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Sample records for blood vessel branching

  1. 196 MATHEMATICS MAGAZINE Blood Vessel Branching: Beyond the

    E-print Network

    Adam, John A.

    on the applied force, then the fluid is called non-Newtonian. In this paper we model blood as a Newtonian fluid196 MATHEMATICS MAGAZINE Blood Vessel Branching: Beyond the Standard Calculus Problem JOHN A. ADAM engineering- style calculus books. We then present a sequence of increasingly faithful models of blood

  2. Blood Vessel Tension Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, a medical researcher is using a specially designed laboratory apparatus for measuring blood vessel tension. It was designed by Langley Research Center as a service to researchers of Norfolk General Hospital and Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia. The investigators are studying how vascular smooth muscle-muscle in the walls of blood vessels-reacts to various stimulants, such as coffee, tea, alcohol or drugs. They sought help from Langley Research Center in devising a method of measuring the tension in blood vessel segments subjected to various stimuli. The task was complicated by the extremely small size of the specimens to be tested, blood vessel "loops" resembling small rubber bands, some only half a millimeter in diameter. Langley's Instrumentation Development Section responded with a miniaturized system whose key components are a "micropositioner" for stretching a length of blood vessel and a strain gage for measuring the smooth muscle tension developed. The micropositioner is a two-pronged holder. The loop of Mood vessel is hooked over the prongs and it is stretched by increasing the distance between the prongs in minute increments, fractions of a millimeter. At each increase, the tension developed is carefully measured. In some experiments, the holder and specimen are lowered into the test tubes shown, which contain a saline solution simulating body fluid; the effect of the compound on developed tension is then measured. The device has functioned well and the investigators say it has saved several months research time.

  3. Blood Flow Changes Coincide with Cellular Rearrangements during Blood Vessel Pruning in Zebrafish Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kochhan, Eva; Lenard, Anna; Ellertsdottir, Elin; Herwig, Lukas; Affolter, Markus; Belting, Heinz-Georg; Siekmann, Arndt F.

    2013-01-01

    After the initial formation of a highly branched vascular plexus, blood vessel pruning generates a hierarchically structured network with improved flow characteristics. We report here on the cellular events that occur during the pruning of a defined blood vessel in the eye of developing zebrafish embryos. Time-lapse imaging reveals that the connection of a new blood vessel sprout with a previously perfused multicellular endothelial tube leads to the formation of a branched, Y-shaped structure. Subsequently, endothelial cells in parts of the previously perfused branch rearrange from a multicellular into a unicellular tube, followed by blood vessel detachment. This process is accompanied by endothelial cell death. Finally, we show that differences in blood flow between neighboring vessels are important for the completion of the pruning process. Our data suggest that flow induced changes in tubular architecture ensure proper blood vessel pruning. PMID:24146748

  4. Blood vessel rupture by cavitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A; Bailey, Michael R; Matula, Thomas J

    2010-08-01

    Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture. PMID:20680255

  5. Blood vessel rupture by cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation is thought to be one mechanism for vessel rupture during shock wave lithotripsy treatment. However, just how cavitation induces vessel rupture remains unknown. In this work, a high-speed photomicrography system was set up to directly observe the dynamics of bubbles inside blood vessels in ex vivo rat mesenteries. Vascular rupture correlating to observed bubble dynamics were examined by imaging bubble extravasation and dye leakage. The high-speed images show that bubble expansion can cause vessel distention, and bubble collapse can lead to vessel invagination. Liquid jets were also observed to form. Our results suggest that all three mechanisms, vessel distention, invagination and liquid jets, can contribute to vessel rupture. PMID:20680255

  6. Cuff for Blood-Vessel Pressure Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1982-01-01

    Pressure within blood vessel is measured by new cufflike device without penetration of vessel. Device continuously monitors blood pressure for up to 6 months or longer without harming vessel. Is especially useful for vessels smaller than 4 or 5 millimeters in diameter. Invasive methods damage vessel wall, disturb blood flow, and cause clotting. They do not always give reliable pressure measurements over prolonged periods.

  7. Purinergic transmission in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Ralevic, Vera; Dunn, William R

    2015-09-01

    There are nineteen different receptor proteins for adenosine, adenine and uridine nucleotides, and nucleotide sugars, belonging to three families of G protein-coupled adenosine and P2Y receptors, and ionotropic P2X receptors. The majority are functionally expressed in blood vessels, as purinergic receptors in perivascular nerves, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and roles in regulation of vascular contractility, immune function and growth have been identified. The endogenous ligands for purine receptors, ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP and adenosine, can be released from different cell types within the vasculature, as well as from circulating blood cells, including erythrocytes and platelets. Many purine receptors can be activated by two or more of the endogenous ligands. Further complexity arises because of interconversion between ligands, notably adenosine formation from the metabolism of ATP, leading to complex integrated responses through activation of different subtypes of purine receptors. The enzymes responsible for this conversion, ectonucleotidases, are present on the surface of smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and may be coreleased with neurotransmitters from nerves. What selectivity there is for the actions of purines/pyrimidines comes from differential expression of their receptors within the vasculature. P2X1 receptors mediate the vasocontractile actions of ATP released as a neurotransmitter with noradrenaline (NA) from sympathetic perivascular nerves, and are located on the vascular smooth muscle adjacent to the nerve varicosities, the sites of neurotransmitter release. The relative contribution of ATP and NA as functional cotransmitters varies with species, type and size of blood vessel, neuronal firing pattern, the tone/pressure of the blood vessel, and in ageing and disease. ATP is also a neurotransmitter in non-adrenergic non-cholinergic perivascular nerves and mediates vasorelaxation via smooth muscle P2Y-like receptors. ATP and adenosine can act as neuromodulators, with the most robust evidence being for prejunctional inhibition of neurotransmission via A1 adenosine receptors, but also prejunctional excitation and inhibition of neurotransmission via P2X and P2Y receptors, respectively. P2Y2, P2Y4 and P2Y6 receptors expressed on the vascular smooth muscle are coupled to vasocontraction, and may have a role in pathophysiological conditions, when purines are released from damaged cells, or when there is damage to the protective barrier that is the endothelium. Adenosine is released during hypoxia to increase blood flow via vasodilator A2A and A2B receptors expressed on the endothelium and smooth muscle. ATP is released from endothelial cells during hypoxia and shear stress and can act at P2Y and P2X4 receptors expressed on the endothelium to increase local blood flow. Activation of endothelial purine receptors leads to the release of nitric oxide, hyperpolarising factors and prostacyclin, which inhibits platelet aggregation and thus ensures patent blood flow. Vascular purine receptors also regulate endothelial and smooth muscle growth, and inflammation, and thus are involved in the underlying processes of a number of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26004513

  8. Designer blood vessels and therapeutic revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Joseph D; Galis, Zorina S

    2003-01-01

    Inadequate vascular perfusion leads to fatal heart attacks, chronic ulcers, and other serious clinical conditions. The body's capacity to restore vascular perfusion through angiogenesis and arteriogenesis is often impaired by pre-existing disease, and availability of native replacements for nonfunctional arteries is limited in many patients. Thus, recreating blood vessels of various calibres through novel engineering technologies has emerged as a radical option among therapeutic strategies for revascularization. Ranging from artificial, recycled or reassembled natural conduits to sophisticated microdevices, we refer to these as ‘designer blood vessels'. Our common efforts to continuously improve vascular replacement design have provided many clues about our own blood vessels, but nature's ability to create nonthrombogenic, immunocompatible, strong, yet biologically responsive blood vessels remains unparalleled. Just as art reproductions never equal the original masterpiece, designer blood vessels may never attain nature's perfection. Nevertheless, they will provide a valuable option as long as they come close enough and are available to many. PMID:14534146

  9. Unsteady Flow in Stenotic Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayz, Vitaliy L.; Devi Williamson, Shobha; Berger, Stanley A.; Saloner, David

    2003-11-01

    Recent studies show that many heart attacks and strokes occur from sudden rupture of partially occluding atherosclerotic plaque rather than total vessel occlusion. Our goal is to understand how the mechanical forces induced by blood flow on specific plaque deposits makes them vulnerable to rupture. Models of severely stenotic carotid bifurcations are created from MR images and grids generated for the flow domains. The three-dimensional, unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in finite-volume form are solved numerically using physiological boundary conditions. During systole a high velocity jet forms at the stenotic throat in one of the branches, and a long recirculation zone is observed downstream of the plaque. During diastole the flow is more stagnant. The flow is highly three-dimensional and unsteady with chaotic streamlines. Whereas flow in healthy arteries is laminar, irregular geometries and sharp changes in vessel diameter of a severely stenotic artery significantly disrupt the flow, with consequences for shear and normal wall stresses at the wall, and important implications for plaque stability. Supported by NIH Grant HL61823

  10. Automated computational framework of blood vessel quantification in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Peng; Hong, Jinsheng; Huang, Yue; Zhang, Zhenhuan; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Lurong

    2014-10-01

    Chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis assay has been widely used for finding drugs targeting new blood vessel development in cancer research. In addition to the setup materials and protocols, laboratory findings depend on the quantification and analysis of microscopic blood vessel images. However, it is still a challenging problem because of the high complexity of blood vessel branching structures. We applied preprocessing on CAM microscopic images by keeping the integrity of minor branches in the vessel structure. We then proposed an efficient way to automatically extract blood vessel centerlines based on vector tracing starting from detected seed points. Finally, all branches were coded to construct an abstract model of the branching structure, which enabled more accurate modeling for in-depth analysis. The framework was applied in quantifying Icaritin (ICT) inhibition effects on angiogenesis in a CAM model. Experimental results showed the high accuracy in blood vessel quantification and modeling compared with semimanual measurements. Meanwhile, a set of blood vessel growth indicators were extracted to provide fully automated analysis for angiogenesis assays. Further analysis proved that ICT took effect in a dose-dependent manner which could be applied in suppressing tumor blood vessel growth.

  11. Microvascular Branching as a Determinant of Blood Flow by Intravital Particle Imaging Velocimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Wernet, Mark P.; Myers, Jerry G.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan

    2007-01-01

    The effects of microvascular branching on blood flow were investigated in vivo by microscopic particle imaging velocimetry (micro-PIV). We use micro-PIV to measure blood flow by tracking red blood cells (RBC) as the moving particles. Velocity flow fields, including flow pulsatility, were analyzed for the first four branching orders of capillaries, postcapillary venules and small veins of the microvascular network within the developing avian yolksac at embryonic day 5 (E5). Increasing volumetric flowrates were obtained from parabolic laminar flow profiles as a function of increasing vessel diameter and branching order. Maximum flow velocities increased approximately twenty-fold as the function of increasing vessel diameter and branching order compared to flow velocities of 100 - 150 micron/sec in the capillaries. Results from our study will be useful for the increased understanding of blood flow within anastomotic, heterogeneous microvascular networks.

  12. Blackworms, Blood Vessel Pulsations and Drug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesiuk, Nalena M.; Drewes, Charles D.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the freshwater oligochaete worm, lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworms), an organism that is well suited for classroom study because of its closed circulatory system. Describes a set of simple, fast, noninvasive, and inexpensive methods for observing pulsations of the worm's dorsal blood vessels under baseline conditions, and…

  13. Immersive volume rendering of blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Gregory; Kim, Han Suk; Marsden, Alison; Bazilevs, Yuri; Schulze, Jürgen P.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method of visualizing flow in blood vessels. Our approach reads unstructured tetrahedral data, resamples it, and uses slice based 3D texture volume rendering. Due to the sparse structure of blood vessels, we utilize an octree to efficiently store the resampled data by discarding empty regions of the volume. We use animation to convey time series data, wireframe surface to give structure, and utilize the StarCAVE, a 3D virtual reality environment, to add a fully immersive element to the visualization. Our tool has great value in interdisciplinary work, helping scientists collaborate with clinicians, by improving the understanding of blood flow simulations. Full immersion in the flow field allows for a more intuitive understanding of the flow phenomena, and can be a great help to medical experts for treatment planning.

  14. A probe for blood-vessel and spinal interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Probe design allows insertion into lumen of blood vessels to perform oximetry and investigate plaque on interior vessel walls. Probe is more accurate than standard oximetry procedures of determining oxygenation of circulating blood.

  15. How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels? Cigarette smoking ... Cough , discuss how smoking affects the lungs. Overview Smoking and Your Heart and Blood Vessels The chemicals ...

  16. Zinc oxide nanoflowers make new blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barui, Ayan Kumar; Veeriah, Vimal; Mukherjee, Sudip; Manna, Joydeb; Patel, Ajay Kumar; Patra, Sujata; Pal, Krishnendu; Murali, Shruthi; Rana, Rohit K.; Chatterjee, Suvro; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2012-11-01

    It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role.It is well established that angiogenesis is the process of formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels. It is a complex process, involving both pro- and anti-angiogenic factors, and plays a significant role in physiological and pathophysiological processes such as embryonic development, atherosclerosis, post-ischemic vascularization of the myocardium, tumor growth and metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis etc. This is the first report of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoflowers that show significant pro-angiogenic properties (formation of new capillaries from pre-existing blood vessels), observed by in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays. The egg yolk angiogenesis assay using ZnO nanoflowers indicates the presence of matured blood vessels formation. Additionally, it helps to promote endothelial cell (EA.hy926 cells) migration in wound healing assays. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)--a redox signaling molecule, might be the plausible mechanism for nanoflower-based angiogenesis. Angiogenesis by nanoflowers may provide the basis for the future development of new alternative therapeutic treatment strategies for cardiovascular and ischemic diseases, where angiogenesis plays a significant role. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr32369a

  17. [Filling blood vessels with latex and its application].

    PubMed

    Qi, G P; Du, Y Z; Pan, A H; Yang, K Q

    2000-08-28

    The purpose of this study is to find out the better conditions for filling blood vessels of the body with latex. We test it on 500 bodies. Our data show that the temperature for storing the latex, filling positions, the wash of blood vessels prior to filling and filling pressure are all important in this process. A good filling increases elasticity of vessels, makes vessels stronger and facilitates dissection of vessel. It is of importance in the study of cardiovascular system. PMID:12206021

  18. Method and device for supporting blood vessels during anastomosis

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1985-05-20

    A device and method for preventing first and second severed blood vessels from collapsing during attachment to each other. The device comprises a dissolvable non-toxic stent that is sufficiently rigid to prevent the blood vessels from collapsing during anastomosis. The stent can be hollow or have passages to permit blood flow before it dissolves. A single stent can be inserted with an end in each of the two blood vessels or separate stents can be inserted into each blood vessel. The stent may include a therapeutically effective amount of a drug which is slowly released into the blood stream as the stent dissolves. 12 figs.

  19. Photoacoustic removal of occlusions from blood vessels

    DOEpatents

    Visuri, Steven R. (Livermore, CA); Da Silva, Luiz B. (Danville, CA); Celliers, Peter M. (Berkeley, CA); London, Richard A. (Orinda, CA); Maitland, IV, Duncan J. (Lafayette, CA); Esch, Victor C. (San Francisco, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Partial or total occlusions of fluid passages within the human body are removed by positioning an array of optical fibers in the passage and directing treatment radiation pulses along the fibers, one at a time, to generate a shock wave and hydrodynamics flows that strike and emulsify the occlusions. A preferred application is the removal of blood clots (thrombin and embolic) from small cerebral vessels to reverse the effects of an ischemic stroke. The operating parameters and techniques are chosen to minimize the amount of heating of the fragile cerebral vessel walls occurring during this photo acoustic treatment. One such technique is the optical monitoring of the existence of hydrodynamics flow generating vapor bubbles when they are expected to occur and stopping the heat generating pulses propagated along an optical fiber that is not generating such bubbles.

  20. ANALYSIS OF BLOOD VESSEL TOPOLOGY BY CUBICAL HOMOLOGY M. Niethammer,

    E-print Network

    Kalies, William D.

    ANALYSIS OF BLOOD VESSEL TOPOLOGY BY CUBICAL HOMOLOGY M. Niethammer, A. N. Stein, ¡ W. D ABSTRACT In this note, we segment and topologically classify brain vessel data obtained from magnetic in a topological characterization of the blood vessels. 1. INTRODUCTION Many computer application areas involve

  1. Induction of Pancreatic Differentiation by Signals from Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Cleaver, Ondine; Melton, Douglas

    2001-10-01

    Blood vessels supply developing organs with metabolic sustenance. Here, we demonstrate a role for blood vessels as a source of developmental signals during pancreatic organogenesis. In vitro experiments with embryonic mouse tissues demonstrate that blood vessel endothelium induces insulin expression in isolated endoderm. Removal of the dorsal aorta in Xenopus laevis embryos results in the failure of insulin expression in vivo. Furthermore, using transgenic mice, we show that ectopic vascularization in the posterior foregut leads to ectopic insulin expression and islet hyperplasia. These results indicate that vessels not only provide metabolic sustenance, but also provide inductive signals for organ development.

  2. Segmentation of Retinal Blood Vessels Based on Cake Filter

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xi-Rong; Ge, Xin; She, Li-Huang; Zhang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels is significant to diagnosis and evaluation of ocular diseases like glaucoma and systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. To solve this problem, a new method based on cake filter is proposed. Firstly, a quadrature filter band called cake filter band is made up in Fourier field. Then the real component fusion is used to separate the blood vessel from the background. Finally, the blood vessel network is got by a self-adaption threshold. The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate. PMID:26636095

  3. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G. ); Poston, J.W. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No diffusion of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor cross fire between vessel was assumed. Results are useful in assessing the dose in blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures. 6 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Absorbed dose calculations to blood and blood vessels for internally deposited radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Akabani, G.; Poston, J.W. Sr. )

    1991-05-01

    At present, absorbed dose calculations for radionuclides in the human circulatory system used relatively simple models and are restricted in their applications. To determine absorbed doses to the blood and to the surface of the blood vessel wall, EGS4 Monte Carlo calculations were performed. Absorbed doses were calculated for the blood and the blood vessel wall (lumen) for different blood vessels sizes. The radionuclides chosen for this study were those commonly used in nuclear medicine. No penetration of the radionuclide into the blood vessel was assumed nor was cross fire between the vessel assumed. The results are useful in assessing the dose to blood and blood vessel walls for different nuclear medicine procedures.

  5. Instability and "Sausage-String" Appearance in Blood Vessels during High Blood Pressure

    E-print Network

    Alstrøm, P; Colding-Jorgensen, M; Gustafsson, F; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Alstrom, Preben; Eguiluz, Victor M.; Colding-Jorgensen, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    1999-01-01

    A new Rayleigh-type instability is proposed to explain the `sausage-string' pattern of alternating constrictions and dilatations formed in blood vessels under influence of a vasoconstricting agent. Our theory involves the nonlinear elasticity characteristics of the vessel wall, and provides predictions for the conditions under which the cylindrical form of a blood vessel becomes unstable.

  6. Avian Blood-Vessel Formation in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lelkes, Peter I.

    1999-01-01

    Based on previous studies, we hypothesized that the developmental anomalies observed in the past might be related to or caused by delayed or improper vascular development. The objective of our research is to test the hypothesis that exposure to microgravity during space flight cause delayed or improper vascular development during embryogenesis. The effects of microgravity on the time course and extent of avian blood-vessel formation are assessed using two models, one for angiogenesis and one for vasculogenesis. The methodological approach is dictated by the constraints of the tissue preservation method used in space. Thus, both in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and in the adrenal, we will evaluate microscopically the vascular architecture and immunostain endothelial cells with specific antibodies (anti- vWF and QH1). The extent of ECM protein deposition will be assessed by immunohistochemistry and correlated with the degree of vascularization, using computer-based image analysis. Also, the cellular source for ECM proteins will be assessed by in situ hybridization.

  7. Recovery of testicular blood flow following ligation of testicular vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Pascual, J.A.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Salido, E.; Ehrlich, R.M.; Mena, I.; Rajfer, J.

    1989-08-01

    To determine whether initial ligation of the testicular vessels of the high undescended testis followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy is a viable alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens procedure, a series of preliminary experiments were conducted in the rat in which testicular blood flow was measured by the 133-xenon washout technique before, and 1 hour and 30 days after ligation of the vessels. In addition, testicular histology, and testis and sex-accessory tissue weights were measured in 6 control, 6 sham operated and 6 testicular vessel ligated rats 54 days after vessel ligation. The data demonstrate that ligation and division of the testicular blood vessels produce an 80 per cent decrease in testicular blood flow 1 hour after ligation of the vessels. However, 30 days later testis blood flow returns to the control and pre-treatment value. There were no significant changes in testis or sex-accessory tissue weights 54 days after vessel ligation. Histologically, 4 of the surgically operated testes demonstrated necrosis of less than 25 per cent of the seminiferous tubules while 1 testis demonstrated more than 75 per cent necrosis. The rest of the tubules in all 6 testes demonstrated normal spermatogenesis. From this study we conclude that initial testicular vessel ligation produces an immediate decrease in testicular blood flow but with time the collateral vessels are able to compensate and return the testis blood flow to its normal pre-treatment value. These preliminary observations lend support for the concept that initial ligation of the testicular vessels followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy in patients with a high undescended testis may be a possible alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens approach.

  8. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a varie...

  9. Computer Analysis of Eye Blood-Vessel Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. J.; White, B. S.

    1984-01-01

    Technique rapidly diagnoses diabetes mellitus. Photographs of "whites" of patients' eyes scanned by computerized image analyzer programmed to quantify density of small blood vessels in conjuctiva. Comparison with data base of known normal and diabetic patients facilitates rapid diagnosis.

  10. Development of a blood vessel searching device for HMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Tatsuro; Uenoya, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2007-12-01

    In this study, an automatic blood vessel searching system (BVSS) is newly developed, which is built in the health monitoring system (HMS) and the drug delivery system (DDS) to extract the blood, evaluates the blood sugar level and injects the insulin for the diabetic patients. Main subjects of our BVSS development are 1) a transmittance photo imaging of the finger by using the LED light as a near-infrared light source with peak wave length of 870 nm, and 2) an image processing to detect the location of the center of the blood vessel cross section. The sharp edge focus method was applied in our BVSS to detect the depth of blood vessel. We carried out experiments by using blood vessel phantoms, which consist of an artificial cylindrical blood vessel and skin tissue, which are made of the teflon tube and the silicone rubber. The teflon tube has the size of 0.6 mm in diameter and is filled with the human blood. The experimental results demonstrated that the estimated depth, which is obtained by image analysis corresponding to given depths, shows a good agreement with the real values, and consequently the availability of our BVSS is confirmed.

  11. Analysis of Blood Flow in a Partially Blocked Bifurcated Blood Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Razzak, Hayder; Elkassabgi, Yousri; Punati, Pavan K.; Nasser, Naseer

    2009-09-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of death in the United States. It is the narrowing of the lumens of the coronary blood vessel by a gradual build-up of fatty material, atheroma, which leads to the heart muscle not receiving enough blood. This my ocardial ischemia can cause angina, a heart attack, heart failure as well as sudden cardiac death [9]. In this project a solid model of bifurcated blood vessel with an asymmetric stenosis is developed using GAMBIT and imported into FLUENT for analysis. In FLUENT, pressure and velocity distributions in the blood vessel are studied under different conditions, where the size and position of the blockage in the blood vessel are varied. The location and size of the blockage in the blood vessel are correlated with the pressures and velocities distributions. Results show that such correlation may be used to predict the size and location of the blockage.

  12. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection using morphological component analysis.

    PubMed

    Imani, Elaheh; Javidi, Malihe; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantitative measurement of variations in the retinal blood vessels can help diagnose several diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Intrinsic characteristics of abnormal retinal images make blood vessel detection difficult. The major problem with traditional vessel segmentation algorithms is producing false positive vessels in the presence of diabetic retinopathy lesions. To overcome this problem, a novel scheme for extracting retinal blood vessels based on morphological component analysis (MCA) algorithm is presented in this paper. MCA was developed based on sparse representation of signals. This algorithm assumes that each signal is a linear combination of several morphologically distinct components. In the proposed method, the MCA algorithm with appropriate transforms is adopted to separate vessels and lesions from each other. Afterwards, the Morlet Wavelet Transform is applied to enhance the retinal vessels. The final vessel map is obtained by adaptive thresholding. The performance of the proposed method is measured on the publicly available DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. An accuracy of 0.9523 and 0.9590 has been respectively achieved on the DRIVE and STARE datasets, which are not only greater than most methods, but are also superior to the second human observer's performance. The results show that the proposed method can achieve improved detection in abnormal retinal images and decrease false positive vessels in pathological regions compared to other methods. Also, the robustness of the method in the presence of noise is shown via experimental result. PMID:25697986

  13. Antiangiogenic therapy decreases integrin expression in normalized tumor blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Yao, Virginia J; Ozawa, Michael G; Varner, Amanda S; Kasman, Ian M; Chanthery, Yvan H; Pasqualini, Renata; Arap, Wadih; McDonald, Donald M

    2006-03-01

    Tumor blood vessels normalized by antiangiogenic therapy may provide improved delivery of chemotherapeutic agents during a window of time but it is unknown how protein expression in tumor vascular endothelial cells changes. We evaluated the distribution of RGD-4C phage, which binds alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(5), and alpha(5)beta(1) integrins on tumor blood vessels before and after antiangiogenic therapy. Unlike the control phage, fd-tet, RGD-4C phage homed to vascular endothelial cells in spontaneous tumors in RIP-Tag2 transgenic mice in a dose-dependent fashion. The distribution of phage was similar to alpha(v)beta(3) and alpha(5)beta(1) integrin expression. Blood vessels that survived treatment with AG-013736, a small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptors, had only 4% as much binding of RGD-4C phage compared with vessels in untreated tumors. Cellular distribution of RGD-4C phage in surviving tumor vessels matched the alpha(5)beta(1) integrin expression. The reduction in integrin expression on tumor vessels after antiangiogenic therapy raises the possibility that integrin-targeted delivery of diagnostics or therapeutics may be compromised. Efficacious delivery of drugs may benefit from identification by in vivo phage display of targeting peptides that bind to tumor blood vessels normalized by antiangiogenic agents. PMID:16510583

  14. Predictive Simulation of Bidirectional Glenn Shunt Using a Hybrid Blood Vessel Model

    E-print Network

    Leow, Wee Kheng

    Predictive Simulation of Bidirectional Glenn Shunt Using a Hybrid Blood Vessel Model Hao Li1 to model the deformation of blood vessels. The hybrid blood vessel model consists of a reference Cosserat rod and a surface mesh. The reference Cosserat rod models the blood vessel's global bending

  15. Mesoscale Simulation of Blood Flow in Small Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2007-01-01

    Computational modeling of blood flow in microvessels with internal diameter 20–500 ?m is a major challenge. It is because blood in such vessels behaves as a multiphase suspension of deformable particles. A continuum model of blood is not adequate if the motion of individual red blood cells in the suspension is of interest. At the same time, multiple cells, often a few thousands in number, must also be considered to account for cell-cell hydrodynamic interaction. Moreover, the red blood cells (RBCs) are highly deformable. Deformation of the cells must also be considered in the model, as it is a major determinant of many physiologically significant phenomena, such as formation of a cell-free layer, and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. In this article, we present two-dimensional computational simulation of blood flow in vessels of size 20–300 ?m at discharge hematocrit of 10–60%, taking into consideration the particulate nature of blood and cell deformation. The numerical model is based on the immersed boundary method, and the red blood cells are modeled as liquid capsules. A large RBC population comprising of as many as 2500 cells are simulated. Migration of the cells normal to the wall of the vessel and the formation of the cell-free layer are studied. Results on the trajectory and velocity traces of the RBCs, and their fluctuations are presented. Also presented are the results on the plug-flow velocity profile of blood, the apparent viscosity, and the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect. The numerical results also allow us to investigate the variation of apparent blood viscosity along the cross-section of a vessel. The computational results are compared with the experimental results. To the best of our knowledge, this article presents the first simulation to simultaneously consider a large ensemble of red blood cells and the cell deformation. PMID:17208982

  16. Brain blood vessel segmentation using line-shaped profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, Danilo; Pižurica, Aleksandra; De Vylder, Jonas; Vansteenkiste, Ewout; Philips, Wilfried

    2013-11-01

    Segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is of great importance in diagnostic and clinical applications, especially for embolization of cerebral aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). In order to perform embolization of the AVM, the structural and geometric information of blood vessels from 3D images is of utmost importance. For this reason, the in-depth segmentation of cerebral blood vessels is usually done as a fusion of different segmentation techniques, often requiring extensive user interaction. In this paper we introduce the idea of line-shaped profiling with an application to brain blood vessel and AVM segmentation, efficient both in terms of resolving details and in terms of computation time. Our method takes into account both local proximate and wider neighbourhood of the processed pixel, which makes it efficient for segmenting large blood vessel tree structures, as well as fine structures of the AVMs. Another advantage of our method is that it requires selection of only one parameter to perform segmentation, yielding very little user interaction.

  17. Heart and Blood Vessels in Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... organs or an aorta that is seriously enlarged. Mitral valve prolapse Mitral valve prolapsed is a condition in which the flaps of one of the heart’s valves (the mitral valve, which regulates blood flow on the left ...

  18. A systems biology view of blood vessel growth and remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Logsdon, Elizabeth A; Finley, Stacey D; Popel, Aleksander S; Gabhann, Feilim Mac

    2014-01-01

    Blood travels throughout the body in an extensive network of vessels – arteries, veins and capillaries. This vascular network is not static, but instead dynamically remodels in response to stimuli from cells in the nearby tissue. In particular, the smallest vessels – arterioles, venules and capillaries – can be extended, expanded or pruned, in response to exercise, ischaemic events, pharmacological interventions, or other physiological and pathophysiological events. In this review, we describe the multi-step morphogenic process of angiogenesis – the sprouting of new blood vessels – and the stability of vascular networks in vivo. In particular, we review the known interactions between endothelial cells and the various blood cells and plasma components they convey. We describe progress that has been made in applying computational modelling, quantitative biology and high-throughput experimentation to the angiogenesis process. PMID:24237862

  19. Tumor Stroma, Tumor Blood Vessels, and Antiangiogenesis Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dvorak, Harold F

    2015-01-01

    Solid tumors generally require a vascularized connective tissue stroma if they are to grow beyond minimal size. They generate that stroma in part by secreting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent vascular permeability and angiogenic factor. Increased vascular permeability leads to deposition of a provisional fibrin stroma, which supports tumor, connective tissue, and inflammatory cell migration and plays an active role in the formation of mature vascularized stroma. Vascular endothelial growth factor-induced tumor blood vessels are heterogeneous, of at least 6 distinct types, and develop linearly over time. They include both angiogenic (mother vessels, glomeruloid microvascular proliferations, vascular malformations, capillaries) and arteriovenogenic (feeding arteries, draining veins) blood vessels. Attacking the tumor vasculature with drugs that target VEGF or its receptors (VEGFR) has come into vogue but has been less effective than had been hope for. One reason for this is that anti-VEGF/VEGFR therapy attacks only a subset of tumor blood vessels, the earliest to form. New targets on late-forming blood vessels such as feeding arteries would be useful in helping antivascular cancer therapy fulfill its promise. PMID:26222073

  20. Comparison of the blood vessel complexes of the human and bovine male gonads.

    PubMed

    Polguj, M; Jedrzejewski, K S; Bolanowski, W

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the blood vessel network of the human and bovine male gonads, paying special attention to differences resulting from mediastinum testis localisation. Two groups of specimens were compared. Each group consisted of 50 corrosive die casts of the testicular and spermatic cord vessels of bovine and human gonads respectively. In each group 20 gonads had only the arterial vessels injected, another 20 only the veins, while in 10 gonads both arteries and veins were injected. The die casts were examined with a stereoscopic binocular as well as an optic microscope. The different testicular vascular patterns in humans and bulls were observed. In humans the intratesticular arteries branch off the arterial network of the tunica albuginea and mediastinum testis. The former runs centripetally, the latter centrifugally. Analogically, the intratesticular veins emptying into the tunica albuginea venous network run centrifugally and those emptying into the mediastinum testis plexus run centripetally. In bulls the arterial vessels run centripetally, later forming a helical, screw-like layer to give off centrifugal branches. Venous vessels run centrifugally and empty into the venous plexus of the tunica albuginea. PMID:18828099

  1. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, D.J. . E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2006-12-15

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension-all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure (1 {mu}M-1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 {mu}M), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension.

  2. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, D.J.; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Wiechmann, R.J.; Sayre, L.M.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension—all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H2O2 exposure (1 ?M–1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 ?M), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca2+ to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H2O2, benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca2+-free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague–Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension. PMID:17095030

  3. Higher blood vessel density in comparison to the lymphatic vessels in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maturana-Ramírez, Andrea; Espinoza, Iris; Reyes, Montserrat; Aitken, Juan Pablo; Aguayo, Francisco; Hartel, Steffen; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is characterized by local invasion and the development of cervical metastasis. In the tongue, an association between the invasion of the lymphatic vessels and the development of metastasis in the regional lymph nodes has been demonstrated. Moreover, invasion of the blood vessels is associated with greater recurrence and poorer prognoses. Therefore, the presence and density of lymphatic and blood vessels in intra- and peritumoral tissues should play an important role in the progression, dissemination and metastasis of carcinomas. However, the evidence regarding OSCC is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine the comparison and association between the lymphatic (D2-40) and blood vessel (CD34) densities in intratumoral OSCC tissue. Materials and Methods: Thirty-seven cases diagnosed as OSCC between the years 2000 and 2008 were obtained from the Anatomic Pathology Service of the School of Dentistry, University of Chile. The immunohistochemical markers D2-40 and CD34 were used, and the densities (mm2) of lymphatic vessels (LVD) and blood vessels (BVD) in the intratumoral region were determined. The relationship between LVD and BVD values was evaluated. Results: There were significant association between the CD34 and D2-40 expression (rho=0.4, P<0.05) and between the LVD and the location in the tongue (P=0.019). The BVD was greater (128.0 vessels/mm2) than the LVD (42.9 vessels/mm2), and there was a positive correlation between the LVD and BVD. Conclusions: In OSCC, the BVD is greater than the LVD, and there is a moderate correlation between the two quantities. PMID:26722595

  4. Optically induced occlusion of single blood vessels in rodent neocortex.

    PubMed

    Shih, Andy Y; Nishimura, Nozomi; Nguyen, John; Friedman, Beth; Lyden, Patrick D; Schaffer, Chris B; Kleinfeld, David

    2013-12-01

    The ability to form targeted vascular occlusions in small vessels of the brain is an important technique for studying the microscopic basis of cerebral ischemia. We describe two complementary methods that enable targeted occlusion of any single blood vessel within the upper 500 µm of adult rodent neocortex. Our goal is to generate highly localized regions of ischemia by blocking penetrating arterioles and ascending venules, which are bottlenecks of flow in the cortical angioarchitecture. One method, termed photothrombosis, makes use of linear optical absorption by a photosensitizer, transiently circulated in the blood stream, to induce a clot in a surface or near-surface segment of a vessel. The second method, termed plasma-mediated ablation, makes use of nonlinear optical interactions, without the need to introduce an exogenous absorber, to induce clots in subsurface segments of penetrating vessels, as well as subsurface microvessels and capillaries. The choice of the method for occlusion of individual vessels depends on the location of the vessels being studied and the objectives of the study. Here we describe concurrent high resolution in vivo imaging and auxiliary laser setups, occlusion protocols, and post hoc histological procedures. PMID:24298038

  5. Interest of ICG blood clearance monitoring for reproducible 810-nm diode laser coagulation of blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmettre, Thomas; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.

    1999-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a method of control of diode laser fluence leading to a reproducible ICG-enhanced selective photocoagulation of blood vessels. This method would use the chromophore clearance, i.e. ICG blood concentration decay to adapt the laser fluence. Materials and Methods: A skin flap window was used on hamsters. After a 15 mg/kg ICG solution injection, photocoagulation of vessels were performed. Results: Selective photocoagulation of blood vessels was obtained only during the first 10 minutes. The fluence required to obtain a selective photocoagulation of vessels (F) was modelized using a one compartment phamacokinetic equation: F equals Of(1-e-t/(tau )). The best fit was obtained for a time constant (tau) equals 4.8 min and Of equals 300 J/cm2 (correlation coefficient r2 equals 0.996). During the first 10 minutes, the fluence required for selective photocoagulation of vessels was increased by a factor 4.5. Conclusion: Fluence required for a selective photocoagulation of vessels was correlated to ICG blood concentration decay. The time constant was equivalent to ICG half-life time in human blood. These results demonstrate that diode laser ICG-enhanced photocoagulation can be controlled by monitoring the ICG blood clearance.

  6. Large Blood Vessels 1.1 Introduction --The Cardiovascular System

    E-print Network

    Luo, Xiaoyu

    of the arterial wall III. The adventitia -- loose connective tissue of elastin and collagen fibres. The media vessels, the capillaries, in which the main ex- change processes between the blood and tissues take place of an elastic material, elastin, whose direction changes radially, separated by thin layers of connective tis

  7. Computational analysis of fluid-structure interaction in blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peet, Yulia; Miksis, Michael; Davis, Stephen; Chopp, David

    2011-11-01

    Vessels carrying blood flow in a human body are known to be flexible tissues. Interaction of the internal blood flow with the vessel wall compliance, in addition to significant alteration of the fluid mechanical properties (shear and normal stresses), can also result in a variety of interesting mechanical phenomena, such as flow limitation, self-exciting oscillations (flutter), wall collapse. We investigate computationally an unsteady behavior of flexible vessels carrying a blood flow assuming incompressible newtonian fluid approximation for blood. We first utilize a membrane model with constant tension for the vessel walls and apply it to simulate the coupled fluid-wall behavior in 2D collapsible channels and 3D collapsible tubes. We show that although the model works well for 2D cases, it always leads to a complete wall collapse for 3D cases for any negative transmural pressure difference, showing the necessity of including the bending rigidity. We revisit the same problems using full linear elasticity fluid-structure interaction model for finite thickness walls developed in a high-order spectral element fluid solver. We finally investigate the unsteady flow behavior in flexible channels and tubes with the newly-developed FSI solver. We acknowledge the support of NSF RTG grant DMS-0636574.

  8. Wavelength dependence of the apparent diameter of retinal blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Robert; Twietmeyer, Karen; Chipman, Russell; Beaudry, Neil; Salyer, David

    2005-04-01

    Imaging of retinal blood vessels may assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertension. However, close examination reveals that the contrast and apparent diameter of vessels are dependent on the wavelength of the illuminating light. In this study multispectral images of large arteries and veins within enucleated swine eyes are obtained with a modified fundus camera by use of intravitreal illumination. The diameters of selected vessels are measured as a function of wavelength by cross-sectional analysis. A fixed scale with spectrally independent dimension is placed above the retina to isolate the chromatic effects of the imaging system and eye. Significant apparent differences between arterial and venous diameters are found, with larger diameters observed at shorter wavelengths. These differences are due primarily to spectral absorption in the cylindrical blood column.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Blood Flow in Blood Vessels with the Rolling Massage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou-Hui; Xu, Shi-Xiong; Qian, Yue-Hong; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2005-12-01

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese massage, which is expected to improve the circulation by pushing, pulling and kneading of the muscle. A model for the rolling massage manipulation is proposed and the lattice Boltzmann method is applied to study the blood flow in the blood vessels. The simulation results show that the blood flux is considerably modified by the rolling massage and the explicit value depends on the rolling frequency, the rolling depth, and the diameter of the vessel. The smaller the diameter of the blood vessel, the larger the enhancement of the blood flux by the rolling massage. The model, together with the simulation results, is expected to be helpful to understand the mechanism and further development of rolling massage techniques.

  10. Gene Expression Analysis in Human Breast Cancer Associated Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Dylan T.; Lechertier, Tanguy; Mitter, Richard; Herbert, John M. J.; Bicknell, Roy; Jones, J. Louise; Li, Ji-Liang; Buffa, Francesca; Harris, Adrian L.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for solid tumour growth, whilst the molecular profiles of tumour blood vessels have been reported to be different between cancer types. Although presently available anti-angiogenic strategies are providing some promise for the treatment of some cancers it is perhaps not surprisingly that, none of the anti-angiogenic agents available work on all tumours. Thus, the discovery of novel anti-angiogenic targets, relevant to individual cancer types, is required. Using Affymetrix microarray analysis of laser-captured, CD31-positive blood vessels we have identified 63 genes that are upregulated significantly (5–72 fold) in angiogenic blood vessels associated with human invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast as compared with blood vessels in normal human breast. We tested the angiogenic capacity of a subset of these genes. Genes were selected based on either their known cellular functions, their enriched expression in endothelial cells and/or their sensitivity to anti-VEGF treatment; all features implicating their involvement in angiogenesis. For example, RRM2, a ribonucleotide reductase involved in DNA synthesis, was upregulated 32-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels; ATF1, a nuclear activating transcription factor involved in cellular growth and survival was upregulated 23-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels and HEX-B, a hexosaminidase involved in the breakdown of GM2 gangliosides, was upregulated 8-fold in IDC-associated blood vessels. Furthermore, in silico analysis confirmed that AFT1 and HEX-B also were enriched in endothelial cells when compared with non-endothelial cells. None of these genes have been reported previously to be involved in neovascularisation. However, our data establish that siRNA depletion of Rrm2, Atf1 or Hex-B had significant anti-angiogenic effects in VEGF-stimulated ex vivo mouse aortic ring assays. Overall, our results provide proof-of-principle that our approach can identify a cohort of potentially novel anti-angiogenic targets that are likley to be, but not exclusivley, relevant to breast cancer. PMID:23056178

  11. Enhanced Cytomegalovirus Infection in Atherosclerotic Human Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nerheim, Pamela L.; Meier, Jeffery L.; Vasef, Mohammad A.; Li, Wei-Gen; Hu, Ling; Rice, James B.; Gavrila, Daniel; Richenbacher, Wayne E.; Weintraub, Neal L.

    2004-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a possible co-factor in atherogenesis and vascular occlusion, but its ability to actively infect medium and large blood vessels is unclear. A vascular explant model was adapted to investigate CMV infection in human coronary artery, internal mammary artery (IMA), and saphenous vein (SV). Vascular explants were inoculated with CMV Towne or low-passage clinical isolate and examined in situ for CMV cytopathic effect and immediate-early and early antigens, as indicators of active infection. At 5 to 7 days after inoculation, we found that CMV Towne actively infected eight of eight different atherosclerotic blood vessel explants (coronary artery, n = 4; SV and IMA grafts, n = 4), whereas it only infected 2 of 14 nonatherosclerotic blood vessel explants (SV, n = 10; IMA, n = 4) (P = 0.001). The CMV clinical isolate actively infected none of six sets of nonatherosclerotic SV explants at 5 to 7 days after inoculation. The active CMV infections involved adventitial and, less frequently, intimal cells. A small subset of infected cells in atherosclerotic tissue expresses the endothelial cell marker CD31. Smooth muscle cells residing in both atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic blood vessels were free of active CMV infections even after all vascular tissue layers were exposed to the virus. In contrast, active CMV Towne infection was evident at 2 days after inoculation in smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells previously isolated from the SV tissues. We conclude that active CMV infection is enhanced in atherosclerotic blood vessels compared to atherosclerosis-free vascular equivalents, and this viral activity is restricted to subpopulations of intimal and adventitial cells. PMID:14742264

  12. Evolutionary algorithm for automatic detection of blood vessel shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutics, Andrea

    1996-04-01

    Automatic detection of blood vessel shapes locating in the skin has a great diagnostic importance. In this work, an evolutionary approach operating on morphological operator and operation structures is proposed for the determination of the shape and network of blood vessels located in upper skin layers. A population of individuals comprising morphological structures is generated. A two-dimensional queue like data representation of individuals is applied in order to provide an appropriate representation of the connectivity constraints originated in the two dimensional nature of the structuring elements. Two-dimensional crossover and mutation type manipulation operations are carried out on selected elements of the population. Unlike the usual techniques, in our approach no constraints are used for background and smoothness as no matched filter or linear operator is applied. Also no a priori knowledge of the vessel shape is necessary due to the evolutionary method. Unlike the usual imaging techniques, that mainly use angiograms as input, in this work infrared filtered images taken by CCD camera are applied to investigate the blood vessels of broad skin areas. The method is implemented parallel on a lattice network of transputers resulting in a significantly decreased processing time compared to the usual techniques.

  13. Artificial blood vessel: the Holy Grail of peripheral vascular surgery.

    PubMed

    Kakisis, John D; Liapis, Christos D; Breuer, Christopher; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2005-02-01

    Artificial blood vessels composed of viable tissue represent the ideal vascular graft. Compliance, lack of thrombogenicity, and resistance to infections as well as the ability to heal, remodel, contract, and secrete normal blood vessel products are theoretical advantages of such grafts. Three basic elements are generally required for the construction of an artificial vessel: a structural scaffold, made either of collagen or a biodegradable polymer; vascular cells, and a nurturing environment. Mechanical properties of the artificial vessels are enhanced by bioreactors that mimic the in vivo environment of the vascular cells by producing pulsatile flow. Alternative approaches include the production of fibrocollagenous tubes within the recipient's own body (subcutaneous tissue or peritoneal cavity) and the construction of an artificial vessel from acellular native tissues, such as decellularized small intestine submucosa, ureter, and allogeneic or xenogeneic arteries. This review details the most recent developments on vascular tissue engineering, summarizes the results of initial experiments on animals and humans, and outlines the current status and the challenges for the future. PMID:15768021

  14. DLC coating of textile blood vessels using PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocourek, Tomas; Jelinek, Miroslav; Vorlí?ek, Vladimír; Zemek, Josef; Jan?a, Tomáš; Žížková, V?ra; Podlaha, Ji?í; Popov, Cyril

    2008-11-01

    Textile blood vessels with a length of 30 cm were coated with amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers with thicknesses up to 200 nm. The layers were created by pulsed laser deposition in vacuum or argon ambient. The percentage of sp3 carbon was evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray excited Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Depending on the deposition conditions the sp3 content varied from ˜40% to 60%. The adhesion of the DLC layers to the textile vessels was checked. The preliminary biocompatibility results from in vivo tests with sheep are also given.

  15. Melanopsin mediates light-dependent relaxation in blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Sikka, Gautam; Hussmann, G. Patrick; Pandey, Deepesh; Cao, Suyi; Hori, Daijiro; Park, Jong Taek; Steppan, Jochen; Kim, Jae Hyung; Barodka, Viachaslau; Myers, Allen C.; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Nyhan, Daniel; Halushka, Marc K.; Koehler, Raymond C.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Shimoda, Larissa A.; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2014-01-01

    Melanopsin (opsin4; Opn4), a non-image-forming opsin, has been linked to a number of behavioral responses to light, including circadian photo-entrainment, light suppression of activity in nocturnal animals, and alertness in diurnal animals. We report a physiological role for Opn4 in regulating blood vessel function, particularly in the context of photorelaxation. Using PCR, we demonstrate that Opn4 (a classic G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in blood vessels. Force-tension myography demonstrates that vessels from Opn4?/? mice fail to display photorelaxation, which is also inhibited by an Opn4-specific small-molecule inhibitor. The vasorelaxation is wavelength-specific, with a maximal response at ?430–460 nm. Photorelaxation does not involve endothelial-, nitric oxide-, carbon monoxide-, or cytochrome p450-derived vasoactive prostanoid signaling but is associated with vascular hyperpolarization, as shown by intracellular membrane potential measurements. Signaling is both soluble guanylyl cyclase- and phosphodiesterase 6-dependent but protein kinase G-independent. ?-Adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (?ARK 1 or GRK2) mediates desensitization of photorelaxation, which is greatly reduced by GRK2 inhibitors. Blue light (455 nM) regulates tail artery vasoreactivity ex vivo and tail blood blood flow in vivo, supporting a potential physiological role for this signaling system. This endogenous opsin-mediated, light-activated molecular switch for vasorelaxation might be harnessed for therapy in diseases in which altered vasoreactivity is a significant pathophysiologic contributor. PMID:25404319

  16. Understanding and exploiting nanoparticles' intimacy with the blood vessel and blood.

    PubMed

    Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Tay, Chor Yong; Docter, Dominic; Stauber, Roland H; Leong, David Tai

    2015-11-21

    While the blood vessel is seldom the target tissue, almost all nanomedicine will interact with blood vessels and blood at some point of time along its life cycle in the human body regardless of their intended destination. Despite its importance, many bionanotechnologists do not feature endothelial cells (ECs), the blood vessel cells, or consider blood effects in their studies. Including blood vessel cells in the study can greatly increase our understanding of the behavior of any given nanomedicine at the tissue of interest or to understand side effects that may occur in vivo. In this review, we will first describe the diversity of EC types found in the human body and their unique behaviors and possibly how these important differences can implicate nanomedicine behavior. Subsequently, we will discuss about the protein corona derived from blood with foci on the physiochemical aspects of nanoparticles (NPs) that dictate the protein corona characteristics. We would also discuss about how NPs characteristics can affect uptake by the endothelium. Subsequently, mechanisms of how NPs could cross the endothelium to access the tissue of interest. Throughout the paper, we will share some novel nanomedicine related ideas and insights that were derived from the understanding of the NPs' interaction with the ECs. This review will inspire more exciting nanotechnologies that had accounted for the complexities of the real human body. PMID:26239875

  17. A histochemical study of vegetative innervation of blood-vessels of serosa.

    PubMed

    Khaisman, E B

    1975-01-01

    Research was carried out into the morphological substrate of the dual (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation of blood-vessels of the serosa, including the vessels of microcirculatory system. Tests were carried out on total preparations of the pericardium, pleura and peritoneum of dogs and cats. Using histochemical methods to show up adrenergic (Falck-Hillarp's method) and cholinergic (Koelle-Gomori's method) nerve structures the architectonics of both components of vasomotor innervation in various parts of the arterial and venous sytem of the serosa was described a gradient of their saturation with adrenergic and cholinergic innervation structures gradually decrease, the vessels branching out shown and entering the region of the terminal blood supply. Vegetative innervation of the precapillary arterioles and capillaries appears inconsistent and is mainly restricted to single synaptic contacts arising along the route of adrenergic and cholinergic terminals. In vessels of the venus system, including postcapillary venules and small collecting veins, vegetative innervation (adrenergic and cholinergic) invariably appears scanty and frequently can not be detected at all. PMID:788643

  18. Defect coarsening in blood vessel network formation: self-organization through alignment of elongated cells

    E-print Network

    van Gaans, Onno

    of elongated cells Roeland Merks January 9, 2014 Blood vessel growth is key to numerous processes in healthy of cells called endothelial cells, aggregate and self-organize into a primitive blood vessel network of particle Figure 1: Simulated blood vessel network formed out of elongated cells, coarsening over time 1 #12

  19. Control of Blood Vessel Identity: From Embryo to Adult

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Arteries and veins have been historically defined by the direction of blood flow and oxygen tension within the vessel, in addition to their functional, hemodynamic, and anatomical differences. It is now known that the molecular identity of these vessels is genetically predetermined, with specific molecular pathways activated during the development of arteries and veins. Eph-B4 is a determinant of venous differentiation and Ephrin-B2 is a determinant of arterial differentiation. Placement of a vein into the higher pressure and flow of the arterial circulation results in adaptation of the vein to the arterial environment. There is selective loss of Eph-B4 expression without induction of Ephrin-B2 expression during vein graft adaptation. These findings suggest that loss of venous identity is the crucial mechanism in vein graft adaptation and that developmentally critical determinants of vessel identity are plastic during adult life. PMID:23555335

  20. Aneurysm identification by analysis of the blood-vessel skeleton.

    PubMed

    Kohout, Josef; Chiarini, Alessandro; Clapworthy, Gordon J; Klajnšek, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    At least 1% of the general population have an aneurysm (or possibly more) in their cerebral blood vessels. If an aneurysm ruptures, it kills the patient in up to 60% of cases. In order to choose the optimal treatment, clinicians have to monitor the development of the aneurysm in time. Nowadays, aneurysms are typically identified manually, which means that the monitoring is often imprecise since the identification is observer dependent. As a result, the number of misdiagnosed cases may be large. This paper proposes a fast semi-automatic method for the identification of aneurysms which is based on the analysis of the skeleton of blood vessels. Provided that the skeleton is accurate, the results achieved by our method have been deemed acceptable by expert clinicians. PMID:22989925

  1. Isolating and defining cells to engineer human blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Critser, P J; Voytik-Harbin, S L; Yoder, M C

    2011-04-01

    A great deal of attention has been recently focused on understanding the role that bone marrow-derived putative endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) may play in the process of neoangiogenesis. However, recent data indicate that many of the putative EPC populations are comprised of various haematopoietic cell subsets with proangiogenic activity, but these marrow-derived putative EPC fail to display vasculogenic activity. Rather, this property is reserved for a rare population of circulating viable endothelial cells with colony-forming cell (ECFC) ability. Indeed, human ECFC possess clonal proliferative potential, display endothelial and not haematopoietic cell surface antigens, and display in vivo vasculogenic activity when suspended in an extracellular matrix and implanted into immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, human vessels derived became integrated into the murine circulatory system and eventually were remodelled into arterial and venous vessels. Identification of this population now permits determination of optimal type I collagen matrix microenvironment into which the cells should be embedded and delivered to accelerate and even pattern number and size of blood vessels formed, in vivo. Indeed, altering physical properties of ECFC-collagen matrix implants changed numerous parameters of human blood vessel formation, in host mice. These recent discoveries may permit a strategy for patterning vascular beds for eventual tissue and organ regeneration. PMID:21481038

  2. Mathematical modeling of the lysis of clots in blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khramchenkov, É. M.; Khramchenkov, M. G.

    2011-09-01

    A mathematical model of the lysis of clots in blood vessels has been constructed on the basis of convectiondiffusion equations. The fibrin clot is considered as an immobile solid phase, and the plasminogen, plasmin, and plasminogen activators — as dissolved liquid phases. As a result of the numerical solution of the model, dependences predicting the development of the lysis process have been obtained. An important role of clot swelling in the process of lysis has been revealed.

  3. Pharmacological characteristics of endothelin receptors on sheep rectal blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Scholefield, John H; Dashwood, Michael R; Wilson, Vincent G

    2011-06-01

    Haemorrhoids is associated with high blood flow of the anorectal region. The question of whether pharmacological manipulation of vascular supply can relieve the symptoms of haemorrhoids has been raised. In order to undertake this type of clinical investigation, it is first essential to gain a better understanding of the properties of vascular receptors that may regulate blood flow into anal cushions and haemorrhoids. Due to the limited availability of human anorectal specimens and the good reliability of sheep tissue as an experimental model of human anorectal diseases, we studied the properties of endothelin receptors in sheep rectal artery (SRA) and vein (SRV), the vessels contributing to the blood flow of haemorrhoidal plexus, using isometric tension recordings. We found that endothelin-1 and sarafotoxin 6a were very potent constrictor agents in both SRA and SRV. The selective ET(A) receptor antagonist PD156707 (100 nM) produced a parallel rightward displacement of ET-1-induced contractions in both vessels and abolished sarafotoxin 6a-induced contractions in the SRA. PD156707 (3 ?M) practically abolished contractions to ET-1 in the SRA, suggesting that the response is entirely mediated by ET(A) receptors. While, the selective ET(B) receptor antagonist BQ788 (100 nM) caused no significant change in ET-1-induced contractions in both vessels, a minor role for ET(B) receptor subtype to responses to sarafotoxin 6a in the artery was suggested. PMID:21382493

  4. Regenerative Translation of Human Blood-Vessel-Derived MSC Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, William C. W.; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent a promising adult progenitor cell source for tissue repair and regeneration. Their mysterious identity in situ has gradually been unveiled by the accumulating evidence indicating an association between adult multipotent stem/progenitor cells and vascular/perivascular niches. Using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we and other groups have prospectively identified and purified subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the blood vessels within multiple human organs. The three precursor subsets, myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are located, respectively, in the three structural tiers of typical blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. MECs, PCs, and ACs have been extensively characterized in prior studies and are currently under investigation for their therapeutic potentials in preclinical animal models. In this review, we will briefly discuss the identification, isolation, and characterization of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cells (hBVSCs) and summarize the current status of regenerative applications of hBVSC subsets. PMID:26273304

  5. Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires Rasip1 regulation of GTPase signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ke; Sacharidou, Anastasia; Fu, Stephen; Chong, Diana C.; Skaug, Brian; Chen, Zhijian J.; Davis, George E.; Cleaver, Ondine

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Cardiovascular function depends on patent blood vessel formation by endothelial cells (ECs). However the mechanisms underlying vascular ‘tubulogenesis’ are only beginning to be unraveled. We show that endothelial tubulogenesis requires the Ras interacting protein 1, Rasip1, and its binding partner the RhoGAP Arhgap29. Mice lacking Rasip1 fail to form patent lumens in all blood vessels, including the early endocardial tube. Rasipl null angioblasts fail to properly localize the polarity determinant Par3 and display defective cell polarity, resulting in mislocalized junctional complexes and loss of adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM). Similarly, depletion of either Rasip1 or Arhgap29 in cultured ECs blocks in vitro lumen formation, fundamentally alters the cytoskeleton and reduces integrin-dependent adhesion to ECM. These defects result from increased RhoA/ROCK/myosin II activity and blockade of Cdc42 and Rac1 signaling. This study identifies Rasip1 as a unique, endothelial-specific regulator of Rho GTPase signaling, which is essential for blood vessel morphogenesis. PMID:21396893

  6. Transport of magnetic nanobeads in a small blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Jonathan

    2011-11-01

    Numerical simulations are used to study the transport of sub-micron spherical magnetic beads in a model microvessel, particularly how transport is affected by physiologically realistic concentrations of flowing red cells. (Such beads are candidate vehicles for targeted drug delivery.) A previously validated high-fidelity boundary integral algorithm is used to solve the flow equations in the viscous limit in a ~ 15 ? m vessel. As expected, the red cells suppress transport toward the vessel wall when a magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. A more subtle mechanism is important when a magnetic field has a component parallel to the vessel. A homogeneous fluid model would be insensitive to forces applied in this direction, but tendency of blood cells to tilt away from the wall on their upstream side breaks the streamwise symmetry. These tilted cells act as viscous-flow variants of turning vanes, guiding magnets toward the wall if they are slowed by the magnetic field and toward the vessel center if they are accelerated by the magnetic field. This affects dispersion in the vessel and can also alter wall-ward magnetic field driven transport.

  7. By Different Cellular Mechanisms, Lymphatic Vessels Sprout by Endothelial Cell Recruitment Whereas Blood Vessels Grow by Vascular Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; McKay, Terri L.; Leontiev, Dmitry; Condrich, Terence K.; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The development of effective vascular therapies requires the understanding of all modes of vessel formation contributing to vasculogenesis, angiogenesis (here termed hemangiogenesis) and lymphangiogenesis. We show that lymphangiogenesis proceeds by blind-ended vessel sprouting via recruitment of isolated endothelial progenitor cells to the tips of growing vessels, whereas hemangiogenesis occurs by non-sprouting vessel expansion from the capillary network, during middevelopment in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Blood vessels expanded out of capillaries that displayed transient expression of alpha smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), accompanied by mural recruitment of migratory progenitor cells expressing SMA. Lymphatics and blood vessels were identified by confocal/fluorescence microscopy of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, alphaSMA (expressed on CAM blood vessels but not on lymphatics), homeobox transcription factor Prox-1 (specific to CAM lymphatic endothelium), and the quail hematopoetic/vascular marker, QH-1. Expression of VEGFR-1 was highly restricted to blood vessels (primarily capillaries). VEGFR-2 was expressed intensely in isolated hematopoietic cells, lymphatic vessels and moderately in blood vessels. Prox-1 was absent from endothelial progenitor cells prior to lymphatic recruitment. Although vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(sub 165)) is a key regulator of numerous cellular processes in hemangiogenesis and vasculogenesis, the role of VEGF(sub 165) in lymphangiogenesis is less clear. Exogenous VEGF(sub 165) increased blood vessel density without changing endogenous modes of vascular/lymphatic vessel formation or marker expression patterns. However, VEGF(sub 165) did increase the frequency of blood vascular anastomoses and strongly induced the antimaturational dissociation of lymphatics from blood vessels, with frequent formation of homogeneous lymphatic networks.

  8. Modeling Of Blood Vessel Constriction In 2-D Case Using Molecular Dynamics Method

    E-print Network

    Mohamad Rendi; Suprijadi; Sparisoma Viridi

    2013-06-25

    Blood vessel constriction is simulated with particle-based method using a molecular dynamics authoring software known as Molecular Workbench (WM). Blood flow and vessel wall, the only components considered in constructing a blood vessel, are all represented in particle form with interaction potentials: Lennard-Jones potential, push-pull spring potential, and bending spring potential. Influence of medium or blood plasma is accommodated in plasma viscosity through Stokes drag force. It has been observed that pressure p is increased as constriction c is increased. Leakage of blood vessel starts at 80 % constriction, which shows existence of maximum pressure that can be overcome by vessel wall.

  9. Blood vessel classification into arteries and veins in retinal images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondermann, Claudia; Kondermann, Daniel; Yan, Michelle

    2007-03-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase dramatically in coming years; already today it accounts for a major proportion of the health care budget in many countries. Diabetic Retinopathy (DR), a micro vascular complication very often seen in diabetes patients, is the most common cause of visual loss in working age population of developed countries today. Since the possibility of slowing or even stopping the progress of this disease depends on the early detection of DR, an automatic analysis of fundus images would be of great help to the ophthalmologist due to the small size of the symptoms and the large number of patients. An important symptom for DR are abnormally wide veins leading to an unusually low ratio of the average diameter of arteries to veins (AVR). There are also other diseases like high blood pressure or diseases of the pancreas with one symptom being an abnormal AVR value. To determine it, a classification of vessels as arteries or veins is indispensable. As to our knowledge despite the importance there have only been two approaches to vessel classification yet. Therefore we propose an improved method. We compare two feature extraction methods and two classification methods based on support vector machines and neural networks. Given a hand-segmentation of vessels our approach achieves 95.32% correctly classified vessel pixels. This value decreases by 10% on average, if the result of a segmentation algorithm is used as basis for the classification.

  10. Surgical anatomy of the retroperitoneal spaces, Part III: Retroperitoneal blood vessels and lymphatics.

    PubMed

    Mirilas, Petros; Skandalakis, John E

    2010-02-01

    In this article, we discuss the surgical anatomy of the blood vessels and the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes found in the retroperitoneum. Retroperitoneal blood vessels include the aorta and all its branches--parietal and visceral--from the diaphragm to the pelvis, and the inferior vena cava and its tributaries. The retroperitoneal lymphatics form a very rich and extensive chain. As a general rule, lymphatics follow the arteries and named lymph nodes are found at the root of the arteries. Retroperitoneal nodes of the abdomen comprise the inferior diaphragmatic nodes and the lumbar nodes. The latter are classified as left lumbar (aortic), intermediate (interaorticovenous), and right lumbar (caval). These nodes surround the aorta and the inferior vena cava. Around the aorta lie the paraortic nodes, preaortic nodes (include celiac, superior mesenteric, inferior mesenteric nodes collecting lymph from the splanchna supplied by the homonymous arteries), and retroaortic nodes. Similarly, around the vena cava lie the paracaval, precaval, and retrocaval nodes. Pelvic nodes include the common iliac, external and internal iliac, obturator, and sacral nodes. PMID:20336888

  11. Laser Doppler measurements of blood velocity in human retinal vessels.

    PubMed

    Feke, G T; Riva, C E

    1978-04-01

    We have measured Doppler shift frequency spectra (DSFS) of laser light scattered from red blood cells (RBC's) flowing through individual human retinal vessels. Each spectrum exhibits a cutoff frequency which is directly related to the maximum RBC velocity at the measurement site. Meaningful DSFS can be measured in times as short as 0.1 s. DSFS obtained from suspensions of polystyrene spheres and RBC's flowing through glass capillary tubes are used to illustrate the basic principles of the technique and to aid in the interpretation of the in vivo measurements. Our measurements show that maximum RBC velocities in retinal arteries vary markedly during each cardiac cycle. PMID:671138

  12. A NEW MULTISCALE REPRESENTATION FOR SHAPES AND ITS APPLICATION TO BLOOD VESSEL RECOVERY

    E-print Network

    Shen, Zuowei

    A NEW MULTISCALE REPRESENTATION FOR SHAPES AND ITS APPLICATION TO BLOOD VESSEL RECOVERY BIN DONG vessels. Because of the nature of irregular morphology in vessels and organs, both phantom and real inpainting scenarios were tested using our new algorithm. Successful vessel recoveries are demonstrated

  13. Numerical investigation of blood flow in a deformable coronary bifurcation and non-planar branch

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Esmail; Omidi, Amir Ali; Saghafi Zanjani, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Among cardiovascular diseases, arterials stenosis is recognized more commonly than the others. Hemodynamic characteristics of blood play a key role in the incidence of stenosis. This paper numerically investigates the pulsatile blood flow in a coronary bifurcation with a non-planar branch. To create a more realistic analysis, the wall is assumed to be compliant. Furthermore, the flow is considered to be three-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar. Methods: The effects of non-Newtonian blood, compliant walls and different angles of bifurcation on hemodynamic characteristics of flow were evaluated. Shear thinning of blood was simulated with the Carreau-Yasuda model. The current research was mainly focused on the flow characteristics in bifurcations since atherosclerosis occurs mostly in bifurcations. Moreover, as the areas with low shear stresses are prone to stenosis, these areas were identified. Results: Our findings indicated that the compliant model of the wall, bifurcation’s angle, and other physical properties of flow have an impact on hemodynamics of blood flow. Lower wall shear stress was observed in the compliant wall than that in the rigid wall. The outer wall of bifurcation in all models had lower wall shear stress. In bifurcations with larger angles, wall shear stress was higher in outer walls, and lower in inner walls. Conclusion: The non-Newtonian blood vessels and different angles of bifurcation on hemodynamic characteristics of flow evaluation confirmed a lower wall shear stress in the compliant wall than that in the rigid wall, while the wall shear stress was higher in outer walls but lower in inner walls in the bifurcation regions with larger angles. PMID:25671176

  14. Development of blood vessel searching system using near-infrared light stereo method for clinical blood sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kai; Morita, Yusuke; Nakamachi, Eiji; Honda, Norihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-10-01

    We developed an accurate three-dimensional blood vessel search (3D BVS) system using NIR light for the clinical blood sampling. In the previous study, the 3D BVS system, which used near-infrared (NIR) light imaging and the stereo method to locate blood vessel accurately in three dimensions has been developed(1). However, as NIR lights could not transmit the human arm, this system could not be used for the subcutaneous blood vessel detection. In this study, we developed a BVS by using the reflecting NIR light for blood sampling assist. The light scattering in human tissue will cause blur of blood vessel edge in image, that makes the diameter of blood vessel became uncertain. In this study, a light propagation simulation and a multilayer phantom were adopted to estimate the measurement error of blood vessel diameter in our BSV system. In the simulation, the optical properties of scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, and refractive index were set similar with human skin. Next, we fabricated a multilayer phantom, which has the similar structure and optical properties with the human skin to confirm availability of the simulation. Also, the optical properties of our phantom are adjustable in our phantom to imitate the different color of skin. We established the estimation algorithm to detect the blood vessel accurately. Finally, we confirm the availability of our BVS for the blood sampling assist system.

  15. Annexin A3 Regulates Early Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Meadows, Stryder M.; Cleaver, Ondine

    2015-01-01

    Annexins are a large family of calcium binding proteins that associate with cell membrane phospholipids and are involved in various cellular processes including endocytosis, exocytosis and membrane-cytoskeletal organization. Despite studies on numerous Annexin proteins, the function of Annexin A3 (Anxa3) is largely unknown. Our studies identify Anxa3 as a unique marker of the endothelial and myeloid cell lineages of Xenopus laevis during development. Anxa3 transcripts are also detected in endothelial cells (ECs) of zebrafish and mouse embryos, suggesting an important evolutionary function during formation of blood vessels. Indeed, Anxa3 loss-of-function experiments in frog embryos reveal its critical role during the morphogenesis of early blood vessels, as angioblasts in MO injected embryos fail to form vascular cords. Furthermore, in vitro experiments in mammalian cells identify a role for Anxa3 in EC migration. Our results are the first to reveal an in vivo function for Anxa3 during vascular development and represent a previously unexplored aspect of annexin biology. PMID:26182056

  16. Model for environmental heat damage of the blood vessel barrier.

    PubMed

    DuBose, D A; Hinkle, J R; Morehouse, D H; Ogle, P L

    1998-01-01

    Environmental heat stress may result in loss of fluid from the vascular space, which can lead to circulatory shock. Since the endothelium serves as the blood vessel barrier between the vascular and interstitial spaces, direct heat damage to this tissue may contribute to such fluid loss. This study modeled heat influences on the actin cytoskeletal proteins that provide the tensile forces that sustain endothelial junctional integrity or barrier function. Heat effects on bovine aortic endothelial cell (BAEC) F-actin and F-actin stress fibers (FASFs) were correlated with intercellular permeability (IP). F-actin concentration and FASF distribution were analyzed by quantitation of the specific binding of rhodamine phalloidin (RP) to F-actin and by observing the fluorescence of RP-FASF complexes, respectively. Dextran fluorescein IP was determined. The IP was elevated (p < 0.05) at 43 degrees C, but not at 41 degrees C. At 43 degrees C, BAECs were rounded and had disrupted FASFs and diminished cell-to-cell apposition. Similar cells were seen at 41 degrees C, but these were interspersed among FASF-containing cells to sustain apposition. Thus, disruption of FASFs correlated with increases in IP. F-actin was increased (p < 0.05) after hyperthermia. Since G-actin is more susceptible to irreversible heat denaturation, F-actin sustainment may function to preserve the actin pool and prevent irrevocable loss of the blood vessel barrier after heat stress. PMID:11990184

  17. Triamcinolone Acetonide Selectively Inhibits Angiogenesis in Small Blood Vessels and Decreases Vessel Diameter within the Vascular Tree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Terri L.; Gredeon, Dan J.; Vickerman, Mary B.; Hylton, alan G.; Ribita, Daniela; Olar, Harry H.; Kaiser, Peter K.; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    The steroid triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is a potent anti-angiogenesis drug used to treat retinal vascular diseases that include diabetic retinopathy, vascular occlusions and choroidal neovascularization. To quantify the effects of TA on branching morphology within the angiogenic microvascular tree of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryos. Increasing concentrations of TA (0-16 ng/ml) were applied topically on embryonic day 7 (E7) to the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of quail embryos cultured in Petri dishes, and incubated for an additional 24 or 48 hours until fixation. Binary (black/white) microscopic images of arterial end points were quantified by VESGEN software (for Generational Analysis of Vessel Branching) to obtain major vascular parameters that include vessel diameter (Dv), fractal dimension (Df), tortuosity (Tv) and densities of vessel area, length, number and branch point (Av, Lv, Nv and Brv). For assessment of specific changes in vascular morphology induced by TA, the VESGEN software automatically segmented the vascular tree into branching generations (G1...G10) according to changes in vessel diameter and branching. Vessel density decreased significantly up to 34% as the function of increasing concentration of TA according to Av, Lv, Brv, Nv and Df. TA selectively inhibited the growth of new, small vessels, because Lv decreased from 13.14plus or minus 0.61 cm/cm2 for controls to 8.012 plus or minus 0.82 cm/cm2 at 16 ng TA/ml in smaller branching generations (G7-G10), and for Nv from 473.83 plus or minus 29.85 cm(-)2 to 302.32 plus or minus 33.09 cm-()2. In contrast, vessel diameter (Dv) decreased throughout the vascular tree (G1-G10).

  18. Bioprinting of artificial blood vessels: current approaches towards a demanding goal.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Eva; Tovar, Günter E M; Borchers, Kirsten

    2014-11-01

    Free-form fabrication techniques, often referred to as '3D printing', are currently tested with regard to the processing of biological and biocompatible materials in general and for fabrication of vessel-like structures in particular. Such computer-controlled methods assemble 3D objects by layer-wise deposition or layer-wise cross-linking of materials. They use, for example, nozzle-based deposition of hydrogels and cells, drop-on-demand inkjet-printing of cell suspensions with subsequent cross-linking, layer-by-layer cross-linking of synthetic or biological polymers by selective irradiation with light and even laser-induced deposition of single cells. The need of vessel-like structures has become increasingly crucial for the supply of encapsulated cells for 3D tissue engineering, or even with regard to future application such as vascular grafts. The anticipated potential of providing tubes with tailored branching geometries made of biocompatible or biological materials pushes future visions of patient-specific vascularized tissue substitutions, tissue-engineered blood vessels and bio-based vascular grafts. We review here the early attempts of bringing together innovative free-form manufacturing processes with bio-based and biodegradable materials. The presented studies provide many important proofs of concepts such as the possibility to integrate viable cells into computer-controlled processes and the feasibility of supplying cells in a hydrogel matrix by generation of a network of perfused channels. Several impressive results in the generation of complex shapes and high-aspect-ratio tubular structures demonstrate the potential of additive assembly methods. Yet, it also becomes obvious that there remain major challenges to simultaneously match all material requirements in terms of biological functions (cell function supporting properties), physicochemical functions (mechanical properties of the printed material) and process-related (viscosity, cross-linkability) functions, towards the demanding goal of biofabricating artificial blood vessels. PMID:24970571

  19. The effect of blood vessels on the computation of the scanning laser ophthalmoscope retinal thickness map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantri, A.; Li, Y.; Hutchings, N.; Flanagan, J.; Holmes, T.

    2007-03-01

    Retinal thickness maps obtained using a scanning laser ophthalmoscope are useful in the diagnosis of macular edema and other diseases that cause changes in the retinal thickness. However, the thickness measurements are adversely affected by the presence of blood vessels. This paper studies the effect that the blood vessels have on the computation of the retinal thickness. The retinal thickness is estimated using maximum-likelihood resolution with anatomical constraints. The blood vessels are segmented using local image features. Comparison of the retinal thickness with and without the blood vessel removal is made using correlation coefficient and I-divergence.

  20. Inherited neurovascular diseases affecting cerebral blood vessels and smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Sam, Christine; Li, Fei-Feng; Liu, Shu-Lin

    2015-10-01

    Neurovascular diseases are among the leading causes of mortality and permanent disability due to stroke, aneurysm, and other cardiovascular complications. Cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Marfan syndrome are two neurovascular disorders that affect smooth muscle cells through accumulation of granule and osmiophilic materials and defective elastic fiber formations respectively. Moyamoya disease, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II), and Fabry's disease are disorders that affect the endothelium cells of blood vessels through occlusion or abnormal development. While much research has been done on mapping out mutations in these diseases, the exact mechanisms are still largely unknown. This paper briefly introduces the pathogenesis, genetics, clinical symptoms, and current methods of treatment of the diseases in the hope that it can help us better understand the mechanism of these diseases and work on ways to develop better diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25893882

  1. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  2. Bone Marrow Blood Vessel Ossification and “Microvascular Dead Space” in Rat and Human Long Bone

    PubMed Central

    Prisby, Rhonda D.

    2014-01-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4–6 mon; n=8) and old (22–24 mon; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner’s Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via µCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and “normal” vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (p <0.05) in old vs. young rats. Calcified and ossified vessel volumes per tissue volume and calcified vessel volume per patent vessel volume were augmented (p <0.05) 262%, 375% and 263%, respectively, in old vs. young rats. Ossified and patent vessel number was higher (171%) and lower (40%), respectively, in old vs. young rats. Finally, adipocyte volume per patent vessel volume was higher (86%) with age. This study is the first to report ossification of bone marrow blood vessels in rats and humans. Ossification presumably results in “microvascular dead space” in regards to loss of patency and vasomotor function as opposed to necrosis. The progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. PMID:24680721

  3. Accurate 3D reconstruction of complex blood vessel geometries from intravascular ultrasound

    E-print Network

    Subramanian, Kalpathi R.

    Accurate 3D reconstruction of complex blood vessel geometries from intravascular ultrasound images from 2D intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) images. Biplane x-ray ¯uoroscopy is used to image the ultrasound catheter tip at a few key points along its path as the catheter is pulled through the blood vessel

  4. A New Multiscale Representation for Shapes and Its Application to Blood Vessel Recovery

    E-print Network

    Bin Dong; Aichi Chien; Zuowei Shen; Stanley Osher

    2009-05-20

    In this paper, we will first introduce a novel multiscale representation (MSR) for shapes. Based on the MSR, we will then design a surface inpainting algorithm to recover 3D geometry of blood vessels. Because of the nature of irregular morphology in vessels and organs, both phantom and real inpainting scenarios were tested using our new algorithm. Successful vessel recoveries are demonstrated with numerical estimation of the degree of arteriosclerosis and vessel occlusion.

  5. Three-dimensional analysis of complex branching vessels in confocal microscopy images.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Mahnaz; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Afzali-Kusha, Ali; Shahrokni, Ali; Zhang, Zheng G

    2005-09-01

    The characteristic of confocal microscopy (CM) vascular data is that it contains many tiny vessels with branching and complex structure. In this work, an automated method for quantitative analysis and reconstruction of cerebral vessels from CM images is presented in which the extracted centerline of the vessels plays the key role. To assess the efficiency and accuracy of different centerline extraction methods, a comparison among three fully automated approaches is given. The centerline extraction methods studied in this work are a snake model, a path planning approach, and a distance transform-based method. To evaluate the accuracy of the quantitative parameters of vessels such as length and diameter, we apply the method to synthetic data. These results indicate that the snake model and the path planning method are more accurate in extracting the quantitative parameters. The efficiency of the approach in clinical applications is then confirmed by applying the method to real CM images. All three methods investigated in this work are accurate enough to correctly distinguish between normal and stroke brain data, while the snake model is the fastest for clinical applications. In addition, three-dimensional visualization, reconstruction, and characterization of CM vascular images of rat brains are presented. PMID:15996853

  6. Blood Flow At Arterial Branches: Complexities To Resolve For The Angioplasty Suite

    E-print Network

    Laidlaw, David

    Blood Flow At Arterial Branches: Complexities To Resolve For The Angioplasty Suite P.D. Richardson1 the flows in a branched artery, to compare them with prior physical flow visualization, and to interpret them with further users in mind. The geometry was taken for a typical epicardial coronary artery

  7. Fluid Forces Combine with Molecular Signal to Trigger New Blood Vessel Growth | Physical Sciences in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, is required for the development and spread of cancer, but the physical and biochemical factors that trigger this complex process are poorly understood. Using a microfluidic model of angiogenic sprouting, the initial visible step in new blood vessel formation, a pair of investigators from Harvard Medical School has shown that the sheer stress produced by flowing blood plays a critical role in early angiogenesis.

  8. Blood vessel deformations on microsecond time scales by ultrasonic cavitation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Kreider, Wayne; Brayman, Andrew A; Bailey, Michael R; Matula, Thomas J

    2011-01-21

    Transient interactions among ultrasound, microbubbles, and microvessels were studied using high-speed photomicrography. We observed liquid jets, vessel distention (motion outward against the surrounding tissue), and vessel invagination (motion inward toward the lumen). Contrary to current paradigms, liquid jets were directed away from the nearest vessel wall and invagination exceeded distention. These observations provide insight into the mechanics of bubble-vessel interactions, which appear to depend qualitatively upon the mechanical properties of biological tissues. PMID:21405276

  9. Blood Vessel Deformations on Microsecond Time Scales by Ultrasonic Cavitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Kreider, Wayne; Brayman, Andrew A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Matula, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Transient interactions among ultrasound, microbubbles, and microvessels were studied using high-speed photomicrography. We observed liquid jets, vessel distention (motion outward against the surrounding tissue), and vessel invagination (motion inward toward the lumen). Contrary to current paradigms, liquid jets were directed away from the nearest vessel wall and invagination exceeded distention. These observations provide insight into the mechanics of bubble-vessel interactions, which appear to depend qualitatively upon the mechanical properties of biological tissues. PMID:21405276

  10. Transmitted ultrasound pressure variation in micro blood vessel phantoms.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shengping; Kruse, Dustin E; Ferrara, Katherine W

    2008-06-01

    Silica, cellulose and polymethylmethacrylate tubes with inner diameters of ten to a few hundred microns are commonly used as blood vessel phantoms in in vitro studies of microbubble or nanodroplet behavior during insonation. However, a detailed investigation of the ultrasonic fields within these micro-tubes has not yet been performed. This work provides a theoretical analysis of the ultrasonic fields within micro-tubes. Numerical results show that for the same tube material, the interaction between the micro-tube and megaHertz-frequency ultrasound may vary drastically with incident frequency, tube diameter and wall thickness. For 10 MHz ultrasonic insonation of a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) tube with an inner diameter of 195 microm and an outer diameter of 260 microm, the peak pressure within the tube can be up to 300% of incident pressure amplitude. However, using 1 MHz ultrasound and a silica tube with an inner diameter of 12 microm and an outer diameter of 50 microm, the peak pressure within the tube is only 12% of the incident pressure amplitude and correspondingly, the spatial-average-time-average intensity within the tube is only 1% of the incident intensity. PMID:18395962

  11. Fabrication of cell microintegrated blood vessel constructs through electrohydrodynamic atomization

    PubMed Central

    Stankus, John J.; Soletti, Lorenzo; Fujimoto, Kazuro; Hong, Yi; Vorp, David A.; Wagner, William R.

    2007-01-01

    Biodegradable synthetic matrices that resemble the size scale, architecture and mechanical properties of the native extracellular matrix can be fabricated through electrospinning. Tubular conduits may also be fabricated with properties appropriate for vascular tissue engineering. Achieving large cell infiltrate within the electrospun matrix in vitro remains time consuming and challenging. This difficulty was overcome by electrospraying smooth muscle cells concurrently with electrospinning of a biodegradable, elastomeric poly(ester urethane)urea (PEUU) small diameter conduit. Constructs were cultured statically or in spinner flasks. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining demonstrated qualitatively uniform SMC integration radially and circumferentially within the conduit after initial static culture. In comparison with static culture, samples cultured in spinner flasks indicated 2.4 times more viable cells present from MTT and significantly larger numbers of SMCs spread within the electrospun fiber networks by H&E image analysis. Conduits were strong and flexible with mechanical behaviors that mimicked those of native arteries, including static compliance of 1.6 ± 0.5 × 10?3 mmHg?1, dynamic compliance of 8.7 ± 1.8 × 10?4 mmHg?1, burst strengths of 1750 ± 220 mmHg, and suture retention. This method to rapidly and efficiently integrate cells into a strong, compliant biodegradable tubular matrix represents a significant achievement as a tissue engineering approach for blood vessel replacement. PMID:17337048

  12. Fpga based hardware synthesis for automatic segmentation of retinal blood vessels in diabetic retinopathy images.

    PubMed

    Sivakamasundari, J; Kavitha, G; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is a disorder that affects the structure of retinal blood vessels due to long-standing diabetes mellitus. Real-Time mass screening system for DR is vital for timely diagnosis and periodic screening to prevent the patient from severe visual loss. Human retinal fundus images are widely used for an automated segmentation of blood vessel and diagnosis of various blood vessel disorders. In this work, an attempt has been made to perform hardware synthesis of Kirsch template based edge detection for segmentation of blood vessels. This method is implemented using LabVIEW software and is synthesized in field programmable gate array board to yield results in real-time application. The segmentation of blood vessels using Kirsch based edge detection is compared with other edge detection methods such as Sobel, Prewitt and Canny. The texture features such as energy, entropy, contrast, mean, homogeneity and structural feature namely ratio of vessel to vessel free area are obtained from the segmented images. The performance of segmentation is analysed in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. It is observed from the results that the Kirsch based edge detection technique segmented the edges of blood vessels better than other edge detection techniques. The ratio of vessel to vessel free area classified the normal and DR affected retinal images more significantly than other texture based features. FPGA based hardware synthesis of Kirsch edge detection method is able to differentiate normal and diseased images with high specificity (93%). This automated segmentation of retinal blood vessels system could be used in computer-assisted diagnosis for diabetic retinopathy screening in real-time application. PMID:25405418

  13. Laser optical method of visualizing cutaneous blood vessels and its applications in biometry and photomedicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asimov, M. M.; Asimov, R. M.; Rubinov, A. N.

    2011-05-01

    We propose and examine a new approach to visualizing a local network of cutaneous blood vessels using laser optical methods for applications in biometry and photomedicine. Various optical schemes of the formation of biometrical information on the architecture of blood vessels of skin tissue are analyzed. We developed an optical model of the interaction of the laser radiation with the biological tissue and a mathematical algorithm of processing of measurement results. We show that, in medicine, the visualization of blood vessels makes it possible to calculate and determine regions of disturbance of blood microcirculation and to control tissue hypoxia, as well as to maintain the local concentration of oxygen at a level necessary for the normal cellular metabolism. We propose noninvasive optical methods for modern photomedicine and biometry for diagnostics and elimination of tissue hypoxia and for personality identification and verification via the pattern of cutaneous blood vessels.

  14. Selective Stimulation of Penumbral Cones Reveals Perception in the Shadow of Retinal Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Spitschan, Manuel; Aguirre, Geoffrey K.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    In 1819, Johann Purkinje described how a moving light source that displaces the shadow of the retinal blood vessels to adjacent cones can produce the entopic percept of a branching tree. Here, we describe a novel method for producing a similar percept. We used a device that mixes 56 narrowband primaries under computer control, in conjunction with the method of silent substitution, to present observers with a spectral modulation that selectively targeted penumbral cones in the shadow of the retinal blood vessels. Such a modulation elicits a clear Purkinje-tree percept. We show that the percept is specific to penumbral L and M cone stimulation and is not produced by selective penumbral S cone stimulation. The Purkinje-tree percept was strongest at 16 Hz and fell off at lower (8 Hz) and higher (32 Hz) temporal frequencies. Selective stimulation of open-field cones that are not in shadow, with penumbral cones silenced, also produced the percept, but it was not seen when penumbral and open-field cones were modulated together. This indicates the need for spatial contrast between penumbral and open-field cones to create the Purkinje-tree percept. Our observation provides a new means for studying the response of retinally stabilized images and demonstrates that penumbral cones can support spatial vision. Further, the result illustrates a way in which silent substitution techniques can fail to be silent. We show that inadvertent penumbral cone stimulation can accompany melanopsin-directed modulations that are designed only to silence open-field cones. This in turn can result in visual responses that might be mistaken as melanopsin-driven. PMID:25897842

  15. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Nicole; Dix, David; Rountree, Michael; Baker, Nancy; Sipes, Nisha; Reif, David; Spencer, Richard; Knudsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a variety of biological pathways linked to endothelial cell (EC) behavior, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and the local generation of chemokines and growth factors. Simulating these interactions at a systems level requires sufficient biological detail about the relevant molecular pathways and associated cellular behaviors, and tractable computational models that offset mathematical and biological complexity. Here, we describe a novel multicellular agent-based model of vasculogenesis using the CompuCell3D (http://www.compucell3d.org/) modeling environment supplemented with semi-automatic knowledgebase creation. The model incorporates vascular endothelial growth factor signals, pro- and anti-angiogenic inflammatory chemokine signals, and the plasminogen activating system of enzymes and proteases linked to ECM interactions, to simulate nascent EC organization, growth and remodeling. The model was shown to recapitulate stereotypical capillary plexus formation and structural emergence of non-coded cellular behaviors, such as a heterologous bridging phenomenon linking endothelial tip cells together during formation of polygonal endothelial cords. Molecular targets in the computational model were mapped to signatures of vascular disruption derived from in vitro chemical profiling using the EPA's ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS) dataset. Simulating the HTS data with the cell-agent based model of vascular development predicted adverse effects of a reference anti-angiogenic thalidomide analog, 5HPP-33, on in vitro angiogenesis with respect to both concentration-response and morphological consequences. These findings support the utility of cell agent-based models for simulating a morphogenetic series of events and for the first time demonstrate the applicability of these models for predictive toxicology. PMID:23592958

  16. Personal identification based on blood vessels of retinal fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuta, Keisuke; Nakagawa, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Yoshinori; Hatanaka, Yuji; Hara, Takeshi; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2008-03-01

    Biometric technique has been implemented instead of conventional identification methods such as password in computer, automatic teller machine (ATM), and entrance and exit management system. We propose a personal identification (PI) system using color retinal fundus images which are unique to each individual. The proposed procedure for identification is based on comparison of an input fundus image with reference fundus images in the database. In the first step, registration between the input image and the reference image is performed. The step includes translational and rotational movement. The PI is based on the measure of similarity between blood vessel images generated from the input and reference images. The similarity measure is defined as the cross-correlation coefficient calculated from the pixel values. When the similarity is greater than a predetermined threshold, the input image is identified. This means both the input and the reference images are associated to the same person. Four hundred sixty-two fundus images including forty-one same-person's image pairs were used for the estimation of the proposed technique. The false rejection rate and the false acceptance rate were 9.9×10 -5% and 4.3×10 -5%, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed method has a higher performance than other biometrics except for DNA. To be used for practical application in the public, the device which can take retinal fundus images easily is needed. The proposed method is applied to not only the PI but also the system which warns about misfiling of fundus images in medical facilities.

  17. SIMULATION OF DISCRETE BLOOD VESSEL EFFECTS ON THE THERMAL SIGNATURE OF A MELANOMA LESION.

    PubMed

    Kandala, Sri Kamal; Deng, Daxiang; Herman, Cila

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the underlying blood vessel on the transient thermal response of the skin surface with and without a melanoma lesion is studied. A 3D computational model of the layers of the skin tissue with cancerous lesion was developed in COMSOL software package. Heat transfer in the skin layers and the lesion is governed by the Pennes bio-heat equation, while the blood vessel is modeled as fully developed pipe flow with constant heat transfer coefficient. The effect of various pertinent parameters, such as diameter of the blood vessel, lateral location of the blood vessel relative to the lesion, flow velocity of the blood, on the skin surface temperature distribution, have been studied in the paper. The results show significant influence of the underlying blood vessel on the temperature of the skin surface and lesion as well as on the surrounding healthy tissue. Thus, a need for development of evaluation criteria for detection of malignant lesions in the presence of blood vessels is is discussed. PMID:25328916

  18. Temperature evolution in tissues embedded with large blood vessels during photo-thermal heating.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anup; Narasimhan, Arunn; Kahlen, Franz J; Das, Sarit K

    2014-04-01

    During laser-assisted photo-thermal therapy, the temperature of the heated tissue region must rise to the therapeutic value (e.g., 43°C) for complete ablation of the target cells. Large blood vessels (larger than 500 micron in diameter) at or near the irradiated tissues have a considerable impact on the transient temperature distribution in the tissue. In this study, the cooling effects of large blood vessels on temperature distribution in tissues during laser irradiation are predicted using finite element based simulation. A uniform flow is assumed at the entrance and three-dimensional conjugate heat transfer equations in the tissue region and the blood region are simultaneously solved for different vascular models. A volumetric heat source term based on Beer-Lambert law is introduced into the energy equation to account for laser heating. The heating pattern is taken to depend on the absorption and scattering coefficients of the tissue medium. Experiments are also conducted on tissue mimics in the presence and absence of simulated blood vessels to validate the numerical model. The coupled heat transfer between thermally significant blood vessels and their surrounding tissue for three different tissue-vascular networks are analyzed keeping the laser irradiation constant. A surface temperature map is obtained for different vascular models and for the bare tissue (without blood vessels). The transient temperature distribution is seen to differ according to the nature of the vascular network, blood vessel size, flow rate, laser spot size, laser power and tissue blood perfusion rate. The simulations suggest that the blood flow through large blood vessels in the vicinity of the photothermally heated tissue can lead to inefficient heating of the target. PMID:24679976

  19. Automatic Detection of Blood Vessels in Retinal Images for Diabetic Retinopathy Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Siva Sundhara Raja, D.; Vasuki, S.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. DR is mainly caused due to the damage of retinal blood vessels in the diabetic patients. It is essential to detect and segment the retinal blood vessels for DR detection and diagnosis, which prevents earlier vision loss in diabetic patients. The computer aided automatic detection and segmentation of blood vessels through the elimination of optic disc (OD) region in retina are proposed in this paper. The OD region is segmented using anisotropic diffusion filter and subsequentially the retinal blood vessels are detected using mathematical binary morphological operations. The proposed methodology is tested on two different publicly available datasets and achieved 93.99% sensitivity, 98.37% specificity, 98.08% accuracy in DRIVE dataset and 93.6% sensitivity, 98.96% specificity, and 95.94% accuracy in STARE dataset, respectively. PMID:25810749

  20. Blood vessel growth blocker may treat AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with an AIDS-associated cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), showed improvement after receiving the combination of bevacizumab, a cancer drug that blocks the growth of new blood vessels, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  1. Angiotensin inhibition enhances drug delivery and potentiates chemotherapy by decompressing tumour blood vessels

    E-print Network

    Chauhan, Vikash P.

    Cancer and stromal cells actively exert physical forces (solid stress) to compress tumour blood vessels, thus reducing vascular perfusion. Tumour interstitial matrix also contributes to solid stress, with hyaluronan ...

  2. Forces on a Wall-Bound Leukocyte in a Small Vessel Due to Red Cells in the Blood Stream

    E-print Network

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    Forces on a Wall-Bound Leukocyte in a Small Vessel Due to Red Cells in the Blood Stream Amir H. G at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois ABSTRACT As part of the inflammation response, white blood cells character of blood, especially in small vessels where the red blood cells must substantially deform to pass

  3. Estimation of Blood Flow Speed and Vessel Location from Thermal Video M. Garbey A. Merla

    E-print Network

    physiological monitoring of patients. 2. After appropriate processing, the thermal imagery can yieldEstimation of Blood Flow Speed and Vessel Location from Thermal Video M. Garbey A. Merla I and vessel location from thermal video. The method is based on a bioheat transfer model that re- flects

  4. VEGF121 and VEGF165 Regulate Blood Vessel Diameter Through Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor

    E-print Network

    Hughes, Christopher C. W.

    VEGF121 and VEGF165 Regulate Blood Vessel Diameter Through Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Orange, California SUMMARY: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is essential for the induction vessel diameter. Placental growth factor, which binds to VEGFR-1 but not VEGFR-2, does not promote

  5. Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kalchenko, V V; Kuznetsov, Yu L; Meglinski, I V

    2013-07-31

    We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  6. Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, V. V.; Kuznetsov, Yu L.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2013-07-01

    We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions.

  7. Engineering a Blood Vessel Network Module for Body-on-a-Chip Applications.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hyunryul; Oh, Soojung; Lee, Hyun Jae; Lee, Jin Young; Lee, Hae Kwang; Jeon, Noo Li

    2015-06-01

    The blood circulatory system links all organs from one to another to support and maintain each organ's functions consistently. Therefore, blood vessels have been considered as a vital unit. Engineering perfusable functional blood vessels in vitro has been challenging due to difficulties in designing the connection between rigid macroscale tubes and fragile microscale ones. Here, we propose a generalizable method to engineer a "long" perfusable blood vessel network. To form millimeter-scale vessels, fibroblasts were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in close proximity. In contrast to previous works, in which all cells were permanently placed within the device, we developed a novel method to culture paracrine factor secreting fibroblasts on an O-ring-shaped guide that can be transferred in and out. This approach affords flexibility in co-culture, where the effects of secreted factors can be decoupled. Using this, blood vessels with length up to 2 mm were successfully produced in a reproducible manner (>90%). Because the vessels form a perfusable network within the channel, simple links to inlets and outlets of the device allowed connections to the outside world. The robust and reproducible formation of in vitro engineered vessels can be used as a module to link various organ components as parts of future body-on-a-chip applications. PMID:25532526

  8. Impact of cold ischemia on mitochondrial function in porcine hearts and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Dominik; Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Dorn, Melissa; Andreas, Martin; Kocher, Alfred; Kuznetsov, Andrey V

    2013-01-01

    The effects of cold storage using Custodiol® (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate, HTK) or isotonic saline solution on mitochondrial function in hearts (left and rights ventricles) and various blood vessels of pigs were investigated. Hearts, saphenous veins, internal-mammary-arteries and aortas of male landrace pigs were harvested and exposed to cold ischemia in either saline or Custodiol-HTK solution. Mitochondrial function was measured in situ in permeabilized fibers by high-resolution respirometry. Mitochondrial respiratory capacities (maximal respiration rates) were similar in the right and left ventricle in controls and after 14 h of cold storage were significantly better preserved in Custodiol-HTK than in saline solution. Mitochondrial respiration rates in various blood vessels including aorta, arteries and veins were less than 5% of myocardium rates. In contrast to the pig heart, in some blood vessels, like veins, mitochondrial function remained stable even after 24 h of cold ischemia. HTK-Custodiol protection of mitochondrial function after prolonged cold ischemia was observed in the myocardium but not in blood vessels. HTK-Custodiol solution thus offers significant protection of myocardial mitochondria against cold ischemic injury and can be used as efficient preservation solution in organ transplantation but probably has no benefit for blood vessels preservation. Analysis of mitochondrial function can be used as a valuable approach for the assessment of cold ischemic injury in various tissues including pig heart and various blood vessels. PMID:24213604

  9. Growth and Remodeling in Blood Vessels Studied In Vivo With Fractal Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia A.

    2003-01-01

    Every cell in the human body must reside in close proximity to a blood vessel (within approximately 200 mm) because blood vessels provide the oxygen, metabolite, and fluid exchanges required for cellular existence. The growth and remodeling of blood vessels are required to support the normal physiology of embryonic development, reproductive biology, wound healing and adaptive remodeling to exercise, as well as abnormal tissue change in diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Cardiovascular and hemodynamic (blood flow dynamics) alterations experienced by astronauts during long-term spaceflight, including orthostatic intolerance, fluid shifts in the body, and reduced numbers of red (erythrocyte) and white (immune) blood cells, are identified as risk factors of very high priority in the NASA task force report on risk reduction for human spaceflight, the "Critical Path Roadmap."

  10. Orientation of endothelial cell division is regulated by VEGF signaling during blood vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Gefei; Taylor, Sarah M.; McColm, Janet R.; Kappas, Nicholas C.; Kearney, Joseph B.; Williams, Lucy H.; Hartnett, Mary E.; Bautch, Victoria L.

    2007-01-01

    New blood vessel formation requires the coordination of endothelial cell division and the morphogenetic movements of vessel expansion, but it is not known how this integration occurs. Here, we show that endothelial cells regulate division orientation during the earliest stages of blood vessel formation, in response to morphogenetic cues. In embryonic stem (ES) cell–derived vessels that do not experience flow, the plane of endothelial cytokinesis was oriented perpendicular to the vessel long axis. We also demonstrated regulated cleavage orientation in vivo, in flow-exposed forming retinal vessels. Daughter nuclei moved away from the cleavage plane after division, suggesting that regulation of endothelial division orientation effectively extends vessel length in these developing vascular beds. A gain-of-function mutation in VEGF signaling increased randomization of endothelial division orientation, and this effect was rescued by a transgene, indicating that regulation of division orientation is a novel mechanism whereby VEGF signaling affects vessel morphogenesis. Thus, our findings show that endothelial cell division and morphogenesis are integrated in developing vessels by flow-independent mechanisms that involve VEGF signaling, and this cross talk is likely to be critical to proper vessel morphogenesis. PMID:17068148

  11. Transfer of nitric oxide by blood from upstream to downstream resistance vessels causes microvascular dilation.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, H G; Zhou, X; Unthank, J L; Miller, S J; Bills, R

    2009-10-01

    The discovery that hemoglobin, albumin, and glutathione carry and release nitric oxide (NO) may have consequences for movement of NO by blood within microvessels. We hypothesize that NO in plasma or bound to proteins likely survives to downstream locations. To confirm this hypothesis, there must be a finite NO concentration ([NO]) in arteriolar blood, and upstream resistance vessels must be able to increase the vessel wall [NO] of downstream arterioles. Arteriolar blood NO was measured with NO-sensitive microelectrodes, and vessel wall [NO] was consistently 25-40% higher than blood [NO]. Localized suppression of NO production in large arterioles over 500-1,000 microm with L-nitroarginine reduced the [NO] approximately 40%, indicating as much as 60% of the wall NO was from blood transfer. Flow in mesenteric arteries was elevated by occlusion of adjacent arteries to induce a flow-mediated increase in arterial NO production. Both arterial wall and downstream arteriolar [NO] increased and the arterioles dilated as the blood [NO] was increased. To study receptor-mediated NO generation, bradykinin was locally applied to upstream large arterioles and NO measured there and in downstream arterioles. At both sites, [NO] increased and both sets of vessels dilated. When isoproterenol was applied to the upstream vessels, they dilated, but neither the [NO] or diameter downstream arterioles increased. These observations indicate that NO can move in blood from upstream to downstream resistance vessels. This mechanism allows larger vessels that generate large [NO] to influence vascular tone in downstream vessels in response to both flow and receptor stimuli. PMID:19666847

  12. Automated branching pattern report generation for laparoscopic surgery assistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Masahiro; Matsuzaki, Tetsuro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents a method for generating branching pattern reports of abdominal blood vessels for laparoscopic gastrectomy. In gastrectomy, it is very important to understand branching structure of abdominal arteries and veins, which feed and drain specific abdominal organs including the stomach, the liver and the pancreas. In the real clinical stage, a surgeon creates a diagnostic report of the patient anatomy. This report summarizes the branching patterns of the blood vessels related to the stomach. The surgeon decides actual operative procedure. This paper shows an automated method to generate a branching pattern report for abdominal blood vessels based on automated anatomical labeling. The report contains 3D rendering showing important blood vessels and descriptions of branching patterns of each vessel. We have applied this method for fifty cases of 3D abdominal CT scans and confirmed the proposed method can automatically generate branching pattern reports of abdominal arteries.

  13. Infrared laser thermal fusion of blood vessels: preliminary ex vivo tissue studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilip, Christopher M.; Rosenbury, Sarah B.; Giglio, Nicholas; Hutchens, Thomas C.; Schweinsberger, Gino R.; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra; Nau, William H.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2013-05-01

    Suture ligation of blood vessels during surgery can be time-consuming and skill-intensive. Energy-based, electrosurgical, and ultrasonic devices have recently replaced the use of sutures and mechanical clips (which leave foreign objects in the body) for many surgical procedures, providing rapid hemostasis during surgery. However, these devices have the potential to create an undesirably large collateral zone of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. We explore an alternative energy-based technology, infrared lasers, for rapid and precise thermal coagulation and fusion of the blood vessel walls. Seven near-infrared lasers (808, 980, 1075, 1470, 1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were tested during preliminary tissue studies. Studies were performed using fresh porcine renal vessels, ex vivo, with native diameters of 1 to 6 mm, and vessel walls flattened to a total thickness of 0.4 mm. A linear beam profile was applied normal to the vessel for narrow, full-width thermal coagulation. The laser irradiation time was 5 s. Vessel burst pressure measurements were used to determine seal strength. The 1470 nm laser wavelength demonstrated the capability of sealing a wide range of blood vessels from 1 to 6 mm diameter with burst strengths of 578±154, 530±171, and 426±174 mmHg for small, medium, and large vessel diameters, respectively. Lateral thermal coagulation zones (including the seal) measured 1.0±0.4 mm on vessels sealed at this wavelength. Other laser wavelengths (1550, 1850 to 1880, and 1908 nm) were also capable of sealing vessels, but were limited by lower vessel seal pressures, excessive charring, and/or limited power output preventing treatment of large vessels (>4 mm outer diameter).

  14. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of the Different Layers of Blood Vessels in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Y. C.; Liu, S. Q.

    1995-03-01

    The structure and materials of the blood vessel wall are layered. This article presents the principle of a method to determine the mechanical properties of the different layers in vivo. In vivo measurement begets in vivo data and avoids pitfalls of in vitro tests of dissected specimens. With the proposed method, we can measure vessels of diameters 100 ?m and up and obtain data on vascular smooth muscles and adventitia. To derive the full constitutive equations, one must first determine the zero-stress state, obtain the morphometric data on the thicknesses of the layers, and make mechanical measurements in the neighborhood of the zero-stress state. Then eight small perturbation experiments are done on each blood vessel in vivo to determine eight incremental elastic moduli of the two layers of the blood vessel wall. The calculation requires the morphometric data and the location of the neutral axis. The experiments are simple, the interpretation is definitive, but the analysis is somewhat sophisticated. The method will yield results that are needed to assess the stress and strain in the tissues of the blood vessel. The subject is important because blood vessels remodel themselves significantly and rapidly when their stress and strain deviate from their homeostatic values, and because cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, contraction, and locomotion depend on stress and strain in the tissue.

  15. Relevance of Blood Vessel Networks in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yi; Lin, Shengmao; Gu, Linxia

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral vasculature is a complex network that circulates blood through the brain. However, the role of this networking effect in brain dynamics has seldom been inspected. This work is to study the effects of blood vessel networks on dynamic responses of the brain under blast loading. Voronoi tessellations were implemented to represent the network of blood vessels in the brain. The brain dynamics in terms of maximum principal strain (MPS), shear strain (SS), and intracranial pressure (ICP) were monitored and compared. Results show that blood vessel networks significantly affected brain responses. The increased MPS and SS were observed within the brain embedded with vessel networks, which did not exist in the case without blood vessel networks. It is interesting to observe that the alternation of the ICP response was minimal. Moreover, the vessel diameter and density also affected brain dynamics in both MPS and SS measures. This work sheds light on the role of cerebral vasculature in blast-induced traumatic brain injury. PMID:26495036

  16. Tissue Engineering of Blood Vessels: Functional Requirements, Progress, and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vivek A.; Brewster, Luke P.; Caves, Jeffrey M.; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disease results in the decreased utility and decreased availability of autologus vascular tissue for small diameter (< 6 mm) vessel replacements. While synthetic polymer alternatives to date have failed to meet the performance of autogenous conduits, tissue-engineered replacement vessels represent an ideal solution to this clinical problem. Ongoing progress requires combined approaches from biomaterials science, cell biology, and translational medicine to develop feasible solutions with the requisite mechanical support, a non-fouling surface for blood flow, and tissue regeneration. Over the past two decades interest in blood vessel tissue engineering has soared on a global scale, resulting in the first clinical implants of multiple technologies, steady progress with several other systems, and critical lessons-learned. This review will highlight the current inadequacies of autologus and synthetic grafts, the engineering requirements for implantation of tissue-engineered grafts, and the current status of tissue-engineered blood vessel research. PMID:23181145

  17. Label free in vivo laser speckle imaging of blood and lymph vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Kuznetsov, Yuri; Meglinski, Igor; Harmelin, Alon

    2012-05-01

    The peripheral lymphatic vascular system is a part of the immune body system comprising a complex network of lymph vessels and nodes that are flowing lymph toward the heart. Traditionally the imaging of lymphatic vessels is based on the conventional imaging modalities utilizing contrast fluorescence materials. Given the important role of the lymphatic system there is a critical need for the development of noninvasive imaging technologies for functional quantitative diagnosis of the lymph vessels and lymph flow without using foreign chemicals. We report a label free methodology for noninvasive in vivo imaging of blood and lymph vessels, using long-exposure laser speckle imaging approach. This approach entails great promise in the noninvasive studies of tissues blood and lymph vessels distribution in vivo.

  18. Cellular/Molecular Glial Cells Dilate and Constrict Blood Vessels: A Mechanism

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    Cellular/Molecular Glial Cells Dilate and Constrict Blood Vessels: A Mechanism of Neurovascular, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 Neuronal activity evokes localized changes in blood flow. Although this response cells to neurovascular coupling in the acutely isolated mammalian retina. We found that light

  19. Effect of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition on epoxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolism in human blood vessels

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Effect of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition on epoxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolism in human on epoxyeicosatrienoic acid metabolism in human blood vessels. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 287: H2412­H2420, 2004 epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition on epoxyei- cosatrienoic acid (EET) metabolism in intact human blood

  20. Visualization of deep blood vessels in speckle imaging using homogeneity measurement of the co-occurrence matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias-Cruz, Jose A.; Perez-Corona, Cruz E.; Peregrina-Barreto, Hayde; Ramos-Garcia, Ruben; Ramirez-San-Juan, Julio Cesar

    2015-08-01

    The blood flow velocity optical monitoring techniques, such as laser speckle velocimetry, are attractive due its noninvasive character, but they are limited to superficial blood vessels. The visualization of deep blood vessel is difficult because of the highly scattering coefficient of the biological tissue. There are some techniques that allow the visualization of deep blood vessels, for example: optical clearing, Magnetomotive Laser Speckle Imaging and Pulsed Photo-Thermal Radiometry, unfortunately these techniques use an external agent to improve the visualization of blood vessels. In this work we improve the visualization and location of in-vitro deep blood vessels by speckle image processing without an external agents. The proposed methodology is based in a homogeneity measurement of the co-occurrence matrix by the direct processing of the speckle image. Our technique is able to determine the edges of a deep blood vessel and therefore improves its visualization.

  1. Abstract--In our novel technique of tumor vessels treatment, High Z (HZ) contrast atoms are injected into the blood vessel

    E-print Network

    Nahar, Sultana Nurun

    Abstract--In our novel technique of tumor vessels treatment, High Z (HZ) contrast atoms are injected into the blood vessel and the tumor region is irradiated with "narrowband" fluorescence photon (FP/ml and 9.05 nmol/ml, respectively. I. BACKGROUND AND INTRODUCTION ESTRUCTION of tumor vessels

  2. Signaling Required for Blood Vessel Maintenance: Molecular Basis and Pathological Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    As our understanding of molecular mechanisms leading to vascular formation increases, vessel maintenance including stabilization of new vessels and prevention of vessel regression began to be considered as an active process that requires specific cellular signaling. While signaling pathways such as VEGF, FGF, and angiopoietin-Tie2 are important for endothelial cell survival and junction stabilization, PDGF and TGF-? signaling modify mural cell (vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes) functions, thus they fortify vessel integrity. Breakdown of these signaling systems results in pathological hyperpermeability and/or genetic vascular abnormalities such as vascular malformations, ultimately progressing to hemorrhage and edema. Hence, blood vessel maintenance is fundamental to controlling vascular homeostasis and tissue functions. This paper discusses signaling pathways essential for vascular maintenance and clinical conditions caused by deterioration of vessel integrity. PMID:22187650

  3. Segmentation of the blood vessels and optic disk in retinal images.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Gonzalez, Ana; Kaba, Djibril; Li, Yongmin; Liu, Xiaohui

    2014-11-01

    Retinal image analysis is increasingly prominent as a nonintrusive diagnosis method in modern ophthalmology. In this paper, we present a novel method to segment blood vessels and optic disk in the fundus retinal images. The method could be used to support nonintrusive diagnosis in modern ophthalmology since the morphology of the blood vessel and the optic disk is an important indicator for diseases like diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and hypertension. Our method takes as first step the extraction of the retina vascular tree using the graph cut technique. The blood vessel information is then used to estimate the location of the optic disk. The optic disk segmentation is performed using two alternative methods. The Markov random field (MRF) image reconstruction method segments the optic disk by removing vessels from the optic disk region, and the compensation factor method segments the optic disk using the prior local intensity knowledge of the vessels. The proposed method is tested on three public datasets, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, and STARE. The results and comparison with alternative methods show that our method achieved exceptional performance in segmenting the blood vessel and optic disk. PMID:25265617

  4. RESEARCH ARTICLE Effect of Blood Vessel Segmentation on the

    E-print Network

    Ljubljana, University of

    show higher negative impact of auto- matic vessel segmentation errors on the electric field of Electrical Engineering, Ljubljana, Slovenia * damijan.miklavcic@fe.uni-lj.si Abstract Electroporation-based treatments rely on increasing the permeability of the cell membrane by high voltage electric pulses applied

  5. Mathematical modelling for trajectories of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel under magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Shashi; Katiyar, V. K.; Singh, Uaday

    2015-04-01

    A mathematical model is developed to describe the trajectories of a cluster of magnetic nanoparticles in a blood vessel for the application of magnetic drug targeting (MDT). The magnetic nanoparticles are injected into a blood vessel upstream from a malignant tissue and are captured at the tumour site with help of an applied magnetic field. The applied field is produced by a rare earth cylindrical magnet positioned outside the body. All forces expected to significantly affect the transport of nanoparticles were incorporated, including magnetization force, drag force and buoyancy force. The results show that particles are slow down and captured under the influence of magnetic force, which is responsible to attract the magnetic particles towards the magnet. It is optimized that all particles are captured either before or at the centre of the magnet (z?0) when blood vessel is very close proximity to the magnet (d=2.5 cm). However, as the distance between blood vessel and magnet (d) increases (above 4.5 cm), the magnetic nanoparticles particles become free and they flow away down the blood vessel. Further, the present model results are validated by the simulations performed using the finite element based COMSOL software.

  6. Blood vessel adaptation to gravity in a semi-arboreal snake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conklin, D. J.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Olson, K. R.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of vasoactive agonists on systemic blood vessels were examined with respect to anatomical location and gravity acclimation in the semi-arboreal snake, Elaphe Obsoleta. Major blood vessels were reactive to putative neurotransmitters, hormones or local factors in vessel specific patterns. Catecholamines, adenosine triphosphate, histamine and high potassium (80 mM) stimulated significantly greater tension per unit vessel mass in posterior than anterior arteries. Anterior vessels were significantly more sensitive to catecholamines than midbody and posterior vessels. Angiotensin II stimulated significantly greater tension in carotid artery than in midbody and posterior dorsal aorta. Arginine vasotocin strongly contracted the left and right aortic arches and anterior dorsal aorta. Veins were strongly contracted by catecholamines, high potassium and angiotensin II, but less so by adenosine triphosphate, arginine vasotocin and histamine. Precontracted vessel were relaxed by acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside, but not by atrial natriuretic peptide or bradykinin. Chronic exposure of snakes to intermittent hypergravity stress ( + 1.5 Gz at tail) did not affect the majority of vessel responses. These data demonstrate that in vitro tension correlates with that catecholamines, as well as other agonists, are important in mediating vascular responses to gravitational stresses in snakes.

  7. Aging changes in the heart and blood vessels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lungs to receive oxygen and get rid of carbon dioxide. The left side pumps oxygen-rich blood to ... oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, and receives carbon dioxide and wastes back from the tissues. Then, the ...

  8. A method for modulation transfer function determination from blood vessel profiles measured in computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.

    2012-03-01

    The recent CT systems yield high spatial resolution in all directions of volumetric images in clinical routine. The quantitative characterization of the performance of CT systems is important for comparing the effects of different scan and reconstruction parameters, for comparing between different CT systems, and for evaluating the accuracy of size and density measurements of fine details in CT images. This paper presents a method to determine the modulation transfer function (MTF) in the scan plane obtained by CT system from profiles of human anatomical structures such as blood vessel measured by clinical measurement conditions without magnified reconstruction. MTF estimations are performed for cylindrical tube phantoms with three different diameters (1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm) injected by solution of contrast material and human blood vessels measured by the clinical measurement conditions. We demonstrate the potential usefulness of the method for estimating the MTF from blood vessel profiles measured in CT systems.

  9. Combining cell sheet technology and electrospun scaffolding for engineered tubular, aligned, and contractile blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Rayatpisheh, Shahrzad; Heath, Daniel E; Shakouri, Amir; Rujitanaroj, Pim-On; Chew, Sing Yian; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2014-03-01

    Herein we combine cell sheet technology and electrospun scaffolding to rapidly generate circumferentially aligned tubular constructs of human aortic smooth muscles cells with contractile gene expression for use as tissue engineered blood vessel media. Smooth muscle cells cultured on micropatterned and N-isopropylacrylamide-grafted (pNIPAm) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a small portion of which was covered by aligned electrospun scaffolding, resulted in a single sheet of unidirectionally aligned cells. Upon cooling to room temperature, the scaffold, its adherent cells, and the remaining cell sheet detached and were collected on a mandrel to generating tubular constructs with circumferentially aligned smooth muscle cells which possess contractile gene expression and a single layer of electrospun scaffold as an analogue to a small diameter blood vessel's internal elastic lamina (IEL). This method improves cell sheet handling, results in rapid circumferential alignment of smooth muscle cells which immediately express contractile genes, and introduction of an analogue to small diameter blood vessel IEL. PMID:24411678

  10. Macrophage-Induced Blood Vessels Guide Schwann Cell-Mediated Regeneration of Peripheral Nerves

    PubMed Central

    Cattin, Anne-Laure; Burden, Jemima J.; Van Emmenis, Lucie; Mackenzie, Francesca E.; Hoving, Julian J.A.; Garcia Calavia, Noelia; Guo, Yanping; McLaughlin, Maeve; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Quereda, Victor; Jamecna, Denisa; Napoli, Ilaria; Parrinello, Simona; Enver, Tariq; Ruhrberg, Christiana; Lloyd, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The peripheral nervous system has remarkable regenerative capacities in that it can repair a fully cut nerve. This requires Schwann cells to migrate collectively to guide regrowing axons across a ‘bridge’ of new tissue, which forms to reconnect a severed nerve. Here we show that blood vessels direct the migrating cords of Schwann cells. This multicellular process is initiated by hypoxia, selectively sensed by macrophages within the bridge, which via VEGF-A secretion induce a polarized vasculature that relieves the hypoxia. Schwann cells then use the blood vessels as “tracks” to cross the bridge taking regrowing axons with them. Importantly, disrupting the organization of the newly formed blood vessels in vivo, either by inhibiting the angiogenic signal or by re-orienting them, compromises Schwann cell directionality resulting in defective nerve repair. This study provides important insights into how the choreography of multiple cell-types is required for the regeneration of an adult tissue. PMID:26279190

  11. New algorithm for detecting smaller retinal blood vessels in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeAnder, Robert; Bidari, Praveen I.; Mohammed, Tauseef A.; Das, Moumita; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2010-03-01

    About 4.1 million Americans suffer from diabetic retinopathy. To help automatically diagnose various stages of the disease, a new blood-vessel-segmentation algorithm based on spatial high-pass filtering was developed to automatically segment blood vessels, including the smaller ones, with low noise. Methods: Image database: Forty, 584 x 565-pixel images were collected from the DRIVE image database. Preprocessing: Green-band extraction was used to obtain better contrast, which facilitated better visualization of retinal blood vessels. A spatial highpass filter of mask-size 11 was applied. A histogram stretch was performed to enhance contrast. A median filter was applied to mitigate noise. At this point, the gray-scale image was converted to a binary image using a binary thresholding operation. Then, a NOT operation was performed by gray-level value inversion between 0 and 255. Postprocessing: The resulting image was AND-ed with its corresponding ring mask to remove the outer-ring (lens-edge) artifact. At this point, the above algorithm steps had extracted most of the major and minor vessels, with some intersections and bifurcations missing. Vessel segments were reintegrated using the Hough transform. Results: After applying the Hough transform, both the average peak SNR and the RMS error improved by 10%. Pratt's Figure of Merit (PFM) was decreased by 6%. Those averages were better than [1] by 10-30%. Conclusions: The new algorithm successfully preserved the details of smaller blood vessels and should prove successful as a segmentation step for automatically identifying diseases that affect retinal blood vessels.

  12. Apelin Inhibits Diet-Induced Obesity by Enhancing Lymphatic and Blood Vessel Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Sawane, Mika; Kajiya, Kentaro; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takagi, Masaya; Muramatsu, Fumitaka; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis is tightly associated with the outgrowth of adipose tissue, leading to obesity, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, mainly because expanding adipose tissue requires an increased nutrient supply from blood vessels. Therefore, induction of vessel abnormality by adipokines has been well-studied, whereas how altered vascular function promotes obesity is relatively unexplored. Also, surviving Prox1 heterozygous mice have shown abnormal lymphatic patterning and adult-onset obesity, indicating that accumulation of adipocytes could be closely linked with lymphatic function. Here, we propose a new antiobesity strategy based on enhancement of lymphatic and blood vessel integrity with apelin. Apelin knockout (KO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed an obese phenotype associated with abnormal lymphatic and blood vessel enlargement. Fatty acids present in the HFD induced hyperpermeability of endothelial cells, causing adipocyte differentiation, whereas apelin promoted vascular stabilization. Moreover, treatment of apelin KO mice with a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, that were fed an HFD improved vascular function and also attenuated obesity. Finally, apelin transgenic mice showed decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue attributable to inhibition of HFD-induced hyperpermeability of vessels. These results indicate that apelin inhibits HFD-induced obesity by enhancing vessel integrity. Apelin could serve as a therapeutic target for treating obesity and related diseases. PMID:23378608

  13. Apelin inhibits diet-induced obesity by enhancing lymphatic and blood vessel integrity.

    PubMed

    Sawane, Mika; Kajiya, Kentaro; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takagi, Masaya; Muramatsu, Fumitaka; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2013-06-01

    Angiogenesis is tightly associated with the outgrowth of adipose tissue, leading to obesity, which is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes and hypertension, mainly because expanding adipose tissue requires an increased nutrient supply from blood vessels. Therefore, induction of vessel abnormality by adipokines has been well-studied, whereas how altered vascular function promotes obesity is relatively unexplored. Also, surviving Prox1 heterozygous mice have shown abnormal lymphatic patterning and adult-onset obesity, indicating that accumulation of adipocytes could be closely linked with lymphatic function. Here, we propose a new antiobesity strategy based on enhancement of lymphatic and blood vessel integrity with apelin. Apelin knockout (KO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed an obese phenotype associated with abnormal lymphatic and blood vessel enlargement. Fatty acids present in the HFD induced hyperpermeability of endothelial cells, causing adipocyte differentiation, whereas apelin promoted vascular stabilization. Moreover, treatment of apelin KO mice with a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, that were fed an HFD improved vascular function and also attenuated obesity. Finally, apelin transgenic mice showed decreased subcutaneous adipose tissue attributable to inhibition of HFD-induced hyperpermeability of vessels. These results indicate that apelin inhibits HFD-induced obesity by enhancing vessel integrity. Apelin could serve as a therapeutic target for treating obesity and related diseases. PMID:23378608

  14. Do Haematophagous Bugs Assess Skin Surface Temperature to Detect Blood Vessels?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Raquel A.; Lazzari, Claudio R.; Lorenzo, Marcelo G.; Pereira, Marcos H.

    2007-01-01

    Background It is known that some blood-sucking insects have the ability to reach vessels under the host skin with their mouthparts to feed blood from inside them. However, the process by which they locate these vessels remains largely unknown. Less than 5% of the skin is occupied by blood vessels and thus, it is not likely that insects rely on a “random search strategy”, since it would increase the probability of being killed by their hosts. Indeed, heterogeneities along the skin surface might offer exploitable information for guiding insect's bites. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether the bug Rhodnius prolixus can evaluate temperature discontinuities along the body surface in order to locate vessels before piercing the host skin. When placed over a rabbit ear, the bug's first bites were mostly directed towards the main vessels. When insects were confronted to artificial linear heat sources presenting a temperature gradient against the background, most bites were directly addressed to the warmer linear source, notwithstanding the temperature of both, the source and the background. Finally, tests performed using uni- and bilaterally antennectomized insects revealed that the bilateral integration of thermal inputs from both antennae is necessary for precisely directing bites. Conclusions/Significance R. prolixus may be able to exploit the temperature differences observed over the skin surface to locate blood vessles. Bugs bite the warmest targets regardless of the target/background temperatures, suggesting that they do not bite choosing a preferred temperature, but select temperature discontinuities along the skin. This strategy seems to be an efficient one for finding blood vessels within a wide temperature range, allowing finding them on different hosts, as well as on different areas of the host body. Our study also adds new insight about the use of antennal thermal inputs by blood sucking bugs. PMID:17895973

  15. TOPAZ: a computer code for modeling heat transfer and fluid flow in arbitrary networks of pipes, flow branches, and vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the computer code TOPAZ (Transient-One-Dimensional Pipe Flow Analyzer) is presented. TOPAZ models the flow of compressible and incompressible fluids through complex and arbitrary arrangements of pipes, valves, flow branches and vessels. Heat transfer to and from the fluid containment structures (i.e. vessel and pipe walls) can also be modeled. This document includes discussions of the fluid flow equations and containment heat conduction equations. The modeling philosophy, numerical integration technique, code architecture, and methods for generating the computational mesh are also discussed.

  16. Enhanced sonographic imaging to diagnose lymph node metastasis: importance of blood vessel volume and density.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Maya; Takahashi, Shoki; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2013-04-01

    Lymph node size is an important variable in ultrasound diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. However, the size criterion often leads to oversight of tumor-positive lymph nodes within the range of "normal" size, such that more accurate diagnostic criteria for lymph node metastasis are required. In this study, we show how diagnosis of lymph node metastasis can be improved by evaluating changes in blood vessel volume and density using a novel contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound (CE-HFUS) system with Sonazoid. An MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mouse model of lymph node metastasis was used in which lymph nodes are similar in size to humans. Metastasis via lymphatic vessels to proper axillary lymph nodes (proper ALN) was induced by injection of tumor cells into the subiliac lymph nodes. Within 21 days of injection, significant increases in blood vessel volume and density, but no increases in the size of the proper ALNs, were observed. The increase in blood vessel density was confirmed with immunohistochemical analysis and was positively related to tumor cell proliferation as measured using bioluminescence imaging. Together, our results showed that alterations in blood vessel volume and density precede alterations in lymph node size in the early stages of lymph node metastasis. Detection of these changes by ultrasonography may offer new criteria for early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. PMID:23333937

  17. Effect of Rolling Massage on the Vortex Flow in Blood Vessels with Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou Hui

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese Medical Massage, which is a nature therapy in eliminating many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on the cavity flows in blood vessel under the rolling manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the vortex flows are fully disturbed by the rolling massage. The flow behavior depends on the rolling velocity and the rolling depth. Rolling massage has a better effect on the flows in the cavity than that of the flows in a planar blood vessel. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.

  18. Laser ablation of atherosclerotic blood vessel tissue under various irradiation conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Esenaliev, R.O.; Oraevsky, A.A.; Letokhov, V.S.

    1989-12-01

    A quantitative analysis is presented of the destruction of normal wall and atherosclerotic plaque areas of blood vessels by laser radiation. Threshold laser radiant exposure values were measured experimentally in vitro, along with the ablation efficiency for various laser wavelengths and irradiation conditions. Correlations were found between the ablation efficiency and fluence thresholds on the one hand and the optical properties of the blood vessel tissues on the other. Fibrous plaque was demonstrated to be selectively destroyed by the second-harmonic output from a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at lambda = 532 nm.

  19. Identification and characterization of a resident vascular stem/progenitor cell population in preexisting blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Hisamichi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Sakimoto, Susumu; Wakabayashi, Taku; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Vasculogenesis, the in-situ assembly of angioblast or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), may persist into adult life, contributing to new blood vessel formation. However, EPCs are scattered throughout newly developed blood vessels and cannot be solely responsible for vascularization. Here, we identify an endothelial progenitor/stem-like population located at the inner surface of preexisting blood vessels using the Hoechst method in which stem cell populations are identified as side populations. This population is dormant in the steady state but possesses colony-forming ability, produces large numbers of endothelial cells (ECs) and when transplanted into ischaemic lesions, restores blood flow completely and reconstitutes de-novo long-term surviving blood vessels. Moreover, although surface markers of this population are very similar to conventional ECs, and they reside in the capillary endothelium sub-population, the gene expression profile is completely different. Our results suggest that this heterogeneity of stem-like ECs will lead to the identification of new targets for vascular regeneration therapy. PMID:22179698

  20. Peristaltic Pumping of Blood Through Small Vessels of Varying Cross-section

    E-print Network

    J. C. Misra; S. Maiti

    2012-01-30

    The paper is devoted to a study of the peristaltic motion of blood in the micro-circulatory system. The vessel is considered to be of varying cross-section. The progressive peristaltic waves are taken to be of sinusoidal nature. Blood is considered to be a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. Of particular concern here is to investigate the effects of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, streamline pattern and wall shear stress. On the basis of the derived analytical expression, extensive numerical calculations have been made. The study reveals that velocity of blood and wall shear stress are appreciably affected due to the non-uniform geometry of blood vessels. They are also highly sensitive to the magnitude of the amplitude ratio and the value of the fluid index.

  1. Polysaccharides from astragali radix restore chemical-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Astragali Radix has been used widely for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, and to enhance endurance and stamina in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for over 2000 years. The polysaccharide constituents of Astragali Radix (ARP) are considered as one of the major constituents contributing to the multiple pharmacological effects of this medicinal plant. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the vascular regenerative activities of ARPs in a chemically-induced blood vessel loss model in zebrafish. Methods Blood vessel loss was induced in both Tg(fli-1a:EGFP)y1 and Tg(fli-1a:nEGFP)y7 embryos by administration of 300 nM VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor II (VRI) for 3 h at 24 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Then, the blood vessel damaged zebrafish were treated with ARPs for 21 h and 45 h after VRI withdrawal. Morphological changes in intersegmental vessels (ISVs) of zebrafish larvae were observed under the fluorescence microscope and measured quantitatively. The rescue effect of ARPs in the zebrafish models was validated by measuring the relative mRNA expressions of Kdrl, Kdr and Flt-1 using real-time PCR. Results Two polysaccharide fractions, P4 (50000 D < molecular weight & diameter < 0.1 ?m) and P5 (molecular diameter > 0.1 ?m), isolated from Astragali Radix by ultrafiltration, produced a significant and dose-dependent recovery in VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Flk-1 and Flt-1 mRNA expression induced by VRI was reversed by treatment with P4. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that P4 isolated from Astragali Radix reduces VRI-induced blood vessel loss in zebrafish. These findings support the hypothesis that polysaccharides are one of the active constituents in Astragali Radix, contributing to its beneficial effect on treatment of diseases associated with a deficiency in angiogenesis. PMID:22357377

  2. Evaluation of side effects of radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia with magnetite on the blood vessel walls of tumor metastatic lesion surrounding the abdominal large vessels: an agar phantom study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetite used in an 8-MHz radiofrequency (RF) capacitive heating device can increase the temperature of a specific site up to 45°C. When treating a metastatic lesion around large abdominal vessels via hyperthermia with magnetite, heating-induced adverse effects on these vessels need to be considered. Therefore, this study examined hyperthermia-induced damage to blood vessel walls in vitro. Methods A large agar phantom with a circulatory system consisting of a swine artery and vein connected to a peristaltic pump was prepared. The blood vessels were placed on the magnetite-containing agar piece. Heating was continued for 30 min at 45°C. After heating, a histological study for injury to the blood vessels was performed. Results The inner membrane temperature did not reach 45°C due to the cooling effect of the blood flow. In the heated vessels, vascular wall collagen degenerated and smooth muscle cells were narrowed; however, no serious changes were noted in the vascular endothelial cells or vascular wall elastic fibers. The heated vessel wall was not severely damaged; this was attributed to cooling by the blood flow. Conclusions Our findings indicate that RF capacitive heating therapy with magnetite may be used for metastatic lesions without injuring the surrounding large abdominal vessels. PMID:25114787

  3. Automated artery-venous classification of retinal blood vessels based on structural mapping method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Vinayak S.; Garvin, Mona K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

    2012-03-01

    Retinal blood vessels show morphologic modifications in response to various retinopathies. However, the specific responses exhibited by arteries and veins may provide a precise diagnostic information, i.e., a diabetic retinopathy may be detected more accurately with the venous dilatation instead of average vessel dilatation. In order to analyze the vessel type specific morphologic modifications, the classification of a vessel network into arteries and veins is required. We previously described a method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees; i.e. structural mapping. Therefore, we propose the artery-venous classification based on structural mapping and identification of color properties prominent to the vessel types. The mean and standard deviation of each of green channel intensity and hue channel intensity are analyzed in a region of interest around each centerline pixel of a vessel. Using the vector of color properties extracted from each centerline pixel, it is classified into one of the two clusters (artery and vein), obtained by the fuzzy-C-means clustering. According to the proportion of clustered centerline pixels in a particular vessel, and utilizing the artery-venous crossing property of retinal vessels, each vessel is assigned a label of an artery or a vein. The classification results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth (gold standard). We applied the proposed method to a dataset of 15 retinal color fundus images resulting in an accuracy of 88.28% correctly classified vessel pixels. The automated classification results match well with the gold standard suggesting its potential in artery-venous classification and the respective morphology analysis.

  4. On ultrasound-induced microbubble oscillation in a capillary blood vessel and its implications for the blood-brain barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedemair, W.; Tukovi?, Ž.; Jasak, H.; Poulikakos, D.; Kurtcuoglu, V.

    2012-02-01

    The complex interaction between an ultrasound-driven microbubble and an enclosing capillary microvessel is investigated by means of a coupled, multi-domain numerical model using the finite volume formulation. This system is of interest in the study of transient blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD) for drug delivery applications. The compliant vessel structure is incorporated explicitly as a distinct domain described by a dedicated physical model. Red blood cells (RBCs) are taken into account as elastic solids in the blood plasma. We report the temporal and spatial development of transmural pressure (Ptm) and wall shear stress (WSS) at the luminal endothelial interface, both of which are candidates for the yet unknown mediator of BBBD. The explicit introduction of RBCs shapes the Ptm and WSS distributions and their derivatives markedly. While the peak values of these mechanical wall parameters are not affected considerably by the presence of RBCs, a pronounced increase in their spatial gradients is observed compared to a configuration with blood plasma alone. The novelty of our work lies in the explicit treatment of the vessel wall, and in the modelling of blood as a composite fluid, which we show to be relevant for the mechanical processes at the endothelium.

  5. Accurate detection of blood vessels improves the detection of exudates in color fundus images.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Doaa; Solouma, Nahed H

    2012-12-01

    Exudates are one of the earliest and most prevalent symptoms of diseases leading to blindness such as diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Certain areas of the retina with such conditions are to be photocoagulated by laser to stop the disease progress and prevent blindness. Outlining these areas is dependent on outlining the lesions and the anatomic structures of the retina. In this paper, we provide a new method for the detection of blood vessels that improves the detection of exudates in fundus photographs. The method starts with an edge detection algorithm which results in a over segmented image. Then the new feature-based algorithm can be used to accurately detect the blood vessels. This algorithm considers the characteristics of a retinal blood vessel such as its width range, intensities and orientations for the purpose of selective segmentation. Because of its bulb shape and its color similarity with exudates, the optic disc can be detected using the common Hough transform technique. The extracted blood vessel tree and optic disc could be subtracted from the over segmented image to get an initial estimate of exudates. The final estimation of exudates can then be obtained by morphological reconstruction based on the appearance of exudates. This method is shown to be promising since it increases the sensitivity and specificity of exudates detection to 80% and 100% respectively. PMID:22818584

  6. Measurement of streaming potentials of mammalian blood vessels, aorta and vena cava, in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, P N; Himmelfarb, E; Lustrin, I; Ziskind, H

    1966-09-01

    Attempts to measure streaming potentials in large rabbit blood vessels in vivo have been carried out. Streaming potentials, V(89), were measured by the introduction of microelectrodes through the wall of the blood vessel at separations greater than 1 cm. The outputs from these electrodes fed through calomel cells were amplified and recorded directly by using an Electronics for Medicine photorecorder (White Plains, N. Y.). "Effective streaming currents" were determined by running the output through a low impedence galvanometer while simultaneously measuring the resistance of the circuit V(8) were, therefore, calculated from two measurements and compared. Flow through vessels studied was measured using two different electromagnetic flowmeters. The results indicate that V(8) present in both aorta and vena cava are of the order of 5 to 10 mv. By using the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski equation into which flow was reintegrated, the numbers yield zeta potentials approximating 0.1 to 0.4 v in both aorta and vena cava. This number approaches the apparent upper limit for zeta (actually "interfacial potentials") potentials in biological systems. The measured "i.f." potential is considered as the interreaction of several physical and metabolic factors operating at the blood intimal interface. The polarity of the potential suggests that the interface is negative with respect to the blood flowing through the vessel. Interfacial potential and related V(8) are discussed in terms of their possible importance as a mechanism for maintaining vascular homeostasis in the living animal. PMID:5970567

  7. Podocytes in the blood vessel linings of Phoronis muelleri (Phoronida, Tentaculata).

    PubMed

    Storch, V; Herrmann, K

    1978-07-10

    In several metasomal blood vessels of Phoronis muelleri myofilament-containing podocytes are the predominatnt cell-type. In some regions the podocytes can build a labyrinth resembling e.g. the glomerular epithelium of Enteropneusta and the axial organ of Asteroidea. PMID:688346

  8. Enhanced Bonding Strength of Hydrophobically Modified Gelatin Films on Wet Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Keiko; Taguchi, Tetsushi

    2014-01-01

    The bonding behavior between hydrophobically modified alkaline-treated gelatin (hm-AlGltn) films and porcine blood vessels was evaluated under wet conditions. Hexanoyl (Hx: C6), decanoyl (Dec: C10), and stearyl (Ste: C18) chlorides were introduced into the amino groups of AlGltn to obtain HxAlGltn, DecAlGltn, and SteAlGltn, respectively, with various modification percentages. The hm-AlGltn was fabricated into films and thermally crosslinked to obtain water-insoluble films (t-hm-AlGltn). The 42% modified t-HxAlGltn (t-42HxAlGltn) possessed higher wettability than the 38% modified t-DecAlGltn (t-38DecAlGltn) and the 44% modified t-SteAlGltn (t-44SteAlGltn) films, and the t-42HxAlGltn film showed a high bonding strength with the blood vessel compared with all the hm-AlGltn films. Histological observations indicated that t-42HxAlGltn and t-38DecAlGltn remained on the blood vessel even after the bonding strength measurements. From cell culture experiments, the t-42HxAlGltn films showed significant cell adhesion compared to other films. These findings indicate that the Hx group easily interpenetrated the surface of blood vessels and effectively enhanced the bonding strength between the films and the tissue. PMID:24481063

  9. The Finite Element Method Applied to a Problem of Blood Flow in Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Nu?, Gabriela; Chiorean, Ioana; Cri?an, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We use the finite element method to solve a convection-diffusion equation when convection is dominating, a problem which describes the behavior of the concentration of a solute in a blood vessel. A new technique for computing the discrete problem is used. PMID:22319548

  10. Mass Spectrometry and Antibody-Based Characterization of Blood Vessels from Brachylophosaurus canadensis.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Timothy P; Schroeter, Elena R; Zamdborg, Leonid; Zheng, Wenxia; Lee, Ji Eun; Tran, John C; Bern, Marshall; Duncan, Michael B; Lebleu, Valerie S; Ahlf, Dorothy R; Thomas, Paul M; Kalluri, Raghu; Kelleher, Neil L; Schweitzer, Mary H

    2015-12-01

    Structures similar to blood vessels in location, morphology, flexibility, and transparency have been recovered after demineralization of multiple dinosaur cortical bone fragments from multiple specimens, some of which are as old as 80 Ma. These structures were hypothesized to be either endogenous to the bone (i.e., of vascular origin) or the result of biofilm colonizing the empty osteonal network after degradation of original organic components. Here, we test the hypothesis that these structures are endogenous and thus retain proteins in common with extant archosaur blood vessels that can be detected with high-resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two lines of evidence support this hypothesis. First, peptide sequencing of Brachylophosaurus canadensis blood vessel extracts is consistent with peptides comprising extant archosaurian blood vessels and is not consistent with a bacterial, cellular slime mold, or fungal origin. Second, proteins identified by mass spectrometry can be localized to the tissues using antibodies specific to these proteins, validating their identity. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001738. PMID:26595531

  11. Investigating pulsed dye laser-blood vessel interaction with color Doppler optical coherence

    E-print Network

    Barton, Jennifer K.

    Investigating pulsed dye laser-blood vessel interaction with color Doppler optical coherence system used a 1280 nm center wavelength superluminescent diode. A 585 nm, 360 µs pulsed dye laser. Welch, K. R. Diller, "Microscopic instrumentation and analysis of laser-tissue interaction in a skin

  12. Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 42:105112 (2010) Long-Term Blood Vessel Removal With Combined Laser

    E-print Network

    Choi, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    of blood vessels were documented with color digital photography and laser speckle imaging to evaluate-Liss, Inc. Key words: laser dermatologic surgery; port wine stain; rapamycin; angiogenesis; laser speckleLasers in Surgery and Medicine 42:105­112 (2010) Long-Term Blood Vessel Removal With Combined Laser

  13. Non-Newtonian characteristics of peristaltic flow of blood in micro-vessels

    E-print Network

    S. Maiti; J. C. Misra

    2012-12-14

    Of concern in the paper is a generalized theoretical study of the non-Newtonian characteristics of peristaltic flow of blood through micro-vessels, e.g. arterioles. The vessel is considered to be of variable cross-section and blood to be a Herschel-Bulkley type of fluid. The progressive wave front of the peristaltic flow is supposed sinusoidal/straight section dominated (SSD) (expansion/contraction type); Reynolds number is considered to be small with reference to blood flow in the micro-circulatory system. The equations that govern the non-Newtonian peristaltic flow of blood are considered to be non-linear. The objective of the study has been to examine the effect of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, wall shear stress, streamline pattern and trapping. It is observed that the numerical estimates for the aforesaid quantities in the case of peristaltic transport of the blood in a channel are much different from those for flow in an axisymmetric vessel of circular cross-section. The study further shows that peristaltic pumping, flow velocity and wall shear stress are significantly altered due to the non-uniformity of the cross-sectional radius of blood vessels of the micro-circulatory system. Moreover, the magnitude of the amplitude ratio and the value of the fluid index are important parameters that affect the flow behaviour. Novel features of SSD wave propagation that affect the flow behaviour of blood have also been discussed.

  14. Non-Newtonian characteristics of peristaltic flow of blood in micro-vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, S.; Misra, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Of concern in the paper is a generalized theoretical study of the non-Newtonian characteristics of peristaltic flow of blood through micro-vessels, e.g. arterioles. The vessel is considered to be of variable cross-section and blood to be a Herschel-Bulkley type of fluid. The progressive wave front of the peristaltic flow is supposed sinusoidal/straight section dominated (SSD) (expansion/contraction type); Reynolds number is considered to be small with reference to blood flow in the micro-circulatory system. The equations that govern the non-Newtonian peristaltic flow of blood are considered to be non-linear. The objective of the study has been to examine the effect of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, wall shear stress, streamline pattern and trapping. It is observed that the numerical estimates for the aforesaid quantities in the case of peristaltic transport of blood in a channel are much different from those for flow in an axisymmetric vessel of circular cross-section. The study further shows that peristaltic pumping, flow velocity and wall shear stress are significantly altered due to the non-uniformity of the cross-sectional radius of blood vessels of the micro-circulatory system. Moreover, the magnitude of the amplitude ratio and the value of the fluid index are important parameters that affect the flow behaviour. Novel features of SSD wave propagation that affect the flow behaviour of blood have also been discussed.

  15. Angiotensin inhibition enhances drug delivery and potentiates chemotherapy by decompressing tumour blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vikash P.; Martin, John D.; Liu, Hao; Lacorre, Delphine A.; Jain, Saloni R.; Kozin, Sergey V.; Stylianopoulos, Triantafyllos; Mousa, Ahmed S.; Han, Xiaoxing; Adstamongkonkul, Pichet; Popovi?, Zoran; Huang, Peigen; Bawendi, Moungi G.; Boucher, Yves; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and stromal cells actively exert physical forces (solid stress) to compress tumour blood vessels, thus reducing vascular perfusion. Tumour interstitial matrix also contributes to solid stress, with hyaluronan implicated as the primary matrix molecule responsible for vessel compression because of its swelling behaviour. Here we show, unexpectedly, that hyaluronan compresses vessels only in collagen-rich tumours, suggesting that collagen and hyaluronan together are critical targets for decompressing tumour vessels. We demonstrate that the angiotensin inhibitor losartan reduces stromal collagen and hyaluronan production, associated with decreased expression of profibrotic signals TGF-?1, CCN2 and ET-1, downstream of angiotensin-II-receptor-1 inhibition. Consequently, losartan reduces solid stress in tumours resulting in increased vascular perfusion. Through this physical mechanism, losartan improves drug and oxygen delivery to tumours, thereby potentiating chemotherapy and reducing hypoxia in breast and pancreatic cancer models. Thus, angiotensin inhibitors —inexpensive drugs with decades of safe use — could be rapidly repurposed as cancer therapeutics. PMID:24084631

  16. Measurements of Dynamic Viscoelasticity of Poly (vinyl alcohol) Hydrogel for the Development of Blood Vessel Biomodeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosukegawa, Hiroyuki; Mamada, Keisuke; Kuroki, Kanju; Liu, Lei; Inoue, Kosuke; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohta, Makoto

    In vitro blood vessel biomodeling with realistic mechanical properties and geometrical structures is helpful for training in surgical procedures, especial those used in endovascular treatment. Poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA-H), which is made of Poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and water, may be useful as a material for blood vessel biomodeling due to its low surface friction resistance and good transparency. In order to simulate the mechanical properties of blood vessels, measurements of mechanical properties of PVA-H were carried out with a dynamic mechanical analyzer, and the storage modulus (G’) and loss modulus (G”) of PVA-H were obtained. PVA-Hs were prepared by the low-temperature crystallization method. They were made of PVA with various concentrations (C) and degrees of polymerization (DP), and made by blending two kinds of PVA having different DP or saponification values (SV). The G’ and G” of PVA-H increased, as the C or DP of PVA increased, or as the proportion of PVA with higher DP or SV increased. These results indicate that it is possible to obtain PVA-H with desirable dynamic viscoelasticity. Furthermore, it is suggested that PVA-H is stable in the temperature range of 0°C to 40°C, indicating that biomodeling made of PVA-H should be available at 37°C, the physiological temperature. The dynamic viscoelasticity of PVA-H obtained was similar to that of the dog blood vessel measured in previous reports. In conclusion, PVA-H is suggested to be useful as a material of blood vessel biomodeling.

  17. A comparison of blood vessel features and local binary patterns for colorectal polyp classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Sebastian; Stehle, Thomas; Behrens, Alexander; Auer, Roland; Aach, Til; Winograd, Ron; Trautwein, Christian; Tischendorf, Jens

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States of America for both women and men. By means of early detection, the five year survival rate can be up to 90%. Polyps can to be grouped into three different classes: hyperplastic, adenomatous, and carcinomatous polyps. Hyperplastic polyps are benign and are not likely to develop into cancer. Adenomas, on the other hand, are known to grow into cancer (adenoma-carcinoma sequence). Carcinomas are fully developed cancers and can be easily distinguished from adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. A recent narrow band imaging (NBI) study by Tischendorf et al. has shown that hyperplastic polyps and adenomas can be discriminated by their blood vessel structure. We designed a computer-aided system for the differentiation between hyperplastic and adenomatous polyps. Our development aim is to provide the medical practitioner with an additional objective interpretation of the available image data as well as a confidence measure for the classification. We propose classification features calculated on the basis of the extracted blood vessel structure. We use the combined length of the detected blood vessels, the average perimeter of the vessels and their average gray level value. We achieve a successful classification rate of more than 90% on 102 polyps from our polyp data base. The classification results based on these features are compared to the results of Local Binary Patterns (LBP). The results indicate that the implemented features are superior to LBP.

  18. Cardiovascular Patterning as Determined by Hemodynamic Forces and Blood Vessel Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gregory A.; Udan, Ryan S.; Dickinson, Mary E.; Henkelman, R. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background Vascular patterning depends on coordinated timing of arteriovenous specification of endothelial cells and the concomitant hemodynamic forces supplied by the onset of cardiac function. Using a combination of 3D imaging by OPT and embryo registration techniques, we sought to identify structural differences between three different mouse models of cardiovascular perturbation. Results Endoglin mutant mice shared a high degree of similarity to Mlc2a mutant mice, which have been shown to have a primary developmental heart defect causing secondary vessel remodeling failures. Dll4 mutant mice, which have well-characterized arterial blood vessel specification defects, showed distinct differences in vascular patterning when compared to the disruptions seen in Mlc2a-/- and Eng-/- models. While Mlc2a-/- and Eng-/- embryos exhibited significantly larger atria than wild-type, Dll4-/- embryos had significantly smaller hearts than wild-type, but this quantitative volume decrease was not limited to the developing atrium. Dll4-/- embryos also had atretic dorsal aortae and smaller trunks, suggesting that the cardiac abnormalities were secondary to primary arterial blood vessel specification defects. Conclusions The similarities in Eng-/- and Mlc2a-/- embryos suggest that Eng-/- mice may suffer from a primary heart developmental defect and secondary defects in vessel patterning, while defects in Dll4-/- embryos are consistent with primary defects in vessel patterning. PMID:26340748

  19. The Emergence of Blood and Blood Vessels in the Embryo and Its Relevance to Postnatal Biology and Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, Tiffany M.; Hirschi, Karen K.

    Blood and blood vessels develop in parallel within mammalian systems, and this temporal and spatial association has led to the confirmation of an endothelial origin of hematopoiesis. The extraembryonic yolk sac and aorto-gonado-mesonephros (AGM) region both contain a specialized population of endothelial cells ("hemogenic endothelium") that function to produce hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which then differentiate to provide the full complement of blood cells within the developing embryo and furthermore in the adult system. Therefore, this population has great therapeutic potential in the fields of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. This chapter reviews the development of the vascular and hematopoietic systems, characterization and function of the hemogenic endothelium within embryonic and embryonic stem cell (ES cell) models, and speculate on the presence of such a population within the adult system. In order to harness this endothelial subtype for clinical application, we must understand both the normal functions of these cells and the potential for misregulation in disease states.

  20. Generation of functionally competent and durable engineered blood vessels from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Rekha; Daheron, Laurence; Liao, Shan; Vardam, Trupti; Kamoun, Walid S.; Batista, Ana; Buecker, Christa; Schäfer, Richard; Han, Xiaoxing; Au, Patrick; Scadden, David T.; Duda, Dan G.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient generation of competent vasculogenic cells is a critical challenge of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell-based regenerative medicine. Biologically relevant systems to assess functionality of the engineered vessels in vivo are equally important for such development. Here, we report a unique approach for the derivation of endothelial precursor cells from hiPS cells using a triple combination of selection markers—CD34, neuropilin 1, and human kinase insert domain-containing receptor—and an efficient 2D culture system for hiPS cell-derived endothelial precursor cell expansion. With these methods, we successfully generated endothelial cells (ECs) from hiPS cells obtained from healthy donors and formed stable functional blood vessels in vivo, lasting for 280 d in mice. In addition, we developed an approach to generate mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) from hiPS cells in parallel. Moreover, we successfully generated functional blood vessels in vivo using these ECs and MPCs derived from the same hiPS cell line. These data provide proof of the principle that autologous hiPS cell-derived vascular precursors can be used for in vivo applications, once safety and immunological issues of hiPS-based cellular therapy have been resolved. Additionally, the durability of hiPS-derived blood vessels in vivo demonstrates a potential translation of this approach in long-term vascularization for tissue engineering and treatment of vascular diseases. Of note, we have also successfully generated ECs and MPCs from type 1 diabetic patient-derived hiPS cell lines and use them to generate blood vessels in vivo, which is an important milestone toward clinical translation of this approach. PMID:23861493

  1. On the Role of the Blood Vessel Endothelial Microvilli in the Blood Flow in Small Capillaries

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Vladimir; Zueva, Lidia; Sanabria, Priscila; Wessinger, William Dave; Golubeva, Tatiana; Khmelinskii, Igor; Inyushin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microvilli that protrude into the capillary lumen, although invisible in the optical microscopy, may play an important role in the blood flow control in the capillaries. Because of the plug effects, the width of the gap between the capillary wall and the blood cell is especially critical for the blood flow dynamics in capillaries, while microvilli located on the capillary wall can easily control the velocity of the blood flow. We report that microvilli in the capillaries of different vertebrate species have similar characteristics and density, suggesting similarities between the respective regulation mechanisms. A simplified physical model of the capillary effective diameter control by the microvilli is presented. PMID:26604921

  2. Active Path Selection of Fluid Microcapsules in Artificial Blood Vessel by Acoustic Radiation Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Kohji; Muramatsu, Yusuke; Ueda, Sawami; Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Nakayashiki, Yusuke; Ishihara, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Micrometer-sized microcapsules collapse upon exposure to ultrasound. Use of this phenomenon for a drug delivery system (DDS), not only for local delivery of medication but also for gene therapy, should be possible. However, enhancing the efficiency of medication is limited because capsules in suspension diffuse in the human body after injection, since the motion of capsules in blood flow cannot be controlled. To control the behavior of microcapsules, acoustic radiation force was introduced. We detected local changes in microcapsule density by producing acoustic radiation force in an artificial blood vessel. Furthermore, we theoretically estimated the conditions required for active path selection of capsules at a bifurcation point in the artificial blood vessel. We observed the difference in capsule density at both in the bifurcation point and in alternative paths downstream of the bifurcation point for different acoustic radiation forces. Comparing the experimental results with those obtained theoretically, the conditions for active path selection were calculated from the acoustic radiation force and fluid resistance of the capsules. The possibility of controlling capsule flow towards a specific point in a blood vessel was demonstrated.

  3. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    PubMed

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (?CT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature, as well as pathways that would bypass neurosensory tissues. The orbital region houses a large venous sinus that receives cooled blood from the nasal region. Blood vessels from the nasal region and orbital sinus show anastomotic connections to the dural sinus system, allowing for the direct modulation of brain temperatures. The generality of the vascular patterns discovered in iguanas were assessed by firsthand comparison with other squamates taxa (e.g., via dissection and osteological study) as well as the literature. Similar to extant archosaurs, iguanas and other squamates have highly vascularized sites of thermal exchange that likely support physiological thermoregulation that "fine tunes" temperatures attained through behavioral thermoregulation. PMID:26466378

  4. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (?CT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature, as well as pathways that would bypass neurosensory tissues. The orbital region houses a large venous sinus that receives cooled blood from the nasal region. Blood vessels from the nasal region and orbital sinus show anastomotic connections to the dural sinus system, allowing for the direct modulation of brain temperatures. The generality of the vascular patterns discovered in iguanas were assessed by firsthand comparison with other squamates taxa (e.g., via dissection and osteological study) as well as the literature. Similar to extant archosaurs, iguanas and other squamates have highly vascularized sites of thermal exchange that likely support physiological thermoregulation that “fine tunes” temperatures attained through behavioral thermoregulation. PMID:26466378

  5. Multiscale 3D Model of Platelet-Vessel Wall Interactions in Blood Flow

    E-print Network

    Wu, Ziheng; Alber, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Platelet adhesion to the injury site of the blood vessel wall is a critical step in blood clot formation and an important biomedical problem. Platelets aggregate at the injury site through tethering and rolling on the injured endothelium layer expressing surface-bound von Willebrand factor (vWF) during the initial stage of the blood clot formation. A three-dimensional multiscale model is introduced to simulate receptor-mediated platelet adhesion to substrate exposed with vWF under different shear rates of blood flow. The modeling approach combines Lattice Boltzmann method for simulating flow, hybrid cell membrane model to represent physiological elastic properties of a platelet and stochastic receptor-ligand binding model to describe biologically justified adhesion kinetics. Multiscale model is implemented on the GPUs cluster for speeding up simulations. The model is calibrated by comparing simulated adhesive properties of a platelet with the in vitro experimental data under different flow rates.

  6. Comparison of two algorithms in the automatic segmentation of blood vessels in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeAnder, Robert; Chowdary, Myneni Sushma; Mokkapati, Swapnasri; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2008-03-01

    Effective timing and treatment are critical to saving the sight of patients with diabetes. Lack of screening, as well as a shortage of ophthalmologists, help contribute to approximately 8,000 cases per year of people who lose their sight to diabetic retinopathy, the leading cause of new cases of blindness [1] [2]. Timely treatment for diabetic retinopathy prevents severe vision loss in over 50% of eyes tested [1]. Fundus images can provide information for detecting and monitoring eye-related diseases, like diabetic retinopathy, which if detected early, may help prevent vision loss. Damaged blood vessels can indicate the presence of diabetic retinopathy [9]. So, early detection of damaged vessels in retinal images can provide valuable information about the presence of disease, thereby helping to prevent vision loss. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two blood vessel segmentation algorithms. Methods: Fifteen fundus images from the STARE database were used to develop two algorithms using the CVIPtools software environment. Another set of fifteen images were derived from the first fifteen and contained ophthalmologists' hand-drawn tracings over the retinal vessels. The ophthalmologists' tracings were used as the "gold standard" for perfect segmentation and compared with the segmented images that were output by the two algorithms. Comparisons between the segmented and the hand-drawn images were made using Pratt's Figure of Merit (FOM), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and Root Mean Square (RMS) Error. Results: Algorithm 2 has an FOM that is 10% higher than Algorithm 1. Algorithm 2 has a 6%-higher SNR than Algorithm 1. Algorithm 2 has only 1.3% more RMS error than Algorithm 1. Conclusions: Algorithm 1 extracted most of the blood vessels with some missing intersections and bifurcations. Algorithm 2 extracted all the major blood vessels, but eradicated some vessels as well. Algorithm 2 outperformed Algorithm 1 in terms of visual clarity, FOM and SNR. The performances of these algorithms show that they have an appreciable amount of potential in helping ophthalmologists detect the severity of eye-related diseases and prevent vision loss.

  7. Blood Vessels Pattern Heparan Sulfate Gradients between Their Apical and Basolateral Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Stoler-Barak, Liat; Moussion, Christine; Shezen, Elias; Hatzav, Miki; Sixt, Michael; Alon, Ronen

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of immune cell trafficking is directional guidance via gradients of soluble or surface bound chemokines. Vascular endothelial cells produce, transport and deposit either their own chemokines or chemokines produced by the underlying stroma. Endothelial heparan sulfate (HS) was suggested to be a critical scaffold for these chemokine pools, but it is unclear how steep chemokine gradients are sustained between the lumenal and ablumenal aspects of blood vessels. Addressing this question by semi-quantitative immunostaining of HS moieties around blood vessels with a pan anti-HS IgM mAb, we found a striking HS enrichment in the basal lamina of resting and inflamed post capillary skin venules, as well as in high endothelial venules (HEVs) of lymph nodes. Staining of skin vessels with a glycocalyx probe further suggested that their lumenal glycocalyx contains much lower HS density than their basolateral extracellular matrix (ECM). This polarized HS pattern was observed also in isolated resting and inflamed microvascular dermal cells. Notably, progressive skin inflammation resulted in massive ECM deposition and in further HS enrichment around skin post capillary venules and their associated pericytes. Inflammation-dependent HS enrichment was not compromised in mice deficient in the main HS degrading enzyme, heparanase. Our results suggest that the blood vasculature patterns steep gradients of HS scaffolds between their lumenal and basolateral endothelial aspects, and that inflammatory processes can further enrich the HS content nearby inflamed vessels. We propose that chemokine gradients between the lumenal and ablumenal sides of vessels could be favored by these sharp HS scaffold gradients. PMID:24465652

  8. Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot

    PubMed Central

    Kastrup, Christian J.; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Figueiredo, Jose Luiz; Lee, Haeshin; Kambhampati, Swetha; Lee, Timothy; Cho, Seung-Woo; Gorbatov, Rostic; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Dang, Tram T.; Dutta, Partha; Yeon, Ju Hun; Cheng, Hao; Pritchard, Christopher D.; Vegas, Arturo J.; Siegel, Cory D.; MacDougall, Samantha; Okonkwo, Michael; Thai, Anh; Stone, James R.; Coury, Arthur J.; Weissleder, Ralph; Langer, Robert; Anderson, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The treatment of diseased vasculature remains challenging, in part because of the difficulty in implanting drug-eluting devices without subjecting vessels to damaging mechanical forces. Implanting materials using adhesive forces could overcome this challenge, but materials have previously not been shown to durably adhere to intact endothelium under blood flow. Marine mussels secrete strong underwater adhesives that have been mimicked in synthetic systems. Here we develop a drug-eluting bioadhesive gel that can be locally and durably glued onto the inside surface of blood vessels. In a mouse model of atherosclerosis, inflamed plaques treated with steroid-eluting adhesive gels had reduced macrophage content and developed protective fibrous caps covering the plaque core. Treatment also lowered plasma cytokine levels and biomarkers of inflammation in the plaque. The drug-eluting devices developed here provide a general strategy for implanting therapeutics in the vasculature using adhesive forces and could potentially be used to stabilize rupture-prone plaques. PMID:23236189

  9. Multiphoton microscopy for blood vessel imaging: new non-invasive tools (Spectral, SHG, FLIM).

    PubMed

    Werkmeister, E; Kerdjoudj, H; Marchal, L; Stoltz, J F; Dumas, D

    2007-01-01

    Imaging thick and opaque tissue, like blood vessel, in a noninvasive mode with high resolution, is nowadays possible with multiphoton technology. A near-infrared excitation presents the advantage to be compatible with living specimens and allows a deep penetration into tissues. The nonlinear excitation process is followed by several deactivation ways, among which fluorescence emission can be represented with Spectral or Lifetime imaging. Applied to ex vivo blood vessel imaging, these techniques enabled us to discriminate cell structures (nucleus, cytoskeleton) by fluorescent labelling (Hoechst, QDots). Another method, based on 2-photon excitation and which doesn't need any exogenous dye has also been experimented on arteries: SHG (Second Harmonic Generation) is a diffusion process generated from organized structures. Collagen molecules give rise to a strong SHG signal, enabling us to image the arterial wall (3-dimensional extracellular matrix). PMID:17641398

  10. In Vivo ?PIV Measurements of Blood Flow in Small Vessels of a Rat Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Timothy; Conner, Nadine; Russell, John; Legac, Paul

    2007-11-01

    Ongoing research at the University of Wisconsin Medical School is addressing the effects of perfusion of glottal tissue on voice production. Building on the approach developed by Gharib's group at CalTech for embryonic zebra fish, we have modified ?PIV to measure flow in capillaries and small blood vessels in a live rat model. In lieu of seeding particles, the DPIV correlation algorithm tracks the motion of red blood cells moving through these vessels. The methodology will be presented along with a video sequence showing measurements made from muscle tissue laid nominally flat on a microscope stage. Challenges of measurements in three-dimensional geometries, i.e. the throat, will be discussed.

  11. Thermal expansion of blood vessels in low cryogenic temperatures Part I: A new experimental device

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to study the mechanical behavior of biological material during cryopreservation processes, the current study focuses on thermal expansion of blood vessels at low cryogenic temperatures. The current paper (Part I) describes a new experimental device for thermal expansion measurements of blood vessels in typical conditions of vitrification, which are associated with rapid cooling rates. For validation purposes, the thermal strain of frozen arteries in the absence of cryoprotectants was measured, and found to be about 10% larger than that of polycrystalline water; this observation agrees with literature data. The companion paper (Part II) reports on experimental results of cryoprotectants permeated with VS55, DP6 and 7.05M DMSO at high cooling rates applicable to vitrification. PMID:16487503

  12. Integrin-Mediated Cell-Matrix Interaction in Physiological and Pathological Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Niland, Stephan; Eble, Johannes A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological as well as pathological blood vessel formation are fundamentally dependent on cell-matrix interaction. Integrins, a family of major cell adhesion receptors, play a pivotal role in development, maintenance, and remodeling of the vasculature. Cell migration, invasion, and remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are integrin-regulated processes, and the expression of certain integrins also correlates with tumor progression. Recent advances in the understanding of how integrins are involved in the regulation of blood vessel formation and remodeling during tumor progression are highlighted. The increasing knowledge of integrin function at the molecular level, together with the growing repertoire of integrin inhibitors which allow their selective pharmacological manipulation, makes integrins suited as potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:21941547

  13. Dual-body magnetic helical robot for drilling and cargo delivery in human blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonseo; Jeon, Seungmun; Nam, Jaekwang; Jang, Gunhee

    2015-05-01

    We propose a novel dual-body magnetic helical robot (DMHR) manipulated by a magnetic navigation system. The proposed DMHR can generate helical motions to navigate in human blood vessels and to drill blood clots by an external rotating magnetic field. It can also generate release motions which are relative rotational motions between dual-bodies to release the carrying cargos to a target region by controlling the magnitude of an external magnetic field. Constraint equations were derived to selectively manipulate helical and release motions by controlling external magnetic fields. The DMHR was prototyped and various experiments were conducted to demonstrate its motions and verify its manipulation methods.

  14. Angiopoietin-4 increases permeability of blood vessels and promotes lymphatic dilation.

    PubMed

    Kesler, Cristina T; Pereira, Ethel R; Cui, Cheryl H; Nelson, Gregory M; Masuck, David J; Baish, James W; Padera, Timothy P

    2015-09-01

    The angiopoietin (Ang) ligands are potential therapeutic targets for lymphatic related diseases, which include lymphedema and cancer. Ang-1 and Ang-2 functions are established, but those of Ang-4 are poorly understood. We used intravital fluorescence microscopy to characterize Ang-4 actions on T241 murine fibrosarcoma-associated vessels in mice. The diameters of lymphatic vessels draining Ang-4- or VEGF-C (positive control)-expressing tumors increased to 123 and 135 ?m, respectively, and parental, mock-transduced (negative controls) and tumors expressing Ang-1 or Ang-2 remained at baseline (?60 ?m). Ang-4 decreased human dermal lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) monolayer permeability by 27% while increasing human dermal blood endothelial cell (BEC) monolayer permeability by 200%. In vivo, Ang-4 stimulated a 4.5-fold increase in tumor-associated blood vessel permeability compared with control when measured using intravital quantitative multiphoton microscopy. Ang-4 activated receptor signaling in both LECs and BECs, evidenced by tyrosine kinase with Ig and endothelial growth factor homology domains-2 (TIE2) receptor, protein kinase B, and Erk1,2 phosphorylation detectable by immunoblotting. These data suggest that Ang-4 actions are mediated through cell-type-specific networks and that lymphatic vessel dilation occurs secondarily to increased vascular leakage. Ang-4 also promoted survival of LECs. Thus, blocking Ang-4 may prune the draining lymphatic vasculature and decrease interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) by reducing vascular permeability. PMID:25977256

  15. Automated localisation of the optic disc, fovea, and retinal blood vessels from digital colour fundus images

    PubMed Central

    Sinthanayothin, C.; Boyce, J.; Cook, H.; Williamson, T.

    1999-01-01

    AIM—To recognise automatically the main components of the fundus on digital colour images.?METHODS—The main features of a fundus retinal image were defined as the optic disc, fovea, and blood vessels. Methods are described for their automatic recognition and location. 112 retinal images were preprocessed via adaptive, local, contrast enhancement. The optic discs were located by identifying the area with the highest variation in intensity of adjacent pixels. Blood vessels were identified by means of a multilayer perceptron neural net, for which the inputs were derived from a principal component analysis (PCA) of the image and edge detection of the first component of PCA. The foveas were identified using matching correlation together with characteristics typical of a fovea—for example, darkest area in the neighbourhood of the optic disc. The main components of the image were identified by an experienced ophthalmologist for comparison with computerised methods.?RESULTS—The sensitivity and specificity of the recognition of each retinal main component was as follows: 99.1% and 99.1% for the optic disc; 83.3% and 91.0% for blood vessels; 80.4% and 99.1% for the fovea.?CONCLUSIONS—In this study the optic disc, blood vessels, and fovea were accurately detected. The identification of the normal components of the retinal image will aid the future detection of diseases in these regions. In diabetic retinopathy, for example, an image could be analysed for retinopathy with reference to sight threatening complications such as disc neovascularisation, vascular changes, or foveal exudation.?? PMID:10413690

  16. Expansion of bubbles under a pulsatile flow regime in decompressed ovine blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Arieli, Ran; Marmur, Abraham

    2016-02-01

    After decompression of ovine large blood vessels, bubbles nucleate and expand at active hydrophobic spots on their luminal aspect. These bubbles will be in the path of the blood flow within the vessel, which might replenish the supply of gas-supersaturated plasma in their vicinity and thus, in contrast with our previous estimations, enhance their growth. We used the data from our previous study on the effect of pulsatile flow in ovine blood vessels stretched on microscope slides and photographed after decompression from hyperbaric exposure. We measured the diameter of 46 bubbles in 4 samples taken from 3 blood vessels (pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, and aorta) in which both a "multi-bubble active spot" (MBAS)-which produces several bubbles at a time, and at least one "single-bubble active spot" (SBAS)-which produces a single bubble at a time, were seen together. The linear expansion rate for diameter in SBAS ranged from 0.077 to 0.498mm/min and in MBAS from 0.001 to 0.332mm/min. There was a trend toward a reduced expansion rate for bubbles in MBAS compared with SBAS. The expansion rate for bubbles in an MBAS when it was surrounded by others was very low. Bubble growth is related to gas tension, and under a flow regime, bubbles expand from a diameter of 0.1 to 1mm in 2-24min at a gas supersaturation of 620kPa and lower. There are two phases of bubble development. The slow and disperse initiation of active spots (from nanobubbles to gas micronuclei) continues for more than 1h, whereas the fast increase in size (2-24min) is governed by diffusion. Bubble-based decompression models should not artificially reduce diffusion constants, but rather take both phases of bubble development into consideration. PMID:26592146

  17. A parallel two-level method for simulating blood flows in branching arteries with the resistive boundary condition q

    E-print Network

    Cai, Xiao-Chuan

    A parallel two-level method for simulating blood flows in branching arteries with the resistive modeling of blood flows in the arteries is an important and very challenging problem. In order to understand, computationally, the sophisticated hemodynamics in the arteries, it is essential to couple

  18. Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success

    PubMed Central

    Dragneva, Galina; Korpisalo, Petra; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials) and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies. PMID:23471910

  19. Promoting blood vessel growth in ischemic diseases: challenges in translating preclinical potential into clinical success.

    PubMed

    Dragneva, Galina; Korpisalo, Petra; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-03-01

    Angiogenic therapy, which involves the use of an exogenous stimulus to promote blood vessel growth, is an attractive approach for the treatment of ischemic diseases. It has been shown in animal models that the stimulation of blood vessel growth leads to the growth of the whole vascular tree, improvement of ischemic tissue perfusion and improved muscle aerobic energy metabolism. However, very few positive results have been gained from Phase 2 and 3 clinical angiogenesis trials. Many reasons have been given for the failures of clinical trials, including poor transgene expression (in gene-therapy trials) and instability of the vessels induced by therapy. In this Review, we discuss the selection of preclinical models as one of the main reasons why clinical translation has been unsuccessful thus far. This issue has received little attention, but could have had dramatic implications on the expectations of clinical trials. We highlight crucial differences between human patients and animal models with regards to blood flow and pressure, as well as issues concerning the chronic nature of ischemic diseases in humans. We use these as examples to demonstrate why the results from preclinical trials might have overestimated the efficacy of angiogenic therapies developed to date. We also suggest ways in which currently available animal models of ischemic disease could be improved to better mimic human disease conditions, and offer advice on how to work with existing models to avoid overestimating the efficacy of new angiogenic therapies. PMID:23471910

  20. High-resolution in-situ LDV monitoring system for measuring velocity distribution in blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyoden, Tomoaki; Abe, Shotaro; Ishida, Hiroki; Akiguchi, Shunsuke; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Takada, Yogo; Teranishi, Tsunenobu; Hachiga, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    We herein describe a cross-sectional multiple-point laser Doppler velocimetry (CS-MLDV) system for monitoring blood vessels that are sutured and connected during an operation. In order to observe the condition of a blood vessel during an operation, the previously developed linear MLDV (L-MLDV) system can realize velocity distribution imaging of the carotid artery in a living mouse by means of traverse laser light. We subsequently developed a CS-MLDV system, which can measure the instantaneous two-dimensional (2D) flow velocity, by upgrading the optical components and signal processing used in L-MLDV. The validity of the CS-MLDV results was verified through comparison with the results of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis. The results of the CFD analysis were similar to the experimental results obtained under the same flow field condition. Moreover, an instantaneous 2D velocity distribution can be obtained even for the case of flowing blood. Finally, we carried out in-vivo measurement in a mesenteric vessel of a mouse in order to demonstrate the potential of the CS-MLDV for use in surgery.

  1. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures.

    PubMed

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 ?m located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  2. 3-D ultrafast Doppler imaging applied to the noninvasive mapping of blood vessels in vivo.

    PubMed

    Provost, Jean; Papadacci, Clement; Demene, Charlie; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu

    2015-08-01

    Ultrafast Doppler imaging was introduced as a technique to quantify blood flow in an entire 2-D field of view, expanding the field of application of ultrasound imaging to the highly sensitive anatomical and functional mapping of blood vessels. We have recently developed 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging, a technique that can produce thousands of ultrasound volumes per second, based on a 3-D plane and diverging wave emissions, and demonstrated its clinical feasibility in human subjects in vivo. In this study, we show that noninvasive 3-D ultrafast power Doppler, pulsed Doppler, and color Doppler imaging can be used to perform imaging of blood vessels in humans when using coherent compounding of 3-D tilted plane waves. A customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 3-D ultrafast imaging. Using a 32 × 32, 3-MHz matrix phased array (Vermon, Tours, France), volumes were beamformed by coherently compounding successive tilted plane wave emissions. Doppler processing was then applied in a voxel-wise fashion. The proof of principle of 3-D ultrafast power Doppler imaging was first performed by imaging Tygon tubes of various diameters, and in vivo feasibility was demonstrated by imaging small vessels in the human thyroid. Simultaneous 3-D color and pulsed Doppler imaging using compounded emissions were also applied in the carotid artery and the jugular vein in one healthy volunteer. PMID:26276956

  3. Sensitivity analysis aimed at blood vessels detection using interstitial optical tomography during brain needle biopsy procedures

    PubMed Central

    Pichette, Julien; Goyette, Andréanne; Picot, Fabien; Tremblay, Marie-Andrée; Soulez, Gilles; Wilson, Brian C.; Leblond, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    A brain needle biopsy procedure is performed for suspected brain lesions in order to sample tissue that is subsequently analysed using standard histopathology techniques. A common complication resulting from this procedure is brain hemorrhaging from blood vessels clipped off during tissue extraction. Interstitial optical tomography (iOT) has recently been introduced by our group as a mean to assess the presence of blood vessels in the vicinity of the needle. The clinical need to improve safety requires the detection of blood vessels within 2 mm from the outer surface of the needle, since this distance is representative of the volume of tissue that is aspirated durirng tissue extraction. Here, a sensitivity analysis is presented to establish the intrinsic detection limits of iOT based on simulations and experiments using brain tissue phantoms. It is demonstrated that absorbers can be detected with diameters >300 ?m located up to >2 mm from the biopsy needle core for bulk optical properties consistent with brain tissue. PMID:26600990

  4. Microcirculation-on-a-Chip: A Microfluidic Platform for Assaying Blood- and Lymphatic-Vessel Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Miwa; Sasaki, Naoki; Ato, Manabu; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Sato, Kiichi; Sato, Kae

    2015-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic model of microcirculation containing both blood and lymphatic vessels for examining vascular permeability. The designed microfluidic device harbors upper and lower channels that are partly aligned and are separated by a porous membrane, and on this membrane, blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) were cocultured back-to-back. At cell-cell junctions of both BECs and LECs, claudin-5 and VE-cadherin were detected. The permeability coefficient measured here was lower than the value reported for isolated mammalian venules. Moreover, our results showed that the flow culture established in the device promoted the formation of endothelial cell-cell junctions, and that treatment with histamine, an inflammation-promoting substance, induced changes in the localization of tight and adherens junction-associated proteins and an increase in vascular permeability in the microdevice. These findings indicated that both BECs and LECs appeared to retain their functions in the microfluidic coculture platform. Using this microcirculation device, the vascular damage induced by habu snake venom was successfully assayed, and the assay time was reduced from 24 h to 30 min. This is the first report of a microcirculation model in which BECs and LECs were cocultured. Because the micromodel includes lymphatic vessels in addition to blood vessels, the model can be used to evaluate both vascular permeability and lymphatic return rate. PMID:26332321

  5. Application of high-frequency ultrasonography in closing small blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Malinowska, Sylwia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most common treatments performed in phlebological and aesthetic medicine clinics is closing small blood vessels in the lower extremities, so-called telangiectasias and reticular vessels. Currently, there are several methods that allow for closing the dilated vessels and obtaining desirable effects, both therapeutic and aesthetic. Unfortunately, despite applying various methods and instruments, the effects of treatments are frequently not satisfactory. The factor that largely contributes to decreasing the efficacy of such procedures is complicated anatomy of the venous system and the lack of a method to precisely specify the vessel's course, its diameter, location in the skin etc. High-frequency ultrasonography is a method enabling accurate determination of the vessels’ course as well as the measurement of their basic parameters, such as diameter, depth in the skin and presence or absence of perfusion. Thanks to ultrasound imaging with the use of high-frequency transducers, an adequate treatment method and procedure parameters may be selected, which entails enhancing the efficacy of the procedure itself. Ultrasonography may be also used for monitoring the performed procedures. PMID:26674921

  6. Spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Masaru; Sato, Shun; Abeygunawardhana, Pradeep K. W.; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishiyama, Akira; Wada, Kenji; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2015-07-01

    To realize the non-invasive blood glucose measurement, it will be effective to acquire the spectroscopic imaging of blood vessels only near the skin surface for eliminating other biological-component's disturbances. Our proposed imaging-type 2-dimensional Fourier spectroscopic imaging can limit the measuring depth into focal plane with high light detection sensitivity. Thus, the proposed method will be suitable for measuring only near the skin surface with detecting weak reflected light from inner biomembrane. But reflectance of skin surface is more than 1000 times larger than inner skin's reflectance. Paying attention on Fresnel reflection, fingers what were illuminated by p-polarized beam from Brewster's angle were observed with crossed-Nicol dark field optics. We successfully acquired spectroscopic characteristics of hemoglobin at vein area near the skin surface.

  7. Advances in probing the blood vessels of the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haacke, E. Mark

    2002-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging offers a marvelous means to probe the vasculature of the human body non-invasively. The first major advances came when the physics of the effects of motion in MRI were first understood well enough that new methods could be designed to compensate for the motion. This led to the development of MR angiography. The second major advance occurred when a contrast agent was used to enhance the signal from vessels independent of blood flow. This made it possible to image much smaller vessels because of the increased signal-to-noise ratio. The third major advance occurred when the susceptibility of the venous blood was used to create a new contrast unique to veins even in the presence of the contrast agent to enhance their signal. The fourth advance is close behind with the potential to use the susceptibility to measure the local oxygen content. Each of these advances involved some interesting physics and raised questions about local magnetic field effects, some of which remain unanswered yet today. We will show results from the first three levels with hints at how to proceed to the fourth. The development of this technology has important clinical implications. With new higher relaxivity contrast agents and higher field magnets coming on the market, the possibility to image vessels down to on the order of 100 microns may be viable. Each advance has enhanced the range of applications from just imaging vessels to occult vascular disease, trauma, the detection of blood products, and physiologic function of the tissue itself.

  8. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-independent bioactivation of nitroglycerin in porcine and bovine blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, Regina; Wölkart, Gerald; Opelt, Marissa; Schwarzenegger, Christine; Hofinger, Marielies; Neubauer, Andrea; Kollau, Alexander; Schmidt, Kurt; Schrammel, Astrid; Mayer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The vascular bioactivation of the antianginal drug nitroglycerin (GTN), yielding 1,2-glycerol dinitrate and nitric oxide or a related activator of soluble guanylate cyclase, is catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) in rodent and human blood vessels. The essential role of ALDH2 has been confirmed in many studies and is considered as general principle of GTN-induced vasodilation in mammals. However, this view is challenged by an early report showing that diphenyleneiodonium, which we recently characterized as potent ALDH2 inhibitor, has no effect on GTN-induced relaxation of bovine coronary arteries (De La Lande et al., 1996). We investigated this issue and found that inhibition of ALDH2 attenuates GTN-induced coronary vasodilation in isolated perfused rat hearts but has no effect on relaxation to GTN of bovine and porcine coronary arteries. This observation is explained by low levels of ALDH2 protein expression in bovine coronary arteries and several types of porcine blood vessels. ALDH2 mRNA expression and the rates of GTN denitration were similarly low, excluding a significant contribution of ALDH2 to the bioactivation of GTN in these vessels. Attempts to identify the responsible pathway with enzyme inhibitors did not provide conclusive evidence for the involvement of ALDH3A1, cytochrome P450, or GSH-S-transferase. Thus, the present manuscript describes a hitherto unrecognized pathway of GTN bioactivation in bovine and porcine blood vessels. If present in the human vasculature, this pathway might contribute to the therapeutic effects of organic nitrates that are not metabolized by ALDH2. PMID:25576686

  9. Three-Dimensional Blood Vessel Segmentation and Centerline Extraction based on Two-Dimensional Cross-Section Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul Prasanna; Albregtsen, Fritz; Reimers, Martin; Edwin, Bjørn; Langø, Thomas; Elle, Ole Jakob

    2015-05-01

    The segmentation of tubular tree structures like vessel systems in volumetric datasets is of vital interest for many medical applications. In this paper we present a novel, semi-automatic method for blood vessel segmentation and centerline extraction, by tracking the blood vessel tree from a user-initiated seed point to the ends of the blood vessel tree. The novelty of our method is in performing only two-dimensional cross-section analysis for segmentation of the connected blood vessels. The cross-section analysis is done by our novel single-scale or multi-scale circle enhancement filter, used at the blood vessel trunk or bifurcation, respectively. The method was validated for both synthetic and medical images. Our validation has shown that the cross-sectional centerline error for our method is below 0.8 pixels and the Dice coefficient for our segmentation is 80% ± 2.7%. On combining our method with an optional active contour post-processing, the Dice coefficient for the resulting segmentation is found to be 94% ± 2.4%. Furthermore, by restricting the image analysis to the regions of interest and converting most of the three-dimensional calculations to two-dimensional calculations, the processing was found to be more than 18 times faster than Frangi vesselness with thinning, 8 times faster than user-initiated active contour segmentation with thinning and 7 times faster than our previous method. PMID:25398332

  10. Are Retinal Vessels Calibers Influenced by Blood Pressure Measured at the Time of Retinography Acquisition?

    PubMed Central

    Pakter, Helena M.; Maestri, Marcelo K.; Beltrami-Moreira, Marina; Gus, Miguel; Moreira, Leila B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Retinal arterial narrowing is associated with higher office blood pressure (BP) and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, but it is still unknown if the vessel caliber is associated with BP measured at the time of retinography acquisition. Methods Retinal arteriolar and venular calibers were measured by the microdensitometric method in 448 patients with hypertension. Participants underwent 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP) monitoring simultaneously with the retinography acquisition. Association between arteriolar and venular calibers with increase of 10 mmHg in the mean 24-hours, daily, and nightly BP, and with BP measured at the time of retinography, was evaluated by ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Results Mean 24-hours, daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP were inversely associated with the arteriolar caliber, but not with the venular caliber. Arteriolar caliber decreased -0.8 (95% CI -1.4 to -0.2) ?m per 10-mmHg increase in 24-hours mean systolic BP, adjusted for age, gender, fellow vessel, and duration of hypertension (P = 0.01). The corresponding decreasing in arteriolar caliber by 10 mmHg of increasing in mean diastolic BP was -1.1 ?m (-2.0 to -0.2, P = 0.02). The decrease of arteriolar caliber by the same increasing of BP measured at the time of retinography was lower and not statistically significant, particularly for mean diastolic BP and outer arterioles calibers: -1.0 (-1.8 to -0.2) ?m in the daytime BP average versus -0.3 (-0.9 to 0.3) at the moment of retinography acquisition. Conclusions These findings suggest that the caliber of arteriolar retinal vessels in patients with uncontrolled hypertension are not significantly influenced by blood pressure measured at the time of retinography acquisition. PMID:26375034

  11. Regulation of Cellular Communication by Signaling Microdomains in the Blood Vessel Wall

    PubMed Central

    Billaud, Marie; Lohman, Alexander W.; Johnstone, Scott R.; Biwer, Lauren A.; Mutchler, Stephanie; Isakson, Brant E.

    2014-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the accumulation of proteins in specific regions of the plasma membrane can facilitate cellular communication. These regions, termed signaling microdomains, are found throughout the blood vessel wall where cellular communication, both within and between cell types, must be tightly regulated to maintain proper vascular function. We will define a cellular signaling microdomain and apply this definition to the plethora of means by which cellular communication has been hypothesized to occur in the blood vessel wall. To that end, we make a case for three broad areas of cellular communication where signaling microdomains could play an important role: 1) paracrine release of free radicals and gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species; 2) role of ion channels including gap junctions and potassium channels, especially those associated with the endothelium-derived hyperpolarization mediated signaling, and lastly, 3) mechanism of exocytosis that has considerable oversight by signaling microdomains, especially those associated with the release of von Willebrand factor. When summed, we believe that it is clear that the organization and regulation of signaling microdomains is an essential component to vessel wall function. PMID:24671377

  12. Blood vessel ultrastructural picture in a CADASIL patient diagnosed at an advanced age.

    PubMed

    Lewandowska, Eliza; Felczak, Paulina; Buczek, Julia; Gramza, Karolina; Rafa?owska, Janina

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 84-year-old male patient afflicted by cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) showing minimal symptoms of disease. The patient was diagnosed on the basis of ultrastructural and genetic examinations. Ultrastructurally, a typical vascular pathology was found. However, in abnormal capillary vessel walls no granular osmiophilic material (GOM) was found. In the arteriole there were only a few GOM deposits that revealed various structures, of which only some resembled typical round GOM. The arteriolar walls showed severe damage, including fragmentation, degeneration and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with numerous deposits of elastin, mucosubstances, different granular debris, as well as collagen fibres in the basement membrane. Lysosomal inclusions with fingerprint morphology, atypical for CADASIL, were located in some of the VSMCs. Very old age at the onset of the disease may suggest that morphological changes in blood vessels, described in this report, may be due to both the disease and the patient's age. To our best knowledge it is the first description of pathology of blood vessels and GOM morphology in a CADASIL patient diagnosed at an advanced age. PMID:25574750

  13. The murine allantois: a model system for the study of blood vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ripla

    2012-01-01

    The allantois is the embryonic precursor of the umbilical cord in mammals and is one of several embryonic regions, including the yolk sac and dorsal aorta, that undergoes vasculogenesis, the de novo formation of blood vessels. Despite its importance in establishing the chorioallantoic placenta and umbilical circulation, the allantois frequently is overlooked in embryologic studies. Nonetheless, recent studies demonstrate that vasculogenesis, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis are essential allantois functions in the establishment of the chorioallantoic placenta. Here, we review blood vessel formation in the murine allantois, highlighting the expression of genes and involvement of pathways common to vasculogenesis or angiogenesis in other parts of the embryo. We discuss experimental techniques available for manipulation of the allantois that are unavailable for yolk sac or dorsal aorta, and review how this system has been used as a model system to discover new genes and mechanisms involved in vessel formation. Finally, we discuss the potential of the allantois as a model system to provide insights into disease and therapeutics. PMID:22855605

  14. Engineered blood vessel networks connect to host vasculature via wrapping-and-tapping anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gang; Liao, Shan; Kit Wong, Hon; Lacorre, Delphine A.; di Tomaso, Emmanuelle; Au, Patrick; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2011-01-01

    Rapid blood perfusion is critical for postimplantation survival of thick, prevascularized bioartificial tissues. Yet the mechanism by which implanted vascular networks inosculate, or anastomose, with the host vasculature has been unknown, making it difficult to develop optimized strategies for facilitating perfusion. Here we show that implanted vascular networks anastomose with host vessels through a previously unidentified process of “wrapping and tapping” between the engrafted endothelial cells (ECs) and the host vasculature. At the host-implant interface, implanted ECs first wrap around nearby host vessels and then cause basement membrane and pericyte reorganization and localized displacement of the underlying host endothelium. In this way, the implanted ECs replace segments of host vessels to divert blood flow to the developing implanted vascular network. The process is facilitated by high levels of matrix metalloproteinase-14 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressed by the wrapping ECs. These findings open the door to new strategies for improving perfusion of tissue grafts and may have implications for other physiologic and pathologic processes involving postnatal vasculogenesis. PMID:21835951

  15. From Blood Islands to Blood Vessels: Morphologic Observations and Expression of Key Molecules during Hyaloid Vascular System Development

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, D. Scott; Hasegawa, Takuya; Baba, Takayuki; Grebe, Rhonda; Galtier d'Auriac, Ines; Merges, Carol; Edwards, Malia; Lutty, Gerard A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The mode of development of the human hyaloid vascular system (HVS) remains unclear. Early studies suggested that these blood vessels formed by vasculogenesis, while the current concept seems to favor angiogenesis as the mode of development. We examined embryonic and fetal human HVS using a variety of techniques to gain new insights into formation of this vasculature. Methods. Embryonic and fetal human eyes from 5.5 to 12 weeks gestation (WG) were prepared for immunohistochemical analysis or for light and electron microscopy. Immunolabeling of sections with a panel of antibodies directed at growth factors, transcription factors, and hematopoietic stem cell markers was employed. Results. Light microscopic examination revealed free blood islands (BI) in the embryonic vitreous cavity (5.5–7 WG). Giemsa stain revealed that BI were aggregates of mesenchymal cells and primitive nucleated erythroblasts. Free cells were also observed. Immunolabeling demonstrated that BI were composed of mesenchymal cells that expressed hemangioblast markers (CD31, CD34, C-kit, CXCR4, Runx1, and VEGFR2), erythroblasts that expressed embryonic hemoglobin (Hb-?), and cells that expressed both. Few cells were proliferating as determined by lack of Ki67 antigen. As development progressed (12 WG), blood vessels became more mature structurally with pericyte investment and basement membrane formation. Concomitantly, Hb-? and CXCR4 expression was down-regulated and von Willebrand factor expression was increased with the formation of Weibel-Palade bodies. Conclusions. Our results support the view that the human HVS, like the choriocapillaris, develops by hemo-vasculogenesis, the process by which vasculogenesis, erythropoiesis, and hematopoiesis occur simultaneously from common precursors, hemangioblasts. PMID:23092923

  16. Understanding How Space Travel Affects Blood Vessels: Arterial Remodeling and Functional Adaptations Induced by Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delp, Michael; Vasques, Marilyn; Aquilina, Rudy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ever rise quickly from the couch to get something from the kitchen and suddenly feel dizzy? With a low heart rate and relaxed muscles, the cardiovascular system does not immediately provide the resistance necessary to keep enough blood going to your head. Gravity wins, at least for a short time, before your heart and blood vessels can respond to the sudden change in position and correct the situation. Actually, the human cardiovascular system is quite well adapted to the constant gravitational force of the Earth. When standing, vessels in the legs constrict to prevent blood from collecting in the lower extremities. In the space environment, the usual head-to-foot blood pressure and tissue fluid gradients that exist during the upright posture on Earth are removed. The subsequent shift in fluids from the lower to the upper portions of the body triggers adaptations within the cardiovascular system to accommodate the new pressure and fluid gradients. In animal models that simulate microgravity, the vessels in the head become more robust while those in the lower limbs become thin and lax. Similar changes may also occur in humans during spaceflight and while these adaptations are appropriate for a microgravity environment, they can cause problems when the astronauts return to Earth or perhaps another planet. Astronauts often develop orthostatic intolerance which means they become dizzy or faint when standing upright. This dizziness can persist for a number of days making routine activities difficult. In an effort to understand the physiological details of these cardiovascular adaptations, Dr. Michael Delp at Texas A&M University, uses the rat as a model for his studies. For the experiment flown on STS-107, he will test the hypothesis that blood vessels in the rats' hindlimbs become thinner, weaker, and constrict less in response to pressure changes and to chemical signals when exposed to microgravity. In addition, he will test the hypothesis that arteries in the brain become thicker as a result of microgravity-induced fluid shifts toward the head.

  17. Effect of a soluble surfactant on a finite sized bubble motion in a blood vessel

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, T. N.; Mukundakrishnan, K.; Ayyaswamy, P. S.; Eckmann, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    We present detailed results for the motion of a finite sized gas bubble in a blood vessel. The bubble (dispersed phase) size is taken to be such as to nearly occlude the vessel. The bulk medium is treated as a shear thinning Casson fluid and contains a soluble surfactant that adsorbs and desorbs from the interface. Three different vessel sizes, corresponding to a small artery, a large arteriole, and a small arteriole, in normal humans, are considered. The hematocrit (volume fraction of RBCs) has been taken to be 0.45. For arteriolar flow, where relevant, the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is taken into account. Bubble motion cause temporal and spatial gradients of shear stress at the cell surface lining the vessel wall as the bubble approaches the cell, moves over it and passes it by. Rapid reversals occur in the sign of the shear stress imparted to the cell surface during this motion. Shear stress gradients together with sign reversals are associated with a recirculation vortex at the rear of the moving bubble. The presence of the surfactant reduces the level of the shear stress gradients imparted to the cell surface as compared to an equivalent surfactant-free system. Our numerical results for bubble shapes and wall shear stresses may help explain phenomena observed in experimental studies related to gas embolism, a significant problem in cardiac surgery and decompression sickness. PMID:20305744

  18. Drug and light dose responses to focal photodynamic therapy of single blood vessels in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurana, Mamta; Moriyama, Eduardo H.; Mariampillai, Adrian; Samkoe, Kimberley; Cramb, David; Wilson, Brian C.

    2009-11-01

    As part of an ongoing program to develop two-photon (2-?) photodynamic therapy (PDT) for treatment of wet-form age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other vascular pathologies, we have evaluated the reciprocity of drug-light doses in focal-PDT. We targeted individual arteries in a murine window chamber model, using primarily the clinical photosensitizer Visudyne/liposomal-verteporfin. Shortly after administration of the photosensitizer, a small region including an arteriole was selected and irradiated with varying light doses. Targeted and nearby vessels were observed for a maximum of 17 to 25 h to assess vascular shutdown, tapering, and dye leakage/occlusion. For a given end-point metric, there was reciprocity between the drug and light doses, i.e., the response correlated with the drug-light product (DLP). These results provide the first quantification of photosensitizer and light dose relationships for localized irradiation of a single blood vessel and are compared to the DLP required for vessel closure between 1-? and 2-? activation, between focal and broad-beam irradiation, and between verteporfin and a porphyrin dimer with high 2-? cross section. Demonstration of reciprocity over a wide range of DLP is important for further development of focal PDT treatments, such as the targeting of feeder vessels in 2-? PDT of AMD.

  19. Mechanisms of ATP release and signalling in the blood vessel wall

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Alexander W.; Billaud, Marie; Isakson, Brant E.

    2012-01-01

    The nucleotide adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) has classically been considered the cell's primary energy currency. Importantly, a novel role for ATP as an extracellular autocrine and/or paracrine signalling molecule has evolved over the past century and extensive work has been conducted to characterize the ATP-sensitive purinergic receptors expressed on almost all cell types in the body. Extracellular ATP elicits potent effects on vascular cells to regulate blood vessel tone but can also be involved in vascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis. While the effects of purinergic signalling in the vasculature have been well documented, the mechanism(s) mediating the regulated release of ATP from cells in the blood vessel wall and circulation are now a key target of investigation. The aim of this review is to examine the current proposed mechanisms of ATP release from vascular cells, with a special emphasis on the transporters and channels involved in ATP release from vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, circulating red blood cells, and perivascular sympathetic nerves, including vesicular exocytosis, plasma membrane F1/F0-ATP synthase, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, connexin hemichannels, and pannexin channels. PMID:22678409

  20. Correlation mapping method of OCT for visualization blood vessels in brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izotova, O. A.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Lychagov, V. V.; Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, O. V.

    2013-11-01

    The burning issue in modern medicine is the diagnosis and treatment of various life-threatening diseases, in particular the diseases of brain. One of them is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). It occurs especially among newborn babies and is hard-diagnosed. In order to understand the nature of the ICH, the microcirculation of blood, which serves key functions within the body, is analyzed. On this basis a series of experiments was done, in the results of which it was showed, that latent stage of ICH is characterized by decrease of venous blood outflow and the loss of sensitivity of sagittal vein to vasoconstrictor effect of adrenaline. So, stress-related changes of the cerebral venous blood flow (CVBF) can be the source of this disease. In this paper registration CVBF was made with the help of commercially available Thorlabs Swept Source OCT System, using the correlation mapping method. In this method values of correlation coefficient of several images are analyzed. In the result of the algorithm the correlation map was obtained. By the resulting map the diameter of vessels was calculated, which is necessary for examination of effects of adrenalin to the vessels and identification symptoms of ICH.

  1. Simulations of Blood Flow in Plain Cylindrical and Constricted Vessels with Single Cell Resolution

    E-print Network

    Florian Janoschek; Federico Toschi; Jens Harting

    2011-05-31

    Understanding the physics of blood is challenging due to its nature as a suspension of soft particles and the fact that typical problems involve different scales. This is valid also for numerical investigations. In fact, many computational studies either neglect the existence of discrete cells or resolve relatively few cells very accurately. The authors recently developed a simple and highly efficient yet still particulate model with the aim to bridge the gap between currently applied methods. The present work focuses on its applicability to confined flows in vessels of diameters up to 100 micrometres. For hematocrit values below 30 percent, a dependence of the apparent viscosity on the vessel diameter in agreement with experimental literature data is found.

  2. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, a bile acid, promotes blood vessel repair by recruiting vasculogenic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Gu; Lee, Jun Hee; Hong, Shin Hee; Lee, Han Na; Kim, Chul Min; Kim, Seo Yoon; Yoon, Kang Jun; Oh, Bae Jun; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Jung, Seok Yoon; Asahara, Takayuki; Kwon, Sang-Mo; Park, Sang Gyu

    2015-03-01

    Although serum bile acid concentrations are approximately 10 µM in healthy subjects, the crosstalk between the biliary system and vascular repair has never been investigated. In this study, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) induced dissociation of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from stromal cells by reducing adhesion molecule expression. TUDCA increased CD34(+) /Sca1(+) progenitors in mice peripheral blood (PB), and CD34(+) , CD31(+) , and c-kit(+) progenitors in human PB. In addition, TUDCA increased differentiation of CD34(+) HSCs into EPC lineage cells via Akt activation. EPC invasion was increased by TUDCA, which was mediated by fibroblast activating protein via Akt activation. Interestingly, TUDCA induced integration of EPCs into human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by increasing adhesion molecule expression. In the mouse hind limb ischemia model, TUDCA promoted blood perfusion by enhancing angiogenesis through recruitment of Flk-1(+) /CD34(+) and Sca-1(+) /c-kit(+) progenitors into damaged tissue. In GFP(+) bone marrow-transplanted hind limb ischemia, TUDCA induced recruitment of GFP(+) /c-kit(+) progenitors to the ischemic area, resulting in an increased blood perfusion ratio. Histological analysis suggested that GFP(+) progenitors mobilized from bone marrow, integrated into blood vessels, and differentiated into VEGFR(+) cells. In addition, TUDCA decreased cellular senescence by reducing levels of p53, p21, and reactive oxygen species and increased nitric oxide. Transplantation of TUDCA-primed senescent EPCs in hind limb ischemia significantly improved blood vessel regeneration, as compared with senescent EPCs. Our results suggested that TUDCA promoted neovascularization by enhancing the mobilization of stem/progenitor cells from bone marrow, their differentiation into EPCs, and their integration with preexisting endothelial cells. PMID:25407160

  3. Limitations of quantitative photoacoustic measurements of blood oxygenation in small vessels.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Mathangi; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhang, Hao F; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V

    2007-03-01

    We investigate the feasibility of obtaining accurate quantitative information, such as local blood oxygenation level (sO2), with a spatial resolution of about 50 microm from spectral photoacoustic (PA) measurements. The optical wavelength dependence of the peak values of the PA signals is utilized to obtain the local blood oxygenation level. In our in vitro experimental models, the PA signal amplitude is found to be linearly proportional to the blood optical absorption coefficient when using ultrasonic transducers with central frequencies high enough such that the ultrasonic wavelengths are shorter than the light penetration depth into the blood vessels. For an optical wavelength in the 578-596 nm region, with a transducer central frequency that is above 25 MHz, the sensitivity and accuracy of sO2 inversion is shown to be better than 4%. The effect of the transducer focal position on the accuracy of quantifying blood oxygenation is found to be negligible. In vivo oxygenation measurements of rat skin microvasculature yield results consistent with those from in vitro studies, although factors specific to in vivo measurements, such as the spectral dependence of tissue optical attenuation, dramatically affect the accuracy of sO2 quantification in vivo. PMID:17301459

  4. 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels in spectral-domain OCT volumes of the optic nerve head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmoo; Abràmoff, Michael D.; Niemeijer, Meindert; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

    2010-03-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels can provide important information for detecting and tracking retinal vascular diseases including diabetic retinopathy, arterial hypertension, arteriosclerosis and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Many studies on 2-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from a variety of medical images have been performed. However, 3-D segmentation of retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) volumes, which is capable of providing geometrically accurate vessel models, to the best of our knowledge, has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate a method that can automatically detect 3-D retinal blood vessels from spectral-domain OCT scans centered on the optic nerve head (ONH). The proposed method utilized a fast multiscale 3-D graph search to segment retinal surfaces as well as a triangular mesh-based 3-D graph search to detect retinal blood vessels. An experiment on 30 ONH-centered OCT scans (15 right eye scans and 15 left eye scans) from 15 subjects was performed, and the mean unsigned error in 3-D of the computer segmentations compared with the independent standard obtained from a retinal specialist was 3.4 +/- 2.5 voxels (0.10 +/- 0.07 mm).

  5. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.E. Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (?)-?-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 ?M) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (?)-?-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (?)-?-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 ?M, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (?)-?-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-?-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These relaxations were associated with an inhibition of calcium entry. • Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 ?M, was without effect in either blood vessel. • Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient nitric oxide-dependent relaxation.

  6. Launch Conditions Might Affect the Formation of Blood Vessel in the Quail Chorioallantoic Membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, M. K.; Unsworth, B. R.; Sychev, B. R.; Guryeva, T. S.; Dadasheva, O. A.; Piert, S. J.; Lagel, K. E.; Dubrovin, L. C.; Jahns, G. C.; Boda, K.; Sabo, V.; Samet, M. M.; Lelkes, P. I.

    1998-01-01

    AS 2 part of the first joint USA-Russian MIR/Shuttle program, fertilized quail eggs were flown on the MIR 18 mission. Post-flight examination indicated impaired survival of both the embryos in space and also of control embryos exposed to vibrational and g-forces simulating the conditions experienced during the launch of Progress 227. We hypothesized that excess mechanical forces and/or other conditions during the launch might cause abnormal development of the blood supply in the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) leading to the impaired survival of the embryos. The CAM, a highly vascularized extraembryonic organ, provides for the oxygen exchange across the egg shell and is thus pivotal for proper embryonic development. To test our hypothesis, we compared angiogenesis In CAMS of eggs which were either exposed to the vibration and g-force profile simulating the conditions at launch of Progress 227 (synchronous controls), or kept under routine conditions in a laboratory Incubator (laboratory controls). At various time points during Incubation, the eggs were fixed in paraformaldehyde for subsequent dissection. At the time of dissection, the CAM was carefully lifted from the egg shell and examined as whole mounts by bright-field and fluorescent microscopy. The development or the vasculature (angiogenesis) was assessed from the density of blood vessels per viewing field and evaluated by computer aided image analysis. We observed a significant decrease In blood-vessel density in the synchronous controls versus "normal" laboratory controls beginning from day 10 of Incubation. The decrease in vascular density was restricted to the smallest vessels only, suggesting that conditions during the launch and/or during the subsequent Incubation of the eggs may affect the normal progress of angiogenesis in the CAM. Abnormal angiogenesis In the CAM might contribute to the impaired survival of the embryos observed in synchronous controls as well as in space.

  7. Localization of calcium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in blood vessels of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in bone forming cells which decreases in certain bones as a result of hypogravity or non-weight bearing. This enzyme can also hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, an effort was made to localize calcium-stimulated ATPase by cytochemistry to determine whether altered bone cell activity might be related to changing calcium levels which occur during hypogravity. The results indicate that Ca(++)-ATPase is largely found along the endothelium and basal lamina of blood vessels, and not found in bone forming cells. This suggests that calcium regulation in the vicinity of bone formation may be modulated by the vasculature of the area.

  8. A Pulsatile Flow Phantom for Image-Guided HIFU Hemostasis of Blood Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Greaby, Robyn; Vaezy, Shahram

    2005-03-28

    A pulsatile flow phantom for studying ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis in a controlled environment has been developed. An ex vivo porcine carotid artery was attached to the phantom and embedded in a visually and ultrasonically transparent gel. Heparinized porcine blood was pumped through the phantom. Power-Doppler and B-mode ultrasound were used to remotely target the HIFU focus to the site of a needle puncture. In nine trials, complete hemostasis was achieved after an average HIFU application of 55 +/- 34 seconds. The vessels remained patent after treatment. With this phantom, it will be possible to do controlled studies of ultrasound image-guided acoustic hemostasis.

  9. Transcriptome-wide analysis of blood vessels laser captured from human skin and chronic wound-edge tissue

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Sashwati; Patel, Darshan; Khanna, Savita; Gordillo, Gayle M.; Biswas, Sabyasachi; Friedman, Avner; Sen, Chandan K.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic wounds represent a substantial public health problem. The development of tools that would enable sophisticated scrutiny of clinical wound tissue material is highly desirable. This work presents evidence enabling rapid specific identification and laser capture of blood vessels from human tissue in a manner which lends itself to successful high-density (U133A) microarray analysis. Such screening of transcriptome followed by real-time PCR and immunohistochemical verification of candidate genes and their corresponding products were performed by using 3 mm biopsies. Of the 18,400 transcripts and variants screened, a focused set of 53 up-regulated and 24 down-regulated genes were noted in wound-derived blood vessels compared with blood vessels from intact human skin. The mean abundance of periostin in wound-site blood vessels was 96-fold higher. Periostin is known to be induced in response to vascular injury and its expression is associated with smooth muscle cell differentiation in vitro and promotes cell migration. Forty-fold higher expression of heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase1 (Sulf1) was noted in wound-site vessels. Sulf1 has been recently recognized to be anti-angiogenic. During embryonic vasculogenesis, CD24 expression is down-regulated in human embryonic stem cells. Wound-site vessels had lower CD24 expression. The findings of this work provide a unique opportunity to appreciate the striking contrast in the transcriptome composition in blood vessels collected from the intact skin and from the wound-edge tissue. Sets of genes with known vascular functions but never connected to wound healing were identified to be differentially expressed in wound-derived blood vessels paving the way for innovative clinically relevant hypotheses. PMID:17728400

  10. Hydrodynamic modeling of targeted magnetic-particle delivery in a blood vessel.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huei Chu

    2013-03-01

    Since the flow of a magnetic fluid could easily be influenced by an external magnetic field, its hydrodynamic modeling promises to be useful for magnetically controllable delivery systems. It is desirable to understand the flow fields and characteristics before targeted magnetic particles arrive at their destination. In this study, we perform an analysis for the effects of particles and a magnetic field on biomedical magnetic fluid flow to study the targeted magnetic-particle delivery in a blood vessel. The fully developed solutions of velocity, flow rate, and flow drag are derived analytically and presented for blood with magnetite nanoparticles at body temperature. Results reveal that in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles, a minimum magnetic field gradient (yield gradient) is required to initiate the delivery. A magnetic driving force leads to the increase in velocity and has enhancing effects on flow rate and flow drag. Such a magnetic driving effect can be magnified by increasing the particle volume fraction. PMID:24231820

  11. Scaffold-free, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngmee; Ji, HaYeun; Chen, Zaozao; Fai Chan, Hon; Atchison, Leigh; Klitzman, Bruce; Truskey, George; Leong, Kam W

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBV) can serve as vascular grafts and may also play an important role in the development of organs-on-a-chip. Most TEBV construction involves scaffolding with biomaterials such as collagen gel or electrospun fibrous mesh. Hypothesizing that a scaffold-free TEBV may be advantageous, we constructed a tubular structure (1?mm i.d.) from aligned human mesenchymal cell sheets (hMSC) as the wall and human endothelial progenitor cell (hEPC) coating as the lumen. The burst pressure of the scaffold-free TEBV was above 200?mmHg after three weeks of sequential culture in a rotating wall bioreactor and perfusion at 6.8 dynes/cm(2). The interwoven organization of the cell layers and extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of the hMSC-based TEBV resembled that of native blood vessels. The TEBV exhibited flow-mediated vasodilation, vasoconstriction after exposure to 1??M phenylephrine and released nitric oxide in a manner similar to that of porcine femoral vein. HL-60 cells attached to the TEBV lumen after TNF-? activation to suggest a functional endothelium. This study demonstrates the potential of a hEPC endothelialized hMSC-based TEBV for drug screening. PMID:26456074

  12. Three Dimensional Endoscopic Image of a Blood Vessel Using High Frequency Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Kamada, Kumi; Chihara, Kunihiro; Secomski, Wojciech; Nowicki, Andrzej

    2000-05-01

    This paper describes a high frequency ultrasound (US) imaging system for observation of small tissues and a virtual endoscopic image of a blood vessel. This system consists of a US probe with a central frequency of 32 MHz, a microscope table designed to collect some slices of US brightness mode (B-mode) images, a transmitter containing control logic and a receiver circuit and a personal computer (PC) with an analog to digital (AD) converter. First, US B-mode images with high spatial resolution were obtained by shifting a measurement plane at a constant step of 0.075 mm. Second, three-dimensional (3-D) image reconstruction was performed with linear interpolation and a volume rendering technique. Finally, the point of view of the 3-D image was set in the human body and a virtual endoscopic image was presented. The experimental results present a blood vessel as if an ultrasound probe were inserted in it and reveal the anatomical structure under skin.

  13. Scaffold-free, Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Youngmee; Ji, HaYeun; Chen, Zaozao; Fai Chan, Hon; Atchison, Leigh; Klitzman, Bruce; Truskey, George; Leong, Kam W.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBV) can serve as vascular grafts and may also play an important role in the development of organs-on-a-chip. Most TEBV construction involves scaffolding with biomaterials such as collagen gel or electrospun fibrous mesh. Hypothesizing that a scaffold-free TEBV may be advantageous, we constructed a tubular structure (1?mm i.d.) from aligned human mesenchymal cell sheets (hMSC) as the wall and human endothelial progenitor cell (hEPC) coating as the lumen. The burst pressure of the scaffold-free TEBV was above 200?mmHg after three weeks of sequential culture in a rotating wall bioreactor and perfusion at 6.8 dynes/cm2. The interwoven organization of the cell layers and extensive extracellular matrix (ECM) formation of the hMSC-based TEBV resembled that of native blood vessels. The TEBV exhibited flow-mediated vasodilation, vasoconstriction after exposure to 1??M phenylephrine and released nitric oxide in a manner similar to that of porcine femoral vein. HL-60 cells attached to the TEBV lumen after TNF-? activation to suggest a functional endothelium. This study demonstrates the potential of a hEPC endothelialized hMSC-based TEBV for drug screening. PMID:26456074

  14. Silent Partner in Blood Vessel Homeostasis? Pervasive Role of Nitric Oxide in Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Ruba S; Lamon, Brian D; Hajjar, David P

    2009-11-01

    The endothelium generates powerful mediators that regulate blood flow, temper inflammation and maintain a homeostatic environment to prevent both the initiation and progression of vascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) is arguably the single most influential molecule in terms of dictating blood vessel homeostasis. In addition to direct effects associated with altered NO production (e.g. vasoconstriction, excessive inflammation, endothelial dysfunction), NO is a critical modulator of vaso-relevant pathways including cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin production and angiotensin II generation by the renin-angiotensin system. Furthermore, NO may influence the selectivity of COX-2 inhibitors and ultimately contribute to controversies associated with the use of these drugs. Consistent with a central role for NO in vascular disease, disruptions in the production and bioavailability of NO have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, aging, and smoking. The ability of the vessel wall to control disease-associated oxidative stress may be the most critical determinant in maintaining homeostatic levels of NO and subsequently the prospect of stroke, myocardial infarction and other CV abnormalities. To this end, investigation of mechanisms that alter the balance of protective mediators, including pathways that are indirectly modified by NO, is critical to the development of effective therapy in the treatment of CV disease. PMID:20368751

  15. Silent Partner in Blood Vessel Homeostasis? Pervasive Role of Nitric Oxide in Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deeb, Ruba S.; Lamon, Brian D.; Hajjar, David P.

    2010-01-01

    The endothelium generates powerful mediators that regulate blood flow, temper inflammation and maintain a homeostatic environment to prevent both the initiation and progression of vascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) is arguably the single most influential molecule in terms of dictating blood vessel homeostasis. In addition to direct effects associated with altered NO production (e.g. vasoconstriction, excessive inflammation, endothelial dysfunction), NO is a critical modulator of vaso-relevant pathways including cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandin production and angiotensin II generation by the renin-angiotensin system. Furthermore, NO may influence the selectivity of COX-2 inhibitors and ultimately contribute to controversies associated with the use of these drugs. Consistent with a central role for NO in vascular disease, disruptions in the production and bioavailability of NO have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, obesity, aging, and smoking. The ability of the vessel wall to control disease-associated oxidative stress may be the most critical determinant in maintaining homeostatic levels of NO and subsequently the prospect of stroke, myocardial infarction and other CV abnormalities. To this end, investigation of mechanisms that alter the balance of protective mediators, including pathways that are indirectly modified by NO, is critical to the development of effective therapy in the treatment of CV disease. PMID:20368751

  16. Discrimination between two different grades of human glioma based on blood vessel infrared spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Wehbe, Katia; Forfar, Isabelle; Eimer, Sandrine; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2015-09-01

    Gliomas are brain tumours classified into four grades with increasing malignancy from I to IV. The development and the progression of malignant glioma largely depend on the tumour vascularization. Due to their tissue heterogeneity, glioma cases can be difficult to classify into a specific grade using the gold standard of histological observation, hence the need to base classification on a quantitative and reliable analytical method for accurately grading the disease. Previous works focused specifically on vascularization study by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proving this method to be a way forward to detect biochemical changes in the tumour tissue not detectable by visual techniques. In this project, we employed FTIR imaging using a focal plane array (FPA) detector and globar source to analyse large areas of glioma tumour tissue sections via molecular fingerprinting in view of helping to define markers of the tumour grade. Unsupervised multivariate analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis) of blood vessel spectral data, retrieved from the FPA images, revealed the fine structure of the borderline between two areas identified by a pathologist as grades III and IV. Spectroscopic indicators are found capable of discriminating different areas in the tumour tissue and are proposed as biomolecular markers for potential future use of grading gliomas. Graphical Abstract Infrared imaging of glioma blood vessels provides a means to revise the pathologists' line of demarcation separating grade III (GIII) from grade IV (GIV) parts. PMID:26168973

  17. Fractals and fractal dimension of systems of blood vessels: An analogy between artery trees, river networks, and urban hierarchies

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    An analogy between the fractal nature of networks of arteries and that of systems of rivers has been drawn in the previous works. However, the deep structure of the hierarchy of blood vessels has not yet been revealed. This paper is devoted to researching the fractals, allometric scaling, and hierarchy of blood vessels. By analogy with Horton-Strahler's laws of river composition, three exponential laws have been put forward. These exponential laws can be reconstructed and transformed into three linear scaling laws, which can be named composition laws of blood vessels network. From these linear scaling laws it follows a set of power laws, including the three-parameter Zipf's law on the rank-size distribution of blood vessel length and the allometric scaling law on the length-diameter relationship of blood vessels in different orders. The models are applied to the observed data on human beings and animals early given by other researchers, and an interesting finding is that human bodies more conform to natural r...

  18. Acute Effects of High Intensity Focused Ultrasound on Blood Vessels In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Sara; Raymond, Jason; Church, Charles

    2006-05-01

    The objective was to conduct a parameter study to examine how High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) acoustic variables such as frequency, power, pulse duration, and duty cycle affect vascular occlusion in intact arteries. We used the New Zealand rabbit ear model and varied the ultrasound parameters using a dose-escalation approach. In each experiment, the animal's central auricular artery was exposed to HIFU. Frequency (2.2-4.7 MHz), power (10-87 W applied electrical power), pulse duration (5-20s), and duty cycle (5-100%) were varied to determine the optimal conditions for reducing/stopping arterial blood flow. In each experiment, the HIFU applicator was mechanically positioned above the target vessel and blood flow was monitored before and after HIFU treatment using Ultrasound Doppler and Laser Doppler Velocimetry. Vessel damage was confirmed with post-treatment histology. Results show that higher frequencies (3.5 MHz and 4.7 MHz) yielded occlusion more often than the lower frequency transducer (2.2 MHz). The results for lower duty-cycle sonications revealed that occlusion could be achieved at a duty cycle as low as 60%. We conclude that for vessels with minimal adjacent connective tissue, such as in the rabbit ear, HIFU treatments delivered at lower frequencies are less effective than treatments delivered at higher frequencies. Additionally, although the majority of exposures to date have been made using continuous-wave ultrasound, our results suggest that it is possible to achieve favorable results using lower duty-cycle (pulsed) exposures.

  19. Linear and branched perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) isomer patterns differ among several tissues and blood of polar bears.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a globally distributed persistent organic pollutant that has been found to bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs. Although principally in its linear isomeric configuration, 21-35% of the PFOS manufactured via electrochemical fluorination is produced as a branched structural isomer. PFOS isomer patterns were investigated in multiple tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland. The liver (n = 9), blood (n = 19), brain (n = 16), muscle (n = 5), and adipose (n = 5) were analyzed for linear PFOS (n-PFOS), as well as multiple mono- and di-trifluoromethyl-substituted branched isomers. n-PFOS accounted for 93.0 ± 0.5% of ?-PFOS isomer concentrations in the liver, whereas the proportion was significantly lower (p<0.05) in the blood (85.4 ± 0.5%). Branched isomers were quantifiable in the liver and blood, but not in the brain, muscle, or adipose. In both the liver and blood, 6-perfluoromethylheptane sulfonate (P6MHpS) was the dominant branched isomer (2.61 ± 0.10%, and 3.26 ± 0.13% of ?-PFOS concentrations, respectively). No di-trifluoromethyl-substituted isomers were detectable in any of the tissues analyzed. These tissue-specific isomer patterns suggest isomer-specific pharmacokinetics, perhaps due to differences in protein affinities, and thus differences in protein interactions, as well transport, absorption, and/or metabolism in the body. PMID:23920361

  20. Ultrasound sonication with microbubbles disrupts blood vessels and enhances tumor treatments of anticancer nanodrug

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Yin; Tseng, Hsiao-Ching; Shiu, Heng-Ruei; Wu, Ming-Fang; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Lin, Win-Li

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) sonication with microbubbles (MBs) has the potential to disrupt blood vessels and enhance the delivery of drugs into the sonicated tissues. In this study, mouse ear tumors were employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of US, MBs, and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) on tumors. Tumors started to receive treatments when they grew up to about 15 mm3 (early stage) with injection of PLD 10 mg/kg, or up to 50 mm3 (medium stage) with PLD 6 (or 4) mg/kg. Experiments included the control, PLD alone, PLD + MBs + US, US alone, and MBs + US groups. The procedure for the PLD + MBs + US group was that PLD was injected first, MB (SonoVue) injection followed, and then US was immediately sonicated on the tumor. The results showed that: (1) US sonication with MBs was always able to produce a further hindrance to tumor growth for both early and medium-stage tumors; (2) for the medium-stage tumors, 6 mg/kg PLD alone was able to inhibit their growth, while it did not work for 4 mg/kg PLD alone; (3) with the application of MBs + US, 4 mg/kg PLD was able to inhibit the growth of medium-stage tumors; (4) for early stage tumors after the first treatment with a high dose of PLD alone (10 mg/kg), the tumor size still increased for several days and then decreased (a biphasic pattern); (5) MBs + US alone was able to hinder the growth of early stage tumors, but unable to hinder that of medium stage tumors. The results of histological examinations and blood perfusion measurements indicated that the application of MBs + US disrupts the tumor blood vessels and enhances the delivery of PLD into tumors to significantly inhibit tumor growth. PMID:22619550

  1. In Situ Tissue Engineering of Functional Small-Diameter Blood Vessels by Host Circulating Cells Only.

    PubMed

    Talacua, Hanna; Smits, Anthal I P M; Muylaert, Dimitri E P; van Rijswijk, Jan Willem; Vink, Aryan; Verhaar, Marianne C; Driessen-Mol, Anita; van Herwerden, Lex A; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kluin, Jolanda; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation is a natural phase of the wound healing response, which can be harnessed for the in situ tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels using instructive, bioresorbable synthetic grafts. This process is dependent on colonization of the graft by host circulating cells and subsequent matrix formation. Typically, vascular regeneration in small animals is governed by transanastomotic cell ingrowth. However, this process is very rare in humans and hence less relevant for clinical translation. Therefore, a novel rat model was developed, in which cell ingrowth from the adjacent tissue is inhibited using Gore-Tex sheathing. Using this model, our aim here was to prove that functional blood vessels can be formed in situ through the host inflammatory response, specifically by blood-borne cells. The model was validated by implanting sex-mismatched aortic segments on either anastomoses of an electrospun poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) graft, filled with fibrin gel, into the rat abdominal aorta. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis revealed that after 1 and 3 months in vivo, over 90% of infiltrating cells originated from the bloodstream, confirming the effective shielding of transanastomotic cell ingrowth. Using the validated model, PCL/fibrin grafts were implanted, either or not loaded with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and cell infiltration and tissue development were investigated at various key time points in the healing cascade. A phased healing response was observed, initiated by a rapid influx of inflammatory cells, mediated by the local release of MCP-1. After 3 months in vivo, the grafts consisted of a medial layer with smooth muscle cells in an oriented collagen matrix, an intimal layer with elastin fibers, and confluent endothelium. This study proves the regenerative potential of cells in the circulatory system in the setting of in situ vascular tissue engineering. PMID:26200255

  2. Basic study for diagnosing blood vessel plaque employing ultrasonic velocity-change imaging in combination with near-infrared illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, Kazune; Tanigawa, Shohei; Wada, Kenji; Matsunaka, Toshiyuki; Horinaka, Hiromichi

    2015-08-01

    It is important to detect unstable blood vessel plaques at an early stage to prevent their detachment and subsequent myocardial or brain infarctions. The instability of such plaques depends on the size and distribution of the internal lipid core. We propose a method for identifying lipid domains by changes in the ultrasound propagation velocity after warming with a near-infrared laser. First, we demonstrate that the most effective warming of fatty tissue to induce ultrasonic velocity changes is with a 935-nm laser. Next, a compliant blood vessel phantom containing an internal lipid domain was constructed and attached to a pulsatile pump. Experiments showed that the lipid domain could be identified with ultrasonic velocity-change imaging even in the presence of flow pulsation. We submit that ultrasonic velocity-change imaging under optical illumination may be an effective technique for diagnosing the presence of blood vessel plaques.

  3. The Behaviors of Ferro-Magnetic Nano-Particles In and Around Blood Vessels under Applied Magnetic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Nacev, A.; Beni, C.; Bruno, O.; Shapiro, B.

    2010-01-01

    In magnetic drug delivery, therapeutic magnetizable particles are typically injected into the blood stream and magnets are then used to concentrate them to disease locations. The behavior of such particles in-vivo is complex and is governed by blood convection, diffusion (in blood and in tissue), extravasation, and the applied magnetic fields. Using physical first-principles and a sophisticated vessel-membrane-tissue (VMT) numerical solver, we comprehensively analyze in detail the behavior of magnetic particles in blood vessels and surrounding tissue. For any blood vessel (of any size, depth, and blood velocity) and tissue properties, particle size and applied magnetic fields, we consider a Krogh tissue cylinder geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. We find that there are three prototypical behaviors (blood velocity dominated, magnetic force dominated, and boundary-layer formation) and that the type of behavior observed is uniquely determined by three non-dimensional numbers (the magnetic-Richardson number, mass Péclet number, and Renkin reduced diffusion coefficient). Plots and equations are provided to easily read out which behavior is found under which circumstances (Figures 5, 6, 7, and 8). We compare our results to previously published in-vitro and in-vivo magnetic drug delivery experiments. Not only do we find excellent agreement between our predictions and prior experimental observations, but we are also able to qualitatively and quantitatively explain behavior that was previously not understood. PMID:21278859

  4. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    SciTech Connect

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  5. Quantitative metabolic profiling of NMR spectral signatures of branched chain amino acids in blood serum.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumita; Sengupta, Arjun; Chandra, Kousik

    2015-10-01

    Branched Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) are related to different aspects of diseases like pathogenesis, diagnosis and even prognosis. While in some diseases, levels of all the BCAAs are perturbed; in some cases, perturbation occurs in one or two while the rest remain unaltered. In case of ischemic heart disease, there is an enhanced level of plasma leucine and isoleucine but valine level remains unaltered. In 'Hypervalinemia', valine is elevated in serum and urine, but not leucine and isoleucine. Therefore, identification of these metabolites and profiling of individual BCAA in a quantitative manner in body-fluid like blood plasma/serum have long been in demand. (1)H NMR resonances of the BCAAs overlap with each other which complicates quantification of individual BCAAs. Further, the situation is limited by the overlap of broad resonances of lipoprotein with the resonances of BCAAs. The widely used commercially available kits cannot differentially estimate the BCAAs. Here, we have achieved proper identification and characterization of these BCAAs in serum in a quantitative manner employing a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-based technique namely T2-edited Correlation Spectroscopy (COSY). This approach can easily be extended to other body fluids like bile, follicular fluids, saliva, etc. PMID:25991390

  6. Angiogenin Expression during Early Human Placental Development; Association with Blood Vessel Formation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Nadine; Guibourdenche, Jean; Degrelle, Séverine A.; Evain-Brion, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    The placenta is a transient organ essential for fetal development. During human placental development, chorionic villi grow in coordination with a large capillary network resulting from both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Angiogenin is one of the most potent inducers of neovascularisation in experimental models in vivo. We and others have previously mapped angiogenin expression in the human term placenta. Here, we explored angiogenin involvement in early human placental development. We studied, angiogenin expression by in situ hybridisation and/or by RT-PCR in tissues and primary cultured trophoblastic cells and angiogenin cellular distribution by coimmunolabelling with cell markers: CD31 (PECAM-1), vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGF-R2), Tie-2, von Willebrand factor, CD34, erythropoeitin receptor (Epo-R), alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD45, cytokeratin 7, and Ki-67. Extravillous and villous cytotrophoblasts, isolated and differentiated in vitro, expressed and secreted angiogenin. Angiogenin was detected in villous trophoblastic layers, and structured and nascent fetal vessels. In decidua, it was expressed by glandular epithelial cells, vascular cells and macrophages. The observed pattern of angiogenin expression is compatible with a role in blood vessel formation and in cross-talk between trophoblasts and endothelial cells. In view of angiogenin properties, we suggest that angiogenin may participate in placental vasculogenesis and organogenesis. PMID:25093183

  7. Streaming flow from ultrasound contrast agents by acoustic waves in a blood vessel model.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eunjin; Chung, Sang Kug; Rhee, Kyehan

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the effects of streaming flow on ultrasound contrast agent (UCA)-assisted drug delivery, streaming velocity fields from sonicated UCA microbubbles were measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in a blood vessel model. At the beginning of ultrasound sonication, the UCA bubbles formed clusters and translated in the direction of the ultrasound field. Bubble cluster formation and translation were faster with 2.25MHz sonication, a frequency close to the resonance frequency of the UCA. Translation of bubble clusters induced streaming jet flow that impinged on the vessel wall, forming symmetric vortices. The maximum streaming velocity was about 60mm/s at 2.25MHz and decreased to 15mm/s at 1.0MHz for the same acoustic pressure amplitude. The effect of the ultrasound frequency on wall shear stress was more noticeable. Maximum wall shear stress decreased from 0.84 to 0.1Pa as the ultrasound frequency decreased from 2.25 to 1.0MHz. The maximum spatial gradient of the wall shear stress also decreased from 1.0 to 0.1Pa/mm. This study showed that streaming flow was induced by bubble cluster formation and translation and was stronger upon sonication by an acoustic wave with a frequency near the UCA resonance frequency. Therefore, the secondary radiant force, which is much stronger at the resonance frequency, should play an important role in UCA-assisted drug delivery. PMID:26025507

  8. Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds for Small-Diameter Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Carol Hsiu-Yueh

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States with many patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting. The current standard is using autografts such as the saphenous vein or intimal mammary artery, however creating a synthetic graft could eliminate this painful and inconvenient procedure. Large diameter grafts have long been established with materials such as DacronRTM and TeflonRTM, however these materials have not proved successful in small-diameter (< 6 mm) grafts where thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia are common in graft failure. With the use of a synthetic biodegradable polymer (polycaprolactone) we utilize our expertise in electrospinning and femtosecond laser ablation to create a novel tri-layered tissue engineered blood vessel containing microchannels. The benefits of creating a tri-layer is to mimic native arteries that contain an endothelium to prevent thrombosis in the inner layer, aligned smooth muscle cells in the middle to control vasodilation and constriction, and a mechanically robust outer layer. The following work evaluates the mechanical properties of such a graft (tensile, fatigue, burst pressure, and suture retention strength), the ability to rapidly align cells in laser ablated microchannels in PCL scaffolds, and the biological integration (co-culture of endothelial and smooth muscle cells) with electrospun PCL scaffolds. The conclusions from this work establish that the electrospun tri-layers provide adequate mechanical strength as a tissue engineered blood vessel, that laser ablated microchannels are able to contain the smooth muscle cells, and that cells are able to adhere to PCL fibers. However, future work includes adjusting microchannel dimensions to properly align smooth muscle cells along with perfect co-cultures of endothelial and smooth muscle cells on the electrospun tri-layer.

  9. Study of local blood flow and pressure in tissues and vessels of hip joint of experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Rasulov, R M; Kornilov, N V; Tashaev, Sh S; Bolshakov, O P

    2004-02-01

    Acute experiments on dogs showed that clamping of the femoral artery below origination of its deep branch playing the leading role in blood supply to the hip joint increases local blood flow in femoral head due to redistribution of arterial flow in favor of the deep femoral artery. This fact is essential for the development of surgical methods for the treatment of patients with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head. PMID:15273773

  10. Did antepartum hypoxic insult caused by fetal vessel thrombosis influence the procalcitonin level in umbilical blood? A case report.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Masatoki; Yamauchi, Aya; Yamashita, Rie; Sato, Yuichiro; Kodama, Yuki; Sameshima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    We report a case of marked elevation of the procalcitonin level in umbilical blood and neonatal blood at birth. The mother did not perceive fetal motion. Antepartum fetal heart rate monitoring showed a loss of variability and absence of acceleration. No fetal breathing movement, fetal movement, or fetal tone were observed by ultrasonography. The female neonate was delivered by cesarean section at 25?weeks of gestation, with birthweight 774?g. The umbilical arterial pH value at birth was 7.29. Mild elevation in interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-? in umbilical blood were observed. Cytochrome c showed a high level in umbilical and neonatal blood at birth. Placental histopathology revealed multiple fetal vessel thrombosis in the large stem villi and chorionic vessels. The neonate showed no infectious signs throughout the neonatal period. Computed tomography at 3?months of age revealed atrophy in the cerebrum and cerebellum. At 1?year after birth, the infant showed spastic quadriplegia. In this case, antepartum asphyxia due to fetal vessel thrombosis may have influenced the elevation of procalcitonin level in umbilical blood and neonatal blood at birth. PMID:26420447

  11. Alzheimer's disease and CADASIL are heritable, adult-onset dementias that both involve damaged small blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Vincent T

    2014-03-01

    This essay explores an alternative pathway to Alzheimer's dementia that focuses on damage to small blood vessels rather than late-stage toxic amyloid deposits as the primary pathogenic mechanism that leads to irreversible dementia. While the end-stage pathology of AD is well known, the pathogenic processes that lead to disease are often assumed to be due to toxic amyloid peptides that act on neurons, leading to neuronal dysfunction and eventually neuronal cell death. Speculations as to what initiates the pathogenic cascade have included toxic abeta peptide aggregates, oxidative damage, and inflammation, but none explain why neurons die. Recent high-resolution NMR studies of living patients show that lesions in white matter regions of the brain precede the appearance of amyloid deposits and are correlated with damaged small blood vessels. To appreciate the pathogenic potential of damaged small blood vessels in the brain, it is useful to consider the clinical course and the pathogenesis of CADASIL, a heritable arteriopathy that leads to damaged small blood vessels and irreversible dementia. CADASIL is strikingly similar to early onset AD in that it is caused by germ line mutations in NOTCH 3 that generate toxic protein aggregates similar to those attributed to mutant forms of the amyloid precursor protein and presenilin genes. Since NOTCH 3 mutants clearly damage small blood vessels of white matter regions of the brain that lead to dementia, we speculate that both forms of dementia may have a similar pathogenesis, which is to cause ischemic damage by blocking blood flow or by impeding the removal of toxic protein aggregates by retrograde vascular clearance mechanisms. PMID:24378989

  12. Angioblast Derived from ES Cells Construct Blood Vessels and Ameliorate Diabetic Polyneuropathy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamiya, Hideki; Naruse, Keiko; Cheng, Zhao; Ito, Sachiko; Shibata, Taiga; Kondo, Masaki; Kato, Jiro; Okawa, Tetsuji; Fujiya, Atsushi; Suzuki, Hirohiko; Kito, Tetsutaro; Hamada, Yoji; Oiso, Yutaka; Isobe, Kenichi; Nakamura, Jiro

    2015-01-01

    Background. Although numerous reports addressing pathological involvements of diabetic polyneuropathy have been conducted, a universally effective treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy has not yet been established. Recently, regenerative medicine studies in diabetic polyneuropathy using somatic stem/progenitor cell have been reported. However, the effectiveness of these cell transplantations was restricted because of their functional and numerical impairment in diabetic objects. Here, we investigated the efficacy of treatment for diabetic polyneuropathy using angioblast-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. Methods and Results. Angioblast-like cells were obtained from mouse embryonic stem cells and transplantation of these cells improved several physiological impairments in diabetic polyneuropathy: hypoalgesia, delayed nerve conduction velocities, and reduced blood flow in sciatic nerve and plantar skin. Furthermore, pathologically, the capillary number to muscle fiber ratios were increased in skeletal muscles of transplanted hindlimbs, and intraepidermal nerve fiber densities were ameliorated in transplanted plantar skin. Transplanted cells maintained their viabilities and differentiated to endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells around the injection sites. Moreover, several transplanted cells constructed chimeric blood vessels with recipient cells. Conclusions. These results suggest that transplantation of angioblast like cells induced from embryonic stem cells appears to be a novel therapeutic strategy for diabetic polyneuropathy. PMID:25977928

  13. High tissue glucose alters intersomitic blood vessels in zebrafish via methylglyoxal targeting the VEGF receptor signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Jörgens, Kristina; Stoll, Sandra J; Pohl, Jennifer; Fleming, Thomas H; Sticht, Carsten; Nawroth, Peter P; Hammes, Hans-Peter; Kroll, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia causes micro- and macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. Elevated glucose concentrations lead to increased formation of the highly reactive dicarbonyl methylglyoxal (MG), yet the early consequences of MG for development of vascular complications in vivo are poorly understood. In this study, zebrafish were used as a model organism to analyze early vascular effects and mechanisms of MG in vivo. High tissue glucose increased MG concentrations in tg(fli:EGFP) zebrafish embryos and rapidly induced several additional malformed and uncoordinated blood vessel structures that originated out of existing intersomitic blood vessels (ISVs). However, larger blood vessels, including the dorsal aorta and common cardinal vein, were not affected. Expression silencing of MG-degrading enzyme glyoxalase (glo) 1 elevated MG concentrations and induced a similar vascular hyperbranching phenotype in zebrafish. MG enhanced phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 and its downstream target Akt/protein kinase B (PKB). Pharmacological inhibitors for VEGF receptor 2 and Akt/PKB as well as MG scavenger aminoguanidine and glo1 activation prevented MG-induced hyperbranching of ISVs. Taken together, MG acts on smaller blood vessels in zebrafish via the VEGF receptor signaling cascade, thereby describing a new mechanism that can explain vascular complications under hyperglycemia and elevated MG concentrations. PMID:25092676

  14. Analysis of cooling effect by blood vessel on temperature rise due to ultrasound radiation in tissue phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuma; Tsuchiya, Takenobu; Fukasawa, Kota; Hatano, Yuichi; Endoh, Nobuyuki

    2015-07-01

    Ultrasound diagnostic equipment using ultrasound pulse-echo techniques is considered minimally invasive and highly versatile. However, one of the causes of damage due to ultrasound radiation is temperature rise caused by the absorption of sound energy. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the temperature rise caused by the radiation of ultrasound. Sound intensity in a medium is analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, and the temperature distribution caused by sound is estimated by the heat conduction equation (HCE) method in this study. Because blood vessels keep the temperature constant in tissues, the cooling effect of blood flow has to be taken into account for the precise estimation of temperature rise in human tissues. In general, it is well known that capillary vessels are mainly responsible for the cooling effect in tissues and their effect can be estimated as a function of bloodstream ratio. In this paper, a preliminary study on the cooling effect by a large vessel is described for the precise estimation of temperature rise. Blood flow in blood vessels is analyzed using the Navier-Stokes equation. To confirm the precision of the numerical analysis, the results of the numerical analysis are compared with the experimental results using a soft tissue phantom.

  15. Single image correlation for blood flow mapping in complex vessel networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirico, Giuseppe; Sironi, Laura; Bouzin, Margaux; D'Alfonso, Laura; Collini, Maddalena; Ceffa, Nicolo'G.; Marquezin, Cassia

    2015-05-01

    Microcirculation plays a key role in the maintenance and hemodynamics of tissues and organs also due to its extensive interaction with the immune system. A critical limitation of state-of-the-art clinical techniques to characterize the blood flow is their lack of the spatial resolution required to scale down to individual capillaries. On the other hand the study of the blood flow through auto- or cross-correlation methods fail to correlate the flow speed values with the morphological details required to describe an intricate network of capillaries. Here we propose to use a newly developed technique (FLICS, FLow Image Correlation Spectroscopy) that, by employing a single raster-scanned xy-image acquired in vivo by confocal or multi-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy, allows the quantitative measurement of the blood flow velocity in the whole vessel pattern within the field of view, while simultaneously maintaining the morphological information on the immobile structures of the explored circulatory system. Fluorescent flowing objects produce diagonal lines in the raster-scanned image superimposed to static morphological details. The flow velocity is obtained by computing the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) of the intensity fluctuations detected in pairs of columns of the image. The whole analytical dependence of the CCFs on the flow speed amplitude and the flow direction has been reported recently. We report here the derivation of approximated analytical relations that allows to use the CCF peak lag time and the corresponding CCF value, to directly estimate the flow speed amplitude and the flow direction. The validation has been performed on Zebrafish embryos for which the flow direction was changed systematically by rotating the embryos on the microscope stage. The results indicate that also from the CCF peak lag time it is possible to recover the flow speed amplitude within 13% of uncertainty (overestimation) in a wide range of angles between the flow and the image scanning direction.

  16. Vessel Segmentation Using A Shape Driven Flow Delphine Nain, Anthony Yezzi and Greg Turk

    E-print Network

    Turk, Greg

    Vessel Segmentation Using A Shape Driven Flow Delphine Nain, Anthony Yezzi and Greg Turk Georgia. We present a segmentation method for vessels using an im- plicit deformable model with a soft shape prior. Blood vessels are chal- lenging structures to segment due to their branching and thinning geome

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Soft Grains: Malaria-Infected Red Blood Cells Motion within Obstructed 2-D Capillary Vessel

    E-print Network

    Haris, Luman; Haryanto, Freddy; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics has been widely used to numerically solve equation of motion of classical many-particle system. It can be used to simulate many systems including biophysics, whose complexity level is determined by the involved elements. Based on this method, a numerical model had been constructed to mimic the behaviour of malaria-infected red blood cells within capillary vessel. The model was governed by three forces namely Coulomb force, normal force, and Stokes force. By utilizing two dimensional four-cells scheme, theoretical observation was carried out to test its capability. Although the parameters were chosen deliberately, all of the quantities were given arbitrary value. Despite this fact, the results were quite satisfactory. Combined with the previous results, it can be said that the proposed model were sufficient enough to mimic the malaria-infected red blood cells motion within obstructed capillary vessel. Keywords: molecular dynamics, two-dimensional model, red-blood cell motion, malaria

  18. PERIPHERAL NERVE-DERIVED CXCL12 AND VEGF-A REGULATE THE PATTERNING OF ARTERIAL VESSEL BRANCHING IN DEVELOPING LIMB SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenling; Kohara, Hiroshi; Uchida, Yutaka; James, Jennifer M.; Soneji, Kosha; Cronshaw, Darran G.; Zou, Yong-Rui; Nagasawa, Takashi; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In developing limb skin, peripheral nerves provide a spatial template that controls the branching pattern and differentiation of arteries. Our previous studies indicate that nerve-derived VEGF-A is required for arterial differentiation but not for nerve-vessel alignment. In this study, we demonstrate that nerve-vessel alignment depends on the activity of Cxcl12-Cxcr4 chemokine signaling. Genetic inactivation of Cxcl12-Cxcr4 signaling perturbs nerve-vessel alignment, and abolishes arteriogenesis. Further in vitro assays allow us to uncouple nerve-vessel alignment and arteriogenesis, revealing that nerve-derived Cxcl12 stimulates endothelial cell migration, while nerve-derived VEGF-A is responsible for arterial differentiation. These findings suggest a coordinated sequential action in which nerve-Cxcl12 functions over a distance to recruit vessels to align with nerves and subsequent arterial differentiation presumably requires a local-action of nerve-VEGF-A in the nerve-associated vessels. PMID:23395391

  19. Gamma-Secretase Inhibitor Treatment Promotes VEGF-A-Driven Blood Vessel Growth and Vascular Leakage but Disrupts Neovascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Kalén, Mattias; Nitzsche, Anja; Weber, Holger; Esser, Norbert; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Hellström, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is essential for normal development due to its role in control of cell differentiation, proliferation and survival. It is also critically involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. A key enzyme in the activation of Notch signaling is the gamma-secretase protein complex and therefore, gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs)—originally developed for Alzheimer's disease—are now being evaluated in clinical trials for human malignancies. It is also clear that Notch plays an important role in angiogenesis driven by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A)—a process instrumental for tumor growth and metastasis. The effect of GSIs on tumor vasculature has not been conclusively determined. Here we report that Compound X (CX), a GSI previously reported to potently inhibit Notch signaling in vitro and in vivo, promotes angiogenic sprouting in vitro and during developmental angiogenesis in mice. Furthermore, CX treatment suppresses tumor growth in a mouse model of renal carcinoma, leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and an increased tumor vascular density. Using a rabbit model of VEGF-A-driven angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that CX treatment promotes abnormal blood vessel growth characterized by vessel occlusion, disrupted blood flow, and increased vascular leakage. Based on these findings, we propose a model for how GSIs and other Notch inhibitors disrupt tumor blood vessel perfusion, which might be useful for understanding this new class of anti-cancer agents. PMID:21533193

  20. Analysis of the fast scanning method for tumor ablation with the effect of the large blood vessel by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Shan; Shen, Guofeng; Bai, Jingfeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2012-11-01

    While using HIFU for tumor ablation, the focal size of the ultrasound is relatively small compared with the tumor, therefore, numerous sonications are necessary to cover the whole treatment area. A large number of foci, on the other hand, lead to a complex problem for the optimization of the treatment parameters. Moreover, the existence of the large vessel might reduce the size of the lesion volume. A fast scanning method for volumetric ablation is investigated by numerical simulation with the effect of the large blood vessel. The proposed method is only available for phased array transducers because fast switch at the frequency of 10 Hz between several predetermined focus positions is needed. Since the duration time for each single ablation was identical, ignoring the ultrasound power, the scan path is the major parameter that should be decided. Five scan paths are simulated with and without a large vessel (diameter of 6mm) in the compute domain. The simulations solved by finite element method showed that the size of formed lesions had little difference while different scan paths applied. While the proposed scan method was used, the impact of the blood flow on the lesion volume depended on the distance between the large vessel and the focal area, as same as previous researches in the single focus case. Additionally, the orientation of the vessel played an important role in the formation of lesions.

  1. Fusing VE-cadherin to ?-catenin impairs fetal liver hematopoiesis and lymph but not blood vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Dartsch, Nina; Schulte, Dörte; Hägerling, René; Kiefer, Friedemann; Vestweber, Dietmar

    2014-05-01

    We have recently shown that genetic replacement of VE-cadherin by a VE-cadherin-?-catenin fusion construct strongly impairs opening of endothelial cell contacts during leukocyte extravasation and induction of vascular permeability in adult mice. Here we show that this mutation leads to lethality at midgestation on a clean C57BL/6 background. Investigating the reasons for embryonic lethality, we observed a lack of fetal liver hematopoiesis and severe lymphedema but no detectable defects in blood vessel formation and remodeling. As for the hematopoiesis defect, VE-cadherin-?-catenin affected neither the generation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from hemogenic endothelium nor their differentiation into multiple hematopoietic lineages. Instead, HSPCs accumulated in the fetal circulation, suggesting that their entry into the fetal liver was blocked. Edema formation was caused by disturbed lymphatic vessel development. Lymphatic progenitor cells of VE-cadherin-?-catenin-expressing embryos were able to leave the cardinal vein and migrate to the site of the first lymphatic vessel formation, yet subsequently, these cells failed to form large lumenized lymphatic vessels. Thus, stabilizing endothelial cell contacts by a covalent link between VE-cadherin and ?-catenin affects recruitment of hematopoietic progenitors into the fetal liver and the development of lymph but not blood vessels. PMID:24567373

  2. Investigation of source-detector separation optimization for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor for liver blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Baba, Justin S; Akl, Tony; Cote, Gerard L.; Wilson, Mark A.; Ericson, Milton Nance

    2011-01-01

    An implanted system is being developed to monitor transplanted liver health during the critical 7-10 day period posttransplantation. The unit will monitor organ perfusion and oxygen consumption using optically-based probes placed on both the inflow and outflow blood vessels, and on the liver parenchymal surface. Sensing probes are based on a 3- wavelength LED source and a photodiode detector. Sample diffuse reflectance is measured at 735, 805, and 940 nm. To ascertain optimal source-to-photodetector spacing for perfusion measurement in blood vessels, an ex vivo study was conducted. In this work, a dye mixture simulating 80% blood oxygen saturation was developed and perfused through excised porcine arteries while collecting data for various preset probe source-to-photodetector spacings. The results from this study demonstrate a decrease in the optical signal with decreasing LED drive current and a reduction in perfusion index signal with increasing probe spacing. They also reveal a 2- to 4-mm optimal range for blood vessel perfusion probe source-to-photodetector spacing that allows for sufficient perfusion signal modulation depth with maximized signal to noise ratio (SNR). These findings are currently being applied to guide electronic configuration and probe placement for in vivo liver perfusion porcine model studies.

  3. Regulation of signaling interactions and receptor endocytosis in growing blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Pitulescu, Mara E; Adams, Ralf H

    2014-01-01

    Blood vessels and the lymphatic vasculature are extensive tubular networks formed by endothelial cells that have several indispensable functions in the developing and adult organism. During growth and tissue regeneration but also in many pathological settings, these vascular networks expand, which is critically controlled by the receptor EphB4 and the ligand ephrin-B2. An increasing body of evidence links Eph/ephrin molecules to the function of other receptor tyrosine kinases and cell surface receptors. In the endothelium, ephrin-B2 is required for clathrin-dependent internalization and full signaling activity of VEGFR2, the main receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor. In vascular smooth muscle cells, ephrin-B2 antagonizes clathrin-dependent endocytosis of PDGFR? and controls the balanced activation of different signal transduction processes after stimulation with platelet-derived growth factor. This review summarizes the important roles of Eph/ephrin molecules in vascular morphogenesis and explains the function of ephrin-B2 as a molecular hub for receptor endocytosis in the vasculature. PMID:25482636

  4. Noncoding RNAs regulate NF-?B signaling to modulate blood vessel inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Henry S.; Njock, Makon-Sébastien; Khyzha, Nadiya; Dang, Lan T.; Fish, Jason E.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis, which include heart attack and stroke, occur several decades after initiation of the disease and become more severe with age. Inflammation of blood vessels plays a prominent role in atherogenesis. Activation of the endothelium by inflammatory mediators leads to the recruitment of circulating inflammatory cells, which drives atherosclerotic plaque formation and progression. Inflammatory signaling within the endothelium is driven predominantly by the pro-inflammatory transcription factor, NF-?B. Interestingly, activation of NF-?B is enhanced during the normal aging process and this may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. Importantly, studies utilizing mouse models of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis are uncovering a network of noncoding RNAs, particularly microRNAs, which impinge on the NF-?B signaling pathway. Here we summarize the literature regarding the control of vascular inflammation by microRNAs, and provide insight into how these microRNA-based pathways might be harnessed for therapeutic treatment of disease. We also discuss emerging areas of endothelial cell biology, including the involvement of long noncoding RNAs and circulating microRNAs in the control of vascular inflammation. PMID:25540650

  5. A New Device for Mechanical Testing of Blood Vessels at Cryogenic Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing program to study the thermo-mechanical effects associated with cryopreservation via vitrification (vitreous in Latin means glassy), the current study focuses on the development of a new device for mechanical testing of blood vessels at cryogenic temperatures. This device is demonstrated on a bovine carotid artery model, permeated with the cryoprotectant cocktail VS55 and a reference solution of 7.05M DMSO, below glass transition. Results are also presented for crystallized specimens, in the absence of cryoprotectants. Results indicate that the elastic modulus of a specimen with no cryoprotectant, at about ?140°C (8.6°C and 15.5°C below the glass transition temperature of 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively), is 1038.8 ± 25.2 MPa, which is 8% and 3% higher than that of a vitrified specimen permeated with 7.05M DMSO and VS55, respectively. The elastic modulus of a crystallized material at ?50°C is lower by ~20% lower from that at ?140°C. PMID:18958183

  6. Infrared tomography for diagnostic imaging of port wine stain blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, D.

    1994-11-15

    The objective of this work is the development of Infrared Tomography (IRT) for detecting and characterizing subsurface chromophores in human skin. Characterization of cutaneous chromophores is crucial for advances in the laser treatment of pigmented lesions (e.g., port wine stain birthmarks and tatoos). Infrared tomography (IRT) uses a fast infrared focal plane array (IR-FPA) to detect temperature rises in a substrate induced by pulsed radiation. A pulsed laser is used to produce transient heating of an object. The temperature rise, due to the optical absorption of the pulsed laser light, creates an increase in infrared emission which is measured by the IR-FPA. Although the application of IRT to image subsurface cracks due to metal fatigue is a topic of great interest in the aircraft industry, the application to image subsurface chromophores in biological materials is novel. We present an image recovery method based on a constrained conjugate gradient algorithm that has obtained the first ever high quality images of port wine blood vessels.

  7. Reconstruction of pediatric 3D blood vessel images from biplane angiograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Satoru; Nishiki, Masayuki; Asahina, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Chiharu; Yasunaga, Kunihiro; Nakamura, Hiroharu

    1996-04-01

    In pediatric cardiac angiography, there are several peculiarities such as limitation of both x-ray dose and the amount of contrast medium in comparison with conventional angiography. Due to these peculiarities, the catheter examinations are accomplished in a short time with biplane x- ray apparatus. Thus, it is often difficult to determine 3D structures of blood vessels, especially those of pediatric anomalies. Then a new 3D reconstruction method based on selective biplane angiography was developed in order to support diagnosis and surgical planning. The method was composed of particular reconstruction and composition. Individual 3D image is reconstructed with the particular reconstruction, and all 3D images are composed into standard coordinate system in the composition. This method was applied to phantom images and clinical images for evaluation of the method. The 3D image of the clinical data was reconstructed accurately as its structures were compared with the real structures described in the operative findings. The 3D visualization based on the method is helpful for diagnosis and surgical planning of complicated anomalies in pediatric cardiology.

  8. Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction and Cerebral Small Vessel Disease (Arteriolosclerosis) in Brains of Older People

    PubMed Central

    Khoong, Cheryl H.L.; Poon, Wayne; Esiri, Margaret M.; Markus, Hugh S.; Hainsworth, Atticus H.

    2014-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects brain tissue from potentially harmful plasma components. Small vessel disease ([SVD], arteriolosclerosis) is common in the brains of older people and is associated with lacunar infarcts, leukoaraiosis and vascular dementia. To determine whether plasma extravasation is associated with SVD, we immunolabeled the plasma proteins fibrinogen and IgG, which are assumed to reflect BBB dysfunction, in deep grey matter (anterior caudate-putamen, [DGM]) and deep subcortical white matter (DWM) in the brains of a well-characterized patient cohort with minimal Alzheimer disease pathology (Braak stage 0-II) (n = 84; age ?65 years). Morphometric measures of fibrinogen labeling were compared between people with neuropathologically defined SVD and aged control subjects. Parenchymal cellular labeling with fibrinogen and IgG was detectable in DGM and DWM in many subjects (>70%). Quantitative measures of fibrinogen were not associated with SVD in DGM or DWM; SVD severity was correlated between DGM and DWM (p < 0.0001). Fibrinogen in DGM showed a modest association with a history of hypertension; DWM fibrinogen was associated with dementia and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (all p < 0.05). In DWM, SVD was associated with leukoaraiosis identified in life (p < 0.05), but fibrinogen was not. Our data suggest that in aged brains plasma extravasation and hence local BBB dysfunction is common but do not support an association with SVD. PMID:25289893

  9. Myocardial blood flow assessment with 82rubidium-PET imaging in patients with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Andréa; Chalela, William; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Imada, Rodrigo; Soares, José; Do Val, Renata; Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Izaki, Marisa; Filho, Roberto Kalil; Meneghetti, José C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (?70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal 82Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). RESULTS: Stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p<0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by 82Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery disease in patients with left bundle branch block. PMID:26602518

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of soft grains: Malaria-infected red blood cells motion within obstructed 2-D capillary vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, L.; Khotimah, S. N.; Haryanto, F.; Viridi, S.

    2014-02-01

    Molecular dynamics has been widely used to numerically solve equation of motion of classical many-particle system. It can be used to simulate many systems including biophysics, whose complexity level is determined by the involved elements. Based on this method, a numerical model had been constructed to mimic the behaviour of malaria-infected red blood cells within capillary vessel. The model was governed by three forces namely Coulomb force, normal force, and Stokes force. By utilizing two dimensional four-cells scheme, theoretical observation was carried out to test its capability. Although the parameters were chosen deliberately, all of the quantities were given arbitrary value. Despite this fact, the results were quite satisfactory. Combined with the previous results, it can be said that the proposed model were sufficient enough to mimic the malaria-infected red blood cells motion within obstructed capillary vessel.

  11. Study on the Dynamic Compound Structure Composed of Mast Cells, Blood Vessels, and Nerves in Rat Acupoint

    PubMed Central

    Mingfu, Luo; Xiaotong, Dong; Xiaojing, Song; Jin, Jiang; Jinling, Zhann; Ying, Han

    2013-01-01

    Background. Circulation system, immunity system, and nervous system have a close relationship with meridian phenomen. However, there is still lack of the results of dynamic changes of these structures in acupoint. The aim of this study is to explore the interrelationship by composite staining techniques. Methodology/Principal Findings. Twenty rats were separated into electroacupuncture group (EA) and control group (Con) randomly. In EA group, the Zusanli and Weishu were stimulated with the 0.1?mA for 25?min. The tissue of these acupoints was double-stained with acetylcholinesterase and Toluidine blue. The compound structure of mast cells, nervous fibers, and mast cells in the acupoint was observed. Conclusions/Significance. The blood vessels, mast cells and acetylcholinesterase responded nerves were clearly observed in acupoint tissues. EA can result in the mast cell recruitment and migration along the blood vessels and nervous bundle, which conformed the dynamic compound structure and played important roles in acupuncture. PMID:23878591

  12. Novel method for early signs of clinical shock detection by monitoring blood capillary/vessel spatial pattern.

    PubMed

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Klämpfl, Florian; Riemann, Max; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2014-10-01

    The ability to monitor capillary/vessel spatial patterns and local blood volume fractions is critical in clinical shock detection and its prevention in Intensive Care Units (ICU). Although the causes of shock might be different, the basic abnormalities in pathophysiological changes are the same. To detect these changes, we have developed a novel method based on both spectrally and spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra. The preliminary study has shown that this method can monitor the spatial distribution of capillary/vessel spatial patterns through local blood volume fractions of reduced hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin. This method can be used as a real-time and non-invasive tool for the monitoring of shock development and feedback on the therapeutic intervention. PMID:23843326

  13. Effects of viscosity and constraints on the dispersion and dissipation of waves in large blood vessels. I.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E.; Anliker, M.; Chang, I.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of blood viscosity on dissipation as well as dispersion of small waves in arteries and veins by means of a parametric study. A linearized analysis of axisymmetric waves in a cylindrical membrane that contains a viscous fluid indicates that there are two families of waves: a family of slow waves and one of fast waves. The faster waves are shown to be more sensitive to variations in the elastic properties of the medium surrounding the blood vessels and at high values of the frequency parameter alpha. At low values of alpha the effects of viscosity on attenuation are reversed.

  14. Embolization of Hepatic Arterial Branches to Simplify Hepatic Blood Flow Before Yttrium 90 Radioembolization: A Useful Technique in the Presence of Challenging Anatomy

    SciTech Connect

    Karunanithy, Narayan; Gordon, Fabiana; Hodolic, Marina; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Wasan, Harpreet S.; Habib, Nagy; Tait, Nicholas P.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: In the presence of variant hepatic arterial anatomy, obtaining whole-liver coverage with yttrium 90 (Y90) radioembolization may be challenging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a technique whereby variant hepatic arterial branches are embolized and then Y90 is administered selectively into one remaining hepatic arterial branch results in whole-liver coverage and effective therapy. A retrospective comparison of treatment response was made between a group of patients who underwent this technique before Y90 administration and a group of patients who received standard Y90 administration as a single dose into the proper hepatic artery or in divided doses into the immediate hepatic artery branches. The rest of the workup and treatment were identical in both groups, including routine embolization of potential nonhepatic, nontarget vessels (e.g., the gastroduodenal artery). Methods: A total of 32 patients (mean age 56.9 years, range 39-77 years) treated with Y90 between June 2004 and March 2008 were analyzed. The primary malignancy was colorectal in 29, breast in 2, and cholangiocarcinoma in 1. Group 1 comprised 20 patients who had no alterations to their hepatic arterial supply. Group 2 comprised 12 cases who had undergone prior embolization of hepatic arterial branches before administration of Y90. The response to treatment was assessed by comparing standardized uptake value (SUV) on the pre- and postprocedure fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic studies of representative lesions within the right and left lobes of the liver. Results: In group 1, significant response (P < 0.001) was seen among right lobe lesions but not among left lobe lesions (P = 0.549). In group 2, there was a significant response among both right (P = 0.028) and left (P = 0.014) lobe lesions. No difference was found in the response of right lobe lesions (P = 0.726) between groups 1 and 2; a significantly greater response was found in group 2 compared to group 1 (P = 0.004) for left lobe lesions. Conclusion: Selective Y90 radioembolization after manipulation of hepatic arterial blood supply leads to an even distribution within the entire liver. When variations in hepatic arterial anatomy exist, this technique allows effective whole-liver radioembolization therapy from a single selective arterial injection.

  15. Modeling the Role of the Glymphatic Pathway and Cerebral Blood Vessel Properties in Alzheimer’s Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kyrtsos, Christina Rose; Baras, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly, affecting over 10% population over the age of 65 years. Clinically, AD is described by the symptom set of short term memory loss and cognitive decline, changes in mentation and behavior, and eventually long-term memory deficit as the disease progresses. On imaging studies, significant atrophy with subsequent increase in ventricular volume have been observed. Pathology on post-mortem brain specimens demonstrates the classic findings of increased beta amyloid (A?) deposition and the presence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) within affected neurons. Neuroinflammation, dysregulation of blood-brain barrier transport and clearance, deposition of A? in cerebral blood vessels, vascular risk factors such as atherosclerosis and diabetes, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E4 allele have all been identified as playing possible roles in AD pathogenesis. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of the glymphatic system in the clearance of A? from the brain via the perivascular space surrounding cerebral blood vessels. Given the variety of hypotheses that have been proposed for AD pathogenesis, an interconnected, multilayer model offers a unique opportunity to combine these ideas into a single unifying model. Results of this model demonstrate the importance of vessel stiffness and heart rate in maintaining adequate clearance of A? from the brain. PMID:26448331

  16. Antagonism and synergy between extracellular BMP modulators Tsg and BMPER balance blood vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Heinke, Jennifer; Juschkat, Maria; Charlet, Anne; Mnich, Leonie; Helbing, Thomas; Bode, Christoph; Patterson, Cam; Moser, Martin

    2013-07-15

    Growth and regeneration of blood vessels are crucial processes during embryonic development and in adult disease. Members of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family are growth factors known to play a key role in vascular development. The BMP pathway is controlled by extracellular BMP modulators such as BMP endothelial cell precursor derived regulator (BMPER), which we reported previously acts proangiogenically on endothelial cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Here, we explore the function of other BMP modulators, especially Tsg, on endothelial cell behaviour and compare them to BMPER. In Matrigel assays, BMP modulators chordin and noggin had no stimulatory effect; however, gremlin and Tsg enhanced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) sprouting. As the activation dynamics of Tsg were similar to those of BMPER, we further investigated the proangiogenic effect of Tsg on endothelial cells. Tsg enhanced endothelial cell ingrowth in the mouse Matrigel plug assay as well as HUVEC sprouting, migration and proliferation in vitro, dependent on Akt, Erk and Smad signalling pathway activation in a concentration-dependent manner. Surprisingly, silencing of Tsg also increased HUVEC sprouting, migration and proliferation, which is again associated with Akt, Erk and Smad signalling pathway activation. Furthermore, we reveal that Tsg and BMPER interfere with each other to enhance proangiogenic events. However, in vivo the presence of Tsg as well as of BMPER is mandatory for regular development of the zebrafish vasculature. Taken together, our results suggest that BMPER and Tsg maintain a fine-tuned equilibrium that controls BMP pathway activity and is necessary for vascular cell homeostasis. PMID:23641068

  17. Relation of Blood Pressure to Retinal Vessel Diameter in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Zinman, Bernard; Gardiner, Robert; Suissa, Samy; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Donnelly, Sandra M.; Goodyer, Paul; Strand, Trudy; Mauer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of blood pressure (BP) and use of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to retinal vessel diameter in normotensive, normoalbuminuric persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Participants Persons with T1DM and gradable fundus photographs both at baseline (n=147) and 5-year follow-up (n=124). Methods Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs (ABP) were measured. Retinal arteriolar and venular diameters were measured using a computer-assisted technique. Individual arteriolar and venular measurements were combined into summary indices that reflect the average retinal arteriolar (central retinal arteriolar equivalent [CRAE]) and venular (central retinal venular equivalent [CRVE]) diameter of an eye, respectively. Main Outcome Measures CRAE and CRVE. Results While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin and ambulatory pulse rate, daytime ambulatory systolic (-0.29 ?m effect per 1mmHg, P=.02) and daytime ambulatory diastolic (-0.44 ?m effect per 1mmHg, P=.04), nighttime ambulatory systolic (-0.27 ?m effect per 1mmHg, P=.03), and 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP (-0.31 ?m effect per 1mmHg, P=.03) were cross-sectionally associated with a smaller CRAE. While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin, ambulatory pulse rate and baseline CRAE, no BP measure was associated with a change in CRAE or CRVE over 5 years of follow-up. Treatment with losartan or enalapril was not associated with a statistically significant change in CRAE or CRVE. Conclusions ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect retinal arteriolar or venular diameter in normotensive persons with T1DM. PMID:20142543

  18. The ratio of body haematocrit to venous haematocrit in open heart surgery and estimation of the blood volume in the large and small vessels.

    PubMed

    Tanos, B; Kovács, G

    1979-01-01

    Double tracer blood volume technique revealed in open heart surgery patients a wide variability of Fcells-value in about 11 per cent of cases investigated, from the "normal" 0.91 value. The possible calculational error of blood volume measurements by single-isotopic--haematocrit methods in the normal or subnormal LVH-ranges point to the superiority of plasma volume determinations in the calculation of the total blood volume. The calculation of the volume of the blood-component actually not-labelled during single-isotopic--haematocrit procedures can be so highly inaccurate because of the hidden deviation of Fcells-value, that such misleading arithmetics has no real value and therefore should be omitted. Estimation of the large vessel and small vessel volumes and haematocrits in patients showed a rough 70 per cent---30 per cent distribution of the circulating blood volume between large and small vessels and an LVH tosmall vessel haematocrit ratio of 2:1 to 2:1.5. This offers a possibility to divide the circulating blood volume into a haemodynamically active (large vessel area) and a metabolically active (small vessel area) part, which can have important diagnostic and prognostic implications. PMID:555176

  19. Scanning electron microscopic study on the development of primitive blood vessels in chick embryos at the early somite-stage.

    PubMed

    Hirakow, R; Hiruma, T

    1981-01-01

    Primary vasculogenesis in chick embryos at the early somite stage (1-14 somites) was investigated mainly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), with special reference to the development of primitive blood vessels such as the arteria et vena vitellina (AV, VV), aorta dorsalis (AD) and vena cardinalis (VC). After glutaraldehyde fixation, the endoderm or ectoderm was removed from the embryos to expose either the ventral (AV, VV, AD) or the dorsal (VC), vascular system. The mode of vascular formation was found to be identical in all these blood vessels, arising first in loco as isolated solid masses or cords composed of so-called angioblasts. The angioblasts at this developmental phase could be distinguished from underlying mesenchymal cells, exhibiting a relatively flat surface. The VV was recognized first on both sides of the anterior intestinal portal at the 4-somite stage, whereas the forming AD was identified on the ventral surface of the paired somites at the 6-somite stage, appearing almost simultaneously from the cranial to caudal somite regions. After the 8-somite stage, the AV was formed by transformation of one of the caudal plexuses spreading to the area vasculosa. In the 9-somite stage, the angioblastic cords of the VC appeared on the dorsal side of the mesoderm in the same manner as for other ventral vessels. This finding differs from the statement of a previous author that the VCis formed by longitudinal anastomosis of intersegmental diverticula of the AD. PMID:7340557

  20. Painting blood vessels and atherosclerotic plaques with an adhesive drug depot

    E-print Network

    Kastrup, Christian

    The treatment of diseased vasculature remains challenging, in part because of the difficulty in implanting drug-eluting devices without subjecting vessels to damaging mechanical forces. Implanting materials using adhesive ...

  1. Micropatterned coculture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on layered electrospun fibrous mats toward blood vessel engineering.

    PubMed

    Li, Huinan; Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in vascular engineering is the establishment of proper microenvironment to guide the spatial organization, growth, and extracellular matrix (ECM) productions of cells found in blood vessels. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats with distinct ridges and grooves of different width were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which were assembled by stacking on vascular endothelial cell (EC)-loaded flat fibrous mats to mimic the in vivo-like organized structure of blood vessels. SMCs were mainly distributed in the ridges, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions led to the formation of elongated cell bodies, intense actin filaments, and expressions of collagen I and ?-smooth muscle actin in a parallel direction with fibers. ECs spread over the flat fibrous mats and expressed collagen IV and laminin with a cobblestone-like feature. A z-stack scanning of fluorescently stained fibrous mats indicated that SMCs effectively infiltrated into fibrous scaffolds at the depth of around 200 ?m. Compared with SMCs cultured alone, the coculture with ECs enhanced the proliferation, infiltration, and cytoskeleton elongation of SMCs on patterned fibrous mats. Although the coculture of SMCs made no significant difference in the EC growth, the coculture system on patterned fibrous scaffolds promoted ECM productions of both ECs and SMCs. Thus, this patterned fibrous configuration not only offers a promising technology in the design of tissue engineering scaffolds to construct blood vessels with durable mechanical properties, but also provides a platform for patterned coculture to investigate cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions in highly organized tissues. PMID:25204306

  2. Investigation of Blood Flow and the Effect of Vasoactive Substances in Cutaneous Blood Vessels of "Xenopus Laevis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Škorjanc, Aleš; Belušic, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a preparation of frog skin was presented, which can be used to demonstrate the basic concepts of blood flow regulation in a very clear and attractive way to high school and university students. In a freshly euthanized "Xenopus," a patch of abdominal skin was exposed from the internal side and viewed with a USB…

  3. Automatic Extraction of Blood Vessels in the Retinal Vascular Tree Using Multiscale Medialness

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Jihene; Montesinos, Philippe; Belmabrouk, Hafedh; Esclarín Monreal, Julio; Krissian, Karl

    2015-01-01

    We propose an algorithm for vessel extraction in retinal images. The first step consists of applying anisotropic diffusion filtering in the initial vessel network in order to restore disconnected vessel lines and eliminate noisy lines. In the second step, a multiscale line-tracking procedure allows detecting all vessels having similar dimensions at a chosen scale. Computing the individual image maps requires different steps. First, a number of points are preselected using the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix. These points are expected to be near to a vessel axis. Then, for each preselected point, the response map is computed from gradient information of the image at the current scale. Finally, the multiscale image map is derived after combining the individual image maps at different scales (sizes). Two publicly available datasets have been used to test the performance of the suggested method. The main dataset is the STARE project's dataset and the second one is the DRIVE dataset. The experimental results, applied on the STARE dataset, show a maximum accuracy average of around 94.02%. Also, when performed on the DRIVE database, the maximum accuracy average reaches 91.55%. PMID:25977682

  4. An unusual coronary pseudo-obstruction image due to competitive blood flow between critical stenosis in proximal LAD and collateral vessels from RCA

    PubMed Central

    Karavelio?lu, Yusuf; Do?an, Tolga; Çamkiran, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    This case illustrates an unusual coronary pseudo-obstruction due to competitive coronary flows from critical proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery stenosis and collateral vessels from distal right coronary artery. The flow dynamics of both antegrade and retrograde flows counterbalanced each other at the second diagonal branch level of LAD causing a total pseudo-obstruction image. PMID:26478821

  5. Platelets from flowing blood attach to the inflammatory chemokine CXCL16 expressed in the endothelium of the human vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Meyer Dos Santos, S; Blankenbach, K; Scholich, K; Dörr, A; Monsefi, N; Keese, M; Linke, B; Deckmyn, H; Nelson, K; Harder, S

    2015-08-01

    Endothelial chemokine CXC motif ligand 16 (CXCL16) expression is associated with atherosclerosis, while platelets, particularly those attaching to atherosclerotic plaque, contribute to all stages of atherosclerotic disease. This investigation was designed to examine the role of CXCL16 in capturing platelets from flowing blood. CXCL16 was expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques, and lesion severity in human carotid endarterectomy specimens was positively correlated with CXCL16 levels. CXCL16 expression in plaques was co-localised with platelets deposited to the endothelium. Immobilised CXCL16 promoted CXCR6-dependent platelet adhesion to the human vessel wall, endothelial cells and von Willebrand factor during physiologic flow. At low shear, immobilised CXCL16 captured platelets from flowing blood. It also induced irreversible platelet aggregation and a rise in intra-platelet calcium levels. These results demonstrate that endothelial CXCL16's action on platelets is not only limited to platelet activation, but that immobilised CXCL16 also acts as a potent novel platelet adhesion ligand, inducing platelet adhesion to the human vessel wall. PMID:25904061

  6. Blood vessel detection in retinal images and its application in diabetic retinopathy screening 

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Ming

    2009-05-15

    the direction q . .................................................. 49 18 16 pixels that run across a vessel (im077 in STARE, (425, 442) ? (440, 442...)).......................................................................................................................... 53 19 Contrast plots of the 16 pixels in Error! Reference source not found. in polar coordinate, where negative values are show in blue, positive values in red. Neighborhood size r=15. Contrast values along 32 directions are calculated...

  7. Vasoactive Receptors in Abdominal Blood Vessels of the Dogfish Shark, Squalus acanthias

    E-print Network

    Evans, David H.

    for endothelin and natriuretic peptide receptors suggest that B-type endothelin re- ceptors are expressed in both vessels and that the artery ex- presses both A- and B-type natriuretic peptide receptors; how- ever, the vein (like the ventral aorta) expresses only the B-type natriuretic peptide receptor. My data suggest

  8. Different Effects of Implanting Sensory Nerve or Blood Vessel on the Vascularization, Neurotization, and Osteogenesis of Tissue-Engineered Bone In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jun-jun; Mu, Tian-wang; Qin, Jun-jun; Bi, Long; Pei, Guo-xian

    2014-01-01

    To compare the different effects of implanting sensory nerve tracts or blood vessel on the osteogenesis, vascularization, and neurotization of the tissue-engineered bone in vivo, we constructed the tissue engineered bone and implanted the sensory nerve tracts (group SN), blood vessel (group VB), or nothing (group Blank) to the side channel of the bone graft to repair the femur defect in the rabbit. Better osteogenesis was observed in groups SN and VB than in group Blank, and no significant difference was found between groups SN and VB at 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. The neuropeptides expression and the number of new blood vessels in the bone tissues were increased at 8 weeks and then decreased at 12 weeks in all groups and were highest in group VB and lowest in group Blank at all three time points. We conclude that implanting either blood vessel or sensory nerve tract into the tissue-engineered bone can significantly enhance both the vascularization and neurotization simultaneously to get a better osteogenesis effect than TEB alone, and the method of implanting blood vessel has a little better effect of vascularization and neurotization but almost the same osteogenesis effect as implanting sensory nerve. PMID:25101279

  9. The influence of red blood cell scattering in optical pathways of retinal vessel oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeBlanc, Serge Emile

    The ability to measure the oxygen saturation, oximetry, of retinal blood both non-invasively and in-vivo has been a goal of eye research for years. Retinal oximetry can in principle be achieved from the measurement of the reflectance spectrum of the ocular fundus. Oximetry calculations are however complicated by the scattering of red blood cells, the different pathways of light through blood and the ocular tissues that light interacts with before exiting the eye. The goal of this thesis was to investigate the influence of red blood cell scattering for different light paths relevant to retinal oximetry. Results of in-vitro whole blood experiments found calculated oxygen saturation differences between blood samples measured under different retinal light paths, and these differences did not depend on the absorbance path length. We also showed that the calculated oxygen saturation value determined by a multiple linear regression Beer-Lambert absorbance model depended on the wavelength range chosen for analysis. The wavelength dependency on the calculated oxygen saturation value is due in part to the correlation that exists between the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin extinction coefficient spectra and to errors in the assumptions built into the Beer-Lambert absorbance model. A wavelength region with low correlation between the oxyhaemoglobin and deoxyhaemoglobin extinction coefficients was found that is hypothesized to be a good range to calculate oxygen saturation using a multiple linear regression approach.

  10. Low-dose 2D X-ray angiography enhancement using 2-axis PCA for the preservation of blood-vessel region and noise minimization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Geun; Lee, Jeongjin; Shin, Yeong-Gil; Kang, Ho Chul

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing 2D angiography while maintaining a low radiation dose has become an important research topic. However, it is difficult to enhance images while preserving vessel-structure details because X-ray noise and contrast blood vessels in 2D angiography have similar intensity distributions, which can lead to ambiguous images of vessel structures. In this paper, we propose a novel and fast vessel-enhancement method for 2D angiography. We apply filtering in the principal component analysis domain for vessel regions and background regions separately, using assumptions based on energy compaction. First, we identify an approximate vessel region using a Hessian-based method. Vessel and non-vessel regions are then represented sparsely by calculating their optimal bases separately. This is achieved by identifying periodic motion in the vessel region caused by the flow of the contrast medium through the blood vessels when viewed on the time axis. Finally, we obtain noise-free images by removing noise in the new coordinate domain for the optimal bases. Our method was validated for an X-ray system, using 10 low-dose sets for training and 20 low-dose sets for testing. The results were compared with those for a high-dose dataset with respect to noise-free images. The average enhancement rate was 93.11±0.71%. The average processing time for enhancing video comprising 50-70 frames was 0.80±0.35s, which is much faster than the previously proposed technique. Our method is applicable to 2D angiography procedures such as catheterization, which requires rapid and natural vessel enhancement. PMID:26483302

  11. Comparing Two-Stent Strategies for Bifurcation Coronary Lesions: Which Vessel Should be Stented First, the Main Vessel or the Side Branch?

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong-Ho; Park, Kyung Woo; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Oh, Il-Young; Seo, Jae-Bin; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Jeong, Myung-Ho; Seong, In-Whan; Rha, Seung Woon; Yang, Ju-Young; Park, Seung-Jung; Yoon, Jung Han; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Park, Jong-Sun; Hur, Seung-Ho; Tahk, Seung-Jea

    2011-01-01

    This study compared two-stent strategies for treatment of bifurcation lesions by stenting order, 'main across side first (A-family)' vs 'side branch first (S-family). The study population was patients from 16 centers in Korea who underwent drug eluting stent implantation with two-stent strategy (A-family:109, S-family:140 patients). The endpoints were cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST), and target lesion revascularization (TLR) during 3 years. During 440.8 person-years (median 20.2 months), there was 1 cardiac death, 4 MIs (including 2 STs), and 12 TLRs. Cumulative incidence of cardiac death, MI and ST was lower in A-family (0% in A-family vs 4.9% in S-family, P = 0.045). However, TLR rates were not different between the two groups (7.1% vs 6.2%, P = 0.682). Final kissing inflation (FKI) was a predictor of the hard-endpoint (hazard ratio 0.061; 95% CI 0.007-0.547, P = 0.013), but was not a predictor of TLR. The incidence of hard-endpoint of S-family with FKI was comparable to A-family, whereas S-family without FKI showed the poorest prognosis (1.1% vs 15.9%, retrospectively; P = 0.011). In conclusion, 'A-family' seems preferable to 'S-family' if both approaches are feasible. When two-stent strategy is used, every effort should be made to perform FKI, especially in 'S-family'. PMID:21860553

  12. Effect of gravitation stress and hypokinesia on blood vessels of the testicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palazhchenko, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were exposed to single maximum endurable stresses of cranio-caudal direction, hypokinesia for periods of one to eight weeks, and hypokinesia followed by gravitation stresses. The stresses caused dilatation of vessels, greater sinuosity, and occasional ruptures of the walls and extravasation. The greater part of the capillaries were dilated; the greatest part constricted. In hypokinesia there was an increasing atrophy of the testes. Significant results are reported.

  13. Effect of gravitational overloads, hypokinesia and hypodynamia on the vessels of the pulmonary blood circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasimtsev, A. A.

    1980-01-01

    Vessels of the pulmonary circuit are studied under normal conditions, in exposure to single stress or continuous threshold endurable chestspine gravitational stresses, and one to eight weak hypokinesia and hypodynamic effects followed by stress. Examination methods include rentgenography and microrentgenography, clearing, and histology. In exposure to gravitational stress the distal portions of the arterial vessels of the 3 and 4 orders constrict, while all veins dilate. Sinuosity of all vessels is noted. The volume of the capillary bed increases and signs of perivascular edema occur. Due to hypokinesia and hypodynamia the arteries constricted and the arterial bed becomes poor. The veins of all orders dilate and the volume of the capillary bed increases. The changes grew greater the longer the terms of hypodyamic effects. Successive combination of hypokinesia and hypodynamia and gravitational stresses cause more pronounced changes than separate effects of these two factors and result in great deformity of the vascular walls, including their rupture and penetration of formed elements beyond the limits of the vascular bed.

  14. In vivo ?PIV measurements of blood velocity in small vessels of a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Chia Min; Russell, John; Connor, Nadine; Honkanen, Markus; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    Aging-related muscular changes have been shown to affect voice production. There is correlation between muscular changes and changes in capillary hemodynamics and structure with aging. Alterations in oxygen transport to cells and tissues at the capillary level has been hypothesized as one of the key factors that causes muscular changes thus voice production. Since oxygen transport is related to hemodynamics, we start by measuring blood velocity in capillaries of cremaster muscle of a living rat. The ?PIV technique is adapted for measuring blood velocity where red blood cells are used as `seeding particles'. The accuracy of the ?PIV measurements are determined by comparison with results obtained using other techniques such as particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Finally, challenges in measuring flow through three-dimensional larynx geometry will be discussed.

  15. Unsteady non-Newtonian blood flow through a tapered overlapping stenosed catheterized vessel.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Zaman, A; Sajid, M; Nieto, J J; Torres, A

    2015-11-01

    The unsteady flow characteristics of blood in a catheterized overlapping stenosed artery are analyzed in presence of body acceleration and magnetic field. The stenosed arterial segment is modeled as a rigid constricted tube. An improved shape of stenosis in the realm of the formulation of the arterial narrowing caused by atheroma is integrated in the present study. The catheter inside the artery is approximated by a thin rigid tube of small radius while the streaming blood in the artery is characterized by the Carreau model. Employing mild stenosis condition, the governing equation of the flow is derived which is then solving numerically using finite difference scheme. The variation of axial velocity, flow rate, resistance impendence and wall shear stress is shown graphically for various parameters of interest. The flow patterns illustrating the global behavior of blood are also presented. PMID:26361287

  16. Endoglin is required in Pax3-derived cells for embryonic blood vessel formation.

    PubMed

    Young, K; Krebs, L T; Tweedie, E; Conley, B; Mancini, M; Arthur, H M; Liaw, L; Gridley, T; Vary, Cph

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in endoglin, a TGF?/BMP coreceptor, are causal for hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Endoglin-null (Eng-/-) mouse embryos die at embryonic day (E)10.5-11.5 due to defects in angiogenesis. In part, this is due to an absence of vascular smooth muscle cell differentiation and vessel investment. Prior studies from our lab and others have shown the importance of endoglin expression in embryonic development in both endothelial cells and neural crest stem cells. These studies support the hypothesis that endoglin may play cell-autonomous roles in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell precursors. However, the requirement for endoglin in vascular cell precursors remains poorly defined. Our objective was to specifically delete endoglin in neural crest- and somite-derived Pax3-positive vascular precursors to understand the impact on somite progenitor cell contribution to embryonic vascular development. Pax3Cre mice were crossed with Eng+/- mice to obtain compound mutant Pax3(Cre/+);Eng+/- mice. These mice were then crossed with homozygous endoglin LoxP-mutated (Eng(LoxP/LoxP)) mice to conditionally delete the endoglin gene in specific lineages that contribute to endothelial and smooth muscle constituents of developing embryonic vessels. Pax3(Cre/+);Eng(LoxP/)(-) mice showed a variety of vascular defects at E10.5, and none of these mice survived past E12.5. Embryos analyzed at E10.5 showed malformations suggestive of misdirection of the intersomitic vessels. The dorsal aorta showed significant dilation with associated vascular smooth muscle cells exhibiting disorganization and enhanced expression of smooth muscle differentiation proteins, including smooth muscle actin. These results demonstrate a requirement for endoglin in descendants of Pax3-expressing vascular cell precursors, and thus provides new insight into the cellular basis underlying adult vascular diseases such as HHT. PMID:26481065

  17. Author's personal copy The behaviors of ferromagnetic nano-particles in and around blood vessels

    E-print Network

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    , and then applying magnetic fields to concentrate them to disease locations such as to solid tumors, regions into the body outside the blood flow, e.g. as in magnetic treatment of the inner- ear where a small gel faster by the mononuclear phagocyte system; in human clinical trials [4,15] Chemicell's 100 nm particles

  18. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... solid part of your blood contains red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells deliver oxygen from your lungs to your tissues and organs. White blood cells fight infection and are part of your body's ...

  19. Blood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and arteries is called whole blood . Whole blood contains three types of blood cells: red blood cells ... fluid called plasma . Plasma is 90% water and contains nutrients, proteins, hormones, and waste products. Whole blood ...

  20. Method of assessing blood oxygenation in microcirculation vessels based on Doppler approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Vladimir G.; Korsi, Larissa V.; Egorov, Sergei Y.

    2001-06-01

    Combination of laser Doppler flowmetry and pulse oximetry methods allows for the direct assessment of oxygen supply to tissues at the microcirculatory level, namely, in that part of the vascular network where the transcapillary exchange takes place that is responsible for saturating tissues with oxygen. The microcirculation system comprises arterial and venous microvascular parts that differ in blood flow velocities. Frequency separation of the photodetector signal components related to different velocity ranges makes possible to distinguish the hemodynamic processes in these two parts of the microvascular system. Moreover, numerous studies of collective oscillatory processes in hemodynamics reveal that cardio-oscillations are more pronounced in arterioles, whereas venous hemodynamics is mostly influenced by the breath rhythm. Taking account of the above phenomena allows developing a signal-filtration system for separate characterization of blood-oxygenation states in arterial and venous blood flows. Light absorbance in the skin depends on both light wavelength and blood-oxygenation level. Processing the signals obtained with a two-channel dual-wavelength (630 and 1115 nm) laser Doppler flowmeter provides information about blood oxygenation levels at the entrance and exit of the microvascular system and allows assessing the specific levels of oxygenation levels at the entrance and exit of the microvascular system and allows assessing the specific levels of oxygen consumption in tissues. In particular, this approach allows revealing pathogenic processes resulting from hyper- and hypo-oxygenation in tissues. For instance, rapidly growing malignant tumors are characterized by intensive metabolism, rapid formation of capillaries, and active transcapillary oxygen exchange that results in higher level of oxygen diffusion into tissue, while the level of oxygen is lowered in the microvascular veins.

  1. CLASSICAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY: Lattice Boltzmann simulation of behaviour of particles moving in blood vessels under the rolling massage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou-Hui; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Cai-Feng; Li, Hua-Bing

    2009-07-01

    The rolling massage is one of the most important manipulations in Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage on a pair of particles moving in blood vessels under rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulated results show that the motion of each particle is considerably modified by the rolling massage, and it depends on the relative rolling velocity, the rolling depth, and the distance between particle position and rolling position. Both particles' translational average velocities increase almost linearly as the rolling velocity increases, and obey the same law. The increment of the average relative angular velocity for the leading particle is smaller than that of the trailing one. The result is helpful for understanding the mechanism of the massage and to further develop the rolling techniques.

  2. Vessel-specific quantification of blood oxygenation with T2-Relaxation-Under-Phase-Contrast (TRU-PC) MRI

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Lisa C.; Liu, Peiying; Ge, Yulin; Lu, Hanzhang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Measurement of venous oxygenation (Yv) is a critical step toward quantitative assessment of brain oxygen metabolism, a key index in many brain disorders. The present study aims to develop a non-invasive, rapid, and reproducible method to measure Yv in a vessel-specific manner. Theory The method, T2-Relaxation-Under-Phase-Contrast (TRU-PC) MRI, utilizes complex subtraction of phase-contrast to isolate pure blood signal, applies non-slice-selective T2-preparation to measure T2, and converts T2 to oxygenation using a calibration plot. Methods Following feasibility demonstration, several technical aspects were examined, including validation with an established global Yv technique, test-retest reproducibility, sensitivity to detect oxygenation changes due to hypoxia and caffeine challenges, applicability of EPI acquisition to shorten scan duration, and ability to study veins with a caliber of 1–2 mm. Results TRU-PC was able to simultaneously measure Yv in all major veins in the brain, including sagittal sinus, straight sinus, great vein, and internal cerebral vein. TRU-PC results showed an excellent agreement with the reference technique, high sensitivity to oxygenation changes, and test-retest variability of 3.5±1.0%. The use of segmented-EPI was able to reduce the scan duration to 1.5 minutes. It was also feasible to study pial veins and deep veins. Conclusion TRU-PC MRI is a promising technique for vessel-specific oxygenation measurement. PMID:23568830

  3. Careful treatment planning enables safe ablation of liver tumors adjacent to major blood vessels by percutaneous irreversible electroporation (IRE)

    PubMed Central

    Kos, Bor; Voigt, Peter; Miklavcic, Damijan; Moche, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a tissue ablation method, which relies on the phenomenon of electroporation. When cells are exposed to a sufficiently electric field, the plasma membrane is disrupted and cells undergo an apoptotic or necrotic cell death. Although heating effects are known IRE is considered as non-thermal ablation technique and is currently applied to treat tumors in locations where thermal ablation techniques are contraindicated. Materials and methods. The manufacturer of the only commercially available pulse generator for IRE recommends a voltage-to-distance ratio of 1500 to 1700 V/cm for treating tumors in the liver. However, major blood vessels can influence the electric field distribution. We present a method for treatment planning of IRE which takes the influence of blood vessels on the electric field into account; this is illustrated on a treatment of 48-year-old patient with a metastasis near the remaining hepatic vein after a right side hemi-hepatectomy. Results Output of the numerical treatment planning method shows that a 19.9 cm3 irreversible electroporation lesion was generated and the whole tumor was covered with at least 900 V/cm. This compares well with the volume of the hypodense lesion seen in contrast enhanced CT images taken after the IRE treatment. A significant temperature raise occurs near the electrodes. However, the hepatic vein remains open after the treatment without evidence of tumor recurrence after 6 months. Conclusions Treatment planning using accurate computer models was recognized as important for electrochemotherapy and irreversible electroporation. An important finding of this study was, that the surface of the electrodes heat up significantly. Therefore the clinical user should generally avoid placing the electrodes less than 4 mm away from risk structures when following recommendations of the manufacturer. PMID:26401128

  4. Changes in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 expression in rat blood vessels during glyceryl trinitrate tolerance development and reversal

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Y; Dowlatshahi, S; Bennett, BM

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent studies have suggested an essential role for aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in the bioactivation of organic nitrates such as glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). In the present study, we utilized an in vivo GTN tolerance model to further investigate the role of ALDH2 in GTN bioactivation and tolerance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We assessed changes in aortic ALDH activity, and in ALDH2 protein expression in various rat blood vessels (aorta, vena cava, femoral artery and femoral vein) during continuous GTN exposure (0.4 mg·h?1 for 6, 12, 24 or 48 h) or after a 1-, 3- or 5-day drug-free period following a 48 h exposure to GTN, in relation to changes in vasodilator responses to GTN and in vascular GTN biotransformation. KEY RESULTS A decrease was observed in both ALDH2 protein expression (80% in tolerant veins and 30% in tolerant arteries after 48 h exposure to GTN) and aortic ALDH activity, concomitant with decreased vasodilator responses to GTN and decreased aortic GTN biotransformation. However, after a 24 h drug-free period following 48 h of GTN exposure, vasodilator responses to GTN and aortic GTN biotransformation activity had returned to control values, whereas vascular ALDH2 expression and aortic ALDH activity were still significantly depressed, and remained so for 3–5 days following cessation of GTN exposure. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The dissociation of reduced ALDH activity and ALDH2 expression from the duration of the impaired vasodilator and biotransformation responses to GTN in nitrate-tolerant blood vessels, suggests that factors other than changes in ALDH2-mediated GTN bioactivation contribute to nitrate tolerance. PMID:21506955

  5. Early Generation of New PrPSc on Blood Vessels after Brain Microinjection of Scrapie in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Striebel, James; Rangel, Alejandra; Phillips, Katie; Hughson, Andrew; Caughey, Byron; Race, Brent

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aggregation of misfolded host proteins in the central nervous system is believed to be important in the pathogenic process in several neurodegenerative diseases of humans, including prion diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease. In these diseases, protein misfolding and aggregation appear to expand through a process of seeded polymerization. Prion diseases occur in both humans and animals and are experimentally transmissible orally or by injection, thus providing a controllable model of other neurodegenerative protein misfolding diseases. In rodents and ruminants, prion disease has a slow course, lasting months to years. Although prion infectivity has been detected in brain tissue at 3 to 4 weeks postinfection (p.i.), the details of early prion replication in the brain are not well understood. Here we studied the localization and quantitation of PrPSc generation in vivo starting at 30 min postmicroinjection of scrapie into the brain. In C57BL mice at 3 days p.i., generation of new PrPSc was detected by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot assays, and at 7 days p.i., new generation was confirmed by real-time quaking-induced conversion assay. The main site of new PrPSc generation was near the outer basement membrane of small and medium blood vessels. The finding and localization of replication at this site so early after injection have not been reported previously. This predominantly perivascular location suggested that structural components of the blood vessel basement membrane or perivascular astrocytes might act as cofactors in the initial generation of PrPSc. The location of PrPSc replication at the basement membrane also implies a role for the brain interstitial fluid drainage in the early infection process. PMID:26396245

  6. Vessel Segmentation and Blood Flow Simulation Using Level-Sets and Embedded Boundary Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Deschamps, T; Schwartz, P; Trebotich, D; Colella, P; Saloner, D; Malladi, R

    2004-12-09

    In this article we address the problem of blood flow simulation in realistic vascular objects. The anatomical surfaces are extracted by means of Level-Sets methods that accurately model the complex and varying surfaces of pathological objects such as aneurysms and stenoses. The surfaces obtained are defined at the sub-pixel level where they intersect the Cartesian grid of the image domain. It is therefore straightforward to construct embedded boundary representations of these objects on the same grid, for which recent work has enabled discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluids. While most classical techniques require construction of a structured mesh that approximates the surface in order to extrapolate a 3D finite-element gridding of the whole volume, our method directly simulates the blood-flow inside the extracted surface without losing any complicated details and without building additional grids.

  7. Efficient vessel feature detection for endoscopic image analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bingxiong; Sun, Yu; Sanchez, Jaime E; Qian, Xiaoning

    2015-04-01

    Distinctive feature detection is an essential task in computer-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). For special conditions in an MIS imaging environment, such as specular reflections and texture homogeneous areas, the feature points extracted by general feature point detectors are less distinctive and repeatable in MIS images. We observe that abundant blood vessels are available on tissue surfaces and can be extracted as a new set of image features. In this paper, two types of blood vessel features are proposed for endoscopic images: branching points and branching segments. Two novel methods, ridgeness-based circle test and ridgeness-based branching segment detection are presented to extract branching points and branching segments, respectively. Extensive in vivo experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods and compare them with the state-of-the-art methods. The numerical results verify that, in MIS images, the blood vessel features can produce a large number of points.More importantly, those points are more robust and repeatable than the other types of feature points. In addition, due to the difference in feature types, vessel features can be combined with other general features, which makes them new tools for MIS image analysis. These proposed methods are efficient and the code and datasets are made available to the public. PMID:25423648

  8. Iodine imaging using spectral analysis. [radiography for visualization of small blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macovski, A.

    1978-01-01

    Existing radiographic imaging systems provide images which represent an integration or averaging over the energy spectrum. In order to provide noninvasive angiography it is necessary to image the relatively small amounts of iodine which are available following an intravenous administration. This is accomplished by making use of the special spectral characteristics of iodine. Two methods will be presented. One involves a special grating for encoding the iodine information in the form of a fine line pattern. This is subsequently decoded to provide images of iodinated structures which are otherwise almost invisible. The second method utilizes a scanned X-ray beam which is rapidly switched in the high energy region. In this region, iodine experiences significant variations in the attenuation coefficient while bone and soft tissue do not. An efficient and accurate X-ray detector can be used with scanned X-ray beams. This provides a high degree of sensitivity enabling the visualization of small vessels containing relatively dilute iodine.

  9. Ultrastructural and functional changes in the myocardium and its vessels after massive blood loss

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, O.G.; Kosourov, A.K.; Sviderskaya, E.V.; Antipenko, A.E.

    1987-09-01

    The authors assess changes in ultrastructure of the cardiomyocytes and of vessels of the microcirculatory system and compare them with changes in transmembrane Ca/sup + +/ transport in the early posthemorrhagic period. cAMP-stimulated Ca/sup + +/ transport was studied in medium consisting of Tris-hCl, MgCl/sub 2/, KCl, Na oxalate, CaCl/sub 2/ and containing /sup 45/Ca. The experiments were done on dogs and when its action in vitro is evaluated, it is evident that the basal level of Ca/sup + +/ accumulation in preparations of intact sarcolemmal membranes after incubation averaged 16.56 +/- 1.33 nmoles /sup 45/Ca/mg protein.

  10. Blood flow and vessel mechanics in a physiologically realistic model of a human carotid arterial bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, S Z; Xu, X Y; Hughes, A D; Thom, S A; Stanton, A V; Ariff, B; Long, Q

    2000-08-01

    The pulsatile flow in an anatomically realistic compliant human carotid bifurcation was simulated numerically. Pressure and mass flow waveforms in the carotid arteries were obtained from an individual subject using non-invasive techniques. The geometry of the computational model was reconstructed from magnetic resonance angiograms. Maps of time-average wall shear stress, contours of velocity in the flow field as well as wall movement and tensile stress on the arterial wall are all presented. Inconsistent with previous findings from idealised geometry models, flow in the carotid sinus is dominated by a strong helical flow accompanied by a single secondary vortex motion. This type of flow is induced primarily by the asymmetry and curvature of the in vivo geometry. Flow simulations have been carried out under the rigid wall assumption and for the compliant wall, respectively. Comparison of the results demonstrates the quantitative influence of the vessel wall motion. Generally there is a reduction in the magnitude of wall shear stress, with its degree depending on location and phase of the cardiac cycle. The region of slow or reversed flow was greater, in both spatial and temporal terms in the compliant model, but the global characteristics of the flow and stress patterns remain unchanged. The analysis of mechanical stresses on the vessel surface shows a complicated stress field. Stress concentration occurs at both the anterior and posterior aspects of the proximal internal bulb. These are also regions of low wall shear stress. The comparison of computed and measured wall movement generally shows good agreement. PMID:10828328

  11. A cellular nonlinear network: real-time technology for the analysis of microfluidic phenomena in blood vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapuppo, F.; Bucolo, M.; Intaglietta, M.; Fortuna, L.; Arena, P.

    2006-02-01

    A new approach to the observation and analysis of dynamic structural and functional parameters in the microcirculation is described. The new non-invasive optical system is based on cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs), highly integrated analogue processor arrays whose processing elements, the cells, interact directly within a finite local neighbourhood. CNNs, thanks to their parallel processing feature and spatially distributed structure, are widely used to solve high-speed image processing and recognition problems and in the description and modelling of biological dynamics through the solution of time continuous partial differential equations (PDEs). They are therefore considered extremely suitable for spatial-temporal dynamic characterization of fluidic phenomena at micrometric to nanometric scales, such as blood flow in microvessels and its interaction with the cells of the vessel wall. A CNN universal machine (CNN-UM) structure was used to implement, via simulation and hardware (ACE16k), the algorithms to determine the functional capillarity density (FCD) and red blood cell velocity (RBCV) in capillaries obtained by intravital microscopy during in vivo experiments on hamsters. The system exploits the moving particles to distinguish the functional capillaries from the stationary background. This information is used to reconstruct a map and to calculate the velocity of the moving objects.

  12. Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium (the layer of cells that lines the blood vessel walls) plays a central role in

    E-print Network

    Tees, David F.J.

    Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium (the layer of cells that lines the blood vessel a cascade of adhesive events commonly referred to as initial tethering, rolling, firm adhesion, the other steps of the adhesion cascade involve molecular interactions between the leukocyte

  13. Frictional properties of light-activated antimicrobial polymers in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Prokopovich, Polina; Perni, Stefano; Piccirillo, Clara; Pratten, Jonathan; Parkin, Ivan P; Wilson, Michael

    2010-02-01

    The adhesion of microbes to catheter surfaces is a serious problem and the resulting infections frequently lead to longer hospitalisation and higher risk for the patient. Several approaches have been developed to produce materials that are less susceptible to microbial colonisation. One such approach is the incorporation of photoactivated compounds, such as Toluidine Blue O (TBO), in the polymeric matrix resulting in 'light-activated antimicrobial materials'. The insertion and removal of catheters can cause tissue damage and patient discomfort through frictional forces; hence the lubricity of a catheter material is also very important. In this work the tribological performance of silicone and polyurethane containing TBO and gold nanoparticles were evaluated using two different surfaces, the inner part of the aorta and the superior vena cava of sheep. Static and kinetic friction coefficients of these materials were measured using a tribometric device developed for in vitro applications using dry materials and those lubricated with blood. It was found that neither the preparation process nor the presence of TBO or gold nanoparticles, had an effect on the friction factors in comparison to those of untreated materials. In all cases, static and kinetic friction coefficients on aorta tissue were higher than those on vena cava due to higher surface roughness of the aorta. The presence of blood as a lubricant resulted in lower friction coefficients. PMID:19784866

  14. Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow Using Fluorescently Labeled Red Blood Cells1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Kornfield, Tess E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Blood flow is a useful indicator of the metabolic state of the retina. However, accurate measurement of retinal blood flow is difficult to achieve in practice. Most existing optical techniques used for measuring blood flow require complex assumptions and calculations. We describe here a simple and direct method for calculating absolute blood flow in vessels of all sizes in the rat retina. The method relies on ultrafast confocal line scans to track the passage of fluorescently labeled red blood cells (fRBCs). The accuracy of the blood flow measurements was verified by (1) comparing blood flow calculated independently using either flux or velocity combined with diameter measurements, (2) measuring total retinal blood flow in arterioles and venules, (3) measuring blood flow at vessel branch points, and (4) measuring changes in blood flow in response to hyperoxic and hypercapnic challenge. Confocal line scans oriented parallel and diagonal to vessels were used to compute fRBC velocity and to examine velocity profiles across the width of vessels. We demonstrate that these methods provide accurate measures of absolute blood flow and velocity in retinal vessels of all sizes. PMID:26082942

  15. Perforator flaps in hand reconstruction: the effect of blood vessel twisting

    PubMed Central

    ARDELEAN, FILIP; MUNTEAN, MAXIMILIAN; DUMITRASCU, DINU; STRILCIUC, STEFAN; GEORGESCU, ALEXANDRU VALENTIN

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Perforator flaps increasingly find acceptance and use in hand reconstructive surgery. A propeller flap is an island flap that moves from one orientation to another by rotating around its vascular pedicle. It is now possible to design propeller flaps based on a single perforator, so-called “perforator-based propeller flaps,” but they are more prone to vascular impairment when twisted more than 90°. Methods We present a prospective study conducted in the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Department of the Rehabilitation Hospital over 17 months. All perforator-based propeller flaps that were used for hand reconstruction were analyzed. The parameters studied included the size and location of the defect, the size and shape of the flap, the perforator (length and location) that was used, the degree of twisting of the perforator, the degree of perforator dissection, the management of the donor site, and flap survival area. Results In this study we investigated the circulatory impairment induced by twisting of the pedicle on a true perforator flap. All flaps survived completely with the exception of partial skin necrosis in few cases. Some of these cases required debridement and skin grafting. Conclusions Perforator-based propeller flaps provide a reliable option for covering small- to medium-size hand complex tissue defects. They have the advantages of using similar tissues in reconstruction, not damaging another area, they do not require main vessels sacrifice, and the donor site can be generally directly closed. PMID:26609268

  16. DNA Methylation is Altered in Maternal Blood Vessels of Women With Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Ahmad A.; Archer, Kellie J.; Cappello, Renato; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Isaacs, Christine R.; Strauss,, Jerome F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed 27 578 CpG sites that map to 14 495 genes in omental arteries of normal pregnant and preeclamptic women for DNA methylation status using the Illumina platform. We found 1685 genes with a significant difference in DNA methylation at a false discovery rate of <10% with many inflammatory genes having reduced methylation. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed natural clustering by diagnosis and methylation status. Of the genes with significant methylation differences, 236 were significant at a false discovery rate of <5%. When data were analyzed more stringently to a false discovery rate of <5% and difference in methylation of >0.10, 65 genes were identified, all of which showed reduced methylation in preeclampsia. When these genes were mapped to gene ontology for molecular functions and biological processes, 75 molecular functions and 149 biological processes were overrepresented in the preeclamptic vessels. These included smooth muscle contraction, thrombosis, inflammation, redox homeostasis, sugar metabolism, and amino acid metabolism. We speculate that reduced methylation may contribute to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and that alterations in DNA methylation resulting from preeclampsia may increase maternal risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. PMID:22902744

  17. Nampt/PBEF/visfatin serum levels: a new biomarker for retinal blood vessel occlusions

    PubMed Central

    Kaja, Simon; Shah, Anna A; Haji, Shamim A; Patel, Krishna B; Naumchuk, Yuliya; Zabaneh, Alexander; Gerdes, Bryan C; Kunjukunju, Nancy; Sabates, Nelson R; Cassell, Michael A; Lord, Ron K; Pikey, Kevin P; Poulose, Abraham; Koulen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to quantify serum levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt/pre-B-Cell colony-enhancing factor 1/visfatin) in subjects with a history of retinal vascular occlusions (RVOs), disease conditions characterized by pronounced ischemia, and metabolic energy deficits. A case–control study of 18 subjects with a history of RVO as well as six healthy volunteers is presented. Serum Nampt levels were quantified using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Serum Nampt levels were 79% lower in patients with a history of RVO compared with that in healthy volunteers (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference among the types of RVOs, specifically branch retinal vein occlusions (n=7), central retinal vein occlusions (n=5), hemiretinal vein occlusions (n=3), and central retinal artery occlusions (n=3; P=0.69). Further studies are needed to establish the temporal kinetics of Nampt expression and to determine whether Nampt may represent a novel biomarker to identify at-risk populations, or whether it is a druggable target with the potential to ameliorate the long-term complications associated with the condition, ie, macular edema, macular ischemia, neovascularization, and permanent loss of vision. PMID:25897200

  18. Arginase reciprocally regulates nitric oxide synthase activity and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in aging blood vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, Dan E.; White, Ron; Li, Dechun; Minhas, Khalid M.; Cernetich, Amy; Kim, Soonyul; Burke, Sean; Shoukas, Artin A.; Nyhan, Daniel; Champion, Hunter C.; Hare, Joshua M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although abnormal L-arginine NO signaling contributes to endothelial dysfunction in the aging cardiovascular system, the biochemical mechanisms remain controversial. L-arginine, the NO synthase (NOS) precursor, is also a substrate for arginase. We tested the hypotheses that arginase reciprocally regulates NOS by modulating L-arginine bioavailability and that arginase is upregulated in aging vasculature, contributing to depressed endothelial function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inhibition of arginase with (S)-(2-boronoethyl)-L-cysteine, HCl (BEC) produced vasodilation in aortic rings from young (Y) adult rats (maximum effect, 46.4+/-9.4% at 10(-5) mol/L, P<0.01). Similar vasorelaxation was elicited with the additional arginase inhibitors N-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine (nor-NOHA) and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). This effect required intact endothelium and was prevented by 1H-oxadiazole quinoxalin-1-one (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively), a soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. DFMO-elicited vasodilation was greater in old (O) compared with Y rat aortic rings (60+/-6% versus 39+/-6%, P<0.05). In addition, BEC restored depressed L-arginine (10(-4) mol/L)-dependent vasorelaxant responses in O rings to those of Y. Arginase activity and expression were increased in O rings, whereas NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels were decreased. BEC and DFMO suppressed arginase activity and restored NOS activity and cyclic GMP levels in O vessels to those of Y. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that arginase modulates NOS activity, likely by regulating intracellular L-arginine availability. Arginase upregulation contributes to endothelial dysfunction of aging and may therefore be a therapeutic target.

  19. Automatic retinal blood flow calculation using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehbe, Hassan; Ruggeri, Marco; Jiao, Shuliang; Gregori, Giovanni; Puliafito, Carmen A.

    2008-02-01

    Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) is a branch of optical coherence tomography (OCT) that can measure the speed of a blood flow by measuring the Doppler shift impinged on the probing sample light by the moving blood cells. However, the measured speed of blood flow is a function of the Doppler angle, which needs to be determined in order to calculate the absolute velocity of the blood flow inside a vessel. We developed a technique that can extract the Doppler angle from the 3D data measured with spectral-domain OCT, which needs to extract the lateral and depth coordinates of a vessel in each measured ODT and OCT image. The lateral coordinates and the diameter of a blood vessel were first extracted in each OCT structural image by using the technique of blood vessel shadowgram, a technique first developed by us for enhancing the retinal blood vessel contrast in the en face view of the 3D OCT. The depth coordinate of a vessel was then determined by using a circular averaging filter moving in the depth direction along the axis passing through the vessel center in the ODT image. The Doppler angle was then calculated from the extracted coordinates of the blood vessel. The technique was applied in blood flow measurements in retinal blood vessels, which has potential impact on the study and diagnosis of blinding diseases like glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy.

  20. CGKRK-modified nanoparticles for dual-targeting drug delivery to tumor cells and angiogenic blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Hu, Quanyin; Gao, Xiaoling; Kang, Ting; Feng, Xingye; Jiang, Di; Tu, Yifan; Song, Qingxiang; Yao, Lei; Jiang, Xinguo; Chen, Hongzhuan; Chen, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy shows great advantages in clinical cancer treatment while no overall survival has been achieved. The compromised results were mainly contributed by intrinsic/acquired antiangiogenic drug resistance and increased local invasion or distant metastasis after antiangiogenic therapy. Here we constructed a CGKRK peptide-modified PEG-co-PCL nanoparticulate drug delivery system (DDS), aiming at targeting both tumor angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells to achieve enhanced anti-tumor activity as well as holding a great potential to overcome the drawbacks of antiangiogenic therapy alone. The obtained CGKRK-functionalized PEG-co-PCL nanoparticles (CGKRK-NP) with a particle size of 117.28 ± 10.42 nm and zeta potential of -15.7 ± 3.32 mV, exhibited an enhanced accumulation via an energy-dependent, lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis with the involvement of microtubules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and an energy-dependent, lipid raft/caveolae-mediated endocytosis with the participation of Golgi apparatus in human U87MG cells. Using coumarin-6 as the fluorescence probe, in vitro U87MG tumor spheroids assays showed that CGKRK-NP effectively penetrated into the tumor spheroids. Selective accumulation and extensive bio-distribution of CGKRK-NP at tumor site was confirmed by in vivo imaging and tumor section analysis. After drug loading, CGKRK-NP enhanced cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity of the loaded PTX on both HUVEC cells and U87MG cells and improved its inhibition effect on the growth of U87MG tumor spheroids. The smallest tumor volume was achieved by those mice bearing subcutaneous U87MG tumor following the treatment of PTX-loaded CGKRK-NP. The findings here indicated that CGKRK peptide-functionalized nanoparticulate DDS could be used as an effective tumor angiogenic blood vessels and tumor cells dual-targeting DDS and might provide a great promising approach for reducing the disadvantages of antiangiogenic therapy alone. PMID:24054848

  1. Reducing the data: Analysis of the role of vascular geometry on blood flow patterns in curved vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alastruey, Jordi; Siggers, Jennifer H.; Peiffer, Véronique; Doorly, Denis J.; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional simulations of blood flow usually produce such large quantities of data that they are unlikely to be of clinical use unless methods are available to simplify our understanding of the flow dynamics. We present a new method to investigate the mechanisms by which vascular curvature and torsion affect blood flow, and we apply it to the steady-state flow in single bends, helices, double bends, and a rabbit thoracic aorta based on image data. By calculating forces and accelerations in an orthogonal coordinate system following the centreline of each vessel, we obtain the inertial forces (centrifugal, Coriolis, and torsional) explicitly, which directly depend on vascular curvature and torsion. We then analyse the individual roles of the inertial, pressure gradient, and viscous forces on the patterns of primary and secondary velocities, vortical structures, and wall stresses in each cross section. We also consider cross-sectional averages of the in-plane components of these forces, which can be thought of as reducing the dynamics of secondary flows onto the vessel centreline. At Reynolds numbers between 50 and 500, secondary motions in the directions of the local normals and binormals behave as two underdamped oscillators. These oscillate around the fully developed state and are coupled by torsional forces that break the symmetry of the flow. Secondary flows are driven by the centrifugal and torsional forces, and these are counterbalanced by the in-plane pressure gradients generated by the wall reaction. The viscous force primarily opposes the pressure gradient, rather than the inertial forces. In the axial direction, and depending on the secondary motion, the curvature-dependent Coriolis force can either enhance or oppose the bulk of the axial flow, and this shapes the velocity profile. For bends with little or no torsion, the Coriolis force tends to restore flow axisymmetry. The maximum circumferential and axial wall shear stresses along the centreline correlate well with the averaged in-plane pressure gradient and the radial displacement of the peak axial velocity, respectively. We conclude with a discussion of the physiological implications of these results.

  2. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve, and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, D. A.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.; Ellis, S.; Bain, J. L.; Slocum, G. R.; Sedlak, F. R.

    1990-01-01

    Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus, and slow muscle fibers were more atrophic than fast fibers. Muscle fiber segmental necrosis occurred selectively in the AL and soleus muscles; primarily, macrophages and neutrophils infiltrated and phagocytosed cellular debris. Granule-rich mast cells were diminished in flight AL muscles compared with controls, indicating the mast cell secretion contributed to interstitial tissue edema. Increased ubiquitination of disrupted myofibrils implicated ubiquitin in myofilament degradation. Mitochondrial content and succinic dehydrogenase activity were normal, except for subsarcolemmal decreases. Myofibrillar ATPase activity of flight AL muscle fibers shifted toward the fast type. Absence of capillaries and extravasation of red blood cells indicated failed microcirculation. Muscle fiber regeneration from activated satellite cells was detected. About 17% of the flight AL end plates exhibited total or partial denervation. Thus, skeletal muscle weakness associated with spaceflight can result from muscle fiber atrophy and segmental necrosis, partial motor denervation, and disruption of the microcirculation.

  3. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänscheid, H.; Fernández, M.; Lassmann, M.

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10-11?Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1-1.2·10-11?Gy·s-1·Bq-1·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m.

  4. Placental Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Blood Vessels or Avascular Tissues: What Is the Better Choice to Support Endothelial Cell Function?

    PubMed Central

    König, Julia; Weiss, Gregor; Rossi, Daniele; Wankhammer, Karin; Reinisch, Andreas; Kinzer, Manuela; Huppertz, Berthold; Pfeiffer, Dagmar; Parolini, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising tools for therapeutic revascularization of ischemic tissues and for support of vessel formation in engineered tissue constructs. Recently, we could show that avascular-derived MSCs from placental amnion release soluble factors that exhibit survival-enhancing effects on endothelial cells (ECs). We hypothesize that MSCs derived from placental blood vessels might have even more potent angiogenic effects. Therefore, we isolated and characterized MSCs from placental chorionic blood vessels (bv-MSCs) and tested their angiogenic potential in comparison to amnion-derived avascular MSCs (av-MSCs). bv-MSCs express a very similar surface marker profile compared with av-MSCs and could be differentiated toward the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. bv-MSCs exert immunosuppressive properties on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that they are suitable for cell transplantation settings. Conditioned medium (Cdm) from av-MSCs and bv-MSCs significantly enhanced EC viability, whereas only Cdm from bv-MSCs significantly increased EC migration and network formation (Matrigel assay). Angiogenesis array analysis of av- and bv-MSC-Cdm revealed a similar secretion pattern of angiogenic factors, including angiogenin, interleukins-6 and -8, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and 2. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis showed that, in contrast to av-MSCs, bv-MSCs secreted vascular endothelial growth factor. In direct coculture with bv-MSCs, ECs showed a significantly increased formation of vessel-like structures compared with av-MSCs. With regard to therapeutic treatment, bv-MSCs and particularly their Cdm might be valuable to stimulate angiogenesis especially in ischemic tissues. av-MSCs and their Cdm could be beneficial in conditions when it is required to promote the survival and stabilization of blood vessels without the risk of unmeant angiogenesis. PMID:25244528

  5. Remote Non-invasive Stereoscopic Imaging of Blood Vessels: First In-vivo Results of a New Multispectral Contrast Enhancement Technology

    PubMed Central

    Mastik, F.; Cate, F. J. ten; Neumann, H. A. M.; van der Steen, A. F. W.

    2006-01-01

    We describe a contactless optical technique selectively enhancing superficial blood vessels below variously pigmented intact human skin by combining images in different spectral bands. Two CMOS-cameras, with apochromatic lenses and dual-band LED-arrays, simultaneously streamed Left (L) and Right (R) image data to a dual-processor PC. Both cameras captured color images within the visible range (VIS, 400–780 nm) and grey-scale images within the near infrared range (NIR, 910–920 nm) by sequentially switching between LED-array emission bands. Image-size-settings of 1280 × 1024 for VIS & 640 × 512 for NIR produced 12 cycles/s (1 cycle = 1 VIS L&R-pair + 1 NIR L&R-pair). Decreasing image-size-settings (640 × 512 for VIS and 320 × 256 for NIR) increased camera-speed to 25 cycles/s. Contrasts from below the tissue surface were algorithmically distinguished from surface shadows, reflections, etc. Thus blood vessels were selectively enhanced and back-projected into the stereoscopic VIS-color-image using either a 3D-display or conventional shutter glasses. As a first usability reconnaissance we applied this custom-built mobile stereoscopic camera for several clinical settings: • blood withdrawal; • vein inspection in dark skin; • vein detection through iodide; • varicose vein and nevi pigmentosum inspection. Our technique improves blood vessel visualization compared to the naked eye, and supports depth perception. PMID:17048103

  6. Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: first in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology.

    PubMed

    Wieringa, F P; Mastik, F; Cate, F J Ten; Neumann, H A M; van der Steen, A F W

    2006-12-01

    We describe a contactless optical technique selectively enhancing superficial blood vessels below variously pigmented intact human skin by combining images in different spectral bands. Two CMOS-cameras, with apochromatic lenses and dual-band LED-arrays, simultaneously streamed Left (L) and Right (R) image data to a dual-processor PC. Both cameras captured color images within the visible range (VIS, 400-780 nm) and grey-scale images within the near infrared range (NIR, 910-920 nm) by sequentially switching between LED-array emission bands. Image-size-settings of 1280 x 1024 for VIS & 640 x 512 for NIR produced 12 cycles/s (1 cycle = 1 VIS L&R-pair + 1 NIR L&R-pair). Decreasing image-size-settings (640 x 512 for VIS and 320 x 256 for NIR) increased camera-speed to 25 cycles/s. Contrasts from below the tissue surface were algorithmically distinguished from surface shadows, reflections, etc. Thus blood vessels were selectively enhanced and back-projected into the stereoscopic VIS-color-image using either a 3D-display or conventional shutter glasses. As a first usability reconnaissance we applied this custom-built mobile stereoscopic camera for several clinical settings:* blood withdrawal;* vein inspection in dark skin;* vein detection through iodide;* varicose vein and nevi pigmentosum inspection. Our technique improves blood vessel visualization compared to the naked eye, and supports depth perception. PMID:17048103

  7. Nicotiflorin reduces cerebral ischemic damage and upregulates endothelial nitric oxide synthase in primarily cultured rat cerebral blood vessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Runping; Guo, Meili; Zhang, Ge; Xu, Xiongfei; Li, Quan

    2006-08-11

    Nicotiflorin is a flavonoid glycoside extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine Flos Carthami. In the current study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of nicotiflorin on a transient focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion model in rats. Nicotiflorin (2.5-10 mg/kg) administered after onset of ischemia markedly reduced brain infarct volume by 24.5-63.2% and neurological deficits. Also the effect of nicotiflorin on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, mRNA and protein expression after hypoxia-reoxygenation (H-R) treatment was investigated in an in vitro model mimic cerebrum ischemia-reperfusion in vivo. After total 4 h hypoxia and 12 h reoxygenation, eNOS activity, mRNA and protein levels in the primarily cultured rat cerebral blood vessel endothelial cells treated with nicotiflorin (25-100 microg/ml) 2 h after onset of hypoxia were significantly higher than eNOS activity, mRNA and protein levels in the pure H-R cells and also higher than eNOS activity, mRNA and protein levels in cells cultured under normoxic conditions. The results demonstrated that nicotiflorin had a protective effect against cerebral ischemic damage. The results also gave an important elucidation for the mechanism underlying the protective effect at the cellular level. PMID:16806761

  8. Mode of action of pinacidil and its analogs P1060 and P1368: results of studies in rat blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, A.H.; Southerton, J.S.; Bray, K.M.; Newgreen, D.T.; Taylor, S.G.

    1988-01-01

    In rat portal vein and aorta, pinacidil (0.3-100 microM) inhibited spontaneous mechanical activity (portal vein) and responses to norepinephrine (0.001-100 microM) and to KCl (5-80 mM). Pinacidil and its analogs P1060 and P1368 inhibited established contractions to 20 mM KCl but had little effect on responses to 80 mM KCl. The order of spasmolytic potency was P1060 greater than pinacdil greater than P1368. Intracellular electrical recording showed that in a portal vein, pinacidil (0.3-10 microM) abolished spontaneous electrical activity and hyperpolarized the cells to the region of the calculated EK. Pinacidil (3-10 microM) produced a similar hyperpolarization in rat aorta, and in both tissues the hyperpolarization was maintained in the continuing presence of pinacidil. Using /sup 86/Rb as a K+ marker, pinacidil increased /sup 86/Rb exchange in both the rat portal vein and aorta. The analog P1060 also increased /sup 86/Rb efflux in the rat portal vein; P1368 had no significant effect. It is concluded that the inhibitory effects of pinacidil in rat blood vessels are associated with the opening of /sup 86/Rb-permeable K+ channels. This mechanism produces a low-resistance pathway in the membrane and this inhibits the ability of pressor agents to produce smooth muscle contraction.

  9. Endosome-to-Plasma Membrane Recycling of VEGFR2 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Regulates Endothelial Function and Blood Vessel Formation.

    PubMed

    Jopling, Helen M; Odell, Adam F; Pellet-Many, Caroline; Latham, Antony M; Frankel, Paul; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu; Walker, John H; Zachary, Ian C; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2014-01-01

    Rab GTPases are implicated in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling, but how such membrane traffic regulators control vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2/KDR) dynamics and function are not well understood. Here, we evaluated two different recycling Rab GTPases, Rab4a and Rab11a, in regulating endothelial VEGFR2 trafficking and signalling with implications for endothelial cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. In primary endothelial cells, VEGFR2 displays co-localisation with Rab4a, but not Rab11a GTPase, on early endosomes. Expression of a guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-bound Rab4a S22N mutant caused increased VEGFR2 accumulation in endosomes. TfR and VEGFR2 exhibited differences in endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling in the presence of chloroquine. Depletion of Rab4a, but not Rab11a, levels stimulated VEGF-A-dependent intracellular signalling. However, depletion of either Rab4a or Rab11a levels inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell migration. Interestingly, depletion of Rab4a levels stimulated VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell proliferation. Rab4a and Rab11a were also both required for endothelial tubulogenesis. Evaluation of a transgenic zebrafish model showed that both Rab4 and Rab11a are functionally required for blood vessel formation and animal viability. Rab-dependent endosome-to-plasma membrane recycling of VEGFR2 is important for intracellular signalling, cell migration and proliferation during angiogenesis. PMID:24785348

  10. Smooth Muscle Cell Alignment and Phenotype Control by Melt Spun Polycaprolactone Fibers for Seeding of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Animesh; Lee, Bae Hoon; Irvine, Scott A.; An, Jia; Bhuthalingam, Ramya; Singh, Vaishali; Low, Kok Yao; Chua, Chee Kai; Venkatraman, Subbu S.

    2015-01-01

    A method has been developed to induce and retain a contractile phenotype for vascular smooth muscle cells, as the first step towards the development of a biomimetic blood vessel construct with minimal compliance mismatch. Melt spun PCL fibers were deposited on a mandrel to form aligned fibers of 10??m in diameter. The fibers were bonded into aligned arrangement through dip coating in chitosan solution. This formed a surface of parallel grooves, 10??m deep by 10??m across, presenting a surface layer of chitosan to promote cell surface interactions. The aligned fiber surface was used to culture cells present in the vascular wall, in particular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. This topography induced “surface guidance” over the orientation of the cells, which adopted an elongated spindle-like morphology, whereas cells on the unpatterned control surface did not show such orientation, assuming more rhomboid shapes. The preservation of VSMC contractile phenotype on the aligned scaffold was demonstrated by the retention of ?-SMA expression after several days of culture. The effect was assessed on a prototype vascular graft prosthesis fabricated from polylactide caprolactone; VSMCs aligned longitudinally along a fiberless tube, whereas, for the aligned fiber coated tubes, the VSMCs aligned in the required circumferential orientation. PMID:26413093

  11. A Rac/Cdc42 exchange factor complex promotes formation of lateral filopodia and blood vessel lumen morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sabu; Scarcia, Margherita; Bagshaw, Richard D.; McMahon, Kathryn; Grant, Gary; Harvey, Tracey; Yeo, Maggie; Esteves, Filomena O.G.; Thygesen, Helene H.; Jones, Pamela F.; Speirs, Valerie; Hanby, Andrew M.; Selby, Peter J.; Lorger, Mihaela; Dear, T. Neil; Pawson, Tony; Marshall, Christopher J.; Mavria, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    During angiogenesis, Rho-GTPases influence endothelial cell migration and cell–cell adhesion; however it is not known whether they control formation of vessel lumens, which are essential for blood flow. Here, using an organotypic system that recapitulates distinct stages of VEGF-dependent angiogenesis, we show that lumen formation requires early cytoskeletal remodelling and lateral cell–cell contacts, mediated through the RAC1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) DOCK4 (dedicator of cytokinesis 4). DOCK4 signalling is necessary for lateral filopodial protrusions and tubule remodelling prior to lumen formation, whereas proximal, tip filopodia persist in the absence of DOCK4. VEGF-dependent Rac activation via DOCK4 is necessary for CDC42 activation to signal filopodia formation and depends on the activation of RHOG through the RHOG GEF, SGEF. VEGF promotes interaction of DOCK4 with the CDC42 GEF DOCK9. These studies identify a novel Rho-family GTPase activation cascade for the formation of endothelial cell filopodial protrusions necessary for tubule remodelling, thereby influencing subsequent stages of lumen morphogenesis. PMID:26129894

  12. Osteoblast Precursors, but Not Mature Osteoblasts, Move into Developing and Fractured Bones along with Invading Blood Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Christa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Selig, Martin K.; Torrekens, Sophie; Roth, Sanford I.; Mackem, Susan; Carmeliet, Geert; Kronenberg, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY During endochondral bone development, the first osteoblasts differentiate in the perichondrium surrounding avascular cartilaginous rudiments; the source of trabecular osteoblasts inside the later bone is, however, unknown. Here, we generated tamoxifen-inducible transgenic mice bred to Rosa26R-LacZ reporter mice to follow the fates of stage-selective subsets of osteoblast lineage cells. Pulse-chase studies showed that osterix-expressing osteoblast precursors, labeled in the perichondrium prior to vascular invasion of the cartilage, give rise to trabecular osteoblasts, osteocytes, and stromal cells inside the developing bone. Throughout the translocation, some precursors were found to intimately associate with invading blood vessels, in pericyte-like fashion. A similar coinvasion occurs during endochondral healing of bone fractures. In contrast, perichondrial mature osteoblasts did not exhibit perivascular localization and remained in the outer cortex of developing bones. These findings reveal the specific involvement of immature osteoblast precursors in the coupled vascular and osteogenic transformation essential to endochondral bone development and repair. PMID:20708594

  13. Adaptive increases in expression and vasodilator activity of estrogen receptor subtypes in a blood vessel-specific pattern during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mata, Karina M; Li, Wei; Reslan, Ossama M; Siddiqui, Waleed T; Opsasnick, Lauren A; Khalil, Raouf A

    2015-11-15

    Normal pregnancy is associated with adaptive hemodynamic, hormonal, and vascular changes, and estrogen (E2) may promote vasodilation during pregnancy; however, the specific E2 receptor (ER) subtype, post-ER signaling mechanism, and vascular bed involved are unclear. We tested whether pregnancy-associated vascular adaptations involve changes in the expression/distribution/activity of distinct ER subtypes in a blood vessel-specific manner. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma E2 were measured in virgin and pregnant (day 19) rats, and the thoracic aorta, carotid artery, mesenteric artery, and renal artery were isolated for measurements of ER?, ER?, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER)] expression and tissue distribution in parallel with relaxation responses to E2 (all ERs) and the specific ER agonist 4,4',4?-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)-tris-phenol (PPT; ER?), diarylpropionitrile (DPN; ER?), and G1 (GPER). BP was slightly lower and plasma E2 was higher in pregnant versus virgin rats. Western blots revealed increased ER? and ER? in the aorta and mesenteric artery and GPER in the aorta of pregnant versus virgin rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the increases in ERs were mainly in the intima and media. In phenylephrine-precontracted vessels, E2 and PPT caused relaxation that was greater in the aorta and mesenteric artery but similar in the carotid and renal artery of pregnant versus virgin rats. DPN- and G1-induced relaxation was greater in the mesenteric and renal artery than in the aorta and carotid artery, and aortic relaxation to G1 was greater in pregnant versus virgin rats. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(?)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester with or without the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin with or without the EDHF blocker tetraethylammonium or endothelium removal reduced E2, PPT, and G1-induced relaxation in the aorta of pregnant rats, suggesting an endothelium-dependent mechanism, but did not affect E2-, PPT-, DPN-, or G1-induced relaxation in other vessels, suggesting endothelium-independent mechanisms. E2, PPT, DPN, and G1 caused relaxation of Ca(2+) entry-dependent KCl contraction, and the effect of PPT was greater in the mesenteric artery of pregnant versus virgin rats. Thus, during pregnancy, an increase in ER? expression in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle layers of the aorta and mesenteric artery is associated with increased ER?-mediated relaxation via endothelium-derived vasodilators and inhibition of Ca(2+) entry into vascular smooth muscle, supporting a role of aortic and mesenteric arterial ER? in pregnancy-associated vasodilation. GPER may contribute to aortic relaxation while enhanced ER? expression could mediate other genomic vascular effects during pregnancy. PMID:26408543

  14. Scan-pattern and signal processing for microvasculature visualization with complex SD-OCT: tissue-motion artifacts robustness and decorrelation time - blood vessel characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveev, Lev A.; Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Matveyev, Alexandr L.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Ksenofontov, Sergey Y.; Gelikonov, Valentin M.; Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, Alex

    2015-03-01

    We propose a modification of OCT scanning pattern and corresponding signal processing for 3D visualizing blood microcirculation from complex-signal B-scans. We describe the scanning pattern modifications that increase the methods' robustness to bulk tissue motion artifacts, with speed up to several cm/s. Based on these modifications, OCT-based angiography becomes more realistic under practical measurement conditions. For these scan patterns, we apply novel signal processing to separate the blood vessels with different decorrelation times, by varying of effective temporal diversity of processed signals.

  15. Comparative survival study of glial cells and cells composing walls of blood vessels in crustacean ventral nerve cord after photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosov, Mikhail S.; Shubina, Elena

    2015-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a prospective treatment modality of brain cancers. It is of importance to have information about relative survival rate of different cell types in nerve tissue during photodynamic treatment. Particularly, for development of sparing strategy of the photodynamic therapy of brain tumors, which pursuits both total elimination of malignant cells, which are usually of glial origin, and, at the same time, preservation of normal blood circulation as well as normal glial cells in the brain. The aim of this work was to carry out comparative survival study of glial cells and cells composing walls of blood vessels after photodynamic treatment, using simple model object - ventral nerve cord of crustacean.

  16. Vasodilatory effects of homologous adrenomedullin 2 and adrenomedullin 5 on isolated blood vessels of two species of eel.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Melissa S; Nobata, Shigenori; Takei, Yoshio; Donald, John A

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent vasodilator through signalling pathways that involve the endothelium. In teleost fishes, a family of five AMs are present (AM1/4, AM2/3 and AM5) with four homologous AMs (AM1, AM2/3 and AM5) recently cloned from the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica. Both AM2 and AM5 have been shown to be strong in vivo vasodepressors in eel, but the mechanism of action of homologous AMs on isolated blood vessels has not been examined in teleost fish. In this study, both eel AM2 and AM5 caused a marked vasodilation of the dorsal aorta. However, only AM5 consistently dilated the small gonadal artery in contrast to AM2 that had no effect in most preparations. Neither AM2 nor AM5 had any effect when applied to the first afferent branchial artery; in contrast, eel ANP always caused a large vasodilation of the branchial artery. In the dorsal aorta, indomethacin significantly reduced the AM2 vasodilation, but had no effect on the AM5 vasodilation. In contrast, removal of the endothelium significantly enhanced the AM5 vasodilation only. In the gonadal artery, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) significantly reduced the AM5 vasodilation suggesting a role for soluble guanylyl cyclase in the dilation, but l-NNA and removal of the endothelium had no effect. The results of this study indicate that AM2 and AM5 have distinct vasodilatory effects that may be due to the peptides signalling via different receptors to regulate vascular tone in eel. PMID:25284501

  17. Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability Relates to the Presence of Subclinical Brain Small Vessel Disease in Primary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Filomena, Josefina; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Vinyoles, Ernest; Tovar, José L; Mundet, Xavier; Castañé, Xavier; Vilar, Andrea; López-Rueda, Antonio; Jiménez-Baladó, Joan; Cartanyà, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with stroke risk, but less is known about subclinical cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We aimed to determine whether CSVD relates to short-term BP variability independently of BP levels and also, whether they improve CSVD discrimination beyond clinical variables and office BP levels. This was a cohort study on asymptomatic hypertensives who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Office and average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP levels, and several metrics of BP variability (SD, weighted SD, coefficient of variation, and average real variability [ARV]) were calculated. Definition of CSVD was based on the presence of lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensity grades. Multivariate analysis and integrated discrimination improvement were performed to assess whether BP variability and levels were independently associated with CSVD and improved its discrimination. Four hundred eighty-seven individuals participated (median age, 64; 47% women). CSVD was identified in 18.9%, related to age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, use of treatment, ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels, and ARV of systolic BP at any period. The highest prevalence (33.7%) was found in subjects with both 24-hour BP levels and ARV elevated. BP levels at any period and ARV (24 hours and nocturnal) emerged as independent predictors of CSVD, and discrimination was incrementally improved although not to a clinically significant extent (integrated discrimination improvement, 5.31%, 5.17% to 5.4%). Ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels and ARV of systolic BP relate to subclinical CSVD in hypertensive individuals. PMID:26101344

  18. VEGF165 Stimulates Vessel Density and Vessel Diameter Differently in Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; DiCorleto, Paul E.; Leontiev, Dmitry; Anand-Apte, Bela; Albarran, Brian; Farr, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (VEGF(sub 165)) stimulated angiogenesis in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) by vessel expansion from the capillary network. However, lymphangiogenesis was stimulated by the filopodial guidance of tip cells located on blind-ended lymphatic sprouts. As quantified by fractal/generational branching analysis using the computer code VESGEN, vascular density increased maximally at low VEGF concentrations, and vascular diameter increased most at high VEGF concentrations. Increased vascular density and diameter were statistically independent events (r(sub s), -0.06). By fluorescence immunohistochemistry of VEGF receptors VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, alpha smooth muscle actin ((alpha) SMA) and a vascular/lymphatic marker, VEGF(sub 165) increased the density and diameter of sprouting lymphatic vessels guided by tip cells (accompanied by the dissociation of lymphatics from blood vessels). Isolated migratory cells expressing (alpha)SMA were recruited to blood vessels, whereas isolated cells expressing VEGFR-2 were recruited primarily to lymphatics. In conclusion, VEGF(sub 165) increased lymphatic vessel density by lymphatic sprouting, but increased blood vessel density by vascular expansion from the capillary network.

  19. Exploratory Dijkstra forest based automatic vessel segmentation

    E-print Network

    Tomasi, Carlo

    Exploratory Dijkstra forest based automatic vessel segmentation: applications in video indirect's shortest-path algorithm. Our method preserves vessel thickness, requires no manual intervention, and follows vessel branching naturally and efficiently. To test our method, we constructed a retinal video

  20. Engineering blood vessels through micropatterned co-culture of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells on bilayered electrospun fibrous mats with pDNA inoculation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaowen; Lu, Jinfu; Li, Huinan; Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Although engineered blood vessels have seen important advances during recent years, proper mechanical strength and vasoactivity remain unsolved problems. In the current study, micropatterned fibrous mats were created to load smooth muscle cells (SMC), and a co-culture with endothelial cells (EC) was established through overlaying on an EC-loaded flat fibrous mat to mimic the layered structure of a blood vessel. A preferential distribution of SMC was determined in the patterned regions throughout the fibrous scaffolds, and aligned fibers in the patterned regions provided topological cues to guide the orientation of SMC with intense actin filaments and extracellular matrix (ECM) production in a circumferential direction. Plasmid DNA encoding basic fibroblast growth factors and vascular endothelial growth factor were integrated into electrospun fibers as biological cues to promote SMC infiltration into fibrous mats, and the viability and ECM production of both EC and SMC. The layered fibrous mats with loaded EC and SMC were wrapped into a cylinder, and engineered vessels were obtained with compact EC and SMC layers after co-culture for 3 months. Randomly oriented ECM productions of EC formed a continuous endothelium covering the entire lumenal surface, and a high alignment of ECM was shown in the circumferential direction of SMC layers. The tensile strength, strain at failure and suture retention strength were higher than those of the human femoral artery, and the burst pressure and radial compliance were in the same range as the human saphenous vein, indicating potential as blood vessel substitutes for transplantation in vivo. Thus, the establishment of topographical cues and biochemical signals in fibrous scaffolds demonstrates advantages in modulating cellular behavior and organization found in complex multicellular tissues. PMID:25305234

  1. Toxicity and Cellular Uptake of Gold Nanorods in Vascular Endothelium and Smooth Muscles of Isolated Rat Blood Vessel: Importance of Surface Modification**

    PubMed Central

    Alkilany, Alaaldin M.; Shatanawi, Alia; Kurtz, Timothy; Caldwell, Ruth B.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods have promising applications in drug delivery and cancer treatment and are generally administered via direct injection into circulation. Thus it is necessary to evaluation their potential adverse effects on blood vessels. Herein we use gold nanorods with various surface modifications to evaluate the toxicity and cellular uptake of gold nanorods into vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells of isolated rat aortic rings. Surfactant-capped gold nanorods (GNRs) were synthesized and either: 1) coated with polyelectrolytes (PE) in order to prepare PE-GNRs; or 2) modified with thiolated polyethylene glycol (PEG) in order to prepare PEG-GNRs. Using toxicity assays, small vessel myography, fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, we show that therapeutic concentrations of PE-GNRs but not PEG-GNRs are toxic to the vascular endothelium, which leads to impaired relaxation function of aortic rings. However, no toxicity to smooth muscles was observed. Moreover, electron microscopy analysis confirmed the cellular uptake of PE-GNRs but not PEG-GNRs into the endothelium of exposed aortic rings. The difference in toxicity and cellular uptake for PE-GNRs versus PEG-GNRs is explained and linked to free surfactant molecules and protein adsorption, respectively. Our results indicate that toxicity and cellular uptake in vascular endothelium in blood vessels are potential adverse effects of systemically administered gold nanorod solutions, which can be prevented by appropriate surface functionalization. PMID:22334586

  2. Alpha 1B-receptors and intracellular calcium mediate sympathetic nerve induced constriction of rat irideal blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Gould, D J; Hill, C E

    1994-12-15

    The present study has investigated the receptors involved in the non-cholinergic nerve mediated constriction of the larger blood vessels (30-50 microns) within the rat iris. This response was blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, benextramine (10(5) M). Furthermore, the response was more sensitive to blockade by the alpha 1 antagonist, prazosin (IC50 9 x 10(-10) M), than to blockade by the alpha 2 antagonist, yohimbine (IC50 2 x 10(-7) M), or the adrenergic antagonist, WB4101 (IC50 2 x 10(-8) M), and was abolished by chloroethylclonidine (10(-5) M). These results suggest the involvement of alpha 1B-adrenoceptors. The nerve mediated constriction was not blocked by the voltage-dependent calcium channel blocking drugs, nifedipine (10(-6) M), verapamil (10(-6) M) or diltiazem (10(-6) M), but was completely abolished by the intracellular calcium mobilizer, caffeine (10(-3) M), supporting the hypothesis that alpha 1B-adrenoceptors are activated following nerve stimulation. Dantrolene (10(-4) M), which interferes with calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, reduced the nerve mediated constriction by 40% as did thapsigargin (2 x 10(-6) M), which inhibits the calcium ATPase responsible for uptake of calcium into intracellular stores. When influx of calcium was blocked by verapamil (10(-6) M), thapsigargin, but not dantrolene, completely abolished the response. Noradrenaline (10(-5) M) produced a vasoconstriction in the presence or absence of external calcium although the latter response was significantly smaller than the former. Vasoconstriction produced by a submaximal concentration of noradrenaline (10(-6) M), was completely prevented by pretreatment with chloroethylclonidine. The data indicate that noradrenaline released from sympathetic nerves causes a constriction of arterioles in the iris by activating alpha 1B-adrenoceptors and releasing calcium from dantrolene sensitive and insensitive intracellular stores, followed by inflow of calcium through verapamil sensitive calcium channels. Applied noradrenaline also activates chloroethylclonidine sensitive receptors on the arteriolar surface. PMID:7884154

  3. High blood pressure - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertension - infants ... and blood vessels The health of the kidneys High blood pressure in infants may be due to kidney or ... Bronchopulmonary dysplasia Renal artery stenosis In newborn babies, high blood pressure is often caused by a blood clot in ...

  4. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Effect of Rolling Massage on Particle Moving Behaviour in Blood Vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Hou-Hui; Fan, Li-Juan; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Yan-Yan

    2008-09-01

    The rolling massage manipulation is a classic Chinese massage, which is expected to eliminate many diseases. Here the effect of the rolling massage on the particle moving property in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that the particle moving behaviour depends on the rolling velocity, the distance between particle position and rolling position. The average values, including particle translational velocity and angular velocity, increase as the rolling velocity increases almost linearly. The result is helpful to understand the mechanism of the massage and develop the rolling techniques.

  5. Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites for efficient and repetitive removal of low density lipoprotein in plasma and on blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiao; Lu, Juan; Yue, Danyang; Fan, Yijuan; Yi, Caixia; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Mengxue; Pan, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis therapy, which directly removes LDL from plasma by LDL-adsorbents in vitro is found to be clinically effective and safe to lower the LDL content in blood to prevent cardiovascular disease. Thus, developing excellent LDL adsorbents are becoming more and more attractive. Herein, functional Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites have been synthesized by a facile and eco-friendly two-step method. Not only do they possess high LDL adsorption (in PBS/plasma as well as on blood vessels) and favorable magnetic targeting ability but they can also be reused conveniently, which offer the Fe3O4@ZnO core-shell nanocomposites significant potential in the removal of LDL in vitro and in vivo.

  6. Color Doppler imaging of the retrobulbar vessels in diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Walasik-Szempli?ska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose level due to impaired insulin secretion and activity. Chronic hyperglycemia leads to functional disorders of numerous organs and to their damage. Vascular lesions belong to the most common late complications of diabetes. Microangiopathic lesions can be found in the eyeball, kidneys and nervous system. Macroangiopathy is associated with coronary and peripheral vessels. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common microangiopathic complication characterized by closure of slight retinal blood vessels and their permeability. Despite intensive research, the pathomechanism that leads to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy is not fully understood. The examinations used in assessing diabetic retinopathy usually involve imaging of the vessels in the eyeball and the retina. Therefore, the examinations include: fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography of the retina, B-mode ultrasound imaging, perimetry and digital retinal photography. There are many papers that discuss the correlations between retrobulbar circulation alterations and progression of diabetic retinopathy based on Doppler sonography. Color Doppler imaging is a non-invasive method enabling measurements of blood flow velocities in small vessels of the eyeball. The most frequently assessed vessels include: the ophthalmic artery, which is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, as well as the central retinal vein and artery, and the posterior ciliary arteries. The analysis of hemodynamic alterations in the retrobulbar vessels may deliver important information concerning circulation in diabetes and help to answer the question whether there is a relation between the progression of diabetic retinopathy and the changes observed in blood flow in the vessels of the eyeball. This paper presents the overview of literature regarding studies on blood flow in the vessels of the eyeball in patients with diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26675340

  7. Transcatheter embolization of pelvic vessels for control of intractable hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, E.K.

    1981-08-01

    Transcatheter embolization for intractable hemorrhage from pelvic organs was performed in 46 patients. Advantages are discussed regarding different embolic materials, particle size, and embolization directed at branch vessels versus divisional arteries. An optimal approach for managing hemorrhage of different etiologies is developed, taking advantage of (a) selective embolization techniques, (b) pharmacologic manipulation of blood flow, and (c) the ability of embolic material to allow restitution of flow and/or continued collateral perfusion via the precapillary plexus.

  8. Field confirmation of modified pressurized solvent extraction vessels for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in blood samples from Great Lakes Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Haskins, Stacey D; Kelly, David G; Weir, Ron D

    2013-06-01

    Miniaturized pressurized solvent extraction vessels were used to examine polychlorinated biphenyl congener (PCB) concentrations in 0.2 g sample sizes of whole blood, liver, heart and breast tissue sampled from twelve Great Lakes Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos). This study successfully supported the blood extraction method, previously validated only using laboratory prepared blood samples, using field samples. In situ clean-up offered excellent sample throughput without degradation of GC-MS performance; using this method, extraction, instrument analysis and data interpretation for 100 samples could be accomplished within a one to two week time period. Results indicated contamination in the blood (?PCB = 1.9-13 ng g(-1) ww), liver (?PCB = 0.8-11 ng g(-1) ww), breast (?PCB = <0.1-9 ng g(-1) ww) and heart tissue (?PCB = <0.1-6 ng g(-1) ww). Quality control included the analysis of blank samples, NIST SRM 1589a and a duplicate of each sample type (blood or tissue). All blank samples were below the method detection limit, SRM values were within 70% of their certified values and duplicates were within 70% of each other. Correlations were examined for the suite of analysed congeners between blood and various tissues; within select individuals a strong and significant correlation was observed. TEQs were calculated and compared against known toxicity data for bird species. Based on the PCB levels found in this study, no adverse health effects are expected in the birds themselves. ?PCB concentrations in the breast tissue were also compared against both the Canadian and American guidelines for the consumption of edible poultry and based on these values, the Mallards used in this research would be safe for human consumption. PMID:23598430

  9. Acute effect of neodymium yttrium aluminium garment laser on the cerebral cortical structure, blood-brain barrier, and pial vessel behaviour in the cat.

    PubMed

    Sakaki, T; Kleinert, R; Ascher, P W; Auer, L M

    1991-01-01

    Experimental brain lesions were created by Nd:YAG laser (wave length 1.06 microns) irradiation on the cerebral cortex of anaesthesized adult cats with 20 Watts impacts of 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 seconds exposure time through cranial windows. Histological changes, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (Evans blue extravasation) and pial vessel reaction (large vessels more than 100 microns and vessels smaller than 100 microns) were studied under constant PaCO2, blood pH, and mean arterial pressure. Histological changes of the lesions consisted of a zone of dense coagulation, a pale zone of homogeneous coagulation and an oedematous zone. Evans blue extravasation was uniformly seen extending from the histologically changed area into the surrounding tissue in all experiments. Pial arteries in the area with morphological changes showed pronounced dilatation (100.0 +/- 7.2%) and one third of these arteries were closed by thrombi. Pial arteries in the area of Evans blue extravasation but outside of histological changes also dilated (large arteries 60 +/- 4.1%, small arteries 77 +/- 5.9%). Pial arteries outside of the Evans blue extravasation were affected transiently and only in a very small zone: Within a distance of 200 microns from the Evans blue extravasation, large arteries initially dilated by 41 +/- 8.3%; small arteries dilated within 400 microns (42 +/- 3.7%). Within 4 minutes after irradiation arterial dilatation was again significantly reduced (p less than 0.01). It is concluded that no important vascular changes occur beyond the zones of histologically altered brain tissue. PMID:1858531

  10. Rapid onset of perfused blood vessels after implantation of ECFCs and MPCs in collagen, PuraMatrix and fibrin provisional matrices.

    PubMed

    Allen, Patrick; Kang, Kyu-Tae; Bischoff, Joyce

    2015-05-01

    We developed an in vivo vascularization model in which human endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and human mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) form blood vessel networks when co-injected (ECFC?+?MPC) into nude mice in rat tail type I collagen, bovine fibrin or synthetic peptide PuraMatrix matrices. We used three approaches to determine the onset of functional vascularization when ECFC?+?MPC suspended in these matrices were implanted in vivo. The first was immunohistochemistry to detect vessels lined by human endothelial cells and filled with red blood cells. The second was in vivo vascular staining by tail vein injection of a mixture of Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I), a lectin specific for human endothelium, and Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GS-IB4 ), a lectin specific for rodent endothelium. The third approach employed contrast-enhanced ultrasound to measure the perfusion volumes of implants in individual animals over time. Human endothelial-lined tubular structures were detected in vivo on days 1 and 2 after implantation, with perfused human vessels detected on days 3 and 4. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound revealed significant perfusion of ECFC?+?MPC/collagen implants on days 1-4, at up to 14% perfused vascular volume. ECFC?+?MPC implanted in fibrin and PuraMatrix matrices also supported perfusion at day 1, as assessed by ultrasound (at 12% and 23% perfused vascular volume, respectively). This model demonstrates that ECFC?+?MPC suspended in any of the three matrices initiated a rapid onset of vascularization. We propose that ECFC?+?MPC delivered in vivo provide a means to achieve rapid perfusion of tissue-engineered organs or for in situ tissue repair. PMID:23955835

  11. Multiple release of polyplexes of plasmids VEGF and bFGF from electrospun fibrous scaffolds towards regeneration of mature blood vessels.

    PubMed

    He, Shuhui; Xia, Tian; Wang, Huan; Wei, Li; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong

    2012-07-01

    Key challenges associated with the outcomes of vascular grafting (for example, to fully vascularize engineered tissues and promptly regenerate blood vessel substitutes) remain unsolved. The local availability of angiogenic growth factors is highly desirable for tissue regeneration, and plasmid loading in scaffolds represents a powerful alternative for local production of tissue-inductive factors. No attempt has been made so far to clarify the efficacy of electrospun fibers with the loading of multiple plasmids to promote tissue regeneration. In the present study, core-sheath electrospun fibers with the encapsulation of polyplexes of basic fibroblast growth factor-encoding plasmid (pbFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor-encoding plasmid (pVEGF) were evaluated to promote the generation of mature blood vessels. In vitro release indicated a sustained release of pDNA for ?4 weeks with as low as ?10% initial burst release, and the release patterns from the single and twofold plasmid-loaded systems coincided. In vitro investigations on human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that the sustained release of pDNA from fibrous mats promoted cell attachment and viability, cell transfection and protein expression, and extracellular secretion of collagen IV and laminin. The acceleration of angiogenesis was assessed in vivo after subcutaneous implantation of fibrous scaffolds, and the explants were evaluated after 1, 2 and 4 weeks' treatment by histological and immunohistochemical staining. Compared with pDNA polyplex infiltrated fibrous mats, the pDNA polyplex encapsulated fibers alleviated the inflammation reaction and enhanced the generation of microvessels. Although there was no significant difference in the total number of microvessels, the density of mature vessels was significantly enhanced by the combined treatment with both pbFGF and pVEGF compared with those incorporating individual pDNA. The integration of the core-sheath structure, DNA condensation and multiple delivery strategies provided a potential platform for scaffold fabrication to regenerate functional tissues. PMID:22484697

  12. Rapid determination of branched chain amino acids in human blood plasma by pressure-assisted capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    T?ma, Petr; Gojda, Jan

    2015-08-01

    A CE method with contactless conductivity detection has been developed for the clinical determination of the branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) valine, isoleucine and leucine in human blood plasma. The CE separation was performed in an optimised BGE with composition of 3.2 M acetic acid in 20% v/v methanol, pH 2.0. The achieved separation time was 125 s when using a capillary with an effective length of 14.7 cm, electric field intensity of 0.96 kV/cm and simultaneous application of a hydrodynamic pressure of 50 mbar. The separation efficiency in blood plasma equalled 461?000 theoretical plates/m for valine and isoleucine, and 455?000 theoretical plates/m for leucine; the detection limits are equal to 0.4 ?M for all three amino acids. The RSD values for repeatability of the migration time equalled 0.1% for measurements during a single day and 0.3% for measurements on different days; the RSD values for repeatability of the peak areas equalled 2.3-2.6% for measurements during a single day and 2.7-4.6% for measurements on different days. It followed from the performed tests that the plasmatic levels of BCAAs attain a maximum 60 min after intravenous application of an infusion of BCAAs. PMID:25639649

  13. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169...Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements...

  14. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169...Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements...

  15. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169...Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements...

  16. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169...Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.690 Lighting branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements...

  17. The effect of hypodynamia on the structure of the intraorganic blood vessels and the capacity of the blood stream in the diaphragm of white rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerus, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of hypodynamia on the vascular system of white rats with diaphragm deprivation was investigated. Morphological changes in the intraorganic blood stream of the diaphragm were determined. The capacity of the intraorganic vascular flow within the diaphragm muscles was established.

  18. Spatial Distributions of Red Blood Cells Significantly Alter Local Haemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Joseph M.; Holmes, David; Kaliviotis, Efstathios; Balabani, Stavroula

    2014-01-01

    Although bulk changes in red blood cell concentration between vessels have been well characterised, local distributions are generally overlooked. Red blood cells aggregate, deform and migrate within vessels, forming heterogeneous distributions which have considerable effect on local haemodynamics. The present study reports data on the local distribution of human red blood cells in a sequentially bifurcating microchannel, representing the branching geometry of the microvasculature. Imaging methodologies with simple extrapolations are used to infer three dimensional, time-averaged velocity and haematocrit distributions under a range of flow conditions. Strong correlation between the bluntness of the velocity and haematocrit profiles in the parent branch of the geometry is observed and red blood cell aggregation has a notable effect on the observed trends. The two branches of the first bifurcation show similar characteristics in terms of the shapes of the profiles and the extent of plasma skimming, despite the difference in geometric configuration. In the second bifurcation, considerable asymmetry between the branches in the plasma skimming relationship is observed, and elucidated by considering individual haematocrit profiles. The results of the study highlight the importance of considering local haematocrit distributions in the analysis of blood flow and could lead to more accurate computational models of blood flow in microvascular networks. The experimental approaches developed in this work provide a foundation for further examining the characteristics of microhaemodynamics. PMID:24950214

  19. Determination of areal densities of blood vessel wall components in histological sections by means of image analysis.

    PubMed

    Verheyen, A; Minten, J; Cornelissen, F; Rombauts, W; De Geest, H

    1987-05-01

    A technique is described which allows quantification of specifically stained, intermingled vessel wall components in paraffin-embedded tissue. The dissociation of elastic, muscular and connective tissue and the determination of their areal densities in the superior vena cava and in the ascending aorta of the dog, was performed by automated image analysis. The percentages of elastic+connective tissue, determined by this technique, correlated significantly with the data derived from biochemical measurements. It was further found that the structure of the vena cava wall was a function of the distance from the right atrium. PMID:3302268

  20. Effects of viscosity and constraints on the dispersion and dissipation of waves in large blood vessels. II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, E.; Anliker, M.; Chang, I.

    1971-01-01

    Comparison of previously described theoretical predictions with in vivo data from anesthetized dogs. It is shown that the observed attenuation of the pressure and axial waves cannot be accounted for by fluid viscosity alone. For large values of the frequency parameter alpha, the previous analysis is extended to include the effects of viscoelasticity of the vessel wall. The results indicate that the speeds of both types of waves are essentially unaffected by a realistic viscoelasticity model while the attenuation per wavelength is significantly increased and becomes frequency independent. There is fair agreement between theory and experiment.

  1. Direct observation of liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo in skin blood vessels using intravital fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Mordon, Serge R.; Begu, Sylvie; Desmettre, Thomas

    2000-04-01

    This study aimed to observe liposome uptake by leukocytes in vivo. The study was performed on skin by using a dorsal skin-fold chamber implanted in golden hamsters using intravital microscopy. 5,6-CF-encapsulated PEGylated liposomes were injected intravenously. The skin microcirculation was observed with an intravital Eclipse E800 Nikon microscope fitted with a Xenon light source and an epi-fluorescence assembly. An ultra-high sensitivity video-camera mounted on the microscope projected the image onto a monitor, and the images were recorded for playback analysis with a digital video cassette recorder. An acute inflammatory response was obtained by removing one complete layer of skin and the underlying fascia and avascular tissue on the opposing side of the flap corresponding to an area equivalent to the window aperture. Using these model and set-up, leukocyte rolling and adhesion were easily observed and the entry of PEGylated liposomes into hamster blood leukocytes was studied for a period of 6 hours. PEGylated liposomes were clearly identified alone inside the blood flow and inside the leukocytes as soon as the inflammatory reaction appeared. This study shows for the first time that blood leukocytes in their natural milieu of whole blood are capable of interacting with, and taking up liposomes. This observation is in accordance with previous in vitro studies.

  2. Blood Pressure Regulation VIII: Resistance Vessel Tone and Implications for a Pro-Atherogenic Conduit Artery Endothelial Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Fadel, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction of the endothelium is proposed as the primary initiator of atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease, which occurs mainly in medium to large-sized conduit arteries of the lower extremities (e.g., iliac, femoral, popliteal arteries). In this review article, we propose the novel concept that conduit artery endothelial cell phenotype is determined, in part, by microvascular tone in skeletal muscle resistance arteries through both changes in arterial blood pressure as well as upstream conduit artery shear stress patterns. First, we summarize the literature supporting the involvement of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the modulation of microvascular tone and arterial blood pressure. We then focus on the role of elevated blood pressure and shear stress profiles in modulating conduit artery endothelial cell phenotype. Last, we discuss findings from classic and emerging studies indicating that increased vascular resistance, as it occurs in the context of increased SNA and/or reduced NO bioavailability, is associated with greater oscillatory shear stress (e.g., increased retrograde shear) in upstream conduit arteries. The ideas put forth in this review set the stage for a new paradigm concerning the mechanistic link between increased microvascular tone and development of conduit artery endothelial dysfunction and thus increased risk for peripheral artery disease. Indeed, a vast amount of evidence supports the notion that excessive blood pressure and oscillatory shear stress are potent pro-atherogenic signals to the endothelium. PMID:23860841

  3. VESSEL SAFETY CHECKLIST Vessel Name: ___________________________________ Vessel Number: _________________________________

    E-print Network

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    VESSEL SAFETY CHECKLIST Vessel Name: ___________________________________ Vessel Number Checklist- Required Float plan submitted Boater education card Boat registration Compass and GPS Up to date means of boarding) Vessel System Checklist Drain plug installed Fuel tank full Bilge free of water

  4. Thermal expansion of blood vessels in low cryogenic temperatures, Part II: Vitrification with VS55, DP6, and 7.05M DMSO

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez Rios, Jorge L.; Rabin, Yoed

    2006-01-01

    As part of the ongoing effort to study the mechanical behavior of biological materials in cryopreservation processes, the current study focuses on thermal expansion during vitrification (vitreous in Latin means glassy). A new device is utilized in this study, which has been described in detail in the companion paper (Part I). The current study (Part II) focuses on measurements of vitrified blood vessels permeated with the cryoprotectants VS55, DP6 and DMSO. Data analysis in this study includes polynomial approximation of experimental results in the lower part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the material behaves as solid over a practical time scale. The study further includes a unified thermal expansion analysis throughout the entire cryogenic temperature range by compiling the current results with previously reported data. Finally, analysis of the glass transition temperature, based on thermal strain data is presented. PMID:16488407

  5. Construction of a novel expression cassette for increasing transgene expression in vivo in endothelial cells of large blood vessels

    PubMed Central

    Dronadula, Nagadhara; Du, Liang; Flynn, Rowan; Buckler, Joshua; Kho, Jordan; Jiang, Zhilong; Tanaka, Shinji; Dichek, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The success of gene therapy hinges on achievement of adequate transgene expression. To ensure high transgene expression, many gene-therapy vectors include highly active virus-derived transcriptional elements. Other vectors include tissue-specific eukaryotic transcriptional elements, intended to limit transgene expression to specific cell types, avoid toxicity, and prevent immune responses. Unfortunately, tissue specificity is often accompanied by lower transgene expression. Here we use eukaryotic (murine) transcriptional elements and a virus-derived posttranscriptional element to build cassettes designed to express a potentially therapeutic gene (interleukin-10) in large vessel endothelial cells (EC) at levels as high as obtained with the CMV immediate-early promoter, while retaining EC-specificity. The cassettes were tested by incorporation into helper-dependent adenoviral vectors, and transduction into bovine aortic EC in vitro and rabbit carotid EC in vivo. The murine endothelin-1 promoter showed EC-specificity, but expressed only 3% as much IL-10 mRNA as CMV. Inclusion of precisely 4 copies of an EC-specific enhancer and a posttranscriptional regulatory element increased IL-10 expression to a level at or above the CMV promoter in vivo, while retaining—and possibly enhancing—EC specificity, as measured in vitro. The cassette reported here will likely be useful for maximizing transgene expression in large vessel EC, while minimizing systemic effects. PMID:21179172

  6. Computer simulation of MHD blood conveying gold nanoparticles as a third grade non-Newtonian nanofluid in a hollow porous vessel.

    PubMed

    Hatami, M; Hatami, J; Ganji, D D

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, heat transfer and flow analysis for a non-Newtonian third grade nanofluid flow in porous medium of a hollow vessel in presence of magnetic field are simulated analytically and numerically. Blood is considered as the base third grade non-Newtonian fluid and gold (Au) as nanoparticles are added to it. The viscosity of nanofluid is considered a function of temperature as Vogel's model. Least Square Method (LSM), Galerkin method (GM) and fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical method (NUM) are used to solve the present problem. The influences of the some physical parameters such as Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters on non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are considered. The results show that increasing the thermophoresis parameter (N(t)) caused an increase in temperature values in whole domain and an increase in nanoparticles concentration just near the inner wall of vessel. Furthermore by increasing the MHD parameter, velocity profiles decreased due to magnetic field effect. PMID:24286727

  7. Effects of the tumor-vasculature-disrupting agent verubulin and two heteroaryl analogues on cancer cells, endothelial cells, and blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Mahal, Katharina; Resch, Marcus; Ficner, Ralf; Schobert, Rainer; Biersack, Bernhard; Mueller, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Two analogues of the discontinued tumor vascular-disrupting agent verubulin (Azixa®, MPC-6827, 1) featuring benzo-1,4-dioxan-6-yl (compound 5 a) and N-methylindol-5-yl (compound 10) residues instead of the para-anisyl group on the 4-(methylamino)-2-methylquinazoline pharmacophore, were prepared and found to exceed the antitumor efficacy of the lead compound. They were antiproliferative with single-digit nanomolar IC50 values against a panel of nine tumor cell lines, while not affecting nonmalignant fibroblasts. Indole 10 surpassed verubulin in seven tumor cell lines including colon, breast, ovarian, and germ cell cancer cell lines. In line with docking studies indicating that compound 10 may bind the colchicine binding site of tubulin more tightly (Ebind =-9.8 kcal mol(-1) ) than verubulin (Ebind =-8.3 kcal mol(-1) ), 10 suppressed the formation of vessel-like tubes in endothelial cells and destroyed the blood vessels in the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilized chicken eggs at nanomolar concentrations. When applied to nude mice bearing a highly vascularized 1411HP germ cell xenograft tumor, compound 10 displayed pronounced vascular-disrupting effects that led to hemorrhages and extensive central necrosis in the tumor. PMID:24678059

  8. Blood Pressure Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. ... and widen blood vessels. Often, two or more medicines work better than one. NIH: National Heart, Lung, ...

  9. Direct 3D Analyses Reveal Barrel-Specific Vascular Distribution and Cross-Barrel Branching in the Mouse Barrel Cortex.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jingpeng; Guo, Congdi; Chen, Shangbin; Jiang, Tao; He, Yong; Ding, Wenxiang; Yang, Zhongqin; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Whether vascular distribution is spatially specific among cortical columns is a fundamental yet controversial question. Here, we have obtained 1-?m resolution 3D datasets that cover the whole mouse barrel cortex by combining Nissl staining with micro-optical sectioning tomography to simultaneously visualize individual cells and blood vessels, including capillaries. Pinpointing layer IV of the posteromedial barrel subfield, direct 3D reconstruction and quantitative analysis showed that (1) penetrating vessels preferentially locate in the interbarrel septa/barrel wall (75.1%) rather than the barrel hollows, (2) the branches of 70% penetrating vessels only reach the neighboring but not always all the neighboring barrels and the other 30% extend beyond the neighboring barrels and may provide cross-barrel blood supply or drainage, (3) the branches of 59.6% penetrating vessels reach all the neighboring barrels, while the rest only reach part of them, and (4) the length density of microvessels in the interbarrel septa/barrel wall is lower than that in the barrel hollows with a ratio of 0.92. These results reveal that the penetrating vessels and microvessels exhibit a barrel-specific organization, whereas the branches of penetrating vessels do not, which suggests a much more complex vascular distribution pattern among cortical columns than previously thought. PMID:25085882

  10. Analytical model of solutions of (2+1)-D heat convection equations in a shape memory alloy device immersed in a blood vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher Abourabia, Aly; Hassan, Kawsar Mohammad; Abo-Elghar, Eman Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    We investigate a bio-system composed of a shape memory alloy (SMA) immersed and subjected to heat convection in a blood vessel, affected by heart beats that create a wave motion of long wavelength. The tackled model in (2+1)-D is based on the continuity and momentum equations for the fluid phase, besides; the state of the SMA are described via previous works in the form of statistical distributions of energy for both Martensite and Austenite phases. The solution based on the reductive perturbation technique gives a thermal diffusion-like equation as a key for expressing the temperature and velocity components of the blood. In terms of two cases concerning the difference between the wave numbers in the perpendicular directions, it is found that the system's temperature increases nonlinearly from a minimum initial temperature 293 K (20 °C) up to a maximum value about 316.68 K (43.68 °C), then tends to decrease along the blood flow (anisotropy of K and L) direction. In both cases it is observed that the SMA acquires most of this temperature raising not the blood because of its conventional biological limits (37-40 °C). The range of the heart beats wave numbers characteristic for each person plays an important role in realizing phase changes in the anisotropic case leading to the formation of the hysteresis loops Martensite-Austenite-Martensite or vice versa, according to the energy variation. The entropy generation ? is investigated for the system (Blood + SMA), it predicts that along the flow direction the system gains energy convectively up to a maximum value, then reverses his tendency to gradually loosing energy passing by the equilibrium state, then the system looses energy to the surroundings by the same amount which was gained beforehand. The loss diminishes but stops before arriving to equilibrium again. For certain differences in wave numbers the system starts to store energy again after it passes by the state of equilibrium for the second time. In the curves of ? the common points of intersections can be looked for as the positions where the phase changes take place. It is observed that the effect of heat transfer is dominated over the viscous dissipation substantially; this is illustrated by the irreversibility distribution ratio ? and the Bejan number. On the other hand this is assured by the smallness of the ratio between the initial effect of shear viscosity to the initial thermal effect in the alloy (? ? 10-8). Furthermore, this allows the SMA to reveal the properties of phase change in order, for instance, to prevent the passage of large clots from reaching the lungs.

  11. Validation of an open source framework for the simulation of blood flow in rigid and deformable vessels

    PubMed Central

    Passerini, T.; Quaini, A.; Villa, U.; Veneziani, A.; Canic, S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We discuss in this paper the validation of an open source framework for the solution of problems arising in hemodynamics. The proposed framework is assessed through experimental data for fluid flow in an idealized medical device with rigid boundaries and a numerical benchmark for flow in compliant vessels. The core of the framework is an open source parallel finite element library that features several algorithms to solve both fluid and fluid-structure interaction problems. The numerical results for the flow in the idealized medical device (consisting of a conical convergent, a narrow throat, and a sudden expansion) are in good quantitative agreement with the measured axial components of the velocity and pressures for three different flow rates corresponding to laminar, transitional, and turbulent regimes. We emphasize the crucial role played by the accuracy in performing numerical integration, mesh, and time step to match the measurements. The numerical fluid-structure interaction benchmark deals with the propagation of a pressure wave in a fluid-filled elastic tube. The computed pressure wave speed and frequency of oscillations, and the axial velocity of the fluid on the tube axis are close to the values predicted by the analytical solution associated with the benchmark. A detailed account of the methods used for both benchmarks is provided. PMID:23798339

  12. Unravelling the blood supply to the zebrafish pharyngeal jaws and teeth

    PubMed Central

    Crucke, Jeroen; Huysseune, Ann

    2013-01-01

    We describe the vascular supply to the pharyngeal jaws and teeth in zebrafish, from larval stages to juveniles, using serial high quality semithin sections and 3D reconstructions. We have identified that the arterial blood supply to the last pair of branchial arches, which carries the teeth, issues from the hypobranchial artery. Surprisingly, the arteries supplying the pharyngeal jaws show an asymmetric branching pattern that is modified over ontogeny. Moreover, the blood vessel pattern that serves each jaw can best be described as a sinusoidal cavity encircling the bases of both the functional and replacement teeth. Capillaries branching from this sinusoidal cavity enter the pulp and constitute the intrinsic blood supply to the attached teeth. The role of these blood vessels during tooth development (whether instructive or nutritive) remains to be determined and requires further study. However, we have provided a firm morphological basis that will aid in the interpretation of experiments addressing this question. PMID:23937397

  13. Localized Dose Enhancement to Tumor Blood Vessel Endothelial Cells via Megavoltage X-rays and Targeted Gold Nanoparticles: New Potential for External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Berbeco, Ross I.; Ngwa, Wilfred; Makrigiorgos, G. Mike

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Tumor endothelial cell damage during radiation therapy may contribute significantly to tumor eradication and treatment efficacy. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) delivered preferentially to the walls of tumor blood vessels produce low-energy, short-range photoelectrons during external beam radiotherapy, boosting dose to the tumor microvasculature. In this study dosimetry at the single-cell level is used to estimate the anticipated AuNP-mediated dose enhancement to tumor endothelial cells during 6-MV X-ray irradiation. Methods and Materials: Endothelial cells are modeled as thin slabs with 100-nm-diameter AuNPs attached within the blood vessel. The number of photoelectrons emitted per AuNP per gray of X-rays is computed at multiple points along the external beam central axis by use of a Monte Carlo-generated energy fluence spectrum. The energy deposited from AuNP emissions to the endothelium is calculated based on an analytic method incorporating the energy-loss formula of Cole. The endothelial dose enhancement factor (EDEF) is the ratio of the overall (externally plus internally generated) dose to endothelial cells in the presence of AuNPs to the dose without AuNPs (from the external beam only). Results: At 20-cm depth, the EDEF is 1.7 (70% dose increase) for an intravascular AuNP concentration of 30 mg/g. Most of this dose enhancement arises from the low-energy (approximately 100 keV) portion of the linear accelerator X-ray spectrum. Furthermore, for AuNP concentrations ranging from 7 to 140 mg/g, EDEF values of 1.2 to 4.4 (20-340% dose increase) are calculated. Conclusions: In contrast to calculations assuming that AuNPs distributed homogeneously throughout the target volume (macrodosimetry), our cellular microdosimetry calculations predict a major dose enhancement to tumor microvasculature from conventional linear accelerator X-rays. This effect may enable the delivery of ablative therapeutic doses to these sensitive microstructures while maintaining established dose constraints for the organs at risk.

  14. A multicomponent bioactive tissue-engineered blood vessel: Fabrication, mechanical evaluation and biological evaluation with physiological-relevant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonani, Walter

    The high long-term failure rate of synthetic vascular grafts in the replacement of small vessels is known to be associated with the lack of physiological signals to vascular cells causing adverse hemodynamic, inflammatory or coagulatory events. Current studies focus on developing engineered vascular devices with ability of directing cell activity in vitro and in vivo for tissue regeneration. It is also known that controlled molecule release from scaffolds can dramatically increase the scaffold ability of directing cell activities in vitro and in vivo for tissue regeneration. To address the mechanical and biological problems associated with graft materials, we demonstrated a degradable polyester-fibroin composite tubular scaffolds which shows well-integrated nanofibrous structure, endothelial-conducive surface and anisotropic mechanical property, suitable as engineered vascular constructs. Tissue regeneration needs not only functional biomolecules providing signaling cues to cells and guide tissue remodeling, but also an adequate modality of molecule delivery. In fact, healthy tissue formation requires specific signals at well-defined place and time. To develop scaffolds with multi-modal presentation of biomolecules, we patterned electrospun nanofibers over the thickness of the 3-dimensional scaffolds by programming the deposition of interpenetrating networks of degradable polymers poly(a-caprolactone) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid in tailored proportion. Fluorescent model molecules, drug and growth factors were embedded in the polymeric fibers with different techniques and release profiles were obtained and discussed. Fabrication process resulted in precise gradient patterns of materials and functional biomolecules throughout the thickness of the scaffold. These graded materials showed programmable spatio-temporal control over the release. Molecule release profiles on each side of the scaffolds were used to determine the separation efficiency of molecule delivery, which achieved >90% for proteins in 200microm scaffolds. Gradient-patterned scaffolds were also used to program simultaneous release of two proteins to the opposite sides of the scaffold and sequential release of proteins to a defined space, which further demonstrate the ability of patterned nanofibers to spatially and temporally confine sustained release. Moreover, results showed that temporal release kinetics could be altered by the structural patterns. Thus, the hierarchically-structured scaffolds presented here may enable development of novel multifunctional scaffolds with defined 3D dynamic microenvironments for tissue regeneration.

  15. VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth but critical for their survival, and VEGF-B targeting inhibits pathological angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Tang, Zhongshu; Hou, Xu; Lennartsson, Johan; Li, Yang; Koch, Alexander W.; Scotney, Pierre; Lee, Chunsik; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Dong, Lijin; Kumar, Anil; Rissanen, Tuomas T.; Wang, Bin; Nagai, Nobuo; Fons, Pierre; Fariss, Robert; Zhang, Yongqing; Wawrousek, Eric; Tansey, Ginger; Raber, James; Fong, Guo-Hua; Ding, Hao; Greenberg, David A.; Becker, Kevin G.; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Nash, Andrew; Yla-Herttuala, Seppo; Cao, Yihai; Watts, Ryan J.; Li, Xuri

    2009-01-01

    VEGF-B, a homolog of VEGF discovered a long time ago, has not been considered an important target in antiangiogenic therapy. Instead, it has received little attention from the field. In this study, using different animal models and multiple types of vascular cells, we revealed that although VEGF-B is dispensable for blood vessel growth, it is critical for their survival. Importantly, the survival effect of VEGF-B is not only on vascular endothelial cells, but also on pericytes, smooth muscle cells, and vascular stem/progenitor cells. In vivo, VEGF-B targeting inhibited both choroidal and retinal neovascularization. Mechanistically, we found that the vascular survival effect of VEGF-B is achieved by regulating the expression of many vascular prosurvival genes via both NP-1 and VEGFR-1. Our work thus indicates that the function of VEGF-B in the vascular system is to act as a “survival,” rather than an “angiogenic” factor and that VEGF-B inhibition may offer new therapeutic opportunities to treat neovascular diseases. PMID:19369214

  16. Quantitation of methylxanthinic alkaloids and phenolic compounds in mate (Ilex paraguariensis) and their effects on blood vessel formation in chick embryos.

    PubMed

    Strassmann, Betina B; Vieira, Ana R; Pedrotti, Enio L; Morais, Hiliana N F; Dias, Paulo F; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2008-09-24

    Methylxanthinic alkaloids and phenolic compounds are related to the therapeutic properties of Ilex paraguariensis infusions. Considering the known vascular tropism of xanthines, an aqueous extract (mate) and caffeine were evaluated on blood vessel formation, in connection with the analysis of those secondary metabolites, which was performed in young and mature leaf samples collected in three cultivation systems located in the southern region in Brazil (Santa Catarina State). Samples of young and mature leaves from a monoculture cultivation system (MC) showed the highest content of phenolic compounds (149.68 microg/mL, young leaves; 135.50 microg/mL, mature leaves) and caffeine (young leaves, 148.07 microg/mL; mature leaves, 244.63 microg/mL) as compared to samples from agroforesty (AF) and shaded-native (NT) cultures. Theophylline was not detected in samples by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, and mature leaves showed lower theobromine amounts (11.46 microg/mL). Treatments performed with mate aqueous extract and caffeine (1.03-4.12 microM/disk) in the yolk sac vascular membranes of 2-day-old chick embryos revealed pro-vasculo- and angiogenic properties as well as embryonic growth enhancement. These findings, uncoupled from any detectable embryotoxic effect, suggest a potential therapeutic and/or prophylactic use in cardiovascular disorders for caffeine and related constituents of mate plant extracts, an issue that waits further studies. PMID:18729465

  17. A novel bispecific immunotoxin delivered by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to target blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry of malignant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yonghong; Sun, Xinlin; Huang, Min; Ke, Yiquan; Wang, Jihui; Liu, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Background In previous years, immunotoxins have been shown to be a greatly promising therapeutic tool for brain malignancies, such as gliomas. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) exhibit tropism to tumor tissue. However, the effect of bispecific immunotoxins in malignant gliomas is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of bispecific immunotoxins in human malignant gliomas. Materials and methods In the present study, the bispecific immunotoxin VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was established using deoxyribonucleic acid shuffling and cloning techniques. The VEGF165-ephrin A1-PE38KDEL was delivered by hMSCs to mouse malignant gliomas. The effects of the bispecific immunotoxins on glioma-derived blood vessels and vasculogenic mimicry to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumorigenic effects of immunotoxins were examined in vivo. Results In vitro, transfected hMSCs significantly inhibited the cell viability of gliomas cell lines U87 and U251 in a dose-dependent manner compared with untransfected hMSCs (P<0.01). In vivo, the intratumoral injection of engineered hMSCs was effective at inhibiting tumor growth in a malignant glioma tumor model. Conclusion The bispecific immunotoxin secreted from hMSCs acts as a novel strategy for improving treatment options for malignant gliomas in the clinic. PMID:26089644

  18. Phantom with Pulsatile Arteries to Investigate the Influence of Blood Vessel Depth on Pulse Oximeter Signal Strength

    PubMed Central

    Stuban, Norbert; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Santha, Hunor

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a three-layer head phantom with artificial pulsating arteries at five different depths (1.2 mm, 3.7 mm, 6.8 mm, 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm). The structure enables formation of spatially and temporally varying tissue properties similar to those of living tissues. In our experiment, pressure pulses were generated in the arteries by an electronically controlled pump. The physical and optical parameters of the layers and the liquid in the artificial arteries were similar to those of real tissues and blood. The amplitude of the pulsating component of the light returning from the phantom tissues was measured at each artery depth mentioned above. The build-up of the in-house-developed pulse oximeter used for performing the measurements and the physical layout of the measuring head are described. The radiant flux generated by the LED on the measuring head was measured to be 1.8 mW at 910 nm. The backscattered radiant flux was measured, and found to be 0.46 nW (0.26 ppm), 0.55 nW (0.31 ppm), and 0.18 nW (0.10 ppm) for the 1.2 mm, 3.7 mm and 6.8 mm arteries, respectively. In the case of the 9.6 mm and 11.8 mm arteries, useful measurement data were not obtained owing to weak signals. We simulated the phantom with the arteries at the above-mentioned five depths and at two additional ones (2.5 mm and 5.3 mm in depth) using the Monte Carlo method. The measurement results were verified by the simulation results. We concluded that in case of 11 mm source-detector separation the arteries at a depth of about 2.5 mm generate the strongest pulse oximeter signal level in a tissue system comprising three layers of thicknesses: 1.5 mm (skin), 5.0 mm (skull), and >50 mm (brain). PMID:22368501

  19. Single peptide ligand-functionalized uniform hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles achieving dual-targeting drug delivery to tumor cells and angiogenic blood vessel cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Chen, Qing; Xu, Ming; Guan, Guannan; Hu, Wen; Liang, Ying; Zhao, Xiuli; Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Dawei; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to construct hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSN) decorated with tLyp-1 peptide (tHMSN) for dual-targeting drug delivery to tumor cells and angiogenic blood vessel cells. Methods HMSN were synthesized de novo using a novel cationic surfactant-assisted selective etching strategy and were then modified with tLyp-1. Multiple methods, including transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, bicinchoninic acid assay, and nitrogen adsorption and desorption isotherms, were used to characterize the tHMSN. Doxorubicin were chosen as the model cargo, and the uptake of doxorubicin-loaded tHMSN into MDA-MB-231 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as models of tumor cells and tumor neovascular endothelial cells, respectively, were observed and detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry. An in vitro pharmacodynamic study and a study of the mechanism via which the nanoparticles were endocytosed were also performed. Results HMSN with a highly uniform size and well oriented mesopores were synthesized. After tHMSN were characterized, enhanced uptake of the cargo carried by tHMSN into MDA-MB-231 cells and HUVECs compared with that of their unmodified counterparts was validated by confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry at the qualitative and quantitative levels, respectively. Further, the pharmacodynamic study suggested that, compared with their unmodified counterparts, doxorubicin-loaded tHMSN had an enhanced inhibitory effect on MDA-MB-231 cells and HUVECs in vitro. Finally, a preliminary study on the mechanism by which the nanoparticles were endocytosed indicated that the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway has a primary role in the transport of tHMSN into the cytoplasm. Conclusion tHMSN might serve as an effective active targeting nanocarrier strategy for anti-mammary cancer drug delivery. PMID:25834425

  20. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  1. Classification & Structure of Blood Vessels

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ureters Urinary Bladder Urethra Review Quiz Reproductive System Male Reproductive System Testes Duct System Accessory Glands Penis Male Sexual Response & Hormone Control Female Reproductive System Ovaries Genital Tract External Genitalia Female Sexual Response & ...

  2. Charting Blood's Through Blocked Vessels

    E-print Network

    Shaver, Gregory M.

    Engineering John A. Edwardson Dean of Engineering........................ Leah H. Jamieson William E .................................................................... Keith H. Hawks Directors of Development ........................... John Sanderson, Alicia Pilon Development Secretary ........................................................ Cynthia Dalton Director

  3. Evaluation of arterial blood flow heterogeneity via an image-based computational model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrowes, Kelly S.; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hunter, Peter J.

    2005-04-01

    A computational model of blood flow through the human pulmonary arterial tree has been developed to investigate the relative influence of branching structure and gravity on blood flow distribution in the human lung. A geometric model of the largest arterial vessels and definitions of the lobar boundaries were first derived using multi-detector row x-ray computed tomography (MDCT) scans from the Lung Atlas. Further accompanying arterial vessels were generated from the MDCT vessel end points into the lobar volumes using a volume filling branching algorithm. A reduced form of the Navier-Stokes equations were solved within the geometric model to simulate pressure, velocity and vessel radius throughout the network. Blood flow results in the anatomically-based model, with and without gravity, and in a symmetric arterial model were compared in order to investigate their relative contributions to blood flow heterogeneity. Results showed a persistent blood flow gradient and flow heterogeneity in the absence of gravitational forces in the anatomically-based model. Results revealed that the asymmetric branching structure of the model was largely responsible for producing this heterogeneity. Analysis of average results in different slice thicknesses illustrated a clear flow gradient due to gravity in 'lower-resolution" data (thicker slices), but on examination of higher resolution data a trend was less obvious. Results suggest that while gravity does influence flow distribution, the influence of the tree branching structure is also a dominant factor. These results are consistent with high-resolution experimental studies that have demonstrated gravity to be only a minor determinant of blood flow distribution.

  4. High blood pressure and eye disease

    MedlinePLUS

    Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina from high blood pressure. The retina is the layer of tissue at ... High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina. The higher the blood pressure and the longer it ...

  5. Blood microcirculation of ischemic pancreatitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, Irina V.; Arakelian, Sergei M.; Antonov, Olga V.

    1998-06-01

    Blood Microcirculation includes many of different components, which are joined by unique multiple system. Capillaries are one of the main link in this morpho-functional chain. Changes in any components of blood microcirculation are revealed by many of pathological processes in different organs and systems of the whole organism. We investigated 250 patients from 30 to 77 ages. Men included 149, women -- 101. The main diagnosis of all patients was the ischaemic pancreatitis. For verification of this diagnosis we used the whole spectrum of clinical, laboratorial and instrumental methods. These were the following: the definition of amylase of blood and urine, sonography and computer's tomography of pancreas, angiography of vessels of pancreas and Doppler's sonography of abdominal aorta and her branches: arteria mesenterica superior (AMS), truncus coeliacus (TC), arteria hepatica communis (AHC) and arteria lienalis (AL). We investigated the blood microcirculation of the mucous of the inferior lip, using Laser Dopplerography. The equipment for this research was LACC-01 with modified computer's program. The normal levels of blood microcirculation were from 120 to 180 Units. But patients with ischaemic pancreatitis had more lower level than in normal situation. This method are suggested as express diagnostic in the cases of abdominal ischaemic pathology. It can used as singel method or in combined with ultrasound Dopplerography.

  6. Branched Polymers

    E-print Network

    Richard Kenyon; Peter Winkler

    2007-09-14

    Building on and from the work of Brydges and Imbrie, we give an elementary calculation of the volume of the space of branched polymers of order $n$ in the plane and in 3-space. Our development reveals some more general identities, and allows exact random sampling. In particular we show that a random 3-dimensional branched polymer of order $n$ has diameter of order $\\sqrt{n}$.

  7. Development of a dynamic in vitro model of a stented blood vessel to evaluate the effects of stent strut material selection and surface coating on smooth muscle cell response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, Bradley Huegh

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in The United States and Europe, accounting for approximately half of all deaths. The most common form of cardiovascular disease is atherosclerosis, which is characterized by the formation of fatty atheromatous plaques that can grow to occlude the vessel lumen, thus causing ischemia distal to the occlusion. This is commonly treated using balloon angioplasty, which is usually done in conjunction with the deployment of a stent. Stent deployment helps hold the vessel open following the local injury caused by balloon inflation and prevents elastic recoil and subsequent negative remodeling. Stenting has been shown to significantly reduce restenosis rates from approximately 20-50% without a stent to about 10-30% with stent deployment. However, restenosis still remains the main cause of long-term stent failure. In basic terms, a balloon angioplasty procedure is a forceful displacement of an atherosclerotic lesion serving to widen the vessel lumen to increase blood flow. This procedure causes stretching of the vessel wall, tears in the atherosclerotic plaques, and general damage to the vessel in turn signaling a complex cascade of thrombosis, inflammation, intimal thickening, and vascular remodeling. Stent deployment also further complicates the immunological response by triggering a foreign body response from the implantation of a biomaterial into the body. When performing an angioplasty procedure, particularly in conjunction with stent deployment, a certain degree of vascular injury is inevitable. However, the initial injury can be further complicated by the body's local reaction to the implanted biomaterial, the severity of which can ultimately dictate the degree of restenosis and subsequently affect procedural success. The proliferative response of VSMCs to the various afore mentioned stimuli results in the formation of often copious amounts of neointimal tissue, generally known as intimal hyperplasia. The formation of this new tissue, primarily consisting of VSMCs of the synthetic phenotype and their subsequent extracellular matrix, is the sole causation of in-stent restenosis since the stent serves to prevent elastic recoil and negative remodeling. This doctoral research program is focused on endovascular stent biomaterials science and engineering. Overall, this doctoral project is founded on the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell hyperplasia, as an important causative factor for vascular restenosis following endovascular stent deployment, is triggered by the various effects of stent strut contact on the vessel wall including contact forces and material biocompatibility. In this program, a dynamic in vitro model of a stented blood vessel aimed at evaluating the effect of stent strut material selection, and surface coating on smooth muscle cell response was developed. The in vitro stented artery model was validated through the proliferation of VSMC in contact with stent struts. Additionally, it was demonstrated that, with respect to known biocompatible materials such as Nitinol and 316L stainless steel, DNA synthesis and alpha-actin expression, as indicators of VSMC phenotype, are independent of stent material composition. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite was shown to be a biocompatible stent surface coating with acceptable post-strain integrity. This coating was shown in a feasibility study to be capable of serving as a favorable drug delivery platform able to reliably deliver locally therapeutic doses of bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, to control VSMC proliferation in an in vitro model of a stented blood vessel. This stent coating/drug combination may be effective for reducing restenosis as a result of VSMC hyperplasia in vivo.

  8. 46 CFR 169.733 - Fire extinguishing branch lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire extinguishing branch lines. 169.733 Section 169.733... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.733 Fire extinguishing branch lines. Each branch line valve of every fire extinguishing system must be plainly and permanently...

  9. A software application for comparing large numbers of high resolution MALDI-FTICR MS spectra demonstrated by searching candidate biomarkers for glioma blood vessel formation

    PubMed Central

    Titulaer, Mark K; Mustafa, Dana AN; Siccama, Ivar; Konijnenburg, Marco; Burgers, Peter C; Andeweg, Arno C; Smitt, Peter AE Sillevis; Kros, Johan M; Luider, Theo M

    2008-01-01

    Background A Java™ application is presented, which compares large numbers (n > 100) of raw FTICR mass spectra from patients and controls. Two peptide profile matrices can be produced simultaneously, one with occurrences of peptide masses in samples and another with the intensity of common peak masses in all the measured samples, using the peak- and background intensities of the raw data. In latter way, more significantly differentially expressed peptides are found between groups than just using the presence or absence in samples of common peak masses. The software application is tested by searching angiogenesis related proteins in glioma by comparing laser capture micro dissected- and enzymatic by trypsin digested tissue sections. Results By hierarchical clustering of the presence-absence matrix, it appears that proteins, such as hemoglobin alpha and delta subunit, fibrinogen beta and gamma chain precursor, tubulin specific chaperone A, epidermal fatty acid binding protein, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin precursor, peptidyl tRNA hydrolase 2 mitochondrial precursor, placenta specific growth hormone, and zinc finger CCHC domain containing protein 13 are significantly different expressed in glioma vessels. The up-regulated proteins in the glioma vessels with respect to the normal vessels determined by the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test on the intensity matrix are vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, serum albumin precursor, annexin A5, alpha cardiac and beta actin, type I cytoskeletal 10 keratin, calcium binding protein p22, and desmin. Peptide masses of calcium binding protein p22, Cdc42 effector protein 3, fibronectin precursor, and myosin-9 are exclusively present in glioma vessels. Some peptide fragments of non-muscular myosin-9 at the C-terminus are strongly up-regulated in the glioma vessels with respect to the normal vessels. Conclusion The less rigorous than in general used commercial propriety software de-isotope algorithm results in more mono-isotopic peptide masses and consequently more proteins. Centroiding of peptide masses takes place by taking the average over more spectra in the profile matrix. Cytoskeleton proteins and proteins involved in the calcium signaling pathway seem to be most up-regulated in glioma vessels. The finding that peptides at the C-terminus of myosin-9 are up-regulated could be ascribed to splicing or fragmentation by proteases. PMID:18312684

  10. Special Blood Donation Procedures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and then replaced by donor red blood cells. Red blood cell exchange is used to treat or sometimes prevent serious complications of sickle cell disease, such as stroke. Apheresis is repeated only as often as necessary because the large fluid shifts between blood vessels and tissues that occur as ...

  11. 76 FR 81826 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Middle Branch of the Patapsco River, Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Middle Branch of the Patapsco River...Street S2 bridge across the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River...Street S2 bridge across the Middle Branch of the Patapsco River...not open except for emergency vessels. Vessels with mast...

  12. Inflow/outflow boundary conditions for particle-based blood flow simulations: Application to arterial bifurcations and trees

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lykov, Kirill; Li, Xuejin; Lei, Huan; Pivkin, Igor V.; Karniadakis, George Em; Feng, James

    2015-08-28

    When blood flows through a bifurcation, red blood cells (RBCs) travel into side branches at different hematocrit levels, and it is even possible that all RBCs enter into one branch only, leading to a complete separation of plasma and RBCs. To quantify this phenomenon via particle-based mesoscopic simulations, we developed a general framework for open boundary conditions in multiphase flows that is effective even for high hematocrit levels. The inflow at the inlet is duplicated from a fully developed flow generated in a pilot simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The outflow is controlled by adaptive forces to maintain the flowmore »rate and velocity gradient at fixed values, while the particles leaving the arteriole at the outlet are removed from the system. Upon validation of this approach, we performed systematic 3D simulations to study plasma skimming in arterioles of diameters 20 to 32 microns. For a flow rate ratio 6:1 at the branches, we observed the “all-or-nothing” phenomenon with plasma only entering the low flow rate branch. We then simulated blood-plasma separation in arteriolar bifurcations with different bifurcation angles and same diameter of the daughter branches. Our simulations predict a significant increase in RBC flux through the main daughter branch as the bifurcation angle is increased. Finally, we demonstrated the effectiveness of the new methodology in simulations of blood flow in vessels with multiple inlets and outlets, constructed using an angiogenesis mode« less

  13. Inflow/outflow boundary conditions for particle-based blood flow simulations: Application to arterial bifurcations and trees

    SciTech Connect

    Lykov, Kirill; Li, Xuejin; Lei, Huan; Pivkin, Igor V.; Karniadakis, George Em; Feng, James

    2015-08-28

    When blood flows through a bifurcation, red blood cells (RBCs) travel into side branches at different hematocrit levels, and it is even possible that all RBCs enter into one branch only, leading to a complete separation of plasma and RBCs. To quantify this phenomenon via particle-based mesoscopic simulations, we developed a general framework for open boundary conditions in multiphase flows that is effective even for high hematocrit levels. The inflow at the inlet is duplicated from a fully developed flow generated in a pilot simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The outflow is controlled by adaptive forces to maintain the flow rate and velocity gradient at fixed values, while the particles leaving the arteriole at the outlet are removed from the system. Upon validation of this approach, we performed systematic 3D simulations to study plasma skimming in arterioles of diameters 20 to 32 microns. For a flow rate ratio 6:1 at the branches, we observed the “all-or-nothing” phenomenon with plasma only entering the low flow rate branch. We then simulated blood-plasma separation in arteriolar bifurcations with different bifurcation angles and same diameter of the daughter branches. Our simulations predict a significant increase in RBC flux through the main daughter branch as the bifurcation angle is increased. Finally, we demonstrated the effectiveness of the new methodology in simulations of blood flow in vessels with multiple inlets and outlets, constructed using an angiogenesis mode

  14. Inflow/Outflow Boundary Conditions for Particle-Based Blood Flow Simulations: Application to Arterial Bifurcations and Trees

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Huan; Pivkin, Igor V.; Karniadakis, George Em

    2015-01-01

    When blood flows through a bifurcation, red blood cells (RBCs) travel into side branches at different hematocrit levels, and it is even possible that all RBCs enter into one branch only, leading to a complete separation of plasma and RBCs. To quantify this phenomenon via particle-based mesoscopic simulations, we developed a general framework for open boundary conditions in multiphase flows that is effective even for high hematocrit levels. The inflow at the inlet is duplicated from a fully developed flow generated in a pilot simulation with periodic boundary conditions. The outflow is controlled by adaptive forces to maintain the flow rate and velocity gradient at fixed values, while the particles leaving the arteriole at the outlet are removed from the system. Upon validation of this approach, we performed systematic 3D simulations to study plasma skimming in arterioles of diameters 20 to 32 microns. For a flow rate ratio 6:1 at the branches, we observed the “all-or-nothing” phenomenon with plasma only entering the low flow rate branch. We then simulated blood-plasma separation in arteriolar bifurcations with different bifurcation angles and same diameter of the daughter branches. Our simulations predict a significant increase in RBC flux through the main daughter branch as the bifurcation angle is increased. Finally, we demonstrated the effectiveness of the new methodology in simulations of blood flow in vessels with multiple inlets and outlets, constructed using an angiogenesis model. PMID:26317829

  15. Saturable retention of vasopressin by hippocampus vessels in vivo, associated with inhibition of blood-brain transfer of large neutral amino acids.

    PubMed

    Reith, J; Ermisch, A; Diemer, N H; Gjedde, A

    1987-11-01

    Vasopressin receptors have been reported in the endothelium of brain capillaries. The function of these receptors is not known. To test the prediction that vasopressin receptors in brain capillary endothelium affect amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier and to assess the role of vasopressin transport across the cerebral vascular endothelium, we measured (a) the endothelial permeability to the large neutral amino acid leucine in the absence and presence of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and (b) the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to AVP relative to manitol. In brain regions protected by the blood-brain barrier, after circulation for 20 s, coinjection of leucine and AVP intravenously led to a decrease of leucine transport unrelated to changes of blood flow. The decrease was most pronounced in hippocampus (42%) and least pronounced in olfactory bulb and colliculi (17 and 19%, respectively). In the latter regions, the endothelial permeability to AVP did not significantly exceed that of mannitol. In hippocampus and in regions with no blood-brain barrier (pituitary and pineal glands), AVP retention in excess of mannitol retention was blocked by unlabeled AVP. The findings do not contradict the hypothesis of a role for AVP in the regulation of large neutral amino acid transfer into brain tissue. PMID:2959752

  16. VEGFR-3 controls tip to stalk conversion at vessel fusion sites by reinforcing Notch signalling

    PubMed Central

    Tammela, Tuomas; Zarkada, Georgia; Nurmi, Harri; Jakobsson, Lars; Heinolainen, Krista; Tvorogov, Denis; Zheng, Wei; Franco, Claudio A.; Murtomäki, Aino; Aranda, Evelyn; Miura, Naoyuki; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Fruttiger, Marcus; Mäkinen, Taija; Eichmann, Anne; Pollard, Jeffrey W.; Gerhardt, Holger; Alitalo, Kari

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the growth of new blood vessels, involves specification of endothelial cells to tip cells and stalk cells, which is controlled by Notch signalling, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 and VEGFR-3 have been implicated in angiogenic sprouting. Surprisingly, we found that endothelial deletion of Vegfr3, but not VEGFR-3-blocking antibodies, postnatally led to excessive angiogenic sprouting and branching, and decreased the level of Notch signalling, indicating that VEGFR-3 possesses passive and active signalling modalities. Furthermore, macrophages expressing the VEGFR-3 and VEGFR-2 ligand VEGF-C localized to vessel branch points, and Vegfc heterozygous mice exhibited inefficient angiogenesis characterized by decreased vascular branching. FoxC2 is a known regulator of Notch ligand and target gene expression, and Foxc2+/?; Vegfr3+/? compound heterozygosity recapitulated homozygous loss of Vegfr3. These results indicate that macrophage-derived VEGF-C activates VEGFR-3 in tip cells to reinforce Notch signalling, which contributes to the phenotypic conversion of endothelial cells at fusion points of vessel sprouts. PMID:21909098

  17. Vessel tractography using an intensity based tensor model

    E-print Network

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    Vessel tractography using an intensity based tensor model Suheyla Cetin1 , Gozde Unal1 , Ali Demir1 method, which is based on an intensity-based tensor that fits to a vessel. Our model is initialized with a single seed point and it is ca- pable of capturing whole vessel tree by an automatic branch detection

  18. Human Islets Have Fewer Blood Vessels than Mouse Islets and the Density of Islet Vascular Structures Is Increased in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Brissova, Marcela; Shostak, Alena; Fligner, Corinne L; Revetta, Frank L; Washington, Mary K; Powers, Alvin C; Hull, Rebecca L

    2015-08-01

    Human and rodent islets differ substantially in several features, including architecture, cell composition, gene expression and some aspects of insulin secretion. Mouse pancreatic islets are highly vascularized with interactions between islet endothelial and endocrine cells being important for islet cell differentiation and function. To determine whether human islets have a similar high degree of vascularization and whether this is altered with diabetes, we examined the vascularization of islets from normal human subjects, subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D), and normal mice. Using an integrated morphometry approach to quantify intra-islet capillary density in human and mouse pancreatic sections, we found that human islets have five-fold fewer vessels per islet area than mouse islets. Islets in pancreatic sections from T2D subjects showed capillary thickening, some capillary fragmentation and had increased vessel density as compared with non-diabetic controls. These changes in islet vasculature in T2D islets appeared to be associated with amyloid deposition, which was noted in islets from 8/9 T2D subjects (and occupied 14% ± 4% of islet area), especially around the intra-islet capillaries. The physiological implications of the differences in the angioarchitecture of mouse and human islets are not known. Islet vascular changes in T2D may exacerbate ? cell/islet dysfunction and ? cell loss. PMID:26216139

  19. Suture retraction technique to prevent parent vessel obstruction following aneurysm tandem clipping.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Tarek; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh

    2015-08-01

    With large or giant aneurysms, the use of multiple tandem clips can be essential for complete obliteration of the aneurysm. One potential disadvantage, however, is the considerable cumulative weight of these clips, which may lead to kinking of the underlying parent vessels and obstruction of flow. The authors describe a simple technique to address this problem, guided by intraoperative blood flow measurements, in a patient with a ruptured near-giant 2.2 × 1.7-cm middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysm that was treated with the tandem clipping technique. A total of 11 clips were applied in a vertical stacked fashion. The cumulative weight of the clips caused kinking of the temporal M2 branch of the bifurcation with reduction of flow. A 4-0 Nurolon suture tie was applied to the hub of one of the clips and was tethered to the dura of the sphenoid ridge by a small mini-clip and reinforced by application of tissue sealant. The patient underwent intraoperative indocyanine green videoangiography as well as catheter angiography, which demonstrated complete aneurysmal obliteration and preservation of vessel branches. Postoperative angiography confirmed patency of the bifurcation vessels with mild vasospasm. The patient had a full recovery with no postoperative complications and was neurologically intact at her 6-month follow-up. The suture retraction technique allows a simple solution to parent vessel obstruction following aneurysm tandem clipping, in conjunction with the essential guidance provided by intraoperative flow measurements. PMID:25723304

  20. A Cadaveric Study of the Branching Pattern and Diameter of the Genicular Arteries: A Focus on the Middle Genicular Artery.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Shahab; Saghir, Noman; Cawley, Oliver; Saujani, Shyamal

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to gain an appreciation of the variation in the branching pattern and diameter of the genicular arteries arising directly from the popliteal artery (PA), namely, the superior medial genicular artery (SMGA), superior lateral genicular artery (SLGA), inferior medial genicular artery (IMGA), inferior lateral genicular artery (ILGA), and middle genicular artery (MGA). Twenty cadaveric knees aged between 62 and 92 years were dissected. A posterior midline vertical incision was used to gain access to the PA. The diameter of the PA, the sequence of branching, and subsequent diameter of genicular vessels and common trunks were recorded. PA average diameter was 7.9 mm. The SMGA (1.6-mm diameter) was the first branch in 45% and the second branch in 20%, and in seven limbs it arose from a common trunk with the SLGA. The SLGA was the second branch in 30% and the first branch in 25%, and it branched from a common trunk in 45%. The MGA (1.1-mm diameter) arose as the second branch in four knees and as the third branch in eight knees. It arose from a common trunk in eight knees, either with a superior genicular (three knees) or with an inferior genicular (five knees). The IMGA (1.5-mm diameter) was the third branch in 25%, the fourth branch in 35%, and the fifth branch in 15%. In five cases, it arose from a common trunk (25%). The ILGA (1.4-mm diameter) was the third branch in 15%, the fourth branch in 30%, and the fifth branch in 25%. It arose from a common trunk in six knees. These trunks also gave rise to the IMGA in all cases. There is extensive variation in the branching pattern and diameter of the genicular arteries differing from textbook descriptions. An awareness of vascular variation is imperative for preservation of the blood supply to the knee, which may promote recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and popliteal aneurysm repair. PMID:25892007

  1. 21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2120 Extravascular blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in a chamber or vessel....

  2. 21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2120 Extravascular blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in a chamber or vessel....

  3. 21 CFR 870.2120 - Extravascular blood flow probe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2120 Extravascular blood flow probe. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood flow probe is an extravascular ultrasonic or electromagnetic probe used in conjunction with a blood flowmeter to measure blood flow in a chamber or vessel....

  4. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics in Blood Vessel Models: Toward Developing a Prognostic Tool to Assess Cardiovascular Function Changes in Prolonged Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatzimavroudis, George P.; Spirka, Thomas A.; Setser, Randolph M.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2004-01-01

    One of NASA's objectives is to be able to perform a complete, pre-flight, evaluation of cardiovascular changes in astronauts scheduled for prolonged space missions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown promise as a method for estimating cardiovascular function during reduced gravity conditions. For this purpose, MRI can provide geometrical information, to reconstruct vessel geometries, and measure all spatial velocity components, providing location specific boundary conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of MRI-based model reconstruction and measured boundary conditions for CFD simulations. An aortic arch model and a carotid bifurcation model were scanned in a 1.5T Siemens MRI scanner. Axial MRI acquisitions provided images for geometry reconstruction (slice thickness 3 and 5 mm; pixel size 1x1 and 0.5x0.5 square millimeters). Velocity acquisitions provided measured inlet boundary conditions and localized three-directional steady-flow velocity data (0.7-3.0 L/min). The vessel walls were isolated using NIH provided software (ImageJ) and lofted to form the geometric surface. Constructed and idealized geometries were imported into a commercial CFD code for meshing and simulation. Contour and vector plots of the velocity showed identical features between the MRI velocity data, the MRI-based CFD data, and the idealized-geometry CFD data, with less than 10% differences in the local velocity values. CFD results on models reconstructed from different MRI resolution settings showed insignificant differences (less than 5%). This study illustrated, quantitatively, that reliable CFD simulations can be performed with MRI reconstructed models and gives evidence that a future, subject-specific, computational evaluation of the cardiovascular system alteration during space travel is feasible.

  5. 33 CFR 117.620 - Westport River-East Branch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Branch. The Westport Point Bridge, mile 1.2 at Westport, shall operate as follows: (a) Public vessels of the United States must be passed as soon as possible. (b) The owners of this bridge shall provide...

  6. 33 CFR 117.620 - Westport River-East Branch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Branch. The Westport Point Bridge, mile 1.2 at Westport, shall operate as follows: (a) Public vessels of the United States must be passed as soon as possible. (b) The owners of this bridge shall provide...

  7. 33 CFR 117.620 - Westport River-East Branch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Branch. The Westport Point Bridge, mile 1.2 at Westport, shall operate as follows: (a) Public vessels of the United States must be passed as soon as possible. (b) The owners of this bridge shall provide...

  8. 33 CFR 117.620 - Westport River-East Branch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Branch. The Westport Point Bridge, mile 1.2 at Westport, shall operate as follows: (a) Public vessels of the United States must be passed as soon as possible. (b) The owners of this bridge shall provide...

  9. 33 CFR 117.620 - Westport River-East Branch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Branch. The Westport Point Bridge, mile 1.2 at Westport, shall operate as follows: (a) Public vessels of the United States must be passed as soon as possible. (b) The owners of this bridge shall provide...

  10. Fabrication and characterisation of an electrospun tubular 3D scaffold platform of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) for small-diameter blood vessel application.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Furqan; Roy Choudhury, Namita; Dutta, Naba K; Zou, Linda; Zannettino, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    In this research, nanofibrous 3D tubular (~4-mm-diameter tube) scaffolds of poly (vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) were fabricated by electrospinning. The role of surface charge in the success of these scaffolds for potential small-diameter artificial vascular grafts has been investigated using streaming potential study. Prior to endothelial cell culture, surface properties such as wettability and the surface charge of these tubular scaffolds were evaluated using unmodified and fibrinogen-adsorbed surfaces to understand their interaction with surrounding environment. The tubular scaffolds constructed using electrospinning show similar mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elastic modulus as those of native vessels. Whilst endothelial cell proliferation on unmodified tubes, as analysed by scanning electron microscopy, was found to be moderate, a simple process of dynamic fibrinogen adsorption was seen to enhance the endothelialisation of these tubular grafts. The high negative zeta potential values, high strength, robustness and structural reliability of the scaffolds represent them to be promising biomaterials for vascular graft applications. PMID:25358334

  11. 76 FR 38107 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...Migratory Species; Vessel Monitoring Systems; Correction AGENCY: Commerce...modifications to Vessel Monitoring System requirements in Atlantic HMS fisheries...Atlantic County Library System, Brigantine Branch, 201 15th...

  12. Dual labeling of neural crest cells and blood vessels within chicken embryos using Chick(GFP) neural tube grafting and carbocyanine dye DiI injection.

    PubMed

    Delalande, Jean-Marie; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J

    2015-01-01

    All developing organs need to be connected to both the nervous system (for sensory and motor control) as well as the vascular system (for gas exchange, fluid and nutrient supply). Consequently both the nervous and vascular systems develop alongside each other and share striking similarities in their branching architecture. Here we report embryonic manipulations that allow us to study the simultaneous development of neural crest-derived nervous tissue (in this case the enteric nervous system), and the vascular system. This is achieved by generating chicken chimeras via transplantation of discrete segments of the neural tube, and associated neural crest, combined with vascular DiI injection in the same embryo. Our method uses transgenic chick(GFP) embryos for intraspecies grafting, making the transplant technique more powerful than the classical quail-chick interspecies grafting protocol used with great effect since the 1970s. Chick(GFP)-chick intraspecies grafting facilitates imaging of transplanted cells and their projections in intact tissues, and eliminates any potential bias in cell development linked to species differences. This method takes full advantage of the ease of access of the avian embryo (compared with other vertebrate embryos) to study the co-development of the enteric nervous system and the vascular system. PMID:26065540

  13. Dual Labeling of Neural Crest Cells and Blood Vessels Within Chicken Embryos Using ChickGFP Neural Tube Grafting and Carbocyanine Dye DiI Injection

    PubMed Central

    Delalande, Jean-Marie; Thapar, Nikhil; Burns, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    All developing organs need to be connected to both the nervous system (for sensory and motor control) as well as the vascular system (for gas exchange, fluid and nutrient supply). Consequently both the nervous and vascular systems develop alongside each other and share striking similarities in their branching architecture. Here we report embryonic manipulations that allow us to study the simultaneous development of neural crest-derived nervous tissue (in this case the enteric nervous system), and the vascular system. This is achieved by generating chicken chimeras via transplantation of discrete segments of the neural tube, and associated neural crest, combined with vascular DiI injection in the same embryo. Our method uses transgenic chickGFP embryos for intraspecies grafting, making the transplant technique more powerful than the classical quail-chick interspecies grafting protocol used with great effect since the 1970s. ChickGFP-chick intraspecies grafting facilitates imaging of transplanted cells and their projections in intact tissues, and eliminates any potential bias in cell development linked to species differences. This method takes full advantage of the ease of access of the avian embryo (compared with other vertebrate embryos) to study the co-development of the enteric nervous system and the vascular system. PMID:26065540

  14. Multiresolution retinal vessel tracker based on directional smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englmeier, Karl-Hans; Bichler, Simon; Schmid, K.; Maurino, M.; Porta, Massimo; Bek, Toke; Ege, B.; Larsen, Ole V.; Hejlesen, Ok

    2002-04-01

    To support ophthalmologists in their routine and enable the quantitative assessment of vascular changes in color fundus photographs a multi-resolution approach was developed which segments the vessel tree efficiently and precisely in digital images of the retina. The algorithm starts at seed points, found in a preprocessing step and then follows the vessel, iteratively adjusting the direction of the search, and finding the center line of the vessels. As an addition, vessel branches and crossings are detected and stored in detailed lists. Every iteration of the Directional Smoothing Based (DSB) tracking process starts at a given point in the middle of a vessel. First rectangular windows for several directions in a neighborhood of this point are smoothed in the assumed direction of the vessel. The window, that results in the best contrast is then said to have the true direction of the vessel. The center point is moved into that direction 1/8th of the vessel width, and the algorithm continues with the next iteration. The vessel branch and crossing detection uses a list with unique vessel segment IDs and branch point IDs. During the tracking, when another vessel is crossed, the tracking is stopped. The newly traced vessel segment is stored in the vessel segment list, and the vessel, that had been traced before is broken up at the crossing- or branch point, and is stored as two different vessel segments. This approach has several advantages: - With directional smoothing, noise is eliminated, while the edges of the vessels are kept. - DSB works on high resolution images (3000 x 2000 pixel) as well as on low-resolution images (900 x 600 pixel), because a large area of the vessel is used to find the vessel direction - For the detection of venous beading the vessel width is measured for every step of the traced vessel. - With the lists of branch- and crossing points, we get a network of connected vessel segments, that can be used for further processing the retinal vessel tree.

  15. Blood sugar test - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    Random blood sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test ... hours (fasting) At any time of the day (random) ... dL) is considered normal. If you had a random blood glucose test, a normal result depends on ...

  16. Anatomical variant of the liver blood supply

    PubMed Central

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Vascular variations are significant for liver transplantations, radiological procedures, laparoscopic method of operation and for the healing of penetrating injuries, including the space close to the hepatic area. These variants are very common in the abdominal region, and their description will be useful. During a routine dissection of a 73 year old female cadaver, we found in the subhepatic region that the blood supply of the liver differed from a normal one. The difference was found in the absence of the right liver branch and the cystic artery, which normally arises from the common hepatic artery. After a detailed dissection of the superior mesenteric artery we distinguished a branchthat was routed to the right lobe of the liver. The diameter of this vessel was 3.7 mm and the length 8.2 cm. In the artery pathway, three consecutive branches were observed. The first branch was found about 2.02 cm before the portal region of the liver. The second one became visible after another millimeter and finally the artery made one little curve and became a cystic artery. PMID:26609280

  17. 46 CFR 129.420 - Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129...SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.420 Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons....

  18. 46 CFR 129.420 - Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129...SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.420 Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons....

  19. 46 CFR 129.420 - Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129...SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.420 Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons....

  20. 46 CFR 129.420 - Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129...SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.420 Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons....

  1. 46 CFR 129.420 - Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons. 129...SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Lighting Systems § 129.420 Branch circuits for lighting on OSVs of 100 or more gross tons....

  2. Effects of age on blood pressure (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... become less elastic with age. The "average" blood pressure increases from 120/70 to 150/90 and may persist slightly high even if treated. The blood vessels respond more slowly to a change in body ...

  3. Automatic selection of best quality vessels from multiple-phase coronary CT angiography (cCTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jordan; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Chan, Heang-Ping; Zhou, Chuan; Wei, Jun; Chughtai, Aamer; Kuriakose, Jean; Agarwal, Prachi; Kazerooni, Ella

    2015-03-01

    We are developing an automated method to select the best-quality vessels from coronary arterial trees in multiplephase cCTA and build a best-quality tree to facilitate the detection of stenotic plaques. Using our previously developed vessel registration method, the vessels from different phases were automatically registered. Branching points on the centerline are projected onto the registered trees. The centerlines are split into branches based on the projected branching points. Each tree branch is then straightened. The registered trees and centerline branches are used to determine the correspondence of branches between phases so that each branch can be compared to its corresponding branches in the other phases. A vessel quality measure (VQM) is calculated as the average radial gradients at the vessel wall over the entire vessel branch. The quality of the corresponding branches from all phases is automatically compared using the VQM. An observer preference study was conducted with two radiologists to visually compare the quality of the vessels. For each branch, the pair that was automatically determined to be the best and worst quality by the VQM was used for the radiologists' visual assessment. Each radiologist, blinded to the VQM, evaluated pairs of corresponding branches and provided their preference. The performance of the automatic selection using VQM was evaluated as the percentage of the total number of vessel pairs for which the automatic selection agreed with the radiologist's selection of the higher quality branch in the pair. The agreement between the first radiologist and the automated selection was 80% and that between the second radiologist and the automated selection was 82%. In comparison, the agreement between the two radiologists was 90%. This preliminary study demonstrates the feasibility of using an automated method to select the best-quality vessels from multiple cCTA phases.

  4. Flow analysis of ventricular assist device inflow and outflow cannula positioning using a naturally shaped ventricle and aortic branch.

    PubMed

    Laumen, Marco; Kaufmann, Tim; Timms, Daniel; Schlanstein, Peter; Jansen, Sebastian; Gregory, Shaun; Wong, Kai Chun; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2010-10-01

    Tip geometry and placement of rotary blood pump inflow and outflow cannulae influence the dynamics of flow within the ventricle and aortic branch. Cannulation, therefore, directly influences the potential for thrombus formation and end-organ perfusion during ventricular assist device (VAD) support or cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various inflow/outflow cannula tip geometries and positions on ventricular and greater vessel flow patterns to evaluate ventricular washout and impact on cerebral perfusion. Transparent models of a dilated cardiomyopathic ventricle and an aortic branch were reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging data to allow flow measurements using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The contractile function of the failing ventricle was reproduced pneumatically, and supported with a rotary pump. Flow patterns were visualized around VAD inflow cannulae, with various tip geometries placed in three positions in the ventricle. The outflow cannula was placed in the subclavian artery and at several positions in the aorta. Flow patterns were measured using PIV and used to validate an aortic flow computational fluid dynamic study. The PIV technique indicated that locating the inflow tip in the left ventricular outflow tract improved complete ventricular washout while the tip geometry had a smaller influence. However, side holes in the inflow cannula improved washout in all cases. The PIV results confirmed that the positioning and orientation of the outflow cannula in the aortic branch had a high impact on the flow pattern in the vessels, with a negative blood flow in the right carotid artery observed in some cases. Cannula placement within the ventricle had a high influence on chamber washout. The positioning of the outflow cannula directly influences the flow through the greater vessels, and may be responsible for the occasional reduction in cerebral perfusion seen in clinical CPB. PMID:20964698

  5. Toward an understanding of fibrin branching structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Keener, James P.

    2010-05-01

    The blood clotting enzyme thrombin converts fibrinogen molecules into fibrin monomers which polymerize to form a fibrous three-dimensional gel. The concentration of thrombin affects the architecture of the resulting gel, in particular, a higher concentration of thrombin produces a gel with more branch points per unit volume and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. We propose a mechanism by which fibrin branching can occur and show that this mechanism can lead to dependence of the gel’s structure (at the time of gelation) on the rate at which monomer is supplied. A higher rate of monomer supply leads to a gel with a higher branch concentration and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. The origin of this dependence is explained.

  6. Poster — Thur Eve — 70: Automatic lung bronchial and vessel bifurcations detection algorithm for deformable image registration assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Labine, Alexandre; Carrier, Jean-François; Bedwani, Stéphane; Chav, Ramnada; De Guise, Jacques

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate an automatic bronchial and vessel bifurcations detection algorithm for deformable image registration (DIR) assessment to improve lung cancer radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT datasets were acquired and exported to Varian treatment planning system (TPS) EclipseTM for contouring. The lungs TPS contour was used as the prior shape for a segmentation algorithm based on hierarchical surface deformation that identifies the deformed lungs volumes of the 10 breathing phases. Hounsfield unit (HU) threshold filter was applied within the segmented lung volumes to identify blood vessels and airways. Segmented blood vessels and airways were skeletonised using a hierarchical curve-skeleton algorithm based on a generalized potential field approach. A graph representation of the computed skeleton was generated to assign one of three labels to each node: the termination node, the continuation node or the branching node. Results: 320 ± 51 bifurcations were detected in the right lung of a patient for the 10 breathing phases. The bifurcations were visually analyzed. 92 ± 10 bifurcations were found in the upper half of the lung and 228 ± 45 bifurcations were found in the lower half of the lung. Discrepancies between ten vessel trees were mainly ascribed to large deformation and in regions where the HU varies. Conclusions: We established an automatic method for DIR assessment using the morphological information of the patient anatomy. This approach allows a description of the lung's internal structure movement, which is needed to validate the DIR deformation fields for accurate 4D cancer treatment planning.

  7. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... your healthcare professional as soon as possible. Calcium channel blockers This drug prevents calcium from entering the ... the hearts' contraction is not as forceful. Calcium channel blockers relax and open up narrowed blood vessels, ...

  8. Probabilistic atlas based labeling of the cerebral vessel tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Giessen, Martijn; Janssen, Jasper P.; Brouwer, Patrick A.; Reiber, Johan H. C.; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P. F.; Dijkstra, Jouke

    2015-03-01

    Preoperative imaging of the cerebral vessel tree is essential for planning therapy on intracranial stenoses and aneurysms. Usually, a magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomography angiography (CTA) is acquired from which the cerebral vessel tree is segmented. Accurate analysis is helped by the labeling of the cerebral vessels, but labeling is non-trivial due to anatomical topological variability and missing branches due to acquisition issues. In recent literature, labeling the cerebral vasculature around the Circle of Willis has mainly been approached as a graph-based problem. The most successful method, however, requires the definition of all possible permutations of missing vessels, which limits application to subsets of the tree and ignores spatial information about the vessel locations. This research aims to perform labeling using probabilistic atlases that model spatial vessel and label likelihoods. A cerebral vessel tree is aligned to a probabilistic atlas and subsequently each vessel is labeled by computing the maximum label likelihood per segment from label-specific atlases. The proposed method was validated on 25 segmented cerebral vessel trees. Labeling accuracies were close to 100% for large vessels, but dropped to 50-60% for small vessels that were only present in less than 50% of the set. With this work we showed that using solely spatial information of the vessel labels, vessel segments from stable vessels (>50% presence) were reliably classified. This spatial information will form the basis for a future labeling strategy with a very loose topological model.

  9. Abstract--H nd blood vessel

    E-print Network

    Lee, Keun Woo

    of n system (RAS s the enzyme th s to develop new merge as therape dynamics (M modeling were ures were system homeostasis a e (Fig. 1).The ding a drop in Science (BK21 p -daero, Gazwa-do 60; fax: +82 GNU), 501 Jin ne: +82-55-772-1 mic Si re Mo overy o hangapandian the heart nd renal r role in e RAS

  10. When Blood Vessels Bulge: All About Aneurysms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... About 14,000 Americans die each year from aortic aneurysms. Three-fourths of these aneurysms arise in the ... part of the aorta. These are called abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Aneurysms that occur in the chest are ...

  11. Engineering functional blood vessels in vivo

    E-print Network

    Au, Pakwai

    2008-01-01

    At the present time, there are many hurdles to overcome in order to create a long-lasting and engineered tissue for tissue transplant in patients. The challenges include the isolation and expansion of appropriate cells, ...

  12. In vivo engineering of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Daly, Chris D; Campbell, Gordon R; Walker, Philip J; Campbell, Julie H

    2004-05-01

    The inadequacy of conventional synthetic grafts has led to efforts to construct a superior vascular graft. In vivo tissue engineering is one approach to this problem that has been investigated for half a century and enables the construction of autogenous vascular prostheses. Three types of in vivo engineering are explored: remodelling of implanted scaffolds, fibrocollagenous tubes, and the artificial artery generated in the peritoneal cavity. Scaffolds designed to be remodelled may be synthetic or biological and have been remodelled in animal models to form vasoactive neoarteries with arterial morphology. The differences in vascular remodelling ability, particularly spontaneous endothelialisation, between animal models and humans may impair the effectiveness of this approach in the clinic. Fibrocollagenous tubes such as the Sparks Mandril have demonstrated poor performance in the clinic and are prone to aneurysm formation. The artificial artery generated in the peritoneal cavity is a novel addition to the ranks of in vivo engineered vascular prostheses and combines many of the best features of scaffolds designed to be remodelled and fibrocollagenous tubes. However, understanding and manipulating the vascular remodelling process will be the key to producing the ideal arterial prosthesis. PMID:14977597

  13. Vessel Segmentation and Analysis in Laboratory Skin Transplant Micro-angiograms

    E-print Network

    Lübeck, Universität zu

    Vessel Segmentation and Analysis in Laboratory Skin Transplant Micro-angiograms Alexandru transplantations depends on the adequate revascularization of the trans- planted dermal matrix. To induce vessel and length of newly grown vessels have to be measured in micro-angiograms (x-ray images of the blood vessels

  14. Purification of Mouse Brain Vessels.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Anne-Cécile; Saubaméa, Bruno; Declèves, Xavier; Cohen-Salmon, Martine

    2015-01-01

    In the brain, most of the vascular system consists of a selective barrier, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) that regulates the exchange of molecules and immune cells between the brain and the blood. Moreover, the huge neuronal metabolic demand requires a moment-to-moment regulation of blood flow. Notably, abnormalities of these regulations are etiological hallmarks of most brain pathologies; including glioblastoma, stroke, edema, epilepsy, degenerative diseases (ex: Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease), brain tumors, as well as inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis, meningitis and sepsis-induced brain dysfunctions. Thus, understanding the signaling events modulating the cerebrovascular physiology is a major challenge. Much insight into the cellular and molecular properties of the various cell types that compose the cerebrovascular system can be gained from primary culture or cell sorting from freshly dissociated brain tissue. However, properties such as cell polarity, morphology and intercellular relationships are not maintained in such preparations. The protocol that we describe here is designed to purify brain vessel fragments, whilst maintaining structural integrity. We show that isolated vessels consist of endothelial cells sealed by tight junctions that are surrounded by a continuous basal lamina. Pericytes, smooth muscle cells as well as the perivascular astrocyte endfeet membranes remain attached to the endothelial layer. Finally, we describe how to perform immunostaining experiments on purified brain vessels. PMID:26574794

  15. Chief, Biostatistics Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Branch Chief directs an intramural research program, provides leadership and facilitates research activities of Branch scientists, and plans and directs independent statistical and computational research. In addition to overseeing the administrative management of the Branch, responsibilities include supervising staff members, mentoring tenure-track investigators and postdoctoral fellows, and ensuring the scientific quality of the Branch research portfolio. The Chief also plays a major role in ensuring the epidemiologic and methodologic rigor of research across DCEG.

  16. Mechanosensing in developing lymphatic vessels.

    PubMed

    Planas-Paz, Lara; Lammert, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    The lymphatic vasculature is responsible for fluid homeostasis, transport of immune cells, inflammatory molecules, and dietary lipids. It is composed of a network of lymphatic capillaries that drain into collecting lymphatic vessels and ultimately bring fluid back to the blood circulation. Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) that line lymphatic capillaries present loose overlapping intercellular junctions and anchoring filaments that support fluid drainage. When interstitial fluid accumulates within tissues, the extracellular matrix (ECM) swells and pulls the anchoring filaments. This results in opening of the LEC junctions and permits interstitial fluid uptake. The absorbed fluid is then transported within collecting lymphatic vessels, which exhibit intraluminal valves that prevent lymph backflow and smooth muscle cells that sequentially contract to propel lymph.Mechanotransduction involves translation of mechanical stimuli into biological responses. LECs have been shown to sense and respond to changes in ECM stiffness, fluid pressure-induced cell stretch, and fluid flow-induced shear stress. How these signals influence LEC function and lymphatic vessel growth can be investigated by using different mechanotransduction assays in vitro and to some extent in vivo.In this chapter, we will focus on the mechanical forces that regulate lymphatic vessel expansion during embryonic development and possibly secondary lymphedema. In mouse embryos, it has been recently shown that the amount of interstitial fluid determines the extent of lymphatic vessel expansion via a mechanosensory complex formed by ?1 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR3). This model might as well apply to secondary lymphedema. PMID:24276884

  17. Local Control of Blood Flow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Philip S.

    2011-01-01

    Organ blood flow is determined by perfusion pressure and vasomotor tone in the resistance vessels of the organ. Local factors that regulate vasomotor tone include myogenic and metabolic autoregulation, flow-mediated and conducted responses, and vasoactive substances released from red blood cells. The relative importance of each of these factors…

  18. Vascularization of the gray whale palate (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus): soft tissue evidence for an alveolar source of blood to baleen.

    PubMed

    Ekdale, Eric G; Deméré, Thomas A; Berta, Annalisa

    2015-04-01

    The origin of baleen in mysticetes heralded a major transition during cetacean evolution. Extant mysticetes are edentulous in adulthood, but rudimentary teeth develop in utero within open maxillary and mandibular alveolar grooves. The teeth are resorbed prenatally and the alveolar grooves close as baleen germ develops. Arteries supplying blood to highly vascularized epithelial tissue from which baleen develops pass through lateral nutrient foramina in the area of the embryonic alveolar grooves and rudimentary teeth. Those vessels are hypothesized to be branches of the superior alveolar artery, but branches of the greater palatine arteries may play a role in the baleen vascularization. Through a combination of latex injection, CT, and traditional dissection of the palate of a neonatal gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), we confirm that the baleen receives blood from vessels within the superior alveolar canal via the lateral foramina. The greater palatine artery is restricted to its own passage with no connections to the baleen. This study has implications for the presence of baleen in extinct taxa by identifying the vessels and bony canals that supply blood to the epithelium from which baleen develops. The results indicate that the lateral foramina in edentulous mysticete fossils are bony correlates for the presence of baleen, and the results can be used to help identify bony canals and foramina that have been used to reconstruct baleen in extinct mysticetes that retained teeth in adulthood. Further comparisons are made with mammals that also possess oral keratin structures, including ruminants, ornithorhynchid monotremes, and sirenians. PMID:25663479

  19. White Blood Cell and Platelet Aggregation in Stenoses: A

    E-print Network

    Petta, Jason

    White Blood Cell and Platelet Aggregation in Stenoses: A Computational Model Stephen H. Dao, Zhanke in vessels larger than 100m #12;White Blood Cells · Immune function · Adhesion through ligand of Blood ­ Can drastically affect flow · Aggregate composed of: ­ Red blood cells ­ White blood cells

  20. DCTD — Biometric Research Branch (BRB)

    Cancer.gov

    Dr. Joanna Shih collaborated on microarray and genomic studies with investigators from CCR laboratories and branches from 2001 to 2009. In October 2009, Dr. Shih changed her position to collaborate with six CCR branches and labs on general statistics. These six CCR branches are Urologic Oncology Branch, Radiation Oncology Branch, Pediatric Oncology Branch, Metabolism Branch, Molecular Imaging Program, and Neuro-Oncology Branch. Dr. Shih has been working on both design and analysis.

  1. Blood Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood ... They can be acute or chronic. Many blood disorders are inherited. Other causes include other diseases, side ...

  2. Blood pressure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body’s organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  3. Blood flow quantification using optical flow methods in a body fitted coordinate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maday, Peter; Brosig, Richard; Endres, Jurgen; Kowarschik, Markus; Navab, Nassir

    2014-03-01

    In this paper a blood flow quantification method that is based on a physically motivated dense 2D flow estimation algorithm is outlined. It yields accurate time varying volumetric flow rate measurements based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA) image sequences, with robustness to significant inter-frame displacements. Time varying volumetric flow rates are estimated for individual non-branching vascular segments based on the estimated 2D flow fields and a 3D vessel segmentation from a 3D Rotational Angiography (3DRA) acquisition. The novelty of the approach lies in the use of a vessel aligned coordinate system for the problem formulation. The coordinate functions are generated using the Schwarz-Christoffel1(SC) map that yields a solution with coordinate lines aligned with the vessel boundaries. The use of vessel aligned coordinates enables the easy and accurate handling of boundary conditions in the irregular domain of a vessel lumen while only requiring slight modifications to the used finite difference approach. Unlike traditional coarse to fine methods we use an anisotropic scaling strategy that enables the estimation of flows with larger inter frame displacements. The evaluation of our method is based on highly realistic synthetic DSA datasets for a number of cases. Ground truth volumetric flow rate values are compared against the measurements and a high degree of fidelity is observed. Performance measures are obtained with varying flow velocities and acquisition rates.

  4. Neutrino Factory Target Vessel

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Neutrino Factory Target Vessel Concept V. Graves Target Studies EVO April 11, 2012 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Concept 11 Apr 2012 Target Vessel;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Concept 11 Apr 2012 Starting Point

  5. Mechanics of blood flow.

    PubMed

    Skalak, R; Keller, S R; Secomb, T W

    1981-05-01

    The historical development of the mechanics of blood flow can be traced from ancient times, to Leonardo da Vinci and Leonhard Euler and up to the present times with increasing biological knowledge and mathematical analysis. In the last two decades, quantitative and numerical methods have steadily given more complete and precise understanding. In the arterial system wave propagation computations based on nonlinear one-dimensional modeling have given the best representation of pulse wave propagation. In the veins, the theory of unsteady flow in collapsible tubes has recently been extensively developed. In the last decade, progress has been made in describing the blood flow at junctions, through stenoses, in bends and in capillary blood vessels. The rheological behavior of individual red blood cells has been explored. A working model consists of an elastic membrane filled with viscous fluid. This model forms a basis for understanding the viscous and viscoelastic behavior of blood. PMID:7024641

  6. Simulating Blood Flow M.Sc. project

    E-print Network

    Engineering. Blood flow plays a critical role in the development of aneurysms of the blood vessel wall. The forces due to blood flow can make aneurysms grow of an aneurysm is lacking: sometimes an aneurysm will stay "stable" for the rest

  7. Impact of main branch stenting on endothelial shear stress: role of side branch diameter, angle and lesion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Henry Y.; Moussa, Issam D.; Davidson, Charles; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2012-01-01

    In-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis remain clinically significant problems for bifurcation lesions. The objective of this study is to determine the haemodynamic effect of the side branch (SB) on main branch (MB) stenting. We hypothesize that the presence of a SB has a negative effect on MB wall shear stress (WSS), wall shear stress gradient (WSSG) and oscillatory shear index (OSI); and that the bifurcation diameter ratio (SB diameter/MB diameter) and angle are important contributors. We further hypothesized that stent undersizing exaggerates the negative effects on WSS, WSSG and OSI. To test these hypotheses, we developed computational models of stents and non-Newtonian blood. The models were then interfaced, meshed and solved in a validated finite-element package. Stents at bifurcation models were created with 30° and 70° bifurcation angles and bifurcations with diameter ratios of SB/MB = 1/2 and 3/4. It was found that stents placed in the MB at a bifurcation lowered WSS dramatically, while elevating WSSG and OSI. Undersizing the stent exaggerated the decrease in WSS, increase in WSSG and OSI, and disturbed the flow between the struts and the vessel wall. Stenting the MB at bifurcations with larger SB/MB ratios or smaller SB angles (30°) resulted in lower WSS, higher WSSG and OSI. Stenosis at the SB lowered WSS and elevated WSSG and OSI. These findings highlight the effects of major biomechanical factors in MB stenting on endothelial WSS, WSSG, OSI and suggests potential mechanisms for the potentially higher adverse clinical events associated with bifurcation stenting. PMID:22112654

  8. Role of Arginase in Vessel Wall Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Durante, William

    2013-01-01

    Arginase metabolizes the semi-essential amino acid l-arginine to l-ornithine and urea. There are two distinct isoforms of arginase, arginase I and II, which are encoded by separate genes and display differences in tissue distribution, subcellular localization, and molecular regulation. Blood vessels express both arginase I and II but their distribution appears to be cell-, vessel-, and species-specific. Both isoforms of arginase are induced by numerous pathologic stimuli and contribute to vascular cell dysfunction and vessel wall remodeling in several diseases. Clinical and experimental studies have documented increases in the expression and/or activity of arginase I or II in blood vessels following arterial injury and in pulmonary and arterial hypertension, aging, and atherosclerosis. Significantly, pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of arginase in animals ameliorates abnormalities in vascular cells and normalizes blood vessel architecture and function in all of these pathological states. The detrimental effect of arginase in vascular remodeling is attributable to its ability to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell proliferation, and collagen deposition by promoting the synthesis of polyamines and l-proline, respectively. In addition, arginase adversely impacts arterial remodeling by directing macrophages toward an inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, the proliferative, fibrotic, and inflammatory actions of arginase in the vasculature are further amplified by its capacity to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) synthesis by competing with NO synthase for substrate, l-arginine. Pharmacologic or molecular approaches targeting specific isoforms of arginase represent a promising strategy in treating obstructive fibroproliferative vascular disease. PMID:23717309

  9. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  10. Pathogenesis of persistent lymphatic vessel hyperplasia in chronic airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Baluk, Peter; Tammela, Tuomas; Ator, Erin; Lyubynska, Natalya; Achen, Marc G.; Hicklin, Daniel J.; Jeltsch, Michael; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Stacker, Steven A.; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Jackson, David G.; Alitalo, Kari; McDonald, Donald M.

    2005-01-01

    Edema occurs in asthma and other inflammatory diseases when the rate of plasma leakage from blood vessels exceeds the drainage through lymphatic vessels and other routes. It is unclear to what extent lymphatic vessels grow to compensate for increased leakage during inflammation and what drives the lymphangiogenesis that does occur. We addressed these issues in mouse models of (a) chronic respiratory tract infection with Mycoplasma pulmonis and (b) adenoviral transduction of airway epithelium with VEGF family growth factors. Blood vessel remodeling and lymphangiogenesis were both robust in infected airways. Inhibition of VEGFR-3 signaling completely prevented the growth of lymphatic vessels but not blood vessels. Lack of lymphatic growth exaggerated mucosal edema and reduced the hypertrophy of draining lymph nodes. Airway dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and epithelial cells expressed the VEGFR-3 ligands VEGF-C or VEGF-D. Adenoviral delivery of either VEGF-C or VEGF-D evoked lymphangiogenesis without angiogenesis, whereas adenoviral VEGF had the opposite effect. After antibiotic treatment of the infection, inflammation and remodeling of blood vessels quickly subsided, but lymphatic vessels persisted. Together, these findings suggest that when lymphangiogenesis is impaired, airway inflammation may lead to bronchial lymphedema and exaggerated airflow obstruction. Correction of defective lymphangiogenesis may benefit the treatment of asthma and other inflammatory airway diseases. PMID:15668734

  11. [Vessel damage caused by the administration of intra-arterial methotrexate? Fluorescence angiography and histologic findings].

    PubMed

    Pau, H W; Straehler-Pohl, H J; Stiens, R

    1983-09-01

    During a 7 days course of intraarterial methotrexate therapy in patients with certain head and neck tumours, we could demonstrate changes in the blood supply of the tympanic membranes as well as in the tumours themselves by the fluorescence angiography technique. Chemotherapy generally was followed by an operation, the material of which histologically showed varying degrees of vascular occlusions, which we ascribe to the high concentration of methotrexate. The drug given into the external carotid artery reached not only the tumour-supplying vessels but also more peripheral branches such as the arteries of the tympanic membrane. This could explain the observed vascular changes. We conclude that the high concentration of methotrexate achieved by intraarterial therapy may cause vascular occlusions. Therefore, this kind of chemotherapy should be used for a limited time only, because later the penetration of the drug may be inhibited. PMID:6633105

  12. Melons are branched polymers

    E-print Network

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  13. Melons are branched polymers

    E-print Network

    Razvan Gurau; James P. Ryan

    2013-02-18

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  14. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  15. Regulatory Affairs Branch (RAB)

    Cancer.gov

    Jan Casadei, PhD joined the National Cancer Institute in 1991, where she is now chief of the Regulatory Affairs Branch, CTEP. Her area of expertise covers FDA regulations, policies and guidelines for the conduct of clinical studies with investigational agents. As the chief of the Regulatory Affairs Branch, Dr.

  16. A new imaging technique for retinal vessel oximetry: principles and first clinical results in patients with retinal arterial occlusion and diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, M.; Riemer, T.; Vilser, W.; Gehlert, S.; Schweitzer, D.

    2009-02-01

    The oxygen saturation of blood inside retinal vessels is an essential measure for the estimation of oxygen supply to the tissue as well as its oxygen consumption. In the current approach, the blood oxygenation is measured by a dual-wavelength technique. Using a fundus camera, equipped with a special dual wavelength transmission filter and a color CCD camera, two monochromatic fundus images at 548 nm and 610 nm were recorded simultaneously. The optical densities of retinal vessels for both wavelengths and their ratio, which is known to be proportional to the oxygen saturation, were calculated. From a health control population, mean arterial and venous oxygen saturations were measured of 98+/-10.1% and 65+/-11.7% with reproducibility of 2.52% and 3.25% respectively. In 10 patients with arterial occlusion, a reduction of the arterial oxygen saturation to 78 +/-17% (mean +/- standard deviation, branch arterial occlusion) and 91+/-11% (central arterial occlusion) respectively was found in the occluded vessel. After 5 days on pentoxifilin therapy, the arterial saturation increased to an average of 93+/-12% or 103 +/-6% respectively. In 70 eyes of 42 patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy, an increase of the venous oxygen saturation with the severity of the retinopathy was found (mild nonproliferative retinopathy: 68.4+/-8.2%, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy: 70.5+/-6.8%, severe non-proliferative retinopathy: 72.4+/-7.6%, proliferative retinopathy 75.7+/-8.3%) due to vessel shunting and diabetic changes of the permeability of vessel walls. These first clinical results demonstrate the ability of an accurate measurement of retinal vessel oxygenation with a very simple setup just requiring a special filter in the illumination path of a fundus camera and dedicated software.

  17. Blood culture

    MedlinePLUS

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed. The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  18. What's Blood?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... find out more about each ingredient. Continue Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, say: ih- ... couldn't keep working and stay alive. White Blood Cells White blood cells (also called leukocytes, say: LOO- ...

  19. Blood Transfusion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bank will store your blood for your use. Alternatives to Blood Transfusions Researchers are trying to find ... to make blood. There's currently no man-made alternative to human blood. However, researchers have developed medicines ...

  20. Blood transfusions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... if you need a blood transfusion after surgery. Blood from these donors must be collected at least a few days ... blood bank before your surgery to have directed donor blood. It is important to note that there is ...

  1. Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePLUS

    ... any of my medications affect my blood pressure? Alpha-blockers: Alpha-blockers reduce nerve impulses to blood vessels, which ... more easily, causing blood pressure to go down. Alpha-beta-blockers: Alpha-beta-blockers work the same ...

  2. Effect of resolved branches on the performance of delayed branching 

    E-print Network

    Ramabhadran, Anurekha

    1995-01-01

    The impact of resolved branch instructions on the performance of the delayed branching scheme is studied for a two-instruction-issue superscalar pipelined RISC processor. Two processor models are created in Verilog HDL, one with resolved branches...

  3. Non-Newtonian perspectives on pulsatile blood-analog flows in a 180° curved artery model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk, Stevin; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa; Bulusu, Kartik V.; Fuchs, Laszlo; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2015-07-01

    Complex, unsteady fluid flow phenomena in the arteries arise due to the pulsations of the heart that intermittently pumps the blood to the extremities of the body. The many different flow waveform variations observed throughout the arterial network are a result of this process and a function of the vessel properties. Large scale secondary flow structures are generated throughout the aortic arch and larger branches of the arteries. An experimental 180° curved artery test section with physiological inflow conditions was used to validate the computational methods implemented in this study. Good agreement of the secondary flow structures is obtained between experimental and numerical studies of a Newtonian blood-analog fluid under steady-state and pulsatile, carotid artery flow rate waveforms. Multiple vortical structures, some of opposite rotational sense to Dean vortices, similar to Lyne-type vortices, were observed to form during the systolic portion of the pulse. Computational tools were used to assess the effect of blood-analog fluid rheology (i.e., Newtonian versus non-Newtonian). It is demonstrated that non-Newtonian, blood-analog fluid rheology results in shear layer instabilities that alter the formation of vortical structures during the systolic deceleration and onwards during diastole. Additional vortices not observed in the Newtonian cases appear at the inside and outside of the bend at various times during the pulsation. The influence of blood-analog shear-thinning viscosity decreases mean pressure losses in contrast to the Newtonian blood analog fluid.

  4. 78 FR 69431 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Office of Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  5. 75 FR 42756 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  6. 75 FR 61507 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch, DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  7. 76 FR 61722 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch, DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  8. 76 FR 29772 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  9. 76 FR 12744 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  10. 76 FR 8752 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  11. 75 FR 50771 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  12. 75 FR 4092 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-26

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  13. 76 FR 16631 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  14. 75 FR 16152 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  15. 75 FR 5090 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  16. 75 FR 9907 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  17. 75 FR 52957 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  18. 75 FR 28260 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  19. 75 FR 19983 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch, DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute,...

  20. 75 FR 21644 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  1. 76 FR 12123 - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Notice of...privacy. Name of Committee: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Special Emphasis...Officer, Review Branch/DERA, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 6701...

  2. Neutrino Factory Target Vessel

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Neutrino Factory Target Vessel Concept V. Graves Target Studies EVO May 1, 2012 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Concept 1 May 2012 Review ­ Two Target Vessel Ideas · Solid-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Concept 1 May 2012 #12;4 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U

  3. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  4. Neutrino Factory Target Vessel

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Neutrino Factory Target Vessel Concept Update V. Graves T. Lessard Target Studies EVO June 26, 2012 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Update 26 June 2012 of Energy Target Vessel Update 26 June 2012 Review - Mercury Module Extraction #12;4 Managed by UT

  5. Neutrino Factory Target Vessel

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Neutrino Factory Target Vessel Concepts Updated 4/16/12 V. Graves Target Studies EVO April 11, 2012 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Concept 16 Apr 2012 Target Vessel Requirements · Accurate jet placement · Jet/beam dump pool · Double containment of mercury

  6. Neutrino Factory Target Vessel

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Neutrino Factory Target Vessel Concept Update V. Graves Target Studies EVO June 12, 2012 #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Update 12 June 2012 Review ­ IPAC #12;3 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Target Vessel Update 12 June 2012 Inner

  7. Cholangiocytes and blood supply

    PubMed Central

    Gaudio, Eugenio; Franchitto, Antonio; Pannarale, Luigi; Carpino, Guido; Alpini, Gianfranco; Francis, Heather; Glaser, Shannon; Alvaro, Domenico; Onori, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The microvascular supply of the biliary tree, the peribiliary plexus (PBP), stems from the hepatic artery branches and flows into the hepatic sinusoids. A detailed three-dimensional study of the PBP has been performed by using the Scanning Electron Microscopy vascular corrosion casts (SEMvcc) technique. Considering that the PBP plays a fundamental role in supporting the secretory and absorptive functions of the biliary epithelium, their organization in either normalcy and pathology is explored. The normal liver shows the PBP arranged around extra- and intrahepatic biliary tree. In the small portal tract PBP was characterized by a single layer of capillaries which progressively continued with the extrahepatic PBP where it showed a more complex vascular network. After common duct ligation (BDL), progressive modifications of bile duct and PBP proliferation are observed. The PBP presents a three-dimensional network arranged around many bile ducts and appears as bundles of vessels, composed by capillaries of homogeneous diameter with a typical round mesh structure. The PBP network is easily distinguishable from the sinusoidal network which appears normal. Considering the enormous extension of the PBP during BDL, the possible role played by the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is evaluated. VEGF-A, VEGF-C and their related receptors appeared highly immunopositive in proliferating cholangiocytes of BDL rats. The administration of anti-VEGF-A or anti-VEGF-C antibodies to BDL rats as well as hepatic artery ligation induced a reduced bile duct mass. The administration of rVEGF-A to BDL hepatic artery ligated rats prevented the decrease of cholangiocyte proliferation and VEGF-A expression as compared to BDL control rats. These data suggest the role of arterial blood supply of the biliary tree in conditions of cholangiocyte proliferation, such as it occurs during chronic cholestasis. On the other hand, the role played by VEGF as a tool of cross-talk between cholangiocytes and PBP endothelial cells suggests that manipulation of VEGF release and function could represent a therapeutic strategy for human pathological conditions characterized by damage of hepatic artery or the biliary tree. PMID:16773711

  8. Pharmaceutical Management Branch (PMB)

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Content Home | Investigator Resources | Protocol Development | Initiatives/Programs/Collaborations | Links to More Resources | Funding Opportunities | About CTEP Home | Sitemap | Contact CTEP Search this site Pharmaceutical Management Branch

  9. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  10. Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Environmental Epidemiology Branch (EEB) focuses on factors to reduce cancer risk in humans, including exposures to physical and chemical agents; nutritional components; physical activity and energy balance; alcohol and tobacco; and infectious agents.

  11. Outcomes Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    Outcomes Research Branch A circular graphic depicts a conceptual model of ORB's mission, vision, and research areas. The mission portion of the graphic echoes and expands upon the text description that precedes the graphic; that is, ORB leads, coordinates,

  12. Mice Lacking the Extracellular Matrix Protein MAGP1 Display Delayed Thrombotic Occlusion Following Vessel Injury

    E-print Network

    Mecham, Robert

    Following Vessel Injury Claudio C. Werneck1* , Cristina P. Vicente2* , Justin S. Weinberg3 , Adrian Shifren4 into deficient animals prior to vessel wounding. Blood coagulation was normal in these animals as assessed;3 Introduction Upon injury to the vessel wall, platelets and protein components of the coagulation pathway

  13. A tool for the quantification of radial neo-vessels in chick chorioallantoic membrane angiogenic assays

    E-print Network

    Signoroni, Alberto

    the responses. Although there are a lot of CAM-related blood vessel extraction tools, many and recent works chorioallantoic mem- brane (CAM). At day 11 of development CAM is completely vascularized and neo-vessels induced of the vessels present in the CAM macroscopic images. Based on conventional and dedicated image morphology tools

  14. NO FISHING REPORTING FORM Vessel ID. NO. Vessel Name

    E-print Network

    NO FISHING REPORTING FORM Vessel ID. NO. Vessel Name: During the entire month of , year this vessel fishery if your vessel does not have a permit for it > Use Black Ink NMFS Use Only: Opened: Atlantic King Mackerel Spanish Mackerel Schedule # NO FISHING REPORTING FORM Vessel ID. NO. Vessel Name: During

  15. Novel Tools and Methods Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow Using

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    work is properly attributed. Significance Statement Accurately measuring blood flow in the retina microscopy measurements to overcome these limitations. The measurement techniques were validated by several methods. Blood flow and blood velocity were assessed in blood vessels of all sizes in the rat. Accurate

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Blood Clotting: The Interplay of Coagulation Chemistry,

    E-print Network

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    Mathematical Modeling of Blood Clotting: The Interplay of Coagulation Chemistry, Platelet of a blood clot inside of a blood vessel, a process known as thrombosis, involves the intertwined processes of a blood clot involves complex and disparate inter- actions (e.g., biochemical reactions, cell adhesion

  17. Celiac trunk and branches dissection due to energy drink consumption and heavy resistance exercise: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    González, Wilma; Altieri, Pablo I; Alvarado, Enrique; Banchs, Héctor L; Colón, Edgar; Escobales, Nelson; Crespo, María

    2015-01-01

    Higher doses and consumption of energy drinks leads to cardiovascular effects and potential consequences. Principal components found in energy drinks such as caffeine, guarana and taurine has been related to dilatation, aneurysm formation, dissection and ruptures. There is no evidence showing an integration of these components and its effects in endothelium and aortic walls due to higher levels of pressure during exercises. We report a case of a 44 years male with celiac trunk and branches dissection due to long-term consumption of energy drinks and intense exercise routine. Our proposition relates cell and vessel walls alterations including elasticity in endothelial wall due to higher blood pressure, resistance by intense exercise routine and long-term consumption of energy drinks. PMID:26035983

  18. Multiscale modeling and simulation of blood flow in coronary artery bypass graft surgeries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaran, Sethuraman; Esmaily Moghadam, Mahdi; Kahn, Andy; Marsden, Alison

    2011-11-01

    We present a computational framework for modeling and simulation of blood flow in patients who undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries. We evaluate the influence of shape on the homeostatic state, cardiac output, and other quantities of interest. We present a case study on a patient with multiple CABG. We build a patient-specific model of the blood vessels comprised of the aorta, vessels branching from the top of the aorta (brachiocephalic artery and carotids) and the coronary arteries, in addition to bypass grafts. The rest of the circulatory system is modeled using lumped parameter 0D models comprised of resistances, compliances, inertances and elastance. An algorithm is presented that computes these parameters automatically given constraints on the flow. A Finite element framework is used to compute blood flow and pressure in the 3D model to which the 0D code is coupled at the model inlets and outlets. An adaptive closed loop BC is used to capture the coupling of the various outlets of the model with inlets, and is compared with a model with fixed inlet BC. We compare and contrast the pressure, flowrate, coronary perfusion, and PV curves obtained in the different cases. Further, we compare and contrast quantities of interest such as wall shear stress, wall shear stress gradients and oscillatory shear index for different surgical geometries and discuss implications of patient-specific optimization. I would like to acknowlege AHA for funding this work.

  19. Cerebral blood flow modeling in primate cortex

    PubMed Central

    Guibert, Romain; Fonta, Caroline; Plouraboué, Franck

    2010-01-01

    We report new results on blood flow modeling over large volumes of cortical gray matter of primate brain. We propose a network method for computing the blood flow, which handles realistic boundary conditions, complex vessel shapes, and complex nonlinear blood rheology. From a detailed comparison of the available models for the blood flow rheology and the phase separation effect, we are able to derive important new results on the impact of network structure on blood pressure, hematocrit, and flow distributions. Our findings show that the network geometry (vessel shapes and diameters), the boundary conditions associated with the arterial inputs and venous outputs, and the effective viscosity of the blood are essential components in the flow distribution. In contrast, we show that the phase separation effect has a minor function in the global microvascular hemodynamic behavior. The behavior of the pressure, hematocrit, and blood flow distributions within the network are described through the depth of the primate cerebral cortex and are discussed. PMID:20648040

  20. An In Vitro Evaluation of Emboli Trajectories Within a Three-Dimensional Physical Model of the Circle of Willis Under Cerebral Blood Flow Conditions.

    PubMed

    Fahy, Paul; Malone, Fiona; McCarthy, Eugene; McCarthy, Peter; Thornton, John; Brennan, Paul; O'Hare, Alan; Looby, Seamus; Sultan, Sherif; Hynes, Niamh; Morris, Liam

    2015-09-01

    In vitro simulations of the trajectory and lodgement locations of emboli within the circle of Willis (CoW) are crucial in understanding the associated hemodynamic effects in stroke patients. A clot was fabricated from the hemolymph of a crustacean species. Clots were injected into the internal carotid artery via a cerebral flow facility housing a manufactured CoW human model. The trajectory of the clot was tracked and its hemodynamic effects monitored. The clots traveled with an average velocity of 88 mm/s along the ipsilateral side with momentary pauses along high curvature regions before finally lodging within the distal branches of the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA). These clots either elongated along the branching vessels or compressed against a bifurcation point. A blocked M1-segment of the MCA reduced the efferent blood pressure and flow rates by (15-77%) and (20-100%) respectively with a re-distribution of the flow towards the other efferent vessels. Mimicking blood clots with crustacean hemolymph provides a much lower biohazard risk than using human or mammalian blood clots and a superior alternative to synthetic materials. The geometry of the distal MCA vasculature will determine the end morphology of the lodged clot. Clotting severely reduces the distal flow rates and pressures. PMID:25589374

  1. Blood Sugar

    MedlinePLUS

    Blood sugar, or glucose, is the main sugar found in your blood. It comes from the food you eat, and is your body's main source of energy. Your blood carries glucose to all of your body's cells to use ...

  2. Non-invasive method and apparatus for measuring pressure within a pliable vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimizu, M. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A non-invasive method and apparatus is disclosed for measuring pressure within a pliable vessel such as a blood vessel. The blood vessel is clamped by means of a clamping structure having a first portion housing a pressure sensor and a second portion extending over the remote side of the blood vessel for pressing the blood vessel into engagement with the pressure sensing device. The pressure sensing device includes a flat deflectable diaphragm portion arranged to engage a portion of the blood vessel flattened against the diaphragm by means of the clamp structure. In one embodiment, the clamp structure includes first and second semicylindrical members held together by retaining rings. In a second embodiment the clamp structure is of one piece construction having a solid semicylindrical portion and a hollow semicylindrical portion with a longitudinal slot in the follow semicylindrical portion through which a slip the blood vessel. In a third embodiment, an elastic strap is employed for clamping the blood vessel against the pressure sensing device.

  3. Blood Flow in Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, David N.

    Blood flow in arteries is dominated by unsteady flow phenomena. The cardiovascular system is an internal flow loop with multiple branches in which a complex liquid circulates. A nondimensional frequency parameter, the Womersley number, governs the relationship between the unsteady and viscous forces. Normal arterial flow is laminar with secondary flows generated at curves and branches. The arteries are living organs that can adapt to and change with the varying hemodynamic conditions. In certain circumstances, unusual hemodynamic conditions create an abnormal biological response. Velocity profile skewing can create pockets in which the direction of the wall shear stress oscillates. Atherosclerotic disease tends to be localized in these sites and results in a narrowing of the artery lumena stenosis. The stenosis can cause turbulence and reduce flow by means of viscous head losses and flow choking. Very high shear stresses near the throat of the stenosis can activate platelets and thereby induce thrombosis, which can totally block blood flow to the heart or brain. Detection and quantification of stenosis serve as the basis for surgical intervention. In the future, the study of arterial blood flow will lead to the prediction of individual hemodynamic flows in any patient, the development of diagnostic tools to quantify disease, and the design of devices that mimic or alter blood flow. This field is rich with challenging problems in fluid mechanics involving three-dimensional, pulsatile flows at the edge of turbulence.

  4. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  5. Branched Polyhedral Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaibel, Volker; Loos, Andreas

    We introduce the framework of branched polyhedral systems that can be used in order to construct extended formulations for polyhedra by combining extended formulations for other polyhedra. The framework, for instance, simultaneously generalizes extended formulations like the well-known ones (see Balas [1]) for the convex hulls of unions of polyhedra (disjunctive programming) and like those obtained from dynamic programming algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems (due to Martin, Rardin, and Campbell [11]). Using the framework, we construct extended formulations for full orbitopes (the convex hulls of all 0/1-matrices with lexicographically sorted columns), we show for two special matching problems, how branched polyhedral systems can be exploited in order to construct formulations for certain nested combinatorial problems, and we indicate how one can build extended formulations for stable set polytopes using the framework of branched polyhedral systems.

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    MedlinePLUS

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  7. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02?, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  8. Instrument for the measurement of retinal vessel oxygen saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Jonathan J.; Smith, Matthew H.; Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Hillman, Lloyd W.

    1999-06-01

    Retinal vessel oxygen saturation has been suggested as a parameter for monitoring a wide range of conditions including occult blood los and a variety of ophthalmic diseases. We have developed an Eye Oximeter (EOX), that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of the blood in individual large retinal vessels using scanning lasers. 1D vessel extinction profiles are obtained at four wavelengths (629, 678, 821 and 899 nm), and the vessel transmittances computed. The oxygen saturation of blood within the vessel is then calculated from the transmittance data. We have performed an in vitro experiment on human blood which demonstrates the calibration of the EOX measurements and validates our oximetry equations. Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in a human subject and found to be 65%O2Sat and 101 - 102%O2Sat in the veins and arteries on the optic disk. Irregularities in the background measured away from the optic disk resulted in a large variance in the calculated saturation when compared to measurements made on the disk.

  9. Four-wavelength retinal vessel oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Jonathan Jensen

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation documents the design and construction of a four-wavelength retinal vessel oximeter, the Eye Oximeter (EOX). The EOX scans low-powered laser beams (at 629, 678, 821 and 899 nm) into the eye and across a targeted retinal vessel to measure the transmittance of the blood within the vessel. From the transmittance measurements, the oxygen saturation of the blood within the vessel is computed. Retinal vessel oxygen saturation has been suggested as a useful parameter for monitoring a wide range of conditions including occult blood loss and a variety of ophthalmic diseases. An artificial eye that simulates the geometry of a human retinal vessel was constructed and used to calibrate the EOX saturation measurement. A number of different oximetry equations were developed and tested. From measurements made on whole human blood in the artificial eye, an oximetry equation that places a linear wavelength dependance on the scattering losses (3% decrease from 629 to 899 nm) is found to best calibrate the EOX oxygen saturation measurement. This calibration also requires that an adjustment be made to the absorption coefficient of hemoglobin at 629 nm that has been reported in the literature. More than 4,000 measurements were made in the eyes of three human subjects during the development of the EOX. Applying the oximetry equation developed through the in vitro experiments to human data, the average human retinal venous oxygen saturation is estimated to be 0.63 +/- 0.07 and the average human retinal arterial oxygen saturation is 0.99 +/- 0.03. Furthermore, measurements made away from the optic disk resulted in a larger variance in the calculated saturation when compared to measurements made on the optic disk. A series of EOX experiments using anesthetized swine helped to verify the sensitivity of the EOX measurement of oxygen saturation. It is found that the calibration in swine differed from the calibration in the artificial eye. An empirical calibration from the swine measurements was applied to the human measurements. With this correction, the average human retinal venous oxygen saturation was found to be 0.40 +/- 0.08 and the average human retinal arterial oxygen saturation was found to be 0.98 +/- 0.03. This suggests that the swine, human and model eye measurements may each require a different calibration because of differences between the spectral characteristics of their ocular fundi. Finally, further in vitro and in vivo experimentation is proposed so that the goal of having an accurate, absolute measurement of the human retinal vessel oxygen saturation will be realized.

  10. Applying a microfluidic 'deformability cytometry' to measure stiffness of malaria-infected red blood cells at body and febrile temperatures

    E-print Network

    Huang, Sha, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) undergo repeated deformation as they traverse blood vessel, capillaries and splenic cords; RBC deformability is therefore crucial in maintaining normal blood circulation. During falciparum malaria, ...

  11. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  12. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M. (Knoxville, TN); Knapp, Jr., Furn F. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  13. Clinical Investigations Branch (CIB)

    Cancer.gov

    Meg Mooney, MD, MBA is the Chief of the Clinical Investigations Branch (CIB) of the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP), Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, at the NCI and oversees adult sarcoma cancer therapeutics. She was formerly the Interim Director of the Office of Evidence-Based Surgery at the American College of Surgeons in Chicago, Illinois.

  14. Branch retinal artery occlusion associated with congenital retinal macrovessel.

    PubMed

    Goel, Neha; Kumar, Vinod; Seth, Anisha; Ghosh, Basudeb

    2014-05-01

    A congenital retinal macrovessel (CRM) is a large retinal vessel, usually a vein, which traverses through the central macula and has large tributaries extending on both sides of the horizontal raphe. In the majority of cases, CRM have no effect on visual acuity, although in rare cases, macular hemorrhage, foveolar cysts, serous macular detachment, and the presence of the anomalous vessel in the foveola can affect vision. We describe a case of CRM with decreased vision secondary to a branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). To the best of our knowledge, this association has not been reported previously. PMID:25136239

  15. Mechanisms of myocardium-coronary vessel interaction

    PubMed Central

    Algranati, Dotan; Kassab, Ghassan S.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the contracting myocardium exerts extravascular forces (intramyocardial pressure, IMP) on coronary blood vessels and by which it affects the coronary flow remain incompletely understood. Several myocardium-vessel interaction (MVI) mechanisms have been proposed, but none can account for all the major flow features. In the present study, we hypothesized that only a specific combination of MVI mechanisms can account for all observed coronary flow features. Three basic interaction mechanisms (time-varying elasticity, myocardial shortening-induced intracellular pressure, and ventricular cavity-induced extracellular pressure) and their combinations were analyzed based on physical principles (conservation of mass and force equilibrium) in a realistic data-based vascular network. Mechanical properties of both vessel wall and myocardium were coupled through stress analysis to simulate the response of vessels to internal blood pressure and external (myocardial) mechanical loading. Predictions of transmural dynamic vascular pressure, diameter, and flow velocity were determined under each MVI mechanism and compared with reported data. The results show that none of the three basic mechanisms alone can account for the measured data. Only the combined effect of the cavity-induced extracellular pressure and the shortening-induced intramyocyte pressure provides good agreement with the majority of measurements. These findings have important implications for elucidating the physical basis of IMP and for understanding coronary phasic flow and coronary artery and microcirculatory disease. PMID:19966048

  16. Mandrels For Microtextured Small-Vessel Implants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deininger, William D.; Gabriel, Stephen B.

    1989-01-01

    Research shows artificial blood-vessel and heart-valve implants made more compatible with their biological environments by use of regularly microtextured surfaces. In new manufacturing process, ion beam etches patterned array of small pillars on mandrel used to mold tubular plastic implant. Pillars create tiny regularly spaced holes in inner surface of tube. Holes expected to provide sites for attachment of healthy lining. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) used as mandrel material because it can be etched by ion beam.

  17. Dual shell pressure balanced vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alexander G. (West Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A dual-wall pressure balanced vessel for processing high viscosity slurries at high temperatures and pressures having an outer pressure vessel and an inner vessel with an annular space between the vessels pressurized at a pressure slightly less than or equivalent to the pressure within the inner vessel.

  18. Imprinted Clay Coil Vessels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Tresa Rae

    2006-01-01

    The author teaches clay vessel construction in the fifth grade, and it is amazing what can be accomplished in one forty-five minute period when the expectations are clarified in the initial lesson. The author introduces clay coil vessels with a discussion of the sources of clay and how clay relates to fifth-grade science curriculum concepts such…

  19. Moving Vessel Profiler

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The Moving Vessel Profiler is an instrument used for aiding in the collection of accurate water data while the vessel is still in motion rather than having to stop. The USGS returned from a seafloor data mapping mission offshore of the Delmarva Peninsula (Ocean City, MD) on July 25th, 2014. The dat...

  20. Ocular Blood Flow Autoregulation Mechanisms and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xue; Shen, Yu-meng; Jiang, Meng-nan; Lou, Xiang-feng; Shen, Yin

    2015-01-01

    The main function of ocular blood flow is to supply sufficient oxygen and nutrients to the eye. Local blood vessels resistance regulates overall blood distribution to the eye and can vary rapidly over time depending on ocular need. Under normal conditions, the relation between blood flow and perfusion pressure in the eye is autoregulated. Basically, autoregulation is a capacity to maintain a relatively constant level of blood flow in the presence of changes in ocular perfusion pressure and varied metabolic demand. In addition, ocular blood flow dysregulation has been demonstrated as an independent risk factor to many ocular diseases. For instance, ocular perfusion pressure plays key role in the progression of retinopathy such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. In this review, different direct and indirect techniques to measure ocular blood flow and the effect of myogenic and neurogenic mechanisms on ocular blood flow are discussed. Moreover, ocular blood flow regulation in ocular disease will be described. PMID:26576295