aggregate into isolated clusters. However, including experimentally observed VE-cadherin–mediated contact inhibition of chemotaxis in the simulation causes randomly distributed cells to organize into networks and cell aggregates to sprout, reproducing aspects of both de novo and sprouting blood-vessel growth. We discuss two branching instabilities responsible for our results. Cells at the surfaces of cell clusters attempting to migrate to the centers of the clusters produce a buckling instability. In a model variant that eliminates the surface–normal force, a dissipative mechanism drives sprouting, with the secreted chemical acting both as a chemoattractant and as an inhibitor of pseudopod extension. Both mechanisms would also apply if force transmission through the extracellular matrix rather than chemical signaling mediated cell–cell interactions. The branching instabilities responsible for our results, which result from contact inhibition of chemotaxis, are both generic developmental mechanisms and interesting examples of unusual patterning instabilities. PMID:18802455

  19. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G.; Poston, J.W. Sr. )

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No penetration of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor was cross fire between the vessel assumed. The results are useful in assessing the dose to blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures.

  20. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G. ); Poston, J.W. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No diffusion of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor cross fire between vessel was assumed. Results are useful in assessing the dose in blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Topological imaging of blood vessels by using diffusing light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohama, Shotaro; Iwai, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    The topographic imaging technique using a backscattered diffusing light is proposed to monitor dynamics of blood vessels depending on the blood flow as a noncontact and noninvasive method. Their depth in skin tissues can be estimated by using the relation between a spatially-integrated backscattered intensity and a probability density function of an optical path-length. The topological image of the blood vessels is obtained per 0.08 sec by the developed system.

  2. Vascular Smooth Muscle Progenitor Cells: Building and Repairing Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Majesky, Mark W.; Dong, Xiu Rong; Regan, Jenna N.; Hoglund, Virginia J.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular pathways that control the specification, migration, and number of available smooth muscle progenitor cells play key roles in determining blood vessel size and structure, capacity for tissue repair and remodeling, and progression of age-related disorders. Defects in these pathways will produce malformations of developing blood vessels, depletion of SMC progenitor pools for vessel wall maintenance and repair, and aberrant activation of alternative differentiation pathways in vascular disease. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that uniquely specify and maintain vascular SMC precursors is essential if we are to utilize advances in stem and progenitor cell biology and somatic cell reprogramming for applications directed to the vessel wall. PMID:21293008

  3. Distinct bone marrow blood vessels differentially regulate haematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Itkin, Tomer; Gur-Cohen, Shiri; Spencer, Joel A; Schajnovitz, Amir; Ramasamy, Saravana K; Kusumbe, Anjali P; Ledergor, Guy; Jung, Yookyung; Milo, Idan; Poulos, Michael G; Kalinkovich, Alexander; Ludin, Aya; Kollet, Orit; Shakhar, Guy; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Adams, Ralf H; Scadden, David T; Lin, Charles P; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2016-04-21

    Bone marrow endothelial cells (BMECs) form a network of blood vessels that regulate both leukocyte trafficking and haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) maintenance. However, it is not clear how BMECs balance these dual roles, and whether these events occur at the same vascular site. We found that mammalian bone marrow stem cell maintenance and leukocyte trafficking are regulated by distinct blood vessel types with different permeability properties. Less permeable arterial blood vessels maintain haematopoietic stem cells in a low reactive oxygen species (ROS) state, whereas the more permeable sinusoids promote HSPC activation and are the exclusive site for immature and mature leukocyte trafficking to and from the bone marrow. A functional consequence of high permeability of blood vessels is that exposure to blood plasma increases bone marrow HSPC ROS levels, augmenting their migration and differentiation, while compromising their long-term repopulation and survival. These findings may have relevance for clinical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mobilization protocols. PMID:27074509

  4. High orientation of long chain branched poly (lactic acid) with enhanced blood compatibility and bionic structure.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengqiu; Ye, Lin; Zhao, Xiaowen; Coates, Phil; Caton-Rose, Fin; Martyn, Michasel

    2016-05-01

    Highly oriented poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with bionic microgrooves was fabricated through solid hot drawing technology for further improving the mechanical properties and blood biocompatibility of PLA. In order to enhance the melt strength and thus obtain high orientation degree, long chain branched PLA was prepared at first through a two-step ring-opening reaction during processing. Linear viscoelasticity combined with branch-on-branch model was used to predict probable compositions and chain topologies of the products, and it was found that the molecular weight of PLA increased and topological structures with star like chain with three arms and tree-like chain with two generations formed during reactive processing, and consequently draw ratio as high as1200% can be achieved during the subsequent hot stretching. With the increase of draw ratio, the tensile strength and orientation degree of PLA increased dramatically. Long chain branching and orientation could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PLA by prolonging clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. Microgrooves can be observed on the surface of the oriented PLA which were similar to the intimal layer of blood vessel, and such bionic structure resulted from the formation of the oriented shish kebab-like crystals along the draw direction. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1082-1089, 2016. PMID:26743130

  5. Recovery of testicular blood flow following ligation of testicular vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Pascual, J.A.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Salido, E.; Ehrlich, R.M.; Mena, I.; Rajfer, J.

    1989-08-01

    To determine whether initial ligation of the testicular vessels of the high undescended testis followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy is a viable alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens procedure, a series of preliminary experiments were conducted in the rat in which testicular blood flow was measured by the 133-xenon washout technique before, and 1 hour and 30 days after ligation of the vessels. In addition, testicular histology, and testis and sex-accessory tissue weights were measured in 6 control, 6 sham operated and 6 testicular vessel ligated rats 54 days after vessel ligation. The data demonstrate that ligation and division of the testicular blood vessels produce an 80 per cent decrease in testicular blood flow 1 hour after ligation of the vessels. However, 30 days later testis blood flow returns to the control and pre-treatment value. There were no significant changes in testis or sex-accessory tissue weights 54 days after vessel ligation. Histologically, 4 of the surgically operated testes demonstrated necrosis of less than 25 per cent of the seminiferous tubules while 1 testis demonstrated more than 75 per cent necrosis. The rest of the tubules in all 6 testes demonstrated normal spermatogenesis. From this study we conclude that initial testicular vessel ligation produces an immediate decrease in testicular blood flow but with time the collateral vessels are able to compensate and return the testis blood flow to its normal pre-treatment value. These preliminary observations lend support for the concept that initial ligation of the testicular vessels followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy in patients with a high undescended testis may be a possible alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens approach.

  6. Selective photocoagulation of cutaneous blood vessels: evaluation of vessel damage by color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Gracie; Ducros, Mathieu G.; Dozier, Susan; Barton, Jennifer K.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2000-05-01

    This study investigates the threshold radiant exposures required to irreversibly damage cutaneous blood vessels using a pulsed dye laser (PDL) operating at 585 nm. Evaluation of blood vessel damage and blood flow stoppage was achieved using Doppler imaging in a color Doppler optical coherence tomographic (CDOCT) system. Hamster dorsal skin flap window vessels were irradiated with radiant exposures ranging from 2.5 - 8 J/cm2. A 5 mm spot size and 360 microsecond pulse duration were used. Irradiation sites were imaged with CDOCT prior to, immediately after, and a minimum of 24 hours after delivery of laser energy. Magnitude and color Doppler images provided information such as approximate vessel size, depth, and changes in blood flow velocity. Vessel stenosis, temporary occlusion, permanent occlusion, hemorrhaging, and changes in flow velocity were frequent results of laser irradiation visualized with CDOCT and video imaging. Probit analysis was used to estimate the 50% probability that a blood vessel of given size and type will be destroyed by a given radiant exposure. In most instances, arterioles required higher radiant exposures to be irreversibly damaged than venules of the same size. However, arteriole/venule pairs required approximately the same radiant exposures for visible damage to occur. Vessels of larger diameter required higher radiant exposures to coagulate than vessels of smaller diameter.

  7. Computer Analysis of Eye Blood-Vessel Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. J.; White, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapidly diagnoses diabetes mellitus. Photographs of "whites" of patients' eyes scanned by computerized image analyzer programmed to quantify density of small blood vessels in conjuctiva. Comparison with data base of known normal and diabetic patients facilitates rapid diagnosis.

  8. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a varie...

  9. Allogeneic human tissue-engineered blood vessel

    PubMed Central

    Quint, Clay; Arief, Melissa; Muto, Akihito; Dardik, Alan; Niklason, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Arterial bypass graft implantation remains the primary therapy for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease; however, there is no available synthetic small-diameter vascular graft. Methods Tissue-engineered vessels were grown from human smooth muscle cells that were seeded on a biodegradable scaffold using a biomimetic perfusion system. The human tissue-engineered vessels (hTEV) were decellularized by a two-step process using a combination of detergents and hypertonic solutions. The mechanical characteristics were assessed by suture retention strength and burst pressure. The decellularized hTEV were implanted as aortic interpositional grafts in nude rats to evaluate in vivo performance as an arterial graft over a 6-week period. Results The human tissue-engineered structure formed a vessel composed of smooth muscle cells and the extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen. After decellularization, the collagen matrix remained intact while the cellular components were removed. The mechanical strength of the hTEV after decellularization was similar to human vein in vitro, with a burst pressure of 1,567 ± 384 mm Hg (n = 3) versus 1,680 ± 307 mm Hg for human saphenous vein. The hTEVs had a high patency rate (four of five grafts) without evidence of rupture or aneurysm over a 6-week period as an aortic interpositional graft in a nude rat model. Histologic analysis showed a thin neointima with a confluent endothelium and a subendothelial layer of smooth muscle cells on the explanted tissue-engineered vessels. Transmission electron microscopy on the explanted tissue demonstrated elastin formation in the neointima and intact residual collagen fibers from the tissue-engineered vessel. Conclusions The hTEV had a high patency rate and remained mechanically stable as an aortic interpositional graft in a nude rat. The vessel supported the growth of a neointima with endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The host remodeling suggested the engineered matrix had a positive effect to create a regenerated vascular graft. PMID:22056286

  10. Analysis of Blood Flow in a Partially Blocked Bifurcated Blood Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Elkassabgi, Yousri; Punati, Pavan K.; Nasser, Naseer

    2009-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of death in the United States. It is the narrowing of the lumens of the coronary blood vessel by a gradual build-up of fatty material, atheroma, which leads to the heart muscle not receiving enough blood. This my ocardial ischemia can cause angina, a heart attack, heart failure as well as sudden cardiac death [9]. In this project a solid model of bifurcated blood vessel with an asymmetric stenosis is developed using GAMBIT and imported into FLUENT for analysis. In FLUENT, pressure and velocity distributions in the blood vessel are studied under different conditions, where the size and position of the blockage in the blood vessel are varied. The location and size of the blockage in the blood vessel are correlated with the pressures and velocities distributions. Results show that such correlation may be used to predict the size and location of the blockage.

  11. NEURONAL ACTION ON THE DEVELOPING BLOOD VESSEL PATTERN

    PubMed Central

    James, Jennifer M.; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke

    2011-01-01

    The nervous system relies on a highly specialized network of blood vessels for development and neuronal survival. Recent evidence suggests that both the central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS) employ multiple mechanisms to shape the vascular tree to meet its specific metabolic demands, such as promoting nerve-artery alignment in the PNS or the development the blood brain barrier in the CNS. In this article we discuss how the nervous system directly influences blood vessel patterning resulting in neuro-vascular congruence that is maintained throughout development and in the adult. PMID:21978864

  12. Brain blood vessel segmentation using line-shaped profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Danilo; Pižurica, Aleksandra; De Vylder, Jonas; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, especially for embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In order to perform embolization of the AVM, the structural and geometric information of blood vessels from 3D images is of utmost importance. For this reason, the in-depth segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is usually done as a fusion of different segmentation techniques, often requiring extensive user interaction. In this paper we introduce the idea of line-shaped profiling with an application to brain blood vessel and AVM segmentation, efficient both in terms of resolving details and in terms of computation time. Our method takes into account both local proximate and wider neighbourhood of the processed pixel, which makes it efficient for segmenting large blood vessel tree structures, as well as fine structures of the AVMs. Another advantage of our method is that it requires selection of only one parameter to perform segmentation, yielding very little user interaction.

  13. Mesoscale simulation of blood flow in small vessels.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2007-03-15

    Computational modeling of blood flow in microvessels with internal diameter 20-500 microm is a major challenge. It is because blood in such vessels behaves as a multiphase suspension of deformable particles. A continuum model of blood is not adequate if the motion of individual red blood cells in the suspension is of interest. At the same time, multiple cells, often a few thousands in number, must also be considered to account for cell-cell hydrodynamic interaction. Moreover, the red blood cells (RBCs) are highly deformable. Deformation of the cells must also be considered in the model, as it is a major determinant of many physiologically significant phenomena, such as formation of a cell-free layer, and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. In this article, we present two-dimensional computational simulation of blood flow in vessels of size 20-300 microm at discharge hematocrit of 10-60%, taking into consideration the particulate nature of blood and cell deformation. The numerical model is based on the immersed boundary method, and the red blood cells are modeled as liquid capsules. A large RBC population comprising of as many as 2500 cells are simulated. Migration of the cells normal to the wall of the vessel and the formation of the cell-free layer are studied. Results on the trajectory and velocity traces of the RBCs, and their fluctuations are presented. Also presented are the results on the plug-flow velocity profile of blood, the apparent viscosity, and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. The numerical results also allow us to investigate the variation of apparent blood viscosity along the cross-section of a vessel. The computational results are compared with the experimental results. To the best of our knowledge, this article presents the first simulation to simultaneously consider a large ensemble of red blood cells and the cell deformation. PMID:17208982

  14. Blood vessels and the satellite cell niche.

    PubMed

    Mounier, Rémi; Chrétien, Fabrice; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    The fate of stem cell is regulated by cues received from the surrounding area. Recently, the concept of "stem cell zone"--rather than a predefined niche--introduced the notion of dynamic and permanent interactions between stem cells and their microenvironment. In adult skeletal muscle, satellite cells are considered as the main stem cells responsible for muscle repair and maintenance. They are localized close to vessels regardless their state of activation and differentiation. Moreover, the number of satellite cells is positively correlated to the capillarization of the myofiber. Angiogenesis has been known for a long time to be essential for muscle repair. However, relationships between vessel cells and satellite/myogenic cells that govern myogenic cell expansion, myogenesis, and angiogenesis have been only recently investigated. In this chapter, we discuss the possible existence of a vascular amplifying/differentiating niche, in an attempt to reconciliate several recent observations showing that satellite/myogenic cells interact with various cell types during the time course of muscle regeneration. Indeed, endothelial cells (ECs) stimulate myogenic cell growth and, inversely, differentiating myogenic cells promote angiogenesis. However, stromal cells may also provide some proliferating or differentiating cues to satellite/myogenic cells in this vascular area. Although some molecular effectors have been identified, including growth factors and cytokines, molecular regulations that occur within this vascular amplifying/differentiating niche requires further investigation. At the end of muscle repair, maturation of newly formed vessels takes place. In this context, we discuss the potential quiescence niche of satellite cells and the specific role of periendothelial cells. Indeed, periendothelial cells promote the return to quiescence of a subset of satellite/myogenic cells and maintain their quiescence (through Angiopoietin-1/Tie-2 signaling). We ask to what extent the environment may control the fate choice of satellite/myogenic cells and we also question the "hypoxic niche" in skeletal muscle, such a quiescence niche having being observed in the bone marrow. PMID:21621069

  15. Crosstalk between the developing pancreas and its blood vessels: an evolving dialogue

    PubMed Central

    Villasenor, Alethia; Cleaver, Ondine

    2015-01-01

    Growth and development of embryonic organs goes hand in hand with development of the vascular system. Blood vessels have been known for centuries to supply nutrients and oxygen to all cell types in an organism, however, they have more recently been shown to provide specific cues required for the formation and functionality of a number of tissues. Here, we review the role of blood vessels during pancreas formation, from early specification of the initial pancreatic bud, to its growth and maturation. The overarching theme that emerges from the many studies carried out in the past decade is that the vasculature likely plays diverse and changing roles during pancreas organogenesis. Blood vessels are required for endocrine specification at the onset of pancreatic budding, while only a few days later, blood vessels suppress pancreatic branching and exocrine differentiation. In this review, we summarize our understanding to date about the crosstalk between the pancreas and its vasculature, and we provide a perspective on the promises and challenges of the field. PMID:22728668

  16. Customizable engineered blood vessels using 3D printed inserts.

    PubMed

    Pinnock, Cameron B; Meier, Elizabeth M; Joshi, Neeraj N; Wu, Bin; Lam, Mai T

    2016-04-15

    Current techniques for tissue engineering blood vessels are not customizable for vascular size variation and vessel wall thickness. These critical parameters vary widely between the different arteries in the human body, and the ability to engineer vessels of varying sizes could increase capabilities for disease modeling and treatment options. We present an innovative method for producing customizable, tissue engineered, self-organizing vascular constructs by replicating a major structural component of blood vessels - the smooth muscle layer, or tunica media. We utilize a unique system combining 3D printed plate inserts to control construct size and shape, and cell sheets supported by a temporary fibrin hydrogel to encourage cellular self-organization into a tubular form resembling a natural artery. To form the vascular construct, 3D printed inserts are adhered to tissue culture plates, fibrin hydrogel is deposited around the inserts, and human aortic smooth muscle cells are then seeded atop the fibrin hydrogel. The gel, aided by the innate contractile properties of the smooth muscle cells, aggregates towards the center post insert, creating a tissue ring of smooth muscle cells. These rings are then stacked into the final tubular construct. Our methodology is robust, easily repeatable and allows for customization of cellular composition, vessel wall thickness, and length of the vessel construct merely by varying the size of the 3D printed inserts. This platform has potential for facilitating more accurate modeling of vascular pathology, serving as a drug discovery tool, or for vessel repair in disease treatment. PMID:26732049

  17. Higher blood vessel density in comparison to the lymphatic vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Espinoza, Iris; Reyes, Montserrat; Aitken, Juan Pablo; Aguayo, Francisco; Hartel, Steffen; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by local invasion and the development of cervical metastasis. In the tongue, an association between the invasion of the lymphatic vessels and the development of metastasis in the regional lymph nodes has been demonstrated. Moreover, invasion of the blood vessels is associated with greater recurrence and poorer prognoses. Therefore, the presence and density of lymphatic and blood vessels in intra- and peritumoral tissues should play an important role in the progression, dissemination and metastasis of carcinomas. However, the evidence regarding OSCC is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the comparison and association between the lymphatic (D2-40) and blood vessel (CD34) densities in intratumoral OSCC tissue. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven cases diagnosed as OSCC between the years 2000 and 2008 were obtained from the Anatomic Pathology Service of the School of Dentistry, University of Chile. The immunohistochemical markers D2-40 and CD34 were used, and the densities (mm2) of lymphatic vessels (LVD) and blood vessels (BVD) in the intratumoral region were determined. The relationship between LVD and BVD values was evaluated. Results: There were significant association between the CD34 and D2-40 expression (rho=0.4, P<0.05) and between the LVD and the location in the tongue (P=0.019). The BVD was greater (128.0 vessels/mm2) than the LVD (42.9 vessels/mm2), and there was a positive correlation between the LVD and BVD. Conclusions: In OSCC, the BVD is greater than the LVD, and there is a moderate correlation between the two quantities. PMID:26722595

  18. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, D.J. . E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2006-12-15

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension-all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure (1 {mu}M-1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 {mu}M), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension.

  19. Blood Vessel Segmentation of Fundus Images by Major Vessel Extraction and Subimage Classification.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Koozekanani, Dara D; Parhi, Keshab K

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a novel three-stage blood vessel segmentation algorithm using fundus photographs. In the first stage, the green plane of a fundus image is preprocessed to extract a binary image after high-pass filtering, and another binary image from the morphologically reconstructed enhanced image for the vessel regions. Next, the regions common to both the binary images are extracted as the major vessels. In the second stage, all remaining pixels in the two binary images are classified using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) classifier using a set of eight features that are extracted based on pixel neighborhood and first and second-order gradient images. In the third postprocessing stage, the major portions of the blood vessels are combined with the classified vessel pixels. The proposed algorithm is less dependent on training data, requires less segmentation time and achieves consistent vessel segmentation accuracy on normal images as well as images with pathology when compared to existing supervised segmentation methods. The proposed algorithm achieves a vessel segmentation accuracy of 95.2%, 95.15%, and 95.3% in an average of 3.1, 6.7, and 11.7 s on three public datasets DRIVE, STARE, and CHASE_DB1, respectively. PMID:25014980

  20. The Fine Structure of Some Blood Vessels of the Earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    PubMed Central

    Hama, Kiyoshi

    1960-01-01

    The fine structure of the main dorsal and ventral circulatory trunks and of the subneural vessels and capillaries of the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, has been studied with the electron microscope. All of these vessels are lined internally by a continuous extracellular basement membrane varying in thickness (0.03 to 1 µ) with the vessel involved. The dorsal, ventral, and subneural vessels display inside this membrane scattered flattened macrophagic or leucocytic cells called amebocytes. These lie against the inner lining of the basement membrane, covering only a small fraction of its surface. They have long, attenuated branching cell processes. All of these vessels are lined with a continuous layer of unfenestrated endothelial cells displaying myofilaments and hence qualifying for the designation of "myoendothelial cells." The degree of muscular specialization varies over a spectrum, however, ranging from a delicate endowment of thin myofilaments in the capillary myoendothelial cells to highly specialized myoendothelial cells in the main pulsating dorsal blood trunk, which serves as the worm's "heart" or propulsive "aorta." The myoendothelial cells most specialized for contraction display well organized sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrils with thick and thin myofilaments resembling those of the earthworm body wall musculature. In the ventral circulatory trunk, circular and longitudinal myofilaments are found in each myoendothelial cell. In the dorsal trunk, the lining myoendothelial cells contain longitudinal myofilaments. Outside these cells are circular muscle cells. The lateral parts of the dorsal vessels have an additional outer longitudinal muscle layer. The blood plasma inside all of the vessels shows scattered particles representing the circulating earthworm blood pigment, erythrocruorin. PMID:14399190

  1. The fine structure of some blood vessels of the earthworm, Eisenia foetida.

    PubMed

    HAMA, K

    1960-07-01

    The fine structure of the main dorsal and ventral circulatory trunks and of the subneural vessels and capillaries of the ventral nerve cord of the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, has been studied with the electron microscope. All of these vessels are lined internally by a continuous extracellular basement membrane varying in thickness (0.03 to 1 micro) with the vessel involved. The dorsal, ventral, and subneural vessels display inside this membrane scattered flattened macrophagic or leucocytic cells called amebocytes. These lie against the inner lining of the basement membrane, covering only a small fraction of its surface. They have long, attenuated branching cell processes. All of these vessels are lined with a continuous layer of unfenestrated endothelial cells displaying myofilaments and hence qualifying for the designation of "myoendothelial cells." The degree of muscular specialization varies over a spectrum, however, ranging from a delicate endowment of thin myofilaments in the capillary myoendothelial cells to highly specialized myoendothelial cells in the main pulsating dorsal blood trunk, which serves as the worm's "heart" or propulsive "aorta." The myoendothelial cells most specialized for contraction display well organized sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrils with thick and thin myofilaments resembling those of the earthworm body wall musculature. In the ventral circulatory trunk, circular and longitudinal myofilaments are found in each myoendothelial cell. In the dorsal trunk, the lining myoendothelial cells contain longitudinal myofilaments. Outside these cells are circular muscle cells. The lateral parts of the dorsal vessels have an additional outer longitudinal muscle layer. The blood plasma inside all of the vessels shows scattered particles representing the circulating earthworm blood pigment, erythrocruorin. PMID:14399190

  2. Micro-PIV measurements of blood flow in extraembryonic blood vessels of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Yeop; Ji, Ho Seong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2007-10-01

    The hemodynamic characteristics of blood flow are important in the diagnosis of circulatory diseases, since such diseases are related to wall shear stress of cardiovascular vessels. In chicken embryos at early stages of development, it is possible to directly visualize blood flow inside blood vessels. We therefore employed a micro-PIV technique to assess blood flow in extraembryonic venous and arterial blood vessels of chicken embryos, using red blood cells (RBCs) as tracers and obtaining flow images of RBCs using a high-speed CMOS camera. The mean velocity field showed non-Newtonian flow characteristics. The blood flow in two venous vessels merged smoothly into the Y-shaped downstream vein without any flow separation or secondary flow. Vorticity was high in the inner regions, where the radius of curvature varied greatly. A periodic variation of temporally resolved velocity signals, due to beating of the heart, was observed in arterial blood vessels. The pulsating frequency was obtained by fast Fourier transform analysis using the measured velocity data. The measurement technique used here was useful in analyzing the hemodynamic characteristics of in vivo blood flow in chicken embryos. PMID:17906384

  3. Wavelength dependence of the apparent diameter of retinal blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Robert; Twietmeyer, Karen; Chipman, Russell; Beaudry, Neil; Salyer, David

    2005-04-01

    Imaging of retinal blood vessels may assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertension. However, close examination reveals that the contrast and apparent diameter of vessels are dependent on the wavelength of the illuminating light. In this study multispectral images of large arteries and veins within enucleated swine eyes are obtained with a modified fundus camera by use of intravitreal illumination. The diameters of selected vessels are measured as a function of wavelength by cross-sectional analysis. A fixed scale with spectrally independent dimension is placed above the retina to isolate the chromatic effects of the imaging system and eye. Significant apparent differences between arterial and venous diameters are found, with larger diameters observed at shorter wavelengths. These differences are due primarily to spectral absorption in the cylindrical blood column.

  4. H2S and Blood Vessels: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangdong; Wang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biomedical importance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been fully recognized in the cardiovascular system as well as in the rest of the body. In blood vessels, cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) is a major H2S-producing enzyme expressed in both smooth muscle and endothelium as well as periadventitial adipose tissues. Regulation of H2S production from CSE is controlled by a complex integration of transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational mechanisms in blood vessels. In smooth muscle cells, H2S regulates cell apoptosis, phenotypic switch, relaxation and contraction, and calcification. In endothelial cells, H2S controls cell proliferation, cellular senescence, oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. H2S interacts with nitric oxide and acts as an endothelium-derived relaxing factor and an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor. H2S generated from periadventitial adipose tissues acts as an adipocyte-derived relaxing factor and modulates the vascular tone. Extensive evidence has demonstrated the beneficial roles of the CSE/H2S system in various blood vessel diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aortic aneurysm. The important roles signaling in the cardiovascular system merit further intensive and extensive investigation. H2S-releasing agents and CSE activators will find their great applications in the prevention and treatment of blood vessel-related disorders. PMID:26162830

  5. Gene Expression Analysis in Human Breast Cancer Associated Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dylan T.; Lechertier, Tanguy; Mitter, Richard; Herbert, John M. J.; Bicknell, Roy; Jones, J. Louise; Li, Ji-Liang; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5–72 fold) in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of potentially novel anti-angiogenic targets that are likley to be, but not exclusivley, relevant to breast cancer. PMID:23056178

  6. Interest of ICG blood clearance monitoring for reproducible 810-nm diode laser coagulation of blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmettre, Thomas; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.

    1999-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a method of control of diode laser fluence leading to a reproducible ICG-enhanced selective photocoagulation of blood vessels. This method would use the chromophore clearance, i.e. ICG blood concentration decay to adapt the laser fluence. Materials and Methods: A skin flap window was used on hamsters. After a 15 mg/kg ICG solution injection, photocoagulation of vessels were performed. Results: Selective photocoagulation of blood vessels was obtained only during the first 10 minutes. The fluence required to obtain a selective photocoagulation of vessels (F) was modelized using a one compartment phamacokinetic equation: F equals Of(1-e-t/(tau )). The best fit was obtained for a time constant (tau) equals 4.8 min and Of equals 300 J/cm2 (correlation coefficient r2 equals 0.996). During the first 10 minutes, the fluence required for selective photocoagulation of vessels was increased by a factor 4.5. Conclusion: Fluence required for a selective photocoagulation of vessels was correlated to ICG blood concentration decay. The time constant was equivalent to ICG half-life time in human blood. These results demonstrate that diode laser ICG-enhanced photocoagulation can be controlled by monitoring the ICG blood clearance.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Blood Flow in Blood Vessels with the Rolling Massage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou-Hui; Xu, Shi-Xiong; Qian, Yue-Hong; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2005-12-01

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese massage, which is expected to improve the circulation by pushing, pulling and kneading of the muscle. A model for the rolling massage manipulation is proposed and the lattice Boltzmann method is applied to study the blood flow in the blood vessels. The simulation results show that the blood flux is considerably modified by the rolling massage and the explicit value depends on the rolling frequency, the rolling depth, and the diameter of the vessel. The smaller the diameter of the blood vessel, the larger the enhancement of the blood flux by the rolling massage. The model, together with the simulation results, is expected to be helpful to understand the mechanism and further development of rolling massage techniques.

  8. DLC coating of textile blood vessels using PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, Tomas; Jelinek, Miroslav; Vorlíček, Vladimír; Zemek, Josef; Janča, Tomáš; Žížková, Věra; Podlaha, Jiří; Popov, Cyril

    2008-11-01

    Textile blood vessels with a length of 30 cm were coated with amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers with thicknesses up to 200 nm. The layers were created by pulsed laser deposition in vacuum or argon ambient. The percentage of sp3 carbon was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Depending on the deposition conditions the sp3 content varied from ˜40% to 60%. The adhesion of the DLC layers to the textile vessels was checked. The preliminary biocompatibility results from in vivo tests with sheep are also given.

  9. Multiscale fabrication of a transparent circulation type blood vessel simulator

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Takuma; Itoyama, Taro; Yoshida, Keisuke; Sawada, Yu; Ikeda, Seiichi; Fukuda, Toshio; Matsuda, Takehisa; Negoro, Makoto; Arai, Fumihito

    2010-01-01

    We proposed and fabricated multiscale transparent arteriole and capillary vessel models with circular cross sections of 10–500 μm using photolithography. The circularities of the fabricated 10, 50, and 500 μm diameter microchannels were 84.0%, 61.5%, and 82.3%, respectively. Next, we connected these different models to realize a circulation type blood vessel model simulating arteriole networks. We proposed a novel connection method using an intermediate connector made of wax, which we used to connect these models to make a circulation model. In flow experiments, the fabricated models showed no leakage and circulation models with seamless connections were achieved. PMID:21264060

  10. Melanopsin mediates light-dependent relaxation in blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Gautam; Hussmann, G. Patrick; Pandey, Deepesh; Cao, Suyi; Hori, Daijiro; Park, Jong Taek; Steppan, Jochen; Kim, Jae Hyung; Barodka, Viachaslau; Myers, Allen C.; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Nyhan, Daniel; Halushka, Marc K.; Koehler, Raymond C.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Shimoda, Larissa A.; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2014-01-01

    Melanopsin (opsin4; Opn4), a non-image-forming opsin, has been linked to a number of behavioral responses to light, including circadian photo-entrainment, light suppression of activity in nocturnal animals, and alertness in diurnal animals. We report a physiological role for Opn4 in regulating blood vessel function, particularly in the context of photorelaxation. Using PCR, we demonstrate that Opn4 (a classic G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in blood vessels. Force-tension myography demonstrates that vessels from Opn4−/− mice fail to display photorelaxation, which is also inhibited by an Opn4-specific small-molecule inhibitor. The vasorelaxation is wavelength-specific, with a maximal response at ∼430–460 nm. Photorelaxation does not involve endothelial-, nitric oxide-, carbon monoxide-, or cytochrome p450-derived vasoactive prostanoid signaling but is associated with vascular hyperpolarization, as shown by intracellular membrane potential measurements. Signaling is both soluble guanylyl cyclase- and phosphodiesterase 6-dependent but protein kinase G-independent. β-Adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (βARK 1 or GRK2) mediates desensitization of photorelaxation, which is greatly reduced by GRK2 inhibitors. Blue light (455 nM) regulates tail artery vasoreactivity ex vivo and tail blood blood flow in vivo, supporting a potential physiological role for this signaling system. This endogenous opsin-mediated, light-activated molecular switch for vasorelaxation might be harnessed for therapy in diseases in which altered vasoreactivity is a significant pathophysiologic contributor. PMID:25404319

  11. Segmentation of blood vessels from red-free and fluorescein retinal images.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Perez, M Elena; Hughes, Alun D; Thom, Simon A; Bharath, Anil A; Parker, Kim H

    2007-02-01

    The morphology of the retinal blood vessels can be an important indicator for diseases like diabetes, hypertension and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Thus, the measurement of changes in morphology of arterioles and venules can be of diagnostic value. Here we present a method to automatically segment retinal blood vessels based upon multiscale feature extraction. This method overcomes the problem of variations in contrast inherent in these images by using the first and second spatial derivatives of the intensity image that gives information about vessel topology. This approach also enables the detection of blood vessels of different widths, lengths and orientations. The local maxima over scales of the magnitude of the gradient and the maximum principal curvature of the Hessian tensor are used in a multiple pass region growing procedure. The growth progressively segments the blood vessels using feature information together with spatial information. The algorithm is tested on red-free and fluorescein retinal images, taken from two local and two public databases. Comparison with first public database yields values of 75.05% true positive rate (TPR) and 4.38% false positive rate (FPR). Second database values are of 72.46% TPR and 3.45% FPR. Our results on both public databases were comparable in performance with other authors. However, we conclude that these values are not sensitive enough so as to evaluate the performance of vessel geometry detection. Therefore we propose a new approach that uses measurements of vessel diameters and branching angles as a validation criterion to compare our segmented images with those hand segmented from public databases. Comparisons made between both hand segmented images from public databases showed a large inter-subject variability on geometric values. A last evaluation was made comparing vessel geometric values obtained from our segmented images between red-free and fluorescein paired images with the latter as the "ground truth". Our results demonstrated that borders found by our method are less biased and follow more consistently the border of the vessel and therefore they yield more confident geometric values. PMID:17204445

  12. Control of Blood Vessel Identity: From Embryo to Adult

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Arteries and veins have been historically defined by the direction of blood flow and oxygen tension within the vessel, in addition to their functional, hemodynamic, and anatomical differences. It is now known that the molecular identity of these vessels is genetically predetermined, with specific molecular pathways activated during the development of arteries and veins. Eph-B4 is a determinant of venous differentiation and Ephrin-B2 is a determinant of arterial differentiation. Placement of a vein into the higher pressure and flow of the arterial circulation results in adaptation of the vein to the arterial environment. There is selective loss of Eph-B4 expression without induction of Ephrin-B2 expression during vein graft adaptation. These findings suggest that loss of venous identity is the crucial mechanism in vein graft adaptation and that developmentally critical determinants of vessel identity are plastic during adult life. PMID:23555335

  13. Investigation on artificial blood vessels prepared from bacterial cellulose.

    PubMed

    Zang, Shanshan; Zhang, Ran; Chen, Hua; Lu, Yudong; Zhou, Jianhai; Chang, Xiao; Qiu, Guixing; Wu, Zhihong; Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    BC (bacterial cellulose) exhibits quite distinctive properties than plant cellulose. The outstanding properties make BC a promising material for preparation of artificial blood vessel. By taking advantage of the high oxygen permeability of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) as a tubular template material, a series of BC tubes with a length of 100 mm, a thickness of 1mm and an outer diameter of 4 or 6mm were biosynthesized with the help of Gluconacetobacter xylinum. Through characterization by SEM (scanning electron microscope), tensile testing and thermal analysis, it is demonstrated that BC tubes are good enough for artificial blood vessel with elaborated nano-fiber architecture, qualified mechanical properties and high thermal stability. In addition, measurement of biocompatibility also shows that BC tubes are greatly adaptable to the in vivo environment. The results indicate that BC tubes have great potential for being utilized as tubular scaffold materials in the field of tissue engineering. PMID:25491966

  14. Isolating and defining cells to engineer human blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Critser, P. J.; Voytik-Harbin, S. L.; Yoder, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been recently focused on understanding the role that bone marrow-derived putative endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) may play in the process of neoangiogenesis. However, recent data indicate that many of the putative EPC populations are comprised of various haematopoietic cell subsets with proangiogenic activity, but these marrow-derived putative EPC fail to display vasculogenic activity. Rather, this property is reserved for a rare population of circulating viable endothelial cells with colony-forming cell (ECFC) ability. Indeed, human ECFC possess clonal proliferative potential, display endothelial and not haematopoietic cell surface antigens, and display in vivo vasculogenic activity when suspended in an extracellular matrix and implanted into immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, human vessels derived became integrated into the murine circulatory system and eventually were remodelled into arterial and venous vessels. Identification of this population now permits determination of optimal type I collagen matrix microenvironment into which the cells should be embedded and delivered to accelerate and even pattern number and size of blood vessels formed, in vivo. Indeed, altering physical properties of ECFC-collagen matrix implants changed numerous parameters of human blood vessel formation, in host mice. These recent discoveries may permit a strategy for patterning vascular beds for eventual tissue and organ regeneration. PMID:21481038

  15. Understanding and exploiting nanoparticles' intimacy with the blood vessel and blood.

    PubMed

    Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Tay, Chor Yong; Docter, Dominic; Stauber, Roland H; Leong, David Tai

    2015-11-21

    While the blood vessel is seldom the target tissue, almost all nanomedicine will interact with blood vessels and blood at some point of time along its life cycle in the human body regardless of their intended destination. Despite its importance, many bionanotechnologists do not feature endothelial cells (ECs), the blood vessel cells, or consider blood effects in their studies. Including blood vessel cells in the study can greatly increase our understanding of the behavior of any given nanomedicine at the tissue of interest or to understand side effects that may occur in vivo. In this review, we will first describe the diversity of EC types found in the human body and their unique behaviors and possibly how these important differences can implicate nanomedicine behavior. Subsequently, we will discuss about the protein corona derived from blood with foci on the physiochemical aspects of nanoparticles (NPs) that dictate the protein corona characteristics. We would also discuss about how NPs characteristics can affect uptake by the endothelium. Subsequently, mechanisms of how NPs could cross the endothelium to access the tissue of interest. Throughout the paper, we will share some novel nanomedicine related ideas and insights that were derived from the understanding of the NPs' interaction with the ECs. This review will inspire more exciting nanotechnologies that had accounted for the complexities of the real human body. PMID:26239875

  16. Regenerative Translation of Human Blood-Vessel-Derived MSC Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C. W.; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising adult progenitor cell source for tissue repair and regeneration. Their mysterious identity in situ has gradually been unveiled by the accumulating evidence indicating an association between adult multipotent stem/progenitor cells and vascular/perivascular niches. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we and other groups have prospectively identified and purified subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the blood vessels within multiple human organs. The three precursor subsets, myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are located, respectively, in the three structural tiers of typical blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. MECs, PCs, and ACs have been extensively characterized in prior studies and are currently under investigation for their therapeutic potentials in preclinical animal models. In this review, we will briefly discuss the identification, isolation, and characterization of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cells (hBVSCs) and summarize the current status of regenerative applications of hBVSC subsets. PMID:26273304

  17. Regenerative Translation of Human Blood-Vessel-Derived MSC Precursors.

    PubMed

    Chen, William C W; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising adult progenitor cell source for tissue repair and regeneration. Their mysterious identity in situ has gradually been unveiled by the accumulating evidence indicating an association between adult multipotent stem/progenitor cells and vascular/perivascular niches. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we and other groups have prospectively identified and purified subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the blood vessels within multiple human organs. The three precursor subsets, myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are located, respectively, in the three structural tiers of typical blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. MECs, PCs, and ACs have been extensively characterized in prior studies and are currently under investigation for their therapeutic potentials in preclinical animal models. In this review, we will briefly discuss the identification, isolation, and characterization of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cells (hBVSCs) and summarize the current status of regenerative applications of hBVSC subsets. PMID:26273304

  18. Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires Rasip1 regulation of GTPase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Fu, Stephen; Chong, Diana C.; Skaug, Brian; Chen, Zhijian J.; Davis, George E.; Cleaver, Ondine

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Cardiovascular function depends on patent blood vessel formation by endothelial cells (ECs). However the mechanisms underlying vascular ‘tubulogenesis’ are only beginning to be unraveled. We show that endothelial tubulogenesis requires the Ras interacting protein 1, Rasip1, and its binding partner the RhoGAP Arhgap29. Mice lacking Rasip1 fail to form patent lumens in all blood vessels, including the early endocardial tube. Rasipl null angioblasts fail to properly localize the polarity determinant Par3 and display defective cell polarity, resulting in mislocalized junctional complexes and loss of adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM). Similarly, depletion of either Rasip1 or Arhgap29 in cultured ECs blocks in vitro lumen formation, fundamentally alters the cytoskeleton and reduces integrin-dependent adhesion to ECM. These defects result from increased RhoA/ROCK/myosin II activity and blockade of Cdc42 and Rac1 signaling. This study identifies Rasip1 as a unique, endothelial-specific regulator of Rho GTPase signaling, which is essential for blood vessel morphogenesis. PMID:21396893

  19. By Different Cellular Mechanisms, Lymphatic Vessels Sprout by Endothelial Cell Recruitment Whereas Blood Vessels Grow by Vascular Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Leontiev, Dmitry; Condrich, Terence K.; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The development of effective vascular therapies requires the understanding of all modes of vessel formation contributing to vasculogenesis, angiogenesis (here termed hemangiogenesis) and lymphangiogenesis. We show that lymphangiogenesis proceeds by blind-ended vessel sprouting via recruitment of isolated endothelial progenitor cells to the tips of growing vessels, whereas hemangiogenesis occurs by non-sprouting vessel expansion from the capillary network, during middevelopment in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Blood vessels expanded out of capillaries that displayed transient expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), accompanied by mural recruitment of migratory progenitor cells expressing SMA. Lymphatics and blood vessels were identified by confocal/fluorescence microscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, alphaSMA (expressed on CAM blood vessels but not on lymphatics), homeobox transcription factor Prox-1 (specific to CAM lymphatic endothelium), and the quail hematopoetic/vascular marker, QH-1. Expression of VEGFR-1 was highly restricted to blood vessels (primarily capillaries). VEGFR-2 was expressed intensely in isolated hematopoietic cells, lymphatic vessels and moderately in blood vessels. Prox-1 was absent from endothelial progenitor cells prior to lymphatic recruitment. Although vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(sub 165)) is a key regulator of numerous cellular processes in hemangiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the role of VEGF(sub 165) in lymphangiogenesis is less clear. Exogenous VEGF(sub 165) increased blood vessel density without changing endogenous modes of vascular/lymphatic vessel formation or marker expression patterns. However, VEGF(sub 165) did increase the frequency of blood vascular anastomoses and strongly induced the antimaturational dissociation of lymphatics from blood vessels, with frequent formation of homogeneous lymphatic networks.

  20. Computational study of pulsatile blood flow in prototype vessel geometries of coronary segments

    PubMed Central

    Chaniotis, A.K.; Kaiktsis, L.; Katritsis, D.; Efstathopoulos, E.; Pantos, I.; Marmarellis, V.

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distributions of wall shear stress (WSS) in prototype vessel geometries of coronary segments are investigated via numerical simulation, and the potential association with vascular disease and specifically atherosclerosis and plaque rupture is discussed. In particular, simulation results of WSS spatio-temporal distributions are presented for pulsatile, non-Newtonian blood flow conditions for: (a) curved pipes with different curvatures, and (b) bifurcating pipes with different branching angles and flow division. The effects of non-Newtonian flow on WSS (compared to Newtonian flow) are found to be small at Reynolds numbers representative of blood flow in coronary arteries. Specific preferential sites of average low WSS (and likely atherogenesis) were found at the outer regions of the bifurcating branches just after the bifurcation, and at the outer-entry and inner-exit flow regions of the curved vessel segment. The drop in WSS was more dramatic at the bifurcating vessel sites (less than 5% of the pre-bifurcation value). These sites were also near rapid gradients of WSS changes in space and time – a fact that increases the risk of rupture of plaque likely to develop at these sites. The time variation of the WSS spatial distributions was very rapid around the start and end of the systolic phase of the cardiac cycle, when strong fluctuations of intravascular pressure were also observed. These rapid and strong changes of WSS and pressure coincide temporally with the greatest flexion and mechanical stresses induced in the vessel wall by myocardial motion (ventricular contraction). The combination of these factors may increase the risk of plaque rupture and thrombus formation at these sites. PMID:20400349

  1. Numerical investigation of blood flow in a deformable coronary bifurcation and non-planar branch

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Esmail; Omidi, Amir Ali; Saghafi Zanjani, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Among cardiovascular diseases, arterials stenosis is recognized more commonly than the others. Hemodynamic characteristics of blood play a key role in the incidence of stenosis. This paper numerically investigates the pulsatile blood flow in a coronary bifurcation with a non-planar branch. To create a more realistic analysis, the wall is assumed to be compliant. Furthermore, the flow is considered to be three-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar. Methods: The effects of non-Newtonian blood, compliant walls and different angles of bifurcation on hemodynamic characteristics of flow were evaluated. Shear thinning of blood was simulated with the Carreau-Yasuda model. The current research was mainly focused on the flow characteristics in bifurcations since atherosclerosis occurs mostly in bifurcations. Moreover, as the areas with low shear stresses are prone to stenosis, these areas were identified. Results: Our findings indicated that the compliant model of the wall, bifurcation’s angle, and other physical properties of flow have an impact on hemodynamics of blood flow. Lower wall shear stress was observed in the compliant wall than that in the rigid wall. The outer wall of bifurcation in all models had lower wall shear stress. In bifurcations with larger angles, wall shear stress was higher in outer walls, and lower in inner walls. Conclusion: The non-Newtonian blood vessels and different angles of bifurcation on hemodynamic characteristics of flow evaluation confirmed a lower wall shear stress in the compliant wall than that in the rigid wall, while the wall shear stress was higher in outer walls but lower in inner walls in the bifurcation regions with larger angles. PMID:25671176

  2. Non-Newtonian flow of blood in an arteriosclerotic blood vessel with rigid permeable walls.

    PubMed

    Das, B; Batra, R L

    1995-07-01

    The steady, laminar and fully developed flow of blood in an arteriosclerotic blood vessel with rigid permeable walls is investigated, taking into account the slip condition at the vessel walls. The constitutive equation of blood is represented by a Casson fluid model. The model is used to study the influence of the yield stress on blood flow through arteriosclerotic arteries. The variation of the flow resistance and wall shear stress, with permeability parameter, slip parameter and Casson number are obtained for different sizes of growth of the arteriosclerotic lesions. Comparison of the results is made with available results that consider the impervious wall and those that consider blood as a Newtonian fluid. It is found that permeability has a significant effect on the values of flow resistance and wall shear stress. Biological implications of the present model on different arterial diseases are discussed. PMID:7564389

  3. Scanning electron microscopy of irradiated recipient blood vessels in head and neck free flaps

    SciTech Connect

    Guelinckx, P.J.; Boeckx, W.D.; Fossion, E.; Gruwez, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    Irradiated and control recipient blood vessels in a similar patient population were studied with scanning electron microscopy. The vessels that were biopsied were then anastomosed to a free flap. Irradiated arteries display a significantly greater wall thickness and higher incidence of intimal dehiscence compared with control arteries. Fibrin deposition, microthrombi, and endothelium cell dehiscence are present more frequently in irradiated vessels than in control vessels. Details of the preparation and anastomotic technique for irradiated blood vessels are discussed. Microvascular surgery in irradiated human blood vessels carries with it a higher risk of thrombosis due to preexisting vessel wall damage. This risk can be minimized by experience and attention to detail.

  4. Microprobes For Blood Flow Measurements In Tissue And Small Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberg, P. A.; Salerud, E. G.

    1988-04-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry is a method for the continuous and non-invasive recording of tissue blood flow. The method has already proved to be advantageous in a number of clinical as well as theoretical medical disciplines. In dermatology, plastic- and gastrointestinal surgery laser Doppler measurements have substantially contributed to increase knowledge of microvascular perfusion. In experimental medicine, the method has been used in the study of a great variety of microvascular problems. Spontaneous rhythmical variations, spatial and temporal fluctuations in human skin blood flow are mentioned as examples of problem areas in which new knowledge has been generated. The method has facilitated further investigations of the nature of spongeous bone blood flow, testis and kidney cortex blood flow. Recently we have showed that a variant of the laser Doppler method principle, using a single optical fiber, can be advantageous in deep tissue measurements. With this method laser light is transmitted bidirectionally in a single fiber. The tissue trauma which affects blood flow can be minimized by introducing small diameter fibers (0.1-0.5 mm). A special set-up utilizing the same basic principle has been used for the recording of blood flow in small vessels.

  5. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  6. [Intramural blood vessel system of the large intestine of domestic ruminants].

    PubMed

    Wille, K H; Schenk, B

    1995-06-01

    The vascular system of the large intestine of 15 cattle, 10 sheep and 5 goats has been examined by means of corrosion vascular casts, histology and electron microscopy. The results are as follows: The course and ramification of the intestinal vessels are identical in the caecum, colon and rectum. Furthermore, as expected, amongst the species studied no substantial differences in the vascular architecture of the large intestinal wall could be determined. The extramural vessels reach the wall of the intestine at the mesenteric margin. Their branches build arterial or venous networks in the tela subserosa, which then divide into branches in the direction of the antimesenteric region. The connections between the blood vessels of the tela subserosa and the tela submucosa as well as the branches to the muscular layers emerge from these networks. In the tela submucosa an arterial and venous system can be found. The obvious vascular arrangement in the submucosa is arranged not only parallel to the stratum circulare of the tunica muscularis but also along the prevailing direction of the lamina muscularis mucosae. From this arrangement both a deep and a superficial submucosal vascular plexus can be denominated. The recurrent branches for the circular muscle layer as well as the afferent and efferent vessels of the mucosa originate from submucosal arteries and veins. The arterioles of the tunica mucosa branch at the level of the basal crypts into a periglandular capillary system running close to the lumen into a subepithelial capillary system. Here the capillaries drain into venules which advance to the region of the intestinal glands and consequently drain into collecting veins in the submucosa. Capillaries of the subepithelial lamina propria mucosae are furnished with continuous or fenestrated endothelial linings as the morphological equivalent of the secretory or resorption processes, respectively. In the walls of the large intestine of the bovine, sheep and goat there are neither arterio-venous anastomoses nor hemodynamic regulatory structures such as sphincters or so-called throttle veins at the points of transition from capillaries to venules. These results are in accord with the findings in the small intestine of domestic ruminants (Hummel 1980). PMID:7625605

  7. Triamcinolone Acetonide Selectively Inhibits Angiogenesis in Small Blood Vessels and Decreases Vessel Diameter within the Vascular Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Terri L.; Gredeon, Dan J.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Hylton, alan G.; Ribita, Daniela; Olar, Harry H.; Kaiser, Peter K.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The steroid triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a potent anti-angiogenesis drug used to treat retinal vascular diseases that include diabetic retinopathy, vascular occlusions and choroidal neovascularization. To quantify the effects of TA on branching morphology within the angiogenic microvascular tree of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryos. Increasing concentrations of TA (0-16 ng/ml) were applied topically on embryonic day 7 (E7) to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryos cultured in Petri dishes, and incubated for an additional 24 or 48 hours until fixation. Binary (black/white) microscopic images of arterial end points were quantified by VESGEN software (for Generational Analysis of Vessel Branching) to obtain major vascular parameters that include vessel diameter (Dv), fractal dimension (Df), tortuosity (Tv) and densities of vessel area, length, number and branch point (Av, Lv, Nv and Brv). For assessment of specific changes in vascular morphology induced by TA, the VESGEN software automatically segmented the vascular tree into branching generations (G1...G10) according to changes in vessel diameter and branching. Vessel density decreased significantly up to 34% as the function of increasing concentration of TA according to Av, Lv, Brv, Nv and Df. TA selectively inhibited the growth of new, small vessels, because Lv decreased from 13.14plus or minus 0.61 cm/cm2 for controls to 8.012 plus or minus 0.82 cm/cm2 at 16 ng TA/ml in smaller branching generations (G7-G10), and for Nv from 473.83 plus or minus 29.85 cm(-)2 to 302.32 plus or minus 33.09 cm-()2. In contrast, vessel diameter (Dv) decreased throughout the vascular tree (G1-G10).

  8. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic particle capture in occluded blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.

  9. Methylglyoxal inhibits smooth muscle contraction in isolated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Mukohda, Masashi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Nomura, Hidemi; Okada, Muneyoshi; Hara, Yukio

    2009-02-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a metabolite of glucose. In addition to evidence that increased plasma MGO level is associated with diabetic vascular complications, recent studies demonstrated that MGO accumulated in vascular tissues of hypertensive animals. We hypothesized that MGO could directly affect vascular reactivity. To test the hypothesis, we examined effects of MGO on contraction of isolated blood vessels. Treatment of endothelium-denuded rat aorta with MGO (420 microM, 30 min) shifted the concentration-response curve for noradrenaline (NA: 1 nM-1 microM) to the right. The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent (MGO: 42-420 microM). Indomethacin (10 microM) and cimetidine (30 microM) could not prevent the inhibitory effect of MGO. However, a non-selective K(+)-channel inhibitor, tetramethylammonium (10 mM), prevented it. Glibenclamide (3 microM), an ATP-sensitive K(+)-channel inhibitor or apamin (1 microM), a small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+)-channel inhibitor was ineffective, but iberiotoxin (100 nM), a large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ (BK(Ca))-channel inhibitor significantly prevented the effect of MGO. MGO (420 microM, 30 min) also inhibited the NA (1 nM-1 microM)-induced contraction in mesenteric artery. The present results indicate that MGO has an inhibitory effect on contractility of isolated blood vessel, which is mediated via opening smooth muscle BK(Ca) channel. PMID:19202315

  10. Annexin A3 Regulates Early Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Stryder M.; Cleaver, Ondine

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a large family of calcium binding proteins that associate with cell membrane phospholipids and are involved in various cellular processes including endocytosis, exocytosis and membrane-cytoskeletal organization. Despite studies on numerous Annexin proteins, the function of Annexin A3 (Anxa3) is largely unknown. Our studies identify Anxa3 as a unique marker of the endothelial and myeloid cell lineages of Xenopus laevis during development. Anxa3 transcripts are also detected in endothelial cells (ECs) of zebrafish and mouse embryos, suggesting an important evolutionary function during formation of blood vessels. Indeed, Anxa3 loss-of-function experiments in frog embryos reveal its critical role during the morphogenesis of early blood vessels, as angioblasts in MO injected embryos fail to form vascular cords. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in mammalian cells identify a role for Anxa3 in EC migration. Our results are the first to reveal an in vivo function for Anxa3 during vascular development and represent a previously unexplored aspect of annexin biology. PMID:26182056

  11. Microfluidic strategy to investigate dynamics of small blood vessel function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasotharan, Sanjesh; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian; Guenther, Axel

    2010-11-01

    Resistance arteries (RAs, 30-300 microns in diameter) that are located within the terminal part of the vascular tree regulate the laminar perfusion of tissue with blood, via the peripheral vascular resistance, and hence controls the systemic blood pressure. The structure of RAs is adapted to actively controlling flow resistance by dynamically changing their diameter, which is non-linearly dependent on the temporal variation of the transmural pressure, perfusion flow rate and spatiotemporal changes in the chemical environment. Increases in systemic blood pressure (hypertension) resulting from pathologic changes in the RA response represent the primary risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We use a microfluidic strategy to investigate small blood vessels by quantifying structural variations within the arterial wall, RA outer contour and diameter over time. First, we document the artery response to vasomotor drugs that were homogeneously applied at step-wise increasing concentration. Second, we investigate the response in the presence of well-defined axial and circumferential heterogeneities. Artery per- and superfusion is discussed based on microscale PIV measurements of the fluid velocity on both sides of the arterial wall. Structural changes in the arterial wall are quantified using cross-correlation and proper orthogonal decomposition analyses of bright-field micrographs.

  12. Bioprinting of artificial blood vessels: current approaches towards a demanding goal.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Eva; Tovar, Günter E M; Borchers, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Free-form fabrication techniques, often referred to as '3D printing', are currently tested with regard to the processing of biological and biocompatible materials in general and for fabrication of vessel-like structures in particular. Such computer-controlled methods assemble 3D objects by layer-wise deposition or layer-wise cross-linking of materials. They use, for example, nozzle-based deposition of hydrogels and cells, drop-on-demand inkjet-printing of cell suspensions with subsequent cross-linking, layer-by-layer cross-linking of synthetic or biological polymers by selective irradiation with light and even laser-induced deposition of single cells. The need of vessel-like structures has become increasingly crucial for the supply of encapsulated cells for 3D tissue engineering, or even with regard to future application such as vascular grafts. The anticipated potential of providing tubes with tailored branching geometries made of biocompatible or biological materials pushes future visions of patient-specific vascularized tissue substitutions, tissue-engineered blood vessels and bio-based vascular grafts. We review here the early attempts of bringing together innovative free-form manufacturing processes with bio-based and biodegradable materials. The presented studies provide many important proofs of concepts such as the possibility to integrate viable cells into computer-controlled processes and the feasibility of supplying cells in a hydrogel matrix by generation of a network of perfused channels. Several impressive results in the generation of complex shapes and high-aspect-ratio tubular structures demonstrate the potential of additive assembly methods. Yet, it also becomes obvious that there remain major challenges to simultaneously match all material requirements in terms of biological functions (cell function supporting properties), physicochemical functions (mechanical properties of the printed material) and process-related (viscosity, cross-linkability) functions, towards the demanding goal of biofabricating artificial blood vessels. PMID:24970571

  13. Numerical investigation of the non-Newtonian blood flow in a bifurcation model with a non-planar branch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2004-12-01

    The non-Newtonian fluid flow in a bifurcation model with a non-planar daughter branch is investigated by using finite element method to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with a non-Newtonian constitutive model, in which the shear thinning behavior of the blood fluid is incorporated by the Carreau-Yasuda model. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the non-Newtonian property of fluid as well as of curvature and out-of-plane geometry in the non-planar daughter vessel on wall shear stress (WSS) and flow phenomena. In the non-planar daughter vessel, the flows are typified by the skewing of the velocity profile towards the outer wall, creating a relatively low WSS at the inner wall. In the downstream of the bifurcation, the velocity profiles are shifted towards the flow divider. The low WSS is found at the inner walls of the curvature and the lateral walls of the bifurcation. Secondary flow patterns that swirl fluid from the inner wall of curvature to the outer wall in the middle of the vessel are also well documented for the curved and bifurcating vessels. The numerical results for the non-Newtonian fluid and the Newtonian fluid with original Reynolds number and the corresponding rescaled Reynolds number are presented. Significant difference between the non-Newtonian flow and the Newtonian flow is revealed; however, reasonable agreement between the non-Newtonian flow and the rescaled Newtonian flow is found. Results of this study support the view that the non-planarity of blood vessels and the non-Newtonian properties of blood are an important factor in hemodynamics and may play a significant role in vascular biology and pathophysiology. PMID:15519598

  14. Development of blood vessel searching system using near-infrared light stereo method for clinical blood sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-10-01

    We developed an accurate three-dimensional blood vessel search (3D BVS) system using NIR light for the clinical blood sampling. In the previous study, the 3D BVS system, which used near-infrared (NIR) light imaging and the stereo method to locate blood vessel accurately in three dimensions has been developed(1). However, as NIR lights could not transmit the human arm, this system could not be used for the subcutaneous blood vessel detection. In this study, we developed a BVS by using the reflecting NIR light for blood sampling assist. The light scattering in human tissue will cause blur of blood vessel edge in image, that makes the diameter of blood vessel became uncertain. In this study, a light propagation simulation and a multilayer phantom were adopted to estimate the measurement error of blood vessel diameter in our BSV system. In the simulation, the optical properties of scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, and refractive index were set similar with human skin. Next, we fabricated a multilayer phantom, which has the similar structure and optical properties with the human skin to confirm availability of the simulation. Also, the optical properties of our phantom are adjustable in our phantom to imitate the different color of skin. We established the estimation algorithm to detect the blood vessel accurately. Finally, we confirm the availability of our BVS for the blood sampling assist system.

  15. A Heuristic Framework for Image Filtering and Segmentation: Application to Blood Vessel Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Chi-Hsuan; Lu, Yi-Chien; Yuan, Ang; Chang, Yeun-Chung; Chen, Chung-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The blood vessel density in a cancerous tissue sample may represent increased levels of tumor growth. However, identifying blood vessels in the histological (tissue) image is difficult and time-consuming and depends heavily on the observer's experience. To overcome this drawback, computer-aided image analysis frameworks have been investigated in order to boost object identification in histological images. We present a novel algorithm to automatically abstract the salient regions in blood vessel images. Experimental results show that the proposed framework is capable of deriving vessel boundaries that are comparable to those demarcated manually, even for vessel regions with weak contrast between the object boundaries and background clutter. PMID:26819914

  16. Characteristics of Blood Vessels in Female Genital Schistosomiasis: Paving the Way for Objective Diagnostics at the Point of Care

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Sigve; Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Pillay, Pavitra; Naicker, Thajasvarie; Taylor, Myra; Onsrud, Mathias; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke; Albregtsen, Fritz

    2016-01-01

    Background The mucosal changes associated with female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) encompass abnormal blood vessels. These have been described as circular, reticular, branched, convoluted and having uneven calibre. However, these characteristics are subjective descriptions and it has not been explored which of them are specific to FGS. Methods In colposcopic images of young women from a schistosomiasis endemic area, we performed computerised morphologic analyses of the cervical vasculature appearing on the mucosal surface. Study participants where the cervix was classified as normal served as negative controls, women with clinically diagnosed FGS and presence of typical abnormal blood vessels visible on the cervical surface served as positive cases. We also included women with cervical inflammatory conditions for reasons other than schistosomiasis. By automating morphological analyses, we explored circular configurations, vascular density, fractal dimensions and fractal lacunarity as parameters of interest. Results We found that the blood vessels typical of FGS are characterised by the presence of circular configurations (p < 0.001), increased vascular density (p = 0.015) and increased local connected fractal dimensions (p = 0.071). Using these features, we were able to correctly classify 78% of the FGS-positive cases with an accuracy of 80%. Conclusions The blood vessels typical of FGS have circular configurations, increased vascular density and increased local connected fractal dimensions. These specific morphological features could be used diagnostically. Combined with colourimetric analyses, this represents a step towards making a diagnostic tool for FGS based on computerised image analysis. PMID:27073857

  17. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25893882

  18. Heterogeneity of muscarinic receptor subtypes in cerebral blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Villalon, A.L.; Krause, D.N.; Ehlert, F.J.; Duckles, S.P. )

    1991-07-01

    The identity and distribution of muscarinic cholinergic receptor subtypes and associated signal transduction mechanisms was characterized for the cerebral circulation using correlated functional and biochemical investigations. Subtypes were distinguished by the relative affinities of a panel of muscarinic antagonists, pirenzepine, AF-DX 116 (11-2-((2-(diethylaminomethyl)- 1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H- pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one), hexahydrosiladifenidol, methoctramine, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methobromide, dicyclomine, para-fluoro-hexahydrosiladifenidol and atropine. Muscarinic receptors characterized by inhibition of (3H)quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in membranes of bovine pial arteries were of the M2 subtype. In contrast pharmacological analysis of (3H)-quinuclidinylbenzilate binding in bovine intracerebral microvessels suggests the presence of an M4 subtype. Receptors mediating endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rabbit pial arteries were of the M3 subtype, whereas muscarinic receptors stimulating endothelium-independent phosphoinositide hydrolysis in bovine pial arteries were of the M1 subtype. These findings suggest that characteristics of muscarinic receptors in cerebral blood vessels vary depending on the type of vessel, cellular location and function mediated.

  19. Measurement of blood vessel characteristics for disease detection based on cone-beam CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Kumazaki, Tatsuo

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a method of measurement of blood vessel characteristics for disease detection based on cone-beam CT images. The important objective here is to show how representation of blood vessel morphology can lead to feature measurement and identification of abnormal regions. The authors represent the blood vessel surface through curvatures and then measure the surface characteristics that emphasize disease such as aneurysm and stenosis. From results of an application to a patient`s abdominal blood vessels containing two aneurysms and one stenosis, the authors show the feasibility of their method to direct the physician`s attention to the location of the abnormality.

  20. Aquaporin-1 in blood vessels of rat circumventricular organs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Alan J; Carati, Colin J; Gannon, Bren J; Haberberger, Rainer; Chataway, Tim K

    2010-04-01

    Although the water channel protein aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is widely observed outside the rat brain in continuous, but not fenestrated, vascular endothelia, it has not previously been observed in any endothelia within the normal rat brain and only to a limited extent in the human brain. In this immunohistochemical study of rat brain, AQP1 has also been found in microvessel endothelia, probably of the fenestrated type, in all circumventricular organs (except the subcommissural organ and the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis): in the median eminence, pineal, subfornical organ, area postrema and choroid plexus. The majority of microvessels in the median eminence, pineal and choroid plexus, known to be exclusively fenestrated, are shown to be AQP1-immunoreactive. In the subfornical organ and area postrema in which many, but not all, microvessels are fenestrated, not all microvessels are AQP1-immunoreactive. In the AQP1-immunoreactive microvessels, the AQP1 probably facilitates water movement between blood and interstitium as one component of the normal fluxes that occur in these specialised sensory and secretory areas. AQP1-immunoreactive endothelia have also been seen in a small population of blood vessels in the cerebral parenchyma outside the circumventricular organs, similar to other observations in human brain. The proposed development of AQP1 modulators to treat various brain pathologies in which AQP1 plays a deleterious role will necessitate further work to determine the effect of such modulators on the normal function of the circumventricular organs. PMID:20177708

  1. Nonlinear analysis of blood flux in human vessels.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, K; Hahn, M

    1999-07-01

    Laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) is frequently used in research on microcirculation of blood. Usually LDF time series are analysed by conventional linear methods, mainly Fourier analysis. These methods may not be optimal for the investigation of nonlinear effects of vasomotion, heartbeat or vessels. Nonlinear methods are based on a reconstruction of the system trajectory in an embedding space describing not only the measured time series but the behaviour of the whole system. The fill factor is a tool for displaying the main properties of this attractor in two dimensions and for determining diverse parameters for further analysis. A quantitative characterization of the system is possible by the distribution of correlation dimensions in the embedding space. The singular value decomposition (SVD) can be used to display and characterize individual degrees of freedom. These methods were applied to LDF time series from nine healthy controls and nine patients with Raynaud's phenomenon due to connective tissue disease. The fill factor and the SVD indicate qualitatively that in the controls vasomotion and heartbeat are the main influences on blood flow and act fairly independently of each other. In the patients there was a mixture of strong but irregular degrees of freedom. The mean and the maximal local correlation dimensions were significantly higher in the patient group. Nonlinear analysis of LDF time series provides additional information which cannot be detected using conventional approaches. PMID:10442708

  2. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Schepelmann, M; Yarova, P L; Lopez-Fernandez, I; Davies, T S; Brennan, S C; Edwards, P J; Aggarwal, A; Graça, J; Rietdorf, K; Matchkov, V; Fenton, R A; Chang, W; Krssak, M; Stewart, A; Broadley, K J; Ward, D T; Price, S A; Edwards, D H; Kemp, P J; Riccardi, D

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive (SM22α)CaSR(Δflox/Δflox) [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations (1-5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR. PMID:26538090

  3. Statistical pattern analysis of blood vessel features on retina images and its application to blood vessel mapping algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ying, Huajun; Wang, Xing; Liu, Jyh-Charn

    2014-01-01

    Computer based modeling and analysis of blood vessel (BV) networks is essential for automated detection and tracking of anomalies and structural changes in retina images. Among many published techniques for automated BV mapping, optimal selection of thresholds to delineate BV pixels from their background pixels remains an open problem. In this paper we propose a novel representation of a BV pixel feature, daisy graph, using rotational contrast transform (RCT), and two feature descriptors energy E(p) and symmetry difference S(p) of the daisy graph. Non-BV pixels are separated from BV and boundary pixels based on E(p). Fitness of the lognormal distribution to S(p) of BV pixels with negative E(p) has been tested extensively for images in the STARE and DRIVE databases. Based on statistical pattern analysis in the feature space, we propose a fast self-calibrated BV mapping algorithm which achieve comparable and statistically sound performance as contemporary solutions. PMID:25571441

  4. Abnormal Morphology of Blood Vessels in Erythematous Skin From Atopic Dermatitis Patients.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Moe; Fukuda, Maki; Kumamoto, Junichi; Goto, Makiko; Denda, Sumiko; Yamasaki, Kenshi; Aiba, Setsuya; Nagayama, Masaharu; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that altered peripheral blood circulation might be associated with erythema or inflammation in atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. However, the overall structure of blood vessels and capillaries in AD skin is poorly understood because most studies have involved light-microscopic observation of thin skin sections. In the present study, we compared the 3-dimensional structures of peripheral blood vessels of healthy subjects and AD patients in detail by means of 2-photon microscopy. In skin from healthy subjects, superficial vascular plexus and capillaries originating from flexous blood vessels were observed. However, skin from AD patients contained thickened, flexuous blood vessels, which might be associated with increased blood flow, in both erythematous and nonlesional areas. However, patients with lichenification did not display these morphological changes. Bifurcation of vessels was not observed in either erythematous or lichenification lesions. These results might be helpful for developing new clinical strategies to treat erythema in AD patients. PMID:26332534

  5. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  6. Clinical and Angiographic Predictors of Major Side Branch Occlusion after Main Vessel Stenting in Coronary Bifurcation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Xu, Bo; Yin, Dong; Li, Yi-Ping; He, Yuan; You, Shi-Jie; Qiao, Shu-Bin; Wu, Yong-Jian; Yan, Hong-Bing; Yang, Yue-Jin; Gao, Run-Lin; Dou, Ke-Fei

    2015-01-01

    Background: Major side branch (SB) occlusion is one of the most serious complications during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for bifurcation lesions. We aimed to characterize the incidence and predictors of major SB occlusion during coronary bifurcation intervention. Methods: We selected consecutive patients undergoing PCI (using one stent or provisional two stent strategy) for bifurcation lesions with major SB. All clinical characteristics, coronary angiography findings, PCI procedural factors and quantitative coronary angiographic analysis data were collected. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of SB occlusion. SB occlusion after main vessel (MV) stenting was defined as no blood flow or any thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade decrease in SB after MV stenting. Results: Among all 652 bifurcation lesions, 32 (4.91%) SBs occluded. No blood flow occurred in 18 lesions and TIMI flow grade decreasing occurred in 14 lesions. In multivariate analysis, diameter ratio between MV/SB (odds ratio [OR]: 7.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–38.85, P = 0.01), bifurcation angle (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05, P < 0.01), diameter stenosis of SB before MV stenting (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03–1.07, P < 0.01), TIMI flow grade of SB before MV stenting (OR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.48–8.72, P < 0.01) and left ventricular eject fraction (LVEF) (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.11, P < 0.01) were independent predictors of SB occlusion. Conclusions: Among clinical and angiographic findings, diameter ratio between MV/SB, bifurcation angle, diameter stenosis of SB before MV stenting, TIMI flow grade of SB before MV stenting and LVEF were predictive of major SB occlusion after MV stenting. PMID:26021503

  7. Imaging tissue engineered blood vessel mimics with optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnema, Garret Thomas

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technology that enables 2D cross-sectional images of tissue microstructure. This interferometric technique provides resolutions of approximately 10-20 mum with a penetration depth of 1-2 mm in highly scattering tissues. With the use of fiber optics, OCT systems have been developed for intravascular imaging with a demonstrated improvement in both resolution and dynamic range compared to commercial intravascular ultrasound systems. OCT studies of normal, atherosclerotic, and stented arteries indicate the ability of OCT to visualize arterial structures. These results suggest OCT may be a valuable tool for studying luminal structures in tissue engineered constructs. In the present study, new endoscopic OCT systems and analysis techniques were developed to visualize the growth and response of the cellular lining within a tissue engineered blood vessel mimic (BVM). The BVM consists of two primary components. A biocompatible polymeric scaffold is used to form the tubular structure. Human microvessel cells from adipose tissue are sodded on to the inner surface of the scaffold. These constructs are then developed and imaged within a sterile bioreactor. Three specific aims were defined for the present study. First, an OCT longitudinal scanning endoscope was developed. With this endoscope, a study of 16 BVMs was performed comparing images from OCT and corresponding histological sections. The study demonstrated that endoscopic imaging did not visually damage the mimic cellular lining. OCT images showed excellent correlation with corresponding histological sections. Second, a concentric three element endoscope was developed to provide radial cross-sections of the BVM. OCT images using this endoscope monitored lining development on three types of polymeric scaffolds. In the third specific aim, automated algorithms were developed to assess the percent cellular coverage of a stent using volumetric OCT images. The results of the present study suggest that OCT endoscopic systems may be a valuable tool for assessing and optimizing the development of tissue engineered constructs. Conversely, the BVMs modeled the arterial response to deployed stents allowing the development of automated OCT analysis software. These results suggest that blood vessel mimics may be used to advance OCT technology and techniques.

  8. Ergot Alkaloid-Induced Blood Vessel Dysfunction Contributes to Fescue Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many effects of fescue toxicosis in grazing animals may be explained by compromised blood vessel function which is linked to the presence of ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue. The body’s network of blood vessels provides for the removal of metabolic waste products and delivery of the...

  9. 3D simulations of early blood vessel formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalli, F.; Gamba, A.; Naldi, G.; Semplice, M.; Valdembri, D.; Serini, G.

    2007-08-01

    Blood vessel networks form by spontaneous aggregation of individual cells migrating toward vascularization sites (vasculogenesis). A successful theoretical model of two-dimensional experimental vasculogenesis has been recently proposed, showing the relevance of percolation concepts and of cell cross-talk (chemotactic autocrine loop) to the understanding of this self-aggregation process. Here we study the natural 3D extension of the computational model proposed earlier, which is relevant for the investigation of the genuinely three-dimensional process of vasculogenesis in vertebrate embryos. The computational model is based on a multidimensional Burgers equation coupled with a reaction diffusion equation for a chemotactic factor and a mass conservation law. The numerical approximation of the computational model is obtained by high order relaxed schemes. Space and time discretization are performed by using TVD schemes and, respectively, IMEX schemes. Due to the computational costs of realistic simulations, we have implemented the numerical algorithm on a cluster for parallel computation. Starting from initial conditions mimicking the experimentally observed ones, numerical simulations produce network-like structures qualitatively similar to those observed in the early stages of in vivo vasculogenesis. We develop the computation of critical percolative indices as a robust measure of the network geometry as a first step towards the comparison of computational and experimental data.

  10. Transmitted Ultrasound Pressure Variation in Micro Blood Vessel Phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shengping; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2008-01-01

    Silica, cellulose, and polymethylmethacrylate tubes with inner diameters of ten to a few hundred microns are commonly used as blood vessel phantoms in in vitro studies of microbubble or nanodroplet behavior during insonation. However, a detailed investigation of the ultrasonic fields within these micro-tubes has not yet been performed. This technical note provides a theoretical analysis of the ultrasonic fields within micro-tubes. Numerical results show that for the same tube material, the interaction between the micro-tube and megaHertz-frequency ultrasound may vary drastically with incident frequency, tube diameter, and wall thickness. For 10 MHz ultrasonic insonation of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tube with an inner diameter of 195 μm and an outer diameter of 260 μm, the peak pressure within the tube can be up to 300% of incident pressure amplitude. However, using 1 MHz ultrasound and a silica tube with an inner diameter of 12 μm and an outer diameter of 50 μm, the peak pressure within the tube is only 12% of the incident pressure amplitude, and correspondingly the spatial-average-time-average intensity within the tube is only 1% of the incident intensity. PMID:18395962

  11. Sutureless anastomosis of blood vessels using cyanoacrylate adhesives.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, H; Esato, K; Ohara, M; Zempo, N

    1992-01-01

    On the assumption that the remaining suture threads of the anastomotic line play an important role in the progression of anastomotic neointimal hyperplasia, we performed an experimental study on the sutureless anastomosis of blood vessels. An expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft, 5 mm in diameter and 2 cm in length, was implanted on the abdominal aorta of mongrel adult using one of three methods of anastomosis, namely; a continuous suture, a stay suture, or sutureless anastomosis. Overall patency rates were 83.3 per cent, 91.7 per cent and 75.0 per cent respectively. The thickness of the pannus in the distal anastomotic line after 12 months was 107 microns in one graft in the continuous suture group, 106 microns and 222 microns in 2 grafts each in the stay suture group, and 41 microns and 117 microns in 2 grafts each in the sutureless group. Because there were cases of patency even after 12 months with a very small pannus thickness, sutureless anastomosis is considered to be a useful method of preventing anastomotic neointimal hyperplasia. PMID:1547375

  12. Viral mediated gene transfer to sprouting blood vessels during angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alian, Akram; Eldor, Amiram; Falk, Haya; Panet, Amos

    2002-08-01

    Several experimental systems have been applied to investigate the development of new blood vessels. Angiogenesis can be followed ex-vivo by culturing explants of rat aorta 'rings' in biomatrix gels. This angiogenesis system was modified for the study of viral vector mediated gene transfer, using adenovirus, vaccinia- and retroviral vectors. Two modifications were introduced to the model in order to facilitate efficient viral mediated gene transfer, (i) placing the aorta ring on top of a thin layer of collagen such that the angiogenic tissue will be accessible to the viral vector; and (ii) infection of the aorta rings prior to embedding them into the collagen matrix. While adenovirus and vaccinia vectors infected efficiently the aorta rings they induced cell death. Subsequent gene transfer experiments were, therefore, carried with retroviral vectors containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the beta-interferon (IFN) genes. Overexpression of VEGF enhanced significantly microvessel sprouting, while overexpression of IFN-beta induced an antiviral effect. The experimental system described in this study can facilitate the application of other viral vectors to the study of genes that may regulate the complex angiogenic process and thereby open new avenues for vascular gene therapy. PMID:12176137

  13. [Blood vessel and nerve damage in total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Dietze, S; Perka, C; Baecker, H

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessel and nerve damage are uncommon complications in total hip arthroplasty (THA). With an incidence between 0.1 and 0.2 % in primary THA these complications are rare but can be serious with a high mortality risk. The individual risk is determined by multiple factors depending on the surgeon's skills, the number of previous surgeries and the approach itself. The anatomy of the defect is an essential risk factor. Some procedures, such as the use of screws for cup fixation are associated with a higher risk of vascular and neural damage. The acetabular quadrant system of the hip as described by Wasielewski et al. is a useful tool to visualize the neurovascular anatomy of the hip, to detect the safe zone and subsequently prevent complications. Sciatic nerve palsy after total hip replacement is the most common nerve damage followed by femoral nerve damage. Previous surgery, a posterior approach and excessive leg extension are the most common risk factors for nerve damage. In order to diagnose nerve palsy after orthopedic surgery an electromyogram can be of use to assess the extent and prognosis. This article focuses on vascular and neural complications after total hip arthroplasty and the options for diagnosis, treatment and prevention. PMID:24384891

  14. Morphological changes in blood vessels produced by hyperosmotic agents and measured by optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Gracie; Readinger, Allison; Dozier, Susan S; Welch, Ashley J

    2003-05-01

    Optical tissue clearing by hyperosmotic chemical agents significantly increases light depth penetration in skin and may improve light-based therapeutics such as laser treatment of cutaneous vascular lesions. A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the potential role of optical clearing by glycerol in laser treatment of cutaneous vessels. Optical imaging was performed to investigate the morphological effects of glycerol on blood vessels of skin. Blood vessels were imaged using Doppler optical coherence tomography in in vivo hamster skin treated with glycerol. Images were obtained from the subdermal side to assess morphological changes in the blood vessels caused by glycerol and from the epidermal side to assess enhanced Doppler imaging of blood vessels. Application of glycerol to the subdermis resulted in venule stasis and for prolonged treatment times, arteriole stasis. In cases where flow remained in arterioles, an improved Doppler signal was detected from blood vessels when imaging transepidermally compared with the native condition. Intensity images indicated changes in blood optical properties and improved contrast of skin cross sections after glycerol application. The observed optical and morphological effects were reversed upon hydration of the skin with phosphate-buffered saline. The combination of increased depth of light penetration and the temporary slowing or cessation of flow in blood vessels could mean improved laser treatment of vessels. PMID:12812298

  15. Blood flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    A heuristic treatment of blood flow in the heart and the aorta together with some of the main branches considers the effects of fluid viscosity and vessel elasticity as well as pressure distribution in the typical pulsating flow.

  16. Electrokinetic effect of the endothelial glycocalyx layer on two-phase blood flow in small blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Yang, Jun

    2009-06-01

    Blood flow behaves differently at the microvascular level than they do at upper levels of circulating systems. The endothelial glycocalyx layer on the luminal surface of blood vessels plays a significant role in regulating blood flow and blood cell movement in microvascular networks. For instance, previous experimental studies showed that the endothelial glycocalyx layer causes additional resistance to blood flow in small blood vessels. One of the important facts of the endothelial glycocalyx layer is that this layer is highly negatively charged. The question remains: do these electrostatic charges retard blood flow in small blood vessels according to the electroviscous effect? Here, a theoretical model is proposed to investigate the electrochemical effects of the endothelial glycocalyx layer on two-phase non-Newtonian blood flow in small blood vessels. Results show that electrostatic charges on the endothelial glycocalyx layer induce negligible effect to blood flow. Therefore, we can attribute the cause of additional resistance by the endothelial glycocalyx layer mainly to other mechanisms, such as, the glycocalyx constituted proteins acting as a flow barrier. PMID:19362568

  17. TOPAZ: a computer code for modeling heat transfer and fluid flow in arbitrary networks of pipes, flow branches, and vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the computer code TOPAZ (Transient-One-Dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer) is presented. TOPAZ models the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through complex and arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, flow branches and vessels. Heat transfer to and from the fluid containment structures (i.e. vessel and pipe walls) can also be modeled. This document includes discussions of the fluid flow equations and containment heat conduction equations. The modeling philosophy, numerical integration technique, code architecture, and methods for generating the computational mesh are also discussed.

  18. Differential patterns of relaxation by atrial natriuretic peptide in major blood vessels of two distantly related teleosts.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, A; Helle, K B

    1994-09-22

    In order to elucidate the role of the atrial hormone in the teleost circulation, the vascular effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) have been compared in major blood vessels of the cod (Gadus morhua) and of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). The relaxing effects of ANP from eel (eANP) have been examined in ventral aorta (VA) versus dorsal aorta (DA) in the cod and in VA versus the coeliaco mesenteric artery (CMA), a major branch of DA, in the salmon. The vessels were precontracted by acetylcholine (ACh) and adrenaline (A) and by the mammalian endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1). The role of endothelial integrity for these responses has been assessed in vessels either mechanically probed or chemically impaired by indomethacin or the L-arginine analogue, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). Adrenaline and noradrenaline (NA) failed to contract the salmon VA. In the salmon vessels, eANP was without relaxing effects in ACh-contracted VA, while completely relaxing CMA when precontracted with ACh. The eANP was also a relaxant of A-contracted CMA and of ET-1-contracted VA. The cod vessels, which were insensitive to ACh were markedly relaxed by eANP when precontracted with either A (VA) or ET-1 (DA). In DA also the resting tension was reversed, an effect of eANP that was highly potentiated in mechanical probed vessels. Otherwise the relaxing effects of eANP in these vessels were seemingly independent of endothelial factors. In conclusion ANP is not a general relaxant of the precontracted VA which in teleosts is the first possible target vessel for the myocardial release of this hormone. On the arterial side ANP serves as a relaxant both in the salmon and the cod vessels, indicating that myocardial release of ANP in teleosts may have an important role in regulation of blood flow via diverse, species-specific effects on major blood vessels on both sides of the gills. PMID:7831502

  19. Biomechanical regulation of blood vessel growth during tissue vascularization.

    PubMed

    Kilarski, Witold W; Samolov, Branka; Petersson, Ludvig; Kvanta, Anders; Gerwins, Pr

    2009-06-01

    Formation of new vessels in granulation tissue during wound healing has been assumed to occur solely through sprouting angiogenesis. In contrast, we show here that neovascularization can be accomplished by nonangiogenic expansion of preexisting vessels. Using neovascularization models based on the chick chorioallantoic membrane and the healing mouse cornea, we found that tissue tension generated by activated fibroblasts or myofibroblasts during wound contraction mediated and directed translocation of the vasculature. These mechanical forces pulled vessels from the preexisting vascular bed as vascular loops with functional circulation that expanded as an integral part of the growing granulation tissue through vessel enlargement and elongation. Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 confirmed that biomechanical forces were sufficient to mediate the initial vascular growth independently of endothelial sprouting or proliferation. The neovascular network was further remodeled by splitting, sprouting and regression of individual vessels. This model explains the rapid appearance of large functional vessels in granulation tissue during wound healing. PMID:19483693

  20. A new mechanism of blood vessel growth - hope for new treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Kilarski, Witold W; Gerwins, Pr

    2009-06-01

    Growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) is essential for embryo development as well as for wound healing and progression of a number of diseases such as cancer, inflammatory conditions, eye diseases, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis in the adult. Current paradigms explain blood vessel growth entirely by sprouting angiogenesis or by vessel splitting through so called intussusceptive angiogenesis. However, these mechanisms are mainly derived from experiments on the developing embryo while less is known about angiogenesis in the adult during, e.g., wound healing, tumor growth, and inflammation. Recently we showed that blood vessel growth in the adult can be induced and directed by mechanical forces that naturally develop during healing or remodeling of tissues. In contrast to sprouting and intussusception, the new biomechanical hypothesis assumes that functional blood vessels are passively translocated which, if found generic, may drastically change the approach for developing anti- and pro-angiogenic therapies in the treatment of a variety of diseases. PMID:19772838

  1. Selective Stimulation of Penumbral Cones Reveals Perception in the Shadow of Retinal Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1819, Johann Purkinje described how a moving light source that displaces the shadow of the retinal blood vessels to adjacent cones can produce the entopic percept of a branching tree. Here, we describe a novel method for producing a similar percept. We used a device that mixes 56 narrowband primaries under computer control, in conjunction with the method of silent substitution, to present observers with a spectral modulation that selectively targeted penumbral cones in the shadow of the retinal blood vessels. Such a modulation elicits a clear Purkinje-tree percept. We show that the percept is specific to penumbral L and M cone stimulation and is not produced by selective penumbral S cone stimulation. The Purkinje-tree percept was strongest at 16 Hz and fell off at lower (8 Hz) and higher (32 Hz) temporal frequencies. Selective stimulation of open-field cones that are not in shadow, with penumbral cones silenced, also produced the percept, but it was not seen when penumbral and open-field cones were modulated together. This indicates the need for spatial contrast between penumbral and open-field cones to create the Purkinje-tree percept. Our observation provides a new means for studying the response of retinally stabilized images and demonstrates that penumbral cones can support spatial vision. Further, the result illustrates a way in which silent substitution techniques can fail to be silent. We show that inadvertent penumbral cone stimulation can accompany melanopsin-directed modulations that are designed only to silence open-field cones. This in turn can result in visual responses that might be mistaken as melanopsin-driven. PMID:25897842

  2. Automated branching pattern report generation for laparoscopic surgery assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Tetsuro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a method for generating branching pattern reports of abdominal blood vessels for laparoscopic gastrectomy. In gastrectomy, it is very important to understand branching structure of abdominal arteries and veins, which feed and drain specific abdominal organs including the stomach, the liver and the pancreas. In the real clinical stage, a surgeon creates a diagnostic report of the patient anatomy. This report summarizes the branching patterns of the blood vessels related to the stomach. The surgeon decides actual operative procedure. This paper shows an automated method to generate a branching pattern report for abdominal blood vessels based on automated anatomical labeling. The report contains 3D rendering showing important blood vessels and descriptions of branching patterns of each vessel. We have applied this method for fifty cases of 3D abdominal CT scans and confirmed the proposed method can automatically generate branching pattern reports of abdominal arteries.

  3. Fpga based hardware synthesis for automatic segmentation of retinal blood vessels in diabetic retinopathy images.

    PubMed

    Sivakamasundari, J; Kavitha, G; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disorder that affects the structure of retinal blood vessels due to long-standing diabetes mellitus. Real-Time mass screening system for DR is vital for timely diagnosis and periodic screening to prevent the patient from severe visual loss. Human retinal fundus images are widely used for an automated segmentation of blood vessel and diagnosis of various blood vessel disorders. In this work, an attempt has been made to perform hardware synthesis of Kirsch template based edge detection for segmentation of blood vessels. This method is implemented using LabVIEW software and is synthesized in field programmable gate array board to yield results in real-time application. The segmentation of blood vessels using Kirsch based edge detection is compared with other edge detection methods such as Sobel, Prewitt and Canny. The texture features such as energy, entropy, contrast, mean, homogeneity and structural feature namely ratio of vessel to vessel free area are obtained from the segmented images. The performance of segmentation is analysed in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. It is observed from the results that the Kirsch based edge detection technique segmented the edges of blood vessels better than other edge detection techniques. The ratio of vessel to vessel free area classified the normal and DR affected retinal images more significantly than other texture based features. FPGA based hardware synthesis of Kirsch edge detection method is able to differentiate normal and diseased images with high specificity (93%). This automated segmentation of retinal blood vessels system could be used in computer-assisted diagnosis for diabetic retinopathy screening in real-time application. PMID:25405418

  4. High-resolution ultrasound imaging and noninvasive optoacoustic monitoring of blood variables in peripheral blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrasound imaging is being widely used in clinics to obtain diagnostic information non-invasively and in real time. A high-resolution ultrasound imaging platform, Vevo (VisualSonics, Inc.) provides in vivo, real-time images with exceptional resolution (up to 30 microns) using high-frequency transducers (up to 80 MHz). Recently, we built optoacoustic systems for probing radial artery and peripheral veins that can be used for noninvasive monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and concentration of important endogenous and exogenous chromophores (such as ICG). In this work we used the high-resolution ultrasound imaging system Vevo 770 for visualization of the radial artery and peripheral veins and acquired corresponding optoacoustic signals from them using the optoacoustic systems. Analysis of the optoacoustic data with a specially developed algorithm allowed for measurement of blood oxygenation in the blood vessels as well as for continuous, real-time monitoring of arterial and venous blood oxygenation. Our results indicate that: 1) the optoacoustic technique (unlike pure optical approaches and other noninvasive techniques) is capable of accurate peripheral venous oxygenation measurement; and 2) peripheral venous oxygenation is dependent on skin temperature and local hemodynamics. Moreover, we performed for the first time (to the best of our knowledge) a comparative study of optoacoustic arterial oximetry and a standard pulse oximeter in humans and demonstrated superior performance of the optoacoustic arterial oximeter, in particular at low blood flow.

  5. Mechanisms underlying pioglitazone-mediated relaxation in isolated blood vessel.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Hidemi; Yamawaki, Hideyuki; Mukohda, Masashi; Okada, Muneyoshi; Hara, Yukio

    2008-11-01

    Pioglitazone is a widely used anti-type 2 diabetic drug. Beside its insulin-sensitizing effects, pioglitazone exerts preventive roles against ischemic heart disease. Since one possible explanation is anti-hypertensive action, we examined effects of pioglitazone on contractility of isolated blood vessel. Endothelium-intact [End (+)] or -removed [End (-)] rat aorta is isolated and isometric tension is recorded. In both End (+) and End (-) aorta, pretreatment with pioglitazone (3 - 10 microM, 30 min) inhibited noradrenaline (NA) (1 nM - 1 microM)-induced contraction. In NA (100 nM)-pre-contracted aorta, pioglitazone (1 - 10 microM) directly induced a relaxation. The relaxant effect is higher in End (-) aorta than in End (+) aorta. In End (+) aorta, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 microM) significantly inhibited the relaxation. In End (-) aorta, neither indomethacin nor cimetidine affected the relaxation, but tetraethylammonium (10 mM) inhibited it. Furthermore, the relaxation was significantly inhibited by a voltage-dependent K+ (K(V))-channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine (1 mM), or an inward rectifying K+ (K(IR))-channel blocker, BaCl2 (1 mM). GW9662 (2 microM), a blocker of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma was ineffective against the relaxation. The present study demonstrated that pioglitazone causes PPAR-gamma-independent relaxation. While endothelium-dependent relaxation is mediated via nitric oxide, the endothelium-independent one is responsible for smooth muscle K+ (K(V), K(IR))-channel opening. PMID:18987433

  6. Theoretical analyses of thermal stress of blood vessel during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Liu, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Ai-Li; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Cheng, Shu-Xia

    2005-01-01

    The infinite long hollow cylinder was selected as the model for studying the thermal stress inside the vascular wall during the common cryopreservation process (i.e. cooling-holding at a certain temperature-warming-holding at a second temperature). Transient distributions of temperature and stress were obtained; and effects of cooling rates, warming rates, the holding temperatures on this two distributions were analyzed. Coupled with the experimental results of other researchers, our theoretical predictions indicated that the appearance of the axial compressive stress during the initial period of cooling process was not the governing role that may cause the circumferential crack of the inner and outer vascular wall. Instead, it was the axial tensile stress during the initial period of the warming process that may cause the cracks. Furthermore, the stress history in the multi-steps warming methods was studied. Contrary to the common opinion, the results revealed that the multi-steps method could not decrease the maximal stress while it can change the temperature range containing the maximal stress from low temperature stage to relatively high temperature stage. As the flexibility of the blood vessel was partially recovered in the relative high temperature stage, it can bear the maximal stress that it cannot bear when still left in the low temperature stage, and the intrinsic feature of multi-steps warming method was revealed by this study. This paper provides a theoretical supplement to the study of Pegg et al. (1997) and Buján et al. (2001) published in the journal of Cryobiology. PMID:19827253

  7. Personal identification based on blood vessels of retinal fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Biometric technique has been implemented instead of conventional identification methods such as password in computer, automatic teller machine (ATM), and entrance and exit management system. We propose a personal identification (PI) system using color retinal fundus images which are unique to each individual. The proposed procedure for identification is based on comparison of an input fundus image with reference fundus images in the database. In the first step, registration between the input image and the reference image is performed. The step includes translational and rotational movement. The PI is based on the measure of similarity between blood vessel images generated from the input and reference images. The similarity measure is defined as the cross-correlation coefficient calculated from the pixel values. When the similarity is greater than a predetermined threshold, the input image is identified. This means both the input and the reference images are associated to the same person. Four hundred sixty-two fundus images including forty-one same-person's image pairs were used for the estimation of the proposed technique. The false rejection rate and the false acceptance rate were 9.9×10 -5% and 4.3×10 -5%, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed method has a higher performance than other biometrics except for DNA. To be used for practical application in the public, the device which can take retinal fundus images easily is needed. The proposed method is applied to not only the PI but also the system which warns about misfiling of fundus images in medical facilities.

  8. The Rheology of Blood Flow in a Branched Arterial System.

    PubMed

    Shibeshi, Shewaferaw S; Collins, William E

    2005-01-01

    Blood flow rheology is a complex phenomenon. Presently there is no universally agreed upon model to represent the viscous property of blood. However, under the general classification of non-Newtonian models that simulate blood behavior to different degrees of accuracy, there are many variants. The power law, Casson and Carreau models are popular non-Newtonian models and affect hemodynamics quantities under many conditions. In this study, the finite volume method is used to investigate hemodynamics predictions of each of the models. To implement the finite volume method, the computational fluid dynamics software Fluent 6.1 is used. In this numerical study the different hemorheological models are found to predict different results of hemodynamics variables which are known to impact the genesis of atherosclerosis and formation of thrombosis. The axial velocity magnitude percentage difference of up to 2 % and radial velocity difference up to 90 % is found at different sections of the T-junction geometry. The size of flow recirculation zones and their associated separation and reattachment point's locations differ for each model. The wall shear stress also experiences up to 12 % shift in the main tube. A velocity magnitude distribution of the grid cells shows that the Newtonian model is close dynamically to the Casson model while the power law model resembles the Carreau model. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Die Rheologie von Blutströmungen ist ein komplexes Phänomen. Gegenwärtig existiert kein allgemein akzeptiertes Modell, um die viskosen Eigenschaften von Blut wiederzugeben. Jedoch gibt es mehrere Varianten unter der allgemeinen Klassifikation von nicht-Newtonschen Modellen, die das Verhalten von Blut mit unterschiedlicher Genauigkeit simulieren. Die Potenzgesetz-, Casson und Carreau-Modelle sind beliebte nicht-New-tonsche Modelle und beeinflussen die hämodynamischen Eigenschaften in vielen Situationen. In dieser Studie wurde die finite Volumenmethode angewandt, um die hämodynamischen Vorhersagen dieser Modelle zu untersuchen. Um die finite Volumenmethode zu implementieren, wurde die Fluiddynamiksoftware Fluent 6.1 verwendet. In dieser numerischen Studie wurde gefunden, dass die unterschiedlichen hämorheologischen Modelle unterschiedliche Resultate für die hämodynamischen Grössen vorhersagen, von denen bekannt ist, dass sie die Entstehung von Arteriosklerose und die Bildung von Thrombose beeinflussen. Es wurde gefunden, dass die relative Differenz der axialen Geschwindigkeit bis zu 2% und die der radialen Geschwindigkeit bis zu 90% in unterschiedlichen Abschnitten der T-Verbindung beträgt. Die Grösse der Strömungszirkulationszonen und ihrer dazugehörigen Trennungs- und Vereinigungspunkte differieren für jedes Modell. Die Scherspannung an der Wand erfährt ebenfalls eine Verschiebung im Hauptrohr von bis zu 12%. Der Verlauf der Geschwindigkeit auf den Gitterzellen zeigt, dass das Newtonsche Modell mit Bezug auf die Dynamik dem Casson-Modell nahe ist, während das Potenzgesetzmodell dem Carreau-Modell ähnlich ist. R#ENTITYSTARTX000E9;SUM#ENTITYSTARTX000E9;: La rhéologie de l'écoulement sanguin est un phénomène complexe. Présentement, il n'y a pas de consensus universel sur le modèle qui représente la propriété visqueuse du sang. Cependant, parmi la classification générale des modèles non-Newtoniens qui simulent le comportement du sang avec différents degrés de précision, il y a plusieurs différences. Les lois de puissance, les modèles de Casson et Carreau sont des modèles non-Newtoniens populaires et ont un effet sur les quantités hémodynamiques sous plusieurs conditions. Dans cette étude, la méthode de volume fini est utilisée pour explorer les prédictions hémodynamiques de chacun de ces modèles. Pour implémenter la méthode de volume fini, le logiciel de calcul de dynamique des fluides Fluent 6.1 a été utilisé. Dans cette étude numérique, les différents modèles hémorhéologiques tendent à prédire des résultats différents pour les variables hémodynamiques qui sont reconnues comme ayant un impact sur la genèse de l'artériosclérose et de la thrombose. Une différence jusqu'à 2% dans l'amplitude de la vélocité axiale et une différence jusqu'à 90% dans la vélocité radiale sont découverts dans différentes sections d'une géométrie de type jonction en T. La taille des zones de re-circulation d'écoulement et les localisations des points de séparation et de rattachement qui leur sont associées, diffèrent pour chacun des modèles. La contrainte de cisaillement aux parois présente également un déplacement de 12% dans le tube principal. La distribution de l'amplitude de vitesse dans les cellules du maillage montre que le modèle Newtonien est dynamiquement proche du modèle de Casson tandis que le modèle en loi de puissance ressemble au modèle de Carreau. PMID:16932804

  9. SIMULATION OF DISCRETE BLOOD VESSEL EFFECTS ON THE THERMAL SIGNATURE OF A MELANOMA LESION.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Sri Kamal; Deng, Daxiang; Herman, Cila

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the underlying blood vessel on the transient thermal response of the skin surface with and without a melanoma lesion is studied. A 3D computational model of the layers of the skin tissue with cancerous lesion was developed in COMSOL software package. Heat transfer in the skin layers and the lesion is governed by the Pennes bio-heat equation, while the blood vessel is modeled as fully developed pipe flow with constant heat transfer coefficient. The effect of various pertinent parameters, such as diameter of the blood vessel, lateral location of the blood vessel relative to the lesion, flow velocity of the blood, on the skin surface temperature distribution, have been studied in the paper. The results show significant influence of the underlying blood vessel on the temperature of the skin surface and lesion as well as on the surrounding healthy tissue. Thus, a need for development of evaluation criteria for detection of malignant lesions in the presence of blood vessels is is discussed. PMID:25328916

  10. Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the tissues, and receives carbon dioxide and wastes back from the tissues. Then, the vessels begin ... slightly slower rate of exchange of nutrients and wastes. The main artery from the heart (aorta) becomes ...

  11. Temperature evolution in tissues embedded with large blood vessels during photo-thermal heating.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anup; Narasimhan, Arunn; Kahlen, Franz J; Das, Sarit K

    2014-04-01

    During laser-assisted photo-thermal therapy, the temperature of the heated tissue region must rise to the therapeutic value (e.g., 43°C) for complete ablation of the target cells. Large blood vessels (larger than 500 micron in diameter) at or near the irradiated tissues have a considerable impact on the transient temperature distribution in the tissue. In this study, the cooling effects of large blood vessels on temperature distribution in tissues during laser irradiation are predicted using finite element based simulation. A uniform flow is assumed at the entrance and three-dimensional conjugate heat transfer equations in the tissue region and the blood region are simultaneously solved for different vascular models. A volumetric heat source term based on Beer-Lambert law is introduced into the energy equation to account for laser heating. The heating pattern is taken to depend on the absorption and scattering coefficients of the tissue medium. Experiments are also conducted on tissue mimics in the presence and absence of simulated blood vessels to validate the numerical model. The coupled heat transfer between thermally significant blood vessels and their surrounding tissue for three different tissue-vascular networks are analyzed keeping the laser irradiation constant. A surface temperature map is obtained for different vascular models and for the bare tissue (without blood vessels). The transient temperature distribution is seen to differ according to the nature of the vascular network, blood vessel size, flow rate, laser spot size, laser power and tissue blood perfusion rate. The simulations suggest that the blood flow through large blood vessels in the vicinity of the photothermally heated tissue can lead to inefficient heating of the target. PMID:24679976

  12. Peptide-Mediated Liposomal Drug Delivery System Targeting Tumor Blood Vessels in Anticancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Han-Chung; Chang, De-Kuan

    2010-01-01

    Solid tumors are known to recruit new blood vessels to support their growth. Therefore, unique molecules expressed on tumor endothelial cells can function as targets for the antiangiogenic therapy of cancer. Current efforts are focusing on developing therapeutic agents capable of specifically targeting cancer cells and tumor-associated microenvironments including tumor blood vessels. These therapies hold the promise of high efficacy and low toxicity. One recognized strategy for improving the therapeutic effectiveness of conventional chemotherapeutics is to encapsulate anticancer drugs into targeting liposomes that bind to the cell surface receptors expressed on tumor-associated endothelial cells. These anti-angiogenic drug delivery systems could be used to target both tumor blood vessels as well as the tumor cells, themselves. This article reviews the mechanisms and advantages of various present and potential methods using peptide-conjugated liposomes to specifically destroy tumor blood vessels in anticancer therapy. PMID:20454584

  13. Blood vessel growth blocker may treat AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with an AIDS-associated cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), showed improvement after receiving the combination of bevacizumab, a cancer drug that blocks the growth of new blood vessels, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  14. Medical Tests and Procedures for Finding and Treating Heart and Blood Vessel Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Audio CME Program Point of Care Searching and Learning Other Opportunities Medical Tests and Procedures for Finding and Treating Heart and Blood Vessel Disease - English Patient education library Open in new window Download ...

  15. Label-free imaging of blood vessel morphology with capillary resolution using optical microangiography

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Several tissue pathologies are correlated with changes in the blood vessel morphology and microcirculation that supplies the tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that enables acquiring non-invasive three-dimensional images of biological structures with micrometer resolution. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is a method of processing OCT data which enables visualizing the three-dimensional blood vessel morphology within biological tissues. OMAG has high spatial resolution which allows visualizing single capillary vessels, and does not require the use of contrast agents. The intrinsic optical signals backscattered by the moving blood cells inside blood vessels are used as the contrast for which OMAG images are based on. In this paper, we discuss a brief review of the OMAG theory, and present some examples of applications for this technique. PMID:23256081

  16. [The surgical anatomy of the rectal and anal blood vessels].

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Klosterhalfen, B

    1988-01-01

    The authors examined 40 rectum specimens by angiography, preparation and staining methods to show the exact arterial vessel supply of the rectum and tried to find out whether a reason could be found for the relatively high rate of suture leaks after low resection of the rectum or not. The insertion of the levator muscle is a sort of vessel divide: caudal to the levator muscle the inferior rectal artery is the main supplying vessel, cranially the superior rectal artery. Here a vessel deficient-area always remains in the dorso-caudal sector of the rectal ampulla which cannot be compensated by another rectum-supplying vessel. The middle rectal artery supplies the rectum accessorily. The results are able to explain why the suture leaks are constantly observed in the dorso-caudal ampulla after profound anterior resection of the rectum. Furthermore the results account for the good healing tendency of coloanal anastomoses: the inferior rectal artery amply supplies the anal canal; there is not the same vessel-deficient area as found cranial to the levator muscle. PMID:3268710

  17. Hybrid Features and Mediods Classification based Robust Segmentation of Blood Vessels.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Amna; Akram, M Usman; Khalid, Shehzad; Waheed, Zahra; Khan, Muazzam A; Shaukat, Arslan

    2015-10-01

    Retinal blood vessels are the source to provide oxygen and nutrition to retina and any change in the normal structure may lead to different retinal abnormalities. Automated detection of vascular structure is very important while designing a computer aided diagnostic system for retinal diseases. Most popular methods for vessel segmentation are based on matched filters and Gabor wavelets which give good response against blood vessels. One major drawback in these techniques is that they also give strong response for lesion (exudates, hemorrhages) boundaries which give rise to false vessels. These false vessels may lead to incorrect detection of vascular changes. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid feature set along with new classification technique for accurate detection of blood vessels. The main motivation is to lower the false positives especially from retinal images with severe disease level. A novel region based hybrid feature set is presented for proper discrimination between true and false vessels. A new modified m-mediods based classification is also presented which uses most discriminating features to categorize vessel regions into true and false vessels. The evaluation of proposed system is done thoroughly on publicly available databases along with a locally gathered database with images of advanced level of retinal diseases. The results demonstrate the validity of the proposed system as compared to existing state of the art techniques. PMID:26306876

  18. Engineering a Blood Vessel Network Module for Body-on-a-Chip Applications.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyunryul; Oh, Soojung; Lee, Hyun Jae; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Hae Kwang; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-06-01

    The blood circulatory system links all organs from one to another to support and maintain each organ's functions consistently. Therefore, blood vessels have been considered as a vital unit. Engineering perfusable functional blood vessels in vitro has been challenging due to difficulties in designing the connection between rigid macroscale tubes and fragile microscale ones. Here, we propose a generalizable method to engineer a "long" perfusable blood vessel network. To form millimeter-scale vessels, fibroblasts were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in close proximity. In contrast to previous works, in which all cells were permanently placed within the device, we developed a novel method to culture paracrine factor secreting fibroblasts on an O-ring-shaped guide that can be transferred in and out. This approach affords flexibility in co-culture, where the effects of secreted factors can be decoupled. Using this, blood vessels with length up to 2 mm were successfully produced in a reproducible manner (>90%). Because the vessels form a perfusable network within the channel, simple links to inlets and outlets of the device allowed connections to the outside world. The robust and reproducible formation of in vitro engineered vessels can be used as a module to link various organ components as parts of future body-on-a-chip applications. PMID:25532526

  19. Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kalchenko, V V; Kuznetsov, Yu L; Meglinski, I V

    2013-07-31

    We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  20. Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, V. V.; Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions.

  1. 3D Modeling of branching vessels from anatomical sketches: towards a new interactive teaching of anatomy: Interactive virtual blackboard.

    PubMed

    Palombi, O; Pihuit, A; Cani, M-P

    2011-09-01

    Sketching is an intuitive way to explain spatial relationships between complex objects. The French community of Anatomists are used to teaching didactic lectures on a blackboard with their colored chalks. The increasing complexity of the sketches affords to the students an opportunity to work out a mental representation of anatomical structures in 3D. To help students perform this labored step, we present a new interactive blackboard which constructs plausible 3D models of branching vessels from a single sketch. We exploit the sketching conventions used in anatomical drawings to infer depth and curvature. We then model the set of branching vessels as a convolution surface generated by a graph of skeleton curves. Classic situations, focused on arteries, have been analyzed to manage vessels' curvatures, subdivisions and overlaps. Original sketches and 3D models are presented for each case. No specific training is required to use the interface. The anatomists have begun to embrace a new generation of 3D digital modeling applications as tools for anatomical teaching. We discuss the future use of this system as a step towards the interactive teaching of anatomy. PMID:21618014

  2. Growth and Remodeling in Blood Vessels Studied In Vivo With Fractal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Every cell in the human body must reside in close proximity to a blood vessel (within approximately 200 mm) because blood vessels provide the oxygen, metabolite, and fluid exchanges required for cellular existence. The growth and remodeling of blood vessels are required to support the normal physiology of embryonic development, reproductive biology, wound healing and adaptive remodeling to exercise, as well as abnormal tissue change in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic (blood flow dynamics) alterations experienced by astronauts during long-term spaceflight, including orthostatic intolerance, fluid shifts in the body, and reduced numbers of red (erythrocyte) and white (immune) blood cells, are identified as risk factors of very high priority in the NASA task force report on risk reduction for human spaceflight, the "Critical Path Roadmap."

  3. Infrared laser thermal fusion of blood vessels: preliminary ex vivo tissue studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2013-05-01

    Suture ligation of blood vessels during surgery can be time-consuming and skill-intensive. Energy-based, electrosurgical, and ultrasonic devices have recently replaced the use of sutures and mechanical clips (which leave foreign objects in the body) for many surgical procedures, providing rapid hemostasis during surgery. However, these devices have the potential to create an undesirably large collateral zone of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. We explore an alternative energy-based technology, infrared lasers, for rapid and precise thermal coagulation and fusion of the blood vessel walls. Seven near-infrared lasers (808, 980, 1075, 1470, 1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were tested during preliminary tissue studies. Studies were performed using fresh porcine renal vessels, ex vivo, with native diameters of 1 to 6 mm, and vessel walls flattened to a total thickness of 0.4 mm. A linear beam profile was applied normal to the vessel for narrow, full-width thermal coagulation. The laser irradiation time was 5 s. Vessel burst pressure measurements were used to determine seal strength. The 1470 nm laser wavelength demonstrated the capability of sealing a wide range of blood vessels from 1 to 6 mm diameter with burst strengths of 578±154, 530±171, and 426±174 mmHg for small, medium, and large vessel diameters, respectively. Lateral thermal coagulation zones (including the seal) measured 1.0±0.4 mm on vessels sealed at this wavelength. Other laser wavelengths (1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were also capable of sealing vessels, but were limited by lower vessel seal pressures, excessive charring, and/or limited power output preventing treatment of large vessels (>4 mm outer diameter).

  4. The extracellular matrix and blood vessel formation: not just a scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, John M; Simons, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The extracellular matrix plays a number of important roles, among them providing structural support and information to cellular structures such as blood vessels imbedded within it. As more complex organisms have evolved, the matrix ability to direct signalling towards the vasculature and remodel in response to signalling from the vasculature has assumed progressively greater importance. This review will focus on the molecules of the extracellular matrix, specifically relating to vessel formation and their ability to signal to the surrounding cells to initiate or terminate processes involved in blood vessel formation. PMID:17488472

  5. Application of the Carreau viscosity model to the oscillatory flow in blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabakova, Sonia; Kutev, Nikolay; Radev, Stefan

    2015-11-01

    When studying the oscillatory flow in different types of blood vessels it is very important to know what type of the blood viscosity model has to be used. In general the blood viscosity is defined as a shear-thinning liquid, for which there exist different shear-dependent models, for example the Carreau model, which represents the viscosity as a non-linear function of the shear-rate. In some cases, however, the blood viscosity could be regarded as constant, i.e., the blood is treated as Newtonian fluid. The aim of the present work is to show theoretically and numerically some approximate limits of the Newtonian model application, when the blood vessel is assumed as a 2D straight tube. The obtained results are in agreement with other authors' numerical results based on similar blood viscosity models.

  6. Label free in vivo laser speckle imaging of blood and lymph vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

    2012-05-01

    The peripheral lymphatic vascular system is a part of the immune body system comprising a complex network of lymph vessels and nodes that are flowing lymph toward the heart. Traditionally the imaging of lymphatic vessels is based on the conventional imaging modalities utilizing contrast fluorescence materials. Given the important role of the lymphatic system there is a critical need for the development of noninvasive imaging technologies for functional quantitative diagnosis of the lymph vessels and lymph flow without using foreign chemicals. We report a label free methodology for noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymph vessels, using long-exposure laser speckle imaging approach. This approach entails great promise in the noninvasive studies of tissues blood and lymph vessels distribution in vivo.

  7. Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels: Functional Requirements, Progress, and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek A.; Brewster, Luke P.; Caves, Jeffrey M.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease results in the decreased utility and decreased availability of autologus vascular tissue for small diameter (< 6 mm) vessel replacements. While synthetic polymer alternatives to date have failed to meet the performance of autogenous conduits, tissue-engineered replacement vessels represent an ideal solution to this clinical problem. Ongoing progress requires combined approaches from biomaterials science, cell biology, and translational medicine to develop feasible solutions with the requisite mechanical support, a non-fouling surface for blood flow, and tissue regeneration. Over the past two decades interest in blood vessel tissue engineering has soared on a global scale, resulting in the first clinical implants of multiple technologies, steady progress with several other systems, and critical lessons-learned. This review will highlight the current inadequacies of autologus and synthetic grafts, the engineering requirements for implantation of tissue-engineered grafts, and the current status of tissue-engineered blood vessel research. PMID:23181145

  8. Proteomic Profiling of Tissue-Engineered Blood Vessel Walls Constructed by Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Guo, Fangfang; Zhou, Heng; Zhang, Yun; Xiao, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can differentiate into smooth muscle cells and have been engineered into elastic small diameter blood vessel walls in vitro. However, the mechanisms involved in the development of three-dimensional (3D) vascular tissue remain poorly understood. The present study analyzed protein expression profiles of engineered blood vessel walls constructed by human ASCs using methods of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry (MS). These results were compared to normal arterial walls. A total of 1701±15 and 1265±26 protein spots from normal and engineered blood vessel wall extractions were detected by 2DE, respectively. A total of 20 spots with at least 2.0-fold changes in expression were identified, and 38 differently expressed proteins were identified by 2D electrophoresis and ion trap MS. These proteins were classified into seven functional categories: cellular organization, energy, signaling pathway, enzyme, anchored protein, cell apoptosis/defense, and others. These results demonstrated that 2DE, followed by ion trap MS, could be successfully utilized to characterize the proteome of vascular tissue, including tissue-engineered vessels. The method could also be employed to achieve a better understanding of differentiated smooth muscle protein expression in vitro. These results provide a basis for comparative studies of protein expression in vascular smooth muscles of different origin and could provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of action needed for constructing blood vessels that exhibit properties consistent with normal blood vessels. PMID:22963350

  9. The cortical representation of shadows cast by retinal blood vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, J C; Adams, D L

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: We inquired whether the representation of angioscotomas could be detected in the primary (striate) visual cortex. METHODS: In 12 normal squirrel monkeys, the ocular fundi were photographed and retinal vascular landmarks were projected onto a tangent screen for calibration. Each animal then underwent monocular enucleation under general anesthesia. Animals were perfused after 8 to 10 days, and flat-mounted sections of striate cortex were processed for the metabolic enzyme cytochrome oxidase (CO). RESULTS: In each animal, the cortical region corresponding to the blind spot appeared as a 3 x 2 mm oval in the CO staining pattern. It stood out because it received input from only 1 eye. In 9 of 12 animals, the representation of the major retinal vessels was also visible, for the same reason. In our best examples, CO sections showed about 10 thin lines radiating from the blind spot representation. Some could be traced for 15 mm, all the way to the vertical meridian. Vessels only 12 minutes of arc in diameter were represented in the cortex. Each angioscotoma representation in the cortex could be matched with its corresponding retinal vessel in the fundus. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that (1) the visual field map in layer IVc is more precise than indicated by physiological studies, and (2) visual experience must refine the final pattern of geniculocortical projections, given that the retinal vessels can produce a shadow only after birth. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 12 PMID:11190031

  10. Anaphylactic contraction of pulmonary blood vessels of chicken.

    PubMed Central

    Chand, N; Eyre, P

    1977-01-01

    1 Isolated pulmonary arterial and vein strips from sensitized or non-sensitized chickens exhibited dose-dependent contractions to adrenaline greater than, noradrenaline greater than, 5-hydroxytryptamine greater than, histamine greater than, dopamine. Individual variability in the responsiveness of the vessels to agonists was marked. In general veins were 2 to 25 times more sensitive to agonists than arterial strips. 2 Isoprenaline (a relatively specific beta-adrenoceptor agonist) induced relaxation of the submaximally contracted pulmonary vein and arteries at low doses and contractions at high concentrations. 3 Contractile responses to acetylcholine or carbachol were not regularly recorded; only 50% of the vessels reacted to cholinoceptor agonists over a wide threshold dose range. 4 Chicken pulmonary vessels were found relatively insensitive to bradykinin. 5 Effects of prostaglandins were variable. Prostaglandin F2alpha induced dose-related contractions of the vein and arterial strips; prostglandins E1 and E2 at low doses partially contracted pulmonary artery irrespective of the spasmogen used and further increase in doses induced either no effect or contractions. Prostaglandin E1 induced marked and rapid contractions of the vein. Prostaglandin E2 induced relaxations of the prostaglandin F2alpha-contracted vein only, but produced no effect or slight contractions of the veins partially contracted to other spasmogens. 6 Pulmonary arterial and vein strips obtained from chickens sensitized to horse plasma exhibited Schultz-Dale contractions of variable magnitude and duration to specific antigenic challenge only. In many vessels, antigen-induced contractions were associated with marked increase in spontaneous activity. 7 The importance of the Schultz-Dale reaction in avian pulmonary vessels is discussed in relation to the right heart dilatation associated with anaphylaxis in the chicken. PMID:836999

  11. Tracing retinal blood vessels by matrix-forest theorem of directed graphs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Li; De, Jaydeep; Zhang, Xiaowei; Lin, Feng; Li, Huiqi

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to trace retinal blood vessel trees in fundus images. This task is far from being trivial as the crossover of vessels are commonly encountered in image-based vessel networks. Meanwhile it is often crucial to separate the vessel tree structures in applications such as diabetic retinopathy analysis. In this work, a novel directed graph based approach is proposed to cast the task as label propagation over directed graphs, such that the graph is to be partitioned into disjoint sub-graphs, or equivalently, each of the vessel trees is traced and separated from the rest of the vessel network. Then the tracing problem is addressed by making novel usage of the matrix-forest theorem in algebraic graph theory. Empirical experiments on synthetic as well as publicly available fundus image datasets demonstrate the applicability of our approach. PMID:25333171

  12. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of blood vessels with a pulsed laser diode.

    PubMed

    Kolkman, Roy G M; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; van Leeuwen, Ton G

    2006-09-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid imaging modality that is based on the detection of acoustic waves generated by absorption of pulsed light by tissue chromophores such as hemoglobin in blood. For this technique, usually large and costly Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers are used. These lasers provide a pulse energy of at least several milliJoules. In search of alternative light sources, we investigated the use of a small and compact pulsed laser diode to image blood vessels. We proved that a pulsed laser diode can be applied for imaging blood vessels in vivo. PMID:16721626

  13. Imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography for imaging of blood vessels in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoliang; Shi, Weisong; Gao, Wanrong

    2015-11-01

    We present an imaginary part-based correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (IMcmOCT) technique for in vivo blood vessels imaging. In the conventional correlation mapping optical coherence tomography (cmOCT) method, two adjacent frames of intensity-based structural images are correlated to extract blood flow information and the size of correlation window has to be increased to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of microcirculation maps, which may cause image blur and miss the small blood vessels. In the IMcmOCT method, the imaginary part of a depth-resolved complex analytic signal in two adjacent B-scans is correlated to reconstruct microcirculation maps. Both phantom and in vivo experiments were implemented to demonstrate that the proposed method can provide improved sensitivity for extracting blood flow information in small vessels.

  14. Visualization of deep blood vessels in speckle imaging using homogeneity measurement of the co-occurrence matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Cruz, Jose A.; Perez-Corona, Cruz E.; Peregrina-Barreto, Hayde; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio Cesar

    2015-08-01

    The blood flow velocity optical monitoring techniques, such as laser speckle velocimetry, are attractive due its noninvasive character, but they are limited to superficial blood vessels. The visualization of deep blood vessel is difficult because of the highly scattering coefficient of the biological tissue. There are some techniques that allow the visualization of deep blood vessels, for example: optical clearing, Magnetomotive Laser Speckle Imaging and Pulsed Photo-Thermal Radiometry, unfortunately these techniques use an external agent to improve the visualization of blood vessels. In this work we improve the visualization and location of in-vitro deep blood vessels by speckle image processing without an external agents. The proposed methodology is based in a homogeneity measurement of the co-occurrence matrix by the direct processing of the speckle image. Our technique is able to determine the edges of a deep blood vessel and therefore improves its visualization.

  15. Evaluation of the Contribution of Signals Originating from Large Blood Vessels to Signals of Functionally Specific Brain Areas

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jun-Young; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is known to play a pivotal role in face processing. The FFA is located in the ventral region, at the base of the brain, through which large blood vessels run. The location of the FFA via functional MRI (fMRI) may be influenced by these large blood vessels. Responses of large blood vessels may not exactly correspond to neuronal activity in a target area, because they may be diluted and influenced by inflow effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of large blood vessels in the FFA, that is, whether the FFA includes large blood vessels and/or whether inflow signals contribute to fMRI signals of the FFA. For this purpose, we used susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences to visualize large blood vessels and dual-echo gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) to measure inflow effects. These results showed that the location and response signals of the FFA were not influenced by large blood vessels or inflow effects, although large blood vessels were located near the FFA. Therefore, the data from the FFA obtained by individual analysis were robust to large blood vessels but leaving a warning that the data obtained by group analysis may be prone to large blood vessels. PMID:26413511

  16. Evaluation of the Contribution of Signals Originating from Large Blood Vessels to Signals of Functionally Specific Brain Areas.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun-Young; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is known to play a pivotal role in face processing. The FFA is located in the ventral region, at the base of the brain, through which large blood vessels run. The location of the FFA via functional MRI (fMRI) may be influenced by these large blood vessels. Responses of large blood vessels may not exactly correspond to neuronal activity in a target area, because they may be diluted and influenced by inflow effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of large blood vessels in the FFA, that is, whether the FFA includes large blood vessels and/or whether inflow signals contribute to fMRI signals of the FFA. For this purpose, we used susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequences to visualize large blood vessels and dual-echo gradient-echo echo-planar imaging (GE-EPI) to measure inflow effects. These results showed that the location and response signals of the FFA were not influenced by large blood vessels or inflow effects, although large blood vessels were located near the FFA. Therefore, the data from the FFA obtained by individual analysis were robust to large blood vessels but leaving a warning that the data obtained by group analysis may be prone to large blood vessels. PMID:26413511

  17. Blood vessel extraction and optic disc removal using curvelet transform and kernel fuzzy c-means.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sudeshna Sil; Maity, Santi P

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes an automatic blood vessel extraction method on retinal images using matched filtering in an integrated system design platform that involves curvelet transform and kernel based fuzzy c-means. Since curvelet transform represents the lines, the edges and the curvatures very well and in compact form (by less number of coefficients) compared to other multi-resolution techniques, this paper uses curvelet transform for enhancement of the retinal vasculature. Matched filtering is then used to intensify the blood vessels' response which is further employed by kernel based fuzzy c-means algorithm that extracts the vessel silhouette from the background through non-linear mapping. For pathological images, in addition to matched filtering, Laplacian of Gaussian filter is also employed to distinguish the step and the ramp like signal from that of vessel structure. To test the efficacy of the proposed method, the algorithm has also been applied to images in presence of additive white Gaussian noise where the curvelet transform has been used for image denoising. Performance is evaluated on publicly available DRIVE, STARE and DIARETDB1 databases and is compared with the large number of existing blood vessel extraction methodologies. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is very much efficient in detecting the long and the thick as well as the short and the thin vessels with an average accuracy of 96.16% for the DRIVE and 97.35% for the STARE database wherein the existing methods fail to extract the tiny and the thin vessels. PMID:26848729

  18. Segmentation of the blood vessels and optic disk in retinal images.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Gonzalez, Ana; Kaba, Djibril; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-11-01

    Retinal image analysis is increasingly prominent as a nonintrusive diagnosis method in modern ophthalmology. In this paper, we present a novel method to segment blood vessels and optic disk in the fundus retinal images. The method could be used to support nonintrusive diagnosis in modern ophthalmology since the morphology of the blood vessel and the optic disk is an important indicator for diseases like diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and hypertension. Our method takes as first step the extraction of the retina vascular tree using the graph cut technique. The blood vessel information is then used to estimate the location of the optic disk. The optic disk segmentation is performed using two alternative methods. The Markov random field (MRF) image reconstruction method segments the optic disk by removing vessels from the optic disk region, and the compensation factor method segments the optic disk using the prior local intensity knowledge of the vessels. The proposed method is tested on three public datasets, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, and STARE. The results and comparison with alternative methods show that our method achieved exceptional performance in segmenting the blood vessel and optic disk. PMID:25265617

  19. Analysis of the effect of partial vitrification on stress development in cryopreserved blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Steif, Paul S; Palastro, Matthew C; Rabin, Yoed

    2007-07-01

    Thermal stress development in blood vessels, during processes associated with vitrification (vitreous means glassy in Latin), is studied. This paper addresses the limiting case where the specimen completely crystallizes, while the cryoprotectant medium (CPA) completely vitrifies. This case is expected to provide upper boundary estimates for stresses for the more common problem of a partially vitrified sample. The CPA is modeled as a linear viscoelastic medium, with viscosity increasing exponentially with decreasing temperature; given the assumption of complete crystallization, the blood vessel is modeled as linear elastic below the freezing temperature. Consistent with previous observations, the CPA is found to behave linear elastically below a set-temperature, at which point the viscosity rises sufficiently quickly with further cooling. This observation reduces computational efforts and allows for parametric studies based on suitably chosen wholly elastic models. Both 2D concentric cylinder models of the blood vessel in a straight configuration and a 3D model of the vessel curled in a vial of CPA are studied; 2D models are shown to bound the results of the more general 3D problem. It is found that stress in the CPA decreases with increase in CPA volume, at least under conditions where the temperature can be viewed as uniform. Planar cracks are predicted to form transverse to the vessel axis, and to propagate right up to the blood vessel wall. Should such cracks propagate into the vessel, even over only a few mum, the mechanical damage to the lumen, or to endothelial cells, may cause the blood vessel to completely loose its functionality at the end of the cryopreservation protocol. PMID:16996295

  20. Blood vessel adaptation to gravity in a semi-arboreal snake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, D. J.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Olson, K. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of vasoactive agonists on systemic blood vessels were examined with respect to anatomical location and gravity acclimation in the semi-arboreal snake, Elaphe Obsoleta. Major blood vessels were reactive to putative neurotransmitters, hormones or local factors in vessel specific patterns. Catecholamines, adenosine triphosphate, histamine and high potassium (80 mM) stimulated significantly greater tension per unit vessel mass in posterior than anterior arteries. Anterior vessels were significantly more sensitive to catecholamines than midbody and posterior vessels. Angiotensin II stimulated significantly greater tension in carotid artery than in midbody and posterior dorsal aorta. Arginine vasotocin strongly contracted the left and right aortic arches and anterior dorsal aorta. Veins were strongly contracted by catecholamines, high potassium and angiotensin II, but less so by adenosine triphosphate, arginine vasotocin and histamine. Precontracted vessel were relaxed by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, but not by atrial natriuretic peptide or bradykinin. Chronic exposure of snakes to intermittent hypergravity stress ( + 1.5 Gz at tail) did not affect the majority of vessel responses. These data demonstrate that in vitro tension correlates with that catecholamines, as well as other agonists, are important in mediating vascular responses to gravitational stresses in snakes.

  1. Transdermal drug targeting and functional imaging of tumor blood vessels in the mouse auricle.

    PubMed

    Schrder, Hannes; Komljenovic, Dorde; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Subcutaneously growing tumors are widely utilized to study tumor angiogenesis and the efficacy of antiangiogenic therapies in mice. To additionally assess functional and morphologic alterations of the vasculature in the periphery of a growing tumor, we exploited the easily accessible and hierarchically organized vasculature of the mouse auricle. By site-specific subcutaneous implantation of a defined preformed mouse B16/F0 melanoma aggregate, a solid tumor nodule developed within 14 d. Growth of the tumor nodule was accompanied by a 4-fold increase in its perfusion as well as a 2- to 4-fold elevated diameter and perfusion of peripheral blood vessels that had connected to the tumor capillary microvasculature. By transdermal application of the anticancer drug bortezomib, tumor growth was significantly diminished by about 50% without provoking side effects. Moreover, perfusion and tumor microvessel diameter as well as growth and perfusion of arterial or venous blood vessels supplying or draining the tumor microvasculature were decreased under these conditions by up to 80%. Collectively, we observed that the progressive tumor growth is accompanied by the enlargement of supplying and draining extratumoral blood vessels. This process was effectively suppressed by bortezomib, thereby restricting the perfusion capacity of both extra and intratumoral blood vessels.-Schrder, H., Komljenovic, D., Hecker, M., Korff, T. Transdermal drug targeting and functional imaging of tumor blood vessels in the mouse auricle. PMID:26546130

  2. MSC Frequency Correlates with Blood Vessel Density in Equine Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Theodore T.; Harman, Robert J.; Lennon, Donald P.

    2009-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that have the capacity to develop into different mature mesenchymal cell types. They were originally isolated from bone marrow, but MSC-like cells have also been isolated from other tissues. The common feature of all of these tissues is that they all house blood vessels. It is, thus, possible that MSCs are associated with perivascular locations. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that MSCs are associated with blood vessels by verifying if MSC frequency positively correlates with blood vessel density. To this end, samples from highly and poorly vascularized adipose tissue sites of two equine donors were collected and processed for histology and cell isolation. MSC frequency in these samples was estimated by means of CFU-F assays, which were performed under MSC conditions. Culture-adherent cells from equine adipose tissue and bone marrow were culture expanded, tested for differentiation into mesenchymal cell types in vitro, and implanted in vivo in porous ceramic vehicles to assess their osteogenic capacity, using human MSCs and brain pericytes as controls. The differentiation assays showed a difference between adipose tissuederived cells as compared to equine bone marrow MSCs. While differences in CFU-F frequencies between both donors were evident, the CFU-F numbers correlated directly with blood vessel densities (r2?=?0.86). We consider these preliminary data as further evidence linking MSCs to blood vessels. PMID:18847356

  3. Mathematical modelling for trajectories of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shashi; Katiyar, V. K.; Singh, Uaday

    2015-04-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the trajectories of a cluster of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel for the application of magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a blood vessel upstream from a malignant tissue and are captured at the tumour site with help of an applied magnetic field. The applied field is produced by a rare earth cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body. All forces expected to significantly affect the transport of nanoparticles were incorporated, including magnetization force, drag force and buoyancy force. The results show that particles are slow down and captured under the influence of magnetic force, which is responsible to attract the magnetic particles towards the magnet. It is optimized that all particles are captured either before or at the centre of the magnet (z≤0) when blood vessel is very close proximity to the magnet (d=2.5 cm). However, as the distance between blood vessel and magnet (d) increases (above 4.5 cm), the magnetic nanoparticles particles become free and they flow away down the blood vessel. Further, the present model results are validated by the simulations performed using the finite element based COMSOL software.

  4. Vessel Labeling in Combined Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography Images: Criteria for Blood Vessel Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Jeremias; Alten, Florian; Ewering, Carina; Osada, Nani; Kadas, Ella M.; Brandt, Alexander U.; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Clemens, Christoph R.; Eter, Nicole; Paul, Friedemann; Marziniak, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The diagnostic potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) in neurological diseases is intensively discussed. Besides the sectional view of the retina, modern OCT scanners produce a simultaneous top-view confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) image including the option to evaluate retinal vessels. A correct discrimination between arteries and veins (labeling) is vital for detecting vascular differences between healthy subjects and patients. Up to now, criteria for labeling (cSLO) images generated by OCT scanners do not exist. Objective This study reviewed labeling criteria originally developed for color fundus photography (CFP) images. Methods The criteria were modified to reflect the cSLO technique, followed by development of a protocol for labeling blood vessels. These criteria were based on main aspects such as central light reflex, brightness, and vessel thickness, as well as on some additional criteria such as vascular crossing patterns and the context of the vessel tree. Results and Conclusion They demonstrated excellent inter-rater agreement and validity, which seems to indicate that labeling of images might no longer require more than one rater. This algorithm extends the diagnostic possibilities offered by OCT investigations. PMID:25203135

  5. A novel scheme for nanoparticle steering in blood vessels using a functionalized magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Mohammad Dadkhah; Yoon, Jong-Hwan; Kim, Myeong Ok; Yoon, Jungwon

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery approach in which therapeutic magnetizable particles are injected, generally into blood vessels, and magnets are then used to guide and concentrate them in the diseased target organ. Although many analytical, simulation, and experimental studies on capturing schemes for drug targeting have been conducted, there are few studies on delivering the nanoparticles to the target region. Furthermore, the sticking phenomenon of particles to vessels walls near the injection point, and far from the target region, has not been addressed sufficiently. In this paper, the sticking issue and its relationship to nanoparticle steering are investigated in detail using numerical simulations. For wide ranges of blood vessel size, blood velocity, particle size, and applied magnetic field, three coefficient numbers are uniquely generalized: vessel elongation, normal exit time, and force rate. With respect these new parameters, we investigated particle distribution trends for a Y-shaped channel and computed ratios of correctly guided particles and particles remaining in the vessel. We found that the sticking of particles to vessels occurred because of low blood flow velocity near the vessel walls, which is the main reason for low targeting efficiency when using a constant magnetic gradient. To reduce the sticking ratio of nanoparticles, we propose a novel field function scheme that uses a simple time-varying function to separate the particles from the walls and guide them to the target point. The capabilities of the proposed scheme were examined by several simulations of both Y-shaped channels and realistic three-dimensional (3-D) model channels extracted from brain vessels. The results showed a significant decrease in particle adherence to walls during the delivery stage and confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed magnetic field function method for steering nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. PMID:25163053

  6. New algorithm for detecting smaller retinal blood vessels in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeAnder, Robert; Bidari, Praveen I.; Mohammed, Tauseef A.; Das, Moumita; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2010-03-01

    About 4.1 million Americans suffer from diabetic retinopathy. To help automatically diagnose various stages of the disease, a new blood-vessel-segmentation algorithm based on spatial high-pass filtering was developed to automatically segment blood vessels, including the smaller ones, with low noise. Methods: Image database: Forty, 584 x 565-pixel images were collected from the DRIVE image database. Preprocessing: Green-band extraction was used to obtain better contrast, which facilitated better visualization of retinal blood vessels. A spatial highpass filter of mask-size 11 was applied. A histogram stretch was performed to enhance contrast. A median filter was applied to mitigate noise. At this point, the gray-scale image was converted to a binary image using a binary thresholding operation. Then, a NOT operation was performed by gray-level value inversion between 0 and 255. Postprocessing: The resulting image was AND-ed with its corresponding ring mask to remove the outer-ring (lens-edge) artifact. At this point, the above algorithm steps had extracted most of the major and minor vessels, with some intersections and bifurcations missing. Vessel segments were reintegrated using the Hough transform. Results: After applying the Hough transform, both the average peak SNR and the RMS error improved by 10%. Pratt's Figure of Merit (PFM) was decreased by 6%. Those averages were better than [1] by 10-30%. Conclusions: The new algorithm successfully preserved the details of smaller blood vessels and should prove successful as a segmentation step for automatically identifying diseases that affect retinal blood vessels.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the viscous flow in large distensible blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Haiping; Wang, Zuowei; Lin, Zhifang; Liu, Muren

    2002-05-01

    A lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the viscous flow in large distensible blood vessels is presented by introducing a boundary condition for elastic and moving boundaries. The mass conservation for the boundary condition is tested in detail. The viscous flow in elastic vessels is simulated with a pressure-radius relationship similar to that of the pulmonary blood vessels. The numerical results for steady flow agree with the analytical prediction to very high accuracy, and the simulation results for pulsatile flow are comparable with those of the aortic flows observed experimentally. The model is expected to find many applications for studying blood flows in large distensible arteries, especially in those suffering from atherosclerosis, stenosis, aneurysm, etc.

  8. A method for modulation transfer function determination from blood vessel profiles measured in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.

    2012-03-01

    The recent CT systems yield high spatial resolution in all directions of volumetric images in clinical routine. The quantitative characterization of the performance of CT systems is important for comparing the effects of different scan and reconstruction parameters, for comparing between different CT systems, and for evaluating the accuracy of size and density measurements of fine details in CT images. This paper presents a method to determine the modulation transfer function (MTF) in the scan plane obtained by CT system from profiles of human anatomical structures such as blood vessel measured by clinical measurement conditions without magnified reconstruction. MTF estimations are performed for cylindrical tube phantoms with three different diameters (1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) injected by solution of contrast material and human blood vessels measured by the clinical measurement conditions. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of the method for estimating the MTF from blood vessel profiles measured in CT systems.

  9. Mathematical modeling and simulation of the evolution of plaques in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yifan; Jäger, Willi; Neuss-Radu, Maria; Richter, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a model is developed for the evolution of plaques in arteries, which is one of the main causes for the blockage of blood flow. Plaque rupture and spread of torn-off material may cause closures in the down-stream vessel system and lead to ischemic brain or myocardial infarctions. The model covers the flow of blood and its interaction with the vessel wall. It is based on the assumption that the penetration of monocytes from the blood flow into the vessel wall, and the accumulation of foam cells increasing the volume, are main factors for the growth of plaques. The dynamics of the vessel wall is governed by a deformation gradient, which is given as composition of a purely elastic tensor, and a tensor modeling the biologically caused volume growth. An equation for the evolution of the metric is derived quantifying the changing geometry of the vessel wall. To calculate numerically the solutions of the arising free boundary problem, the model system of partial differential equations is transformed to an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) formulation, where all equations are given in fixed domains. The numerical calculations are using newly developed algorithms for ALE systems. The results of the simulations, obtained for realistic system parameters, are in good qualitative agreement with observations. They demonstrate that the basic modeling assumption can be justified. The increase of stresses in the vessel wall can be computed. Medical treatment tries to prevent critical stress values, which may cause plaque rupture and its consequences. PMID:26385578

  10. Numerical analysis and experimental observation of guidewire motion in a blood vessel model.

    PubMed

    Takashima, Kazuto; Tsuzuki, Shotaro; Ooike, Atomu; Yoshinaka, Kiyoshi; Yu, Kaihong; Ohta, Makoto; Mori, Koji

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a computer-based system to simulate a guidewire in blood vessels for surgical planning, intra-operative assistance, and to facilitate the design of new guidewires. In this study, we compared simulation results with experimental results for validation of the simulation system. First, we inserted a commercial guidewire into a poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel blood vessel model using a two-axis automatic stage and measured the position of the guidewire tip and the contact force between the guidewire and the vessel. The experimental apparatus can be used not only for the validation of numerical analyses, but also as a simulation system. Second, similarly to the experiment, the motion of the guidewire in the blood vessel model was calculated when the proximal part of the guidewire model was pushed and twisted. The model of the guidewire is constructed with viscoelastic springs and segments, and the proximal part of the guidewire model is constrained by the fixed catheter model. Collisions between the guidewire and the vessel are calculated, and the contact forces are determined according to the stiffness of the vessel wall. The same tendency was seen in the trajectories and the contact force of both the experimental and simulated guidewire tips. PMID:25292450

  11. Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying blood vessel lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Marta S; Conlon, Frank L

    2014-03-01

    The establishment of a functional vascular system requires multiple complex steps throughout embryogenesis, from endothelial cell (EC) specification to vascular patterning into venous and arterial hierarchies. Following the initial assembly of ECs into a network of cord-like structures, vascular expansion and remodeling occur rapidly through morphogenetic events including vessel sprouting, fusion, and pruning. In addition, vascular morphogenesis encompasses the process of lumen formation, critical for the transformation of cords into perfusable vascular tubes. Studies in mouse, zebrafish, frog, and human endothelial cells have begun to outline the cellular and molecular requirements underlying lumen formation. Although the lumen can be generated through diverse mechanisms, the coordinated participation of multiple conserved molecules including transcription factors, small GTPases, and adhesion and polarity proteins remains a fundamental principle, leading us closer to a more thorough understanding of this complex event. PMID:24323945

  12. Crosslinking of saphenous vein ECM by procyanidins for small diameter blood vessel replacement.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Wanyin; Zhang, Hongxia; Wu, Chengtie; Zhang, Jiamin; Sun, Xiaoning; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhu, Ziyan; Chang, Jiang

    2014-08-01

    Xenogenic decellularized vessels, mainly composed of extracellular matrices (ECMs), are thought to be one of the alternative resources of small-diameter blood vessels due to abundant source, tubular configuration, vascular microstructure, and good cytocompatibility. However, the main shortcomings of ECM vessels are their low chemical stability, easy calcification, immunogenicity, and high risk of thrombogenicity. Previous studies have shown that, glutaraldehyde (GA), as a crosslinking agent, led to significant calcification and cytotoxicity for the prepared ECM substitutes. To overcome the drawbacks of pure and GA-crosslinked vascular alternatives of small-diameter blood vessels, procyanidins (PC), a naturally derived polyphenol with anti-inflammatory and platelet aggregation inhibiting bioactivities, was applied to crosslink the decellularized bovine saphenous vein ECM (svECM). After crosslinking, the obtained svECM substitutes exhibited natural tubular configuration with significantly improved mechanical properties, proper resistance to proteolysis, high chemical stability, and excellent anticalcification property. The PC-crosslinked svECM substitutes were cytocompatible for cells adhesion and proliferation, and blood compatible for erythrocytes with far less hemolysis than that of safety standard. Furthermore, the PC-crosslinked svECM substitutes showed distinct antithrombosis and anti-immunogenicity potential. With these advantages, it is suggested that the PC-crosslinked svECM may be used as a practical substitutes of small diameter blood vessels. PMID:24425308

  13. Effect of Rolling Massage on the Vortex Flow in Blood Vessels with Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou Hui

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese Medical Massage, which is a nature therapy in eliminating many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on the cavity flows in blood vessel under the rolling manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the vortex flows are fully disturbed by the rolling massage. The flow behavior depends on the rolling velocity and the rolling depth. Rolling massage has a better effect on the flows in the cavity than that of the flows in a planar blood vessel. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.

  14. Postmortem computed tomography with the use of air for blood vessel enhancement-Early experience.

    PubMed

    Borowska-Solonynko, Aleksandra; Solonynko, Bohdan; Fudalej, Marcin; Żyłkowski, Jarosław

    2016-04-01

    Postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) is gaining popularity in forensic medicine. Computed tomography routinely performed in clinical medicine involves intravenous contrast administration. Unfortunately, postmortem examinations are typically limited to uncontrasted CT scans, where blood vessels and their potential injury sites are invisible. One serious problem is the fact that due to the process of decomposition, contrast agents used for vessel visualization in the living cannot be used in cadavers. Therefore, a special contrast agent designed for cadavers has been developed. This contrast agent has a high density and is lipophilic. Its use ensures very good visualization of blood vessels it is, however, associated with high costs and may alter findings of a later histopathological examination. This study presents early experience with the air as negative contrast agent to enhance all blood vessels in the body. The carbon dioxide (CO2) gas has been used as a contrast agent in live individuals with contraindications against the use of iodinated contrast. In corpses with advanced postmortem changes, putrefaction gases also considerably enhance the visibility of blood vessels and organs they fill. There have also been some positive effects with the use of gas in postmortem angiography of coronary vessels. These findings encouraged us to attempt air administration via catheters introduced into the femoral artery or a central venous access site in the superior vena cava. The gas distributed easily throughout the body and surprisingly well contrasted both arteries and veins of various caliber. The presence of the air administered into vessels did not cause any apparent, significant alterations in autopsy findings. Although optimization of the gas administration technique requires further studies, we can already say that this is a promising direction in postmortem angiography. PMID:26921814

  15. Microstructural alterations of retinal arterial blood column along the vessel axis in systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kotliar, Konstantin; Nagel, Edgar; Vilser, Walthard; Seidova, Seid-Fatima; Lanzl, Ines

    2010-04-01

    Purpose. Image analysis by the retinal vessel analyzer (RVA) observes retinal vessels in their dynamic state online noninvasively along a chosen vessel segment. It has been found that high-frequency diameter changes in the retinal artery blood column along the vessel increase significantly in anamnestically healthy volunteers with increasing age and in patients with glaucoma during vascular dilation. This study was undertaken to investigate whether longitudinal sections of the retinal artery blood column are altered in systemic hypertension. Methods. Retinal arteries of 15 untreated patients with essential arterial hypertension (age, 50.9 +/- 11.9 years) and of 15 age-matched anamnestically healthy volunteers were examined by RVA. After baseline assessment, a monochromatic luminance flicker (530-600 nm; 12.5 Hz; 20 s) was applied to evoke retinal vasodilation. Differences in amplitude and frequency of spatial artery blood column diameter change along segments (longitudinal arterial profiles) of 1 mm in length were measured and analyzed using Fourier transformation. Results. In the control group, average reduced power spectra (ARPS) of longitudinal arterial profiles did not differ when arteries changed from constriction to dilation. In the systemic hypertension group, ARPS during constriction, baseline, and restoration were identical and differed from ARPS during dilation (P < 0.05). Longitudinal arterial profiles in both groups showed significant dissimilitude at baseline and restoration (P < 0.05). Conclusions. The retinal artery blood column demonstrates microstructural alterations in systemic hypertension and is less irregular along the vessel axis during vessel dilation. These microstructural changes may be an indication of alterations in vessel wall rigidity, vascular endothelial function, and smooth muscle cells in this disease, leading to impaired perfusion and regulation. PMID:19850841

  16. Evaluation of side effects of radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia with magnetite on the blood vessel walls of tumor metastatic lesion surrounding the abdominal large vessels: an agar phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetite used in an 8-MHz radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating device can increase the temperature of a specific site up to 45°C. When treating a metastatic lesion around large abdominal vessels via hyperthermia with magnetite, heating-induced adverse effects on these vessels need to be considered. Therefore, this study examined hyperthermia-induced damage to blood vessel walls in vitro. Methods A large agar phantom with a circulatory system consisting of a swine artery and vein connected to a peristaltic pump was prepared. The blood vessels were placed on the magnetite-containing agar piece. Heating was continued for 30 min at 45°C. After heating, a histological study for injury to the blood vessels was performed. Results The inner membrane temperature did not reach 45°C due to the cooling effect of the blood flow. In the heated vessels, vascular wall collagen degenerated and smooth muscle cells were narrowed; however, no serious changes were noted in the vascular endothelial cells or vascular wall elastic fibers. The heated vessel wall was not severely damaged; this was attributed to cooling by the blood flow. Conclusions Our findings indicate that RF capacitive heating therapy with magnetite may be used for metastatic lesions without injuring the surrounding large abdominal vessels. PMID:25114787

  17. Automated artery-venous classification of retinal blood vessels based on structural mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vinayak S.; Garvin, Mona K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2012-03-01

    Retinal blood vessels show morphologic modifications in response to various retinopathies. However, the specific responses exhibited by arteries and veins may provide a precise diagnostic information, i.e., a diabetic retinopathy may be detected more accurately with the venous dilatation instead of average vessel dilatation. In order to analyze the vessel type specific morphologic modifications, the classification of a vessel network into arteries and veins is required. We previously described a method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees; i.e. structural mapping. Therefore, we propose the artery-venous classification based on structural mapping and identification of color properties prominent to the vessel types. The mean and standard deviation of each of green channel intensity and hue channel intensity are analyzed in a region of interest around each centerline pixel of a vessel. Using the vector of color properties extracted from each centerline pixel, it is classified into one of the two clusters (artery and vein), obtained by the fuzzy-C-means clustering. According to the proportion of clustered centerline pixels in a particular vessel, and utilizing the artery-venous crossing property of retinal vessels, each vessel is assigned a label of an artery or a vein. The classification results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth (gold standard). We applied the proposed method to a dataset of 15 retinal color fundus images resulting in an accuracy of 88.28% correctly classified vessel pixels. The automated classification results match well with the gold standard suggesting its potential in artery-venous classification and the respective morphology analysis.

  18. Occlusion of Small Vessels by Malaria-Infected Red Blood Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Huan; Fedosov, Dmitry; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George

    2010-11-01

    We use dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) method to study malaria-infected red blood cells (i-RBC). We have developed a multi-scale model to describe both static and dynamic properties of RBCs. With this model, we study the adhesive interaction between RBCs as well as the interaction between the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf)-parasitized cells and a vessel wall coated with purified ICAM-1. In this talk, we will discuss the effect of the Pf-parasitized malaria cell on the flow resistance of the blood flow at different parasetimia levels. The blood flow in malaria disease shows high flow resistance as compared with the healthy case due to both the stiffening of the i-RBCs (up to ten times) as well as the adhesion dynamics. For certain sizes of of small vessels, the malaria-infected cells can even lead to occlusion of the blood flow, in agreement with recent experiments.

  19. [The blood vessels of the mesonephros of domestic cattle (Bos taurus), a corrosion cast study].

    PubMed

    Vollmerhaus, B; Reese, S; Roos, H

    2004-08-01

    The blood vessels of the bovine mesonephros - a corrosion cast study Using scanning electron microscopy plastoid corrosion cast specimens of the mesonephros of 30-45-day-old bovine foetuses were investigated. The studies showed that the blood vessels of the mesonephros are organized in two separate networks similar to these of the teleosts and amphibians. The glomerula mesonephrica originate from the aorta implying that they belong to the high pressure system. The tubuli mesonephrici are surrounded by a filamentous independent capillary network which is shown for the first time in these studies. This capillary network originates from the caudal cardinal veins and represents a mesonephric portal system with a relatively low blood pressure. The blood from the two capillary networks diverts into terminal veins and into the subcardinal veins. The questions of haemodynamics in the mesonephros are discussed. PMID:15239810

  20. Analyzing isolated blood vessel contraction in multi-well plates.

    PubMed

    Borges, Ricardo; Díaz-Martín, David; Hernández-Jiménez, José G; Rodríguez-Valido, Manuel; Beltrán, Beatriz

    2016-05-01

    Organ baths have been successfully used for over a century to study the contractile or relaxation effects of drugs. Indeed, most of our understanding of vascular pharmacology is based on such in vitro studies. However, multiple parallel organ baths that require mechanical transduction consume relatively large amounts of drugs, gases, and buffers, and they take up a considerable bench space. In addition, such experiments have a high demand in terms of cost and animals, and the tissue preparation is labor intensive and slow. For these reasons, organ baths are no longer in the front line of industrial pharmacological research and they have almost disappeared from most academic laboratories. We have developed a very simple system, which can be implemented virtually in any laboratory, for the automatic analyses of rat aorta ring contraction based on optical methods and using multi-well plates. Rat aorta rings (≈0.5 mm wide) were situated in 96-multi-well plates, and the luminal vessel areas were continuously monitored using a USB camera driven by newly developed algorithms. Liquids were handled using multichannel pipettes, although these procedures can be automated for drug screening. The concentration-response curves obtained were similar to those reported in the literature using traditional force transduction techniques on isolated tissues. This system can also be used with other tissue preparations and for simultaneous fluorescence measurements. The new system described here offers a simple, cheap, and reliable alternative to the classic organ bath system. PMID:26905519

  1. Acrylic resin injection method for blood vessel investigations.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Fumihiko; Uemura, Mamoru; Takemura, Akimichi; Toda, Isumi; Fang, Yi-Ru; Xu, Yuan Jin; Zhang, Zhi Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The injection of acrylic resin into vessels is an excellent method for macroscopically and microscopically observing their three-dimensional features. Conventional methods can be enhanced by removal of the polymerization inhibitor (hydroquinone) without requiring distillation, a consistent viscosity of polymerized resin, and a constant injection pressure and speed. As microvascular corrosion cast specimens are influenced by viscosity, pressure, and speed changes, injection into different specimens yields varying results. We devised a method to reduce those problems. Sodium hydroxide was used to remove hydroquinone from commercial methylmethacrylate. The solid polymer and the liquid monomer were mixed using a 1 : 9 ratio (low-viscosity acrylic resin, 9.07 ± 0.52 mPa•s) or a 3:7 ratio (high-viscosity resin, 1036.33 ± 144.02 mPa•s). To polymerize the acrylic resin for injection, a polymerization promoter (1.0% benzoyl peroxide) was mixed with a polymerization initiator (0.5%, N, N-dimethylaniline). The acrylic resins were injected using a precise syringe pump, with a 5-mL/min injection speed and 11.17 ± 1.60 mPa injection pressure (low-viscosity resin) and a 1-mL/min injection speed and 58.50 ± 5.75 mPa injection pressure (high-viscosity resin). Using the aforementioned conditions, scanning electron microscopy indicated that sufficient resin could be injected into the capillaries of the microvascular corrosion cast specimens. PMID:24107720

  2. The role of blood vessels in high-resolution volume conductor head modeling of EEG.

    PubMed

    Fiederer, L D J; Vorwerk, J; Lucka, F; Dannhauer, M; Yang, S; Dümpelmann, M; Schulze-Bonhage, A; Aertsen, A; Speck, O; Wolters, C H; Ball, T

    2016-03-01

    Reconstruction of the electrical sources of human EEG activity at high spatio-temporal accuracy is an important aim in neuroscience and neurological diagnostics. Over the last decades, numerous studies have demonstrated that realistic modeling of head anatomy improves the accuracy of source reconstruction of EEG signals. For example, including a cerebro-spinal fluid compartment and the anisotropy of white matter electrical conductivity were both shown to significantly reduce modeling errors. Here, we for the first time quantify the role of detailed reconstructions of the cerebral blood vessels in volume conductor head modeling for EEG. To study the role of the highly arborized cerebral blood vessels, we created a submillimeter head model based on ultra-high-field-strength (7T) structural MRI datasets. Blood vessels (arteries and emissary/intraosseous veins) were segmented using Frangi multi-scale vesselness filtering. The final head model consisted of a geometry-adapted cubic mesh with over 17×10(6) nodes. We solved the forward model using a finite-element-method (FEM) transfer matrix approach, which allowed reducing computation times substantially and quantified the importance of the blood vessel compartment by computing forward and inverse errors resulting from ignoring the blood vessels. Our results show that ignoring emissary veins piercing the skull leads to focal localization errors of approx. 5 to 15mm. Large errors (>2cm) were observed due to the carotid arteries and the dense arterial vasculature in areas such as in the insula or in the medial temporal lobe. Thus, in such predisposed areas, errors caused by neglecting blood vessels can reach similar magnitudes as those previously reported for neglecting white matter anisotropy, the CSF or the dura - structures which are generally considered important components of realistic EEG head models. Our findings thus imply that including a realistic blood vessel compartment in EEG head models will be helpful to improve the accuracy of EEG source analyses particularly when high accuracies in brain areas with dense vasculature are required. PMID:26747748

  3. Modeling blood flow in vessels with changeable caliber for physiology and biophysics courses.

    PubMed

    Kozlova, E K; Badicov, V I; Chemysh, A M; Bogushevich, M S

    1997-06-01

    A model based on elementary principles of hydrodynamics and mathematics is proposed for classroom research on concepts related to blood flow physiology. This is an analog model of the vascular system in which blood flow is represented by electrical current flowing in a resistance circuit. The model permits analysis of the change in hemodynamics with local stenosis of both large and peripheral vessels. PMID:9227648

  4. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tong; Rongin, Uwitije; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensional motions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial position of the cells, the hematocrit, and the membrane deformability. In addition, a cell free region around the tip of the confluence was observed. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with existing experimental findings. This study may provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of hemodynamic behavior of micro-scale blood flow. PMID:26830454

  5. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tong; Rongin, Uwitije; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensional motions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial position of the cells, the hematocrit, and the membrane deformability. In addition, a cell free region around the tip of the confluence was observed. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with existing experimental findings. This study may provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of hemodynamic behavior of micro-scale blood flow. PMID:26830454

  6. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tong; Rongin, Uwitije; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-02-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensional motions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial position of the cells, the hematocrit, and the membrane deformability. In addition, a cell free region around the tip of the confluence was observed. The simulation results are qualitatively consistent with existing experimental findings. This study may provide fundamental knowledge for a better understanding of hemodynamic behavior of micro-scale blood flow.

  7. Feasibility of Using the Marginal Blood Vessels as Reference Landmarks for CT Colonography

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhuoshi; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Liu, Jiamin; Dwyer, Andrew J.; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Nowinski, Wieslaw L.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to show the spatial relationship of the colonic marginal blood vessels and the teniae coli on CT colonography (CTC) and the use of the marginal blood vessels for supine-prone registration of polyps and for determination of proper connectivity of collapsed colonic segments. MATERIALS AND METHODS We manually labeled the marginal blood vessels on 15 CTC examinations. Colon segmentation, centerline extraction, teniae detection, and teniae identification were automatically performed. For assessment of their spatial relationships, the distances from the marginal blood vessels to the three teniae coli and to the colon were measured. Student t tests (paired, two-tailed) were performed to evaluate the differences among these distances. To evaluate the reliability of the marginal vessels as reference points for polyp correlation, we analyzed 20 polyps from 20 additional patients who underwent supine and prone CTC. The average difference of the circumferential polyp position on the supine and prone scans was computed. Student t tests (paired, two-tailed) were performed to evaluate the supine-prone differences of the distance. We performed a study on 10 CTC studies from 10 patients with collapsed colonic segments by manually tracing the marginal blood vessels near the collapsed regions to resolve the ambiguity of the colon path. RESULTS The average distances (± SD) from the marginal blood vessels to the tenia mesocolica, tenia omentalis, and tenia libera were 20.1 ± 3.1 mm (95% CI, 18.5–21.6 mm), 39.5 ± 4.8 mm (37.1–42.0 mm), and 36.9 ± 4.2 mm (34.8–39.1 mm), respectively. Pairwise comparison showed that these distances to the tenia libera and tenia omentalis were significantly different from the distance to the tenia mesocolica (p < 0.001). The average distance from the marginal blood vessels to the colon wall was 15.3 ± 2.0 mm (14.2–16.3 mm). For polyp localization, the average difference of the circumferential polyp position on the supine and prone scans was 9.6 ± 9.4 mm (5.5–13.7 mm) (p = 0.15) and expressed as a percentage of the colon circumference was 3.1% ± 2.0% (2.3–4.0%) (p = 0.83). We were able to trace the marginal blood vessels for 10 collapsed colonic segments and determine the paths of the colon in these regions. CONCLUSION The marginal blood vessels run parallel to the colon in proximity to the tenia mesocolica and enable accurate supine-prone registration of polyps and localization of the colon path in areas of collapse. Thus, the marginal blood vessels may be used as reference landmarks complementary to the colon centerline and teniae coli. PMID:24370165

  8. Normalization of tumour blood vessels improves the delivery of nanomedicines in a size-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vikash P.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Martin, John D.; Popović, Zoran; Chen, Ou; Kamoun, Walid S.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2012-01-01

    The blood vessels of cancerous tumours are leaky1–3 and poorly organized4–7. This can increase the interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) inside tumours and reduce blood supply to them, which impairs drug delivery8–9. Anti-angiogenic therapies – which “normalize” the abnormal blood vessels in tumours by making them less leaky – have been shown to improve the delivery and effectiveness of chemotherapeutics with low molecular-weights10, but it remains unclear whether normalizing tumour vessels can improve the delivery of nanomedicines. Here we show that repairing the abnormal vessels in mammary tumours, by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-2, improves the delivery of small nanoparticles (12nm diameter) while hindering the delivery of large nanoparticles (125nm diameter). We utilize a mathematical model to show that reducing vessel wall pore sizes through normalization decreases IFP in tumours, allowing small nanoparticles to enter them more rapidly. However, increased steric and hydrodynamic hindrances, also associated with smaller pores, make it more difficult for large nanoparticles to enter tumours. Our results further suggest that smaller (~12nm) nanomedicines are ideal for cancer therapy, owing to superior tumour penetration. PMID:22484912

  9. Normalization of tumour blood vessels improves the delivery of nanomedicines in a size-dependent manner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Vikash P.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Martin, John D.; Popović, Zoran; Chen, Ou; Kamoun, Walid S.; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2012-06-01

    The blood vessels of cancerous tumours are leaky and poorly organized. This can increase the interstitial fluid pressure inside tumours and reduce blood supply to them, which impairs drug delivery. Anti-angiogenic therapies--which `normalize' the abnormal blood vessels in tumours by making them less leaky--have been shown to improve the delivery and effectiveness of chemotherapeutics with low molecular weights, but it remains unclear whether normalizing tumour vessels can improve the delivery of nanomedicines. Here, we show that repairing the abnormal vessels in mammary tumours, by blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, improves the delivery of smaller nanoparticles (diameter, 12 nm) while hindering the delivery of larger nanoparticles (diameter, 125 nm). Using a mathematical model, we show that reducing the sizes of pores in the walls of vessels through normalization decreases the interstitial fluid pressure in tumours, thus allowing small nanoparticles to enter them more rapidly. However, increased steric and hydrodynamic hindrances, also associated with smaller pores, make it more difficult for large nanoparticles to enter tumours. Our results further suggest that smaller (~12 nm) nanomedicines are ideal for cancer therapy due to their superior tumour penetration.

  10. Generalization of geometrical flux maximizing flow on Riemannian manifolds for improved volumetric blood vessel segmentation.

    PubMed

    Gooya, Ali; Liao, Hongen; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2012-09-01

    Geometric flux maximizing flow (FLUX) is an active contour based method which evolves an initial surface to maximize the flux of a vector field on the surface. For blood vessel segmentation, the vector field is defined as the vectors specified by vascular edge strengths and orientations. Hence, the segmentation performance depends on the quality of the detected edge vector field. In this paper, we propose a new method for level set based segmentation of blood vessels by generalizing the FLUX on a Riemannian manifold (R-FLUX). We consider a 3D scalar image I(x) as a manifold embedded in the 4D space (x, I(x)) and compute the image metric by pullback from the 4D space, whose metric tensor depends on the vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) tensor. This allows us to devise a non-linear filter which both projects and normalizes the original image gradient vectors under the inverse of local VED tensors. The filtered gradient vectors pertaining to the vessels are less sensitive to the local image contrast and more coherent with the local vessel orientation. The method has been applied to both synthetic and real TOF MRA data sets. Comparisons are made with the FLUX and vesselsness response based segmentations, indicating that the R-FLUX outperforms both methods in terms of leakage minimization and thiner vessel delineation. PMID:22664135

  11. A Microstructurally Motivated Model of the Mechanical Behavior of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Shannon L. M.; Vaughn, Megann E.; Hu, Jin-Jia; Driessen, Niels J. B.; Baaijens, Frank P. T.; Humphrey, Jay D.; Niklason, Laura E.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical models have potential to guide the development and use of engineered blood vessels as well as other engineered tissues. This paper presents a microstructurally motivated, pseudoelastic, mechanical model of the biaxial mechanics of engineered vessels in the physiologic pressure range. The model incorporates experimentally measured densities and alignments of engineered collagen. Specifically, these microstructural and associated mechanical inputs were measured directly from engineered blood vessels that were cultured over periods of 5–7.5 weeks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful application of either a phenomenological or a microstructurally motivated mechanical model to engineered vascular tissues. Model development revealed the need to use novel theoretical configurations to describe the strain history of engineered vessels. The constitutive equations developed herein suggested that collagen remodeled between 5 and 7.5 weeks during a 7.5-week culture period. This remodeling led to strain energies for collagen that differed with alignment, which likely resulted from undulations that varied with alignment. Finally, biaxial data emphasized that axial extensions increase stresses in engineered vessels in the physiologic pressure range, thereby providing a guideline for surgical use: engineered vessels should be implanted at appropriate axial extension to minimize adverse stress responses. PMID:18720007

  12. Uniform Overexpression and Rapid Accessibility of α5β1 Integrin on Blood Vessels in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Kasman, Ian M.; Norberg, Scott; Magnussen, Anette; Zanivan, Sara; Rissone, Alberto; Baluk, Peter; Favre, Cecile J.; Jeffry, Ursula; Murray, Richard; McDonald, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Integrin α5β1 is among the proteins overexpressed on tumor vessels and is a potential target for diagnostics and therapeutics. Here, we mapped the distribution of α5β1 integrin in three murine tumor models and identified sites of expression that are rapidly accessible to intravascular antibodies. When examined by conventional immunohistochemistry, α5β1 integrin expression was strong on most blood vessels in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mouse tumors, adenomatous polyposis coli (apc) mouse adenomas, and implanted MCa-IV mammary carcinomas. Expression increased during malignant progression in RIP-Tag2 mice. However, immunoreactivity was also strong in normal pancreatic ducts, intestinal smooth muscle, and several other sites. To determine which sites of expression were rapidly accessible from the bloodstream, we intravenously injected anti-α5β1 integrin antibody and 10 minutes to 24 hours later examined the amount and distribution of labeling. The injected antibody strongly labeled tumor vessels at all time points but did not label most normal blood vessels or gain access to pancreatic ducts or intestinal smooth muscle. Intense vascular labeling by anti-α5β1 integrin antibody co-localized with the uniform CD31 immunoreactivity of tumor vessels and contrasted sharply with the patchy accumulation of nonspecific IgG at sites of leakage. This strategy of injecting antibodies revealed the uniform overexpression and rapid accessibility of α5β1 integrin on tumor vessels and may prove useful in assessing other potential therapeutic targets in cancer. PMID:15972964

  13. Enhanced bonding strength of hydrophobically modified gelatin films on wet blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Keiko; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    The bonding behavior between hydrophobically modified alkaline-treated gelatin (hm-AlGltn) films and porcine blood vessels was evaluated under wet conditions. Hexanoyl (Hx: C6), decanoyl (Dec: C10), and stearyl (Ste: C18) chlorides were introduced into the amino groups of AlGltn to obtain HxAlGltn, DecAlGltn, and SteAlGltn, respectively, with various modification percentages. The hm-AlGltn was fabricated into films and thermally crosslinked to obtain water-insoluble films (t-hm-AlGltn). The 42% modified t-HxAlGltn (t-42HxAlGltn) possessed higher wettability than the 38% modified t-DecAlGltn (t-38DecAlGltn) and the 44% modified t-SteAlGltn (t-44SteAlGltn) films, and the t-42HxAlGltn film showed a high bonding strength with the blood vessel compared with all the hm-AlGltn films. Histological observations indicated that t-42HxAlGltn and t-38DecAlGltn remained on the blood vessel even after the bonding strength measurements. From cell culture experiments, the t-42HxAlGltn films showed significant cell adhesion compared to other films. These findings indicate that the Hx group easily interpenetrated the surface of blood vessels and effectively enhanced the bonding strength between the films and the tissue. PMID:24481063

  14. Improved automated optic cup segmentation based on detection of blood vessel bends in retinal fundus images.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Yuji; Nagahata, Yuuki; Muramatsu, Chisako; Okumura, Susumu; Ogohara, Kazunori; Sawada, Akira; Ishida, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of permanent blindness. Retinal imaging is useful for early detection of glaucoma. In order to evaluate the presence of glaucoma, ophthalmologists may determine the cup and disc areas and diagnose glaucoma using a vertical optic cup-to-disc (C/D) ratio and a rim-to-disc (R/D) ratio. Previously we proposed a method to determine cup edge by analyzing a vertical profile of pixel values, but this method provided a cup edge smaller than that of an ophthalmologist. This paper describes an improved method using the locations of the blood vessel bends. The blood vessels were detected by a concentration feature determined from the density gradient. The blood vessel bends were detected by tracking the blood vessels from the disc edge to the primary cup edge, which was determined by our previous method. Lastly, the vertical C/D ratio and the R/D ratio were calculated. Using forty-four images, including 32 glaucoma images, the AUCs of both the vertical C/D ratio and R/D ratio by this proposed method were 0.966 and 0.936, respectively. PMID:25569913

  15. Circulating fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels during angiogenesis in a paracrine manner.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinqing; Tan, Hong; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Yuejun; Samuelson, Lisa; Li, Xueyong; Cui, Caibin; Gerber, David A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that circulating fibrocytes play important roles in angiogenesis. However, the specific role of fibrocytes in angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that fibrocytes stabilized newly formed blood vessels in a mouse wound-healing model by inhibiting angiogenesis during the proliferative phase and inhibiting blood vessel regression during the remodeling phase. Fibrocytes also inhibited angiogenesis in a Matrigel mouse model. In vitro study showed that fibrocytes inhibited both the apoptosis and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in a permeable support (Transwell) co-culture system. In a three-dimensional collagen gel, fibrocytes stabilized the VEC tubes by decreasing VEC tube density on stimulation with growth factors and preventing VEC tube regression on withdrawal of growth factors. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that fibrocytes expressed many prosurvival factors that are responsible for the prosurvival effect of fibrocytes on VECs and blood vessels. Fibrocytes also expressed angiogenesis inhibitors, including thrombospondin-1 (THBS1). THBS1 knockdown partially blocked the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of VEC proliferation in the Transwell co-culture system and recovered the fibrocyte-induced decrease of VEC tube density in collagen gel. Purified fibrocytes transfected with THBS1 siRNA partially recovered the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in both the wound-healing and Matrigel models. In conclusion, our findings reveal that fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels via prosurvival factors and anti-angiogenic factors, including THBS1. PMID:24300950

  16. Enhanced Bonding Strength of Hydrophobically Modified Gelatin Films on Wet Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Keiko; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    The bonding behavior between hydrophobically modified alkaline-treated gelatin (hm-AlGltn) films and porcine blood vessels was evaluated under wet conditions. Hexanoyl (Hx: C6), decanoyl (Dec: C10), and stearyl (Ste: C18) chlorides were introduced into the amino groups of AlGltn to obtain HxAlGltn, DecAlGltn, and SteAlGltn, respectively, with various modification percentages. The hm-AlGltn was fabricated into films and thermally crosslinked to obtain water-insoluble films (t-hm-AlGltn). The 42% modified t-HxAlGltn (t-42HxAlGltn) possessed higher wettability than the 38% modified t-DecAlGltn (t-38DecAlGltn) and the 44% modified t-SteAlGltn (t-44SteAlGltn) films, and the t-42HxAlGltn film showed a high bonding strength with the blood vessel compared with all the hm-AlGltn films. Histological observations indicated that t-42HxAlGltn and t-38DecAlGltn remained on the blood vessel even after the bonding strength measurements. From cell culture experiments, the t-42HxAlGltn films showed significant cell adhesion compared to other films. These findings indicate that the Hx group easily interpenetrated the surface of blood vessels and effectively enhanced the bonding strength between the films and the tissue. PMID:24481063

  17. Making Ends Meet: Myeloid Cells Catalyze Blood Vessel Repair in the Brain.

    PubMed

    Deczkowska, Aleksandra; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-05-17

    Hemorrhagic stroke, primarily caused by rupture of blood vessels in the brain, is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. In this issue of Immunity, Liu et al. (2016) demonstrate that repair of cerebrovascular ruptures can be directly mediated by myeloid cells. PMID:27192572

  18. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B; Lebleu, Valerie S; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Thomas, Paul M; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738. PMID:26595531

  19. The Finite Element Method Applied to a Problem of Blood Flow in Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nu?, Gabriela; Chiorean, Ioana; Cri?an, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We use the finite element method to solve a convection-diffusion equation when convection is dominating, a problem which describes the behavior of the concentration of a solute in a blood vessel. A new technique for computing the discrete problem is used. PMID:22319548

  20. A meshless rheological model for blood-vessel interaction in endovascular simulation.

    PubMed

    Chui, Yim-Pan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2010-12-01

    A meshless rheological model is proposed for medical simulation of vascular procedures. Due to the complexity of rheologic models involved in endovascular simulations, delivering a high level of interactivity with realistic biomechanical feedback is still a challenge. In this paper, we propose a particle-based rheologic modeling method for virtual catheterisation training applications. The effect of blood rheology has been simulated through a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) formulation of non-Newtonian flow. By modeling vessel wall structure as virtual particles, a pure Lagrange particle formulation for fluid-structure interaction (FSI) is purposed for modeling the blood-vessel interaction. We further propose a flow-related thrombus (clot) formation-dissolution model based on our fluid-solid interaction framework. A physics processing API (PhysX) friendly implementation is proposed for incorporating the rheological properties of blood and vessel wall into our framework. Results have demonstrated the feasibility of employing our proposed meshfree framework in simulating blood-vessel interaction and clotting behaviors which are essential to endovascular simulations. Having benefited from the elegant formulation of Lagrangian particle interaction, interactive framerates of the simulation can be maintained under hardware-acceleration. PMID:20868705

  1. Non-Newtonian characteristics of peristaltic flow of blood in micro-vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, S.; Misra, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Of concern in the paper is a generalized theoretical study of the non-Newtonian characteristics of peristaltic flow of blood through micro-vessels, e.g. arterioles. The vessel is considered to be of variable cross-section and blood to be a Herschel-Bulkley type of fluid. The progressive wave front of the peristaltic flow is supposed sinusoidal/straight section dominated (SSD) (expansion/contraction type); Reynolds number is considered to be small with reference to blood flow in the micro-circulatory system. The equations that govern the non-Newtonian peristaltic flow of blood are considered to be non-linear. The objective of the study has been to examine the effect of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, wall shear stress, streamline pattern and trapping. It is observed that the numerical estimates for the aforesaid quantities in the case of peristaltic transport of blood in a channel are much different from those for flow in an axisymmetric vessel of circular cross-section. The study further shows that peristaltic pumping, flow velocity and wall shear stress are significantly altered due to the non-uniformity of the cross-sectional radius of blood vessels of the micro-circulatory system. Moreover, the magnitude of the amplitude ratio and the value of the fluid index are important parameters that affect the flow behaviour. Novel features of SSD wave propagation that affect the flow behaviour of blood have also been discussed.

  2. Effect of age and vascular anatomy on blood flow in major cerebral vessels

    PubMed Central

    Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Du, Xinjian; Pandey, Dilip K; Thulborn, Keith R; Charbel, Fady T

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of volume flow rates in major cerebral vessels can be used to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of cerebrovascular disease. However, both age and vascular anatomy can affect flow rates independent of disease. We prospectively evaluated 325 healthy adult volunteers using phase contrast quantitative magnetic resonance angiography to characterize these effects on cerebral vessel flow rates and establish clinically useful normative reference values. Flows were measured in the major intracranial and extracranial vessels. The cohort ranged from 18 to 84 years old, with 157 (48%) females. All individual vessel flows and total cerebral blood flow (TCBF) declined with age, at 2.6 mL/minute per year for TCBF. Basilar artery (BA) flow was significantly decreased in individuals with one or both fetal posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs). Internal carotid artery flows were significantly higher with a fetal PCA and decreased with a hypoplastic anterior cerebral artery. Indexing vessel flows to TCBF neutralized the age effect, but anatomic variations continued to impact indexed flow in the BA and internal carotid artery. Variability in normative flow ranges were reduced in distal vessels and by examining regional flows. Cerebral vessel flows are affected by age and cerebrovascular anatomy, which has important implications for interpretation of flows in the disease state. PMID:25388677

  3. A Novel Curvature-Based Algorithm for Automatic Grading of Retinal Blood Vessel Tortuosity.

    PubMed

    Aghamohamadian-Sharbaf, Masoud; Pourreza, Hamid Reza; Banaee, Touka

    2016-03-01

    Tortuosity of retinal blood vessels is an important symptom of diabetic retinopathy or retinopathy of prematurity. In this paper, we propose an automatic image-based method for measuring single vessel and vessel network tortuosity of these vessels. Simplicity of the algorithm, low-computational burden, and an excellent matching to the clinically perceived tortuosity are the important features of the proposed algorithm. To measure tortuosity, we use curvature which is an indicator of local inflection of a curve. For curvature calculation, template disk method is a common choice and has been utilized in most of the state of the art. However, we show that this method does not possess linearity against curvature and by proposing two modifications, we improve the method. We use the basic and the modified methods to measure tortuosity on a publicly available data bank and two data banks of our own. While interpreting the results, we pursue three goals. First, to show that our algorithm is more efficient to implement than the state of the art. Second, to show that our method possesses an excellent correlation with subjective results (0.94 correlation for vessel tortuosity, 0.95 correlation for vessel network tortuosity in diabetic retinopathy, and 0.7 correlation for vessel network tortuosity in retinopathy of prematurity). Third, to show that the tortuosity perceived by an expert and curvature possess a nonlinear relation. PMID:25622332

  4. Measurements of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Poly (vinyl alcohol) Hydrogel for the Development of Blood Vessel Biomodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Mamada, Keisuke; Kuroki, Kanju; Liu, Lei; Inoue, Kosuke; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Makoto

    In vitro blood vessel biomodeling with realistic mechanical properties and geometrical structures is helpful for training in surgical procedures, especial those used in endovascular treatment. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA-H), which is made of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and water, may be useful as a material for blood vessel biomodeling due to its low surface friction resistance and good transparency. In order to simulate the mechanical properties of blood vessels, measurements of mechanical properties of PVA-H were carried out with a dynamic mechanical analyzer, and the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) of PVA-H were obtained. PVA-Hs were prepared by the low-temperature crystallization method. They were made of PVA with various concentrations (C) and degrees of polymerization (DP), and made by blending two kinds of PVA having different DP or saponification values (SV). The G’ and G” of PVA-H increased, as the C or DP of PVA increased, or as the proportion of PVA with higher DP or SV increased. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain PVA-H with desirable dynamic viscoelasticity. Furthermore, it is suggested that PVA-H is stable in the temperature range of 0°C to 40°C, indicating that biomodeling made of PVA-H should be available at 37°C, the physiological temperature. The dynamic viscoelasticity of PVA-H obtained was similar to that of the dog blood vessel measured in previous reports. In conclusion, PVA-H is suggested to be useful as a material of blood vessel biomodeling.

  5. Investigation of blood flow and the effect of vasoactive substances in cutaneous blood vessels of Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Škorjanc, Aleš; Belušič, Gregor

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized Xenopus, a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB microscope while it remained connected to a functioning circulatory system. In this way, it was possible to obtain sharp images of arteries and veins and to visualize blood flow. This allows students to learn about the functional differences between arteries and veins and about the complexity of hemodynamics as well as the particularities of the amphibian pulmocutaneous circulation. Students can then quantitatively estimate the effect of norepinephrine and epinephrine on the diameter of blood vessels by simply superfusing the skin patch with a series of solutions of the two substances. They can also test the effect of α-adrenergic receptor blockers, used to treat high blood pressure, on the norepinephrine-induced muscle tonus of blood vessels. PMID:26031724

  6. Spinning Disk Confocal Microscopy of Calcium Signalling in Blood Vessel Walls

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Mark; Ledoux, Jonathan; Taylor, Mark; Bonev, Adrian; Hannah, Rachael; Solodushko, Viktoriya; Shui, Bo; Tallini, Yvonne; Kotlikoff, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Spinning disk confocal laser microscopy systems can be used for observing fast events occurring in a small volume when they include a sensitive electron-multiplying CCD camera. Such a confocal system was recently used to capture the first pictures of intracellular calcium signalling within the projections of endothelial cells to the adjacent smooth muscle cells in the blood vessel wall. Detection of these calcium signals required high spatial and temporal resolution. A newly developed calcium ion (Ca2+) biosensor was also used. This exclusively expressed in the endothelium and fluoresced when Ca2+ concentrations increased during signalling. This work gives insights into blood vessel disease because Ca2+ signalling is critical for blood flow and pressure regulation. PMID:22506097

  7. Finite-sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel: Non-Newtonian effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S.; Eckmann, David M.

    2008-09-01

    We have numerically investigated the axisymmetric motion of a finite-sized nearly occluding air bubble through a shear-thinning Casson fluid flowing in blood vessels of circular cross section. The numerical solution entails solving a two-layer fluid model—a cell-free layer and a non-Newtonian core together with the gas bubble. This problem is of interest to the field of rheology and for gas embolism studies in health sciences. The numerical method is based on a modified front-tracking method. The viscosity expression in the Casson model for blood (bulk fluid) includes the hematocrit [the volume fraction of red blood cells (RBCs)] as an explicit parameter. Three different flow Reynolds numbers, Reapp=ρlUmaxd/μapp , in the neighborhood of 0.2, 2, and 200 are investigated. Here, ρl is the density of blood, Umax is the centerline velocity of the inlet Casson profile, d is the diameter of the vessel, and μapp is the apparent viscosity of whole blood. Three different hematocrits have also been considered: 0.45, 0.4, and 0.335. The vessel sizes considered correspond to small arteries, and small and large arterioles in normal humans. The degree of bubble occlusion is characterized by the ratio of bubble to vessel radius (aspect ratio), λ , in the range 0.9⩽λ⩽1.05 . For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effects are taken into account. Both horizontal and vertical vessel geometries have been investigated. Many significant insights are revealed by our study: (i) bubble motion causes large temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the “endothelial cell” (EC) surface lining the blood vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it, and passes it by; (ii) rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress (+ → - → +) imparted to the cell surface during bubble motion; (iii) large shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are ascribable to the development of a recirculation vortex at the rear of the bubble; (iv) computed magnitudes of shear stress gradients coupled with their sign reversals may correspond to levels that cause injury to the cell by membrane disruption through impulsive compression and stretching; and (v) for the vessel sizes and flow rates investigated, gravitational effects are negligible.

  8. Finite-sized gas bubble motion in a blood vessel: non-Newtonian effects.

    PubMed

    Mukundakrishnan, Karthik; Ayyaswamy, Portonovo S; Eckmann, David M

    2008-09-01

    We have numerically investigated the axisymmetric motion of a finite-sized nearly occluding air bubble through a shear-thinning Casson fluid flowing in blood vessels of circular cross section. The numerical solution entails solving a two-layer fluid model--a cell-free layer and a non-Newtonian core together with the gas bubble. This problem is of interest to the field of rheology and for gas embolism studies in health sciences. The numerical method is based on a modified front-tracking method. The viscosity expression in the Casson model for blood (bulk fluid) includes the hematocrit [the volume fraction of red blood cells (RBCs)] as an explicit parameter. Three different flow Reynolds numbers, Reapp=rholUmaxdmicroapp , in the neighborhood of 0.2, 2, and 200 are investigated. Here, rhol is the density of blood, Umax is the centerline velocity of the inlet Casson profile, d is the diameter of the vessel, and microapp is the apparent viscosity of whole blood. Three different hematocrits have also been considered: 0.45, 0.4, and 0.335. The vessel sizes considered correspond to small arteries, and small and large arterioles in normal humans. The degree of bubble occlusion is characterized by the ratio of bubble to vessel radius (aspect ratio), lambda , in the range 0.9< or =lambda< or =1.05 . For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effects are taken into account. Both horizontal and vertical vessel geometries have been investigated. Many significant insights are revealed by our study: (i) bubble motion causes large temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the "endothelial cell" (EC) surface lining the blood vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it, and passes it by; (ii) rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress (+ --> - --> +) imparted to the cell surface during bubble motion; (iii) large shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are ascribable to the development of a recirculation vortex at the rear of the bubble; (iv) computed magnitudes of shear stress gradients coupled with their sign reversals may correspond to levels that cause injury to the cell by membrane disruption through impulsive compression and stretching; and (v) for the vessel sizes and flow rates investigated, gravitational effects are negligible. PMID:18851139

  9. Automated characterization of blood vessels as arteries and veins in retinal images.

    PubMed

    Mirsharif, Qazaleh; Tajeripour, Farshad; Pourreza, Hamidreza

    2013-01-01

    In recent years researchers have found that alternations in arterial or venular tree of the retinal vasculature are associated with several public health problems such as diabetic retinopathy which is also the leading cause of blindness in the world. A prerequisite for automated assessment of subtle changes in arteries and veins, is to accurately separate those vessels from each other. This is a difficult task due to high similarity between arteries and veins in addition to variation of color and non-uniform illumination inter and intra retinal images. In this paper a novel structural and automated method is presented for artery/vein classification of blood vessels in retinal images. The proposed method consists of three main steps. In the first step, several image enhancement techniques are employed to improve the images. Then a specific feature extraction process is applied to separate major arteries from veins. Indeed, vessels are divided to smaller segments and feature extraction and vessel classification are applied to each small vessel segment instead of each vessel point. Finally, a post processing step is added to improve the results obtained from the previous step using structural characteristics of the retinal vascular network. In the last stage, vessel features at intersection and bifurcation points are processed for detection of arterial and venular sub trees. Ultimately vessel labels are revised by publishing the dominant label through each identified connected tree of arteries or veins. Evaluation of the proposed approach against two different datasets of retinal images including DRIVE database demonstrates the good performance and robustness of the method. The proposed method may be used for determination of arteriolar to venular diameter ratio in retinal images. Also the proposed method potentially allows for further investigation of labels of thinner arteries and veins which might be found by tracing them back to the major vessels. PMID:23849699

  10. Cardiovascular Patterning as Determined by Hemodynamic Forces and Blood Vessel Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gregory A.; Udan, Ryan S.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Henkelman, R. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular patterning depends on coordinated timing of arteriovenous specification of endothelial cells and the concomitant hemodynamic forces supplied by the onset of cardiac function. Using a combination of 3D imaging by OPT and embryo registration techniques, we sought to identify structural differences between three different mouse models of cardiovascular perturbation. Results Endoglin mutant mice shared a high degree of similarity to Mlc2a mutant mice, which have been shown to have a primary developmental heart defect causing secondary vessel remodeling failures. Dll4 mutant mice, which have well-characterized arterial blood vessel specification defects, showed distinct differences in vascular patterning when compared to the disruptions seen in Mlc2a-/- and Eng-/- models. While Mlc2a-/- and Eng-/- embryos exhibited significantly larger atria than wild-type, Dll4-/- embryos had significantly smaller hearts than wild-type, but this quantitative volume decrease was not limited to the developing atrium. Dll4-/- embryos also had atretic dorsal aortae and smaller trunks, suggesting that the cardiac abnormalities were secondary to primary arterial blood vessel specification defects. Conclusions The similarities in Eng-/- and Mlc2a-/- embryos suggest that Eng-/- mice may suffer from a primary heart developmental defect and secondary defects in vessel patterning, while defects in Dll4-/- embryos are consistent with primary defects in vessel patterning. PMID:26340748

  11. Material-mediated proangiogenic factor release pattern modulates quality of regenerated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Rich, Max H; Lee, Min Kyung; Baek, Kwanghyun; Jeong, Jae Hyun; Kim, Dong Hyun; Millet, Larry J; Bashir, Rashid; Kong, Hyunjoon

    2014-12-28

    Hydrogels designed to sustainably release bioactive molecules are extensively used to enhance tissue repair and regenerative therapies. Along this line, numerous efforts are made to control the molecular release rate and amount. In contrast, few efforts are made to control the molecular release pattern, and, subsequently, modulate the spatial organization of newly forming tissues, including blood vessels. Therefore, using a hydrogel printed to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into a pre-defined pattern, this study demonstrates that spatial distribution of VEGF is important in guiding growth direction of new blood vessels, and also in retaining the structural integrity of pre-existing vasculature. Guided by a computational model, we fabricated a patch composed of micro-sized VEGF-releasing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel cylinders using an ink-jet printer. Interestingly, hydrogel printed with computationally optimized spacing created anisotropically aligned vasculature exclusively when the printed gel pattern was placed parallel to pre-existing blood vessels. In contrast, vascular sprouting from placing the printed gel pattern perpendicular to pre-existing vessels resulted in deformation and structural disintegration of the original vasculature. We envision that this study will be useful to better understand angiogenesis-modulated neovascularization and further improve the treatment quality for various wounds and tissue defects. PMID:25450405

  12. A comparison of blood vessel features and local binary patterns for colorectal polyp classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Sebastian; Stehle, Thomas; Behrens, Alexander; Auer, Roland; Aach, Til; Winograd, Ron; Trautwein, Christian; Tischendorf, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States of America for both women and men. By means of early detection, the five year survival rate can be up to 90%. Polyps can to be grouped into three different classes: hyperplastic, adenomatous, and carcinomatous polyps. Hyperplastic polyps are benign and are not likely to develop into cancer. Adenomas, on the other hand, are known to grow into cancer (adenoma-carcinoma sequence). Carcinomas are fully developed cancers and can be easily distinguished from adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. A recent narrow band imaging (NBI) study by Tischendorf et al. has shown that hyperplastic polyps and adenomas can be discriminated by their blood vessel structure. We designed a computer-aided system for the differentiation between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. Our development aim is to provide the medical practitioner with an additional objective interpretation of the available image data as well as a confidence measure for the classification. We propose classification features calculated on the basis of the extracted blood vessel structure. We use the combined length of the detected blood vessels, the average perimeter of the vessels and their average gray level value. We achieve a successful classification rate of more than 90% on 102 polyps from our polyp data base. The classification results based on these features are compared to the results of Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The results indicate that the implemented features are superior to LBP.

  13. Method to obtain the high contrast images of blood vessel for oxygen saturation calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Yi-Ju; Chang, Han-Chao; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2013-06-01

    The skin illuminated of two lights at different wavelength can be applied to detect the oxygen saturation of human blood. Due to the absorption coefficient of oxy- (HbO2) and deoxy- (Hb) hemoglobin are different at the wavelength 660 nm and 890 nm, the transmitted and reflected light within the skin can be used to compute the oxygen saturation image of skin. However, the intensities of skin images illuminated by a 20 mW NIR-LED are too low to determine the position of blood vessel when acquired by the color CCD camera. In order to improve the disadvantages, a mono camera was used and the irradiated distance and angle between LED light and test hand were adjusted to acquire the higher resolution and contrast blood vessel images for the oxygen saturation calculation. In the experiment, we developed the suitable angle to irradiate NIR light is at 75 degrees because the reflected and scattered effect could be generated significantly from both vertical and horizontal direction. In addition, the best contrast vessel images can be obtained when the shutter time is set at 44.030 ms and the irradiated distance was at the range 140-160 mm due to the intensity ratio between tissue and vessel region is the highest and the intensities of image would not be saturated or become too low when these two parameters were adjusted slightly. In future, the proposed parameters and results can be applied to the oxygen saturation measurement in the clinical diagnosis.

  14. Generation of functionally competent and durable engineered blood vessels from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Rekha; Daheron, Laurence; Liao, Shan; Vardam, Trupti; Kamoun, Walid S.; Batista, Ana; Buecker, Christa; Schäfer, Richard; Han, Xiaoxing; Au, Patrick; Scadden, David T.; Duda, Dan G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient generation of competent vasculogenic cells is a critical challenge of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell-based regenerative medicine. Biologically relevant systems to assess functionality of the engineered vessels in vivo are equally important for such development. Here, we report a unique approach for the derivation of endothelial precursor cells from hiPS cells using a triple combination of selection markers—CD34, neuropilin 1, and human kinase insert domain-containing receptor—and an efficient 2D culture system for hiPS cell-derived endothelial precursor cell expansion. With these methods, we successfully generated endothelial cells (ECs) from hiPS cells obtained from healthy donors and formed stable functional blood vessels in vivo, lasting for 280 d in mice. In addition, we developed an approach to generate mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) from hiPS cells in parallel. Moreover, we successfully generated functional blood vessels in vivo using these ECs and MPCs derived from the same hiPS cell line. These data provide proof of the principle that autologous hiPS cell-derived vascular precursors can be used for in vivo applications, once safety and immunological issues of hiPS-based cellular therapy have been resolved. Additionally, the durability of hiPS-derived blood vessels in vivo demonstrates a potential translation of this approach in long-term vascularization for tissue engineering and treatment of vascular diseases. Of note, we have also successfully generated ECs and MPCs from type 1 diabetic patient-derived hiPS cell lines and use them to generate blood vessels in vivo, which is an important milestone toward clinical translation of this approach. PMID:23861493

  15. On the Role of the Blood Vessel Endothelial Microvilli in the Blood Flow in Small Capillaries

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Vladimir; Zueva, Lidia; Sanabria, Priscila; Wessinger, William Dave; Golubeva, Tatiana; Khmelinskii, Igor; Inyushin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microvilli that protrude into the capillary lumen, although invisible in the optical microscopy, may play an important role in the blood flow control in the capillaries. Because of the plug effects, the width of the gap between the capillary wall and the blood cell is especially critical for the blood flow dynamics in capillaries, while microvilli located on the capillary wall can easily control the velocity of the blood flow. We report that microvilli in the capillaries of different vertebrate species have similar characteristics and density, suggesting similarities between the respective regulation mechanisms. A simplified physical model of the capillary effective diameter control by the microvilli is presented. PMID:26604921

  16. Computerized detection of retina blood vessel using a piecewise line fitting approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Suicheng; Zhen, Yi; Wang, Ningli; Pu, Jiantao

    2013-03-01

    Retina vessels are important landmarks in fundus images, an accurate segmentation of the vessels may be useful for automated screening for several eye diseases or systematic diseases, such as diebetes. A new method is presented for automated segmentation of blood vessels in two-dimensional color fundus images. First, a coherence filter and a followed mean filter are applied to the green channel of the image. The green channel is selected because the vessels have the maximal contrast at the green channel. The coherence filter is to enhance the line strength of the original image and the mean filter is to discard the intensity variance among different regions. Since the vessels are darker than the around tissues depicted on the image, the pixels with small intensity are then retained as points of interest (POI). A new line fitting algorithm is proposed to identify line-like structures in each local circle of the POI. The proposed line fitting method is less sensitive to noise compared to the least squared fitting. The fitted lines with higher scores are regarded as vessels. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a public available database DRIVE with 20 test images is selected for experiments. The mean accuracy on these images is 95.7% which is comparable to the state-of-art.

  17. The Emergence of Blood and Blood Vessels in the Embryo and Its Relevance to Postnatal Biology and Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Tiffany M.; Hirschi, Karen K.

    Blood and blood vessels develop in parallel within mammalian systems, and this temporal and spatial association has led to the confirmation of an endothelial origin of hematopoiesis. The extraembryonic yolk sac and aorto-gonado-mesonephros (AGM) region both contain a specialized population of endothelial cells ("hemogenic endothelium") that function to produce hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which then differentiate to provide the full complement of blood cells within the developing embryo and furthermore in the adult system. Therefore, this population has great therapeutic potential in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This chapter reviews the development of the vascular and hematopoietic systems, characterization and function of the hemogenic endothelium within embryonic and embryonic stem cell (ES cell) models, and speculate on the presence of such a population within the adult system. In order to harness this endothelial subtype for clinical application, we must understand both the normal functions of these cells and the potential for misregulation in disease states.

  18. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    PubMed

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature, as well as pathways that would bypass neurosensory tissues. The orbital region houses a large venous sinus that receives cooled blood from the nasal region. Blood vessels from the nasal region and orbital sinus show anastomotic connections to the dural sinus system, allowing for the direct modulation of brain temperatures. The generality of the vascular patterns discovered in iguanas were assessed by firsthand comparison with other squamates taxa (e.g., via dissection and osteological study) as well as the literature. Similar to extant archosaurs, iguanas and other squamates have highly vascularized sites of thermal exchange that likely support physiological thermoregulation that "fine tunes" temperatures attained through behavioral thermoregulation. PMID:26466378

  19. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature, as well as pathways that would bypass neurosensory tissues. The orbital region houses a large venous sinus that receives cooled blood from the nasal region. Blood vessels from the nasal region and orbital sinus show anastomotic connections to the dural sinus system, allowing for the direct modulation of brain temperatures. The generality of the vascular patterns discovered in iguanas were assessed by firsthand comparison with other squamates taxa (e.g., via dissection and osteological study) as well as the literature. Similar to extant archosaurs, iguanas and other squamates have highly vascularized sites of thermal exchange that likely support physiological thermoregulation that “fine tunes” temperatures attained through behavioral thermoregulation. PMID:26466378

  20. Hemodynamic Parameters in Blood Vessels in Choroidal Melanoma Xenografts and Rat Choroid

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Rod D.; Abbas, Asad; Bukhari, S. Omar; Wilson, Willie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary ocular cancer among the adult population. To avoid enucleation, there has been a concerted effort to develop therapies that spare the affected eye and the patient’s vision. Blood flow helps shape the tumor’s microenvironment, plays a key role in the tumor’s response to many different types of therapy, and is necessary for delivery of chemotherapeutic agents. To rationally design new therapies and optimize existing treatments, it is essential to learn as much as possible about blood flow and the microcirculation in this tumor. In recent years, much has been discovered about the anatomy of the microvasculature and the dynamics of overall blood flow in choroidal melanoma, but little is known about the factors that determine microvascular blood flow. In this study hemodynamic parameters in individual microvessels of a human choroidal melanoma xenograft were compared with those same parameters in a normal rat choroid. Methods Nude, athymic WAG/RijHs-rnu rats were used in this study. The human choroidal melanoma cell line OCM-1 was used to grow solid tumors subcutaneously in the flanks of donor rats. Small pieces of these tumors were then implanted into the choroidal space of recipient rats. After 6 to 8 weeks, the rats were anesthetized with a subcutaneous injection of urethane, and the sclera was exposed. Rhodamine-labeled li-posomes and red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) were injected intravenously. Epifluorescent, intravital microscopy was used to visualize the flow of fluorescent RBCs through individual vessels in the choroid or tumor. Flow through multiple vessels was recorded on videotape for later analysis. From the recordings, RBC flux, RBC velocity (Vc), and microvascular hematocrit (HCTm) were determined. Similar experiments were performed in rats with no tumor growth, and these same parameters were calculated in normal choroidal vessels. RBC flow was characterized in 55 vessels in six OCM-1 tumors and in 153 choroidal vessels in five non–tumor-bearing rats. Results RBC flux was higher in larger tumor vessels (>30 μm in diameter) compared with similarly sized choroidal vessels. There were no differences in the velocities of RBCs through the two types of vessels. HCTm was significantly higher in medium-sized (>20 μm in diameter) and larger tumor vessels compared with normal choroidal vessels. Conclusions These experiments demonstrate differences between hemodynamic parameters in normal choroidal microvessels and microvessels in choroidal melanoma in this animal model. Because HCTm is a key determinant of apparent viscosity, abnormally high HCTm in the tumor vessels would increase vascular resistance and decrease flow. This could have a negative impact on the tumor oxygen levels and on the ability to deliver drugs effectively. On the contrary, higher local HCTm has also been shown to increase oxygen delivery. The impact and interplay of these two effects on tumor oxygenation remain to be determined. PMID:12202528

  1. Plasminogen Activator of the Blood Vessels in Tumours and in Carrageenin-induced Granulomas

    PubMed Central

    Pick, C. R.; Cater, D. B.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrinolytic activity in tumours was studied by the fibrin slide technique. The tumour cells were inactive and fibrinolysis was seen only in areas with young blood vessels. In carrageenin-induced granulomas at 6 days the fibrinolytic activity was small and confined to mature veins, but from 7-14 days activity was high in zones containing young vessels supplying the terminal capillary buds; these latter showed no activity. In old fibrosed granulomas there was no fibrinolytic activity. The vascular permeability changes of inflammation (detected by the colloidal carbon technique) showed no correlation with fibrinolytic activity, and systemic injection of inflammatory agents had no effect on the fibrinolytic activity of the vessels. These findings are discussed in relationship to tumour vascularization. ImagesFigs. 5-8Figs. 1-4 PMID:5547651

  2. Comparison of two algorithms in the automatic segmentation of blood vessels in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeAnder, Robert; Chowdary, Myneni Sushma; Mokkapati, Swapnasri; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2008-03-01

    Effective timing and treatment are critical to saving the sight of patients with diabetes. Lack of screening, as well as a shortage of ophthalmologists, help contribute to approximately 8,000 cases per year of people who lose their sight to diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of new cases of blindness [1] [2]. Timely treatment for diabetic retinopathy prevents severe vision loss in over 50% of eyes tested [1]. Fundus images can provide information for detecting and monitoring eye-related diseases, like diabetic retinopathy, which if detected early, may help prevent vision loss. Damaged blood vessels can indicate the presence of diabetic retinopathy [9]. So, early detection of damaged vessels in retinal images can provide valuable information about the presence of disease, thereby helping to prevent vision loss. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two blood vessel segmentation algorithms. Methods: Fifteen fundus images from the STARE database were used to develop two algorithms using the CVIPtools software environment. Another set of fifteen images were derived from the first fifteen and contained ophthalmologists' hand-drawn tracings over the retinal vessels. The ophthalmologists' tracings were used as the "gold standard" for perfect segmentation and compared with the segmented images that were output by the two algorithms. Comparisons between the segmented and the hand-drawn images were made using Pratt's Figure of Merit (FOM), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Root Mean Square (RMS) Error. Results: Algorithm 2 has an FOM that is 10% higher than Algorithm 1. Algorithm 2 has a 6%-higher SNR than Algorithm 1. Algorithm 2 has only 1.3% more RMS error than Algorithm 1. Conclusions: Algorithm 1 extracted most of the blood vessels with some missing intersections and bifurcations. Algorithm 2 extracted all the major blood vessels, but eradicated some vessels as well. Algorithm 2 outperformed Algorithm 1 in terms of visual clarity, FOM and SNR. The performances of these algorithms show that they have an appreciable amount of potential in helping ophthalmologists detect the severity of eye-related diseases and prevent vision loss.

  3. Blood Vessels Pattern Heparan Sulfate Gradients between Their Apical and Basolateral Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Stoler-Barak, Liat; Moussion, Christine; Shezen, Elias; Hatzav, Miki; Sixt, Michael; Alon, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of immune cell trafficking is directional guidance via gradients of soluble or surface bound chemokines. Vascular endothelial cells produce, transport and deposit either their own chemokines or chemokines produced by the underlying stroma. Endothelial heparan sulfate (HS) was suggested to be a critical scaffold for these chemokine pools, but it is unclear how steep chemokine gradients are sustained between the lumenal and ablumenal aspects of blood vessels. Addressing this question by semi-quantitative immunostaining of HS moieties around blood vessels with a pan anti-HS IgM mAb, we found a striking HS enrichment in the basal lamina of resting and inflamed post capillary skin venules, as well as in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymph nodes. Staining of skin vessels with a glycocalyx probe further suggested that their lumenal glycocalyx contains much lower HS density than their basolateral extracellular matrix (ECM). This polarized HS pattern was observed also in isolated resting and inflamed microvascular dermal cells. Notably, progressive skin inflammation resulted in massive ECM deposition and in further HS enrichment around skin post capillary venules and their associated pericytes. Inflammation-dependent HS enrichment was not compromised in mice deficient in the main HS degrading enzyme, heparanase. Our results suggest that the blood vasculature patterns steep gradients of HS scaffolds between their lumenal and basolateral endothelial aspects, and that inflammatory processes can further enrich the HS content nearby inflamed vessels. We propose that chemokine gradients between the lumenal and ablumenal sides of vessels could be favored by these sharp HS scaffold gradients. PMID:24465652

  4. In Vivo μPIV Measurements of Blood Flow in Small Vessels of a Rat Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Timothy; Conner, Nadine; Russell, John; Legac, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Ongoing research at the University of Wisconsin Medical School is addressing the effects of perfusion of glottal tissue on voice production. Building on the approach developed by Gharib's group at CalTech for embryonic zebra fish, we have modified μPIV to measure flow in capillaries and small blood vessels in a live rat model. In lieu of seeding particles, the DPIV correlation algorithm tracks the motion of red blood cells moving through these vessels. The methodology will be presented along with a video sequence showing measurements made from muscle tissue laid nominally flat on a microscope stage. Challenges of measurements in three-dimensional geometries, i.e. the throat, will be discussed.

  5. Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot

    PubMed Central

    Kastrup, Christian J.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Lee, Haeshin; Kambhampati, Swetha; Lee, Timothy; Cho, Seung-Woo; Gorbatov, Rostic; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Dang, Tram T.; Dutta, Partha; Yeon, Ju Hun; Cheng, Hao; Pritchard, Christopher D.; Vegas, Arturo J.; Siegel, Cory D.; MacDougall, Samantha; Okonkwo, Michael; Thai, Anh; Stone, James R.; Coury, Arthur J.; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of diseased vasculature remains challenging, in part because of the difficulty in implanting drug-eluting devices without subjecting vessels to damaging mechanical forces. Implanting materials using adhesive forces could overcome this challenge, but materials have previously not been shown to durably adhere to intact endothelium under blood flow. Marine mussels secrete strong underwater adhesives that have been mimicked in synthetic systems. Here we develop a drug-eluting bioadhesive gel that can be locally and durably glued onto the inside surface of blood vessels. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, inflamed plaques treated with steroid-eluting adhesive gels had reduced macrophage content and developed protective fibrous caps covering the plaque core. Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. The drug-eluting devices developed here provide a general strategy for implanting therapeutics in the vasculature using adhesive forces and could potentially be used to stabilize rupture-prone plaques. PMID:23236189

  6. Integrin-Mediated Cell-Matrix Interaction in Physiological and Pathological Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Niland, Stephan; Eble, Johannes A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological as well as pathological blood vessel formation are fundamentally dependent on cell-matrix interaction. Integrins, a family of major cell adhesion receptors, play a pivotal role in development, maintenance, and remodeling of the vasculature. Cell migration, invasion, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are integrin-regulated processes, and the expression of certain integrins also correlates with tumor progression. Recent advances in the understanding of how integrins are involved in the regulation of blood vessel formation and remodeling during tumor progression are highlighted. The increasing knowledge of integrin function at the molecular level, together with the growing repertoire of integrin inhibitors which allow their selective pharmacological manipulation, makes integrins suited as potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:21941547

  7. Monte Carlo simulations of light interaction with blood vessels in human skin in the red-wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Henrik; Nilsson, Gert E.

    1998-06-01

    An attempt was made at determining if the elastically backscattered Doppler shifted light from cutaneous blood vessels merely emanates from the peripheral parts, or also from the more central core of these vessels, after illumination by red laser light (632 nm). A multilayered, semi-infinite Monte Carlo model of human skin was constructed accordingly, with separate layers or epidermis, dermis including blood, inferior vascular plexus and subcutaneous fat. Two concentric cylinders of infinite length and with varying diameters, representing core and peripheral parts of a blood vessel, were located at various depths in the skin model, either in the superior or inferior vascular plexus. In order to test the stability of the model predictions, widely varying values of the optical properties were employed in the calculations, trying to encompass most of the extreme values found in the literature. The number of photons Doppler shifted by a fixed size central core of a small blood vessel, is independent of the volume of blood surrounding this core in the rest of the blood vessel, provided the total number of detected photons is maintained constant, and the vessel dimensions are within human physiological limits. For the source/detector system simulated (one optical fiber 700 micrometer diameter), backscattered light Doppler shifted in superficial blood vessels constituted almost all the photons detected, with only very few photons having interacted with the inferior plexus.

  8. Angiopoietin-4 increases permeability of blood vessels and promotes lymphatic dilation.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Cristina T; Pereira, Ethel R; Cui, Cheryl H; Nelson, Gregory M; Masuck, David J; Baish, James W; Padera, Timothy P

    2015-09-01

    The angiopoietin (Ang) ligands are potential therapeutic targets for lymphatic related diseases, which include lymphedema and cancer. Ang-1 and Ang-2 functions are established, but those of Ang-4 are poorly understood. We used intravital fluorescence microscopy to characterize Ang-4 actions on T241 murine fibrosarcoma-associated vessels in mice. The diameters of lymphatic vessels draining Ang-4- or VEGF-C (positive control)-expressing tumors increased to 123 and 135 μm, respectively, and parental, mock-transduced (negative controls) and tumors expressing Ang-1 or Ang-2 remained at baseline (∼60 μm). Ang-4 decreased human dermal lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) monolayer permeability by 27% while increasing human dermal blood endothelial cell (BEC) monolayer permeability by 200%. In vivo, Ang-4 stimulated a 4.5-fold increase in tumor-associated blood vessel permeability compared with control when measured using intravital quantitative multiphoton microscopy. Ang-4 activated receptor signaling in both LECs and BECs, evidenced by tyrosine kinase with Ig and endothelial growth factor homology domains-2 (TIE2) receptor, protein kinase B, and Erk1,2 phosphorylation detectable by immunoblotting. These data suggest that Ang-4 actions are mediated through cell-type-specific networks and that lymphatic vessel dilation occurs secondarily to increased vascular leakage. Ang-4 also promoted survival of LECs. Thus, blocking Ang-4 may prune the draining lymphatic vasculature and decrease interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) by reducing vascular permeability. PMID:25977256

  9. Schlemm's canal is a unique vessel with a combination of blood vascular and lymphatic phenotypes that forms by a novel developmental process.

    PubMed

    Kizhatil, Krishnakumar; Ryan, Margaret; Marchant, Jeffrey K; Henrich, Stephen; John, Simon W M

    2014-07-01

    Schlemm's canal (SC) plays central roles in ocular physiology. These roles depend on the molecular phenotypes of SC endothelial cells (SECs). Both the specific phenotype of SECs and development of SC remain poorly defined. To allow a modern and extensive analysis of SC and its origins, we developed a new whole-mount procedure to visualize its development in the context of surrounding tissues. We then applied genetic lineage tracing, specific-fluorescent reporter genes, immunofluorescence, high-resolution confocal microscopy, and three-dimensional (3D) rendering to study SC. Using these techniques, we show that SECs have a unique phenotype that is a blend of both blood and lymphatic endothelial cell phenotypes. By analyzing whole mounts of postnatal mouse eyes progressively to adulthood, we show that SC develops from blood vessels through a newly discovered process that we name "canalogenesis." Functional inhibition of KDR (VEGFR2), a critical receptor in initiating angiogenesis, shows that this receptor is required during canalogenesis. Unlike angiogenesis and similar to stages of vasculogenesis, during canalogenesis tip cells divide and form branched chains prior to vessel formation. Differing from both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, during canalogenesis SECs express Prox1, a master regulator of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic phenotypes. Thus, SC development resembles a blend of vascular developmental programs. These advances define SC as a unique vessel with a combination of blood vascular and lymphatic phenotypes. They are important for dissecting its functions that are essential for ocular health and normal vision. PMID:25051267

  10. Dual-body magnetic helical robot for drilling and cargo delivery in human blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonseo; Jeon, Seungmun; Nam, Jaekwang; Jang, Gunhee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel dual-body magnetic helical robot (DMHR) manipulated by a magnetic navigation system. The proposed DMHR can generate helical motions to navigate in human blood vessels and to drill blood clots by an external rotating magnetic field. It can also generate release motions which are relative rotational motions between dual-bodies to release the carrying cargos to a target region by controlling the magnitude of an external magnetic field. Constraint equations were derived to selectively manipulate helical and release motions by controlling external magnetic fields. The DMHR was prototyped and various experiments were conducted to demonstrate its motions and verify its manipulation methods.

  11. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)-which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)-which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24min at a gas supersaturation of 620kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration. PMID:26592146

  12. Elastomeric free-form blood vessels for interconnecting organs on chip systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Bakht, Syeda Mahwish; Aleman, Julio; Shin, Su Ryon; Yue, Kan; Sica, Marco; Ribas, João; Duchamp, Margaux; Ju, Jie; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Atala, Anthony; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-04-26

    Conventional blood vessel-on-a-chip models are typically based on microchannel-like structures enclosed within bulk elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, these bulk vascular models largely function as individual platforms and exhibit limited flexibility particularly when used in conjunction with other organ modules. Oftentimes, lengthy connectors and/or tubes are still needed to interface multiple chips, resulting in a large waste volume counterintuitive to the miniaturized nature of organs-on-chips. In this work, we report the development of a novel form of a vascular module based on PDMS hollow tubes, which closely emulates the morphology and properties of human blood vessels to integrate multiple organs-on-chips. Specifically, we present two templating strategies to fabricate hollow PDMS tubes with adjustable diameters and wall thicknesses, where metal rods or airflow were employed as the inner templates, while plastic tubes were used as the outer template. The PDMS tubes could then be functionalized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in their interior surfaces to further construct elastomeric biomimetic blood vessels. The endothelium developed biofunctionality as demonstrated by the expression of an endothelial biomarker (CD31) as well as dose-dependent responses in the secretion of von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide upon treatment with pharmaceutical compounds. We believe that with their clear advantages including high optical transparency, gas permeability, and tunable elasticity matching those of native blood vessels, these free-form PDMS vascular modules can supplement bulk vascular organoids and likely replace inert plastic tubes in integrating multiple organoids into a single microfluidic circuitry. PMID:26999423

  13. Macrophage-Induced Blood Vessels Guide Schwann Cell-Mediated Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves.

    PubMed

    Cattin, Anne-Laure; Burden, Jemima J; Van Emmenis, Lucie; Mackenzie, Francesca E; Hoving, Julian J A; Garcia Calavia, Noelia; Guo, Yanping; McLaughlin, Maeve; Rosenberg, Laura H; Quereda, Victor; Jamecna, Denisa; Napoli, Ilaria; Parrinello, Simona; Enver, Tariq; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Lloyd, Alison C

    2015-08-27

    The peripheral nervous system has remarkable regenerative capacities in that it can repair a fully cut nerve. This requires Schwann cells to migrate collectively to guide regrowing axons across a 'bridge' of new tissue, which forms to reconnect a severed nerve. Here we show that blood vessels direct the migrating cords of Schwann cells. This multicellular process is initiated by hypoxia, selectively sensed by macrophages within the bridge, which via VEGF-A secretion induce a polarized vasculature that relieves the hypoxia. Schwann cells then use the blood vessels as "tracks" to cross the bridge taking regrowing axons with them. Importantly, disrupting the organization of the newly formed blood vessels in vivo, either by inhibiting the angiogenic signal or by re-orienting them, compromises Schwann cell directionality resulting in defective nerve repair. This study provides important insights into how the choreography of multiple cell-types is required for the regeneration of an adult tissue. PMID:26279190

  14. Automatic segmentation of blood vessels from MR angiography volume data by using fuzzy logic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, Syoji; Hata, Yutaka; Tokimoto, Yasuhiro; Ishikawa, Makato

    1999-05-01

    This paper shows a novel medical image segmentation method applied to blood vessel segmentation from magnetic resonance angiography volume data. The principle idea of the method is fuzzy information granulation concept. The method consists of 2 parts: (1) quantization and feature extraction, (2) iterative fuzzy synthesis. In the first part, volume quantization is performed with watershed segmentation technique. Each quantum is represented by three features, vascularity, narrowness and histogram consistency. Using these features, we estimate the fuzzy degrees of each quantum for knowledge models about MRA volume data. In the second part, the method increases the fuzzy degrees by selectively synthesizing neighboring quantums. As a result, we obtain some synthesized quantums. We regard them as fuzzy granules and classify them into blood vessel or fat by evaluating the fuzzy degrees. In the experimental result, three dimensional images are generated using target maximum intensity projection (MIP) and surface shaded display. The comparison with conventional MIP images shows that the unclarity region in conventional images are clearly depict in our images. The qualitative evaluation done by a physician shows that our method can extract blood vessel region and that the results are useful to diagnose the cerebral diseases.

  15. Accessing the structure and function information of deep skin blood vessels with noninvasive optical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhi, Zhongwei; Han, Zhenzhen; Liu, Caihua; Mao, Zongzhen; Wen, Xiang; Zhu, Dan

    2009-02-01

    The occurrence, development and curative effect of many diseases are relative to the structure and function of hypodermic blood vessels. The optical imaging techniques may be available, but suffer from the limited penetration of visible and near infrared light caused by the high scattering of skin. The tissue optical clearing technique based on immersion of tissues into optical clearing agents (OCAs), proposed by Tuchin, can improve the depth to which light penetrates. However, it is still difficult to meet skin in vivo except for OCAs hypodermic injection. In this study, THIAZONE as a new penetration enhancer mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG-400), was typically applied to rats' skin in vivo. The optical clearing process of skin was monitored with CCD camera, and the deep blood flow information of skin was acquired by using of laser speckle contrast imaging technique. The results show that the skin became transparent after 12 minutes, the vessels were clear. After 40 minutes, acting saline on the interested region, we observed a recovery of the skin. This work is very significant for medical diagnosis since it is able to acquire the structure and function information of blood vessels in deep skin in vivo with non-invasive optical method.

  16. High-resolution in-situ LDV monitoring system for measuring velocity distribution in blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Abe, Shotaro; Ishida, Hiroki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Takada, Yogo; Teranishi, Tsunenobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    We herein describe a cross-sectional multiple-point laser Doppler velocimetry (CS-MLDV) system for monitoring blood vessels that are sutured and connected during an operation. In order to observe the condition of a blood vessel during an operation, the previously developed linear MLDV (L-MLDV) system can realize velocity distribution imaging of the carotid artery in a living mouse by means of traverse laser light. We subsequently developed a CS-MLDV system, which can measure the instantaneous two-dimensional (2D) flow velocity, by upgrading the optical components and signal processing used in L-MLDV. The validity of the CS-MLDV results was verified through comparison with the results of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The results of the CFD analysis were similar to the experimental results obtained under the same flow field condition. Moreover, an instantaneous 2D velocity distribution can be obtained even for the case of flowing blood. Finally, we carried out in-vivo measurement in a mesenteric vessel of a mouse in order to demonstrate the potential of the CS-MLDV for use in surgery.

  17. Development of blood vessel-related radiation damage in the fimbria of the central nervous system

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhold, H.S.; Calvo, W.; Hopewell, J.W.; van der Berg, A.P. )

    1990-01-01

    The identification problem of the dose-limiting tissue component was investigated in the CNS of rats. Moderate single doses of radiation, ranging from 20 to 25 Gy were applied to the brain of adult female rats. The sequence of events was analyzed by scoring a series of morphological changes in one of the white matter structures that appears to represent a sensitive location, that is the fimbria hippocampi. The previously defined Tissue Injury Unit, characterized by a dilation of the blood vessel lumen, a thickening of the blood vessel wall, an enlargement of endothelial cell nuclei, and a hypertrophy of the adjacent astrocytes which represents a combined score of four different, but related histological changes, proved to be slightly more sensitive and responsive than the earliest recognizable changes in the neurological structures, that is demyelination. In addition, the incidence of demyelination could be expressed as a function of the intensity of the Tissue Injury Unit. These findings can be interpreted as an additional indication that blood vessel changes and the hypertrophy of the perivascular astrocytes precede degenerative changes in the white matter of the CNS after moderate doses of X rays.

  18. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 μm located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  19. Macrophage-Induced Blood Vessels Guide Schwann Cell-Mediated Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Cattin, Anne-Laure; Burden, Jemima J.; Van Emmenis, Lucie; Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Hoving, Julian J.A.; Garcia Calavia, Noelia; Guo, Yanping; McLaughlin, Maeve; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Quereda, Victor; Jamecna, Denisa; Napoli, Ilaria; Parrinello, Simona; Enver, Tariq; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Lloyd, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The peripheral nervous system has remarkable regenerative capacities in that it can repair a fully cut nerve. This requires Schwann cells to migrate collectively to guide regrowing axons across a ‘bridge’ of new tissue, which forms to reconnect a severed nerve. Here we show that blood vessels direct the migrating cords of Schwann cells. This multicellular process is initiated by hypoxia, selectively sensed by macrophages within the bridge, which via VEGF-A secretion induce a polarized vasculature that relieves the hypoxia. Schwann cells then use the blood vessels as “tracks” to cross the bridge taking regrowing axons with them. Importantly, disrupting the organization of the newly formed blood vessels in vivo, either by inhibiting the angiogenic signal or by re-orienting them, compromises Schwann cell directionality resulting in defective nerve repair. This study provides important insights into how the choreography of multiple cell-types is required for the regeneration of an adult tissue. PMID:26279190

  20. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures

    PubMed Central

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 μm located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  1. Transcranial imaging of functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in single blood vessels using in vivo photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Chin-Teng; Shih, Yen-Yu I; Duong, Timothy Q; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Po-Hsun; Wu, Robby; Tsang, Siny; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Li, Meng-Lin; Chen, You-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Optical imaging of changes in total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) provides a means to investigate brain hemodynamic regulation. However, high-resolution transcranial imaging remains challenging. In this study, we applied a novel functional photoacoustic microscopy technique to probe the responses of single cortical vessels to left forepaw electrical stimulation in mice with intact skulls. Functional changes in HbT, CBV, and SO2 in the superior sagittal sinus and different-sized arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were bilaterally imaged with unambiguous 36 × 65-μm2 spatial resolution. In addition, an early decrease of SO2 in single blood vessels during activation (i.e., ‘the initial dip') was observed. Our results indicate that the initial dip occurred specifically in small arterioles of activated regions but not in large veins. This technique complements other existing imaging approaches for the investigation of the hemodynamic responses in single cerebral blood vessels. PMID:22472612

  2. Microcirculation-on-a-Chip: A Microfluidic Platform for Assaying Blood- and Lymphatic-Vessel Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Miwa; Sasaki, Naoki; Ato, Manabu; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sato, Kiichi; Sato, Kae

    2015-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic model of microcirculation containing both blood and lymphatic vessels for examining vascular permeability. The designed microfluidic device harbors upper and lower channels that are partly aligned and are separated by a porous membrane, and on this membrane, blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were cocultured back-to-back. At cell-cell junctions of both BECs and LECs, claudin-5 and VE-cadherin were detected. The permeability coefficient measured here was lower than the value reported for isolated mammalian venules. Moreover, our results showed that the flow culture established in the device promoted the formation of endothelial cell-cell junctions, and that treatment with histamine, an inflammation-promoting substance, induced changes in the localization of tight and adherens junction-associated proteins and an increase in vascular permeability in the microdevice. These findings indicated that both BECs and LECs appeared to retain their functions in the microfluidic coculture platform. Using this microcirculation device, the vascular damage induced by habu snake venom was successfully assayed, and the assay time was reduced from 24 h to 30 min. This is the first report of a microcirculation model in which BECs and LECs were cocultured. Because the micromodel includes lymphatic vessels in addition to blood vessels, the model can be used to evaluate both vascular permeability and lymphatic return rate. PMID:26332321

  3. An experimental study to replace the thoracic descending aorta for pigs with a self-made sutureless blood vessel.

    PubMed

    Song, Fenglin; Zhou, Wenwu; Tang, Tao; Li, Xiaobing; Wu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jinfu

    2014-01-01

    To simplify the procedure of blood vessel replacement operation and shorten the vascular anastomosis time, we developed a special artificial blood vessel which can be connected to native blood vessels without suture. The self-made sutureless blood vessel (SMSBV) was made from two titanium connectors and a Gore-Tex graft. To investigate blood compatibility and histocompatibility of the SMSBV, we carried thoracic descending aorta replacement using either SMSBV or Gore-Tex, respectively, in pigs. The aortic clamp time and the operative blood loss in the experimental group (using SMSBV) were less than those in the control group (using Gore-Tex). The whole blood hematocrit, platelet count, plasma soluble P-selectin, plasma free hemoglobin, and interleukins 2, 6 at each time point were not different significantly between the two groups. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination showed there were layers of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells adhered in the inner wall of artificial blood vessel without any signs of thrombosis. Based on the result, we have drawn the conclusion that the application of SMSBV can significantly shorten the vascular anastomosis time, reduce operative blood loss, and show good blood and tissue compatibility. PMID:24696856

  4. An Experimental Study to Replace the Thoracic Descending Aorta for Pigs with a Self-Made Sutureless Blood Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fenglin; Zhou, Wenwu; Tang, Tao; Li, Xiaobing; Wu, Xiaoming; Yang, Jinfu

    2014-01-01

    To simplify the procedure of blood vessel replacement operation and shorten the vascular anastomosis time, we developed a special artificial blood vessel which can be connected to native blood vessels without suture. The self-made sutureless blood vessel (SMSBV) was made from two titanium connectors and a Gore-Tex graft. To investigate blood compatibility and histocompatibility of the SMSBV, we carried thoracic descending aorta replacement using either SMSBV or Gore-Tex, respectively, in pigs. The aortic clamp time and the operative blood loss in the experimental group (using SMSBV) were less than those in the control group (using Gore-Tex). The whole blood hematocrit, platelet count, plasma soluble P-selectin, plasma free hemoglobin, and interleukins 2, 6 at each time point were not different significantly between the two groups. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy examination showed there were layers of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells adhered in the inner wall of artificial blood vessel without any signs of thrombosis. Based on the result, we have drawn the conclusion that the application of SMSBV can significantly shorten the vascular anastomosis time, reduce operative blood loss, and show good blood and tissue compatibility. PMID:24696856

  5. Spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masaru; Sato, Shun; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    To realize the non-invasive blood glucose measurement, it will be effective to acquire the spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for eliminating other biological-component's disturbances. Our proposed imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopic imaging can limit the measuring depth into focal plane with high light detection sensitivity. Thus, the proposed method will be suitable for measuring only near the skin surface with detecting weak reflected light from inner biomembrane. But reflectance of skin surface is more than 1000 times larger than inner skin's reflectance. Paying attention on Fresnel reflection, fingers what were illuminated by p-polarized beam from Brewster's angle were observed with crossed-Nicol dark field optics. We successfully acquired spectroscopic characteristics of hemoglobin at vein area near the skin surface.

  6. Thin and open vessel windows for intra-vital fluorescence imaging of murine cochlear blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaorui; Zhang, Fei; Urdang, Zachary; Dai, Min; Neng, Lingling; Zhang, Jinhui; Chen, Songlin; Ramamoorthy, Sripriya; Nuttall, Alfred L.

    2014-01-01

    Normal microvessel structure and function in the cochlea is essential for maintaining the ionic and metabolic homeostasis required for hearing function. Abnormal cochlear microcirculation has long been considered an etiologic factor in hearing disorders. A better understanding of cochlear blood flow (CoBF) will enable more effective amelioration of hearing disorders that result from aberrant blood flow. However, establishing the direct relationship between CoBF and other cellular events in the lateral wall and response to physio-pathological stress remains a challenge due to the lack of feasible interrogation methods and difficulty in accessing the inner ear. Here we report on new methods for studying the CoBF in a mouse model using a thin or open vessel-window in combination with fluorescence intra-vital microscopy (IVM). An open vessel-window enables investigation of vascular cell biology and blood flow permeability, including pericyte (PC) contractility, bone marrow cell migration, and endothelial barrier leakage, in wild type and fluorescent protein-labeled transgenic mouse models with high spatial and temporal resolution. Alternatively, the thin vessel-window method minimizes disruption of the homeostatic balance in the lateral wall and enables study CoBF under relatively intact physiological conditions. A thin vessel-window method can also be used for time-based studies of physiological and pathological processes. Although the small size of the mouse cochlea makes surgery difficult, the methods are sufficiently developed for studying the structural and functional changes in CoBF under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:24780131

  7. Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomer patterns differ among several tissues and blood of polar bears.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally distributed persistent organic pollutant that has been found to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs. Although principally in its linear isomeric configuration, 21-35% of the PFOS manufactured via electrochemical fluorination is produced as a branched structural isomer. PFOS isomer patterns were investigated in multiple tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland. The liver (n = 9), blood (n = 19), brain (n = 16), muscle (n = 5), and adipose (n = 5) were analyzed for linear PFOS (n-PFOS), as well as multiple mono- and di-trifluoromethyl-substituted branched isomers. n-PFOS accounted for 93.0 ± 0.5% of Σ-PFOS isomer concentrations in the liver, whereas the proportion was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the blood (85.4 ± 0.5%). Branched isomers were quantifiable in the liver and blood, but not in the brain, muscle, or adipose. In both the liver and blood, 6-perfluoromethylheptane sulfonate (P6MHpS) was the dominant branched isomer (2.61 ± 0.10%, and 3.26 ± 0.13% of Σ-PFOS concentrations, respectively). No di-trifluoromethyl-substituted isomers were detectable in any of the tissues analyzed. These tissue-specific isomer patterns suggest isomer-specific pharmacokinetics, perhaps due to differences in protein affinities, and thus differences in protein interactions, as well transport, absorption, and/or metabolism in the body. PMID:23920361

  8. Vascularization of normal and neoplastic tissues grafted to the chick chorioallantois. Role of host and preexisting graft blood vessels.

    PubMed Central

    Ausprunk, D. H.; Knighton, D. R.; Folkman, J.

    1975-01-01

    Adult, embryonic, and tumor tissues were grafted to the chorioallantoic membrane of the chick embryo to determine whether blood vessels originally within implants were reused in the establishment of a new blood supply. Grafts were examined daily by in vivo stereomicroscopy and in histologic sections. Colloidal carbon injections into the host vasculature served to confirm the precise onset of graft circulation; Preexisting tumor blood vessels disintegrated by 24 hours after implantation and revascularization occurred at 3 days by penetration of proliferating host vessels into the tumor tissue. Adult tissues did not revascularize, and the original graft vasculature progressively disintegrated during the 9 days of observation, Most embryonic tissues revascularized in 1 or 2 days by reperfusion of the existing graft vasculature. Anastomosis of host and graft blood vessels seemed to result from connections between newly formed vascular sprouts arising from both vasculatures. This study indicates that only tumor grafts acquire their blood supply solely by formation of new blood vessels from the host microvasculature. By contrast revascularization of normal tissues, when it does occur, is predominately the result of perfusion of the preexisting graft blood vessels. Images Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:1094838

  9. An accurate, convective energy equation based automated meshing technique for analysis of blood vessels and tissues.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Dutton, A W; Schmidt, J A; Roemer, R B

    2000-01-01

    An automated three-element meshing method for generating finite element based models for the accurate thermal analysis of blood vessels imbedded in tissue has been developed and evaluated. The meshing method places eight noded hexahedral elements inside the vessels where advective flows exist, and four noded tetrahedral elements in the surrounding tissue. The higher order hexahedrals are used where advective flow fields occur, since high accuracy is required and effective upwinding algorithms exist. Tetrahedral elements are placed in the remaining tissue region, since they are computationally more efficient and existing automatic tetrahedral mesh generators can be used. Five noded pyramid elements connect the hexahedrals and tetrahedrals. A convective energy equation (CEE) based finite element algorithm solves for the temperature distributions in the flowing blood, while a finite element formulation of a generalized conduction equation is used in the surrounding tissue. Use of the CEE allows accurate solutions to be obtained without the necessity of assuming ad hoc values for heat transfer coefficients. Comparisons of the predictions of the three-element model to analytical solutions show that the three-element model accurately simulates temperature fields. Energy balance checks show that the three-element model has small, acceptable errors. In summary, this method provides an accurate, automatic finite element gridding procedure for thermal analysis of irregularly shaped tissue regions that contain important blood vessels. At present, the models so generated are relatively large (in order to obtain accurate results) and are, thus, best used for providing accurate reference values for checking other approximate formulations to complicated, conjugated blood heat transfer problems. PMID:10763743

  10. Are Retinal Vessels Calibers Influenced by Blood Pressure Measured at the Time of Retinography Acquisition?

    PubMed Central

    Pakter, Helena M.; Maestri, Marcelo K.; Beltrami-Moreira, Marina; Gus, Miguel; Moreira, Leila B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinal arterial narrowing is associated with higher office blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, but it is still unknown if the vessel caliber is associated with BP measured at the time of retinography acquisition. Methods Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured by the microdensitometric method in 448 patients with hypertension. Participants underwent 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP) monitoring simultaneously with the retinography acquisition. Association between arteriolar and venular calibers with increase of 10 mmHg in the mean 24-hours, daily, and nightly BP, and with BP measured at the time of retinography, was evaluated by ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Results Mean 24-hours, daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP were inversely associated with the arteriolar caliber, but not with the venular caliber. Arteriolar caliber decreased -0.8 (95% CI -1.4 to -0.2) μm per 10-mmHg increase in 24-hours mean systolic BP, adjusted for age, gender, fellow vessel, and duration of hypertension (P = 0.01). The corresponding decreasing in arteriolar caliber by 10 mmHg of increasing in mean diastolic BP was -1.1 μm (-2.0 to -0.2, P = 0.02). The decrease of arteriolar caliber by the same increasing of BP measured at the time of retinography was lower and not statistically significant, particularly for mean diastolic BP and outer arterioles calibers: -1.0 (-1.8 to -0.2) μm in the daytime BP average versus -0.3 (-0.9 to 0.3) at the moment of retinography acquisition. Conclusions These findings suggest that the caliber of arteriolar retinal vessels in patients with uncontrolled hypertension are not significantly influenced by blood pressure measured at the time of retinography acquisition. PMID:26375034

  11. Regulation of Cellular Communication by Signaling Microdomains in the Blood Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Billaud, Marie; Lohman, Alexander W.; Johnstone, Scott R.; Biwer, Lauren A.; Mutchler, Stephanie; Isakson, Brant E.

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the accumulation of proteins in specific regions of the plasma membrane can facilitate cellular communication. These regions, termed signaling microdomains, are found throughout the blood vessel wall where cellular communication, both within and between cell types, must be tightly regulated to maintain proper vascular function. We will define a cellular signaling microdomain and apply this definition to the plethora of means by which cellular communication has been hypothesized to occur in the blood vessel wall. To that end, we make a case for three broad areas of cellular communication where signaling microdomains could play an important role: 1) paracrine release of free radicals and gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; 2) role of ion channels including gap junctions and potassium channels, especially those associated with the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization mediated signaling, and lastly, 3) mechanism of exocytosis that has considerable oversight by signaling microdomains, especially those associated with the release of von Willebrand factor. When summed, we believe that it is clear that the organization and regulation of signaling microdomains is an essential component to vessel wall function. PMID:24671377

  12. First-order system least squares for elastohydrodynamics with application to flow in compliant blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Heys, Jeffrey J; DeGroff, Curt G; Orlando, Wendy W; Manteuffel, Thomas A; McCormick, Stephen F

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of compliant blood vessels generally involves the Navier-Stokes equations on the evolving fluid domain and constitutive structural equations on the tissue domain. Coupling these systems while accounting for the changing shape of the fluid domain is a major challenge in numerical simulation. Many techniques have been developed to model compliant vessels, but all suffer from disproportionate increase in computational cost as problem complexity increases (i.e., larger domains, more dimensions, and more variables.). Even the best standard methods result in computational cost that typically grows quadratically with the degrees of freedom. Using a least-squares formulation of the problem, elliptic grid generation for the changing fluid domain, and an algebraic multigrid solver for the linear system can overcome many shortcomings of standard techniques. Most notably, the computational cost of solving the problem increases linearly with the degrees of freedom and the associated functional provides an a posteriori error measurement. Least squares represents a systematic approach for formulating the original problem so that the numerical process becomes straightforward and optimal, and it avoids restrictions that often limit other methods. Results are presented for a two-dimensional test problem consisting of a Newtonian fluid with properties of blood in a linear-elastic vessel with properties of smooth muscle. PMID:12085616

  13. Drug and light dose responses to focal photodynamic therapy of single blood vessels in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Mamta; Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Samkoe, Kimberley; Cramb, David; Wilson, Brian C.

    2009-11-01

    As part of an ongoing program to develop two-photon (2-γ) photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of wet-form age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other vascular pathologies, we have evaluated the reciprocity of drug-light doses in focal-PDT. We targeted individual arteries in a murine window chamber model, using primarily the clinical photosensitizer Visudyne/liposomal-verteporfin. Shortly after administration of the photosensitizer, a small region including an arteriole was selected and irradiated with varying light doses. Targeted and nearby vessels were observed for a maximum of 17 to 25 h to assess vascular shutdown, tapering, and dye leakage/occlusion. For a given end-point metric, there was reciprocity between the drug and light doses, i.e., the response correlated with the drug-light product (DLP). These results provide the first quantification of photosensitizer and light dose relationships for localized irradiation of a single blood vessel and are compared to the DLP required for vessel closure between 1-γ and 2-γ activation, between focal and broad-beam irradiation, and between verteporfin and a porphyrin dimer with high 2-γ cross section. Demonstration of reciprocity over a wide range of DLP is important for further development of focal PDT treatments, such as the targeting of feeder vessels in 2-γ PDT of AMD.

  14. Drug and light dose responses to focal photodynamic therapy of single blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Mamta; Moriyama, Eduardo H; Mariampillai, Adrian; Samkoe, Kimberley; Cramb, David; Wilson, Brian C

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program to develop two-photon (2-gamma) photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of wet-form age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other vascular pathologies, we have evaluated the reciprocity of drug-light doses in focal-PDT. We targeted individual arteries in a murine window chamber model, using primarily the clinical photosensitizer Visudyne/liposomal-verteporfin. Shortly after administration of the photosensitizer, a small region including an arteriole was selected and irradiated with varying light doses. Targeted and nearby vessels were observed for a maximum of 17 to 25 h to assess vascular shutdown, tapering, and dye leakage/occlusion. For a given end-point metric, there was reciprocity between the drug and light doses, i.e., the response correlated with the drug-light product (DLP). These results provide the first quantification of photosensitizer and light dose relationships for localized irradiation of a single blood vessel and are compared to the DLP required for vessel closure between 1-gamma and 2-gamma activation, between focal and broad-beam irradiation, and between verteporfin and a porphyrin dimer with high 2-gamma cross section. Demonstration of reciprocity over a wide range of DLP is important for further development of focal PDT treatments, such as the targeting of feeder vessels in 2-gamma PDT of AMD. PMID:20059244

  15. Angiotensin inhibition enhances drug delivery and potentiates chemotherapy by decompressing tumour blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vikash P.; Martin, John D.; Liu, Hao; Lacorre, Delphine A.; Jain, Saloni R.; Kozin, Sergey V.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Mousa, Ahmed S.; Han, Xiaoxing; Adstamongkonkul, Pichet; Popović, Zoran; Huang, Peigen; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Boucher, Yves; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and stromal cells actively exert physical forces (solid stress) to compress tumour blood vessels, thus reducing vascular perfusion. Tumour interstitial matrix also contributes to solid stress, with hyaluronan implicated as the primary matrix molecule responsible for vessel compression because of its swelling behaviour. Here we show, unexpectedly, that hyaluronan compresses vessels only in collagen-rich tumours, suggesting that collagen and hyaluronan together are critical targets for decompressing tumour vessels. We demonstrate that the angiotensin inhibitor losartan reduces stromal collagen and hyaluronan production, associated with decreased expression of profibrotic signals TGF-β1, CCN2 and ET-1, downstream of angiotensin-II-receptor-1 inhibition. Consequently, losartan reduces solid stress in tumours resulting in increased vascular perfusion. Through this physical mechanism, losartan improves drug and oxygen delivery to tumours, thereby potentiating chemotherapy and reducing hypoxia in breast and pancreatic cancer models. Thus, angiotensin inhibitors —inexpensive drugs with decades of safe use — could be rapidly repurposed as cancer therapeutics. PMID:24084631

  16. Quantitative metabolic profiling of NMR spectral signatures of branched chain amino acids in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumita; Sengupta, Arjun; Chandra, Kousik

    2015-10-01

    Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) are related to different aspects of diseases like pathogenesis, diagnosis and even prognosis. While in some diseases, levels of all the BCAAs are perturbed; in some cases, perturbation occurs in one or two while the rest remain unaltered. In case of ischemic heart disease, there is an enhanced level of plasma leucine and isoleucine but valine level remains unaltered. In 'Hypervalinemia', valine is elevated in serum and urine, but not leucine and isoleucine. Therefore, identification of these metabolites and profiling of individual BCAA in a quantitative manner in body-fluid like blood plasma/serum have long been in demand. (1)H NMR resonances of the BCAAs overlap with each other which complicates quantification of individual BCAAs. Further, the situation is limited by the overlap of broad resonances of lipoprotein with the resonances of BCAAs. The widely used commercially available kits cannot differentially estimate the BCAAs. Here, we have achieved proper identification and characterization of these BCAAs in serum in a quantitative manner employing a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based technique namely T2-edited Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY). This approach can easily be extended to other body fluids like bile, follicular fluids, saliva, etc. PMID:25991390

  17. Understanding How Space Travel Affects Blood Vessels: Arterial Remodeling and Functional Adaptations Induced by Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Michael; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ever rise quickly from the couch to get something from the kitchen and suddenly feel dizzy? With a low heart rate and relaxed muscles, the cardiovascular system does not immediately provide the resistance necessary to keep enough blood going to your head. Gravity wins, at least for a short time, before your heart and blood vessels can respond to the sudden change in position and correct the situation. Actually, the human cardiovascular system is quite well adapted to the constant gravitational force of the Earth. When standing, vessels in the legs constrict to prevent blood from collecting in the lower extremities. In the space environment, the usual head-to-foot blood pressure and tissue fluid gradients that exist during the upright posture on Earth are removed. The subsequent shift in fluids from the lower to the upper portions of the body triggers adaptations within the cardiovascular system to accommodate the new pressure and fluid gradients. In animal models that simulate microgravity, the vessels in the head become more robust while those in the lower limbs become thin and lax. Similar changes may also occur in humans during spaceflight and while these adaptations are appropriate for a microgravity environment, they can cause problems when the astronauts return to Earth or perhaps another planet. Astronauts often develop orthostatic intolerance which means they become dizzy or faint when standing upright. This dizziness can persist for a number of days making routine activities difficult. In an effort to understand the physiological details of these cardiovascular adaptations, Dr. Michael Delp at Texas A&M University, uses the rat as a model for his studies. For the experiment flown on STS-107, he will test the hypothesis that blood vessels in the rats' hindlimbs become thinner, weaker, and constrict less in response to pressure changes and to chemical signals when exposed to microgravity. In addition, he will test the hypothesis that arteries in the brain become thicker as a result of microgravity-induced fluid shifts toward the head.

  18. Segmentation of Blood Vessels and 3D Representation of CMR Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiji, G. W.

    2013-06-01

    Current cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) technology allows the determination of patient-individual coronary tree structure, detection of infarctions, and assessment of myocardial perfusion. The purpose of this work is to segment heart blood vessels and visualize it in 3D. In this work, 3D visualisation of vessel was performed into four phases. The first step is to detect the tubular structures using multiscale medialness function, which distinguishes tube-like structures from and other structures. Second step is to extract the centrelines of the tubes. From the centreline radius the cylindrical tube model is constructed. The third step is segmentation of the tubular structures. The cylindrical tube model is used in segmentation process. Fourth step is to 3D representation of the tubular structure using Volume . The proposed approach is applied to 10 datasets of patients from the clinical routine and tested the results with radiologists.

  19. Imaging of subcutaneous blood vessels and flow velocity profiles by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonesi, M.; Proskurin, S. G.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2010-04-01

    We have applied a compact low power rapid scanning Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography system to monitor multi-dimensional velocity profiles within the complex vessels and simultaneous real-time non-invasive imaging of skin tissues morphology in vivo, in the wavelength range of 1.3-1.5 nm. Optical clearing of skin tissues has been utilized to achieve depth of OCT images up to 1.7 mm. Current approach enables applying low-power (0.4-0.5 mW) and low-noise broadband near-infrared light sources and obtaining OCT images with down to 12 μm spatial resolution. Two-dimensional time-domain OCT images of complex flow velocity profiles in blood vessel phantom and in vivo subcutaneous human skin tissues are presented. The effect of optical clearing on in vivo images is demonstrated and discussed.

  20. Mechanisms of ATP release and signalling in the blood vessel wall

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Alexander W.; Billaud, Marie; Isakson, Brant E.

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) has classically been considered the cell's primary energy currency. Importantly, a novel role for ATP as an extracellular autocrine and/or paracrine signalling molecule has evolved over the past century and extensive work has been conducted to characterize the ATP-sensitive purinergic receptors expressed on almost all cell types in the body. Extracellular ATP elicits potent effects on vascular cells to regulate blood vessel tone but can also be involved in vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis. While the effects of purinergic signalling in the vasculature have been well documented, the mechanism(s) mediating the regulated release of ATP from cells in the blood vessel wall and circulation are now a key target of investigation. The aim of this review is to examine the current proposed mechanisms of ATP release from vascular cells, with a special emphasis on the transporters and channels involved in ATP release from vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, circulating red blood cells, and perivascular sympathetic nerves, including vesicular exocytosis, plasma membrane F1/F0-ATP synthase, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, connexin hemichannels, and pannexin channels. PMID:22678409

  1. Adrenergic innervation of blood vessels in rat tibial nerve during Wallerian degeneration.

    PubMed

    Koistinaho, J; Wadhwani, K C; Latker, C H; Balbo, A; Rapoport, S I

    1990-01-01

    Adrenergic innervation of blood vessels in rat tibial nerve during Wallerian degeneration was examined, using the formaldehyde-induced histo-fluorescence method. The left sciatic nerve was transected at the level of the sciatic notch, whereas the right sciatic nerve was left intact and used as control. At 1, 3, 7, 14, 42, 56 or 84 days after transection, the tibial nerves of the transected and contralateral sides were exposed. Pieces of each nerve were used for light microscopy or for examination of adrenergic innervation with the fluorescence microscope. One day after transection, no adrenergic nerve fiber was observed in the endoneurium of the transected nerve. After 3 days, adrenergic innervation of small- and medium-sized arterioles in the epi-perineurium was absent, and after 7 days no fibers were visible around large arterioles. Fluorescent fibers were not detected even at 84 days post-surgery. It is concluded that adrenergic innervation of blood vessels in the rat tibial nerve is irreversibly lost after permanent axotomy, and that adrenergic regulation of nerve blood flow may also be lost. PMID:2275336

  2. Notch Regulation of Hematopoiesis, Endothelial Precursor Cells, and Blood Vessel Formation: Orchestrating the Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Caolo, Vincenza; Molin, Daniel G. M.; Post, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    The development of the vascular system begins with the formation of hemangioblastic cells, hemangioblasts, which organize in blood islands in the yolk sac. The hemangioblasts differentiate into hematopoietic and angioblastic cells. Subsequently, the hematopoietic line will generate blood cells, whereas the angioblastic cells will give rise to vascular endothelial cells (ECs). In response to specific molecular and hemodynamic stimuli, ECs will acquire either arterial or venous identity. Recruitment towards the endothelial tubes and subsequent differentiation of pericyte and/or vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) takes place and the mature vessel is formed. The Notch signaling pathway is required for determining the arterial program of both endothelial and smooth muscle cells; however, it is simultaneously involved in the generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which will give rise to hematopoietic cells. Notch signaling also regulates the function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are bone-marrow-derived cells able to differentiate into ECs and which could be considered the adult correlate of the angioblast. In addition, Notch signaling has been reported to control sprouting angiogenesis during blood vessels formation in the adult. In this paper we discuss the physiological role of Notch in vascular development, providing an overview on the involvement of Notch in vascular biology from hematopoietic stem cell to adaptive neovascularization in the adult. PMID:22550518

  3. Correlation mapping method of OCT for visualization blood vessels in brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotova, O. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.

    2013-11-01

    The burning issue in modern medicine is the diagnosis and treatment of various life-threatening diseases, in particular the diseases of brain. One of them is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). It occurs especially among newborn babies and is hard-diagnosed. In order to understand the nature of the ICH, the microcirculation of blood, which serves key functions within the body, is analyzed. On this basis a series of experiments was done, in the results of which it was showed, that latent stage of ICH is characterized by decrease of venous blood outflow and the loss of sensitivity of sagittal vein to vasoconstrictor effect of adrenaline. So, stress-related changes of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF) can be the source of this disease. In this paper registration CVBF was made with the help of commercially available Thorlabs Swept Source OCT System, using the correlation mapping method. In this method values of correlation coefficient of several images are analyzed. In the result of the algorithm the correlation map was obtained. By the resulting map the diameter of vessels was calculated, which is necessary for examination of effects of adrenalin to the vessels and identification symptoms of ICH.

  4. Blood flow reduction of covered small side branches after flow diverter treatment: a computational fluid hemodynamic quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Qian, Yi; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Hong-Qi; Li, Yang; Chong, Winston; Ling, Feng

    2015-04-13

    Small side branches related brain infarction remains one of the major concerns for flow-diverter devices. However, among several factors, whether this high-profile stent would significantly block blood flow into small side branches remains unclear. The authors quantitatively evaluate blood flow reduction due to the deployment of flow-diverter devices using computational fluid dynamics approach. Thirty one patient-specific anterior inferior cerebellar artery geometries were employed. The flow-diverter device was hypothetically embedded into the basilar trunk, and to cover the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries. The blood flow reduction of each anterior inferior cerebellar artery following flow-diverter device deployment was calculated, with independent validations for both inflow and outflow conditions. Efficient diameters of the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries were calculated to evaluate any correlation with blood flow reduction after flow-diverter devices. The blood flow reduction ratio was shown to be 3.61±1.94%. There was moreover no significant difference of either inflow or outflow boundary conditions during the simulation. The results were calculated approximately as a modest linear correlation between the blood flow reduction ratio and the size of anterior anterior inferior cerebellar arteries which had a mean efficient diameter of 1.12±0.36 mm (range from 0.31 mm to 1.91 mm), and the R(2) was 0.361. When covered by flow-diverter devices, the mechanical blood flow reduction in anterior inferior cerebellar arteries was found to be low with a maximum value estimated to be less than 8%. Therefore, mechanical blood flow reduction is probably not the leading factor contributing to small side branches related brain infarction. PMID:25748223

  5. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; Sabo, V.; Samet, M. M.; Lelkes, P. I.

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  6. Blood vessels expressing CD90 in human and rat brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Akihiro; Tanaka, Junya; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Kohno, Shohei; Ohue, Shiro; Umakoshi, Akihiro; Gotoh, Katsuhiro; Ohnishi, Takanori

    2016-04-01

    Blood vessels in brain tumors, particularly glioblastomas, have been shown to express CD90. CD90(+) cells in and around blood vessels in cancers including brain tumors have been identified as endothelial cells, cancer stem cells, fibroblasts or pericytes. In this study, we aimed to determine the nature or type(s) of cells that express CD90 in human brain tumors as well as an experimental rat glioma model by double immunofluorescence staining. The majority of CD90(+) cells in human glioblastoma tissue expressed CD31, CD34 and von Willebrand factor, suggesting that they were endothelial cells. Vasculatures in a metastatic brain tumor and meningioma also expressed CD90. CD90(+) cells often formed glomeruloid structures, typical of angiogenesis in malignant tumors, not only in glioblastoma but also in metastatic tumors. Some cells in the middle and outer layers of the vasculatures expressed CD90. Similar results were obtained in the rat glioma model. There were cells expressing both α-smooth muscle actin and CD90 in the middle layer of blood vessels, indicating that smooth muscle cells and/or pericytes may express CD90. CD90(+) vasculatures were surrounded by tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Thus, in addition to endothelial cells, some other types of cells, such as smooth muscle cells, pericytes and fibroblasts constituting the vasculature walls in brain tumors expressed CD90. Because CD90 has been shown to interact with integrins expressed by circulating monocytes, CD90 might be involved in angiogenesis through recruitment and functional regulation of TAMs in tumors. CD90(+) vasculatures may also interact with tumor cells through interactions with integrins. Because CD90 was not expressed by vasculatures in normal brain tissue, it might be a possible therapeutic target to suppress angiogenesis and tumor growth. PMID:26350700

  7. Regional heterogeneity in the reactivity of equine small pulmonary blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Stack, Alice; Derksen, Frederik J; Williams, Kurt J; Robinson, N Edward; Jackson, William F

    2016-03-15

    Regional differences in large equine pulmonary artery reactivity exist. It is not known if this heterogeneity extends into small vessels. The hypothesis that there is regional heterogeneity in small pulmonary artery and vein reactivity to sympathomimetics (phenylephrine and isoproterenol) and a parasympathomimetic (methacholine) was tested using wire myography on small vessels from caudodorsal (CD) and cranioventral (CV) lung of 12 horses [9 mares, 3 geldings, 8.67 ± 0.81 (age ± SE) yr, of various breeds that had never raced]. To study relaxation, vessels were precontracted with U46619 (10(-6) M). Methacholine mechanism of action was investigated using l-nitroarginine methylester (l-NAME, 100 μM) and indomethacin (10 μM). Phenylephrine did not contract any vessels. Isoproterenol relaxed CD arteries more than CV arteries (maximum relaxation 28.18% and 48.67%; Log IC50 ± SE -7.975 ± 0.1327 and -8.033 ± 0.1635 for CD and CV, respectively, P < 0.0001), but not veins. Methacholine caused contraction of CD arteries (maximum contraction 245.4%, Log EC50 ± SE -6.475 ± 0.3341), and relaxation of CV arteries (maximum relaxation 40.14%, Log IC50 ± SE -6.791 ± 0.1954) and all veins (maximum relaxation 50.62%, Log IC50 ± SE -6.932 ± 0.1986) in a nonregion-dependent manner. l-NAME (n = 8, P < 0.0001) and indomethacin (n = 7, P < 0.0001) inhibited methacholine-induced relaxation of CV arteries, whereas indomethacin augmented CD artery contraction (n = 8, P < 0.0001). Our data demonstrate significant regional heterogeneity in small blood vessel reactivity when comparing the CD to the CV region of the equine lung. PMID:26769957

  8. PERIPHERAL NERVE-DERIVED CXCL12 AND VEGF-A REGULATE THE PATTERNING OF ARTERIAL VESSEL BRANCHING IN DEVELOPING LIMB SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenling; Kohara, Hiroshi; Uchida, Yutaka; James, Jennifer M.; Soneji, Kosha; Cronshaw, Darran G.; Zou, Yong-Rui; Nagasawa, Takashi; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In developing limb skin, peripheral nerves provide a spatial template that controls the branching pattern and differentiation of arteries. Our previous studies indicate that nerve-derived VEGF-A is required for arterial differentiation but not for nerve-vessel alignment. In this study, we demonstrate that nerve-vessel alignment depends on the activity of Cxcl12-Cxcr4 chemokine signaling. Genetic inactivation of Cxcl12-Cxcr4 signaling perturbs nerve-vessel alignment, and abolishes arteriogenesis. Further in vitro assays allow us to uncouple nerve-vessel alignment and arteriogenesis, revealing that nerve-derived Cxcl12 stimulates endothelial cell migration, while nerve-derived VEGF-A is responsible for arterial differentiation. These findings suggest a coordinated sequential action in which nerve-Cxcl12 functions over a distance to recruit vessels to align with nerves and subsequent arterial differentiation presumably requires a local-action of nerve-VEGF-A in the nerve-associated vessels. PMID:23395391

  9. Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Mathangi; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Hao F; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the feasibility of obtaining accurate quantitative information, such as local blood oxygenation level (sO2), with a spatial resolution of about 50 microm from spectral photoacoustic (PA) measurements. The optical wavelength dependence of the peak values of the PA signals is utilized to obtain the local blood oxygenation level. In our in vitro experimental models, the PA signal amplitude is found to be linearly proportional to the blood optical absorption coefficient when using ultrasonic transducers with central frequencies high enough such that the ultrasonic wavelengths are shorter than the light penetration depth into the blood vessels. For an optical wavelength in the 578-596 nm region, with a transducer central frequency that is above 25 MHz, the sensitivity and accuracy of sO2 inversion is shown to be better than 4%. The effect of the transducer focal position on the accuracy of quantifying blood oxygenation is found to be negligible. In vivo oxygenation measurements of rat skin microvasculature yield results consistent with those from in vitro studies, although factors specific to in vivo measurements, such as the spectral dependence of tissue optical attenuation, dramatically affect the accuracy of sO2 quantification in vivo. PMID:17301459

  10. Microglia-blood vessel interactions: a double-edged sword in brain pathologies.

    PubMed

    Dudvarski Stankovic, Nevenka; Teodorczyk, Marcin; Ploen, Robert; Zipp, Frauke; Schmidt, Mirko H H

    2016-03-01

    Microglia are long-living resident immune cells of the brain, which secure a stable chemical and physical microenvironment necessary for the proper functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). These highly dynamic cells continuously scan their environment for pathogens and possess the ability to react to damage-induced signals in order to protect the brain. Microglia, together with endothelial cells (ECs), pericytes and astrocytes, form the functional blood-brain barrier (BBB), a specialized endothelial structure that selectively separates the sensitive brain parenchyma from blood circulation. Microglia are in bidirectional and permanent communication with ECs and their perivascular localization enables them to survey the influx of blood-borne components into the CNS. Furthermore, they may stimulate the opening of the BBB, extravasation of leukocytes and angiogenesis. However, microglia functioning requires tight control as their dysregulation is implicated in the initiation and progression of numerous neurological diseases. Disruption of the BBB, changes in blood flow, introduction of pathogens in the sensitive CNS niche, insufficient nutrient supply, and abnormal secretion of cytokines or expression of endothelial receptors are reported to prime and attract microglia. Such reactive microglia have been reported to even escalate the damage of the brain parenchyma as is the case in ischemic injuries, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. In this review, we present the current state of the art of the causes and mechanisms of pathological interactions between microglia and blood vessels and explore the possibilities of targeting those dysfunctional interactions for the development of future therapeutics. PMID:26711460

  11. Effects of a protein glycocalyx in the hemodynamics of small blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimakopoulos, Yiannis; Delidakis, George; Tsamopoulos, John

    2015-11-01

    Glycocalyx is a protein layer of approximate thickness 0.5 μm that lines vessel walls. We study the effects this layer has on the blood flow inside arterioles and venules, where the relative size of the glycocalyx is significant. To properly describe phenomena that naturally occur in blood flow, such as the inhomogeneous distribution of red blood cells and their aggregation, we use an improved viscoelastic constitutive model. The glycocalyx layer is modeled as fixed porous media. Cells cannot penetrate inside it, since its hydraulic permeability is very low, and the flow inside this layer is described by the equations for a viscous fluid with an extra Brinkman term to account for the effects the porous medium has on the flow. The closed set of equations is solved using the Finite Element method, assuming steady-state with dependence only in the r-direction. Our results are favorably compared with the in vivo velocity profiles in venules of mice produced by Damiano et al. (2004) and the formation of cell-free layer near glycocalyx. Flow inside the glycocalyx layer is found to be severely attenuated due to the low hydraulic permeability, which can have interesting implications in the transport of various substances form the blood to the tissues or in the use of shear stresses as signals for the endothelial surface cells. Finally, we simulate the transient blood flow under pulsatile conditions.

  12. The effect of complex exercise rehabilitation program on body composition, blood pressure, blood sugar, and vessel elasticity in elderly women with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Kozyreva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify what kind of effects complex exercise rehabilitation program has on body composition of female, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood vessel elasticity and find more effective complex exercise program for elderly females. The subjects are selected 30 females applicants in exercise program in City of G and not restricted in mobility to perform the exercise without any particular disorders. Exercise program is a combination of aerobic and strength training with different ratio, for the first 6 months focused on strength training complex exercise, and for next 6 months focused on aerobic exercise. Except for strength training and aerobic exercise, durations for strength, rest, and wrapping-up are equal. The frequency of experiments is 90 min each, 2 times per a week. Body composition, blood pressure, and blood vessel elasticity are tested pre and post experiment to compare the effectiveness of both complex exercises. As results, in the complex exercise program focused on strength training, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic pressure increased. Blood vessel elasticity maintained its level or slightly decreased. In the complex exercise focused on aerobic exercise, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure decreased. Blood vessel elasticity on left foot and right foot are slightly different. Therefore, aerobic exercise is more effective than strength training for old obese females. PMID:24409428

  13. The effect of complex exercise rehabilitation program on body composition, blood pressure, blood sugar, and vessel elasticity in elderly women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Lee, Kwon-Ho; Kozyreva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify what kind of effects complex exercise rehabilitation program has on body composition of female, blood pressure, blood sugar, blood vessel elasticity and find more effective complex exercise program for elderly females. The subjects are selected 30 females applicants in exercise program in City of G and not restricted in mobility to perform the exercise without any particular disorders. Exercise program is a combination of aerobic and strength training with different ratio, for the first 6 months focused on strength training complex exercise, and for next 6 months focused on aerobic exercise. Except for strength training and aerobic exercise, durations for strength, rest, and wrapping-up are equal. The frequency of experiments is 90 min each, 2 times per a week. Body composition, blood pressure, and blood vessel elasticity are tested pre and post experiment to compare the effectiveness of both complex exercises. As results, in the complex exercise program focused on strength training, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic pressure increased. Blood vessel elasticity maintained its level or slightly decreased. In the complex exercise focused on aerobic exercise, weight, percent body fat, fat mass, waist hip ratio, systolic pressure, and diastolic pressure decreased. Blood vessel elasticity on left foot and right foot are slightly different. Therefore, aerobic exercise is more effective than strength training for old obese females. PMID:24409428

  14. Growing A Living Blood Vessel: insights for the second hundred years

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Luke P; Bufallino, Dominick; Ucuzian, Areck; Greisler, Howard P

    2007-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease continues to be the leading cause of death worldwide, and the prevelance of cardiovascular disease has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Not surprisingly this has led to an increasing number of vascular procedures annually. Unfortunately, the success of these procedures over time continues to limit their longterm effects. Biomedical engineering approaches to improve upon current prosthetic grafts, developing new prosthetic grafts, and in creating tissue engineered blood vessels for clinical application offer hope of improving the durability of vascular interventions and improving patients’ treatment for cardiovascular disease. PMID:17706765

  15. Localization of calcium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in blood vessels of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in bone forming cells which decreases in certain bones as a result of hypogravity or non-weight bearing. This enzyme can also hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, an effort was made to localize calcium-stimulated ATPase by cytochemistry to determine whether altered bone cell activity might be related to changing calcium levels which occur during hypogravity. The results indicate that Ca(++)-ATPase is largely found along the endothelium and basal lamina of blood vessels, and not found in bone forming cells. This suggests that calcium regulation in the vicinity of bone formation may be modulated by the vasculature of the area.

  16. A Pulsatile Flow Phantom for Image-Guided HIFU Hemostasis of Blood Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Greaby, Robyn; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-28

    A pulsatile flow phantom for studying ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis in a controlled environment has been developed. An ex vivo porcine carotid artery was attached to the phantom and embedded in a visually and ultrasonically transparent gel. Heparinized porcine blood was pumped through the phantom. Power-Doppler and B-mode ultrasound were used to remotely target the HIFU focus to the site of a needle puncture. In nine trials, complete hemostasis was achieved after an average HIFU application of 55 +/- 34 seconds. The vessels remained patent after treatment. With this phantom, it will be possible to do controlled studies of ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis.

  17. Measurement of contrast of phantom and in vivo subsurface blood vessels using two near-infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebden, Jeremy C.; Alkhaja, Aysha; Mahe, Laure; Powell, S.; Everdell, N. L.

    2015-03-01

    A quantitative comparison has been performed between two commercial near-infrared (NIR) vein-viewing systems which are designed to supplement the clinician's traditional skills in locating veins by means of visualization and palpation. The AccuVein AV300 and Novarix IV-eye real-time imaging systems employ very different imaging geometries; the former generates an image from reflected NIR light produced by a beam scanned across the surface, while the latter illuminates the viewed region at four points on the periphery and records the resulting distribution of diffusely transmitted light. The comparison involved measuring the contrast produced by absorbing rods (simulated blood vessels) in a cylindrical phantom with tissue-like optical properties, and the contrast of superficial blood vessels in the arms of healthy volunteers. The locations and sizes of the blood vessels were independently verified using a clinical ultrasound imaging system. The phantom measurements suggested that the AV300 displays the most superficial vessels with greater contrast, but the IV-eye is able to detect vessels when they are at a depth up to 2 mm greater than the limit observed for the AV300. The results for thirty healthy volunteers also indicated that the AV300 typically displays vessels with higher overall contrast, but the effectiveness of the IV-eye at visualizing deeper vessels was even more pronounced, with a maximum depth several millimeters greater than that achieved by the AV300, and more than ten times as many vessels observed at depths below 4 mm.

  18. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  19. Disturbance and repair of solitary waves in blood vessels with aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noubissié, S.; Kraenkel, R. A.; Woafo, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of a local increase of radius followed by local variation of the thickness or rigidity of an elastic tube on the behavior of solitary waves. The basic equations for the analysis is a set of Boussinesq-type equations derived from the flow equations in elastic tubes. It is found that the increase in rigidity and thickness reduces the effects of the tube local enlargement on the amplitude of waves. Attention is paid to the aneurysmal affection of blood vessels where there is an increase in rigidity due to calcification or an increase of thickness due to thromboses. It thus comes that those effects contribute to the regeneration of blood waves and can merge the effects of the disease.

  20. Hydrodynamic modeling of targeted magnetic-particle delivery in a blood vessel.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huei Chu

    2013-03-01

    Since the flow of a magnetic fluid could easily be influenced by an external magnetic field, its hydrodynamic modeling promises to be useful for magnetically controllable delivery systems. It is desirable to understand the flow fields and characteristics before targeted magnetic particles arrive at their destination. In this study, we perform an analysis for the effects of particles and a magnetic field on biomedical magnetic fluid flow to study the targeted magnetic-particle delivery in a blood vessel. The fully developed solutions of velocity, flow rate, and flow drag are derived analytically and presented for blood with magnetite nanoparticles at body temperature. Results reveal that in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles, a minimum magnetic field gradient (yield gradient) is required to initiate the delivery. A magnetic driving force leads to the increase in velocity and has enhancing effects on flow rate and flow drag. Such a magnetic driving effect can be magnified by increasing the particle volume fraction. PMID:24231820

  1. The role of prostanoids and nitric oxide in endotoxin-induced hyporesponsiveness of equine digital blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S R; Elliott, J

    1999-05-01

    Endotoxin has been implicated in the pathophysiology of acute laminitis. The aim of this study was to examine the direct effects of endotoxin on isolated equine digital blood vessels. Equine digital veins (EDV), incubated in Krebs-Henseleit solution containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1 microg/ml) became hyporesponsive to 5-HT after 16 h. Cycloheximide and ibuprofen blocked this effect of LPS and increased the maximum response obtained to 5-HT when compared to control vessels. L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reversed the hyporesponsiveness caused by LPS. Vessels maintained in culture medium containing LPS also became hyporesponsive to 5-HT, an effect which was completely prevented by ibuprofen but only partially reversed by L-NAME. Measurements were made of 6-keto PGF1alpha and nitrite production by segments of equine digital artery and vein in culture medium alone or co-cultured with peripheral blood leucocytes. LPS did not stimulate nitrite production from vessel segments but increased nitrite release from leucocytes, an effect which was inhibited by cycloheximide and L-NAME. Lipopolysaccharide increased 6-keto PGF1alpha production by blood vessels, an effect which was inhibited by cycloheximide and ibuprofen but not L-NAME. No synergistic effect on release of nitrite or 6-keto PGF1alpha was noted in co-cultures of blood vessels and leucocytes. These data suggest that induction of cyclo-oxygenase by LPS was a major cause of hyporesponsiveness of digital blood vessels to 5-HT. Release of nitric oxide was not detectable in LPS-stimulated blood vessels maintained in culture even in the presence of activated leucocytes yet L-NAME did protect against LPS-induced hyporesponsiveness indicating nitric oxide synthase induction may play some role in the effect of LPS. These findings are important in furthering our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the vascular changes which occur in acute laminitis. PMID:10402134

  2. Analysis of nitric oxide consumption by erythrocytes in blood vessels using a distributed multicellular model.

    PubMed

    El-Farra, Nael H; Christofides, Panagiotis D; Liao, James C

    2003-03-01

    Multiple sets of experimental data have shown that the red blood cell (RBC) consumes nitric oxide (NO) about 600-1000-fold slower than the equivalent concentration of cell-free hemoglobin (Hb). Diffusion barriers of various sources have been suggested to explain this observation. In this work, a multicellular, spatially distributed, two-dimensional model, that describes the production, transport, and consumption of NO in blood vessels and the surrounding tissue, is developed. The model is used to assess the relative significance of NO transport barriers that reduce the rate of NO consumption in the blood. Unlike previous models of this system, the model developed here accounts explicitly for the presence of, and interactions among, a population of RBCs inside the lumen of the blood vessel and is, therefore, better suited to analyze, quantitatively, the contribution of each transport barrier as NO diffuses from its site of synthesis to the interior of the RBCs where it interacts with Hb. The model, which uses experimentally derived parameters, shows that extracellular unstirred boundary layer diffusion alone cannot account for the reduced NO consumption by RBC compared to an equivalent concentration of cell-free Hb. Since this result is reached using a two-dimensional representation of the RBCs, which overestimates the importance of the boundary layer diffusion resistance, it would be expected that in the real three-dimensional case, diffusion through the extracellular boundary layer would contribute even less to the overall mass transfer resistance. Consistent with recent experimental findings, the results of our model suggest that, under physiological conditions, transmembrane (membrane and its associated cytoskeleton layer) diffusion limitations in RBCs represent a key source of resistance for NO uptake by RBCs. PMID:12680727

  3. Interaction of rat tumor cells with blood vessels and lymphatics of the avian chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Papoutsi, M; Sleeman, J P; Wilting, J

    2001-10-15

    It has generally been assumed that tumors do not induce lymphangiogenesis and only very recently animal models have been presented showing tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis. We have grown two types of rat tumor cells, 10AS pancreatic carcinoma and C6 glioma cells, on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chick and quail embryos. The suspended tumor cells rapidly formed solid tumors which invaded the CAM and were vascularized by CAM vessels. When grown on the CAM of quail embryos intratumoral endothelial cells could be specifically stained with the QH1 antibody. In C6 gliomas the vascular pattern was more regular than in 10AS carcinomas. The vessels often grew radially into the glioma and many of them were invested by smooth muscle alpha-actin-positive periendothelial cells. Lymphatics, which were identified by vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) in situ hybridization were absent from C6 gliomas, although a weak expression of the lymphangiogenic growth factor, VEGF-C, could be detected in the C6 cells by Northern blot analysis. In contrast, 10AS cells, which expressed high levels of VEGF-C, induced ingrowth of lymphatics into the tumors, with BrdU-labeling rates of about 9% of lymphatic endothelial cells. Our studies demonstrate the heterogeneity of interactions of tumor cells with blood vessels and lymphatics and show that sufficient quantities and/or quality of lymphangiogenic growth factors are crucial for the induction of lymphatics in tumors. PMID:11596155

  4. Cerebral blood flow quantification using vessel-encoded arterial spin labeling

    PubMed Central

    Okell, Thomas W; Chappell, Michael A; Kelly, Michael E; Jezzard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques are gaining popularity for visualizing and quantifying cerebral blood flow (CBF) in a range of patient groups. However, most ASL methods lack vessel-selective information, which is important for the assessment of collateral flow and the arterial supply to lesions. In this study, we explored the use of vessel-encoded pseudocontinuous ASL (VEPCASL) with multiple postlabeling delays to obtain individual quantitative CBF and bolus arrival time maps for each of the four main brain-feeding arteries and compared the results against those obtained with conventional pseudocontinuous ASL (PCASL) using matched scan time. Simulations showed that PCASL systematically underestimated CBF by up to 37% in voxels supplied by two arteries, whereas VEPCASL maintained CBF accuracy since each vascular component is treated separately. Experimental results in healthy volunteers showed that there is no systematic bias in the CBF estimates produced by VEPCASL and that the signal-to-noise ratio of the two techniques is comparable. Although more complex acquisition and image processing is required and the potential for motion sensitivity is increased, VEPCASL provides comparable data to PCASL but with the added benefit of vessel-selective information. This could lead to more accurate CBF estimates in patients with a significant collateral flow. PMID:23921895

  5. DSA Image Blood Vessel Skeleton Extraction Based on Anti-concentration Diffusion and Level Set Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Jian; Feng, Daming; Cui, Zhiming

    Serious types of vascular diseases such as carotid stenosis, aneurysm and vascular malformation may lead to brain stroke, which are the third leading cause of death and the number one cause of disability. In the clinical practice of diagnosis and treatment of cerebral vascular diseases, how to do effective detection and description of the vascular structure of two-dimensional angiography sequence image that is blood vessel skeleton extraction has been a difficult study for a long time. This paper mainly discussed two-dimensional image of blood vessel skeleton extraction based on the level set method, first do the preprocessing to the DSA image, namely uses anti-concentration diffusion model for the effective enhancement and uses improved Otsu local threshold segmentation technology based on regional division for the image binarization, then vascular skeleton extraction based on GMM (Group marching method) with fast sweeping theory was actualized. Experiments show that our approach not only improved the time complexity, but also make a good extraction results.

  6. Blood flow in a compliant vessel by the immersed boundary method.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongsam; Lim, Sookkyung; Raman, Subha V; Simonetti, Orlando P; Friedman, Avner

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we develop a computational approach to analyze hemodynamics in the aorta; this may serve as a useful tool in the development of noninvasive methods to detect early onset of diseases such as aneurysms and stenosis in major blood vessels. We introduce a mathematical model which describes the interaction of blood flow with the aortic wall; this model is based on the immersed boundary method. A two-dimensional vessel model is constructed, the velocity at the inlet is prescribed based on the information from the Magnetic Resonance Imaging data measured in the aorta of a healthy subject, and the velocity at the outlet is prescribed by driving the pressure level reproduced from the literature. The mathematical model is validated by comparing with well-known solutions of the viscous incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, i.e., Womersley flow. The hysteresis behavior in the pressure-diameter relation is observed when the viscoelastic material property of the arterial wall is taken into consideration. Five different shapes of aortic wall are considered for comparison of the flow patterns inside the aorta: one for the normal aorta, two for the dilated aorta, and two for the constrictive aorta. PMID:19283479

  7. Discrimination between two different grades of human glioma based on blood vessel infrared spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Katia; Forfar, Isabelle; Eimer, Sandrine; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2015-09-01

    Gliomas are brain tumours classified into four grades with increasing malignancy from I to IV. The development and the progression of malignant glioma largely depend on the tumour vascularization. Due to their tissue heterogeneity, glioma cases can be difficult to classify into a specific grade using the gold standard of histological observation, hence the need to base classification on a quantitative and reliable analytical method for accurately grading the disease. Previous works focused specifically on vascularization study by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proving this method to be a way forward to detect biochemical changes in the tumour tissue not detectable by visual techniques. In this project, we employed FTIR imaging using a focal plane array (FPA) detector and globar source to analyse large areas of glioma tumour tissue sections via molecular fingerprinting in view of helping to define markers of the tumour grade. Unsupervised multivariate analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) of blood vessel spectral data, retrieved from the FPA images, revealed the fine structure of the borderline between two areas identified by a pathologist as grades III and IV. Spectroscopic indicators are found capable of discriminating different areas in the tumour tissue and are proposed as biomolecular markers for potential future use of grading gliomas. Graphical Abstract Infrared imaging of glioma blood vessels provides a means to revise the pathologists' line of demarcation separating grade III (GIII) from grade IV (GIV) parts. PMID:26168973

  8. Imaging Transient Blood Vessel Fusion Events in Zebrafish by Correlative Volume Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Png, Ken M. Y.; Genoud, Christel; Monteith, Alexander G.; Bushby, Andrew J.; Gerhardt, Holger; Collinson, Lucy M.

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological processes has become increasingly reliant on obtaining high-resolution spatial and temporal data through imaging techniques. As researchers demand molecular resolution of cellular events in the context of whole organisms, correlation of non-invasive live-organism imaging with electron microscopy in complex three-dimensional samples becomes critical. The developing blood vessels of vertebrates form a highly complex network which cannot be imaged at high resolution using traditional methods. Here we show that the point of fusion between growing blood vessels of transgenic zebrafish, identified in live confocal microscopy, can subsequently be traced through the structure of the organism using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM) and Serial Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF/SEM). The resulting data give unprecedented microanatomical detail of the zebrafish and, for the first time, allow visualization of the ultrastructure of a time-limited biological event within the context of a whole organism. PMID:19893745

  9. Imaging transient blood vessel fusion events in zebrafish by correlative volume electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Armer, Hannah E J; Mariggi, Giovanni; Png, Ken M Y; Genoud, Christel; Monteith, Alexander G; Bushby, Andrew J; Gerhardt, Holger; Collinson, Lucy M

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological processes has become increasingly reliant on obtaining high-resolution spatial and temporal data through imaging techniques. As researchers demand molecular resolution of cellular events in the context of whole organisms, correlation of non-invasive live-organism imaging with electron microscopy in complex three-dimensional samples becomes critical. The developing blood vessels of vertebrates form a highly complex network which cannot be imaged at high resolution using traditional methods. Here we show that the point of fusion between growing blood vessels of transgenic zebrafish, identified in live confocal microscopy, can subsequently be traced through the structure of the organism using Focused Ion Beam/Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB/SEM) and Serial Block Face/Scanning Electron Microscopy (SBF/SEM). The resulting data give unprecedented microanatomical detail of the zebrafish and, for the first time, allow visualization of the ultrastructure of a time-limited biological event within the context of a whole organism. PMID:19893745

  10. Scaffold-free, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngmee; Ji, HaYeun; Chen, Zaozao; Fai Chan, Hon; Atchison, Leigh; Klitzman, Bruce; Truskey, George; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBV) can serve as vascular grafts and may also play an important role in the development of organs-on-a-chip. Most TEBV construction involves scaffolding with biomaterials such as collagen gel or electrospun fibrous mesh. Hypothesizing that a scaffold-free TEBV may be advantageous, we constructed a tubular structure (1 mm i.d.) from aligned human mesenchymal cell sheets (hMSC) as the wall and human endothelial progenitor cell (hEPC) coating as the lumen. The burst pressure of the scaffold-free TEBV was above 200 mmHg after three weeks of sequential culture in a rotating wall bioreactor and perfusion at 6.8 dynes/cm2. The interwoven organization of the cell layers and extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of the hMSC-based TEBV resembled that of native blood vessels. The TEBV exhibited flow-mediated vasodilation, vasoconstriction after exposure to 1 μM phenylephrine and released nitric oxide in a manner similar to that of porcine femoral vein. HL-60 cells attached to the TEBV lumen after TNF-α activation to suggest a functional endothelium. This study demonstrates the potential of a hEPC endothelialized hMSC-based TEBV for drug screening. PMID:26456074

  11. 7-Ketocholesterol induces the reduction of KCNMB1 in atherosclerotic blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Son, Yonghae; Chun, Wonjoo; Ahn, Yong-Tae; Kim, Koanhoi; Lee, Chul-Won; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lee, Chu; An, Won G

    2015-02-13

    Hypertension is a high-risk symptom in atherosclerotic patients, and vascular rigidity is one of the main factors leading to hypertension. β1-Subunit of BKCa channel (KCNMB1; MaxiKβ1) has been reported as a modulator of vascular flexibility. To determine the relationship between atherosclerosis and KCNMB1, we studied some atherogenic factors affecting vascular tone. Blood of atherosclerotic patients shows increased concentration of 7-ketocholesterol (7K), which has been studied as a harmful lipid to blood vessels. Our data showed that KCNMB1 was significantly down-regulated in the presence of 7K, in a dose-/time-dependent manner in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). And, the reduction of KCNMB1 was confirmed in cell images of 7K-stimulated VSMCs and in vessel tissue images of ApoE knock-out mice. To determine whether aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) was involved in the reduction of KCNMB1 by 7K-stimulation, protein level of AhR was analyzed by Western blot. Our data showed that the reduction of KCNMB1 was modulated through the AhR pathway. In conclusion, results of our study suggest that 7K induces the reduction of KCNMB1 through the AhR pathway. PMID:25576871

  12. A chemically modified antibody mediates complete eradication of tumours by selective disruption of tumour blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, A; Hauler, F; Dziunycz, P; Schwager, K; Soltermann, A; Pretto, F; Alonso, C; Hofbauer, G F; Boyle, R W; Neri, D

    2011-01-01

    Background: The possibility of eradicating cancer by selective destruction of tumour blood vessels may represent an attractive therapeutic avenue, but most pharmaceutical agents investigated so far did not achieve complete cures and are not completely specific. Antibody conjugates now allow us to evaluate the impact of selective vascular shutdown on tumour viability and to study mechanisms of action. Methods: We synthesised a novel porphyrin-based photosensitiser suitable for conjugation to antibodies and assessed anticancer properties of its conjugate with L19, a clinical-stage human monoclonal antibody specific to the alternatively spliced EDB domain of fibronectin, a marker of tumour angiogenesis. Results: Here we show in two mouse model of cancer (F9 and A431) that L19 is capable of highly selective in vivo localisation around tumour blood vessels and that its conjugate with a photosensitiser allows selective disruption of tumour vasculature upon irradiation, leading to complete and long-lasting cancer eradication. Furthermore, depletion experiments revealed that natural killer cells are essential for the induction of long-lasting complete responses. Conclusions: These results reinforce the concept that vascular shutdown can induce a curative avalanche of tumour cell death. Immuno-photodynamic therapy may be particularly indicated for squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, which we show to be strongly positive for markers of angiogenesis. PMID:21386847

  13. Investigation of the cerebral hemodynamic response function in single blood vessels by functional photoacoustic microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Chin-Teng; Shih, Yen-Yu I.; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Zhao, Wan-Ting; Duong, Timothy Q.; Chang, Jyh-Yeong; Chen, You-Yin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. The specificity of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) is determined spatially by the vascular architecture and temporally by the evolution of hemodynamic changes. Here, we used functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) to investigate single cerebral blood vessels of rats after left forepaw stimulation. In this system, we analyzed the spatiotemporal evolution of the HRFs of the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2). Changes in specific cerebral vessels corresponding to various electrical stimulation intensities and durations were bilaterally imaged with 36×65-μm2 spatial resolution. Stimulation intensities of 1, 2, 6, and 10 mA were applied for periods of 5 or 15 s. Our results show that the relative functional changes in HbT, CBV, and SO2 are highly dependent not only on the intensity of the stimulation, but also on its duration. Additionally, the duration of the stimulation has a strong influence on the spatiotemporal characteristics of the HRF as shorter stimuli elicit responses only in the local vasculature (smaller arterioles), whereas longer stimuli lead to greater vascular supply and drainage. This study suggests that the current fPAM system is reliable for studying relative cerebral hemodynamic changes, as well as for offering new insights into the dynamics of functional cerebral hemodynamic changes in small animals. PMID:22734740

  14. In Situ Tissue Engineering of Functional Small-Diameter Blood Vessels by Host Circulating Cells Only.

    PubMed

    Talacua, Hanna; Smits, Anthal I P M; Muylaert, Dimitri E P; van Rijswijk, Jan Willem; Vink, Aryan; Verhaar, Marianne C; Driessen-Mol, Anita; van Herwerden, Lex A; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kluin, Jolanda; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation is a natural phase of the wound healing response, which can be harnessed for the in situ tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels using instructive, bioresorbable synthetic grafts. This process is dependent on colonization of the graft by host circulating cells and subsequent matrix formation. Typically, vascular regeneration in small animals is governed by transanastomotic cell ingrowth. However, this process is very rare in humans and hence less relevant for clinical translation. Therefore, a novel rat model was developed, in which cell ingrowth from the adjacent tissue is inhibited using Gore-Tex sheathing. Using this model, our aim here was to prove that functional blood vessels can be formed in situ through the host inflammatory response, specifically by blood-borne cells. The model was validated by implanting sex-mismatched aortic segments on either anastomoses of an electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) graft, filled with fibrin gel, into the rat abdominal aorta. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis revealed that after 1 and 3 months in vivo, over 90% of infiltrating cells originated from the bloodstream, confirming the effective shielding of transanastomotic cell ingrowth. Using the validated model, PCL/fibrin grafts were implanted, either or not loaded with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell infiltration and tissue development were investigated at various key time points in the healing cascade. A phased healing response was observed, initiated by a rapid influx of inflammatory cells, mediated by the local release of MCP-1. After 3 months in vivo, the grafts consisted of a medial layer with smooth muscle cells in an oriented collagen matrix, an intimal layer with elastin fibers, and confluent endothelium. This study proves the regenerative potential of cells in the circulatory system in the setting of in situ vascular tissue engineering. PMID:26200255

  15. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.E. Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These relaxations were associated with an inhibition of calcium entry. • Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. • Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient nitric oxide-dependent relaxation.

  16. Basic study for diagnosing blood vessel plaque employing ultrasonic velocity-change imaging in combination with near-infrared illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, Kazune; Tanigawa, Shohei; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2015-08-01

    It is important to detect unstable blood vessel plaques at an early stage to prevent their detachment and subsequent myocardial or brain infarctions. The instability of such plaques depends on the size and distribution of the internal lipid core. We propose a method for identifying lipid domains by changes in the ultrasound propagation velocity after warming with a near-infrared laser. First, we demonstrate that the most effective warming of fatty tissue to induce ultrasonic velocity changes is with a 935-nm laser. Next, a compliant blood vessel phantom containing an internal lipid domain was constructed and attached to a pulsatile pump. Experiments showed that the lipid domain could be identified with ultrasonic velocity-change imaging even in the presence of flow pulsation. We submit that ultrasonic velocity-change imaging under optical illumination may be an effective technique for diagnosing the presence of blood vessel plaques.

  17. Myocardial blood flow assessment with 82rubidium-PET imaging in patients with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Andréa; Chalela, William; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Imada, Rodrigo; Soares, José; Do Val, Renata; Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Izaki, Marisa; Filho, Roberto Kalil; Meneghetti, José C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal 82Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). RESULTS: Stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p<0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by 82Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery disease in patients with left bundle branch block. PMID:26602518

  18. Inosculation of blood vessels allows early perfusion and vitality of bladder grafts--implications for bioengineered bladder wall.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Stephanie L; So, Michelle; Hambro, Shannon; Nolta, Jan A; Kurzrock, Eric A

    2015-06-01

    Bioengineered bladder tissue is needed for patients with neurogenic bladder disease as well as for cancer. Current technologies in bladder tissue engineering have been hampered by an inability to efficiently initiate blood supply to the graft, ultimately leading to complications that include graft contraction, ischemia, and perforation. To date, the biological mechanisms of vascularization on transplant have not been suitably investigated for urologic tissues. To better understand the mechanisms of neovascularization on bladder wall transplant, a chimeric mouse model was generated such that angiogenesis and vasculogenesis could be independently assessed in vivo. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) transgenic mice received bone marrow transplants from β-galactosidase (LacZ) transgenic animals and then subsequent bladder wall transplants from wild-type donor mice. Before euthanization, the aorta was infused with fluorescent microbeads (fluorospheres) to identify perfused vessels. The contributions of GFP (angiogenesis) and LacZ (vasculogenesis) to the formation of CD31-expressing blood vessels within the wild-type graft were evaluated by immunohistochemistry at different time points and locations within the graft (proximal, middle, and distal) to provide a spatiotemporal analysis of neovascularization. The GFP index, a measure of angiogenic host ingrowth, was significantly higher at proximal versus mid or distal regions in animals 2-16 weeks post-transplant. However, GFP index did not increase over time in any area. Within 7 days post-transplant, perfusion of primarily wild-type, donor blood vessels in the most distal areas of the graft was observed by intraluminal fluorospheres. In addition, chimeric host-donor (GFP-wild type) blood vessels were evident in proximal areas. The contribution of vasculogenesis to vascularization of the graft was limited, as LacZ cells were not specifically associated with the endothelial cells of blood vessels, but rather found primarily in areas of inflammation. The data suggest that angiogenesis of host blood vessels into the proximal region leads to inosculation between host and donor vessels and subsequent perfusion of the graft via pre-existing graft vessels within the first week after transplant. As such, the engineering of graft blood vessels and the promotion of inosculation might prevent graft contraction, thereby potentiating the use of bioengineered bladder tissue for transplantation. PMID:25794892

  19. Comparison of the number of gingival blood vessels between type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic periodontitis patients: An immunohistological study

    PubMed Central

    Penmetsa, Gautami Subhadra; Baddam, Satyanarayana; Manyam, Ravikanth; Dwarakanath, Chinni Doraswamy

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between diabetes and periodontitis has been studied for more than 50 years and is generally agreed that the periodontal disease is more prevalent in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetics. Vascular changes like increased thickness of basement membrane in small vessels has been reported in diabetic patients, but the quantity of blood vessels in gingiva of diabetic patients has not been discussed much. The aim of this study was to compare the number of blood vessels in gingiva between chronic periodontitis (CP) patients, CP with diabetes (type 2), and normal healthy gingiva. Materials and Methods: The study included 75 patients, divided into three groups of 25 patients each-Group I with healthy periodontium (HP), Group II with CP, and Group III with CP with diabetes mellitus (CPDM). Gingival biopsies were obtained from the subjects undergoing crown lengthening procedure for Group I, and in patients with CP and in CPDM biopsies were collected from teeth undergoing extraction. Sections were prepared for immune histochemical staining with CD34. Results: Difference was observed in the average number of blood vessels when compared between HP, CP, and CPDM groups. Statistical significant difference was observed when the HP and CP groups and HP and CPDM groups were compared. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the number of blood vessels in gingival connective tissue is significantly higher in CP and CPDM patients. PMID:26015666

  20. Low level arsenic promotes progressive inflammatory angiogenesis and liver blood vessel remodeling in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, Adam C.; Stolz, Donna B.; Vin, Harina; Ross, Mark A.; Soucy, Nicole V.; Klei, Linda R.; Barchowsky, Aaron

    2007-08-01

    The vascular effects of arsenic in drinking water are global health concerns contributing to human disease worldwide. Arsenic targets the endothelial cells lining blood vessels, and endothelial cell activation or dysfunction may underlie the pathogenesis of both arsenic-induced vascular diseases and arsenic-enhanced tumorigenesis. The purpose of the current studies was to demonstrate that exposing mice to drinking water containing environmentally relevant levels of arsenic promoted endothelial cell dysfunction and pathologic vascular remodeling. Increased angiogenesis, neovascularization, and inflammatory cell infiltration were observed in Matrigel plugs implanted in C57BL/6 mice following 5-week exposures to 5-500 ppb arsenic [Soucy, N.V., Mayka, D., Klei, L.R., Nemec, A.A., Bauer, J.A., Barchowsky, A., 2005. Neovascularization and angiogenic gene expression following chronic arsenic exposure in mice. Cardiovasc.Toxicol 5, 29-42]. Therefore, functional in vivo effects of arsenic on endothelial cell function and vessel remodeling in an endogenous vascular bed were investigated in the liver. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) became progressively defenestrated and underwent capillarization to decrease vessel porosity following exposure to 250 ppb arsenic for 2 weeks. Sinusoidal expression of PECAM-1 and laminin-1 proteins, a hallmark of capillarization, was also increased by 2 weeks of exposure. LSEC caveolin-1 protein and caveolae expression were induced after 2 weeks of exposure indicating a compensatory change. Likewise, CD45/CD68-positive inflammatory cells did not accumulate in the livers until after LSEC porosity was decreased, indicating that inflammation is a consequence and not a cause of the arsenic-induced LSEC phenotype. The data demonstrate that the liver vasculature is an early target of pathogenic arsenic effects and that the mouse liver vasculature is a sensitive model for investigating vascular health effects of arsenic.

  1. Effects of VA-045, a novel apovincaminic acid derivative, on isolated blood vessels: cerebroarterial selectivity.

    PubMed

    Miyata, N; Yamaura, H; Tanaka, M; Muramatsu, M; Tsuchida, K; Okuyama, S; Otomo, S

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the effects of VA-045, an apovincaminic acid derivative, on isolated blood vessels. VA-045 (10(-7)-10(-5) M) and vinpocetine (10(-7)-10(-5) M) inhibited the 64 mM KCl-induced and 10(-6)M norepinephrine (NE)-induced contraction of rat aortic strips. VA-045 (10(-7)-10(-4) M) and vinpocetine (10(-7)-10(-4) M) inhibited the activity of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase in porcine coronary artery. VA-045 (3 x 10(-9-3 x 10(-6) M) relaxed the 64 mM KCl-induced contraction of the canine basilar artery without affecting the peripheral arteries. These results indicate that VA-045 selectively dilates canine cerebral artery, and that it may be a useful agent for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke. PMID:8387130

  2. Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Adrian H; Villiger, Martin L; Blatter, Cedric; Lasser, Theo; Leitgeb, Rainer A

    2007-01-22

    For Fourier domain optical coherence tomography any sample movement during camera integration causes blurring of interference fringes and as such reduction of sensitivity for flow detection. The proposed method overcomes this problem by phase-matching a reference signal to the sample motion. The interference fringes corresponding to flow signal will appear frozen across the detector whereas those of static sample structures will be blurred resulting in enhanced contrast for blood vessels. An electro-optic phase modulator in the reference arm, driven with specific phase cycles locked to the detection frequency, allows not only for qualitative but also for quantitative flow detection already from the relative signal intensities. First applications to extract in-vivo retinal flow and to visualize 3D vascularization, i.e. optical vivisection, are presented. PMID:19532258

  3. Resonant Doppler flow imaging and optical vivisection of retinal blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Adrian H.; Villiger, Martin L.; Blatter, Cedric; Lasser, Theo; Leitgeb, Rainer A.

    2007-01-01

    For Fourier domain optical coherence tomography any sample movement during camera integration causes blurring of interference fringes and as such reduction of sensitivity for flow detection. The proposed method overcomes this problem by phase-matching a reference signal to the sample motion. The interference fringes corresponding to flow signal will appear frozen across the detector whereas those of static sample structures will be blurred resulting in enhanced contrast for blood vessels. An electro-optic phase modulator in the reference arm, driven with specific phase cycles locked to the detection frequency, allows not only for qualitative but also for quantitative flow detection already from the relative signal intensities. First applications to extract in-vivo retinal flow and to visualize 3D vascularization, i.e. optical vivisection, are presented.

  4. Wrong theories on the origin of blood vessels: Polybus and De Natura Hominis.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Ardalan, Mohammad R

    2008-06-01

    Polybus of Cos (approximately 400 B.C.) was the son-in-law and the successor of Hippocrates. He is credited with founding the school of Dogmatism, and writing "The Nature of Man" which was important in advancing the theory of the four body humors (humoralism). Some earlier scholars negated Polybus' role as an independent medical figure. However, Corpus Aristotelicum quoted him as having a unique theory regarding the body vasculature which stated that this system was composed of four pairs of blood vessels originating from the head and that these supplied the whole body. In an interpretation of this theory, we opined that numerological mysticism might have been the common motive for both Hippocrates' humoralism and Polybus' theory of the vasculature. A discussion on this issue is presented. PMID:18164081

  5. Angiogenin Expression during Early Human Placental Development; Association with Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Nadine; Guibourdenche, Jean; Degrelle, Séverine A.; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is a transient organ essential for fetal development. During human placental development, chorionic villi grow in coordination with a large capillary network resulting from both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenin is one of the most potent inducers of neovascularisation in experimental models in vivo. We and others have previously mapped angiogenin expression in the human term placenta. Here, we explored angiogenin involvement in early human placental development. We studied, angiogenin expression by in situ hybridisation and/or by RT-PCR in tissues and primary cultured trophoblastic cells and angiogenin cellular distribution by coimmunolabelling with cell markers: CD31 (PECAM-1), vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), Tie-2, von Willebrand factor, CD34, erythropoeitin receptor (Epo-R), alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD45, cytokeratin 7, and Ki-67. Extravillous and villous cytotrophoblasts, isolated and differentiated in vitro, expressed and secreted angiogenin. Angiogenin was detected in villous trophoblastic layers, and structured and nascent fetal vessels. In decidua, it was expressed by glandular epithelial cells, vascular cells and macrophages. The observed pattern of angiogenin expression is compatible with a role in blood vessel formation and in cross-talk between trophoblasts and endothelial cells. In view of angiogenin properties, we suggest that angiogenin may participate in placental vasculogenesis and organogenesis. PMID:25093183

  6. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. PMID:26025507

  7. Biaxial biomechanical properties of self-assembly tissue-engineered blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Zaucha, Michael T.; Gauvin, Robert; Auger, Francois A.; Germain, Lucie; Gleason, Rudolph L.

    2011-01-01

    Along with insights into the potential for graft success, knowledge of biomechanical properties of small diameter tissue-engineered blood vessel (TEBV) will enable designers to tailor the vessels' mechanical response to closer resemble that of native tissue. Composed of two layers that closely mimic the native media and adventitia, a tissue-engineered vascular adventitia (TEVA) is wrapped around a tissue-engineered vascular media (TEVM) to produce a self-assembled tissue-engineered media/adventia (TEVMA). The current study was undertaken to characterize the biaxial biomechanical properties of TEVM, TEVA and TEVMA under physiological pressures as well as characterize the stress-free reference configuration. It was shown that the TEVA had the greatest compliance over the physiological loading range while the TEVM had the lowest compliance. As expected, compliance of the SA-TEBV fell in between with an average compliance of 2.73 MPa?1. Data were used to identify material parameters for a microstructurally motivated constitutive model. Identified material parameters for the TEVA and TEVM provided a good fit to experimental data with an average coefficient of determination of 0.918 and 0.868, respectively. These material parameters were used to develop a two-layer predictive model for the response of a TEVMA which fit well with experimental data. PMID:20554564

  8. Extraction of Blood Vessels in Retinal Images Using Four Different Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mudassar, Asloob Ahmad; Butt, Saira

    2013-01-01

    A variety of blood vessel extraction (BVE) techniques exist in the literature, but they do not always lead to acceptable solutions especially in the presence of anomalies where the reported work is limited. Four techniques are presented for BVE: (1) BVE using Image Line Cross-Sections (ILCS), (2) BVE using Edge Enhancement and Edge Detection (EEED), (3) BVE using Modified Matched Filtering (MMF), and (4) BVE using Continuation Algorithm (CA). These four techniques have been designed especially for abnormal retinal images containing low vessel contrasts, drusen, exudates, and other artifacts. The four techniques were applied to 30 abnormal retinal images, and the success rate was found to be (95 to 99%) for CA, (88–91%) for EEED, (80–85%) for MMF, and (74–78%) for ILCS. Application of these four techniques to 105 normal retinal images gave improved results: (99-100%) for CA, (96–98%) for EEED, (94-95%) for MMF, and (88–93%) for ILCS. Investigations revealed that the four techniques in the order of increasing performance could be arranged as ILCS, MMF, EEED, and CA. Here we demonstrate these four techniques for abnormal retinal images only. ILCS, EEED, and CA are novel additions whereas MMF is an improved and modified version of an existing matched filtering technique. CA is a promising technique. PMID:27006912

  9. Blood vessel-based liver segmentation through the portal phase of a CT dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maklad, Ahmed S.; Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Utsunomiya, Toru; Shimada, Mitsuo

    2013-02-01

    Blood vessels are dispersed throughout the human body organs and carry unique information for each person. This information can be used to delineate organ boundaries. The proposed method relies on abdominal blood vessels (ABV) to segment the liver considering the potential presence of tumors through the portal phase of a CT dataset. ABV are extracted and classified into hepatic (HBV) and nonhepatic (non-HBV) with a small number of interactions. HBV and non-HBV are used to guide an automatic segmentation of the liver. HBV are used to individually segment the core region of the liver. This region and non-HBV are used to construct a boundary surface between the liver and other organs to separate them. The core region is classified based on extracted posterior distributions of its histogram into low intensity tumor (LIT) and non-LIT core regions. Non-LIT case includes normal part of liver, HBV, and high intensity tumors if exist. Each core region is extended based on its corresponding posterior distribution. Extension is completed when it reaches either a variation in intensity or the constructed boundary surface. The method was applied to 80 datasets (30 Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention (MICCAI) and 50 non-MICCAI data) including 60 datasets with tumors. Our results for the MICCAI-test data were evaluated by sliver07 [1] with an overall score of 79.7, which ranks seventh best on the site (December 2013). This approach seems a promising method for extraction of liver volumetry of various shapes and sizes and low intensity hepatic tumors.

  10. Degradation profile and preliminary clinical testing of a resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Aminlashgari, Nina; Höglund, Odd V; Borg, Niklas; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2013-06-01

    A resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels was developed and tested in vitro to reveal the degradation profile of the device and to predict the clinical performance in terms of adequate mechanical support during a healing period of 1week. In addition, preliminary clinical testing was performed that showed complete hemostasis and good tissue grip of renal arteries in five pigs. The device was made by injection molding of poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) triblock copolymer, and it consisted of a case with a locking mechanism connected to a partly perforated flexible band. A hydrolytic degradation study was carried out for 7, 30 and 60days in water and buffer medium, following the changes in mass, water absorption, pH and mechanical properties. A new rapid matrix-free laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) method was developed for direct screening of degradation products released into the degradation medium. The combination of LDI-MS and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analyses enabled the comparison of the degradation product patterns in water and buffer medium. The identified degradation products were rich in trimethylene carbonate units, indicating preferential hydrolysis of amorphous regions where trimethylene units are located. The crystallinity of the material was doubled after 60days of hydrolysis, additionally confirming the preferential hydrolysis of trimethylene carbonate units and the enrichment of glycolide units in the remaining solid matrix. The mechanical performance of the perforated band was followed for the first week of hydrolysis and the results suggest that sufficient strength is retained during the healing time of the blood vessels. PMID:23438863

  11. Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Small-Diameter Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Carol Hsiu-Yueh

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States with many patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting. The current standard is using autografts such as the saphenous vein or intimal mammary artery, however creating a synthetic graft could eliminate this painful and inconvenient procedure. Large diameter grafts have long been established with materials such as DacronRTM and TeflonRTM, however these materials have not proved successful in small-diameter (< 6 mm) grafts where thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia are common in graft failure. With the use of a synthetic biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone) we utilize our expertise in electrospinning and femtosecond laser ablation to create a novel tri-layered tissue engineered blood vessel containing microchannels. The benefits of creating a tri-layer is to mimic native arteries that contain an endothelium to prevent thrombosis in the inner layer, aligned smooth muscle cells in the middle to control vasodilation and constriction, and a mechanically robust outer layer. The following work evaluates the mechanical properties of such a graft (tensile, fatigue, burst pressure, and suture retention strength), the ability to rapidly align cells in laser ablated microchannels in PCL scaffolds, and the biological integration (co-culture of endothelial and smooth muscle cells) with electrospun PCL scaffolds. The conclusions from this work establish that the electrospun tri-layers provide adequate mechanical strength as a tissue engineered blood vessel, that laser ablated microchannels are able to contain the smooth muscle cells, and that cells are able to adhere to PCL fibers. However, future work includes adjusting microchannel dimensions to properly align smooth muscle cells along with perfect co-cultures of endothelial and smooth muscle cells on the electrospun tri-layer.

  12. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R E; Allen, S; Chang, A P Y; Henderson, H; Hobson, G C; Karania, B; Morgan, K N; Pek, A S Y; Raghvani, K; Shee, C Y; Shikotra, J; Street, E; Abbas, Z; Ellis, K; Heer, J K; Alexander, S P H

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (-)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3-30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (-)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (-)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. PMID:23845591

  13. Quantification of the endothelial surface glycocalyx on rat and mouse blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Wan-Yi; Cai, Bin; Zeng, Min; Tarbell, John M.; Fu, Bingmei M.

    2012-01-01

    The glycocalyx on the surface of endothelium lining blood vessel walls modulates vascular barrier function, cell adhesion and also serves as a mechano-sensor for blood flow. Reduction of glycocalyx has been reported in many diseases including atherosclerosis, inflammation, myocardial edema, and diabetes. The surface glycocalyx layer (SGL) is composed of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, of which heparan sulfate is one of the most abundant. To quantify the SGL thickness on the microvessels of rat mesentery and mouse cremaster muscle in situ, we applied a single vessel cannulation and perfusion technique to directly inject FITC-anti-heparan sulfate into a group of microvessels for immuno-labeling the SGL. We also used anti-heparan sulfate for immuno-labeling the SGL on rat and mouse aortas ex vivo. High resolution confocal microscopy revealed that the thickness of the SGL on rat mesenteric capillaries and post-capillary venules is 0.9 ± 0.1 μm and 1.2 ± 0.3 μm, respectively; while the thickness of the SGL on mouse cremaster muscle capillaries and post-capillary venules is 1.5 ± 0.1 μm and 1.5 ± 0.2 μm, respectively. Surprisingly, there was no detectable SGL in either rat mesenteric or mouse cremaster muscle arterioles. The SGL thickness is 2.5 ± 0.1 μm and 2.1 ± 0.2 μm respectively, on rat and mouse aorta. In addition, we observed that the SGL is continuously and evenly distributed on the aorta wall but not on the microvessel wall. PMID:22349291

  14. In vivo nanomechanical imaging of blood-vessel tissues directly in living mammals using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Youdong; Sun, Quanmei; Wang, Xiufeng; Ouyang, Qi; Han, Li; Jiang, Lei; Han, Dong

    2009-07-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is difficult to achieve in living mammals but is necessary for understanding mechanical properties of tissues in their native form in organisms. Here we report in vivo nanomechanical imaging of blood-vessel tissues directly in living mammalians by AFM combined with surgical operations. Nanomechanical heterogeneity of blood vessels is observed across the diverse microenvironments of the same tissues in vivo. This method is further used to measure the counteractive nanomechanical changes in real time during drug-induced vasodilation and vasoconstriction in vivo, demonstrating appealing potential in characterization of in vivo nanomechanical dynamics of native tissues.

  15. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  16. The Behaviors of Ferro-Magnetic Nano-Particles In and Around Blood Vessels under Applied Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Nacev, A.; Beni, C.; Bruno, O.; Shapiro, B.

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic drug delivery, therapeutic magnetizable particles are typically injected into the blood stream and magnets are then used to concentrate them to disease locations. The behavior of such particles in-vivo is complex and is governed by blood convection, diffusion (in blood and in tissue), extravasation, and the applied magnetic fields. Using physical first-principles and a sophisticated vessel-membrane-tissue (VMT) numerical solver, we comprehensively analyze in detail the behavior of magnetic particles in blood vessels and surrounding tissue. For any blood vessel (of any size, depth, and blood velocity) and tissue properties, particle size and applied magnetic fields, we consider a Krogh tissue cylinder geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. We find that there are three prototypical behaviors (blood velocity dominated, magnetic force dominated, and boundary-layer formation) and that the type of behavior observed is uniquely determined by three non-dimensional numbers (the magnetic-Richardson number, mass Péclet number, and Renkin reduced diffusion coefficient). Plots and equations are provided to easily read out which behavior is found under which circumstances (Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8). We compare our results to previously published in-vitro and in-vivo magnetic drug delivery experiments. Not only do we find excellent agreement between our predictions and prior experimental observations, but we are also able to qualitatively and quantitatively explain behavior that was previously not understood. PMID:21278859

  17. Accuracy and Precision of MR Blood Oximetry Based On the Long Paramagnetic Cylinder Approximation of Large Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Langham, Michael C.; Magland, Jeremy F.; Epstein, Charles L.; Floyd, Thomas F.; Wehrli, Felix W.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate non-invasive method to measure hemoglobin oxygen saturation (%HbO2) of deep-lying vessels without catheterization would have many clinical applications. Quantitative MRI may be the only imaging modality that can address this difficult and important problem. MR susceptometry-based oximetry for measuring blood oxygen saturation in large vessels models the vessel as a long paramagnetic cylinder immersed in an external field. The intravascular magnetic susceptibility relative to surrounding muscle tissue is a function of HbO2 and can be quantified with a field mapping pulse sequence. In this work, the method’s accuracy and precision was investigated theoretically on the basis of an analytical expression for the arbitrarily oriented cylinder, as well as experimentally in phantoms and in vivo in the femoral artery and vein at 3T field strength. Errors resulting from vessel tilt, non-circularity of vessel cross-section, and induced magnetic field gradients were evaluated and methods for correction designed and implemented. Hemoglobin saturation was measured at successive vessel segments, differing in geometry such as eccentricity and vessel tilt but constant blood oxygen saturation levels, as a means to evaluate measurement consistency. The average standard error and coefficient of variation of measurements in phantoms were less than 2% with tilt correction alone, in agreement with theory, suggesting that high accuracy and reproducibility can be achieved while ignoring non-circularity for tilt angles up to about 30°. In vivo, repeated measurements of %HbO2 in the femoral vessels yielded a coefficient of variation of less than 5%. In conclusion, the data suggest that %HbO2 can be measured reproducibly in vivo in large vessels of the peripheral circulation on the basis of the paramagnetic cylinder approximation of the incremental field. PMID:19526517

  18. Recovery from mild hypothermia can be accelerated by mechanically distending blood vessels in the hand.

    PubMed

    Grahn, D; Brock-Utne, J G; Watenpaugh, D E; Heller, H C

    1998-11-01

    Peripheral vasoconstriction decreases thermal conductance of hypothermic individuals, making it difficult to transfer externally applied heat to the body core. We hypothesized that increasing blood flow to the skin of a hypothermic individual would enhance the transfer of exogenous heat to the body core, thereby increasing the rate of rewarming. External auditory meatus temperature (TEAM) was monitored in hypothermic subjects during recovery from general anesthesia. In 10 subjects, heat (45-46 degreesC, water-perfused blanket) was applied to a single forearm and hand that had been placed in a subatmospheric pressure environment (-30 to -40 mmHg) to distend the blood vessels. Heat alone was applied to control subjects (n = 6). The application of subatmospheric pressure resulted in a 10-fold increase in rewarming rates as determined by changes in TEAM [13.6 +/- 2.1 (SE) degreesC/h in the experimental group vs. 1.4 +/- 0.1 degreesC/h in the control group; P < 0.001]. In the experimental subjects, the rate of change of TEAM decreased sharply as TEAM neared the normothermic range. PMID:9804564

  19. A Blood-Resistant Surgical Glue for Minimally Invasive Repair of Vessels and Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nora; Pereira, Maria J.; Lee, Yuhan; Friehs, Ingeborg; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Feins, Eric N.; Ablasser, Klemens; O'Cearbhaill, Eoin D.; Xu, Chenjie; Fabozzo, Assunta; Padera, Robert; Wasserman, Steve; Freudenthal, Franz; Ferreira, Lino S.; Langer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there are no clinically approved surgical glues that are nontoxic, bind strongly to tissue, and work well within wet and highly dynamic environments within the body. This is especially relevant to minimally invasive surgery that is increasingly performed to reduce postoperative complications, recovery times, and patient discomfort. We describe the engineering of a bioinspired elastic and biocompatible hydrophobic light-activated adhesive (HLAA) that achieves a strong level of adhesion to wet tissue and is not compromised by preexposure to blood. The HLAA provided an on-demand hemostatic seal, within seconds of light application, when applied to high-pressure large blood vessels and cardiac wall defects in pigs. HLAA-coated patches attached to the interventricular septum in a beating porcine heart and resisted supraphysiologic pressures by remaining attached for 24 hours, which is relevant to intracardiac interventions in humans. The HLAA could be used for many cardiovascular and surgical applications, with immediate application in repair of vascular defects and surgical hemostasis. PMID:24401941

  20. Angioblast Derived from ES Cells Construct Blood Vessels and Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Hideki; Naruse, Keiko; Cheng, Zhao; Ito, Sachiko; Shibata, Taiga; Kondo, Masaki; Kato, Jiro; Okawa, Tetsuji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hirohiko; Kito, Tetsutaro; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Isobe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although numerous reports addressing pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy have been conducted, a universally effective treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy has not yet been established. Recently, regenerative medicine studies in diabetic polyneuropathy using somatic stem/progenitor cell have been reported. However, the effectiveness of these cell transplantations was restricted because of their functional and numerical impairment in diabetic objects. Here, we investigated the efficacy of treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy using angioblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods and Results. Angioblast-like cells were obtained from mouse embryonic stem cells and transplantation of these cells improved several physiological impairments in diabetic polyneuropathy: hypoalgesia, delayed nerve conduction velocities, and reduced blood flow in sciatic nerve and plantar skin. Furthermore, pathologically, the capillary number to muscle fiber ratios were increased in skeletal muscles of transplanted hindlimbs, and intraepidermal nerve fiber densities were ameliorated in transplanted plantar skin. Transplanted cells maintained their viabilities and differentiated to endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells around the injection sites. Moreover, several transplanted cells constructed chimeric blood vessels with recipient cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that transplantation of angioblast like cells induced from embryonic stem cells appears to be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic polyneuropathy. PMID:25977928

  1. Embolization of Hepatic Arterial Branches to Simplify Hepatic Blood Flow Before Yttrium 90 Radioembolization: A Useful Technique in the Presence of Challenging Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Karunanithy, Narayan; Gordon, Fabiana; Hodolic, Marina; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Wasan, Harpreet S.; Habib, Nagy; Tait, Nicholas P.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: In the presence of variant hepatic arterial anatomy, obtaining whole-liver coverage with yttrium 90 (Y90) radioembolization may be challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a technique whereby variant hepatic arterial branches are embolized and then Y90 is administered selectively into one remaining hepatic arterial branch results in whole-liver coverage and effective therapy. A retrospective comparison of treatment response was made between a group of patients who underwent this technique before Y90 administration and a group of patients who received standard Y90 administration as a single dose into the proper hepatic artery or in divided doses into the immediate hepatic artery branches. The rest of the workup and treatment were identical in both groups, including routine embolization of potential nonhepatic, nontarget vessels (e.g., the gastroduodenal artery). Methods: A total of 32 patients (mean age 56.9 years, range 39-77 years) treated with Y90 between June 2004 and March 2008 were analyzed. The primary malignancy was colorectal in 29, breast in 2, and cholangiocarcinoma in 1. Group 1 comprised 20 patients who had no alterations to their hepatic arterial supply. Group 2 comprised 12 cases who had undergone prior embolization of hepatic arterial branches before administration of Y90. The response to treatment was assessed by comparing standardized uptake value (SUV) on the pre- and postprocedure fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic studies of representative lesions within the right and left lobes of the liver. Results: In group 1, significant response (P < 0.001) was seen among right lobe lesions but not among left lobe lesions (P = 0.549). In group 2, there was a significant response among both right (P = 0.028) and left (P = 0.014) lobe lesions. No difference was found in the response of right lobe lesions (P = 0.726) between groups 1 and 2; a significantly greater response was found in group 2 compared to group 1 (P = 0.004) for left lobe lesions. Conclusion: Selective Y90 radioembolization after manipulation of hepatic arterial blood supply leads to an even distribution within the entire liver. When variations in hepatic arterial anatomy exist, this technique allows effective whole-liver radioembolization therapy from a single selective arterial injection.

  2. Total Aortic Repair for Acute Type A Aortic Dissection Complicated by Malperfusion or Symptomatic Branch Vessel Malalignment.

    PubMed

    Perera, Nisal K; Galvin, Sean D; Brooks, Mark; Seevanayagam, Siven; Matalanis, George

    2016-06-01

    Malperfusion or persistent perfusion of the false lumen with acute type A aortic dissections is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We describe our experience with total aortic repair in patients with acute type A dissection with recurrent or ongoing branch ischemia, true lumen collapse, or rapid dilatation of a false lumen after initial surgical repair. PMID:27211962

  3. Three-dimensional multi-scale model of deformable platelets adhesion to vessel wall in blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ziheng; Xu, Zhiliang; Kim, Oleg; Alber, Mark

    2014-01-01

    When a blood vessel ruptures or gets inflamed, the human body responds by rapidly forming a clot to restrict the loss of blood. Platelets aggregation at the injury site of the blood vessel occurring via platelet–platelet adhesion, tethering and rolling on the injured endothelium is a critical initial step in blood clot formation. A novel three-dimensional multi-scale model is introduced and used in this paper to simulate receptor-mediated adhesion of deformable platelets at the site of vascular injury under different shear rates of blood flow. The novelty of the model is based on a new approach of coupling submodels at three biological scales crucial for the early clot formation: novel hybrid cell membrane submodel to represent physiological elastic properties of a platelet, stochastic receptor–ligand binding submodel to describe cell adhesion kinetics and lattice Boltzmann submodel for simulating blood flow. The model implementation on the GPU cluster significantly improved simulation performance. Predictive model simulations revealed that platelet deformation, interactions between platelets in the vicinity of the vessel wall as well as the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors played significant roles in platelet adhesion to the injury site. Variation of the number of functional GPIbα platelet receptors as well as changes of platelet stiffness can represent effects of specific drugs reducing or enhancing platelet activity. Therefore, predictive simulations can improve the search for new drug targets and help to make treatment of thrombosis patient-specific. PMID:24982253

  4. Single image correlation for blood flow mapping in complex vessel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, Giuseppe; Sironi, Laura; Bouzin, Margaux; D'Alfonso, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; Ceffa, Nicolo'G.; Marquezin, Cassia

    2015-05-01

    Microcirculation plays a key role in the maintenance and hemodynamics of tissues and organs also due to its extensive interaction with the immune system. A critical limitation of state-of-the-art clinical techniques to characterize the blood flow is their lack of the spatial resolution required to scale down to individual capillaries. On the other hand the study of the blood flow through auto- or cross-correlation methods fail to correlate the flow speed values with the morphological details required to describe an intricate network of capillaries. Here we propose to use a newly developed technique (FLICS, FLow Image Correlation Spectroscopy) that, by employing a single raster-scanned xy-image acquired in vivo by confocal or multi-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy, allows the quantitative measurement of the blood flow velocity in the whole vessel pattern within the field of view, while simultaneously maintaining the morphological information on the immobile structures of the explored circulatory system. Fluorescent flowing objects produce diagonal lines in the raster-scanned image superimposed to static morphological details. The flow velocity is obtained by computing the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) of the intensity fluctuations detected in pairs of columns of the image. The whole analytical dependence of the CCFs on the flow speed amplitude and the flow direction has been reported recently. We report here the derivation of approximated analytical relations that allows to use the CCF peak lag time and the corresponding CCF value, to directly estimate the flow speed amplitude and the flow direction. The validation has been performed on Zebrafish embryos for which the flow direction was changed systematically by rotating the embryos on the microscope stage. The results indicate that also from the CCF peak lag time it is possible to recover the flow speed amplitude within 13% of uncertainty (overestimation) in a wide range of angles between the flow and the image scanning direction.

  5. Analysis of cooling effect by blood vessel on temperature rise due to ultrasound radiation in tissue phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuma; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Fukasawa, Kota; Hatano, Yuichi; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound diagnostic equipment using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques is considered minimally invasive and highly versatile. However, one of the causes of damage due to ultrasound radiation is temperature rise caused by the absorption of sound energy. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the temperature rise caused by the radiation of ultrasound. Sound intensity in a medium is analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the temperature distribution caused by sound is estimated by the heat conduction equation (HCE) method in this study. Because blood vessels keep the temperature constant in tissues, the cooling effect of blood flow has to be taken into account for the precise estimation of temperature rise in human tissues. In general, it is well known that capillary vessels are mainly responsible for the cooling effect in tissues and their effect can be estimated as a function of bloodstream ratio. In this paper, a preliminary study on the cooling effect by a large vessel is described for the precise estimation of temperature rise. Blood flow in blood vessels is analyzed using the Navier-Stokes equation. To confirm the precision of the numerical analysis, the results of the numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results using a soft tissue phantom.

  6. High tissue glucose alters intersomitic blood vessels in zebrafish via methylglyoxal targeting the VEGF receptor signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Jörgens, Kristina; Stoll, Sandra J; Pohl, Jennifer; Fleming, Thomas H; Sticht, Carsten; Nawroth, Peter P; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Kroll, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia causes micro- and macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. Elevated glucose concentrations lead to increased formation of the highly reactive dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MG), yet the early consequences of MG for development of vascular complications in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish were used as a model organism to analyze early vascular effects and mechanisms of MG in vivo. High tissue glucose increased MG concentrations in tg(fli:EGFP) zebrafish embryos and rapidly induced several additional malformed and uncoordinated blood vessel structures that originated out of existing intersomitic blood vessels (ISVs). However, larger blood vessels, including the dorsal aorta and common cardinal vein, were not affected. Expression silencing of MG-degrading enzyme glyoxalase (glo) 1 elevated MG concentrations and induced a similar vascular hyperbranching phenotype in zebrafish. MG enhanced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 and its downstream target Akt/protein kinase B (PKB). Pharmacological inhibitors for VEGF receptor 2 and Akt/PKB as well as MG scavenger aminoguanidine and glo1 activation prevented MG-induced hyperbranching of ISVs. Taken together, MG acts on smaller blood vessels in zebrafish via the VEGF receptor signaling cascade, thereby describing a new mechanism that can explain vascular complications under hyperglycemia and elevated MG concentrations. PMID:25092676

  7. X-ray PIV measurement of blood flow in deep vessels of a rat: An in vivo feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    X-ray PIV measurement is a noninvasive approach to measure opaque blood flows. However, it is not easy to measure real pulsatile blood flows in the blood vessels located at deep position of the body, because the surrounding tissues significantly attenuate the contrast of X-ray images. This study investigated the effect of surrounding tissues on X-ray beam attenuation by measuring the velocity fields of blood flows in deep vessels of a live rat. The decrease in image contrast was minimized by employing biocompatible CO2 microbubbles as tracer particles. The maximum measurable velocity of blood flows in the abdominal aorta of a rat model was found through comparative examination between the PIV measurement accuracy and the level of image contrast according to the input flow rate. Furthermore, the feasibility of using X-ray PIV to accurately measure in vivo blood flows was demonstrated by determining the velocity field of blood flows in the inferior vena cava of a rat. This study may serve as a reference in conducting in vivo X-ray PIV measurements of pulsatile blood flows in animal disease models and investigating hemodynamic characteristics and circulatory vascular diseases. PMID:26777719

  8. X-ray PIV measurement of blood flow in deep vessels of a rat: An in vivo feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    X-ray PIV measurement is a noninvasive approach to measure opaque blood flows. However, it is not easy to measure real pulsatile blood flows in the blood vessels located at deep position of the body, because the surrounding tissues significantly attenuate the contrast of X-ray images. This study investigated the effect of surrounding tissues on X-ray beam attenuation by measuring the velocity fields of blood flows in deep vessels of a live rat. The decrease in image contrast was minimized by employing biocompatible CO2 microbubbles as tracer particles. The maximum measurable velocity of blood flows in the abdominal aorta of a rat model was found through comparative examination between the PIV measurement accuracy and the level of image contrast according to the input flow rate. Furthermore, the feasibility of using X-ray PIV to accurately measure in vivo blood flows was demonstrated by determining the velocity field of blood flows in the inferior vena cava of a rat. This study may serve as a reference in conducting in vivo X-ray PIV measurements of pulsatile blood flows in animal disease models and investigating hemodynamic characteristics and circulatory vascular diseases. PMID:26777719

  9. [The effect of chemical sympathectomy on the adrenergic innervation of the blood vessels belonging to different organs in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant Dahl-strain rats].

    PubMed

    Leont'eva, G R; Zicha, J; Kunes, J

    1996-01-01

    The action of chemical desympathization by 6-hydroxydophamine influencing adrenergic innervation in different organs vessels (mesenterial, renal and femoral) was studied using histochemical fluorescent method in salt susceptible and salt-resistant Dahl rats kept on a low- and high-salt diet. Heterogeneity of adrenergic innervation of different region vessels was established to display and 6-hydroxydophamine caused complete desympathization only in mesenterial artery and in all veins, while in renal artery retained adrenergic plexus its certain branching and femoral artery-in two thirds of its surface. The process of reinnervation in vessels running with different intensity in different animals and in different vessels was found to start in vessels of majority of animals on day 5-6 after the chemical desympathization. 6-hydroxydophamine had greater impact on the vessels of salt-susceptible high salt rat (hypertension) and salt-resistant high-salt-diet (normension) rats. Thus, the state of arterial and venous adrenergic apparatus in hypertension Dahl rats is determined not by the increased blood pressure itself but by the natrium metabolism disturbance. PMID:8983495

  10. Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) of keratinocytes, blood vessels and nerves in hairless mouse skin in vivo

    PubMed Central

    BUSSAU, L. J.; VO, L. T.; DELANEY, P. M.; PAPWORTH, G. D.; BARKLA, D. H.; KING, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Fibre optic confocal imaging (FOCI) enabled subsurface fluorescence microscopy of the skin of hairless mice in vivo. Application of acridine orange enabled imaging of the layers of the epidermis. The corneocytes of the stratum corneum, the keratinocytes in the basal layers and redundant hair follicles were visualised at depths greater than 100 μm. Cellular and nuclear membranes of keratinocytes of the skin were visualised by the use of acridine orange and DIOC5(3). Imaging of the skin after injection of FITC-dextran revealed an extensive network of blood vessels with a size range up to 20 μm. Blood cells could be seen moving through dermal vessels and the blood circulation through the dermal vascular bed was video-taped. The fluorescent dye 4-di-2-ASP showed the presence of nerves fibres around the hair follicles and subsurface blood vessels. Comparison was made between images obtained in vivo using FOCI and in vitro scanning electron microscopy and conventional histology. FOCI offers the potential to study dynamic events in vivo, such as blood flow, skin growth, nerve regeneration and many pathological processes, in ways which have not previously been possible. PMID:9643419

  11. PEG-albumin supraplasma expansion is due to increased vessel wall shear stress induced by blood viscosity shear thinning.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishna; Tsai, Amy G; Cabrales, Pedro; Meng, Fantao; Acharya, Seetharama A; Tartakovsky, Daniel M; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2012-06-15

    We studied the extreme hemodilution to a hematocrit of 11% induced by three plasma expanders: polyethylene glycol (PEG)-conjugated albumin (PEG-Alb), 6% 70-kDa dextran, and 6% 500-kDa dextran. The experimental component of our study relied on microelectrodes and cardiac output to measure both the rheological properties of plasma-expander blood mixtures and nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability in vessel walls. The modeling component consisted of an analysis of the distribution of wall shear stress (WSS) in the microvessels. Our experiments demonstrated that plasma expansion with PEG-Alb caused a state of supraperfusion with cardiac output 40% above baseline, significantly increased NO vessel wall bioavailability, and lowered peripheral vascular resistance. We attributed this behavior to the shear thinning nature of blood and PEG-Alb mixtures. To substantiate this hypothesis, we developed a mathematical model of non-Newtonian blood flow in a vessel. Our model used the Quemada rheological constitutive relationship to express blood viscosity in terms of both hematocrit and shear rate. The model revealed that the net effect of the hemodilution induced by relatively low-viscosity shear thinning PEG-Alb plasma expanders is to reduce overall blood viscosity and to increase the WSS, thus intensifying endothelial NO production. These changes act synergistically, significantly increasing cardiac output and perfusion due to lowered overall peripheral vascular resistance. PMID:22505638

  12. Numerical modeling of the pulse wave propagation in large blood vessels based on liquid and wall interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rup, K.; Dróżdż, A.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop a non-linear, one-dimensional model of pulse wave propagation in the arterial cardiovascular system. The model includes partial differential equations resulting from the balance of mass and momentum for the fluid-filled area and the balance equation for the area of the wall and vessels. The considered mathematical model of pulse wave propagation in the thoracic aorta section takes into account the viscous dissipation of fluid energy, realistic values of parameters describing the physicochemical properties of blood and vessel wall. Boundary and initial conditions contain the appropriate information obtained from in vivo measurements. As a result of the numerical solution of the mass and momentum balance equations for the blood and the equilibrium equation for the arterial wall area, time- dependent deformation, respective velocity profiles and blood pressure were determined.

  13. Endothelialization of over- and undersized flow-diverter stents at covered vessel side branches: An in vivo and in silico study.

    PubMed

    Berg, Philipp; Iosif, Christina; Ponsonnard, Sebastien; Yardin, Catherine; Janiga, Gábor; Mounayer, Charbel

    2016-01-01

    Although flow-diverting devices are promising treatment options for intracranial aneurysms, jailed side branches might occlude leading to insufficient blood supply. Especially differences in the local stent strut compression may have a drastic influence on subsequent endothelialization. To investigate the outcome of different treatment scenarios, over- and undersized stent deployments were realized experimentally and computationally. Two Pipeline Embolization Devices were placed in the right common carotid artery of large white swine, crossing the right ascending pharyngeal artery. DSA and PC-MRI measurements were acquired pre- and post-stenting and after three months. To evaluate the stent strut endothelialization and the corresponding ostium patency, the swine were sacrificed and scanning electron microscopy measurements were carried out. A more detailed analysis of the near-stent hemodynamics was enabled by a realistic virtual stenting in combination with highly resolved Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations using case-specific boundary conditions. The oversizing resulted in an elongated stent deployment with more open stent pores, while for the undersized case a shorter deployment with more condensed pores was present. In consequence, the side branch of the first case remained patent after three months and the latter almost fully occluded. The virtual investigation confirmed the experimental findings by identifying differences between the individual velocities as well as stent shear stresses at the distal part of the ostia. The choice of flow-diverting device and the subsequent deployment strategy strongly influences the patency of jailed side branches. Therefore, careful treatment planning is required, to guarantee sufficient blood supply in the brain territories supplied those branches. PMID:26607220

  14. Transport of membrane-bound mineral particles in blood vessels during chicken embryonic bone development.

    PubMed

    Kerschnitzki, Michael; Akiva, Anat; Ben Shoham, Adi; Koifman, Naama; Shimoni, Eyal; Rechav, Katya; Arraf, Alaa A; Schultheiss, Thomas M; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Zelzer, Elazar; Weiner, Stephen; Addadi, Lia

    2016-02-01

    During bone formation in embryos, large amounts of calcium and phosphate are taken up and transported to the site where solid mineral is first deposited. The initial mineral forms in vesicles inside osteoblasts and is deposited as a highly disordered calcium phosphate phase. The mineral is then translocated to the extracellular space where it penetrates the collagen matrix and crystallizes. To date little is known about the transport mechanisms of calcium and phosphate in the vascular system, especially when high transport rates are needed and the concentrations of these ions in the blood serum may exceed the solubility product of the mineral phase. Here we used a rapidly growing biological model, the chick embryo, to study the bone mineralization pathway taking advantage of the fact that large amounts of bone mineral constituents are transported. Cryo scanning electron microscopy together with cryo energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and focused-ion beam imaging in the serial surface view mode surprisingly reveal the presence of abundant vesicles containing small mineral particles in the lumen of the blood vessels. Morphologically similar vesicles are also found in the cells associated with bone formation. This observation directly implicates the vascular system in solid mineral distribution, as opposed to the transport of ions in solution. Mineral particle transport inside vesicles implies that far larger amounts of the bone mineral constituents can be transported through the vasculature, without the danger of ectopic precipitation. This introduces a new stage into the bone mineral formation pathway, with the first mineral being formed far from the bone itself. PMID:26481471

  15. Serial Morphological Changes of Side-Branch Ostium after Paclitaxel-Coated Balloon Treatment of De Novo Coronary Lesions of Main Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Her, Ae-Young; Ann, Soe Hee; Singh, Gillian Balbir; Kim, Yong Hoon; Okamura, Takayuki; Garg, Scot; Koo, Bon-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The effects on the side-branch (SB) ostium, following paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) treatment of de novo coronary lesions of main vessels have not been previously investigated. This study was aimed at evaluating the serial morphological changes of the SB ostium after PCB treatment of de novo coronary lesions of main vessels using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Materials and Methods This prospective, single-center observational study enrolled patients with de novo lesions, which were traversed by at least one SB (≥1.5 mm) and were treated with PCB. The SB ostium was evaluated with serial angiographic and OCT assessments pre- and post-procedure, and at 9-months follow-up. Results Sixteen main vessel lesions were successfully treated with PCB, and 26 SBs were included for analysis. Mean SB ostial lumen area increased at 9-months follow-up (0.92±0.68 mm2 pre-procedure, 1.03±0.77 mm2 post-procedure and 1.42±1.18 mm2 at 9-months). The SB ostial lumen area gain was 0.02±0.24 mm2 between pre- and post-procedure, 0.37±0.64 mm2 between post-procedure and 9-months, and 0.60±0.93 mm2 between pre-procedure and 9-months. The ostial lumen area increased by 3.9% [interquartile range (IQR) of -33.3 to 10.4%] between pre- and post-procedure, 52.1% (IQR of -0.7 to 77.3%) between post-procedure and 9-months and 76.1% (IQR of 18.2 to 86.6%) between pre-procedure and 9-months. Conclusion PCB treatment of de novo coronary lesions of main vessels resulted in an increase in the SB ostial lumen area at 9-months. PMID:26996558

  16. Rapid sealing and cutting of porcine blood vessels, ex vivo, using a high-power, 1470-nm diode laser.

    PubMed

    Giglio, Nicholas C; Hutchens, Thomas C; Perkins, William C; Latimer, Cassandra; Ward, Arlen; Nau, William H; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2014-03-01

    Suture ligation with subsequent cutting of blood vessels to maintain hemostasis during surgery is time consuming and skill intensive. Energy-based electrosurgical and ultrasonic devices are often used to replace sutures and mechanical clips to provide rapid hemostasis and decrease surgery time. Some of these devices may create undesirably large collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis, or require separate mechanical blades for cutting. Infrared lasers are currently being explored as alternative energy sources for vessel sealing applications. In a previous study, a 1470-nm laser was used to seal vessels 1 to 6 mm in diameter in 5 s, yielding burst pressures of ∼500  mmHg. The purpose of this study was to provide vessel sealing times comparable with current energy-based devices, incorporate transection of sealed vessels, and demonstrate high vessel burst pressures to provide a safety margin for future clinical use. A 110-W, 1470-nm laser beam was transmitted through a fiber and beam shaping optics, producing a 90-W linear beam 3.0 by 9.5 mm for sealing (400  W/cm2), and 1.1 by 9.6 mm for cutting (1080  W/cm2). A two-step process sealed and then transected ex vivo porcine renal vessels (1.5 to 8.5 mm diameter) in a bench top setup. Seal and cut times were 1.0 s each. A burst pressure system measured seal strength, and histologic measurements of lateral thermal spread were also recorded. All blood vessels tested (n=55 seal samples) were sealed and cut, with total irradiation times of 2.0 s and mean burst pressures of 1305±783  mmHg. Additional unburst vessels were processed for histological analysis, showing a lateral thermal spread of 0.94±0.48  mm (n=14 seal samples). This study demonstrated that an optical-based system is capable of precisely sealing and cutting a wide range of porcine renal vessel sizes and, with further development, may provide an alternative to radiofrequency- and ultrasonic-based vessel sealing devices. PMID:24658792

  17. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor Treatment Promotes VEGF-A-Driven Blood Vessel Growth and Vascular Leakage but Disrupts Neovascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kalén, Mattias; Nitzsche, Anja; Weber, Holger; Esser, Norbert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Hellström, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs)—originally developed for Alzheimer's disease—are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A)—a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX), a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents. PMID:21533193

  18. Evaluation of local density enhancement of microcapsules in artificial blood vessel during exposure to focused ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Masuda, Kohji; Watarai, Nobuyuki; Taguchi, Yuto; Kato, Toshikazu; Yoshinaga, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Chiba, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    We have proposed a physical DDS (Drug Delivery System) which makes use of microcapsules of ?m size, which may contain a specified drug and also are easily affected by ultrasound exposure near their resonant frequency, to release various kinds of medications. These capsules are easily detected and actuated by ultrasound. However, because of the diffusion of capsules after injection into human body, it was difficult to enhance the efficiency of drug delivery. Thus we have considered a method for controlling the density of capsules in flow which uses acoustic radiation force, which moves the capsules to balance flow resistance. We have experimented with trapping microcapsules or microbubbles in flow of an artificial blood vessel. We have evaluated the effect of radiation force by measuring the trapped area of capsules or bubbles for various frequencies, sound pressures, and exposure times of sinusoidal ultrasound. The trapped area of capsules or bubbles increased with sound pressure and exposure time, and decreased with frequency. From those results, we have derived optimal conditions for trapping the capsules or bubbles.

  19. Low-density lipoprotein transport in blood vessel walls of squirrel monkeys

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, R.G.; Yarmush, M.L.; Schnitzer, J.J.; Colton, C.K.; Smith, K.A.; Stemerman, M.B. )

    1989-08-01

    Transmural accumulations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were examined in the blood vessel walls of four squirrel monkeys. Vascular wall concentrations of LDL were measured using quantitative autoradiography after {sup 125}I-labeled LDL circulation for 30 min. Profiles of relative tissue concentration from different sections in the same region were similar to each other, and there was little animal-to-animal variation. Concentrations were highest near the luminal endothelium, lower near the medial-adventitial border, and lowest within the media. Profiles from different regions fell into three groups: (1) aortic samples had steep intimal concentration gradients and near-zero media concentrations; (2) the iliac, femoral, popliteal, and common carotid arteries had higher intimal concentrations than group 1 but had similar concentrations deep within the media; and (3) the cerebral and coronary arteries, inferior vena cava, and pulmonary artery had intimal concentrations that were similar to group 2, but the concentrations deep within the media were greater than either groups 1 or 2. Arterial bifurcation profiles from the inner wall and the outer walls were similar to each other and to profiles from the upstream and downstream areas. Out of 280 total sites examined, 15 examples of profiles with substantially increased concentrations near the luminal endothelium were found scattered throughout the cardiovascular system, demonstrating that there are focal regions throughout the cardiovascular system which have greatly increased {sup 125}I-LDL transendothelial permeability.

  20. Rupture Properties of Blood Vessel Walls Measured by Pressure-Imposed Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Toshiro; Sugita, Syukei; Matsumoto, Takeo; Kumagai, Kiichiro; Akimoto, Hiroji; Tabayashi, Koichi; Sato, Masaaki

    It is expected to be clinically useful to know the mechanical properties of human aortic aneurysms in assessing the potential for aneurysm rupture. For this purpose, a newly designed experimental setup was fabricated to measure the rupture properties of blood vessel walls. A square specimen of porcine thoracic aortas is inflated by air pressure at a rate of 10mmHg/s (≈1.3MPa/s) until rupture occurs. Mean breaking stress was 1.8±0.4 MPa (mean±SD) for the specimens proximal to the heart and 2.3±0.8MPa for the distal specimens, which are not significantly different to those values obtained longitudinally from conventional tensile tests. Moreover, the local breaking stretch ratio in the longitudinal direction was significantly higher at the ruptured site (2.7±0.5) than at the unruptured site (2.2±0.4). This testing system for studying the rupture properties of aortic walls is expected to be applicable to aortic aneurysms. Experimental verification of the present technique for the homogeneous, isotropic material is also presented.

  1. Mast Cells Present Protrusions into Blood Vessels upon Tracheal Allergen Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Looney, Mark R.; Cheng, Laurence E.; McDonald, Donald M.; Caughey, George H.; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MC) and myeloid dendritic cells (DC) act proximally in detecting and processing antigens and immune insults. We sought to understand their comparative dynamic behavior with respect to the airway epithelium in the steady state and in response to an allergic stimulus in mouse trachea. We devised methods to label MC in living trachea and to demonstrate that MC and DC occupy distinct layers of the tracheal mucosa, with DC being closer to the lumen. DC numbers doubled after allergen challenge, but MC numbers remained stable. MC and DC migrated minimally in either steady state or allergen-challenge conditions, and their interactions with one another appeared to be stochastic and relatively infrequent. While DC, unlike MC, exhibited probing behaviors involving dendrites, these projections did not cross the epithelium into the airway lumen. MC typically were located too far from the epithelial surface to contact the tracheal lumen. However, MC had protrusions toward and into blood vessels, likely to load with IgE. Thus, DC and MC occupy distinct niches and engage in sessile surveillance in the mouse trachea. Little or no access of these cell types to the airway lumen suggests that trans-epithelial transport of proteins in the steady state would be required for them to access luminal antigens. PMID:25789765

  2. Mast cells present protrusions into blood vessels upon tracheal allergen challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Bose, Oishee; Baluk, Peter; Looney, Mark R; Cheng, Laurence E; McDonald, Donald M; Caughey, George H; Krummel, Matthew F

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells (MC) and myeloid dendritic cells (DC) act proximally in detecting and processing antigens and immune insults. We sought to understand their comparative dynamic behavior with respect to the airway epithelium in the steady state and in response to an allergic stimulus in mouse trachea. We devised methods to label MC in living trachea and to demonstrate that MC and DC occupy distinct layers of the tracheal mucosa, with DC being closer to the lumen. DC numbers doubled after allergen challenge, but MC numbers remained stable. MC and DC migrated minimally in either steady state or allergen-challenge conditions, and their interactions with one another appeared to be stochastic and relatively infrequent. While DC, unlike MC, exhibited probing behaviors involving dendrites, these projections did not cross the epithelium into the airway lumen. MC typically were located too far from the epithelial surface to contact the tracheal lumen. However, MC had protrusions toward and into blood vessels, likely to load with IgE. Thus, DC and MC occupy distinct niches and engage in sessile surveillance in the mouse trachea. Little or no access of these cell types to the airway lumen suggests that trans-epithelial transport of proteins in the steady state would be required for them to access luminal antigens. PMID:25789765

  3. Noncoding RNAs regulate NF-κB signaling to modulate blood vessel inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Henry S.; Njock, Makon-Sébastien; Khyzha, Nadiya; Dang, Lan T.; Fish, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, which include heart attack and stroke, occur several decades after initiation of the disease and become more severe with age. Inflammation of blood vessels plays a prominent role in atherogenesis. Activation of the endothelium by inflammatory mediators leads to the recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells, which drives atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression. Inflammatory signaling within the endothelium is driven predominantly by the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NF-κB. Interestingly, activation of NF-κB is enhanced during the normal aging process and this may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Importantly, studies utilizing mouse models of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis are uncovering a network of noncoding RNAs, particularly microRNAs, which impinge on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here we summarize the literature regarding the control of vascular inflammation by microRNAs, and provide insight into how these microRNA-based pathways might be harnessed for therapeutic treatment of disease. We also discuss emerging areas of endothelial cell biology, including the involvement of long noncoding RNAs and circulating microRNAs in the control of vascular inflammation. PMID:25540650

  4. Recombinant human erythropoietin alpha targets intratumoral blood vessels, improving chemotherapy in human xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Tvri, Jzsef; Gilly, Rka; Rs, Erzsbet; Paku, Sndor; Bereczky, Bborka; Varga, Norbert; Vg, Agnes; Tmr, Jzsef

    2005-08-15

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is widely used for correction of hemoglobin level in cancer patients. However, apart from hematopoiesis, rHuEPO reportedly has an effect on endothelial cells. We describe here how rHuEPOalpha can modulate tumor vasculature in human squamous cell (A431) and colorectal carcinoma (HT25) xenograft models. In vivo rHuEPO treatment of xenografts at human-equivalent dose significantly increased the proliferation index of the tumor-associated endothelial cells and the size of CD31-positive intratumoral blood vessels, whereas the pericyte coverage became fragmented. Moreover, rHuEPO administration resulted in decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor both by cancer cells and tumor stroma, measured by quantitative PCR. Due to the morphologic alterations in tumoral microvessels, DNA-binding agents (Hoechst and Doxorubicin) labeled significantly larger areas in the tumor mass. Furthermore, rHuEPO treatment led to a significantly improved efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy in the case of both tumor xenografts. Meanwhile, rHuEPO had no effect on the in vitro proliferation of erythropoietin receptor-positive tumor cells, and did not interfere with the effects of 5-FU either. These data reveal a new effect of rHuEPO administration: remodeling tumoral microvessels, suppressing vascular endothelial growth factor expression, thereby augmenting antitumor effects of a cancer drug, 5-FU, even in erythropoietin receptor-positive human cancer xenografts. PMID:16103069

  5. Thermal Expansion of Vitrified Blood Vessels Permeated with DP6 and Synthetic Ice Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David P.; Taylor, Michael J.; Jimenez-Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2014-01-01

    This study provides thermal expansion data for blood vessels permeated with the cryoprotective cocktail DP6, when combined with selected synthetic ice modulators (SIMs): 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3-cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3-butanediol. The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects on structural integrity of cryopreserved materials, where thermal expansion is the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. This study focuses on the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the cryoprotective agent (CPA) behaves as a solid for all practical applications. By combining results obtained in the current study with literature data on the thermal expansion in the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, unified thermal expansion curves are presented. PMID:24769313

  6. Infrared tomography for diagnostic imaging of port wine stain blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.

    1994-11-15

    The objective of this work is the development of Infrared Tomography (IRT) for detecting and characterizing subsurface chromophores in human skin. Characterization of cutaneous chromophores is crucial for advances in the laser treatment of pigmented lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks and tatoos). Infrared tomography (IRT) uses a fast infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA) to detect temperature rises in a substrate induced by pulsed radiation. A pulsed laser is used to produce transient heating of an object. The temperature rise, due to the optical absorption of the pulsed laser light, creates an increase in infrared emission which is measured by the IR-FPA. Although the application of IRT to image subsurface cracks due to metal fatigue is a topic of great interest in the aircraft industry, the application to image subsurface chromophores in biological materials is novel. We present an image recovery method based on a constrained conjugate gradient algorithm that has obtained the first ever high quality images of port wine blood vessels.

  7. Potential Approaches to Enhance the Effects of Estrogen on Senescent Blood Vessels and Postmenopausal Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is more common in postmenopausal than premenopausal women, suggesting vascular protective effects of estrogen. Vascular estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and a transmembrane estrogen-binding protein GPR30 have been described. Also, experimental studies have demonstrated vasodilator effects of estrogen on the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle and extracellular matrix. However, randomized clinical trials have not supported vascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), possibly due to the subjects' advanced age and age-related changes in estrogen synthesis and metabolic pathways, the vascular ERs number, distribution and integrity, and the post-ER vascular signaling pathways. Current MHT includes natural estrogens such as conjugated equine estrogen, as well as synthetic and semi-synthetic estrogens. New estrogenic formulations and hormone combinations have been developed. Phytoestrogens is being promoted as an alternative MHT. Specific ER modulators (SERMs), and selective agonists for ERα such as PPT, ERβ such as DPN, and GPR30 such as G1 are being evaluated. In order to enhance the vascular effectiveness of MHT, its type, dose, route of administration and timing may need to be customized depending on the subject's age and pre-existing CVD. Also, the potential interaction of estrogen with progesterone and testosterone on vascular function may need to be considered in order to maximize the vascular benefits of MHT on senescent blood vessels and postmenopausal CVD. PMID:20210774

  8. Formation of an artificial blood vessel: adhesion force measurements with optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoener, Gregor; Campbell, Julie H.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina

    2004-10-01

    We are investigating the formation of a tissue capsule around a foreign body. This tissue capsule can be used as an autologous graft for the replacement of diseased blood vessels or for bypass surgery. The graft is grown in the peritoneal cavity of the recipient and the formation starts with the adhesion of cells to the foreign body. We identify the cell type and measure the adhesion of these cells to foreign materials using optical tweezers. Cell adhesion to macroscopic samples and microspheres is investigated. No difference in the adhesion force was measurable for polyethylene, silicon and Tygon on a scale accessible to optical tweezers. The density of adherent cells was found to vary strongly, being highest on polyethylene. The mean rupture forces for cell-microsphere adhesion ranged from 24 to 39 pN and changed upon preadsorption of bovine serum albumin. For plain microspheres, the highest mean rupture force was found for PMMA, which also showed the highest adhesion probability for the cell-microsphere interaction.

  9. Software-assisted live visualization system for subjacent blood vessels in endonasal endoscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempe, B.; Taudt, Ch.; Maschke, R.; Gruening, J.; Ernstberger, M.; Basan, F.; Baselt, T.; Grunert, R.; Hartmann, P.

    2013-02-01

    Minimal invasive surgery methods have received growing attention in recent years. In vital important areas, it is crucial for the surgeon to have a precise knowledge of the tissue structure. Especially the visualization of arteries is desirable, as the destruction of the same can be lethal to the patient. In order to meet this requirement, the study presents a novel assistance system for endoscopic surgery. While state-of-the art systems rely on pre-operational data like computer-tomographic maps and require the use of radiation, the goal of the presented approach is to provide the clarification of subjacent blood vessels on live images of the endoscope camera system. Based on the transmission and reflection spectra of various human tissues, a prototype system with a NIR illumination unit working at 808 nm was established. Several image filtering, processing and enhancement techniques have been investigated and evaluated on the raw pictures in order to obtain high quality results. The most important were increasing contrast and thresholding by difference of Gaussian method. Based on that, it is possible to rectify a fragmented artery pattern and extract geometrical information about the structure in terms of position and orientation. By superposing the original image and the extracted segment, the surgeon is assisted with valuable live pictures of the region of interest. The whole system has been tested on a laboratory scale. An outlook on the integration of such a system in a clinical environment and obvious benefits are discussed.

  10. Knockdown of Zebrafish Blood Vessel Epicardial Substance Results in Incomplete Retinal Lamination

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruei-Feng; Liu, Chia-Yang; Hu, Fung Rong; Huang, Chang-Jen; Wang, I-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Cell polarity during eye development determines the normal retinal lamination and differentiation of photoreceptor cells in the retina. In vertebrates, blood vessel epicardial substance (Bves) is known to play an important role in the formation and maintenance of the tight junctions essential for epithelial cell polarity. In the current study, we generated a transgenic zebrafish Bves (zbves) promoter-EGFP zebrafish line to investigate the expression pattern of Bves in the retina and to study the role of zbves in retinal lamination. Immunostaining with different specific antibodies from retinal cells and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify the morphological defects in normal and Bves knockdown zebrafish. In normal zebrafish, Bves is located at the apical junctions of embryonic retinal neuroepithelia during retinogenesis; later, it is strongly expressed around inner plexiform layer (IPL) and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In contrast, a loss of normal retinal lamination and cellular polarity was found with undifferentiated photoreceptor cells in Bves knockdown zebrafish. Herein, our results indicated that disruption of Bves will result in a loss of normal retinal lamination. PMID:24741362

  11. Thermal expansion of vitrified blood vessels permeated with DP6 and synthetic ice modulators.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, David P; Taylor, Michael J; Jimenez-Rios, Jorge L; Rabin, Yoed

    2014-06-01

    This study provides thermal expansion data for blood vessels permeated with the cryoprotective cocktail DP6, when combined with selected synthetic ice modulators (SIMs): 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3-cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3-butanediol. The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects on structural integrity of cryopreserved materials, where thermal expansion is the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. This study focuses on the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the cryoprotective agent (CPA) behaves as a solid for all practical applications. By combining results obtained in the current study with literature data on the thermal expansion in the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, unified thermal expansion curves are presented. PMID:24769313

  12. Regulation of signaling interactions and receptor endocytosis in growing blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Pitulescu, Mara E; Adams, Ralf H

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessels and the lymphatic vasculature are extensive tubular networks formed by endothelial cells that have several indispensable functions in the developing and adult organism. During growth and tissue regeneration but also in many pathological settings, these vascular networks expand, which is critically controlled by the receptor EphB4 and the ligand ephrin-B2. An increasing body of evidence links Eph/ephrin molecules to the function of other receptor tyrosine kinases and cell surface receptors. In the endothelium, ephrin-B2 is required for clathrin-dependent internalization and full signaling activity of VEGFR2, the main receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. In vascular smooth muscle cells, ephrin-B2 antagonizes clathrin-dependent endocytosis of PDGFRβ and controls the balanced activation of different signal transduction processes after stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor. This review summarizes the important roles of Eph/ephrin molecules in vascular morphogenesis and explains the function of ephrin-B2 as a molecular hub for receptor endocytosis in the vasculature. PMID:25482636

  13. Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1) Stabilizes Nascent Blood Vessels*

    PubMed Central

    Jacobo, Sarah Melissa P.; Kazlauskas, Andrius

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that VEGF-A and IGF-1 differ in their ability to stabilize newly formed blood vessels and endothelial cell tubes. Although VEGF-A failed to support an enduring vascular response, IGF-1 stabilized neovessels generated from primary endothelial cells derived from various vascular beds and mouse retinal explants. In these experimental systems, destabilization/regression was driven by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Because previous studies have established that Erk antagonizes LPA-mediated regression, we considered whether Erk was an essential component of IGF-dependent stabilization. Indeed, IGF-1 lost its ability to stabilize neovessels when the Erk pathway was inhibited pharmacologically. Furthermore, stabilization was associated with prolonged Erk activity. In the presence of IGF-1, Erk activity persisted longer than in the presence of VEGF or LPA alone. These studies reveal that VEGF and IGF-1 can have distinct inputs in the angiogenic process. In contrast to VEGF, IGF-1 stabilizes neovessels, which is dependent on Erk activity and associated with prolonged activation. PMID:25564613

  14. Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease (Arteriolosclerosis) in Brains of Older People

    PubMed Central

    Khoong, Cheryl H.L.; Poon, Wayne; Esiri, Margaret M.; Markus, Hugh S.; Hainsworth, Atticus H.

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects brain tissue from potentially harmful plasma components. Small vessel disease ([SVD], arteriolosclerosis) is common in the brains of older people and is associated with lacunar infarcts, leukoaraiosis and vascular dementia. To determine whether plasma extravasation is associated with SVD, we immunolabeled the plasma proteins fibrinogen and IgG, which are assumed to reflect BBB dysfunction, in deep grey matter (anterior caudate-putamen, [DGM]) and deep subcortical white matter (DWM) in the brains of a well-characterized patient cohort with minimal Alzheimer disease pathology (Braak stage 0-II) (n = 84; age ≥65 years). Morphometric measures of fibrinogen labeling were compared between people with neuropathologically defined SVD and aged control subjects. Parenchymal cellular labeling with fibrinogen and IgG was detectable in DGM and DWM in many subjects (>70%). Quantitative measures of fibrinogen were not associated with SVD in DGM or DWM; SVD severity was correlated between DGM and DWM (p < 0.0001). Fibrinogen in DGM showed a modest association with a history of hypertension; DWM fibrinogen was associated with dementia and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (all p < 0.05). In DWM, SVD was associated with leukoaraiosis identified in life (p < 0.05), but fibrinogen was not. Our data suggest that in aged brains plasma extravasation and hence local BBB dysfunction is common but do not support an association with SVD. PMID:25289893

  15. The effect of maternal smoke exposure on the ultrastructure of fetal peripheral blood vessels in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, R C; Amankwah, K S; Weberg, A D

    1986-01-01

    Ultrastructural changes have been found in umbilical blood vessels, placental blood vessels, and peripheral blood vessels of human fetuses whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. This study was undertaken to determine if similar changes could be found in peripheral blood vessels of mice fetuses whose mothers were exposed to cigarette smoke during pregnancy. Breeding mice of the C57BL/KsJ strain were placed in a smoking box similar to that described by Younoszai and exposed to cigarette smoke intermittently. This produces carbon monoxide levels in the adult mice similar to that found in human adults smoking one pack of cigarettes per day. Similarly caged mice of the same strain were used as controls. The female mice were not removed from their cage from pre-conception time until after delivery. Upon delivery each pup was sacrificed via neck fracture and the entire pup was immersed in a solution of 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer at pH 7.3. While still under solution, the rear leg muscles were dissected free, sliced, and immersed in the same preservative for four to five hours. They were then placed in fresh 2.5% glutaraldehyde mixture overnight. The tissues were post-fixed in osmium ferrocyanide and en-block stained with uranyl acetate in a graded series of alcohol. The tissues were infiltrated with and embedded in Spurr. Sections were taken via an ultramicrotome and post-stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate. The sections were examined in a Philips 201 electron microscope at 60 KV. In the peripheral vessels of the fetuses from smoke-exposed mothers, endothelial blebbing (both surface-type and vacuole-type) was seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3783394

  16. The Relationship of Retinal Vessel Diameters and Fractal Dimensions with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiaowei; Yuan, Yin; Gao, Zhonghai; Chen, Falin

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the correlation between quantitative retinal vascular parameters such as central retinal arteriolar equivalent (CRAE) and retinal vascular fractal dimension (D(f)), and cardiovascular risk factors in the Chinese Han population residing in the in islands of southeast China. Methodology/Principle Findings In this cross-sectional study, fundus photographs were collected and semi-automated analysis software was used to analyze retinal vessel diameters and fractal dimensions. Cardiovascular risk factors such as relevant medical history, blood pressure (BP), lipids, and blood glucose data were collected. Subjects had a mean age of 51.9±12.0 years and included 812 (37.4%) males and 1,357 (62.6%) females. Of the subjects, 726 (33.5%) were overweight, 226 (10.4%) were obese, 272 (12.5%) had diabetes, 738 (34.0%) had hypertension, and 1,156 (53.3%) had metabolic syndrome. After controlling for the effects of potential confounders, multivariate analyses found that age (β = 0.06, P = 0.008), sex (β = 1.33, P = 0.015), mean arterial blood pressure (β = −0.12, P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β = −0.22, P = 0.008), and CRVE (β = 0.23, P<0.001) were significantly associated with CRAE. Age (β = −0.0012, P<0.001), BP classification (prehypertension: β = −0.0075, P = 0.014; hypertension: β = −0.0131, P = 0.002), and hypertension history (β = −0.0007, P = 0.009) were significantly associated with D(f). Conclusions/Significance D(f) exhibits a stronger association with BP than CRAE. Thus, D(f) may become a useful indicator of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25188273

  17. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Retinal Blood Vessels Before and After 70-Day Bed Rest: A Retrospective Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raghunandan, Sneha; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Vizzeri, Gianmarco; Taibbi, Giovanni; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment associated with increased intracranial pressure (VIIP) are incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions. Impairments include decreased near visual acuity, posterior globe flattening, choroidal folds, optic disc edema and cotton wool spots. We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal blood vessels that precede development of visual and other ocular impairments. Potential contributions of retinal vascular remodeling to VIIP etiology are therefore being investigated by NASAs innovative VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software for two studies: (1) head-down tilt in human subjects before and after 70 days of bed rest, and (2) U.S. crew members before and after ISS missions. VESGEN analysis in previous research supported by the US National Institutes of Health identified surprising new opportunities to regenerate retinal vessels during early-stage, potentially reversible progression of the visually impairing and blinding disease, diabetic retinopathy.

  18. QUANTITATIVE ALTERATIONS IN THE HYPEREMIA RESPONSES TO LOCAL ISCHEMIA OF THE SMALLEST BLOOD VESSELS OF THE HUMAN SKIN FOLLOWING SYSTEMIC ANOXEMIA, HYPERCAPNIA, ACIDOSIS, AND ALKALOSIS.

    PubMed

    Dipalma, J R

    1942-11-01

    The responsiveness of the smallest blood vessels of the human skin was measured in systemic anoxemia, hypercapnia, acidosis, and alkalosis. A method was used which measured quantitatively the reactive hyperemia produced by a standardized period of local ischemia of these fine vessels. By timing the clearing period of the threshold hyperemia response a direct indication of blood flow in these fine vessels was obtained. The following conclusions were reached concerning the responses of the smallest blood vessels of the skin. 1. Systemic anoxemia causes a decrease in sensitivity to local ischemia and a slowing of the blood flow. 2. Hypercapnia prevents the changes resulting from anoxemia. 3. These changes in the smallest blood vessels of the skin occur independently of changes in pulse rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate and depth. 4. With systemic acidosis there is a decrease in sensitivity to local ischemia and a slowing of blood flow. The exact opposite takes place in systemic alkalosis. 5. The view is advanced, after due consideration of the facts, that the carbon dioxide concentration of the blood, or something directly associated with it, is the most important factor determining the sensitivity of these vessels, rather than oxygen saturation or changes in blood pH. PMID:19871246

  19. Ovarian angiogenesis. Phenotypic characterization of endothelial cells in a physiological model of blood vessel growth and regression.

    PubMed Central

    Augustin, H. G.; Braun, K.; Telemenakis, I.; Modlich, U.; Kuhn, W.

    1995-01-01

    Angiogenesis occurs during embryogenesis and is a down-regulated process in the healthy adult that is almost exclusively linked to pathological conditions such as tumor growth, wound healing, and inflammation. Physiological angiogenic processes in the adult are restricted to the female reproductive system where they occur cyclically during the ovarian and uterine cycle as well as during pregnancy. By systematically analyzing the phenotypic changes of endothelial cells during bovine corpus luteum (CL) formation and regression, we have established a physiological model of blood vessel growth and regression. Quantitation of vessel density, percentage of vessels with lumen, and ratio of Bandeiraea simplicifolia-I to von Willebrand Factor-positive endothelial cells were established as parameters of angiogenesis. Sprouting endothelial cells invade the growing CL and continue to grow throughout the first third of the ovarian cycle. Thereafter the mature CL is characterized by a dense network of vessels with gradually decreasing vessel density. During luteolysis and for several weeks thereafter (regressing and residual CL) all newly formed vessels regress, which is accompanied by gradual foreshortening and rounding of endothelial cells and subsequent detachment. Based on histochemical detection of nucleosomal fragmentation products physiological blood vessel regression in the cyclic CL does not appear to involve endothelial cell apoptosis. Lectin histochemical analysis revealed a distinct alteration of endothelial cell glycoconjugate expression during ovarian angiogenesis comparable with the distinct pattern of hyperglycosylation of cultured migrating endothelial cells (up-regulation of binding sites for Lycopersicon esculentum lectin, wheat germ agglutinin, neuraminidase-treated peanut agglutinin, and Ricinus communis agglutinin-I on sprouting ECs). Northern blot analysis of glycosyltransferases during the different stages of angiogenesis revealed an up-regulation of beta-galactoside alpha 2,6-sialyltransferase and alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase mRNA expression during the angiogenic stages of CL formation. These data establish the ovarian angiogenesis model as a suitable experimental system to study the functional and phenotypic properties of endothelial cells in sprouting and regressing blood vessels and provide additional evidence for the importance of endothelial cell surface glycoconjugates during angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7543733

  20. Ex vivo bubble production from ovine large blood vessels: size on detachment and evidence of "active spots".

    PubMed

    Arieli, R; Marmur, A

    2014-08-15

    Nanobubbles formed on the hydrophobic silicon wafer were shown to be the source of gas micronuclei from which bubbles evolved during decompression. Bubbles were also formed after decompression on the luminal surface of ovine blood vessels. Four ovine blood vessels: aorta, pulmonary vein, pulmonary artery, and superior vena cava, were compressed to 1013 kPa for 21 h. They were then decompressed, photographed at 1-s intervals, and bubble size was measured on detachment. There were certain spots at which bubbles appeared, either singly or in a cluster. Mean detachment diameter was between 0.7 and 1.0 mm. The finding of active spots at which bubbles nucleate is a new, hitherto unreported observation. It is possible that these are the hydrophobic spots at which bubbles nucleate, stabilise, and later transform into the gas micronuclei that grow into bubbles. The possible neurological effects of these large arterial bubbles should be further explored. PMID:24933644

  1. Molecular dynamics simulation of soft grains: Malaria-infected red blood cells motion within obstructed 2-D capillary vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, L.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Viridi, S.

    2014-02-01

    Molecular dynamics has been widely used to numerically solve equation of motion of classical many-particle system. It can be used to simulate many systems including biophysics, whose complexity level is determined by the involved elements. Based on this method, a numerical model had been constructed to mimic the behaviour of malaria-infected red blood cells within capillary vessel. The model was governed by three forces namely Coulomb force, normal force, and Stokes force. By utilizing two dimensional four-cells scheme, theoretical observation was carried out to test its capability. Although the parameters were chosen deliberately, all of the quantities were given arbitrary value. Despite this fact, the results were quite satisfactory. Combined with the previous results, it can be said that the proposed model were sufficient enough to mimic the malaria-infected red blood cells motion within obstructed capillary vessel.

  2. Relation of Blood Pressure to Retinal Vessel Diameter in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Zinman, Bernard; Gardiner, Robert; Suissa, Samy; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Donnelly, Sandra M.; Goodyer, Paul; Strand, Trudy; Mauer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of blood pressure (BP) and use of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to retinal vessel diameter in normotensive, normoalbuminuric persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Participants Persons with T1DM and gradable fundus photographs both at baseline (n=147) and 5-year follow-up (n=124). Methods Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs (ABP) were measured. Retinal arteriolar and venular diameters were measured using a computer-assisted technique. Individual arteriolar and venular measurements were combined into summary indices that reflect the average retinal arteriolar (central retinal arteriolar equivalent [CRAE]) and venular (central retinal venular equivalent [CRVE]) diameter of an eye, respectively. Main Outcome Measures CRAE and CRVE. Results While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin and ambulatory pulse rate, daytime ambulatory systolic (-0.29 ?m effect per 1mmHg, P=.02) and daytime ambulatory diastolic (-0.44 ?m effect per 1mmHg, P=.04), nighttime ambulatory systolic (-0.27 ?m effect per 1mmHg, P=.03), and 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP (-0.31 ?m effect per 1mmHg, P=.03) were cross-sectionally associated with a smaller CRAE. While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin, ambulatory pulse rate and baseline CRAE, no BP measure was associated with a change in CRAE or CRVE over 5 years of follow-up. Treatment with losartan or enalapril was not associated with a statistically significant change in CRAE or CRVE. Conclusions ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect retinal arteriolar or venular diameter in normotensive persons with T1DM. PMID:20142543

  3. Estrogenic Compounds, Estrogen Receptors and Vascular Cell Signaling in the Aging Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Smiley, Dia A.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2010-01-01

    The cardiovascular benefits of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) remain controversial. The earlier clinical observations that cardiovascular disease (CVD) was less common in MHT users compared to non-users suggested cardiovascular benefits of MHT. Also, experimental studies have identified estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ and GPR30, which mediate genomic or non-genomic effects in vascular endothelium, smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix (ECM). However, data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs), most notably the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, have challenged the cardiovascular benefits and highlighted adverse cardiovascular events with MHT. The discrepancies have been attributed to the design of RCTs, the subjects' advanced age and preexisting CVD, and the form of estrogen used. The discrepancies may also stem from age-related changes in vascular ER amount, distribution, integrity, and post-receptor signaling pathways as well as structural changes in the vasculature. Age-related changes in other sex hormones such as testosterone may also alter the hormonal environment and influence the cardiovascular effects of estrogen. Investigating the chemical properties, structure-activity relationship and pharmacology of natural and synthetic estrogens should improve the effectiveness of conventional MHT. Further characterization of phytoestrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and specific ER agonists may provide substitutes to conventional MHT. Conditions with excess or low estrogen levels such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and Turner syndrome may provide insight into the development and regulation of ER and the mechanisms of aberrant estrogen-ER interactions. The lessons learned from previous RCTs have led to more directed studies such as the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Careful design of experimental models and RCTs, coupled with the development of specific ER modulators, hold the promise of improving the actions of estrogen in the aging blood vessels and thereby enhancing the efficacy and safety of MHT in postmenopausal CVD. PMID:19442151

  4. Sinusoïdal flow of blood in a cylindrical deformable vessel exposed to an external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drochon, Agnès

    2016-03-01

    The present work provides an analytical solution for the Sinusoïdal flow of blood in a cylindrical elastic vessel exposed to an external magnetic field. The vessel is supposed to have non-conducting walls and the induced electric and magnetic fields are neglected. In other words, the well-known calculation of Womersley is revisited through the inclusion of the Lorentz force in the Navier-Stokes equations. A dispersion equation is obtained. This equation admits two types of solutions: the Young waves (mainly associated with radial deformation of the vessel) and the Lamb waves (mainly associated with longitudinal displacements in the vessel wall). It is demonstrated that the external magnetic field has an influence on the wave celerities, on the fluid velocity profiles, and on the wall displacements. It tends to reduce the blood flow and flatten the velocity profile, in the case of Young waves. The pulsatile character of the flow is also dampened. However, these effects become detectable for high values of the Hartmann number (M > 4, corresponding to B0 > 36 T with numerical data pertaining to large human arteries) and remain negligible in the context of magnetic resonance imaging (B0 ≤ 3 T, or even 7 T).

  5. Effects of viscosity and constraints on the dispersion and dissipation of waves in large blood vessels. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E.; Anliker, M.; Chang, I.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of blood viscosity on dissipation as well as dispersion of small waves in arteries and veins by means of a parametric study. A linearized analysis of axisymmetric waves in a cylindrical membrane that contains a viscous fluid indicates that there are two families of waves: a family of slow waves and one of fast waves. The faster waves are shown to be more sensitive to variations in the elastic properties of the medium surrounding the blood vessels and at high values of the frequency parameter alpha. At low values of alpha the effects of viscosity on attenuation are reversed.

  6. Precise manipulation of a microrobot in the pulsatile flow of human blood vessels using magnetic navigation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, S. M.; Jang, G. H.; Choi, J. H.; Park, S. H.; Park, J. O.

    2011-04-01

    This paper proposes a method to precisely manipulate a microrobot in the pulsatile flow that simulates the flow characteristics of human blood vessels by utilizing the electromagnetic transfer function of a magnetic navigation system (MNS). The frequency response characteristics of the MNS were utilized so that the input voltages in each coil can precisely generate the required time-varying magnetic force of a microrobot. An experiment which successfully anchoring a microrobot in a pulsatile flow was conducted to verify the proposed method.

  7. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Baras, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of Aβ in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of Aβ from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of Aβ from the brain. PMID:26448331

  8. Active induction of in vivo microbubbles by acoustic radiation force at the bifurcation of blood vessel and its evaluation.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kohji; Koido, Jun; Miyazawa, Shinya; Wada, Hikaru; Hosaka, Naoto; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Alhough the development of drug delivery system using microbubbles and ultrasound is expected, because microbubbles diffuse in bloodstream, we have so far reported our attempts for active control of the microbubbles in flow by acoustic radiation force in order to increase local concentration of the microbubbles. However, there was no evidence that in vivo microbubbles act as similar as in vitro experiments, because there were limitations for reproduction of in vivo conditions. In this study, we have elucidated the relationship between brightness variation and microbubbles concentration in the suspension to estimate the absolute concentration in an invisible condition considering in vivo experiment. Then we conducted an experiment of active induction of microbubbles in a Y-form bifurcation of artificial blood vessel, where experimental conditions were with focused ultrasound, the central frequency of 5 MHz, flow velocity of 30 mm/s, and maximum sound pressure of 300 kPa-pp, respectively. Then we applied the conditions for active induction of in vivo microbubbles to compare with in vitro experiments. We used a bifurcation of blood vessel in an ear of a rabbit because the bifurcation shape in its blood vessel is visible. As the results of the experiment, the microbubbles concentration in the induced path was almost two times higher than that in the other path, which agrees with the results from in vitro experiments. PMID:26736523

  9. BLOOD VESSELS IN GANGLIA IN HUMAN ESOPHAGUS MIGHT EXPLAIN THE HIGHER FREQUENCY OF MEGAESOPHAGUS COMPARED WITH MEGACOLON

    PubMed Central

    Adad, Sheila Jorge; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Jammal, Alessandro Adad

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the existence of blood vessels within ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the human esophagus and colon. At necropsy, 15 stillborns, newborns and children up to two years of age, with no gastrointestinal disorders, were examined. Rings of the esophagus and colon were analyzed and then fixed in formalin and processed for paraffin. Histological sections were stained by hematoxylin-eosin, Giemsa and immunohistochemistry for the characterization of endothelial cells, using antibodies for anti-factor VIII and CD31. Blood vessels were identified within the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus, and no blood vessels were found in any ganglia of the colon. It was concluded that the ganglia of the myenteric plexus of the esophagus are vascularized, while the ganglia of the colon are avascular. Vascularization within the esophageal ganglia could facilitate the entrance of infectious agents, as well as the development of inflammatory responses (ganglionitis) and denervation, as found in Chagas disease and idiopathic achalasia. This could explain the higher frequency of megaesophagus compared with megacolon. PMID:25351549

  10. Cdc42 is required for cytoskeletal support of endothelial cell adhesion during blood vessel formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Barry, David M; Xu, Ke; Meadows, Stryder M; Zheng, Yi; Norden, Pieter R; Davis, George E; Cleaver, Ondine

    2015-09-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases has been shown to be required in endothelial cells (ECs) during blood vessel formation. However, the underlying cellular events controlled by different GTPases remain unclear. Here, we assess the cellular mechanisms by which Cdc42 regulates mammalian vascular morphogenesis and maintenance. In vivo deletion of Cdc42 in embryonic ECs (Cdc42(Tie2KO)) results in blocked lumen formation and endothelial tearing, leading to lethality of mutant embryos by E9-10 due to failed blood circulation. Similarly, inducible deletion of Cdc42 (Cdc42(Cad5KO)) at mid-gestation blocks angiogenic tubulogenesis. By contrast, deletion of Cdc42 in postnatal retinal vessels leads to aberrant vascular remodeling and sprouting, as well as markedly reduced filopodia formation. We find that Cdc42 is essential for organization of EC adhesion, as its loss results in disorganized cell-cell junctions and reduced focal adhesions. Endothelial polarity is also rapidly lost upon Cdc42 deletion, as seen by failed localization of apical podocalyxin (PODXL) and basal actin. We link observed failures to a defect in F-actin organization, both in vitro and in vivo, which secondarily impairs EC adhesion and polarity. We also identify Cdc42 effectors Pak2/4 and N-WASP, as well as the actomyosin machinery, to be crucial for EC actin organization. This work supports the notion of Cdc42 as a central regulator of the cellular machinery in ECs that drives blood vessel formation. PMID:26253403

  11. Gain-of-function somatic mutations contribute to inflammation and blood vessel damage that lead to Alzheimer dementia: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2016-02-01

    Amyloid deposits are a characteristic feature of advanced Alzheimer dementia (AD), but whether they initiate the disease or are a consequence of it remains an unsettled question. To explore an alternative pathogenic mechanism, I propose that the triggering events that begin the pathogenic cascade are not amyloid deposits but damaged blood vessels caused by inflammatory reactions that lead to ischemia, amyloid accumulation, axonal degeneration, synaptic loss, and eventually irreversible neuronal cell death. Inflammation and blood vessel damage are well recognized complications of AD, but what causes them and why the cerebral microvasculature is affected have never been adequately addressed. Because heritable autosomal dominant mutations of NLRP3, APP, TREX1, NOTCH3, and Col4A1 are known to provoke inflammatory reactions and damage the brain in a wide variety of diseases, I propose that one or more low abundant, gain-of-function somatic mutations of the same 5 gene families damage the microvasculature of the brain that leads to dementia. This implies that the pathogenic triggers that lead to AD are derived not from external invaders or amyloid but from oxidative damage of our own genes.-Marchesi, V. T. Gain-of-function somatic mutations contribute to inflammation and blood vessel damage that lead to Alzheimer dementia: a hypothesis. PMID:26527064

  12. In vivo two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy reveals cardiac- and respiration-dependent pulsatile blood flow in cortical blood vessels in mice

    PubMed Central

    Santisakultarm, Thom P.; Cornelius, Nathan R.; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schafer, Andrew I.; Silver, Richard T.; Doerschuk, Peter C.; Olbricht, William L.

    2012-01-01

    Subtle alterations in cerebral blood flow can impact the health and function of brain cells and are linked to cognitive decline and dementia. To understand hemodynamics in the three-dimensional vascular network of the cerebral cortex, we applied two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy to measure the motion of red blood cells (RBCs) in individual microvessels throughout the vascular hierarchy in anesthetized mice. To resolve heartbeat- and respiration-dependent flow dynamics, we simultaneously recorded the electrocardiogram and respiratory waveform. We found that centerline RBC speed decreased with decreasing vessel diameter in arterioles, slowed further through the capillary bed, and then increased with increasing vessel diameter in venules. RBC flow was pulsatile in nearly all cortical vessels, including capillaries and venules. Heartbeat-induced speed modulation decreased through the vascular network, while the delay between heartbeat and the time of maximum speed increased. Capillary tube hematocrit was 0.21 and did not vary with centerline RBC speed or topological position. Spatial RBC flow profiles in surface vessels were blunted compared with a parabola and could be measured at vascular junctions. Finally, we observed a transient decrease in RBC speed in surface vessels before inspiration. In conclusion, we developed an approach to study detailed characteristics of RBC flow in the three-dimensional cortical vasculature, including quantification of fluctuations in centerline RBC speed due to cardiac and respiratory rhythms and flow profile measurements. These methods and the quantitative data on basal cerebral hemodynamics open the door to studies of the normal and diseased-state cerebral microcirculation. PMID:22268102

  13. Bubble size on detachment from the luminal aspect of ovine large blood vessels after decompression: The effect of mechanical disturbance.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Arieli, Uri; Marmur, Abraham

    2015-09-15

    Bubbles nucleate and develop after decompression at active spots on the luminal aspect of ovine large blood vessels. Series of bubbles were shown to detach from the active spot with a mean diameter of 0.7-1.0mm in calm conditions. The effect of mechanical disturbance (striking the bowl containing the vessel or tangential flow) was studied on ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after hyperbaric exposure. Diameter on detachment after a heavy blow to the bowl was 0.87 ± 0.43 mm (mean ± SD), no different from bubbles which detached without striking the bowl (0.86 ± 0.28 mm). Bubble diameter on detachment during pulsatile tangential flow at 234 cm/min, 0.99 ± 0.36 mm, was not smaller than that seen in the same blood vessels in calm conditions (0.81 ± 0.34 mm). The active spots were stained for lipids, proving their hydrophobicity. The most abundant active spots, which produced only a few bubbles, did not stain for lipids thereafter. The possibility that phospholipids were removed along with detached bubbles may correlate with acclimation to diving. The finding of bubble production at the active spots matches observed phenomena in divers: variable sensitivity to decompression, acclimation to diving, the effect of elevated gas load on increased bubble formation, a higher bubble score in the second dive on the same day, and unexplained neurological symptoms after decompression. Large bubbles released from the arterial circulation give serious cause for concern. PMID:26003848

  14. Intercapillary bridging cells: immunocytochemical characteristics of cells that connect blood vessels in the retina.

    PubMed

    Mendes-Jorge, Luísa; Llombart, Cristina; Ramos, David; López-Luppo, Mariana; Valença, Andreia; Nacher, Victor; Navarro, Marc; Carretero, Ana; Méndez-Ferrer, Simón; Rodriguez-Baeza, Alfonso; Ruberte, Jesús

    2012-05-01

    Intervascular bridges are fibrous strands that connect neighboring capillaries. These strands present associated cells, intervascular bridging cells (IBCs), whose nature and functional significance remains controversial. The aim of this study was to characterize the immunophenotype of IBCs, and contribute to understand their mechanical and intercellular communication properties in the retina. Quantification and retinal distribution of IBCs were also determined. For this purpose, C57BL/6N and nestin-GFP transgenic mice, as well as human retinas, were used. Whole-mount retinas were studied by means of immunohistochemistry and cytochemistry, and isolation of retinal vasculature was achieved by trypsin/pepsin digest technique. PAS reaction and the immunolabeling with anti-collagen IV and laminin antibodies revealed that IBCs were completely surrounded by a basement membrane, connecting two or more neighboring capillaries. IBCs were scarce and their number decreased with age. They were preferentially localized in the deep vascular plexus. In a murine model of experimental glaucoma, methylcellulose injected eyes showed retinal neovascularization and increased number of IBCs in the deep vascular plexus. IBCs were marked with anti-NG2, anti-PDGFR-β and anti-CD34 antibodies, and with tomato lectin, and were negative for PECAM-1. IBCs expressed nestin and filamentous actin, but desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were not detected. Moreover, these cells expressed the gap junction protein connexin 43. These results showed that IBCs had a pericytic nature since they expressed NG2 and the receptor for PDGF-B, and they were negative for PECAM-1. However, they were marked with CD34 and the tomato lectin, suggesting that they constitute a special subtype of pericytes, sharing characteristics with endothelial cells. IBCs presumably present mechanical functions due to the presence of filamentous actin. Connexin 43 was found in IBCs, suggesting that these cells allow intercellular communication between adjacent capillaries. This may represent an advantage for vasomotor tone integration and coordination in blood vessels without innervation, such as those of the retina. PMID:22484557

  15. The blood-tendon barrier: identification and characterisation of a novel tissue barrier in tendon blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Lehner, C; Gehwolf, R; Ek, J C; Korntner, S; Bauer, H; Bauer, H C; Traweger, A; Tempfer, H

    2016-01-01

    Tissue barriers function as "gate keepers" between different compartments (usually blood and tissue) and are formed by specialised membrane-associated proteins, localising to the apicolateral plasma membrane domain of epithelial and endothelial cells. By sealing the paracellular space, the free diffusion of solutes and molecules across epithelia and endothelia is impeded. Thereby, tissue barriers contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a distinct internal and external environment, which is crucial during organ development and allows maintenance of an organ-specific homeostatic milieu. So far, various epithelial and endothelial tissue barriers have been described, including the blood-brain barrier, the blood-retina barrier, the blood-testis barrier, the blood-placenta barrier, and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-brain barrier, which are vital for physiological function and any disturbance of these barriers can result in severe organ damage or even death. Here, we describe the identification of a novel barrier, located in the vascular bed of tendons, which we term the blood-tendon barrier (BTB). By using immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy, and tracer studies we demonstrate the presence of a functional endothelial barrier within tendons restricting the passage of large blood-borne molecules into the surrounding tendon tissue. We further provide in vitro evidence that the BTB potentially contributes to the creation of a distinct internal tissue environment impacting upon the proliferation and differentiation of tendon-resident cells, effects which might be fundamental for the onset of tendon pathologies. PMID:27227787

  16. [Blood vessels of the periodontium of incisors and molars of the lower jaw of the white rat].

    PubMed

    Varshavskiĭ, A I

    1985-12-01

    By means of injective and noninjective methods, the structural organization of the incisor and molar blood bed has been studied in the white rat mandible. For the periodontal blood bed, distinguishing by a pronounced organo-specificity, distribution of arterial and venous vessels between collagenous fiber bundles and a reticular arrangement of the capillaries is peculiar. A definite connection is clearly seen between angioarchitectonics of different segments of the periodontium, its structure and function. Unequal density of the capillary networks in the area of the epithelial dental organ and difference of the periodontal angioarchitectonics with the lingual and labial surfaces of the incisors are noted. The area of the epithelial dental organ, having a peculiar functional importance, is characterized by multiple pathways of blood inflow and outflow, by concentration of structural-functional adaptations which increase expansiveness, capacity and diffusive surface of metabolic microvessels, by a small critical thickness of the tissue layer between neighbouring capillaries. PMID:4091685

  17. In-vivo imaging of blood flow in human retinal vessels using color Doppler optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Rollins, Andrew M.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    1999-04-01

    Quantification of retinal blood flow may lead to a better understanding of the progression and treatment of several ocular disorders, including diabetic retinopathy, age- related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Current techniques, such as fluorescein angiography and laser Doppler velocimetry are limited, failing to provide sufficient information to the clinician. Color Doppler optical coherence tomography (CDOCT) is a novel technique using coherent heterodyne detection for simultaneous cross- sectional imaging of tissue microstructure and blood flow. This technique is capable of high spatial and velocity resolution imaging in highly scattering media. We implemented CDOCT for retinal blood flow mapping in human subjects. No dilation of the pupil was necessary. CDOCT is demonstrated for determining bidirectional flow in sub- 100micrometers diameter vessels in the retina. Additionally, we calculated Doppler broadening using the variance of depth- resolved spectra to identify regions with large velocity gradients within the Xenopus heart. This technique may be useful in quantifying local tissue perfusion in highly vascular retinal tissue.

  18. Characterization, Localization and Patterning of Lymphatics and Blood Vessels in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Comparative Study Using D2-40 and CD-34 IHC Marker

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Deshant; Bajpai, Manas; Gupta, Shailendra; Mathur, Nikunj; Vanaki, S S; Puranik, R S; Mittal, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Lymphatic metastasis has always been regarded as a major prognostic indicator for disease progression and as a guide for therapeutic strategies to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Differentiating lymphatic vessels from blood vessels is difficult, partly due to lack of specific method for identifying lymphatics. A new lymphatic vessel reactive antibody D2-40 has been introduced recently. Here we examined immunohistochemical localization of lymphatic vessels and blood vessels using D2-40 and CD-34 respectively in different histological grades of OSCC. Their expression in intra-tumoural and peri-tumoural region was also compared. Materials and Methods: Forty two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of excised specimens of OSCC were immunohistochemically evaluated using D2-40 and CD-34 antibodies. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) (D2-40 positivity) and micro vessel density (MVD) (CD34 positivity) in both intratumoural and peritumoural areas were assessed by hot spot method. Results: Regardless of histopathological differentiation, LVD–– and MVD in peritumoural areas were found greater than intratumoural areas (p>0.05). Interestingly, other than lymphatic vessels, D2-40 positivity was also detected in tumour cells as well as in basal layer of epithelium adjacent to OSCC. Two patterns of distribution of CD34 positive vessel - circumscribing type and penetrating type were also observed in the cancer nest area. Conclusion: D2-40 can be used as a marker to differentiate lymphatic vessels from blood vessels. Lymphatic and blood vessel proliferation might be much more extensive in the peritumoural area. D2-40 expression in epithelium adjacent to tumour indicates its role in the process of differentiation. Further, its expression in potential malignant disorder may provide better insight in predicting prognosis and pathogenesis of these lesions. PMID:25478456

  19. Blood vessel segmentation and width estimation in ultra-wide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Enrico; Robertson, Gavin; Trucco, Emanuele; MacGillivray, Tom J.; Lupascu, Carmen; van Hemert, Jano; Williams, Michelle C.; Newby, David E.; van Beek, Edwin JR; Houston, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Features of the retinal vasculature, such as vessel widths, are considered biomarkers for systemic disease. The aim of this work is to present a supervised approach to vessel segmentation in ultra-wide field of view scanning laser ophthalmoscope (UWFoV SLO) images and to evaluate its performance in terms of segmentation and vessel width estimation accuracy. The results of the proposed method are compared with ground truth measurements from human observers and with existing state-of-the-art techniques developed for fundus camera images that we optimized for UWFoV SLO images. Our algorithm is based on multi-scale matched filters, a neural network classifier and hysteresis thresholding. After spline-based refinement of the detected vessel contours, the vessel widths are estimated from the binary maps. Such analysis is performed on SLO images for the first time. The proposed method achieves the best results, both in vessel segmentation and in width estimation, in comparison to other automatic techniques. PMID:25574441

  20. The effects of healthy aging on intracerebral blood vessels visualized by magnetic resonance angiography

    PubMed Central

    Bullitt, Elizabeth; Zeng, Donglin; Mortamet, Benedicte; Ghosh, Arpita; Aylward, Stephen R.; Lin, Weili; Marks, Bonita L.; Smith, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Histological and magnetic resonance imaging studies have demonstrated that age-associated alterations of the human brain may be at least partially related to vascular alterations. Relatively little information has been published on vascular changes associated with healthy aging, however. The study presented in this paper examined vessels segmented from standardized, high-resolution, magnetic resonance angiograms (MRA) of 100 healthy volunteers (50 males, 50 females), aged 18-74, without hypertension or other disease likely to affect the vasculature. The subject sample was divided into 5 age groups (n=20/group) with gender equally distributed per group. The anterior cerebral, both middle cerebral, and the posterior circulations were examined for vessel number, vessel radius, and vessel tortuosity. Males exhibited larger vessel radii regardless of age and across all anatomical regions. Both males and females displayed a lower number of MRA-discernible vessels with age, most marked in the posterior circulation. Age-associated tortuosity increases were relatively mild. Our multi-modal image database has been made publicly available for use by other investigators. PMID:18471935

  1. Effect of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood on magnetic targeting in the impermeable micro-vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Sachin; Murthy, P. V. S. N.; Pradhan, S. C.

    2010-04-01

    In this investigation we consider to extended the work of Furlani and Furlani [15] by taking non-Newtonian fluid model for the blood in the impermeable micro-vessel. The behavior of blood is considered as the Herschel-Bulkley fluid which is more suitable for the micro-vessel of radius 50 μm. The expression for the fluidic force for the carrier particle traversing in the Herschel-Bulkley fluid is obtained first. Several factors that influence the magnetic targeting of the carrier particles in the microvasculature, such as the size of the carrier particle, the volume fraction of embedded magnetic nanoparticles, and the diameter of the micro-vessel are considered in the present problem. An algorithm is given to solve the system of coupled equations for trajectories of the carrier particle in the invasive case. The trajectories of the carrier particles are found in both invasive and noninvasive targeting systems. A comparison is make regarding the trajectories in these cases. Also, a prediction of the capture of therapeutic magnetic nanoparticle in the human microvasculature is made for different radii and volume fractions in both the invasive and noninvasive cases.

  2. S1P1 localizes to the colonic vasculature in ulcerative colitis and maintains blood vessel integrity

    PubMed Central

    Montrose, David C.; Scherl, Ellen J.; Bosworth, Brian P.; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Jung, Bongnam; Dannenberg, Andrew J.; Hla, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor1 (S1P1) promotes blood vessel barrier function. Degradation of S1P1 results in increased vascular permeability in the lung and may explain side effects associated with administration of FTY720, a functional antagonist of the S1P1 receptor that is currently used to treat multiple sclerosis. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by an increased density of abnormal vessels. The expression or role of S1P1 in blood vessels in the colon has not been investigated. In the present study, we show that S1P1 is overexpressed in the colonic mucosa of UC patients. This increase in S1P1 levels reflects increased vascular density in the inflamed mucosa. Genetic deletion of S1pr1 in mice increases colonic vascular permeability under basal conditions and increases bleeding in experimental colitis. In contrast, neither FTY720 nor AUY954, two S1P receptor-targeting agents, increases bleeding in experimental colitis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that S1P1 is critical to maintaining colonic vascular integrity and may play a role in UC pathogenesis. PMID:23296878

  3. Coadministration of branched-chain amino acids and lipopolysaccharide causes matrix metalloproteinase activation and blood-brain barrier breakdown.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Morais, Meline O S; Galant, Leticia S; Vuolo, Francieli; Dall'Igna, Dhébora M; Pasquali, Matheus A B; Ramos, Vitor M; Gelain, Daniel P; Moreira, Jose Claudio F; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Soriano, Francisco G; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Streck, Emilio L

    2014-10-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a severe deficiency in the activity of the branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Infections have a significant role in precipitating acute metabolic decompensation in patients with MSUD; however, the mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity in this disorder are poorly understood. In this study, we subjected rats to the coadministration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a major component of gram-negative bacteria cell walls, and high concentrations of BCAA (H-BCAA) to determine their effects on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and on the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9). Our results demonstrated that the coadministration of H-BCAA and LPS causes breakdown of the BBB and increases the levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the hippocampus of these rats. On the other hand, examination of the cerebral cortex of the 10- and 30-day-old rats revealed a significant difference in Evan's Blue content after coadministration of H-BCAA and LPS, as MMP-9 levels only increased in the cerebral cortex of the 10-day-old rats. In conclusion, these results suggest that the inflammatory process associated with high levels of BCAA causes BBB breakdown. Thus, we suggest that BBB breakdown is relevant to the perpetuation of brain inflammation and may be related to the brain dysfunction observed in MSUD patients. PMID:24390570

  4. Selective photothermolysis of blood vessels following flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser irradiation: in vivo results and mathematical modelling are in agreement.

    PubMed

    Babilas, Philipp; Shafirstein, Gal; Bäumler, Wolfgang; Baier, Jürgen; Landthaler, Michael; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus; Abels, Christoph

    2005-08-01

    Laser therapy using the pulsed dye laser is the standard treatment for port-wine stains (PWS). But the mechanism of action has not been elucidated completely, yet. The dorsal skin-fold chamber model in hamsters was used to investigate the effects of laser treatment (lambda(em)=585 nm; pulse duration: 0.45 ms; fluence: 6 J per cm2) on blood vessels. Vessels (n=3394) were marked with FITC dextran (MW 150 kDa) and diameters (2-186 microm) were measured using intravital fluorescence microscopy up to 24 h following irradiation. Histology (H&E, TUNEL, CD31) was taken 1 or 24 h after irradiation. The experimental results were compared with the predictions of a mathematical model based on the finite-element method. Following irradiation treatment the number of unperfused vessels decreases with decreasing vessel diameter in vivo. Histology indicated a restriction of tissue injury to the irradiated area after 1 h. Blood vessels contained aggregated red blood cells. After 24 h tissue damage occurred also outside the irradiated area and thrombus formation was visible. These results were in agreement with the mathematical calculations. In addition to initial physical effects after pulsed dye laser treatment delayed biological processes contribute significantly to the reduction of perfused blood vessels. Because of incomplete photocoagulation of smaller blood vessels (diameter 2-16 microm) a complete bleaching of PWS seems to be unlikely. PMID:16098046

  5. The effect of oxygen saturation targeting on retinal blood vessel growth using retinal image data from the BOOST-II UK Trial.

    PubMed

    Moreton, R B R; Fleck, B W; Fielder, A R; Williams, C A; Butler, L; Wilson, C; Cocker, K; Juszczak, E; King, A; Stenson, B; Brocklehurst, P

    2016-04-01

    PurposeRetinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disorder of developing retinal blood vessels in preterm infants. The purpose of this nested study was to investigate the effects of higher (91-95%) and lower (85-89%) oxygen saturation (SpO2) targeting on retinal blood vessel growth in preterm infants.MethodsRetinal blood vessel growth in the higher (91-95%) and lower (85-89%) oxygen saturation (SpO2) targeting groups was compared. Suitable RetCam (Clarity, Pleasanton, CA, USA) images collected in the BOOST-II UK trial were used. The distances between the centre of the optic disc and the ROP ridge in the temporal and nasal retina were measured in pixel units.ResultsImages from 38 infants were studied, 20 from the higher SpO2 target group and 18 from the lower SpO2 target group. On average, temporal blood vessels extended further from the optic disc than nasal blood vessels, mean (standard deviation (SD)) 463.39 (55.05) pixels compared with 360.13 (44.47) pixels, respectively, P<0.0001. Temporal blood vessels extended less far from the optic disc in the higher SpO2 target group than in the lower SpO2 target group: mean (SD) 449.83 (56.16) pixels compared with 480.02 (49.94), respectively, P=0.055. Nasal retinal blood vessel measurements were broadly similar in the higher and lower SpO2 target groups; mean (SD) 353.96 (41.95) compared with 370.00 (48.82) pixels, respectively, P=0.38.ConclusionsRelatively high oxygen saturation targeting (91-95%) was associated with a trend (P=0.055) towards reduced retinal blood vessel growth in this study of preterm infants. PMID:26795413

  6. Automatic Extraction of Blood Vessels in the Retinal Vascular Tree Using Multiscale Medialness

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Jihene; Montesinos, Philippe; Belmabrouk, Hafedh; Esclarín Monreal, Julio; Krissian, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for vessel extraction in retinal images. The first step consists of applying anisotropic diffusion filtering in the initial vessel network in order to restore disconnected vessel lines and eliminate noisy lines. In the second step, a multiscale line-tracking procedure allows detecting all vessels having similar dimensions at a chosen scale. Computing the individual image maps requires different steps. First, a number of points are preselected using the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix. These points are expected to be near to a vessel axis. Then, for each preselected point, the response map is computed from gradient information of the image at the current scale. Finally, the multiscale image map is derived after combining the individual image maps at different scales (sizes). Two publicly available datasets have been used to test the performance of the suggested method. The main dataset is the STARE project's dataset and the second one is the DRIVE dataset. The experimental results, applied on the STARE dataset, show a maximum accuracy average of around 94.02%. Also, when performed on the DRIVE database, the maximum accuracy average reaches 91.55%. PMID:25977682

  7. Effects of electrical stunning frequency and voltage combinations on the presence of engorged blood vessels in goose liver.

    PubMed

    Turcsán, Zs; Varga, L; Szigeti, J; Turcsán, J; Csurák, I; Szalai, M

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of nine electrical stunning methods using various frequency and voltage combinations on the occurrence of engorged blood vessels in goose liver. Two hundred seventy Gourmaud geese (liver-type line SI 14) were slaughtered at 12 wk of age, in groups of 90 at three different times. Thirty birds each were subjected to one of the nine stunning methods. Neck cutting was performed immediately after stunning. The duration of exsanguination was 11 min. After completion of bleeding, the birds were scalded, defeathered manually, and kept refrigerated. At 1 d postmortem, the carcasses were eviscerated and cut up. From the slaughterhouse, the livers chilled in ice were transported to the cannery where they were weighed and graded at 2 d postmortem and were further processed. All of the veins and capillaries full of blood were removed from livers, because their presence was a hazard to product quality by causing discoloration of the canned liver, and the percentage of liver weight loss was then determined. The loss in liver weight due to removal of engorged blood vessels was reduced (P < 0.05) at 350 Hz, 70 to 90 V, and 80 to 85 mA when compared to the results obtained with any other stunning method tested. It was concluded that the use of high-frequency currents for electrical stunning of liver geese might have considerable commercial advantages. PMID:14653479

  8. A mathematical model of the Bloch NMR equations for quantitative analysis of blood flow in blood vessels with changing cross-section-I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awojoyogbe, O. B.

    2002-01-01

    Recently, magnetic resonance imaging has moved away from merely depicting the morphology of objects or disease states and is now concerned with creating spatially localized representations of dynamics and function. Dynamical measurements of blood flow, is one example of this trend. Improving these techniques requires an understanding of the basic physics that govern imaging technology and the functions of biological systems. This presentation is focused on mathematical modeling of the Bloch NMR flow equations into Bessel functions of the first and the second kind. The model is tailored towards understanding the basic physics of extracting the relevant flow parameters by which velocity quantification can be made in blood vessels with changing cross-section to solve real problems in medicine and biology.

  9. Investigation of Blood Flow and the Effect of Vasoactive Substances in Cutaneous Blood Vessels of "Xenopus Laevis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Škorjanc, Aleš; Belušic, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized "Xenopus," a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB…

  10. Pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous blood vessels using a third grade non-Newtonian fluids model.

    PubMed

    Akbarzadeh, Pooria

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the unsteady pulsatile magneto-hydrodynamic blood flows through porous arteries concerning the influence of externally imposed periodic body acceleration and a periodic pressure gradient are numerically simulated. Blood is taken into account as the third-grade non-Newtonian fluid. Besides the numerical solution, for small Womersley parameter (such as blood flow through arterioles and capillaries), the analytical perturbation method is used to solve the nonlinear governing equations. Consequently, analytical expressions for the velocity profile, wall shear stress, and blood flow rate are obtained. Excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical predictions is evident. Also, the effects of body acceleration, magnetic field, third-grade non-Newtonian parameter, pressure gradient, and porosity on the flow behaviors are examined. Some important conclusions are that, when the Womersley parameter is low, viscous forces tend to dominate the flow, velocity profiles are parabolic in shape, and the center-line velocity oscillates in phase with the driving pressure gradient. In addition, by increasing the pressure gradient, the mean value of the velocity profile increases and the amplitude of the velocity remains constant. Also, when non-Newtonian effect increases, the amplitude of the velocity profile. PMID:26792174

  11. Investigation of Blood Flow and the Effect of Vasoactive Substances in Cutaneous Blood Vessels of "Xenopus Laevis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    korjanc, Ale; Beluic, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized "Xenopus," a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB

  12. Ricinus communis Agglutinin I Leads to Rapid Down-Regulation of VEGFR-2 and Endothelial Cell Apoptosis in Tumor Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    You, Weon-Kyoo; Kasman, Ian; Hu-Lowe, Dana D.; McDonald, Donald M.

    2010-01-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA I), a galactose-binding lectin from castor beans, binds to endothelial cells at sites of plasma leakage, but little is known about the amount and functional consequences of binding to tumor endothelial cells. We addressed this issue by examining the effects of RCA I on blood vessels of spontaneous pancreatic islet-cell tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice. After intravenous injection, RCA I bound strongly to tumor vessels but not to normal blood vessels. At 6 minutes, RCA I fluorescence of tumor vessels was largely diffuse, but over the next hour, brightly fluorescent dots appeared as the lectin was internalized by endothelial cells. RCA I injection led to a dose- and time-dependent decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) immunoreactivity in tumor endothelial cells, with 95% loss over 6 hours. By comparison, VEGFR-3, CD31, and CD105 had decreases in the range of 21% to 33%. Loss of VEGFR-2 was followed by increased activated caspase-3 in tumor vessels. Prior inhibition of VEGF signaling by AG-028262 decreased RCA I binding and internalization into tumor vessels. These findings indicate RCA I preferentially binds to and is internalized by tumor endothelial cells, which leads to VEGFR-2 down-regulation, endothelial cell apoptosis, and tumor vessel regression. Together, the results illustrate the selective impact of RCA I on VEGF signaling in tumor blood vessels. PMID:20185574

  13. [Indications for contrast medium administration in MR-angiography of cerebral blood vessels].

    PubMed

    Petersen, D; Klose, U

    1997-07-01

    Time-of-flight MR-angiography of large volumes is limited by the occurrence of saturation effects, which lead to low signal in both veins and arteries. Alternatively to a number of other MRA-techniques, intravenous application of paramagnetic contrast media in combination with 3D-pulse sequences with or without flow refocussing allows the depiction of slow vessels in large volumes without technical extra expenses. The main intracranial indication is anatomical 3D-imaging of normal and dysplastic cerebral veins with high spatial resolution, and the additional depiction of the venous drainage in AVMs, when unenhanced MRA shows only the arteriel supply and the nidus. In large cerebral aneurysms, bridging veins and venous sinuses, partial thromboses can easily be differentiated from slow flow. Contrast-enhancing tumors can be depicted together with normal or displaced vessels. Improvements of arterial signal due to contrast media with currently used routine MRA techniques are clinically not significant. Signal loss due to spin dephasing in vessels with complex flow is not influences by contrast media. Results of contrast-enhanced MRA are determined by the timing of injection. Since arteries and veins are both imaged with high signal intensity, improvements of postprocessing procedures for secondary vessel segmentation are necessary. PMID:9340684

  14. [The occurrence of hemodynamic effective elements in the intestinal blood vessel system].

    PubMed

    Wille, K H; Schnorr, B

    2003-04-01

    Arterioles, precapillary sphincters, capillary endothelium, and pericytes probably regulate the blood flow in the intestinal microvascular bed similar to other regions of the body because of their equipment with contractile filaments. Only throttle veins with their arrangement of pools and their characteristics probably exert influence on the hemodynamic qualities of the blood flow in the intestinal mucosa. PMID:12797530

  15. Study to prevent the density of microcapsules from diffusing in blood vessel by local acoustic radiation force.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Kohji; Watarai, Nobuyuki; Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Miyamoto, Yoshitaka; Kim, Keri; Chiba, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    We have already reported our attempt to constrain direction of microcapsules in flow owing to an acoustic radiation force. However, the diameter of capsules was too large not to be applied in vivo. Furthermore, acoustic radiation force affected only in focal area because focused ultrasound was used. Thus we have improved our experiment by using microcapsules as small as blood cells and introducing a plane wave of ultrasound. We prepared an artificial blood vessel including a Y-form bifurcation established two observation areas. Then we newly defined the induction index to evaluate the difference of capsule density in two paths of downstream. As the result, optimum angle of ultrasound emission to induce to desired path was derived. And the induction index increased in proportion to the central frequency of ultrasound, which is affected by forming aggregation of capsules to receive more radiation force. PMID:21096532

  16. Study of Relationship Between the Blood Supply of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct and Duct Supply Branches from Gastroduodenal Artery on Imaging and Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Yang, Chun; Li, Hong-Jun; Chen, Ya-Liang; Liu, Guo-Zhen; Song, Yi-Zhi; Wu, Huan-Huan; Ding, Jin-Li; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Background: Liver transplantation has become the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage acute or chronic hepatic disease. Bile duct complications are common events after liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the blood supply of the human bile duct and identify the underlying mechanisms of bile duct complications after liver transplantation. Methods: The duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and blood supply of extrahepatic bile duct system were re-evaluated through selective hepatic angiography from 600 patients. In addition, 33 cadavers were injected with latex casting material into the common hepatic artery, then the extrahepatic bile duct and the branches from the common hepatic artery were carefully dissected to visualize the gastroduodenal artery and its branching to the extrahepatic bile duct. Results: The bile duct artery arose from the branch of the gastroduodenal artery in 8.1% (49/600). Of these 49 individuals, the bile duct artery was supplied by the gastroduodenal artery (61.22%, 30/49), the proper hepatic artery (14.29%, 7/49), or both the gastroduodenal artery and the proper hepatic artery (24.49%, 12/49). In our study of 33 cadavers, the percentage that the bile duct artery arose from the gastroduodenal artery was 27.27%. The blood supply to the bile extrahepatic bile ducts was divided into different segments and formed longitudinal and arterial network anastomosed on the walls of the duct. Conclusions: There is a close relationship between the duct supply branches from gastroduodenal artery and the blood supplying patterns of the extrahepatic bile duct system. In liver transplant surgery, the initial part of the gastroduodenal artery is preferred to be preserved in the donor liver. It is of great significance to improve the success rate of operation and reduce complications. PMID:25635427

  17. Angiogenesis in the developing spinal cord: blood vessel exclusion from neural progenitor region is mediated by VEGF and its antagonists.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Teruaki; Takase, Yuta; Yoshino, Takashi; Saito, Daisuke; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels in the central nervous system supply a considerable amount of oxygen via intricate vascular networks. We studied how the initial vasculature of the spinal cord is formed in avian (chicken and quail) embryos. Vascular formation in the spinal cord starts by the ingression of intra-neural vascular plexus (INVP) from the peri-neural vascular plexus (PNVP) that envelops the neural tube. At the ventral region of the PNVP, the INVP grows dorsally in the neural tube, and we observed that these vessels followed the defined path at the interface between the medially positioned and undifferentiated neural progenitor zone and the laterally positioned differentiated zone. When the interface between these two zones was experimentally displaced, INVP faithfully followed a newly formed interface, suggesting that the growth path of the INVP is determined by surrounding neural cells. The progenitor zone expressed mRNA of vascular endothelial growth factor-A whereas its receptor VEGFR2 and FLT-1 (VEGFR1), a decoy for VEGF, were expressed in INVP. By manipulating the neural tube with either VEGF or the soluble form of FLT-1, we found that INVP grew in a VEGF-dependent manner, where VEGF signals appear to be fine-tuned by counteractions with anti-angiogenic activities including FLT-1 and possibly semaphorins. These results suggest that the stereotypic patterning of early INVP is achieved by interactions between these vessels and their surrounding neural cells, where VEGF and its antagonists play important roles. PMID:25585380

  18. Angiogenesis in the Developing Spinal Cord: Blood Vessel Exclusion from Neural Progenitor Region Is Mediated by VEGF and Its Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Teruaki; Takase, Yuta; Yoshino, Takashi; Saito, Daisuke; Tadokoro, Ryosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessels in the central nervous system supply a considerable amount of oxygen via intricate vascular networks. We studied how the initial vasculature of the spinal cord is formed in avian (chicken and quail) embryos. Vascular formation in the spinal cord starts by the ingression of intra-neural vascular plexus (INVP) from the peri-neural vascular plexus (PNVP) that envelops the neural tube. At the ventral region of the PNVP, the INVP grows dorsally in the neural tube, and we observed that these vessels followed the defined path at the interface between the medially positioned and undifferentiated neural progenitor zone and the laterally positioned differentiated zone. When the interface between these two zones was experimentally displaced, INVP faithfully followed a newly formed interface, suggesting that the growth path of the INVP is determined by surrounding neural cells. The progenitor zone expressed mRNA of vascular endothelial growth factor-A whereas its receptor VEGFR2 and FLT-1 (VEGFR1), a decoy for VEGF, were expressed in INVP. By manipulating the neural tube with either VEGF or the soluble form of FLT-1, we found that INVP grew in a VEGF-dependent manner, where VEGF signals appear to be fine-tuned by counteractions with anti-angiogenic activities including FLT-1 and possibly semaphorins. These results suggest that the stereotypic patterning of early INVP is achieved by interactions between these vessels and their surrounding neural cells, where VEGF and its antagonists play important roles. PMID:25585380

  19. Robust MR assessment of cerebral blood volume and mean vessel size using SPION-enhanced ultrashort echo acquisition.

    PubMed

    Han, S H; Cho, J H; Jung, H S; Suh, J Y; Kim, J K; Kim, Y R; Cho, G; Cho, H

    2015-05-15

    Intravascular superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)-enhanced MR transverse relaxation rates (∆R2(⁎) and ∆R2) are widely used to investigate in vivo vascular parameters, such as the cerebral blood volume (CBV), microvascular volume (MVV), and mean vessel size index (mVSI, ∆R2(⁎)/∆R2). Although highly efficient, regional comparison of vascular parameters acquired using gradient-echo based ∆R2(⁎) is hampered by its high sensitivity to magnetic field perturbations arising from air-tissue interfaces and large vessels. To minimize such demerits, we took advantage of the dual contrast property of SPION and both theoretically and experimentally verified the direct benefit of replacing gradient-echo based ∆R2(⁎) measurement with ultra-short echo time (UTE)-based ∆R1 contrast to generate the robust CBV and mVSI maps. The UTE acquisition minimized the local measurement errors from susceptibility perturbations and enabled dose-independent CBV measurement using the vessel/tissue ∆R1 ratio, while independent spin-echo acquisition enabled simultaneous ∆R2 measurement and mVSI calculation of the cortex, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb, which are animal brain regions typified by significant susceptibility-associated measurement errors. PMID:25818683

  20. Tenascin-W is a specific marker of glioma-associated blood vessels and stimulates angiogenesis in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Enrico; Degen, Martin; Rüegg, Curzio; Merlo, Adrian; Lino, Maddalena M.; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth; Brellier, Florence

    2010-01-01

    The microenvironment hosting a tumor actively participates in regulating tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Among the extracellular matrix proteins enriched in the stroma of carcinomas are the tenascin family members tenascin-C and tenascin-W. Whereas tenascin-C overexpression in gliomas is known to correlate with poor prognosis, the status of tenascin-W in brain tumors has not been investigated so far. In the present study, we analyzed protein levels of tenascin-W in 38 human gliomas and found expression of tenascin-W in 80% of the tumor samples, whereas no tenascin-W could be detected in control, nontumoral brain tissues. Double immunohistochemical staining of tenascin-W and von Willebrand factor revealed that tenascin-W is localized around blood vessels, exclusively in tumor samples. In vitro, the presence of tenascin-W increased the proportion of elongated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and augmented the mean speed of cell migration. Furthermore, tenascin-W triggered sprouting of HUVEC spheroids to a similar extent as the proangiogenic factor tenascin-C. In conclusion, our study identifies tenascin-W as a candidate biomarker for brain tumor angiogenesis that could be used as a molecular target for therapy irrespective of the glioma subtype.—Martina, E., Degen, M., Rüegg, C., Merlo, A., Lino, M. M., Chiquet-Ehrismann, R., Brellier, F. Tenascin-W is a specific marker of glioma-associated blood vessels and stimulates angiogenesis in vitro. PMID:19884327

  1. Tissue-engineered vascular grafts transform into mature blood vessels via an inflammation-mediated process of vascular remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jason D.; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra; Brennan, Matthew P.; Jay, Steven M.; Devine, Lesley; Rao, Deepak A.; Yi, Tai; Mirensky, Tamar L.; Nalbandian, Ani; Udelsman, Brooks; Hibino, Narutoshi; Shinoka, Toshiharu; Saltzman, W. Mark; Snyder, Edward; Kyriakides, Themis R.; Pober, Jordan S.; Breuer, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Biodegradable scaffolds seeded with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) are the earliest tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) to be used clinically. These TEVGs transform into living blood vessels in vivo, with an endothelial cell (EC) lining invested by smooth muscle cells (SMCs); however, the process by which this occurs is unclear. To test if the seeded BMCs differentiate into the mature vascular cells of the neovessel, we implanted an immunodeficient mouse recipient with human BMC (hBMC)-seeded scaffolds. As in humans, TEVGs implanted in a mouse host as venous interposition grafts gradually transformed into living blood vessels over a 6-month time course. Seeded hBMCs, however, were no longer detectable within a few days of implantation. Instead, scaffolds were initially repopulated by mouse monocytes and subsequently repopulated by mouse SMCs and ECs. Seeded BMCs secreted significant amounts of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and increased early monocyte recruitment. These findings suggest TEVGs transform into functional neovessels via an inflammatory process of vascular remodeling. PMID:20207947

  2. Genetically modified T cells targeting neovasculature efficiently destroy tumor blood vessels, shrink established solid tumors and increase nanoparticle delivery.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2013-11-15

    Converting T cells into tumor cell killers by grafting them with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has shown promise as a cancer immunotherapeutic. However, the inability of these cells to actively migrate and extravasate into tumor parenchyma has limited their effectiveness in vivo. Here we report the construction of a CAR containing an echistatin as its targeting moiety (eCAR). As echistatin has high binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin that is highly expressed on the surface of endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature, T cells engrafted with eCAR (T-eCAR) can efficiently lyse human umbilical vein endothelial cells and tumor cells that express αvβ3 integrin when tested in vitro. Systemic administration of T-eCAR led to extensive bleeding in tumor tissues with no evidence of damage to blood vessels in normal tissues. Destruction of tumor blood vessels by T-eCAR significantly inhibited the growth of established bulky tumors. Moreover, when T-eCAR was codelivered with nanoparticles in a strategically designed temporal order, it dramatically increased nanoparticle deposition in tumor tissues, pointing to the possibility that it may be used together with nanocarriers to increase their capability to selectively deliver antineoplastic drugs to tumor tissues. PMID:23661285

  3. Genetically modified T cells targeting neovasculature efficiently destroy tumor blood vessels, shrink established solid tumors, and increase nanoparticle delivery

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xinping; Rivera, Armando; Tao, Lihua; Zhang, Xiaoliu

    2013-01-01

    Converting T cells into tumor cell killers by grafting them with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has shown promise as a cancer immunotherapeutic. However, the inability of these cells to actively migrate and extravasate into tumor parenchyma has limited their effectiveness in vivo. Here we report the construction of a chimeric antigen receptor containing an echistatin as its targeting moiety (eCAR). As echistatin has high binding affinity to αvβ3 integrin that is highly expressed on the surface of endothelial cells of tumor neovasculature, T cells engrafted with eCAR (T-eCAR) can efficiently lyse human umbilical vein endothelial cells and tumor cells that express αvβ3 integrin when tested in vitro. Systemic administration of T-eCAR led to extensive bleeding in tumor tissues with no evidence of damage to blood vessels in normal tissues. Destruction of tumor blood vessels by T-eCAR significantly inhibited the growth of established bulky tumors. Moreover, when T-eCAR was co-delivered with nanoparticles in a strategically designed temporal order, it dramatically increased nanoparticle deposition in tumor tissues, pointing to the possibility that it may be used together with nanocarriers to increase their capability to selectively deliver antineoplastic drugs to tumor tissues. PMID:23661285

  4. Bone morphogenetic protein signaling promotes morphogenesis of blood vessels, wound epidermis, and actinotrichia during fin regeneration in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Thorimbert, Valentine; König, Désirée; Marro, Jan; Ruggiero, Florence; Jaźwińska, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish fin regeneration involves initial formation of the wound epidermis and the blastema, followed by tissue morphogenesis. The mechanisms coordinating differentiation of distinct tissues of the regenerate are poorly understood. Here, we applied pharmacologic and transgenic approaches to address the role of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling during fin restoration. To map the BMP transcriptional activity, we analyzed the expression of the evolutionarily conserved direct phospho-Smad1 target gene, id1, and its homologs id2a and id3. This analysis revealed the BMP activity in the distal blastema, wound epidermis, osteoblasts, and blood vessels of the regenerate. Blocking the BMP function with a selective chemical inhibitor of BMP type I receptors, DMH1, suppressed id1 and id3 expression and arrested regeneration after blastema formation. We identified several previously uncharacterized functions of BMP during fin regeneration. Specifically, BMP signaling is required for remodeling of plexus into structured blood vessels in the rapidly growing regenerate. It organizes the wound epithelium by triggering wnt5b expression and promoting Collagen XIV-A deposition into the basement membrane. BMP represents the first known signaling that induces actinotrichia formation in the regenerate. Our data reveal a multifaceted role of BMP for coordinated morphogenesis of distinct tissues during regeneration of a complex vertebrate appendage. PMID:26148971

  5. [Pulsatile flow model with elastic blood vessels for duplex ultrasound studies].

    PubMed

    Petrick, J; Schlief, R; Zomack, M; Langholz, J; Urbank, A

    1992-12-01

    Using ultrasound duplex technique flow phenomena in patients' circulation can be examined. For the interpretation of these examinations it is necessary to have extensive knowledge on flow influencing parameters. This can be easily obtained from simplified flow models. This article describes the components of a flow model that allows examination of ultrasonic contrast media flowing through an artificial heart and vessel mimicking tubes. The artificial heart is the drive which pumps a water glycerol cellulose mixture through the circulation in a pulsatile manner. The shape of the ventricle, the compliance of the aorta, the viscosity of the flow medium and the wall elasticity of the examination vessel were taken into account. The attenuation caused by the surrounding tissue is simulated by a variable layer of castor oil. The flow model is suitable to produce flow profiles that are very similar to physiological profiles. PMID:1290089

  6. Effect of gravitation stress and hypokinesia on blood vessels of the testicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazhchenko, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were exposed to single maximum endurable stresses of cranio-caudal direction, hypokinesia for periods of one to eight weeks, and hypokinesia followed by gravitation stresses. The stresses caused dilatation of vessels, greater sinuosity, and occasional ruptures of the walls and extravasation. The greater part of the capillaries were dilated; the greatest part constricted. In hypokinesia there was an increasing atrophy of the testes. Significant results are reported.

  7. PIV and digital holography for measuring blood flows and vessel wall dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, Laura; Roche, Eva; Palero, Virginia; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Arroyo, M. Pilar

    2013-11-01

    In this work endoscopy has been combined with high speed PIV and holographic interferometry for flow velocity and wall deformation measurement of different vessels. Endoscopes have been used for illumination and/or recording of PIV images and digital holograms. High speed PIV has been applied to evaluate the influence of an antithrombotic filter in a vena cava model flow. Qualitative wall deformation has been obtained using digital holography in a vein model and in a real sheep aorta.

  8. Computational blood flow and vessel wall modeling in a CT-based thoracic aorta after stent-graft implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazer, Dilana; Stoll, Markus; Schmidt, Eduard; Richter, Goetz-M.; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2010-03-01

    Abnormal blood flow conditions and structural fatigue within stented vessels may lead to undesired failure causing death to the patient. Image-based computational modeling provides a physical and realistic insight into the patientspecific biomechanics and enables accurate predictive simulations of development, growth and failure of cardiovascular diseases as well as associated risks. Controlling the efficiency of an endovascular treatment is necessary for the evaluation of potential complications and predictions on the assessment of the pathological state. In this paper we investigate the effects of stent-graft implantation on the biomechanics in a patient-specific thoracic aortic model. The patient geometry and the implanted stent-graft are obtained from morphological data based on a CT scan performed during a controlling routine. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and computational structure mechanics (CSM) simulations are conducted based on the finite volume method (FVM) and on the finite element method (FEM) to compute the hemodynamics and the elastomechanics within the aortic model, respectively. Physiological data based on transient pressure and velocity profiles are used to set the necessary boundary conditions. Further, the effects of various boundary conditions and definition of contact interactions on the numerical stability of the blood flow and the vessel wall simulation results are also investigated. The quantification of the hemodynamics and the elastomechanics post endovascular intervention provides a realistic controlling of the state of the stented vessel and of the efficiency of the therapy. Consequently, computational modeling would help in evaluating individual therapies and optimal treatment strategies in the field of minimally invasive endovascular surgery.

  9. The influence of surrogate blood vessels on the impact response of a physical model of the brain.

    PubMed

    Parnaik, Yednesh; Beillas, Philippe; Demetropoulos, Constantine K; Hardy, Warren N; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2004-11-01

    Cerebral blood vessels are an integral part of the brain and may play a role in the response of the brain to impact. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of surrogate vessels on the deformation patterns of a physical model of the brain under various impact conditions. Silicone gel and tubing were used as surrogates for brain tissue and blood vessels, respectively. Two aluminum cylinders representing a coronal section of the brain were constructed. One cylinder was filled with silicone gel only, and the other was filled with silicone gel and silicone tubing arranged in the radial direction in the peripheral region. An array of markers was embedded in the gel in both cylinders to facilitate strain calculation via high-speed video analysis. Both cylinders were simultaneously subjected to a combination of linear and angular acceleration using a two-segment pendulum. Marker motion was tracked, and maximum shear strain (MSS) and maximum principal strain (MPS) were calculated using markers clustered in groups of three. Four test series were conducted. Peak angular acceleration varied from 2,600 to 26,000 rad/s2, and peak angular speed varied from 17 to 29 rad/s. For a given impact condition, the test-to-test variation of these values was less than 5.5%. For all clusters, the peak MSS and peak MPS for both physical models were less than 26% and 32%, respectively. For 90% of the cluster locations, the absolute value of the difference in peak MSS and peak MPS between the physical models was 4% and 6%, respectively. In the physical model with tubing, strain tended to decrease in the periphery (near to the tubing), while it tended to increase toward the center (away from the tubing). Strain amplitudes were found to be sensitive to the peak angular speeds. In general, this study suggests that the vasculature could influence the deformation response of the brain. PMID:17230270

  10. Effect of gravitational overloads, hypokinesia and hypodynamia on the vessels of the pulmonary blood circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasimtsev, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    Vessels of the pulmonary circuit are studied under normal conditions, in exposure to single stress or continuous threshold endurable chestspine gravitational stresses, and one to eight weak hypokinesia and hypodynamic effects followed by stress. Examination methods include rentgenography and microrentgenography, clearing, and histology. In exposure to gravitational stress the distal portions of the arterial vessels of the 3 and 4 orders constrict, while all veins dilate. Sinuosity of all vessels is noted. The volume of the capillary bed increases and signs of perivascular edema occur. Due to hypokinesia and hypodynamia the arteries constricted and the arterial bed becomes poor. The veins of all orders dilate and the volume of the capillary bed increases. The changes grew greater the longer the terms of hypodyamic effects. Successive combination of hypokinesia and hypodynamia and gravitational stresses cause more pronounced changes than separate effects of these two factors and result in great deformity of the vascular walls, including their rupture and penetration of formed elements beyond the limits of the vascular bed.

  11. Endothelial Cell Hyperproliferation and Stratification in Uteroplacental Blood Vessels of the Black Mastiff Bat, Molossus rufus

    PubMed Central

    Rasweiler IV, J.J.; Badwaik, N.K.; Salame, G.; Abulafia, O.

    2011-01-01

    Placentation was studied histologically and immunocytochemically in black mastiff bats obtained at frequent intervals throughout pregnancy. These were bred in a captive colony or collected from a reproductively-synchronized wild population. During late pregnancy, the single fetus was largely sustained by a discoidal, hemochorial placenta located at the cranial end of the right uterine horn. This invariant positioning was determined by a vascular tuft that developed there both during early pregnancy and non-pregnant cycles. This provided a scaffold for early placental morphogenesis. As development proceeded, small arterioles and venules serving the tuft were converted to large uteroplacental vessels. Within the base of the placenta, these became lined by an unusual vascular epithelium composed of intermingled patches of multilayered endothelial cells and cytotrophoblast. Initially, the endothelium became multilayered by hypertrophy, proliferation, and infolding of its basal lamina. These created endothelial bilayers usually insinuated between basal laminae. The development of temporary gaps in the laminae then permitted further enlargement of the vessels and proliferation of the endothelial cells as monolayer sheets or chains. The latter were interconnected, forming a complex, stratified, cellular network associated with a prominent meshwork of basal laminae. Throughout much of pregnancy, these endothelial cells were cuboidal to columnar and possessed an abundance of basal glycoprotein granules presumably containing basal lamina precursors. The cells also expressed vimentin and frequently von Willebrand factor, but not cytokeratins or desmin. Pronounced thickening of the endothelia and amplification of their basal laminae likely evolved to greatly strengthen the walls of the uteroplacental vessels. PMID:21764447

  12. Synthetic reconstruction of dynamic blood flow in cortical arteries using optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of vessel compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraghis, Edward; Bolduc, Virginie; Gillis, Marc-Antoine; Srinivasan, Vivek J.; Thorin, Éric; Boudoux, Caroline; Lesage, Frédéric

    2011-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has recently been used to produce 3D angiography of microvasculature in the rodent brain in-vivo and blood flow maps of large vessels. Key enabling developments were novel algorithms for detecting Doppler shifts produced by moving scatterers and new scanning protocols tailored to increase sensitivity to small flow speeds. These progresses were pushed by the need for a non invasive imaging modality to monitor quantitative blood flow at a higher resolution and a greater depth than could be achieved by other means. The rationale for this work originates from new hypotheses regarding the role of blood regulation in neurodegenerative diseases and from current investigations of animal models of vascular degeneration. In this work we demonstrate the synthetic reconstruction of dynamic blood flow in mice over the course of a single cardiac cycle in an 800μm wide by ~ 3mm deep B-Frame slice with a lateral resolution of 10μm and a depth resolution of 7μm. Images were taken using a cranial window over the exposed parietal bone of mice skull. Electrocardiography (ECG) recordings were co registered with the OCT A lines at high temporal resolution. QRS peak detection was then used to locate the time value of each A-line in the cardiac cycle and to reconstruct a synthetic temporal frame over one cardiac cycle. Doppler speed in this cardiac cycle was used to measure temporal variations of flow inside arteries and of their area. Three dimensional volume scans yielded measurements of quantitative blood flow on the same arteries. Using these informations a measure of compliance could be established. Comparing measures between atherosclerotic (ATX) and wild type (WT) mice revealed higher blood flow in WT mice, suggested lower systemic compliance in the ATX group but higher compliance of cerebral vasculature on these mice. These results are consistent with expectations showing that OCT is a potential tool for in-vivo arterial compliance evaluation.

  13. Simulation of surface EMG signals for a multilayer volume conductor with a superficial bone or blood vessel.

    PubMed

    Mesin, Luca

    2008-06-01

    This study analytically describes surface electromyogram (EMG) signals generated by a planar multilayer volume conductor constituted by different subdomains modeling muscle, bone (or blood vessel), fat, and skin tissues. The bone is cylindrical in shape, with a semicircular section. The flat portion of the boundary of the bone subdomain is interfaced with the fat layer tissue, the remaining part of the boundary is in contact with the muscle layer. The volume conductor is a model of physiological tissues in which the bone is superficial, as in the case of the tibia bone, backbone, and bones of the forearm. The muscle fibers are considered parallel to the axes of the bone, so that the model is space invariant in the direction of propagation of the action potential. The proposed model, being analytical, allows faster simulations of surface EMG with respect to previously developed models including bone or blood vessels based on the finite-element method. Surface EMG signals are studied by simulating a library of single-fiber action potentials (SFAP) of fibers in different locations within the muscle domain, simulating the generation, propagation, and extinction of the action potential. The decay of the amplitude of the SFAPs in the direction transversal to the fibers is assessed. The decay in the direction of the bone has a lower rate with respect to the opposite direction. Similar results are obtained by simulating motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) constituted by 100 fibers with territory 5 mm2. M waves and interference EMG signals are also simulated based on the library of SFAPs. Again, the decay of the amplitude of the simulated interference EMG signals is lower approaching the bone with respect to going farther from it. The findings of this study indicate the effect of a superficial bone in enhancing the EMG signals in the transversal direction with respect to the fibers of the considered muscle. This increases the effect of crosstalk. The same mathematical method used to simulate a superficial bone can be applied to simulate other physiological tissues. For example, superficial blood vessels (e.g., basilic vein, brachial artery) can influence the recorded EMG signals. As the electrical conductivity of blood is high (it is of the same order as the longitudinal conductivity in the muscle), the effect on EMG signals is opposite compared to the effect of a superficial bone. PMID:18714828

  14. C-reactive protein and chitinase 3-like protein 1 as biomarkers of spatial redistribution of retinal blood vessels on digital retinal photography in patients with diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cekić, Sonja; Cvetković, Tatjana; Jovanović, Ivan; Jovanović, Predrag; Pešić, Milica; Babić, Gordana Stanković; Milenković, Svetislav; Risimić, Dijana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) in blood samples with morpohometric parameters of retinal blood vessels in patients with diabetic retinopathy. Blood laboratory examination of 90 patients included the measurement of glycemia, HbA1C, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides and CRP. Levels of YKL-40 were detected and measured in serum by ELISA (Micro VueYKL-40 EIA Kit, Quidel Corporation, San Diego, USA). YKL-40 correlated positively with diameter and negatively with number of retinal blood vessels. The average number of the blood vessels per retinal zone was significantly higher in the group of patients with mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy than in the group with severe form in the optic disc and all five retinal zones. The average outer diameter of the evaluated retinal zones and optic disc vessels was significantly higher in the group with severe compared to the group with mild diabetic retinopathy. Morphological analysis of the retinal vessels on digital fundus photography and correlation with YKL-40 may be valuable for the follow-up of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25172979

  15. Endoglin is required in Pax3-derived cells for embryonic blood vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Young, K; Krebs, L T; Tweedie, E; Conley, B; Mancini, M; Arthur, H M; Liaw, L; Gridley, T; Vary, Cph

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in endoglin, a TGF?/BMP coreceptor, are causal for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Endoglin-null (Eng-/-) mouse embryos die at embryonic day (E)10.5-11.5 due to defects in angiogenesis. In part, this is due to an absence of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation and vessel investment. Prior studies from our lab and others have shown the importance of endoglin expression in embryonic development in both endothelial cells and neural crest stem cells. These studies support the hypothesis that endoglin may play cell-autonomous roles in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell precursors. However, the requirement for endoglin in vascular cell precursors remains poorly defined. Our objective was to specifically delete endoglin in neural crest- and somite-derived Pax3-positive vascular precursors to understand the impact on somite progenitor cell contribution to embryonic vascular development. Pax3Cre mice were crossed with Eng+/- mice to obtain compound mutant Pax3(Cre/+);Eng+/- mice. These mice were then crossed with homozygous endoglin LoxP-mutated (Eng(LoxP/LoxP)) mice to conditionally delete the endoglin gene in specific lineages that contribute to endothelial and smooth muscle constituents of developing embryonic vessels. Pax3(Cre/+);Eng(LoxP/)(-) mice showed a variety of vascular defects at E10.5, and none of these mice survived past E12.5. Embryos analyzed at E10.5 showed malformations suggestive of misdirection of the intersomitic vessels. The dorsal aorta showed significant dilation with associated vascular smooth muscle cells exhibiting disorganization and enhanced expression of smooth muscle differentiation proteins, including smooth muscle actin. These results demonstrate a requirement for endoglin in descendants of Pax3-expressing vascular cell precursors, and thus provides new insight into the cellular basis underlying adult vascular diseases such as HHT. PMID:26481065

  16. In vivo μPIV measurements of blood velocity in small vessels of a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Chia Min; Russell, John; Connor, Nadine; Honkanen, Markus; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Aging-related muscular changes have been shown to affect voice production. There is correlation between muscular changes and changes in capillary hemodynamics and structure with aging. Alterations in oxygen transport to cells and tissues at the capillary level has been hypothesized as one of the key factors that causes muscular changes thus voice production. Since oxygen transport is related to hemodynamics, we start by measuring blood velocity in capillaries of cremaster muscle of a living rat. The μPIV technique is adapted for measuring blood velocity where red blood cells are used as `seeding particles'. The accuracy of the μPIV measurements are determined by comparison with results obtained using other techniques such as particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Finally, challenges in measuring flow through three-dimensional larynx geometry will be discussed.

  17. Unsteady non-Newtonian blood flow through a tapered overlapping stenosed catheterized vessel.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Zaman, A; Sajid, M; Nieto, J J; Torres, A

    2015-11-01

    The unsteady flow characteristics of blood in a catheterized overlapping stenosed artery are analyzed in presence of body acceleration and magnetic field. The stenosed arterial segment is modeled as a rigid constricted tube. An improved shape of stenosis in the realm of the formulation of the arterial narrowing caused by atheroma is integrated in the present study. The catheter inside the artery is approximated by a thin rigid tube of small radius while the streaming blood in the artery is characterized by the Carreau model. Employing mild stenosis condition, the governing equation of the flow is derived which is then solving numerically using finite difference scheme. The variation of axial velocity, flow rate, resistance impendence and wall shear stress is shown graphically for various parameters of interest. The flow patterns illustrating the global behavior of blood are also presented. PMID:26361287

  18. Nanostructural haemocompatible coatings for the internal side of artificial blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trembecka-Wojciga, K.; Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Butruk-Raszeja, B.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    The main goal of the work was to elaborate low thrombogenicity of surface inside tube-like elements for cardiovascular system support by combination of low-temperature glow discharge and hydrogel coatings to inhibit blood-clotting cascade activation. A large share of amorphous phase silicon was observed in the microstructure analysis. The crystalline elements were uniformly distributed in the amorphous structure. Combination of low thickness, the proper microstructure and density of the coatings provided a highly flexible nature of the whole system. The blood-material interaction was analyzed in vitro in dynamic conditions by using a designed and fabricated novel blood flow simulator. Coatings deposited by the glow discharge expressed good hemocopatibile properties. The use of hydrogel coatings did not reduce coagulation parameter. Hydrogel coatings did not improve the hemocompatibility of the surface modified with carbon based coatings. Modification of surface with hydrogel resulted in further increased risk of hemolysis.

  19. PROCEEDINGS ON SYNCHROTRON RADIATION: Medical application of diffraction enhanced imaging in mouse liver blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Yuan, Qing-Xi; Yang, Xin-Rong; Li, Hai-Qing; Chen, Yu; Chen, Shao-Liang; Zhu, Pei-Ping; Huang, Wan-Xia

    2009-11-01

    Neovascularization is correlative with many processes of diseases, especially for tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. What is more, these tumor microvessels are totally different from normal vessels in morphology. Therefore, observation of the morphologic distribution of microvessels is one of the key points for many researchers in the field. Using diffraction enhanced imaging (DEI), we observed the mirocvessles with diameter of about 40 μm in mouse liver. Moreover, the refraction image obtained from DEI shows higher image contrast and exhibits potential use for medical applications.

  20. Evaluation of sildenafil pressurized metered dose inhalers as a vasodilator in umbilical blood vessels of chicken egg embryos.

    PubMed

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Hiranphan, Phetai; Laphanayos, Kampanart; Srichana, Teerapol

    2014-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment for erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. The delivery of sildenafil directly to the lung could have several advantages over conventional treatments for pulmonary hypertension because of the local delivery, a more rapid onset of response, and reduced side effects. The major problem of sildenafil citrate is its limited solubility in water. Sildenafil citrate was complexed with cyclodextrins (CDs) to enhance its water solubility prior to development as an inhaled preparation. Four sildenafil citrate inhaled formulations were prepared with the aid of HP-β-CD (#1), α-CD (#2) and γ-CD (#3) and their effects were compared with the formulations without CDs (#4). The sildenafil citrate pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI) used ethanol as a solvent, PEG400 as a stabilizing agent, sorbitan monooleate as a surfactant and HFA-134a as a propellant. All formulations consisted of sildenafil citrate equivalent to a sildenafil content of 20μg/puff. These products were evaluated according to a standard guideline of inhalation products. Vasodilation testing was performed to investigate the efficacy of sildenafil pMDIs in relieving a vasoconstricted umbilical blood vessel of the chicken egg embryo. The sildenafil contents of the pMDI formulations #1-#3 were within the acceptance criteria (80-120%). The emitted doses (ED) were 102.3±11.5%, the fine particle fractions (FPF) were 60.5±5.6% and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) were 2.3±0.3μm. The vasodilatory activity of those formulations reduced umbilical blood pressure by 67.1-73.7% after treatment by intravenous injection whereas only a 50.1-58.0% reduced blood pressure was obtained after direct spraying of the sildenafil pMDI containing CDs. With sildenafil formulations of a pMDI without CD the blood pressure was reduced by only 39.0% (P-value<0.05). The available sildenafil in the blood vessels of chicken egg embryos after spraying sildenafil-CDs pMDIs was within the range of 751-825ng/mL which was much higher than that of a sildenafil only pMDI. PMID:24036276

  1. Dynamic and Precise Visualization of Contrast Agent in Blood Vessels with Motion Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Hideki; Azuma, Takashi; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Kawabata, Ken‑ichi; Umemura, Shin‑ichiro

    2006-05-01

    We have developed a new ultrasound imaging method for the visualization of vascularity with less than 500 μm in width applicable to tissues naturally moving caused by respiration or heart beats. In our method, we utilize the least square method based on tissue-motion measurement method previously reported, which divides an image into extremely small regions so that the loss of correlation caused by tissue motion can be virtually ignored. We averaged images of tissues with contrast agents after correcting for the tissue motion on the basis of measurement results. In vivo results of experiments using rabbit kidneys revealed that the vascularity including peripheral vessels, e.g., those in the renal cortex, could be clearly imaged without any motion artifact by averaging more than 30 frames. Moreover, it was indicated that a pseudo-three-dimensional imaging of small vessels can be achieved by this method utilizing slight tissue motions in the slice direction during obtaining frames to be averaged. In another experiment using tumor-implanted rabbits, it was also found that neovascularity in a tumor tissue could be identified more clearly on a time-averaged image than on a conventional image.

  2. [Function of dopamine in mesenteric blood vessels of rats poisoned with lead and cadmium].

    PubMed

    Skoczyńska, A; Wróbel, J; Turczyn, B

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of combined exposure to lead and cadmium, used in hypertensive doses, on the reactivity of isolated mesenteric rat vessels to dopamine. Experiments were performed on 64 male Buffalo rats (195-245 g body weight) administered intragastrically with lead acetate (35 mg Pb/kg b.w.) and/or cadmium chloride (5 mg Cd/kg b.w.) once a week for seven weeks. The isolated mesenteric bed was prepared according to McGregor's method. Dopamine (800 micrograms) was injected before and during the infusion, one after the other, of angiotensin converting enzyme (0.0004 j/ml/min), ketoprofen (0.2 mg/ml/min), and losartan (0.05 mg/ml/min) or infusion of nitric oxide synthase blocker, N-omega-nitro-L-argine (22 micrograms/ml/min), verapamil (0.001 mg/ml/min), and then propranolol (0.3 mg/ml/min). The results show an unchanged, in comparison to controls, vascular effect of dopamine in lead and cadmium poisoned rats. However, these metals modified the reactivity of mesenteric vessels to endogenous angiotensin and prostaglandins mediated pressor action of dopamine. PMID:11199173

  3. Tumor-Induced Local and Systemic Impact on Blood Vessel Function

    PubMed Central

    Cedervall, J.; Dimberg, A.; Olsson, A-K.

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction plays a role in several processes that contribute to cancer-associated mortality. The vessel wall serves as a barrier for metastatic tumor cells, and the integrity and activation status of the endothelium serves as an important defense mechanism against metastasis. In addition, leukocytes, such as cytotoxic T-cells, have to travel across the vessel wall to enter the tumor tissue where they contribute to killing of cancer cells. Tumor cells can alter the characteristics of the endothelium by recruitment of leukocytes such as neutrophils and macrophages, which further stimulate inflammation and promote tumorigenesis. Recent findings also suggest that leukocyte-mediated effects on vascular function are not limited to the primary tumor or tissues that represent metastatic sites. Peripheral organs, such as kidney and heart, also display impaired vascular function in tumor-bearing individuals, potentially contributing to organ failure. Here, we discuss how vascular function is altered in malignant tissue and distant organs in individuals with cancer and how leukocytes function as potent mediators of these tumor-induced effects. PMID:26770016

  4. Simulation of blood flow in deformable vessels using subject-specific geometry and spatially varying wall properties

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Guanglei; Figueroa, C. Alberto; Xiao, Nan; Taylor, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Simulation of blood flow using image-based models and computational fluid dynamics has found widespread application to quantifying hemodynamic factors relevant to the initiation and progression of cardiovascular diseases and for planning interventions. Methods for creating subject-specific geometric models from medical imaging data have improved substantially in the last decade but for many problems, still require significant user interaction. In addition, while fluid–structure interaction methods are being employed to model blood flow and vessel wall dynamics, tissue properties are often assumed to be uniform. In this paper, we propose a novel workflow for simulating blood flow using subject-specific geometry and spatially varying wall properties. The geometric model construction is based on 3D segmentation and geometric processing. Variable wall properties are assigned to the model based on combining centerline-based and surface-based methods. We finally demonstrate these new methods using an idealized cylindrical model and two subject-specific vascular models with thoracic and cerebral aneurysms. PMID:21765984

  5. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor expression during embryogenesis and tissue repair suggests a role in endothelial differentiation and blood vessel growth.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, K G; De Vries, C; Williams, L T

    1993-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a polypeptide mitogen that stimulates the growth of endothelial cells in vitro and promotes the growth of blood vessels in vivo. We have recently shown that the fms-like receptor tyrosine kinase (flt) is a receptor for VEGF. Here we used in situ hybridization to show that, in adult mouse tissues, the pattern of flt expression was consistent with localization in endothelium. We also show that flt was expressed in endothelium during neovascularization of healing skin wounds and during early vascular development in mouse embryos. Moreover, flt was expressed in populations of embryonic cells from which endothelium is derived such as early yolk sac mesenchyme. The expression of flt in the endothelium of both developing and mature blood vessels suggests that VEGF might regulate endothelial differentiation, blood vessel growth, and vascular repair. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7692439

  6. 5-HT1B-receptors and vascular reactivity in human isolated blood vessels: assessment of the potential craniovascular selectivity of sumatriptan

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Z; Pickard, J D; Ma, Q-P; Shaw, D; Morrison, K; Wang, T; Longmore, J

    2002-01-01

    Aims 5-HT1B-receptor mediated vasoconstriction of cranial arteries is a potential mechanism by which 5-HT1B/1D-receptor agonists such as sumatriptan produce their antimigraine effects. 5-HT1B-receptors exist in other blood vessels which may give rise to unwanted vascular effects. Therefore we examined the distribution of 5-HT1B-receptor immunoreactivity (i.r.) in human blood vessels (including target and nontarget vessels) and confirmed the functionality of this receptor protein, by comparing the vasoconstrictor effects of sumatriptan and 5-HT (the endogenous ligand) in isolated vessels. Methods Blood vessels (middle meningeal, pial, temporal and uterine arteries and saphenous veins) were obtained from surgical patients (with consent). Sections of the vessels were prepared for routine immunohistochemical studies using specific 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1D-receptor antibodies. For functional studies, ring segments of the vessels were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension recording. Results 5-HT1B-receptor i.r. was detected on the smooth muscle layer in middle meningeal, pial and uterine arteries and in saphenous vein and sumatriptan produced contractions in these vessels with potency values (mean pEC50) of 7.00, 7.08, 6.44 and 6.61, respectively, the magnitude of contraction was greatest in the cranial arteries with Emax values of 100.7, 60.3, 23.0 and 35.9%, respectively (expressed as a percentage of the reference agonist 45 mm KCl). 5-HT1B-receptor i.r. was not detected in temporal artery and sumatriptan had no effect in this artery. 5-HT1D-receptor i.r. was not detected in any of the vessels studied. Conclusions Sumatriptan can evoke vasoconstriction in antimigraine target vessels and also in nontarget vessels through an action at 5-HT1B-rcceptors. Sumatriptan acts preferentially to cause contraction in human cranial arteries compared with the other blood vessels we examined and this effect is likely to be shared by other drugs of this class. PMID:11874390

  7. Iodine imaging using spectral analysis. [radiography for visualization of small blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macovski, A.

    1978-01-01

    Existing radiographic imaging systems provide images which represent an integration or averaging over the energy spectrum. In order to provide noninvasive angiography it is necessary to image the relatively small amounts of iodine which are available following an intravenous administration. This is accomplished by making use of the special spectral characteristics of iodine. Two methods will be presented. One involves a special grating for encoding the iodine information in the form of a fine line pattern. This is subsequently decoded to provide images of iodinated structures which are otherwise almost invisible. The second method utilizes a scanned X-ray beam which is rapidly switched in the high energy region. In this region, iodine experiences significant variations in the attenuation coefficient while bone and soft tissue do not. An efficient and accurate X-ray detector can be used with scanned X-ray beams. This provides a high degree of sensitivity enabling the visualization of small vessels containing relatively dilute iodine.

  8. Trophoblast Invasion and Blood Vessel Remodeling Are Altered in a Rat Model of Lifelong Maternal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Emily K.; Tessier, Daniel R.; Percival, Michael E.; Holloway, Alison C.; Petrik, Jim J.; Gruslin, Andree

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is associated with an increased risk of a number of pregnancy complications, including fetal demise, which may be linked to impaired placental development as a result of altered trophoblast invasion and vessel remodeling. Therefore, we examined these parameters in pregnant rats fed a control (normal weight) or high fat (HF) diet (obese) at 2 critical times of rat placental development. Early trophoblast invasion was increased by approximately 2-fold in HF-fed dams with a concomitant increase in the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 protein, a mediator of tissue remodeling and invasion. Furthermore, we observed significantly higher levels of smooth muscle actin surrounding the placental spiral arteries of HF-fed dams, suggesting impaired spiral artery remodeling. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that altered placental development is an important contributor to the poor pregnancy outcomes and increased fetal demise in our model of lifelong maternal obesity. PMID:24155067

  9. Correlation of carotid artery disease severity and vasomotor response of cerebral blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Krdžić, Ivana; Čovičković-Šternić, Nadežda; Katsiki, Niki; Isenović, Esma R; Radak, Đorđe

    2015-05-01

    We assessed reactivity of cerebral vessels on hypercapnia in patients with carotid occlusive disease. The effects of vascular risk factors on carotid atherosclerosis and vasomotor reactivity (VMR) of cerebral arterioles were also examined. Patients (n = 50) with carotid stenosis (≥30% in 1 or both sides) were included; 30 patients acted as controls. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, cardiac diseases, inflammation, and smoking were recorded. Vasomotor reactivity was assessed with the apnea test by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography and estimated by flow velocity changes in the middle cerebral artery before and after hypercapnia induction. Vasomotor reactivity was defined by the breath holding index, and values under 0.69 were considered critical for VMR impairment. Vasomotor reactivity reduction was significant (P = .004) in patients with severe carotid stenosis (>70%) and with symptomatic carotid disease (P < .05). The risk factors did not significantly influence VMR reduction. Severe carotid stenosis impairs VMR and may increase the risk of stroke, especially in symptomatic patients. PMID:24904181

  10. Consideration of conduit and resistance vessels in regulation of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Bassenge, E; Münzel, T

    1988-09-01

    In heart failure the maximal capacity for dilation, especially in skeletal muscle arteries, is reduced. This may be due to changes in sympathetic tone, in hormonal stimulation (both by circulating and intramurally released compounds like angiotensin II with additional presynaptic effects) or in endothelium mediated vasodilation. The loss of endothelium-mediated, flow-dependent dilation in large arteries may originate from endothelial impairment induced by, e.g., chronic hypoxia or hypercholesterolemia. Similar effects result from suppressed local dilator autacoid release brought about, e.g., by circulating atrial natriuretic factor in the presence of a fully functioning endothelium. Finally, attenuated augmentations in flow may be secondary to changes in muscular metabolism, and an increased alpha-adrenergic neurogenic constriction may be present. This may be further enhanced by a local, beta-receptor-mediated angiotensin II release. An impaired dilation at the level of resistance vessels may result from a combination of the mechanisms listed above. PMID:3261933

  11. [Reactivity of blood vessels: the role of mechanical stimulation and initial tone].

    PubMed

    Dvoretskiĭ, D P; Osadchiĭ, L I

    2000-01-01

    We have studied hemodynamic and some other correlates of the myogenic and endothelium-dependent control of vessel tone and reactivity in experiments with anesthetized cats and rats, as well as in vitro experiments with isolated segments of the mesenteric and tail artery of the rats. We present evidence for the important role of mechanical stimulation of endotheliocytes in the formation of vasodilation in skeletal muscles in response to increased amplitude of the pulse pressure, as well as in response to their active or passive contractions. Interference between mechanical, neurohumoral, and metabolic effects on vascular tone were studied. In spontaneously hypertensive rats, endothelium-dependent vasodilation initiated by increased oscillations of pulse pressure is diminished. We also describe relationships between systemic hemodynamic responses and the initial arterial tone. PMID:10780115

  12. Combination probe for optically assisted ultrasonic velocity-change imaging aimed at detecting unstable blood vessel plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigawa, Shohei; Mano, Kazune; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2016-04-01

    Blood vessel plaque with a large lipid core is at risk of becoming thrombus and is likely to induce acute heart disease. To prevent this, it is necessary to determine not only the plaque's size but also its chemical composition. We, therefore, made the prototype of a combination probe to diagnose carotid artery plaque. It is used to differentiate propagation characteristics between light spectra and ultrasonic images. By propagating light and ultrasound along a common direction, it is possible to effectively warm the diagnosis domain. Moreover, the probe is thought to be compact and be easy to use for diagnosing human carotid artery plaque. We applied the combination probe to a carotid artery phantom with a lipid area and obtained an image of the ultrasonic velocity change in the fatty area.

  13. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells.

    PubMed

    Elinson, Richard P; Stewart, James R

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  14. A Phenomenological Model for Mechanically Mediated Growth, Remodeling, Damage, and Plasticity of Gel-Derived Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Raykin, Julia; Rachev, Alexander I.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical stimulation has been shown to dramatically improve mechanical and functional properties of gel-derived tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs). Adjusting factors such as cell source, type of extracellular matrix, cross-linking, magnitude, frequency, and time course of mechanical stimuli (among many other factors) make interpretation of experimental results challenging. Interpretation of data from such multifactor experiments requires modeling. We present a modeling framework and simulations for mechanically mediated growth, remodeling, plasticity, and damage of gel-derived TEBVs that merge ideas from classical plasticity, volumetric growth, and continuum damage mechanics. Our results are compared with published data and suggest that this model framework can predict the evolution of geometry and material behavior under common experimental loading scenarios. PMID:19831486

  15. The corn snake yolk sac becomes a solid tissue filled with blood vessels and yolk-rich endodermal cells

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; Stewart, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The amniote egg was a key innovation in vertebrate evolution because it supports an independent existence in terrestrial environments. The egg is provisioned with yolk, and development depends on the yolk sac for the mobilization of nutrients. We have examined the yolk sac of the corn snake Pantherophis guttatus by the dissection of living eggs. In contrast to the familiar fluid-filled sac of birds, the corn snake yolk sac invades the yolk mass to become a solid tissue. There is extensive proliferation of yolk-filled endodermal cells, which associate with a meshwork of blood vessels. These novel attributes of the yolk sac of corn snakes compared with birds suggest new pathways for the evolution of the amniote egg. PMID:24402715

  16. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Blood vessel normalization was induced by two doses of thalidomide in tumor-bearing hamsters on 2 consecutive days. All studies in thalidomide-treated animals were performed 48 h after the first dose of thalidomide, previously established as the window of normalization. Biodistribution studies were performed with BPA at a dose of 15.5 mg (10)B/kg in thalidomide-treated (Th+) and untreated (Th-) tumor-bearing hamsters. The effect of blood vessel normalization prior to BPA administration on the efficacy of BNCT was assessed in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in tumor-bearing hamsters. Group I was treated with BPA-BNCT after treatment with thalidomide (Th+ BPA-BNCT). Group II was treated with BPA-BNCT alone (Th- BPA-BNCT). Group III was treated with the beam only after treatment with thalidomide (Th+ BO), and Group IV was treated with the beam only (Th- BO). Groups I and II were given the same dose of BPA (15.5 mg (10)B/kg), and all groups (I-IV) were exposed to the same neutron fluence. Two additional groups were treated with the beam only at a higher dose to exacerbate mucositis in precancerous tissue and to explore the potential direct protective effect of thalidomide on radiation-induced mucositis in a scenario of more severe toxicity, i.e. Group V (Th+ hdBO) and Group VI (Th- hdBO). The animals were followed for 28 days. Biodistribution studies revealed no statistically significant differences in gross boron content between Th+ and Th- animals. Overall tumor control (complete response + partial response) at 28 days post-treatment was significantly higher for Group I (Th+ BPA-BNCT) than for Group II (Th- BPA-BNCT): 84 ± 3% compared to 67 ± 5%. Pretreatment with thalidomide did not induce statistically significant changes in overall tumor control induced by the beam only, i.e. 15 ± 5% in Group III (Th+ BO) and 18 ± 5% in Group IV (Th- BO), or in overall tumor control induced by the high-dose beam only, i.e. 60 ± 7% in Group V (Th+ hdBO) and 47 ± 10% in Group VI (Th- hdBO). BPA-BNCT alone (Group II) induced mucositis in precancerous tissue that reached Grades 3-4 in 80% of the animals, whereas pretreatment with thalidomide (Group I) prevented mucositis Grades 3 and 4 completely. Beam-only Group III (Th+ BO) exhibited only Grade 1 mucositis in precancerous tissue, whereas 17% of the animals in beam-only Group IV (Th- BO) reached Grade 2 mucositis. High-dose beam-only group V (Th+ hdBO) exhibited only Grade 2 mucositis, whereas high-dose beam-only group VI (Th- hdBO) reached Grade 3 mucositis in 83% of the animals. In all cases mucositis in precancerous tissue was reversible. No normal tissue radiotoxicity was observed with any of the protocols. Pretreatment with thalidomide enhanced the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT and reduced precancerous tissue toxicity. PMID:21980958

  17. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Lattice Boltzmann simulation of behaviour of particles moving in blood vessels under the rolling massage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Cai-Feng; Li, Hua-Bing

    2009-07-01

    The rolling massage is one of the most important manipulations in Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on a pair of particles moving in blood vessels under rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulated results show that the motion of each particle is considerably modified by the rolling massage, and it depends on the relative rolling velocity, the rolling depth, and the distance between particle position and rolling position. Both particles' translational average velocities increase almost linearly as the rolling velocity increases, and obey the same law. The increment of the average relative angular velocity for the leading particle is smaller than that of the trailing one. The result is helpful for understanding the mechanism of the massage and to further develop the rolling techniques.

  18. Combination probe for optically assisted ultrasonic velocity-change imaging aimed at detecting unstable blood vessel plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanigawa, Shohei; Mano, Kazune; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2015-12-01

    Blood vessel plaque with a large lipid core is at risk of becoming thrombus and is likely to induce acute heart disease. To prevent this, it is necessary to determine not only the plaque's size but also its chemical composition. We, therefore, made the prototype of a combination probe to diagnose carotid artery plaque. It is used to differentiate propagation characteristics between light spectra and ultrasonic images. By propagating light and ultrasound along a common direction, it is possible to effectively warm the diagnosis domain. Moreover, the probe is thought to be compact and be easy to use for diagnosing human carotid artery plaque. We applied the combination probe to a carotid artery phantom with a lipid area and obtained an image of the ultrasonic velocity change in the fatty area.

  19. Vessel Segmentation and Blood Flow Simulation Using Level-Sets and Embedded Boundary Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Deschamps, T; Schwartz, P; Trebotich, D; Colella, P; Saloner, D; Malladi, R

    2004-12-09

    In this article we address the problem of blood flow simulation in realistic vascular objects. The anatomical surfaces are extracted by means of Level-Sets methods that accurately model the complex and varying surfaces of pathological objects such as aneurysms and stenoses. The surfaces obtained are defined at the sub-pixel level where they intersect the Cartesian grid of the image domain. It is therefore straightforward to construct embedded boundary representations of these objects on the same grid, for which recent work has enabled discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids. While most classical techniques require construction of a structured mesh that approximates the surface in order to extrapolate a 3D finite-element gridding of the whole volume, our method directly simulates the blood-flow inside the extracted surface without losing any complicated details and without building additional grids.

  20. Quantitative Ex-Vivo Micro-Computed Tomographic Imaging of Blood Vessels and Necrotic Regions within Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Downey, Charlene M.; Singla, Arvind K.; Villemaire, Michelle L.; Buie, Helen R.; Boyd, Steven K.; Jirik, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    Techniques for visualizing and quantifying the microvasculature of tumors are essential not only for studying angiogenic processes but also for monitoring the effects of anti-angiogenic treatments. Given the relatively limited information that can be gleaned from conventional 2-D histological analyses, there has been considerable interest in methods that enable the 3-D assessment of the vasculature. To this end, we employed a polymerizing intravascular contrast medium (Microfil) and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) in combination with a maximal spheres direct 3-D analysis method to visualize and quantify ex-vivo vessel structural features, and to define regions of hypoperfusion within tumors that would be indicative of necrosis. Employing these techniques we quantified the effects of a vascular disrupting agent on the tumor vasculature. The methods described herein for quantifying whole tumor vascularity represent a significant advance in the 3-D study of tumor angiogenesis and evaluation of novel therapeutics, and will also find potential application in other fields where quantification of blood vessel structure and necrosis are important outcome parameters. PMID:22848565

  1. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Accumulate in Peripheral Blood Vessels and Compromise Organ Function in Tumor-Bearing Animals.

    PubMed

    Cedervall, Jessica; Zhang, Yanyu; Huang, Hua; Zhang, Lei; Femel, Julia; Dimberg, Anna; Olsson, Anna-Karin

    2015-07-01

    Cancer produces a variety of collateral effects in patients beyond the malignancy itself, including threats to distal organ functions. However, the basis for such effects, associated with either primary or metastatic tumors, are generally poorly understood. In this study, we show how heart and kidney vascular function is impaired by neutrophils that accumulate in those tissues as a result of tumor formation in two different transgenic mouse models of cancer (RIP1-Tag2 model of insulinoma and MMTV-PyMT model of breast cancer). Neutrophil depletion by systemic administration of an anti-Gr1 antibody improved vascular perfusion and prevented vascular leakage in kidney vessels. We also observed the accumulation of platelet-neutrophil complexes, a signature of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), in the kidneys of tumor-bearing mice that were completely absent from healthy nontumor-bearing littermates. NET accumulation in the vasculature was associated with upregulation of the proinflammatory adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, as well as the proinflammatory cytokines IL1β, IL6, and the chemokine CXCL1. Administering DNase I to dissolve NETs, which have a high DNA content, restored perfusion in the kidney and heart to levels seen in nontumor-bearing mice, and also prevented vessel leakage in the blood vasculature of these organs. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that NETs mediate the negative collateral effects of tumors on distal organs, acting to impair vascular function, and to heighten inflammation at these sites. PMID:26071254

  2. Blood-Vessel Mimicking Structures by Stereolithographic Fabrication of Small Porous Tubes Using Cytocompatible Polyacrylate Elastomers, Biofunctionalization and Endothelialization.

    PubMed

    Huber, Birgit; Engelhardt, Sascha; Meyer, Wolfdietrich; Krüger, Hartmut; Wenz, Annika; Schönhaar, Veronika; Tovar, Günter E M; Kluger, Petra J; Borchers, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Blood vessel reconstruction is still an elusive goal for the development of in vitro models as well as artificial vascular grafts. In this study, we used a novel photo-curable cytocompatible polyacrylate material (PA) for freeform generation of synthetic vessels. We applied stereolithography for the fabrication of arbitrary 3D tubular structures with total dimensions in the centimeter range, 300 µm wall thickness, inner diameters of 1 to 2 mm and defined pores with a constant diameter of approximately 100 µm or 200 µm. We established a rinsing protocol to remove remaining cytotoxic substances from the photo-cured PA and applied thio-modified heparin and RGDC-peptides to functionalize the PA surface for enhanced endothelial cell adhesion. A rotating seeding procedure was introduced to ensure homogenous endothelial monolayer formation at the inner luminal tube wall. We showed that endothelial cells stayed viable and adherent and aligned along the medium flow under fluid-flow conditions comparable to native capillaries. The combined technology approach comprising of freeform additive manufacturing (AM), biomimetic design, cytocompatible materials which are applicable to AM, and biofunctionalization of AM constructs has been introduced as BioRap(®) technology by the authors. PMID:27104576

  3. Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels.

    PubMed

    Lecoq, Jérôme; Parpaleix, Alexandre; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Ducros, Mathieu; Goulam Houssen, Yannick; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Charpak, Serge

    2011-07-01

    Uncovering principles that regulate energy metabolism in the brain requires mapping of partial pressure of oxygen (PO(2)) and blood flow with high spatial and temporal resolution. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and the oxygen probe PtP-C343, we show that PO(2) can be accurately measured in the brain at depths up to 300 μm with micron-scale resolution. In addition, 2PLM allowed simultaneous measurements of blood flow and of PO(2) in capillaries with less than one-second temporal resolution. Using this approach, we detected erythrocyte-associated transients (EATs) in oxygen in the rat olfactory bulb and showed the existence of diffusion-based arterio-venous shunts. Sensory stimulation evoked functional hyperemia, accompanied by an increase in PO(2) in capillaries and by a biphasic PO(2) response in the neuropil, consisting of an 'initial dip' and a rebound. 2PLM of PO(2) opens new avenues for studies of brain metabolism and blood flow regulation. PMID:21642977

  4. Simultaneous two-photon imaging of oxygen and blood flow in deep cerebral vessels

    PubMed Central

    Lecoq, Jérôme; Parpaleix, Alexandre; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Ducros, Mathieu; Houssen, Yannick Goulam; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Charpak, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Uncovering principles that regulate energy metabolism in the brain requires mapping of partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) and blood flow with high spatial and temporal resolution. Using two-photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy (2PLM) and the oxygen probe PtP-C343, we show that PO2 can be accurately measured in the brain at depths up to 300 μm with micron-scale resolution. In addition, 2PLM allowed simultaneous measurements of blood flow and of PO2 in capillaries with less than one-second temporal resolution. Using this approach, we detected erythrocyte-associated transients (EATs) in oxygen in the rat olfactory bulb and showed the existence of diffusion-based arterio-venous shunts. Sensory stimulation evoked functional hyperemia, accompanied by an increase in PO2 in capillaries and by a biphasic PO2 response in the neuropil, consisting of an ‘initial dip’ and a rebound. 2PLM of PO2 opens new avenues for studies of brain metabolism and blood flow regulation. PMID:21642977

  5. Optical monitoring of complex dynamics of blood sedimentation and lymph flow in vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Valery V.

    2004-05-01

    In this paper a few examples of the complex behavior of biological systems detected by optical techniques are described. All examples are related to cell suspensions behavior in in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro studies performing investigation of a fine structure of blood sedimentation process and establishing nonlinear features of blood sedimentation as disease prognostic parameters are overviewed. Three optical techniques: OCT, CW laser beam transverse synchronized transillumination method and spatially-modulated laser beam transillumination method were considered. In blood sedimentation studied by OCT the regular or irregular oscillations of the RBC/plasma boundary were observed. The functional properties of erythrocytes in patients with coronary heart disease by mean of spatially-modulated laser beam transillumination method to reveal the stages of the acute coronary syndrome formation are discussed. The laser speckle and intravital TV-microscopic techniques applied to in vivo studies of lymph flow in microvessels are overviewed. The hypothesis on the alternating-translation (shuttle-stream) character of lymph flow is discussed.

  6. Early Generation of New PrPSc on Blood Vessels after Brain Microinjection of Scrapie in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Striebel, James; Rangel, Alejandra; Phillips, Katie; Hughson, Andrew; Caughey, Byron; Race, Brent

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aggregation of misfolded host proteins in the central nervous system is believed to be important in the pathogenic process in several neurodegenerative diseases of humans, including prion diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In these diseases, protein misfolding and aggregation appear to expand through a process of seeded polymerization. Prion diseases occur in both humans and animals and are experimentally transmissible orally or by injection, thus providing a controllable model of other neurodegenerative protein misfolding diseases. In rodents and ruminants, prion disease has a slow course, lasting months to years. Although prion infectivity has been detected in brain tissue at 3 to 4 weeks postinfection (p.i.), the details of early prion replication in the brain are not well understood. Here we studied the localization and quantitation of PrPSc generation in vivo starting at 30 min postmicroinjection of scrapie into the brain. In C57BL mice at 3 days p.i., generation of new PrPSc was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot assays, and at 7 days p.i., new generation was confirmed by real-time quaking-induced conversion assay. The main site of new PrPSc generation was near the outer basement membrane of small and medium blood vessels. The finding and localization of replication at this site so early after injection have not been reported previously. This predominantly perivascular location suggested that structural components of the blood vessel basement membrane or perivascular astrocytes might act as cofactors in the initial generation of PrPSc. The location of PrPSc replication at the basement membrane also implies a role for the brain interstitial fluid drainage in the early infection process. PMID:26396245

  7. Basement Membrane-Rich Organoids with Functional Human Blood Vessels Are Permissive Niches for Human Breast Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Fernndez-Periez, Rodrigo; Molina-Privado, Irene; Rojo, Federico; Guijarro-Muoz, Irene; Alonso-Camino, Vanesa; Zazo, Sandra; Compte, Marta; lvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Cuesta, ngel M.; Snchez-Martn, David; lvarez-Mndez, Ana M.; Sanz, Laura; lvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Metastasic breast cancer is the leading cause of death by malignancy in women worldwide. Tumor metastasis is a multistep process encompassing local invasion of cancer cells at primary tumor site, intravasation into the blood vessel, survival in systemic circulation, and extravasation across the endothelium to metastasize at a secondary site. However, only a small percentage of circulating cancer cells initiate metastatic colonies. This fact, together with the inaccessibility and structural complexity of target tissues has hampered the study of the later steps in cancer metastasis. In addition, most data are derived from in vivo models where critical steps such as intravasation/extravasation of human cancer cells are mediated by murine endothelial cells. Here, we developed a new mouse model to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying late steps of the metastatic cascade. We have shown that a network of functional human blood vessels can be formed by co-implantation of human endothelial cells and mesenchymal cells, embedded within a reconstituted basement membrane-like matrix and inoculated subcutaneously into immunodeficient mice. The ability of circulating cancer cells to colonize these human vascularized organoids was next assessed in an orthotopic model of human breast cancer by bioluminescent imaging, molecular techniques and immunohistological analysis. We demonstrate that disseminated human breast cancer cells efficiently colonize organoids containing a functional microvessel network composed of human endothelial cells, connected to the mouse circulatory system. Human breast cancer cells could be clearly detected at different stages of the metastatic process: initial arrest in the human microvasculature, extravasation, and growth into avascular micrometastases. This new mouse model may help us to map the extravasation process with unprecedented detail, opening the way for the identification of relevant targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23951338

  8. Careful treatment planning enables safe ablation of liver tumors adjacent to major blood vessels by percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE)

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Bor; Voigt, Peter; Miklavcic, Damijan; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a tissue ablation method, which relies on the phenomenon of electroporation. When cells are exposed to a sufficiently electric field, the plasma membrane is disrupted and cells undergo an apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Although heating effects are known IRE is considered as non-thermal ablation technique and is currently applied to treat tumors in locations where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. Materials and methods. The manufacturer of the only commercially available pulse generator for IRE recommends a voltage-to-distance ratio of 1500 to 1700 V/cm for treating tumors in the liver. However, major blood vessels can influence the electric field distribution. We present a method for treatment planning of IRE which takes the influence of blood vessels on the electric field into account; this is illustrated on a treatment of 48-year-old patient with a metastasis near the remaining hepatic vein after a right side hemi-hepatectomy. Results Output of the numerical treatment planning method shows that a 19.9 cm3 irreversible electroporation lesion was generated and the whole tumor was covered with at least 900 V/cm. This compares well with the volume of the hypodense lesion seen in contrast enhanced CT images taken after the IRE treatment. A significant temperature raise occurs near the electrodes. However, the hepatic vein remains open after the treatment without evidence of tumor recurrence after 6 months. Conclusions Treatment planning using accurate computer models was recognized as important for electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. An important finding of this study was, that the surface of the electrodes heat up significantly. Therefore the clinical user should generally avoid placing the electrodes less than 4 mm away from risk structures when following recommendations of the manufacturer. PMID:26401128

  9. [Choice of the optimal variant of blood loss replacement during reconstructive surgery of the major vessels with the object of preventing postoperative anemia].

    PubMed

    Cherednichenko, M A; Unzhakov, V V; Sukhotin, S K

    1990-01-01

    175 patients after reconstructive surgery on major vessels have been examined. Blood loss during surgery was compensated by crystalloid and colloid solutions or their combination with donor blood, autoblood, UV-irradiated autoblood. In the postoperative period hematological parameters were assessed, the volume of the donor blood transfused was determined and the effect of UV-irradiation on the morphology and size of autoerythrocytes was studied. The optimal variant of blood loss compensation was the combination of crystalloid solutions with UV-irradiated autoblood. PMID:2396767

  10. Nampt/PBEF/visfatin serum levels: a new biomarker for retinal blood vessel occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Kaja, Simon; Shah, Anna A; Haji, Shamim A; Patel, Krishna B; Naumchuk, Yuliya; Zabaneh, Alexander; Gerdes, Bryan C; Kunjukunju, Nancy; Sabates, Nelson R; Cassell, Michael A; Lord, Ron K; Pikey, Kevin P; Poulose, Abraham; Koulen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to quantify serum levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/pre-B-Cell colony-enhancing factor 1/visfatin) in subjects with a history of retinal vascular occlusions (RVOs), disease conditions characterized by pronounced ischemia, and metabolic energy deficits. A case–control study of 18 subjects with a history of RVO as well as six healthy volunteers is presented. Serum Nampt levels were quantified using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Serum Nampt levels were 79% lower in patients with a history of RVO compared with that in healthy volunteers (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference among the types of RVOs, specifically branch retinal vein occlusions (n=7), central retinal vein occlusions (n=5), hemiretinal vein occlusions (n=3), and central retinal artery occlusions (n=3; P=0.69). Further studies are needed to establish the temporal kinetics of Nampt expression and to determine whether Nampt may represent a novel biomarker to identify at-risk populations, or whether it is a druggable target with the potential to ameliorate the long-term complications associated with the condition, ie, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization, and permanent loss of vision. PMID:25897200

  11. Structure of steroids and their diffusion through blood vessel walls in a counter-current system

    SciTech Connect

    McCracken, J.A.; Schramm, W.; Einer-Jensen, N.

    1984-03-01

    Several substances including prostaglandin F2 alpha, progesterone and /sup 85/krypton have been shown to be transferred from the venous side to the arterial side of the circulation in the ovarian vascular pedicle. Experiments were therefore carried out to study the transfer of three pairs of steroids (progesterone and 20 alpha-dihydroprogesterone, C-21; androstenedione and testosterone, C-19; and estrone and estradiol-17 beta, C-18) in which each member of a pair differed by one hydroxyl group. Each pair of steroids, one labeled with /sup 3/H and the other with /sup 14/C, were infused in sequence for 30 minutes into a side branch of an ovarian vein near the hilus of the ovary with a rest period of 90 minutes between infusions. An increase in radioactivity in ovarian arterial plasma compared to the radioactivity in an equal volume of aortic plasma sampled simultaneously was used as the index for a direct transfer of steroids from the ovarian vein to the adjacent ovarian artery. All six steroids showed such a transfer which began 3 to 6 minutes after the start of each infusion and decreased rapidly after the infusion was stopped. The results of this study also showed that a larger quantity of the less polar (ketonic) form of each steroid pair examined was transferred than its hydroxyl counterpart.

  12. Intravascular Ultrasound Detection of Vasa Vasorum Blood Flow Distribution in Coronary Artery Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Regina; Eaker, Diane R.; Anderson, Jill L.; Kline, Timothy L.; Jorgensen, Steven M.; Lerman, Amir; Ritman, Erik L.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased body of evidence to suggest that the vasa vasorum play a major role in the progression and complications of vulnerable plaque leading to acute coronary syndrome. We propose the concept that detecting changes in the flow in the vascular wall by IVUS signals can quantify the presence of vasa vasorum. The results obtained in porcine model of atherosclerosis suggest that IVUS-based estimates of blood flow in the arterial wall can be used in vivo in a clinical research setting to establish the density of vasa vasorum as an indicator of plaque vulnerability. PMID:22974807

  13. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic vessel growth in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Michael; Purta, Patryk; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Hong, Young-Kwon; Dickinson, Mary E.; Rosenblatt, Mark I.; Chang, Jin-Hong; Azar, Dimitri T.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to visually observe angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis simultaneously and repeatedly in living animals could greatly enhance our understanding of the interdependence of these processes. To generate a mouse model that affords such visualization via in vivo fluorescence imaging, we bred Prox-1-GFP mice with Flk1::myrmCherry mice to generate Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice, in which lymphatic vessels emit green fluorescence and blood vessels emit red fluorescence. Corneal neovascularization was induced in these mice using three injury models: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pellet implantation, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) pellet implantation, and alkali burn injury. Vessel growth was observed in vivo by stereomicroscopy on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 after pellet implantation or alkali injury as well as in flat-mounted corneas via confocal microscopy after the final in vivo imaging time point. We observed blood and lymphatic vessel growth in all three models, with the most significant growth occurring from days 0–7. Upon VEGF stimulation, the growth kinetics of blood and lymphatic vessels were similar. Blood vessels exhibited similar growth patterns in VEGF- and bFGF-stimulated corneas. Alkali burn injury induced robust angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. In this study, the intrinsic fluorescence of blood and lymphatic endothelial cells in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice permitted simultaneous in vivo imaging of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This imaging ability allowed us to differentiate the processes as well as observe their interdependence and will be valuable in the development of therapies targeting angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis. PMID:25688651

  14. Simultaneous in vivo imaging of blood and lymphatic vessel growth in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jimmy; Dugas-Ford, Jennifer; Chang, Michael; Purta, Patryk; Han, Kyu-Yeon; Hong, Young-Kwon; Dickinson, Mary E; Rosenblatt, Mark I; Chang, Jin-Hong; Azar, Dimitri T

    2015-04-01

    The ability to visually observe angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis simultaneously and repeatedly in living animals would greatly enhance our understanding of the inter-dependence of these processes. To generate a mouse model that allows such visualization via in vivo fluorescence imaging, we crossed Prox1-GFP mice with Flk1::myr-mCherry mice to generate Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice, in which lymphatic vessels emit green fluorescence and blood vessels emit red fluorescence. Corneal neovascularization was induced in these mice using three injury models: implantation of a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pellet, implantation of a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) pellet, and alkali burn injury. Vessel growth was observed in vivo by stereomicroscopy on days 0, 3, 7 and 10 after pellet implantation or alkali injury as well as in flat-mounted corneas via confocal microscopy after the final in vivo imaging time point. We observed blood and lymphatic vessel growth in all three models, with the most significant growth occurring from days 0-7. Upon VEGF stimulation, the growth kinetics of blood and lymphatic vessels were similar. Blood vessels exhibited similar growth patterns in VEGF- and bFGF-stimulated corneas. Alkali burn injury induced robust angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. The intrinsic fluorescence of blood and lymphatic endothelial cells in Prox1-GFP/Flk1::myr-mCherry mice permitted simultaneous in vivo imaging of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. This allowed us to differentiate the processes as well as observe their inter-dependence, and will be valuable in development of therapies targeting angiogenesis and/or lymphangiogenesis. PMID:25688651

  15. Ultrasound-based Measurement of Molecular Marker Concentration in Large Blood Vessels: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiying; Mauldin, F. William; Klibanov, Alexander L.; Hossack, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound molecular imaging has demonstrated efficacy in pre-clinical studies for cancer and cardiovascular inflammation. However, these techniques often require lengthy protocols due to waiting periods or additional control microbubble injections. Moreover, they are not capable of quantifying molecular marker concentration in human tissue environments that exhibit variable attenuation and propagation path lengths. Our group recently investigated a modulated Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF)-based imaging sequence, which was demonstrated to detect targeted adhesion independent of control measurements. In the present study, this sequence was tested against various experimental parameters to determine feasibility for quantitative measurements of molecular marker concentration. Results demonstrated that measurements obtained from the sequence (residual-to-saturation ratio, Rresid) were independent of acoustic pressure and attenuation (p> 0.13, n = 10)when acoustic pressures were sufficiently low. The Rresid parameter exhibited a linear relationship with measured molecular marker concentration (R2> 0.94). Consequently, feasibility was demonstrated in vitro, for quantification of molecular marker concentration in large vessels using a modulated ARF-based sequence. Moreover, these measurements were independent of absolute acoustic reflection amplitude and used short imaging protocols(3 min) without control measurements. PMID:25308943

  16. Ultrasound-based measurement of molecular marker concentration in large blood vessels: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiying; Mauldin, F William; Klibanov, Alexander L; Hossack, John A

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound molecular imaging has demonstrated efficacy in pre-clinical studies for cancer and cardiovascular inflammation. However, these techniques often require lengthy protocols because of waiting periods or additional control microbubble injections. Moreover, they are not capable of quantifying molecular marker concentration in human tissue environments that exhibit variable attenuation and propagation path lengths. Our group recently investigated a modulated acoustic radiation force-based imaging sequence, which was found to detect targeted adhesion independent of control measurements. In the present study, this sequence was tested against various experimental parameters to determine its feasibility for quantitative measurements of molecular marker concentration. Results indicated that measurements obtained from the sequence (residual-to-saturation ratio, Rresid) were independent of acoustic pressure and attenuation (p > 0.13, n = 10) when acoustic pressures were sufficiently low. The Rresid parameter exhibited a linear relationship with measured molecular marker concentration (R(2) > 0.94). Consequently, feasibility was illustrated in vitro, for quantification of molecular marker concentration in large vessels using a modulated acoustic radiation force-based sequence. Moreover, these measurements were independent of absolute acoustic reflection amplitude and used short imaging protocols (3 min) without control measurements. PMID:25308943

  17. Viscous flow past a collapsible channel as a model for self-excited oscillation of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao; Zhu, Luoding; Akingba, George; Lu, Xi-Yun

    2015-07-16

    Motivated by collapse of blood vessels for both healthy and diseased situations under various circumstances in human body, we have performed computational studies on an incompressible viscous fluid past a rigid channel with part of its upper wall being replaced by a deformable beam. The Navier-Stokes equations governing the fluid flow are solved by a multi-block lattice Boltzmann method and the structural equation governing the elastic beam motion by a finite difference method. The mutual coupling of the fluid and solid is realized by the momentum exchange scheme. The present study focuses on the influences of the dimensionless parameters controlling the fluid-structure system on the collapse and self-excited oscillation of the beam and fluid dynamics downstream. The major conclusions obtained in this study are described as follows. The self-excited oscillation can be intrigued by application of an external pressure on the elastic portion of the channel and the part of the beam having the largest deformation tends to occur always towards the end portion of the deformable wall. The blood pressure and wall shear stress undergo significant variations near the portion of the greatest oscillation. The stretching motion has the most contribution to the total potential elastic energy of the oscillating beam. PMID:25911249

  18. A cellular nonlinear network: real-time technology for the analysis of microfluidic phenomena in blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapuppo, F.; Bucolo, M.; Intaglietta, M.; Fortuna, L.; Arena, P.

    2006-02-01

    A new approach to the observation and analysis of dynamic structural and functional parameters in the microcirculation is described. The new non-invasive optical system is based on cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs), highly integrated analogue processor arrays whose processing elements, the cells, interact directly within a finite local neighbourhood. CNNs, thanks to their parallel processing feature and spatially distributed structure, are widely used to solve high-speed image processing and recognition problems and in the description and modelling of biological dynamics through the solution of time continuous partial differential equations (PDEs). They are therefore considered extremely suitable for spatial-temporal dynamic characterization of fluidic phenomena at micrometric to nanometric scales, such as blood flow in microvessels and its interaction with the cells of the vessel wall. A CNN universal machine (CNN-UM) structure was used to implement, via simulation and hardware (ACE16k), the algorithms to determine the functional capillarity density (FCD) and red blood cell velocity (RBCV) in capillaries obtained by intravital microscopy during in vivo experiments on hamsters. The system exploits the moving particles to distinguish the functional capillaries from the stationary background. This information is used to reconstruct a map and to calculate the velocity of the moving objects.

  19. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, P<0.01). Similar vasorelaxation was elicited with the additional arginase inhibitors N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. DFMO-elicited vasodilation was greater in old (O) compared with Y rat aortic rings (60+/-6% versus 39+/-6%, P<0.05). In addition, BEC restored depressed L-arginine (10(-4) mol/L)-dependent vasorelaxant responses in O rings to those of Y. Arginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  20. Functional photoacoustic micro-imaging of cerebral hemodynamic changes in single blood vessels after photo-induced brain stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Lun-De; Chen, You-Yin; Lin, Chin-Teng; Li, Meng-Lin

    2013-03-01

    Studying the functional hemodynamic roles of individual cerebral cortical arterioles in maintaining both the structure and function of cortical regions during and after brain stroke in small animals is an important issue. Recently, functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) has been proved as a reliable imaging technique to probe the total hemoglobin concentration (HbT), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) in single cerebral blood vessels of rats. Here, we report the application of fPAM associated with electrophysiology recordings to investigating functional hemodynamic changes in single cortical arterioles of rats with electrical forepaw stimulation after photo-induced ischemic stroke. Because of the weak optical focusing nature of our fPAM system, photo-induced ischemic stroke targeting single cortical arterioles can be easily conducted with simple adaptation. Functional HbT, CBV and SO2 changes associated with the induced stroke in selected arterioles from the anterior cerebral artery system were imaged with 36 x 65-μm spatial resolution. Experimental results showed that after photo-occlusion of a single arteriole, the functional changes of nearby arterioles in cerebral cortex only can be observed immediately after the stroke. After a few minutes of stroke onset, there are no significant functional changes under the forepaw stimulation, suggesting that alternate blood flow routes are not actively recruited. The fPAM with electrophysiology recordings complements existing imaging techniques and has the potential to offer a favorable tool for explicitly studying cerebral hemodynamics in small animal models of photo-indcued ischemic stroke.

  1. Real-time intraoperative full-range complex FD-OCT guided cerebral blood vessel identification and brain tumor resection in neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang; Huang, Yong; Pradilla, Gustavo; Tyler, Betty; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    This work utilized an ultra-high-speed full-range complex-conjugate-free optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system to perform real-time intraoperative imaging to guide two common neurosurgical procedures: the cerebral blood vessel identification and the brain tumor resection. The cerebral blood vessel identification experiment is conducted ex vivo on human cadaver specimen. Specific cerebral arteries and veins in different positions of the specimen are visualized and the spatial relations between adjacent vessels are indentified through real-time 3D visualization. The brain tumor resection experiment is conducted in vivo on 9L gliomas established in rat brains. The normal brain-tumor margin can be clearly identified in depth of the tissue from sagittal, coronal and axial slices of the intraoperatively acquired 3D data set. The real-time full-range FD-OCT guided in vivo rat flank tumor resection is also conducted.

  2. Sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in port-wine stain blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wenbin; Chernova, Margarita; Gao, Lin; Sun, Victor; Liu, Huaxu; Jia, Wangcun; Langer, Stephanie; Wang, Gang; Mihm, Martin C.; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Background Port-wine stain (PWS) is a congenital, progressive vascular malformation but the pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Objective We sought to investigate the activation status of various kinases, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, AKT, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, P70 ribosomal S6 kinase, and phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit, in PWS biopsy tissues. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on 19 skin biopsy samples from 11 patients with PWS. Results c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and P70 ribosomal S6 kinase in pediatric and adult PWS blood vessels were consecutively activated. Activation of AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase was found in many adult hypertrophic PWS blood vessels but not in infants. Phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit showed strong activation in nodular PWS blood vessels. Limitation Infantile PWS sample size was small. Conclusion Our data suggest a subsequent activation profile of various kinases during different stages of PWS: (1) c-Jun N-terminal and extracellular signal-regulated kinases are firstly and consecutively activated in all PWS tissues, which may contribute to both the pathogenesis and progressive development of PWS; (2) AKT and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase are subsequently activated, and are involved in the hypertrophic development of PWS blood vessels; and (3) phosphoinositide phospholipase C γ subunit is activated in the most advanced stage of PWS and may participate in nodular formation. PMID:25135651

  3. "Overshoot" of O₂ is required to maintain baseline tissue oxygenation at locations distal to blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Devor, Anna; Sakadzic, Sava; Saisan, Payam A; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Roussakis, Emmanuel; Srinivasan, Vivek J; Vinogradov, Sergei A; Rosen, Bruce R; Buxton, Richard B; Dale, Anders M; Boas, David A

    2011-09-21

    In vivo imaging of cerebral tissue oxygenation is important in defining healthy physiology and pathological departures associated with cerebral disease. We used a recently developed two-photon microscopy method, based on a novel phosphorescent nanoprobe, to image tissue oxygenation in the rat primary sensory cortex in response to sensory stimulation. Our measurements showed that a stimulus-evoked increase in tissue pO₂ depended on the baseline pO₂ level. In particular, during sustained stimulation, the steady-state pO₂ at low-baseline locations remained at the baseline, despite large pO₂ increases elsewhere. In contrast to the steady state, where pO₂ never decreased below the baseline, transient decreases occurred during the "initial dip" and "poststimulus undershoot." These results suggest that the increase in blood oxygenation during the hemodynamic response, which has been perceived as a paradox, may serve to prevent a sustained oxygenation drop at tissue locations that are remote from the vascular feeding sources. PMID:21940458

  4. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  5. Development of a Practical Nonlinear Imaging Technique for Transcranial Visualization of Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Jeffrey; Malyarenko, Eugene; Shapoori, Kiyanoosh; Maev, Roman Gr.

    The focus of this paper is to outline the ongoing development of a nonlinear ultrasonic imaging (NLI) method for the visualization of flowing liquids surrounded by inhomogeneous media. The particular interest of our study is the in-vivo transcranial visualization of the blood flow where many existing ultrasonic approaches fail due to strong attenuation, scattering, and distortion by the skull bones. In general, the approach of Nonlinear Imaging (NLI) is to average out multiple ultrasonic exposures, and examine the differences between successive exposures. By selectively processing for these differences, the region of random acoustic scattering by the flowing media is obtained, while any constant field is removed. Results outlined in this paper show that NLI is able to produce 2D and 3D images of the flowing region, while eliminating those regions of constant acoustic sources. This is done for the ideal case of water (with scatterers) flowing through plastic tubing, as well as using a standard Doppler phantom of a major human artery containing a bifurcation and stenosis.

  6. Blood clotting

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... the external bleeding stops. Clotting factors in the blood cause strands of blood-borne material, called fibrin, to stick together and ... the inside of the wound. Eventually, the cut blood vessel heals, and the blood clot dissolves after ...

  7. Reducing the data: Analysis of the role of vascular geometry on blood flow patterns in curved vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alastruey, Jordi; Siggers, Jennifer H.; Peiffer, Véronique; Doorly, Denis J.; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of blood flow usually produce such large quantities of data that they are unlikely to be of clinical use unless methods are available to simplify our understanding of the flow dynamics. We present a new method to investigate the mechanisms by which vascular curvature and torsion affect blood flow, and we apply it to the steady-state flow in single bends, helices, double bends, and a rabbit thoracic aorta based on image data. By calculating forces and accelerations in an orthogonal coordinate system following the centreline of each vessel, we obtain the inertial forces (centrifugal, Coriolis, and torsional) explicitly, which directly depend on vascular curvature and torsion. We then analyse the individual roles of the inertial, pressure gradient, and viscous forces on the patterns of primary and secondary velocities, vortical structures, and wall stresses in each cross section. We also consider cross-sectional averages of the in-plane components of these forces, which can be thought of as reducing the dynamics of secondary flows onto the vessel centreline. At Reynolds numbers between 50 and 500