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Sample records for blowflies diptera calliphoridae

  1. Human Cutaneous Myiasis by the Australian Sheep Blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Ahadizadeh, Emily N; Ketchum, Heather R; Wheeler, Russell

    2015-07-01

    This case report describes an incident of myiasis in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Paramedics treated a 53-year-old man in the field when he suffered cardiac arrest. He was intubated by the paramedics and transported to an emergency room, where he received two stents and a balloon pump. He was found to have a GCS of three and remained in the hospital for 7 days before passing away. After his death, the breathing tube was removed, revealing the presence of several maggots. On closer inspection, the dipteran larvae were found in both the oral and nasal cavities. Four of these larvae were reared to adulthood and identified as Lucilia cuprina (Weidemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), commonly known as the Australian sheep blowfly, by the Biology Department of the University of Oklahoma. Based on the fly's life cycle and rate of development, the infestation is suspected to be hospital acquired. PMID:25824092

  2. Impact of abiotic factor changes in blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Klong-Klaew, Tunwadee; Sukontason, Kom; Ngoen-klan, Ratchadawan; Moophayak, Kittikhun; Irvine, Kim N; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Prangkio, Chira; Sanit, Sangob; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2014-04-01

    Understanding how medically important flies respond to abiotic factor changes is necessary for predicting their population dynamics. In this study, we investigated the geographical distribution of the medically important blowfly, Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and ascertained the response to climatic and physio-environmental factors in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand. Adult fly surveys were carried out every 2 weeks from May 2009 to May 2010 at 18 systematically randomized study sites in three districts of Chiang Mai province (Mueang Chiang Mai, Mae Rim, and Hang Dong), using reconstructable funnel traps with 1-day tainted beef offal as bait. During the study period, 8,861 adult A. rufifacies were captured, with peak densities being observed at the end of winter (i.e., late February) and throughout most of the summer (May to March). Population density had a weak but significant (α = 0.05) positive correlation with temperature (r = 0.329) and light intensity (r = 0.231), and a weak but significant (α = 0.05) negative correlation with relative humidity (r = -0.236). From the six ecological land use types (disturbed mixed deciduous forest, mixed deciduous forest, mixed orchard, lowland village, city town, and paddy field), greater fly densities were observed generally in the disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village, but not in the paddy fields. In conclusion, A. rufifacies are abundant from the end of winter and throughout most of the summer in northern Thailand, with population density being weakly positively correlated with temperature and light intensity, but weakly negatively correlated with relative humidity. The greatest densities of this fly species were collected in disturbed mixed deciduous forest and lowland village land uses. The prediction of annual and season specific distributions of A. rufifacies were provided in each season and all-year patterns using a co-kriging approach (ArcGIS9.2). PMID:24535731

  3. Cryopreservation of embryos of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Embryos of Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), the green blowfly, were successfully cryopreserved by vitrification in liquid nitrogen and stored for 8 yr. Embryos incubated at 19 deg. C for 17 h after oviposition were found to be the most appropriate stage to cryopreserve...

  4. Do necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) lay their eggs in wounds?: Experimental data and implications for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Charabidze, Damien; Depeme, Aurore; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to examine the common belief that necrophagous blowflies lay their eggs in wounds. The egg-laying behaviour of Lucilia sericata was observed under controlled conditions on wet, artificially wounded or short-haired areas of rat cadavers. Flies laid significantly more eggs on the wet area and the area with short hair than on the dry area or area with long hair. No eggs were observed inside the wounds in any of the replicates. The effect of egg immersion (body fluids often exudes in wounds) on the survival rate of larvae was also investigated. In low water condition, an average of 72.7±7.9% of the larvae survived and they reached a mean length of 7.5±0.6mm. In contrast, submerging eggs under a high volume of water strongly affected their survival rate (25±3.7%) and development. Similar results were observed using unfrozen pig blood instead of water. These data question the information found in the literature regarding the preferential egg-laying behaviour of Calliphorids flies in wounds. PMID:26093126

  5. Lucilia sericata strain from Colombia: Experimental colonization, life tables and evaluation of two artificial diets of the blowfly Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Bogotá, Colombia strain.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Luis C; Ortega, Luis G; Segura, Nidya A; Acero, Víctor M; Bello, Felio

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to establish, under experimental laboratory conditions, a colony of Lucilia sericata, Bogotá-Colombia strain, to build life tables and evaluate two artificial diets. This blowfly is frequently used in postmortem interval studies and in injury treatment. The parental adult insects collected in Bogotá were maintained in cages at 22°C±1 average temperature, 60%±5 relative humidity and 12 h photoperiodicity. The blowflies were fed on two artificial diets that were evaluated over seven continuous generations. Reproductive and population parameters were assessed. The life cycle of the species was expressed in the number of days of the different stages: egg = 0.8±0.1, larvae I = 1.1±0.02, larvae II = 1.94±0.16, larvae III = 3.5±0.54, pupae = 6.55±0.47, male adult = 28.7±0.83 and female adult = 33.5±1.0. Total survival from egg stage to adult stage was 91.2% for diet 1, while for diet 2 this parameter was 40.5%. The lifetime reproductive output was 184.51±11.2 eggs per female. The population parameters, as well as the reproductive output of the blowflies that were assessed, showed relatively high values, giving evidence of the continuous increase of the strain over the different generations and making possible its maintenance as a stable colony that has lasted for more than two years. PMID:21031265

  6. Insects found on a human cadaver in central Italy including the blowfly Calliphora loewi (Diptera, Calliphoridae), a new species of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Gherardi, M; Bugelli, V; Di Paolo, M

    2011-04-15

    In the case of unidentified bodies the estimation of the period since death or of the season of death plays an important role to focus the attention on a reduced number of people among the ones reported missing. Forensic entomology can be one of the most important methods for these estimations, as occurred in this case. Flies are typically the first insects to colonize a dead body. The case reported here concerns the colonisation by insects of a male body in advanced decay found during the winter in Central Italy. This case is of particular interest as few data are available on the entomological evidence in the cold season. In particular, in this case we recovered Calliphora loewi (Calliphoridae), a species never collected before on dead bodies in Southern Europe. Larvae of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens (Stratiomyidae), pupae and larvae belonging to genus Hydrothea (Muscidae), and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae) specimens were also collected. The estimated PMI enabled identification of the cadaver, confirmed by DNA analysis. PMID:21282022

  7. Development of an antigen-based rapid diagnostic test for the identification of blowfly (Calliphoridae) species of forensic significance.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, Laura; Thornton, Chris; Wallman, James F; Stevens, Jamie R

    2009-06-01

    In this study we examine the limitations of currently used sequence-based approaches to blowfly (Calliphoridae) identification and evaluate the utility of an immunological approach to discriminate between blowfly species of forensic importance. By investigating antigenic similarity and dissimilarity between the first instar larval stages of four forensically important blowfly species, we have been able to identify immunoreactive proteins of potential use in the development of species-specific immuno-diagnostic tests. Here we outline our protein-based approach to species determination, and describe how it may be adapted to develop rapid diagnostic assays for the 'on-site' identification of blowfly species. PMID:19414163

  8. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used for inter- and intraspecific differentiation of screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Morphologically, early immature stages of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and secondary screwworms, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), are nearly indistinguishable. Correct identification is crucial to the ongoing eradication and exc...

  9. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2015-07-01

    The sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. Female flies are attracted to sheep following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Earlier workers attempted to reduce fly population in the field, with some success, using traps baited with various attractants. This research was conducted to determine if L. sericata would respond to a recently developed synthetic attractant that has attracted gravid screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, and stimulated them to oviposit. Results of the laboratory bioassays demonstrated that gravid females L. sericata were attracted to substrates treated with the synthetic screwworm attractant composed of five compounds--dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, phenol, p-cresol, and indole. Tests with various combinations of these compounds suggest that the sulfur compounds and indole are the most important compounds to elicit attraction and stimulate oviposition, while phenol and p-cresol may have minor roles. Semiochemical baits based on these compounds may be useful in the field to trap gravid L. sericata. PMID:26335458

  10. Technical note: Development of Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at constant temperatures: Applications in estimating postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-qiang; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Xue-bo; Li, Kui; Yao, Lan; Wan, Li-hua

    2015-08-01

    Blowflies (Calliphoridae) are recognized as a powerful tool for estimating the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The times for blowflies to develop from oviposition to eclosion is mainly controlled by temperature, which can differ between even closely related species. Hemipyrellia ligurriens (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a blowfly distributed throughout Asia and Australia. However, a systematic determination of the developmental times of H. ligurriens under constant temperature, necessary for estimating the PMImin, is lacking. Such an examination would broaden the forensic importance of the species. Thus, this study explored the growth curves of larval H. ligurriens at 7 constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were successfully constructed, depicting the time of larval length or developmental event, respectively, at different temperatures. A thermal summation model was also constructed via regression analysis, by estimating the developmental threshold temperature t and thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that t at 8.3°C and K at 5747.5 degree-hours (°Ch) are required for complete development from oviposition to eclosion, and suggested an optimum temperature range of 16-28°C for the development of H. ligurriens. These data establish for the first time the temperature-dependent developmental time of H. ligurriens for forensic entomology application. The 3 developmental models are provided. PMID:26046676

  11. Response of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to Screwworm Oviposition Attractant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sheep blow fly, Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae), causes sheep myiasis in various parts of the world. The females are attracted to sheep, following various olfactory cues emanating from the sheep's body, and oviposit on suitable substrates on sheep ultimately causing myiasis. Ear...

  12. Intraguild predation influences oviposition behavior of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Galindo, Luciane A; Moral, Rafael A; Moretti, Thiago C; Godoy, Wesley A C; Demétrio, Clarice G B

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine whether blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are able to identify larvae of an intraguild predator species in the substrate and avoid laying eggs there. Blow flies oviposited in traps with different treatments: substrate only and substrate with larvae of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794), or Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1830). Ch. megacephala, Ch. putoria, and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann, 1819) avoided laying eggs in the trap containing Ch. albiceps larvae. Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) did not oviposit differently in each substrate but had overall low abundance. The prevalence of species on corpses may be influenced by the ability of the species to detect the presence of other species, mainly predators. In this sense, intraguild predation may result in misinterpretations of a crime scene and should be considered when assessing the minimum postmortem interval. PMID:26888288

  13. Rates of development of immatures of three species of Chrysomya (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared in different types of animal tissues: implications for estimating the postmortem interval.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline; de Souza, Carina Mara; Shimamoto, Paula Midori; Salewski, Thais de Britto; Moretti, Thiago Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Blowflies have major medical and sanitary importance because they can be vectors of viruses, bacteria, and helminths and are also causative agents of myiasis. Also, these flies, especially those belonging to the genus Chrysomya, are among the first insects to arrive at carcasses and are therefore valuable in providing data for the estimation of the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). The PMImin can be calculated by assessing the weight, length, or development stage of blowfly larvae. Lack of information on the variables that might affect these parameters in different fly species can generate inaccuracies in estimating the PMImin. This study evaluated the effects of different types of bovine tissues (the liver, muscle, tongue, and stomach) and chicken heart on the development rates of larvae of Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann, Chrysomya megacephala Fabricius, and Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The efficiency of each rearing substrate was assessed by maggot weight gain (mg), larval development time (h), larval and pupal survival (%), and emergence interval (h). The development rates of larvae of all blowfly species studied here were directly influenced by the type of food substrate. Tissues that have high contents of protein and fat (muscle and heart) allowed the highest larval weight gain. For bovine liver, all Chrysomya species showed slower growth, by as much as 48 h, compared to the other tissues. Different rates of development are probably associated with specific energy requirements of calliphorids and the nutritional composition of each type of food. PMID:25082014

  14. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a blow fly genus of forensic, medical, veterinary, and agricultural importance. Both species of this genus causes myiasis and are vectors of disease causing bacteria. This genus is also famous because of its beneficial uses in maggot therapy. ...

  15. A Cellulose Fiber-Based Diet for Screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper, CF100®, was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent Aquatain® normally used for bulking the larval rearing medium for the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The cellulose fiber, when mixed with water and ...

  16. Effects of new dietary ingredients used in artificial diet for screwworm larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood, dry poultry egg, and a dry milk substitute are the constituents of the standard artificial diet currently used for mass rearing screwworm larvae, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Due to high cost and uncertainty of the commercial supply of ...

  17. Experimental study of Lucilia sericata (Diptera Calliphoridae) larval development on rat cadavers: Effects of climate and chemical contamination.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Charabidzé, Damien; Devigne, Cédric; Delannoy, Yann; Gosset, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Household products such as bleach, gasoline or hydrochloric acid have been used to mask the presence of a cadaver or to prevent the colonization of insects. These types of chemicals affect insect development and alter the forensic entomology analysis. This study was designed to test the effects of six household products (bleach, mosquito repellent, perfume, caustic soda, insecticide and unleaded gasoline) on blowfly (Lucilia sericata, Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval development. Furthermore, the effects of climate (rain or dry conditions) on larval development were analyzed. For each replication, 100 first instars were placed on a rat cadaver on which one household product was spilled. We observed a decrease in the survival rates of the larvae but no significant effect on their development times or the adult size. The same trends were observed under rainy conditions. However, the rain altered the effects of some tested household products, especially gasoline. These results demonstrate for the first time the successful development of necrophagous larvae on chemically contaminated cadavers, and provide evidence for the range of possible effects to expect. PMID:26123620

  18. Development and validation of a GC-MS method for nicotine detection in Calliphora vomitoria (L.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Magni, Paola A; Pazzi, Marco; Vincenti, Marco; Alladio, Eugenio; Brandimarte, Marco; Dadour, Ian R

    2016-04-01

    Entomotoxicology is the application of toxicological methods and analytical procedures on necrophagous insects feeding on decomposing tissues to detect drugs and other chemical components, and their mechanisms affecting insect development and morphology and modifying the methodology for estimation of minimum time since death. Nicotine is a readily available potent poison. Because of its criminal use, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method for the detection of nicotine in Calliphora vomitoria L. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was developed and validated. Furthermore, the effect of nicotine on the development, growth rate, and survival of this blowfly was studied. Larvae were reared on liver substrates homogeneously spiked with measured amounts of nicotine (2, 4, and 6ng/mg) based on concentrations that are lethal to humans. The results demonstrated that (a) the GC-MS method can detect both nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in immature C. vomitoria; (b) the presence of nicotine in the aforementioned three concentrations in food substrates did not modify the developmental time of C. vomitoria; (c) during the pupation period, larvae exposed to nicotine died depending on the concentration of nicotine in the substrate; and (d) the resultant lengths of larvae and pupae exposed to 4 and 6ng/mg concentrations of nicotine were significantly shorter than those of the control. PMID:26874739

  19. Laboratory development and field validation of Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Núñez-Vázquez, Carolina; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Cantú-Sifuentes, Mario; García-Martínez, Oswaldo

    2013-03-01

    Immature blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) collected from decomposing human remains are often used to determine the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). Phormia regina (Meigen) is a common blow fly of cosmopolitan distribution that is often associated in such cases. P. regina development at two different cyclic temperatures was examined in this study. A field validation study was conducted to determine the accuracy of applying these data to determine the PMImin. Minimal total development time was 32.52 d at cyclic 14.0 +/- 2.0 degrees C and 16.60 d at cyclic 20.5 +/- 3.1 degrees C. The minimal larval development was significantly different (P < 0.05) across temperatures. Larval development needed 15.5 d at 14.0 degrees C and 7.5 d at 20.5 degrees C. For the validation study, instar, mean, and maximum of length and weight data of the larvae collected in the field were analyzed with data generated from the 20.5 degrees C treatment, as it more closely reflected the field conditions experienced. Accuracy in estimating PMImin, was highly variable depending on the unit of measurement used and instar of P. regina collected from the field. Using the oldest instar to estimate a PMImin resulted in ranges that always encompassed the true time of colonization. Accuracy in hours when using measurements units as mean length or weight, and maximal length or weight, varied among the larval instars. In the first instar the greatest overestimation was made with maximal weight while the greatest underestimation was made with mean weight. The most accurate estimate produced with first instars was based on maximal length. In the second instar, there was no overestimation and the greatest underestimation was made with mean weight and the most accurate estimate produced was with maximal length. In the third instar, the greatest overestimation was made with maximal length, and the greatest underestimation was made with mean weight. The estimated time of colonization based on maximal

  20. Developmental Times of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) at Constant Temperatures and Applications in Forensic Entomology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Qiang; Li, Xue-Bo; Shao, Ru-Yue; Lyu, Zhou; Li, Hong-Wei; Li, Gen-Ping; Xu, Lyu-Zi; Wan, Li-Hua

    2016-09-01

    The characteristic life stages of infesting blowflies (Calliphoridae) such as Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) are powerful evidence for estimating the death time of a corpse, but an established reference of developmental times for local blowfly species is required. We determined the developmental rates of C. megacephala from southwest China at seven constant temperatures (16-34°C). Isomegalen and isomorphen diagrams were constructed based on the larval length and time for each developmental event (first ecdysis, second ecdysis, wandering, pupariation, and eclosion), at each temperature. A thermal summation model was constructed by estimating the developmental threshold temperature D0 and the thermal summation constant K. The thermal summation model indicated that, for complete development from egg hatching to eclosion, D0 = 9.07 ± 0.54°C and K = 3991.07 ± 187.26 h °C. This reference can increase the accuracy of estimations of postmortem intervals in China by predicting the growth of C. megacephala. PMID:27581209

  1. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current artificial diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae is a semi-solid medium consisting of dry whole bovine blood, poultry egg powder and a milk substitute mixed with a bulking and solidifying agent and water. To reduce the mass r...

  2. Forensically important calliphoridae (diptera) associated with pig carrion in rural north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, D.H.; Capinera, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study to determine the relative abundance and seasonality of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in rural north-central Florida was conducted using pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) as models for human bodies. Seven species of Calliphoridae were collected: Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phoenicia) (Macquart), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart), Phormia regina (Meigen), Chrysomya megacephala (F.), and a few specimens of Calliphora livida Hall, and Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy. Species composition in aerial collections of adult flies, preserved larval collections, and samples of larvae reared to the adult stage were all highly correlated. Relative abundance of the species found was significantly different, with L. coeruleiviridis the most abundant species year-round. The relative abundance of the collected species varied significantly by day of decomposition and by season, with significant interactions between season and day, season and species, and day and species. L. coeruleiviridis, C. macellaria, C. rufifaces, and P. regina were found during the entire year, two C. vicina specimens and 11 C. livida specimens were collected from December to March, whereas C. megacephala was collected only from June through September. ?? 2007 Entomological Society of America.

  3. Species composition of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) through space and time.

    PubMed

    Fremdt, Heike; Amendt, Jens

    2014-03-01

    Weekly monitoring of forensically important flight-active blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) was performed using small baited traps. Sampling took place in two rural, one suburban and two urban habitats in and around Frankfurt (Main), Germany, lasting two years and eight months. Highest values for species richness and Chao-Shen entropy estimator for Shannon's index in both families were found at the urban sites, peaking during summer. Space-time interaction was tested and found to be significant, demonstrating the value of a statistical approach recently developed for community surveys in ecology. K-means partitioning and analysis of indicator species gave significant temporal and habitat associations of particular taxa. Calliphora vicina was an indicator species for lower temperatures without being associated with a particular habitat. Lucilia sericata was an indicator for urban sites, whereas Lucilia ampullacea and Lucilia caesar were indicators for rural sites, supplemented by the less frequent species Calliphora vomitoria. Sarcophagidae were observed during a clearly shorter period of year. Sarcophaga subvicina+Sarcophaga variegata was found to be an indicator for urban habitats during summer as well as Sarcophaga albiceps for rural habitats. A significant association of Sarcophaga caerulescens to rural habitats as well as one of Sarcophaga similis to urban habitats was observed. PMID:24529768

  4. Proteolytic activity regarding Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larval excretions and secretions.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Moreno-Pérez, Darwin A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio J

    2013-12-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is a medically important necrophagous fly which is used for establishing the post-mortem interval. Diptera maggots release proteolytic enzymes contained in larval excretion and secretion (ES) products playing a key role in digestion. Special interest in proteolytic enzymes has also been aroused regarding understanding their role in wound healing since they degrade necrotic tissue during larval therapy. This study was thus aimed at identifying and characterising S. magellanica proteolytic enzyme ES products for the first time. These products were obtained from first-, second- and third-instar larvae taken from a previously-established colony. ES proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and their proteolytic activity was characterised by zymograms and inhibition assays involving BAPNA (Nα-benzoyl-dl-Arg-p-nitroanilide) and SAPNA substrates, using synthetic inhibitors. The protein profile ranged from ∼69kDa to ∼23kDa; several of them coincided with the Lucilia sericata ES protein profile. Serine-protease hydrolysis activity (measured by zymogram) was confirmed when a ∼25kDa band disappeared upon ES incubation with PMSF inhibitor at pH 7.8. Analysis of larval ES proteolytic activity on BAPNA and SAPNA substrates (determined by using TLCK and TPCK specific inhibitors) suggested a greater amount of trypsin-like protease. These results support the need for further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica use in larval therapy. PMID:24076089

  5. Cannibalism and predation behaviour of the blowfly, Chrysomyia albiceps (Wiedemann) larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Omar, A H

    1995-12-01

    Chrysomyia albiceps is considered as a carrion inhabitant and is essentially scavenger. It is among the first species to arrive at carrion and lays its eggs on it almost immediately under favourable conditions. Field studies in Giza area showed that although other flies arrive at the carrion shortly following Chrysomyia, as decomposition progresses, its larvae are the major component predominate, and the common fly emerging from carrion is its adults. First instar larvae is entirely necrophagous, but the 2nd and early 3rd instar larvae may be facultatively predaceous on other dipteran larvae (Muscina and Parasarcophaga) as an alternative food source under crowded or starved conditions. Cannibalism, second and early 3rd instars preying on the 1st instar larvae and on themselves has also been found. Considering the predation behaviour, C. albiceps may be considered as beneficial biological control agent to help in reducing populations of carrion flies which are of medical and veterinary importance owing to their significant role in causing the different kind of myiasis of man and animals. The second instar is less inclined than the early 3rd instar to serve as a predator. The numerous heavily sclerotized spines and fleshy processes of the robust and powerful preyer early 3rd instar larvae help in subduing the prey while their strong mouthhooks are used to penetrate the bodies of the other larvae for fluid extraction. PMID:8586867

  6. Traumatic Myiasis Caused by an Association of Sarcophaga tibialis (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Domestic Cat in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pezzi, Marco; Whitmore, Daniel; Chicca, Milvia; Lanfredi, Margherita; Leis, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    We describe here a rare case of traumatic myiasis occurred in August 2014, caused by an association of 2 Diptera species, Sarcophaga tibialis Macquart (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in a domestic cat in northern Italy. Species identification was based on adult male morphology. The present case is the first report of S. tibialis as an agent of myiasis in Italy, and also the first ever report of myiasis caused by an association of S. tibialis and L. sericata. The cat developed an extensive traumatic myiasis in a large wound on the rump, which was treated pharmacologically and surgically. The biology, ecology, and distribution of S. tibialis and L. sericata are also discussed. A literature review is provided on cases of myiasis caused by S. tibialis, and cases of myiasis by L. sericata involving cats worldwide and humans and animals in Italy. PMID:26323846

  7. A cellulose fiber-based diet for screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R

    2007-02-01

    A highly absorbent cellulose fiber from recycled paper was tested and compared with a polyacrylate gelling agent, Aquatain, normally used for bulking and solidifying larval rearing medium of screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The absorbent fiber, when mixed with water and dietary ingredients, produced a diet medium of homogeneous texture that supported larval growth and development comparable with the standard gelled diet. Larval and pupal weights from two concentrations of cellulose fiber-based diet were significantly higher than those obtained using gelled diet. The number of pupae per tray, percentage of adult emergence, oviposition, percentage of egg hatch, and adult longevity obtained from the insects reared in the cellulose fiber-based diet were comparable or slightly better than the biological parameters recorded from flies reared in the gelled diet. Moreover, results indicate that a lesser amount of the cellulose fiber-based diet than the normal amount of gelled diet per tray would support normal larval growth. Physical properties and texture of the new diet seem to allow the larvae to move and feed more freely than they do on the semisolid gelled diet, resulting in less wasted diet. The cellulose fiber is biodegradable and inexpensive, whereas the polyacrylate gel polymer is not biodegradable and is relatively expensive. Replacing gel with cellulose fiber in the screwworm larval diet for mass rearing should result in substantial cost savings in material and labor as well as eliminating concern of environmental pollution due to diet waste disposal. PMID:17370834

  8. Effects of the Antibiotics Gentamicin on the Postembryonic Development of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Adriana C. P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; Silva, Débora C.; Figueiredo, Adriana L.; Proença, Barbara; Silva-Filho, Renato G.; Aguiar, Valéria M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects the antibiotic Gentamicin on the development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818). Third-generation, first-instar larvae were reared in a climatic chamber on 60 g of homogenate + agar 65% and were treated with three concentrations of Gentamicin: 4.44 mg/ml, 13.33 mg/ml, and 66.66 mg/ml. The control consisted of distilled water. The relationships between mean body mass of mature larvae (measured after diet abandonment, in batches of five individuals), duration of larval and pupal stages, and overall duration of development were analyzed. The actual sex ratio was compared against the expected using the chi square. None of the parameters measured differed significantly among the four treatments, with one exception: when Gentamicin concentration was 13.33 mg/ml, larval viability differed significantly from the control. All larvae from all treatments were considered normal. We conclude that the antibiotic did not significantly alter the development of C. putoria (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). PMID:25527588

  9. Effect of age on cuticular hydrocarbon profiles in adult Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Blomquist, Gary James

    2016-02-01

    A species-specific complex mixture of highly stable cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) covers the external surface of all insects. Components can be readily analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to obtain a cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which may be used as an additional tool for the taxonomic differentiation of insect species and also for the determination of the age and sex of adult and immature forms. We used GC-MS to identify and quantify the CHCs of female and male Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann, 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) from one to five days old. CHCs ranged from C21 to C35 for females and from C21 to C37 in males. Major compounds were the same for both sexes and were 2-MeC28, C29:1, n-C29, 15-,13-MeC29, 2-MeC30, C31:1, n-C31 and 15-,13-MeC31. The relative abundance of each component, however, varied with age. Cluster Analysis using Bray-Curtis measure for abundance showed that cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are a strong and useful tool for the determination of age in adult C. putoria. PMID:26775199

  10. Preservation of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae for use in post-mortem interval estimation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Katherine; Thorne, Alan; Harvey, Michelle

    2012-11-30

    Post-mortem interval (PMI) is frequently calculated using immature stages of carrion frequenting Calliphoridae (Diptera). This is based on identification to species level, followed by age estimation of the samples. These two processes depend on suitable preservation of insects for subsequent analyses, yet preservation methods for the pupal stage are poorly defined and inappropriate methods may result in discolouration or nucleic acid degradation. This study examined the effects of 21 common preservation methods on Calliphora vicina pupae of 4 and 7d old, assessing consequences of the various methods for DNA-based species identification, age estimation using morphological analyses, and differential gene expression (DGE) studies. Pupae were examined within two weeks of preservation and again after 6-8 months. Of the methods tested, hot-water-killing (HWK) followed by storage in 80% ethanol at -20°C or 4°C was the best treatment for external morphology and histological analyses respectively. DNA based species identification was possible following all methods. RNA integrity and amplification were best when pupae were stored at -80°C or in RNAlater (-20°C), however HWK and storage in 80% ethanol at -20°C was also acceptable, and thus the latter is proposed as a universal preservative method for pupae. This study proposes a preservation method for pupae that enables DNA-based species identification, internal and external morphological analysis for age estimation, and DGE study to be carried out on a single specimen, enabling a multidisciplinary approach to age estimation from a single pupa. PMID:23000139

  11. Volatiles emitted from eight wound-isolated bacteria differentially attract gravid screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A; Welch, J B

    2010-05-01

    Bovine blood inoculated with bacteria isolated from screwworm [Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)]-infested animal wounds was tested as an attractant for oviposition for gravid screwworms. Eight species of gram-negative coliform (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria mixed with bovine blood singly or all species combined and incubated for various times produced volatiles that attracted gravid flies in a cage bioassay in varying numbers. In 15-min duration tests, volatiles from five species of bacteria (Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia rettgeri, and Providencia stuartii) attracted more females than volatiles of the three species (Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter sakazakii, and Serratia liquefaciens). In 1-h duration oviposition tests, volatiles from the substrate using the same five species of bacteria attracted more females to oviposit than the other three species. Volatiles from 24-h incubation period elicited least attraction and oviposition whereas volatiles from the 48- and 72-h incubation period resulted in significantly more attraction and oviposition. Attraction and oviposition decreased significantly when the substrates were incubated for 96 h. Volatiles from substrate with all species of bacteria combined attracted a significantly higher percentage of flies to land and oviposit than those from substrates prepared with single species. It is possible that multiple active chemicals present in volatiles of the all-species substrate may act as synergists resulting in greater response than those observed with volatiles from single-species substrate. Before oviposition flies took a bloodmeal from the oviposition substrate. It is possible that the oviposition is moderated by two different factors in screwworm-first, by using a chemical cue to land on a potential oviposition site and second, by using a bloodmeal to stimulate oviposition. PMID:20496582

  12. Thermoregulation in larval aggregations of carrion-feeding blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slone, D.H.; Gruner, Susan V.

    2007-01-01

    The growth and development of carrion-feeding calliphorid (Diptera Calliphoridae) larvae, or maggots, is of great interest to forensic sciences, especially for estimation of a postmortem interval (PMI). The development rate of calliphorid larvae is influenced by the temperature of their immediate environment. Heat generation in larval feeding aggregations (=maggot masses) is a well-known phenomenon, but it has not been quantitatively described. Calculated development rates that do not include internally generated temperatures will result in overestimation of PMI. Over a period of 2.5 yr, 80 pig, Sus scrofa L., carcasses were placed out at study sites in north central Florida and northwestern Indiana. Once larval aggregations started to form, multiple internal and external temperatures, and weather observations were taken daily or every few days between 1400 and 1800 hours until pupation of the larvae. Volume of each aggregation was determined by measuring surface area and average depth. Live and preserved samples of larvae were taken for species identification. The four most common species collected were Lucilia coeruleiviridis (=Phaenicia) (Macquart) (77%), Cochliomyia macellaria (F.) (8.3%), Chrysomya rufifaces (Macquart) (7.7%), and Phormia regina (Meigen) (5.5%). Statistical analyses showed that 1) volume of a larval mass had a strong influence on its temperature, 2) internal temperatures of masses on the ground were influenced by soil temperature and mass volume, 3) internal temperatures of masses smaller than 20 cm3 were influenced by ambient air temperature and mass volume, and 4) masses larger than 20 cm3 on the carcass had strongly regulated internal temperatures determined only by the volume of the mass, with larger volumes associated with higher temperatures. Nonsignificant factors included presence of rain or clouds, shape of the aggregation, weight of the carcass, species composition of the aggregation, time since death, or season.

  13. [Cutaneous myiasis by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Hospital Universidad del Norte, Soledad, Atlántico].

    PubMed

    de la Ossa, Napoleón; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Visbal, Lila; Santos, Ana María; Díaz, Esther; Romero-Vivas, Claudia M E

    2009-03-01

    Human myiasis is the parasitism of human tissues by fly larvae. Diagnoses are based on clinical pattern of tissue damage and presence of insect stages. Herein, a case myiasis is described in a seven-year-old female child. She presented with fever associated with abscessed scalp lesions containing exposed larvae. Severe pediculosis was also observed. The patient was hospitalized and treated with clindamycin, gentamicin (for bacterial secondary infections) and ivermectin (treatment for lice) after which the patient showed clinical improvement and was discharged four days later. Since human myiasis can be caused by a number of different species, larvae were collected from the patient and identified as those of Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Because other cases of coinfestation of flies and lice are on record, health workers are to be alerted about the possible pediculosis-myasis risk. PMID:19753834

  14. What's in a frog stomach? Solving a 150 year old mystery (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxon Acanthosoma chrysalis Mayer, 1844, described from Germany on a number of alleged parasites encysted in the peritoneal wall of the stomach of edible frogs, is revised and shown to be first instar larvae of blow flies (Calliphoridae). Based on the shape of mouthhooks and abdominal cuticular ...

  15. Keys to the blow flies of Taiwan, with a checklist of recorded species and the description of a new species of Paradichosia Senior-White (Diptera, Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shih-Tsai; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Shiao, Shiuh-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) show a great diversity in behavior and ecology, play important roles in ecosystems, and have medical and forensic importance to humans. Despite this, the taxonomy and classification of Taiwan's Calliphoridae have rarely been studied. In this study, specimens of Taiwanese calliphorids were collected and carefully studied, and all 76 species recorded in Taiwan are listed following the identification keys. Dichotomous keys to all subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species of blow flies recorded in Taiwan are provided, including 16 species that are newly recorded from Taiwan. In addition, one new species of the genus Paradichosia Senior-White is described and illustrated. We also discuss the morphological differences between the specimens of Silbomyia hoeneana Enderlein collected from China and Taiwan, a species that has only been found previously in Southern China. PMID:25152681

  16. Synanthropy of Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae (Diptera) in Bogotá, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pinilla Beltran, Y T; Segura, N A; Bello, F J

    2012-06-01

    Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae have medical and forensic importance. Species of these families are the first insects colonizing corpses and are, therefore, useful in establishing postmortem interval and as indicators in corpse transfer. The synanthropic index (SI) measures the relation of dipteran species with human settlements. Our main objective was to determine the synanthropic index of these families during the rainy and dry seasons in Bogotá. Captures were carried out using traps with baits (beef liver) in three zones (urban, rural, and forest areas). In the family Calliphoridae, the most abundant species were Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy) with a sinanthropy index (SI) of +83.1, followed by Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (SI = +92.2) and Compsomyiops verena (Walker) (SI = +42.0). Calliphora nigribasis (Macquart) was not associated with human settlements, while Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Le Guillou) was present in the three zones and considered hemisynanthropic (SI = +19.0). Roraimomusca roraima (Townsend) was reported for the first time in Bogotá and was a non-synanthropic species (SI = -36.0). On the other hand, in Sarcophagidae, three species were collected: Ravinia rufipes (Twonsend), Ravinia colombiana (Lopes), and Boettcheria sp1, which were abundant in the rural and forest zones, the first having a dual characterization as synanthropic and hemisynanthropic, while the other two were hemisynanthropic. Our data showed differences in the association of Calliphoridae species with the three environments, whereas Sarcophagidae were distributed in locations with a lower human impact. PMID:23950049

  17. Technical Note: "Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA approaches for reliable identification of Lucilia (Diptera, Calliphoridae) species of forensic interest from Southern Europe".

    PubMed

    GilArriortua, Maite; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I; Cainé, Laura M; Pinheiro, Fátima; de Pancorbo, Marian M

    2015-12-01

    In forensic entomology, rapid and unambiguous identification of blowfly species is a critical prerequisite for accurately estimating the post-mortem interval (PMI). The conventional diagnosis of cadaveric entomofauna based on external characters is hampered by the morphological similarities between species, especially in immature stages. Genetic analysis has been shown to allow precise and reliable diagnosis and delimitation of insect species. Nevertheless, the taxonomy of some species remains unresolved. This study was focused on improving the effectiveness and accuracy of analysis based on the widely used cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcode region (COI barcode, 658 bp), complemented by other mitochondrial and nuclear regions, such as cytochrome b (Cyt-b, 307 bp) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2, 310-331 bp), for the identification of Southern European blowflies. We analyzed a total of 209 specimens, collected from 38 human corpses, belonging to three Calliphoridae genera and seven species: Chrysomya (Ch. albiceps), Calliphora (C. vicina and C. vomitoria), and Lucilia (L. sericata, L. ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris). These species are the most common PMI indicators in Portugal. The results revealed that unambiguous separation of species of the Lucilia genus requires different loci from the barcode region. Furthermore, we conclude that the ITS2 (310-331 bp) molecular marker is a promising diagnostic tool because its inter-specific discriminatory power enables unequivocal and consistent distinctions to be made, even between closely related species (L. caesar-L. illustris). This work also contributes new genetic data that may be of interest in performing species diagnosis for Southern European blowflies. Notably, to the best of our knowledge, we provide the first records of the Cyt-b (307 bp) locus for L. illustris and the ITS2 (310-331 bp) region for Iberian Peninsula Lucilia species. PMID:26544633

  18. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)-Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands.

    PubMed

    Boonsriwong, Worachote; Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Vogtsberger, Roy C; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-01-01

    The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly. PMID:22666549

  19. Alimentary Canal of the Adult Blow Fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)—Part I: Ultrastructure of Salivary Glands

    PubMed Central

    Boonsriwong, Worachote; Sukontason, Kabkaew L.; Chaiwong, Tarinee; Chaisri, Urai; Vogtsberger, Roy C.; Sukontason, Kom

    2012-01-01

    The salivary gland ultrastructure of the adult male blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was investigated at the ultrastructural level using light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The salivary glands are paired structures composed of a single median deferent duct bifurcated into two long, narrow efferent ducts connected to the coiled tubular glands. The SEM image of the gland surface revealed that the basal lamina is relatively smooth in general, but the whole surface appeared as a trace of rough swollen insertion by intense tracheal ramification. Ultrastructurally, the salivary gland is enclosed within the basal lamina, and interdigitation cytoplasmic extensions were apparent between the adjacent gland cells. The basement membrane appeared infoldings that is similar to the complex of the labyrinth channel. The cytoplasm characteristic of the gland revealed high activity, based on the abundance of noticeable secretory granules, either singly or in an aggregated reservoir. In addition, mitochondria were found to intersperse among rich parallel of arrays rough endoplasmic reticulum. Thick cuticle, which was well-delineated and electron dense, apically lined the gland compartments, with discontinuity of the double-layer cuticle revealing a trace of secretion discharged into the lumen. Gross anatomy of the adult salivary gland was markedly different from that of the third instar of the same species, and structural dissimilarity is discussed briefly. PMID:22666549

  20. Evaluation of larval density Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Diptera: Calliphoridae) for therapeutic use in the recovery of tegumentar injuries.

    PubMed

    Nassu, Mariana Prado; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-09-01

    Larval therapy (LT) is the application of carrion flies (Diptera) sterile larvae on chronic or infected wounds to promote or accelerate the healing process. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. This study evaluated the behavior and larval density of Cochliomyia macellaria F. (Calliphoridae), one of the most appropriate species for debridement of injuries with necrotic tissue. Tegumentar lesions were induced in Wistar rats by subcutaneously application of 0.2 ml of a 1:4 hydrochloric acid and sterile distilled water in the dorsal region. Five experimental groups were set up: (LT 5) treatment with 5 larvae/cm(2); (LT 15) 15 larvae/cm(2); (LT 25) 25 larvae/cm(2); (DEB) mechanical debridement, and (NUL) animals that did not receive any treatment. In the LT groups, larvae used were sterilized with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and maintained for 12 h in the lesions. The healing process was assessed qualitatively (macroscopically and microscopically) and quantitatively (time interval to complete healing). It was observed that the immature fed only on necrotic tissue, thus C. macellaria is an excellent candidate for use in LT. There was no significant difference in healing time between experimental groups. However, it was observed that in LT 25, there was greater vascularization in tissues when compared to the other treatments. The mechanisms involved in this process are unknown, but it is evident that the larvae have an important role in modulating the host immune response. It is essential that future applications of larval therapy consider using a higher density of larvae (minimum of 25 larvae/cm(2)) than is currently recommended. PMID:26022143

  1. Solidifying agent and processing of blood used for the larval diet affect screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae) life-history parameters.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Skoda, S R; Sagel, A

    2011-06-01

    Spray-dried whole bovine blood and a sodium polyacrylate polymer gel as a bulking and solidifying agent are among the constituents of the current larval diet for mass rearing screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Locally available, inexpensive dietary materials could reduce rearing cost and address an uncertain commercial supply of spray-dried blood. We compared efficacy of diet prepared from fresh bovine blood after decoagulation with sodium citrate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or after mechanical defibrination, with the diet containing spray-dried blood using either gel or cellulose fiber as the bulking and solidifying agent. Several life-history parameters were compared among insects reared on each of the blood and bulking agent diets combination. Diets containing citrated blood yielded the lightest larval and pupal weights and fewest pupae. EDTA-treated blood with the gel also caused reductions. EDTA-treated blood with fiber yielded screwworms that were heavier and more numerous than those from the diet with citrated blood but lighter than those from the control diet using spray-dried blood. A reduction in percentage of adults emerging from pupae occurred from diets with both bulking agents using citrated blood and the diet using EDTA mixed with the gel bulking agent. As a group, the cellulose-fiber diets performed better than the gel diets. Larval diet did not affect adult longevity, weight of the eggs deposited by the females that emerged or subsequent egg hatch. Parameter measurements of insects from both defibrinated blood diets were similar to those from the spray-dried blood diets, indicating that fresh, defibrinated bovine blood can successfully replace the dry blood in the screwworm rearing medium. PMID:21735935

  2. Do right-biased boxers do it better? Population-level asymmetry of aggressive displays enhances fighting success in blowflies.

    PubMed

    Romano, Donato; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. left-right asymmetries in brain and behaviour) of aggressive traits has been deeply studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. We investigated lateralisation of boxing behaviour in the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae), where males fight for non-resource based spaces. We found a population-level lateralisation of aggressive displays: three repeated testing phases confirmed the preferential use of right legs over left ones. Duration of contests and number of boxing acts per fighting event were not different between males using left and right legs. The use of right legs for boxing acts lead to higher fighting success over males using left legs. Lateralised aggressive displays at population-level may be connected to the prolonged social interactions occurring among males searching for food and mates. PMID:25659526

  3. Induced Cannibalism in Experimental Populations of the Forensic Indicator Chrysomya putoria Wiedemann (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Botteon, V W; Fernandes, F S; Godoy, W A C

    2016-04-01

    We analyzed the behavior of third-instars of Chrysomya putoria as potential cannibals in experimental populations. Cannibalism rates were evaluated in three settings observed for 3, 6, 9, and 24 h, placing injured and uninjured larvae of C. putoria together. Our data heavily support that C. putoria larvae behave as cannibals when induced by a wound in another larva, and also after starving for 24 h. The probability of cannibalism increased as a function of time, both in no-choice and in choice experiments evidencing that time is a determining factor for cannibalism induction in C. putoria. However, the treatment combining injured with uninjured larvae showed the highest probability of cannibalism. These results suggest that C. putoria larvae may cannibalize under scarcity of food over long time or the presence of injured larvae. This study is useful to understand the behavior of C. putoria feeding on ephemeral substrates such as carrion or corpses and brings relevant and significant contribution to population ecology of blowflies and also forensic entomology. PMID:26698866

  4. The effects of Sarconesiopsis magellanica larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) excretions and secretions on fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pinilla, Yudi T; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Velandia, Myriam L; Segura, Nidya A; Bello, Felio J

    2015-02-01

    Sarconesiopsis magellanica is a necrophagous blowfly which is relevant in both forensic and medical sciences. Previous studies regarding this species have led to understanding life-cycle, population and reproduction parameters, as well as identifying and characterising proteolytic enzymes derived from larval excretions and secretions (ES). As other studies have shown that ES proteolytic activity plays a significant role in wound healing and fibroblasts play a relevant role in granulation tissue formation during such healing, the present study was aimed at analysing the biological effect of S. magellanica larval ES on fibroblasts. ES were obtained from third-instar larvae and added to fibroblast cells at three concentrations (10, 5 and 1 μg/mL) to evaluate their behaviour. MTT assays were used for analysing cell proliferation and viability, whilst cell adhesion was measured by optical density with 10% SDS. Fibroblast migration and morphology was recorded by microscopic observation. ES did not affect fibroblast viability and induced an increase in cell proliferation; cell adhesion became reduced, whilst cell migration through extracellular matrix increased. ES also induced a decreased cell surface and morphological alterations. Changes in all the above-mentioned parameters were reduced when ES were incubated at 60 °C, probably due to protease denaturation. These results suggested that the proteases contained in S. magellanica larval ES contributed towards granulation tissue formation, increased cell migration and promoted cell proliferation. All these data support carrying out further experiments aimed at validating S. magellanica usefulness in larval therapy. PMID:25445745

  5. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M.; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L.; Paulo, Daniel F.; Marinho, Marco Antonio T.; Tomsho, Lynn P.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Purbojati, Rikky W.; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C.

    2016-01-01

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies. PMID:26912394

  6. Large-scale mitogenomics enables insights into Schizophora (Diptera) radiation and population diversity.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Ana Carolina M; Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria L; Paulo, Daniel F; Marinho, Marco Antonio T; Tomsho, Lynn P; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Purbojati, Rikky W; Ratan, Aakrosh; Schuster, Stephan C

    2016-01-01

    True flies are insects of the order Diptera and encompass one of the most diverse groups of animals on Earth. Within dipterans, Schizophora represents a recent radiation of insects that was used as a model to develop a pipeline for generating complete mitogenomes using various sequencing platforms and strategies. 91 mitogenomes from 32 different species were sequenced and assembled with high fidelity, using amplicon, whole genome shotgun or single molecule sequencing approaches. Based on the novel mitogenomes, we estimate the origin of Schizophora within the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) boundary, about 68.3 Ma. Detailed analyses of the blowfly family (Calliphoridae) place its origin at 22 Ma, concomitant with the radiation of grazing mammals. The emergence of ectoparasitism within calliphorids was dated 6.95 Ma for the screwworm fly and 2.3 Ma for the Australian sheep blowfly. Varying population histories were observed for the blowfly Chrysomya megacephala and the housefly Musca domestica samples in our dataset. Whereas blowflies (n = 50) appear to have undergone selective sweeps and/or severe bottlenecks in the New World, houseflies (n = 14) display variation among populations from different zoogeographical zones and low levels of gene flow. The reported high-throughput mitogenomics approach for insects enables new insights into schizophoran diversity and population history of flies. PMID:26912394

  7. Multiple species of scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) as contaminants in forensic entomology laboratory insect colony.

    PubMed

    Zuha, R M; Jenarthanan, L X Q; Disney, R H L; Omar, B

    2015-09-01

    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein. PMID:26695221

  8. Cool-weather activity of the forensically important hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on carrion in Upstate South Carolina, United States.

    PubMed

    Cammack, Jonathan A; Nelder, Mark P

    2010-02-25

    The hairy maggot blow fly Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has expanded its range in the United States since its introduction into Texas (ca. 1980) and has been collected in 15 states. We investigated the bionomics of immature and adult C. rufifacies collected from carcasses of a raccoon Procyon lotor (Linnaeus) and white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman in Upstate South Carolina during November 2007, and used these insects to estimate the minimum period of insect activity. Puparia of C. rufifacies were collected from deer carrion; 28% were parasitized by Nasonia vitripennis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). The mean daily ambient temperature during this study was 11.4+/-1.02 degrees C, representing the lowest recorded mean temperature for adult activity of C. rufifacies; adults of C. rufifacies were observed flying among the carcasses at 9.0 degrees C. Although C. rufifacies is considered a warm-weather blow fly, researchers should be aware of its activity at suboptimal conditions, behavior that might aid its expansion into more northern areas. PMID:20042303

  9. Contact behaviour of setal tips in the hairy attachment system of the fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae): a cryo-SEM approach.

    PubMed

    Gorb, Stanislav N; Schuppert, Jan; Walther, Paul; Schwarz, Heinz

    2012-06-01

    The fly Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae) bears attachment pads (pulvilli) covered with setae on their ventral sides. These structures enable attachment to smooth vertical surfaces and ceilings. The contact between the terminal setal tips (spatulae) and various substrates was visualised using various experimental techniques combined with conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cryo-SEM. The results show that the setal endplates are highly flexible structures that form contact with the surface by bending their tips in the distal direction. With conventional SEM, a comparison of partly attached endplates with unattached endplates demonstrated the presence of a distinct marginal bulge. As observed with cryo-SEM, the bulge continuously disappeared as a larger area of the endplate came into contact. Two explanations of this result are suggested. First, the volume between the bulge, the mid-part of the endplate and the substrate may be filled with a fluid secretion that is released into the contact area in the endplate region. Second, the flexible central part of the endplate may jump into contact with the substrate during contact formation. PMID:22554589

  10. Methods for external disinfection of blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs prior to use in wound debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Brundage, Adrienne L; Crippen, Tawni L; Tomberlin, Jeffery K

    2016-03-01

    Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is the use of the larval stage of flies (i.e., Calliphoridae) to remove necrotic tissue and disinfect wounds. Effective MDT requires aseptic technique to prevent the unintentional introduction of pathogenic bacteria into a wound to be debrided; yet the external surface of Calliphoridae eggs is often heavily contaminated with bacteria. Studies of external disinfection of dipteran eggs have been reported, but neither their efficacy nor effect on egg viability has been adequately assessed. The present study evaluated the efficacy of ten disinfection techniques involving immersion, rinse, or a combination of both in formalin, Lysol, formaldehyde, bleach, ethanol, Sporgon, or benzalkonium chloride. All techniques resulted in significant decreases in culturable, aerobic bacterial load on Lucilia cuprina eggs. For L. cuprina, a 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion was the most efficacious, disinfecting 96.67% of egg samples, while resulting in 31.84% egg mortality. The 5% formalin immersion was least efficacious, disinfecting only 3.33% of L. cuprina egg samples, while resulting in 33.51% egg mortality. A formaldehyde immersion, one of the most commonly used disinfection techniques, was moderately effective, disinfecting 66.7% of egg samples, while resulting in 40.16% egg mortality. For Chrysomya rufifacies and Cochliomyia macellaria egg samples, the 10 minute 3% Lysol immersion disinfected 100% of the samples, and for Lucilia sericata, 80% of egg samples, while resulting in 33.97%, 7.34%, and 36.96% egg mortality, respectively. H2 CO disinfected 16.67% of Ch. rufifacies, 26.67% of C. macellaria, and 56.67% of L. sericata egg samples, while resulting in 21.98%, 10.18%, and 32.19% egg mortality, respectively. Due to its high disinfection efficacy and relatively low egg mortality, a 10 minutes 3% Lysol immersion is recommended for sterilizing Calliphoridae eggs prior to rearing of larvae for use in MDT. PMID:27041484

  11. The identity of Tachina westermanni Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera: Calliphoridae or Tachinidae) with a solution to a nomenclatural problem.

    PubMed

    Rognes, Knut; O'Hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo

    2015-01-01

    Tachina westermanni Wiedemann, 1819 was based on four syntypes, two conspecific calliphorids and two conspecific tachinids. Two existing but contradictory lectotype fixations have resulted in confusion as to the correct application of the specific name westermanni Wiedemann. Evidence is presented showing that the lectotype fixation of Townsend in 1931 is valid and assigns westermanni Wiedemann to the Calliphoridae, with Pericallimyia westermanni as the valid binomen. The valid name for the tachinid taxon becomes Brachelia westermanni Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and a neotype is designated for it in the interests of nomenclatural stability. PMID:26249089

  12. Factors affecting accessibility to blowflies of bodies disposed in suitcases.

    PubMed

    Bhadra, P; Hart, A J; Hall, M J R

    2014-06-01

    Criminals have been known to dispose of bodies in zipped suitcases in an attempt to conceal murder. In order to investigate the forensic implications of this mode of disposal on calculating time of death, it is necessary to study the accessibility of bodies in suitcases to blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and the possibility of oviposition and infestation under these circumstances. An experimental apparatus was designed that incorporated different zips (toothed and coil) of various gauges (4-6 mm) above a chicken liver bait. Gravid Calliphora vomitoria and Calliphora vicina females were attracted to and oviposited on and through these zips, both under laboratory and field conditions. Egg laying was significantly more frequent and with greater numbers of eggs when zips were in contact with the bait than when they were placed approximately 6cm above the bait. In the absence of bait, adult females could be stimulated to lay eggs on moistened zips, although the presence of blood accelerated egg laying compared to water alone. No eggs were laid on dry zips in the absence of bait. Of the first instar larvae tested, 89% were able to colonise the bait below the zips by passing through gaps between the teeth. Preliminary field studies using suitcases baited with a pig's head indicated that there was a delay of 1-3 days in oviposition when compared to laboratory conditions. This information has practical value in explaining the presence of larvae on enclosed bodies in suitcases and will help forensic entomologists estimate a more accurate minimum time since death. PMID:24747669

  13. Effect of Lunar Phases, Tides, and Wind Speed on the Abundance of Diptera Calliphoridae in a Mangrove Swamp.

    PubMed

    Batista-da-Silva, J A

    2014-02-01

    Abiotic factors, such as lunar phases and tides, have a significant effect on insect development. Reproduction and immature development are usually interlinked to these abiotic factors. The tide is at its highest levels at full moon or new moon, hindering the feeding of the immature or causing their drowning. The oviposition by adult females is also compromised on these days because much of the available food is submerged. Another important abiotic factor is the wind, which displaces odoriferous particles in the air. Wind speed and direction are important elements to indicate potential sources of food for insects. I report on the effects of lunar phases, tides, and wind speed on the Calliphoridae fauna in mangrove swamps. The different species collected were identified, and the predominant species in the area were quantified. A total of 1,710 flies were collected over a 1-year period. Six Calliphoridae flies, Chloroprocta idioidea (Robineau-Desvoidy), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann), Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann), Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), and Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) were collected. Data indicated that lunar phases have a significant effect on the abundance of C. albiceps (r = 0.39, p < 0.01), and that the variation of the tides also affected the abundance of C. putoria (r = 0.40, p < 0.00), C. macellaria (r = 0.41, p < 0.00), and C. idioidea (r = 0.31, p < 0.04). The wind speed, however, did not affect these species. PMID:27193403

  14. First report of myiasis caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a diabetic foot ulcer patient in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Olea, María Sofía; Centeno, Néstor; Aybar, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani; Ortega, Eugenia Silvana; Galante, Guillermina Begoña; Olea, Luis; Juri, María Julia Dantur

    2014-02-01

    Myiasis is usually caused by flies of the Calliphoridae family, and Cochliomyia hominivorax is the etiological agent most frequently found in myiasis. The first case of myiasis in a diabetic foot of a 54-year-old male patient in Argentina is reported. The patient attended the hospital of the capital city of Tucumán Province for a consultation concerning an ulcer in his right foot, where the larval specimens were found. The identification of the immature larvae was based on their morphological characters, such as the cylindrical, segmented, white yellow-coloured body and tracheas with strong pigmentation. The larvae were removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. The larvae were reared until the adults were obtained. The adults were identified by the setose basal vein in the upper surface of the wing, denuded lower surface of the wing, short and reduced palps, and parafrontalia with black hairs outside the front row of setae. The main factor that favoured the development of myiasis is due to diabetes, which caused a loss of sensibility in the limb that resulted in late consultation. Moreover, the poor personal hygiene attracted the flies, and the foul-smelling discharge from the wound favoured the female's oviposition. There is a need to implement a program for prevention of myiasis, in which the population is made aware not only of the importance of good personal hygiene and home sanitation but also of the degree of implication of flies in the occurrence and development of this disease. PMID:24623889

  15. First Report of Myiasis Caused by Cochliomyia hominivorax (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Diabetic Foot Ulcer Patient in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Olea, María Sofía; Centeno, Néstor; Aybar, Cecilia Adriana Veggiani; Ortega, Eugenia Silvana; Galante, Guillermina Begoña; Olea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Myiasis is usually caused by flies of the Calliphoridae family, and Cochliomyia hominivorax is the etiological agent most frequently found in myiasis. The first case of myiasis in a diabetic foot of a 54-year-old male patient in Argentina is reported. The patient attended the hospital of the capital city of Tucumán Province for a consultation concerning an ulcer in his right foot, where the larval specimens were found. The identification of the immature larvae was based on their morphological characters, such as the cylindrical, segmented, white yellow-coloured body and tracheas with strong pigmentation. The larvae were removed, and the patient was treated with antibiotics. The larvae were reared until the adults were obtained. The adults were identified by the setose basal vein in the upper surface of the wing, denuded lower surface of the wing, short and reduced palps, and parafrontalia with black hairs outside the front row of setae. The main factor that favoured the development of myiasis is due to diabetes, which caused a loss of sensibility in the limb that resulted in late consultation. Moreover, the poor personal hygiene attracted the flies, and the foul-smelling discharge from the wound favoured the female's oviposition. There is a need to implement a program for prevention of myiasis, in which the population is made aware not only of the importance of good personal hygiene and home sanitation but also of the degree of implication of flies in the occurrence and development of this disease. PMID:24623889

  16. A Fly in the Ointment: Evaluation of Traditional Use of Plants to Repel and Kill Blowfly Larvae in Fermented Fish

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo J.; Vongsombath, Chanda; Käfer, Jos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In rural areas in Laos, fly larvae infestations are common in fermenting fish. Blowflies (Chrysomya megacephala, Diptera: Calliphoridae) are attracted to oviposit (and/or larviposit) onto fermenting fish which results in infestations with fly larvae. Knowledge of traditional use of plants to repel larvae during the production of fermented fish is common and widespread in Lao PDR. Research Questions How effective are the most salient species in repelling, and killing fly larvae in fermenting fish? Material and Methods The three plant species most frequently reported to repel fly larvae during an ethnobotanical survey throughout Lao PDR were tested for repellence and larvicidal activity of fly larvae infesting fermented fish. The lethality and repellence of Tadehagi triquetrum (L.) H. Ohashi (Fabaceae), Uraria crinita (L.) Desv. ex DC. (Fabaceae) and Bambusa multiplex (Lour.) Raeusch. ex Schult. & Schult. f. (Poaceae) were tested in an experimental design using fermenting fish in Vientiane, Lao PDR. Results The repellent effect of fresh material of T. triquetrum and U. crinita, and the larvicidal effect of fresh B. multiplex, is significantly more effective than that of dried material of the same species, and the total effect (repellence and larvicidal effect combined) for each of the three species was significantly more effective for fresh than for dry material. Fresh material of T. triquetrum, U. crinita, or B. multiplex added on top of the fermenting fish repelled 50%, 54%, 37%, and killed 22%, 28%, and 40% of fly larvae. The total effect was not significantly different per species at 72%, 82%, and 77%, respectively. Discussion and Conclusions The three most salient species are effective in repelling and killing fly larvae in the production of fermented fish, and may be essential to augment food safety during traditional fermentation in open jars. PMID:22206019

  17. Bioenergetic and kinematic consequences of limblessness in larval Diptera.

    PubMed

    Berrigan, D; Lighton, J R

    1993-06-01

    We report the cost of transport and kinematics of terrestrial locomotion by larval blowflies (Protophormia terraenovae, Diptera: Calliphoridae). We contrast inter- and intra-individual methods for estimating minimum cost of transport (MCOT) and the relationship between speed, contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction. The minimum cost of transport calculated from intra-individual data is 2297 +/- 317 J kg-1 m-1 (S.E.M.) and the MCOT calculated from inter-individual comparisons is statistically indistinguishable at 1910 +/- 327 J kg-1 m-1. These values are almost ten times higher than the predicted value for a similar-sized limbed arthropod. Fly larvae travel by repeated peristaltic contractions and individual contractions cost about the same amount as individual strides in limbed insects. Both contraction frequency and distance traveled per contraction increase linearly with speed. Doubling the contraction frequency or the distance traveled per contraction approximately doubles speed. The cost of transport in fly larvae is among the highest recorded for terrestrial locomotion, confirming the suggestion that biomechanical and kinematic properties of limbless organisms with hydraulic skeletons lead to very high costs of transport. PMID:8340729

  18. Evaluating the Effect of Sarconesiopsis magellanica (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Larvae-Derived Haemolymph and Fat Body Extracts on Chronic Wounds in Diabetic Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Góngora, Jennifher; Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A.; Gaona, María A.; Patarroyo, Manuel A.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated extracts taken from S. magellanica third instar larvae fat body and haemolymph using a diabetic rabbit model and compared this to the effect obtained with the same substances taken from Lucilia sericata larvae. Alloxan (a toxic glucose analogue) was used to induce experimental diabetes in twelve rabbits. Dorsal wounds were made in each animal and they were infected with Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. They were then treated with haemolymph and lyophilized extracts taken from the selected blowflies' larvae fat bodies. Each wound was then evaluated by using rating scales and histological analysis. More favourable scores were recorded on the PUSH and WBS scales for the wounds treated with fat body derived from the larvae of both species compared to that obtained with haemolymph; however, wounds treated with the substances taken from S. magellanica had better evolution. Histological analysis revealed that treatment led to tissue proliferation and more effective neovascularisation in less time with both species' fat body extracts compared to treatment with just haemolymph. The results suggest the effectiveness of the substances evaluated and validate them in the animal model being used here as topical agents in treating chronic wounds. PMID:25866825

  19. Blowfly Succession--A Simple Trap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    A portable and inexpensive blowfly trap, constructed from flower pots/buckets and mesh, suitable for introductory studies in blowfly succession is described. Investigations that examine species composition over time and the differences between baits are discussed. (KR)

  20. Comparative study of mitotic chromosomes in two blowflies, Luciliasericata and L.cluvia (Diptera, Calliphoridae), by C- and G-like banding patterns and rRNA loci, and implications for karyotype evolution.

    PubMed

    Chirino, Mónica G; Rossi, Luis F; Bressa, María J; Luaces, Juan P; Merani, María S

    2015-01-01

    The karyotypes of Luciliacluvia (Walker, 1849) and Luciliasericata (Meigen, 1826) from Argentina were characterized using conventional staining and the C- and G-like banding techniques. Besides, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and silver staining technique. The chromosome complement of these species comprises five pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (XX/XY, female/male). The autosomes of both species have the same size and morphology, as well as C- and G-like banding patterns. The X and Y chromosomes of Luciliacluvia are subtelocentric and easily identified due to their very small size. In Luciliasericata, the X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, showing a secondary constriction in its short arm, whereas the Y is submetacentric and smaller than the X. The C-banding patterns reflect differences in chromatin structure and composition between the subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes of Luciliacluvia and the biarmed sex chromosomes of Luciliasericata. These differences in the sex chromosomes may be due to distinct amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. In Luciliacluvia, the NORs are placed at one end of the long-X and of the long-Y chromosome arms, whereas one of the NORs is disposed in the secondary constriction of the short-X chromosome arm and the other on the long-Y chromosome arm in Luciliasericata. Although the G-like banding technique does not yield G-bands like those in mammalian chromosomes, it shows a high degree chromosomal homology in both species because each pair of autosomes was correctly paired. This chromosome similarity suggests the absence of autosomal rearrangements during karyotype evolution in the two species studied. PMID:25893078

  1. Comparative study of mitotic chromosomes in two blowflies, Lucilia sericata and L. cluvia (Diptera, Calliphoridae), by C- and G-like banding patterns and rRNA loci, and implications for karyotype evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chirino, Mónica G.; Rossi, Luis F.; Bressa, María J.; Luaces, Juan P.; Merani, María S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The karyotypes of Lucilia cluvia (Walker, 1849) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) from Argentina were characterized using conventional staining and the C- and G-like banding techniques. Besides, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and silver staining technique. The chromosome complement of these species comprises five pairs of autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (XX/XY, female/male). The autosomes of both species have the same size and morphology, as well as C- and G-like banding patterns. The X and Y chromosomes of Lucilia cluvia are subtelocentric and easily identified due to their very small size. In Lucilia sericata, the X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, showing a secondary constriction in its short arm, whereas the Y is submetacentric and smaller than the X. The C-banding patterns reflect differences in chromatin structure and composition between the subtelocentric X and Y chromosomes of Lucilia cluvia and the biarmed sex chromosomes of Lucilia sericata. These differences in the sex chromosomes may be due to distinct amounts of constitutive heterochromatin. In Lucilia cluvia, the NORs are placed at one end of the long-X and of the long-Y chromosome arms, whereas one of the NORs is disposed in the secondary constriction of the short-X chromosome arm and the other on the long-Y chromosome arm in Lucilia sericata. Although the G-like banding technique does not yield G-bands like those in mammalian chromosomes, it shows a high degree chromosomal homology in both species because each pair of autosomes was correctly paired. This chromosome similarity suggests the absence of autosomal rearrangements during karyotype evolution in the two species studied. PMID:25893078

  2. Isolation and structure of a novel charged member of the red-pigment-concentrating hormone-adipokinetic hormone family of peptides isolated from the corpora cardiaca of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Gäde, G; Wilps, H; Kellner, R

    1990-07-15

    A hypertrehalosaemic neuropeptide from the corpora cardiaca of the blowfly Phormia terraenovae has been isolated by reversed-phase h.p.l.c., and its primary structure was determined by pulsed-liquid phase sequencing employing Edman chemistry after enzymically deblocking the N-terminal pyroglutamate residue. The C-terminus was also blocked, as indicated by the lack of digestion when the peptide was incubated with carboxypeptidase A. The octapeptide has the sequence pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asp-Trp-NH2 and is clearly defined as a novel member of the RPCH/AKH (red-pigment-concentrating hormone/adipokinetic hormone) family of peptides. It is the first charged member of this family to be found. The synthetic peptide causes an increase in the haemolymph carbohydrate concentration in a dose-dependent fashion in blowflies and therefore is named 'Phormia terraenovae hypertrehalosaemic hormone' (Pht-HrTH). In addition, receptors in the fat-body of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) recognize the peptide, resulting in carbohydrate elevation in the blood. However, fat-body receptors of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) do not recognize this charged molecule, and thus no lipid mobilization is observed in this species. PMID:2386478

  3. Development modeling of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Higley, Leon G.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between insect development and temperature has been well established and has a wide range of uses, including the use of blow flies for postmortem (PMI) interval estimations in death investigations. To use insects in estimating PMI, we must be able to determine the insect age at the time of discovery and backtrack to time of oviposition. Unfortunately, existing development models of forensically important insects are only linear approximations and do not take into account the curvilinear properties experienced at extreme temperatures. A series of experiments were conducted with Lucilia sericata, a forensically important blow fly species, that met the requirements needed to create statistically valid development models. Experiments were conducted over 11 temperatures (7.5 to 32.5 °C, at 2.5 °C) with a 16:8 L:D cycle. Experimental units contained 20 eggs, 10 g beef liver, and 2.5 cm of pine shavings. Each life stage (egg to adult) had five sampling times. Each sampling time was replicated four times, for a total of 20 measurements per life stage. For each sampling time, the cups were pulled from the chambers and the stage of each maggot was documented morphologically through posterior spiracle slits and cephalopharyngeal skeletal development. Data were normally distributed with the later larval stages (L3f, L3m) having the most variation within and transitioning between stages. The biological minimum was between 7.5 °C and 10 °C, with little egg development and no egg emergence at 7.5 °C. Temperature-induced mortality was highest from 10.0 to 17.5 °C and 32.5 °C. The development data generated illustrates the advantages of large datasets in modeling Lucilia sericata development and the need for curvilinear models in describing development at environmental temperatures near the biological minima and maxima. PMID:25780761

  4. Sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages in natural habitats in central Spain: spatial and seasonal changes in composition.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, D; Baz, A

    2013-03-01

    The composition and spatial distribution of sarcosaprophagous Diptera assemblages were studied using carrion-baited traps along a bioclimatic gradient of natural habitats in central Spain throughout the different seasons during 1 year. Calliphoridae and Muscidae were the most abundant families, accounting for, respectively, 41.9% and 35.1% of all Diptera specimens collected. Other abundant families were Heleomyzidae (8.4%), Sarcophagidae (6.9%) and Piophilidae (5.1%). Fly assemblage compositions differed among bioclimatic levels, with Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) being the dominant species in mesomediterranean habitats, Muscina levida (Harris) (Diptera: Muscidae) the dominant species in supramediterranean habitats, and Prochyliza nigrimana (Meigen) (Diptera: Piophilidae) the dominant species in oromediterranean habitats. Differences in assemblage composition were also found among seasons. Thermophobic species such as Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and some species of Heleomyzidae were well represented during autumn, winter and spring in the three bioclimatic levels sampled. By contrast, thermophilic species such as Ch. albiceps and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and most Muscidae and Sarcophagidae species were more abundant during summer and in mesomediterranean habitats located at lower elevations. Knowledge of the preferences of some species for certain habitats may be of ecological and forensic value and may establish a starting point for further research. PMID:22774926

  5. Synanthropy and temporal variability of Calliphoridae living in Cosenza (Calabria, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Greco, Silvia; Brandmayr, Pietro; Bonacci, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the synanthropy of Diptera: Calliphoridae, insects of forensic importance, in Calabria (southern Italy). The study lasted 2 years, from February 2010 to January 2012, and was carried out in three areas of Cosenza province representing "urban", "rural", and "wild" environments. Bottle traps baited with pork were used to catch Calliphoridae. Six species were identified, Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy 1830, Calliphora vomitoria (L.), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819), Lucilia ampullacea Villeneuve 1922, Lucilia caesar (L.), and Lucilia sericata (Meigen 1826). Data on phenologies in the study areas are reported for these species and the Synanthropy Index was calculated to evaluate their relationship with the human environment. PMID:25527571

  6. Laboratory colonization of the blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chrysomya rufifacies is a blow fly commonly found in corpses at crime scene investigations. This study was designed to develop laboratory colonization methods for Ch. rufifacies and utilize Chrysomya megacephala as its larval food source. Both fly species were collected in the wild and easily colon...

  7. Evaluating Sarconesiopsis magellanica blowfly-derived larval therapy and comparing it to Lucilia sericata-derived therapy in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Roa, Andrea; Gaona, María A; Segura, Nidya A; Ramírez-Hernández, Alejandro; Cortés-Vecino, Jesús A; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Bello, Felio

    2016-02-01

    Larval therapy is used as alternative treatment for hard-to-heal chronic and infected wounds. Lucilia sericata is the most used blowfly species. However, it has been shown recently that Sarconesiopsis magellanica larval excretions and secretions have potent antibacterial activity; this blowfly belongs to the Calliphoridae family. The present work has dealt with evaluating larval therapy using S. magellanica on wounds induced in diabetic rabbits and its action was compared to the effect induced by L. sericata. Twelve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) were used; they were divided into 4 groups, the first two being treated with larval therapy derived from both aforementioned necrophagous blowflies, an antibiotic was used in the third and the fourth was used as control. All the animals were wounded on the back and infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Samples of the secretion from each animal's infected wound were taken and sown on blood agar. The colony forming units were then counted. The PUSH scale was used for the macroscopic evaluation of the wounds. Bacterial control was encountered 48 h post-treatment in the treatments involving larval therapy and to a lesser extent with the antibiotic. Likewise, wound debridement was quicker and more efficient with larval therapy compared to the antibiotic group; however, wound closing time was 23 days in all treatments. The group treated with S. magellanica larvae had relatively quicker evolution until the proliferation phase and the start of maturation, even though there were no significant differences between both blowfly species evaluated here regarding treatments by the end of the treatment period. The present study has validated the diabetic rabbit model for inducing chronic wounds regarding larval therapy and has likewise confirmed the effectiveness of S. magellanica-derived larval therapy as an alternative for curing and healing wounds. PMID:26546725

  8. Identifying 1st instar larvae for three forensically important blowfly species using "fingerprint" cuticular hydrocarbon analysis.

    PubMed

    Moore, Hannah E; Adam, Craig D; Drijfhout, Falko P

    2014-07-01

    Calliphoridae are known to be the most forensically important insects when it comes to establishing the minimum post mortem interval (PMImin) in criminal investigations. The first step in calculating the PMImin is to identify the larvae present to species level. Accurate identification which is conventionally carried out by morphological analysis is crucial because different insects have different life stage timings. Rapid identification in the immature larvae stages would drastically cut time in criminal investigations as it would eliminate the need to rear larvae to adult flies to determine the species. Cuticular hydrocarbon analysis on 1st instar larvae has been applied to three forensically important blowflies; Lucilia sericata, Calliphora vicina and Calliphora vomitoria, using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). The results show that each species holds a distinct "fingerprint" hydrocarbon profile, allowing for accurate identification to be established in 1-day old larvae, when it can be challenging to apply morphological criteria. Consequently, this GC-MS based technique could accelerate and strengthen the identification process, not only for forensically important species, but also for other entomological samples which are hard to identify using morphological features. PMID:24815992

  9. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Functional Studies in the Calliphoridae Family

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gisele Antoniazzi; Matiolli, Cleverson Carlos; de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The genera Cochliomyia and Chrysomya contain both obligate and saprophagous flies, which allows the comparison of different feeding habits between closely related species. Among the different strategies for comparing these habits is the use of qPCR to investigate the expression levels of candidate genes involved in feeding behavior. To ensure an accurate measure of the levels of gene expression, it is necessary to normalize the amount of the target gene with the amount of a reference gene having a stable expression across the compared species. Since there is no universal gene that can be used as a reference in functional studies, candidate genes for qPCR data normalization were selected and validated in three Calliphoridae (Diptera) species, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann. The expression stability of six genes (Actin, Gapdh, Rp49, Rps17, α-tubulin, and GstD1) was evaluated among species within the same life stage and between life stages within each species. The expression levels of Actin, Gapdh, and Rp49 were the most stable among the selected genes. These genes can be used as reliable reference genes for functional studies in Calliphoridae using similar experimental settings. PMID:25373149

  10. In vitro effects of household products on Calliphoridae larvae development: implication for forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Aubernon, Cindy; Devigne, Cedric; Hedouin, Valery; Gosset, Didier; Charabidze, Damien

    2015-01-01

    Several parameters can delay the first arrival of flies on a corpse and the subsequent development of the larvae. This study focuses on the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) (Meigen, 1826) on household chemical-contaminated substrates. bleach, perfume, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda, insecticide, mosquito repellent, and gasoline in quantities consistent with an amount that could possibly be spilled on a corpse were mixed with beef liver to simulate contaminated fleshes. Larvae were bred at 25 °C on these media until emergence. Four developmental parameters were followed: survival rates, development times, sex ratios, and adult sizes. Hydrochloric acid, insecticide, and gasoline killed all larvae. In low quantities, caustic soda and mosquito repellent increased the development time and decreased the adult size. However, high quantities of these chemicals killed all larvae. Lastly, bleach and perfume did not affect the survival rate and barely impacted the development time or adult size. These results demonstrate common household products spilled on a corpse can strongly affect the development of Calliphoridae larvae. The effects of such products should be considered in forensic entomology cases. PMID:25066081

  11. Variability of blowfly head optomotor responses.

    PubMed

    Rosner, R; Egelhaaf, M; Grewe, J; Warzecha, A K

    2009-04-01

    Behavioural responses of an animal are variable even when the animal experiences the same sensory input several times. This variability can arise from stochastic processes inherent to the nervous system. Also, the internal state of an animal may influence a particular behavioural response. In the present study, we analyse the variability of visually induced head pitch responses of tethered blowflies by high-speed cinematography. We found these optomotor responses to be highly variable in amplitude. Most of the variability can be attributed to two different internal states of the flies with high and low optomotor gain, respectively. Even within a given activity state, there is some variability of head optomotor responses. The amount of this variability differs for the two optomotor gain states. Moreover, these two activity states can be distinguished on a fine timescale and without visual stimulation, on the basis of the occurrence of peculiar head jitter movements. Head jitter goes along with high gain optomotor responses and haltere oscillations. Halteres are evolutionary transformed hindwings that oscillate when blowflies walk or fly. Their main function is to serve as equilibrium organs by detecting Coriolis forces and to mediate gaze stabilisation. However, their basic oscillating activity was also suggested to provide a gain-modulating signal. Our experiments demonstrate that halteres are not necessary for high gain head pitch to occur. Nevertheless, we find the halteres to be responsible for one component of head jitter movements. This component may be the inevitable consequence of their function as equilibrium and gaze-stabilising organs. PMID:19329750

  12. Effect of Channel Blockers on the Smooth Muscle of the Adult Crop of the Queen Blowfly, Phormia regina

    PubMed Central

    Stoffolano, John G.; Danai, Laura; Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the various factors affecting the rate of contraction of the supercontractile muscles of the crop lobes of adult Phormia regina Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Using an in situ bioassay of the crop organ, various ion channel blockers were tested and it was demonstrated that in all cases the blockers (i.e., against the following conductances: Cl- , Ca2+ , Na+, and a FMRF-amide action) significantly reduced the contraction rates of the crop lobes, which were filled with 4.5 µL of 1.0 M sucrose containing 10 mM of the dye amaranth. Benzyltrimethylammonium chloride, never before reported for its effect on insect muscle, was as effective in suppressing crop muscle contraction as benzethonium chloride, which is a reported agonist of dromyosuppressin. PMID:24205919

  13. Environmental factors associated with Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) oviposition.

    PubMed

    Berg, Maureen C; Benbow, M Eric

    2013-03-01

    The period of insect activity (PIA) contributes information to estimates of the minimum postmortem interval in forensic investigations and begins with blow fly attraction and oviposition on a resource such as carrion or a human corpse. Incorrectly estimating nocturnal oviposition could alter PIA estimates by up to at least 12 h; however, the extent of this difference in PIA would depend on environmental and geographic factors. To date, the literature on the extent and frequency of blow fly nocturnal oviposition is conflicting. Our objectives were as follows: 1) to measure the effects of artificial lighting and beef liver bait height above ground on nocturnal and diurnal oviposition, and 2) to monitor oviposition through the night on swine carcasses exposed to the environment at dusk in different habitats over 3 yr. We documented no consistent nocturnal oviposition in any trial using beef liver or on carcasses in different habitats and seasons. There were statistically significant effects of light and height of bait above the ground on diurnal oviposition of Phormia regina (Meigen) in August of 2009, the only month with mean night temperatures > 20 degrees C. In August there also was significantly greater diurnal oviposition on liver bait placed on the ground compared with bait elevated 1 m. Our results suggest that nocturnal oviposition is rare in the natural environment. However, we found enhanced diurnal oviposition of P. regina under conditions of ambient temperatures > 20 degrees C the night before oviposition. Additional studies are needed to better understand the ecological mechanisms governing blow fly oviposition important to forensic entomology. PMID:23540135

  14. Bacterial volatiles attract gravid secondary screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood inoculated and incubated with bacteria was tested to determine if adults of secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), would respond to the volatiles produced and oviposit on the incubated substrates. Five species of gram-negative coliform (Enterobacteriaceae) bacteria (Klebsiell...

  15. Molecular phylogeny of the forensically important genus Cochliomyia (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Yusseff-Vanegas, Sohath; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2016-01-01

    Cochliomyia Townsend includes several abundant and one of the most broadly distributed, blow flies in the Americas, and is of significant economic and forensic importance. For decades, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) have received attention as livestock parasites and primary indicator species in forensic entomology. However, Cochliomyia minima Shannon and Cochliomyia aldrichi Del Ponte have only been subject to basic taxonomy and faunistic studies. Here we present the first complete phylogeny of Cochliomyia including numerous specimens per species, collected from 13 localities in the Caribbean. Four genes, the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear EF-1α, 28S rRNA, and ITS2, were analyzed. While we found some differences among gene trees, a concatenated gene matrix recovered a robustly supported monophyletic Cochliomyia with Compsomyiops Townsend as its sister group and recovered the monophyly of Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Cochliomyia minima. Our results support a close relationship between Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi. However, we found Cochliomyia aldrichi containing Cochliomyia minima, indicating recent speciation, or issues with the taxonomy of the group. We provide basic information on habitat preference, distribution and feeding habits of Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi that will be useful for future forensic studies in the Caribbean. PMID:27563274

  16. Bacterial Volatiles Attract Gravid Secondary Screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, M F; Zhu, J J; Skoda, S R

    2016-04-01

    Bovine blood inoculated and incubated with bacteria was tested to determine if secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.), would be attracted to the incubated substrate for oviposition. Five species of bacteria, Klebsiella oxytoca (Flugge), Proteus mirabilis Hauser, Proteus vulgaris Hauser, Providencia rettgeri Hadley, Elkins and Caldwell, and Providencia stuartii Ewing, previously isolated from animal wounds infested by primary screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), were used. Incubated substrates were tested in a two-choice cage bioassay to study landing response and oviposition by gravid C. macellaria. Significantly more flies landed on substrates containing P. mirabilis than on substrates with other species of bacteria. Klebsiella oxytoca-treated substrates attracted the least flies. Substrates containing bacteria incubated for 72 h attracted significantly more flies than those incubated for 24-, 48-, or 96-h period. In 3-h duration oviposition tests, substrates with P. rettgeri attracted significantly more flies to oviposit than the other four species. The most eggs were recorded when substrates treated with all five species of bacteria were offered for oviposition. It is likely that multiple active chemicals present in the volatiles from substrates treated with all five species result in greater response than those in a single species. At least 72-h incubation seems to be necessary to obtain the most active volatile chemicals. Results suggest that C. macellaria uses similar chemical cues as C. hominivorax from bacteria volatiles as oviposition attractant/stimulant. PMID:26748982

  17. Molecular phylogeny of the forensically important genus Cochliomyia (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Yusseff-Vanegas, Sohath; Agnarsson, Ingi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cochliomyia Townsend includes several abundant and one of the most broadly distributed, blow flies in the Americas, and is of significant economic and forensic importance. For decades, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius) have received attention as livestock parasites and primary indicator species in forensic entomology. However, Cochliomyia minima Shannon and Cochliomyia aldrichi Del Ponte have only been subject to basic taxonomy and faunistic studies. Here we present the first complete phylogeny of Cochliomyia including numerous specimens per species, collected from 13 localities in the Caribbean. Four genes, the mitochondrial COI and the nuclear EF-1α, 28S rRNA, and ITS2, were analyzed. While we found some differences among gene trees, a concatenated gene matrix recovered a robustly supported monophyletic Cochliomyia with Compsomyiops Townsend as its sister group and recovered the monophyly of Cochliomyia hominivorax, Cochliomyia macellaria and Cochliomyia minima. Our results support a close relationship between Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi. However, we found Cochliomyia aldrichi containing Cochliomyia minima, indicating recent speciation, or issues with the taxonomy of the group. We provide basic information on habitat preference, distribution and feeding habits of Cochliomyia minima and Cochliomyia aldrichi that will be useful for future forensic studies in the Caribbean. PMID:27563274

  18. Phylogenetic radiation of the greenbottle flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Luciliinae)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kirstin A.; Lamb, Jennifer; Villet, Martin H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The subfamily Luciliinae is diverse and geographically widespread. Its four currently recognised genera (Dyscritomyia Grimshaw, 1901, Hemipyrellia Townsend, 1918, Hypopygiopsis Townsend 1916 and Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) contain species that range from saprophages to obligate parasites, but their pattern of phylogenetic diversification is unclear. The 28S rRNA, COI and Period genes of 14 species of Lucilia and Hemipyrellia were partially sequenced and analysed together with sequences of 11 further species from public databases. The molecular data confirmed molecular paraphyly in three species-pairs in Lucilia that hamper barcode identifications of those six species. Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina were confirmed as mutual sister species. The placements of Dyscritomyia and Hypopygiopsis were ambiguous, since both made Lucilia paraphyletic in some analyses. Recognising Hemipyrellia as a genus consistently left Lucilia s.l. paraphyletic, and the occasionally-recognised (sub)genus Phaenicia was consistently paraphyletic, so these taxa should be synonymised with Lucilia to maintain monophyly. Analysis of a matrix of 14 morphological characters scored for adults of all genera and for most of the species included in the molecular analysis confirmed several of these findings. The different degrees of parasitism were phylogenetically clustered within this genus but did not form a graded series of evolutionary stages, and there was no particular relationship between feeding habits and biogeography. Because of the ubiquity of hybridization, introgression and incomplete lineage sorting in blow flies, we recommend that using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers should be a procedural standard for medico-criminal forensic identifications of insects. PMID:27103874

  19. Phylogenetic radiation of the greenbottle flies (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Luciliinae).

    PubMed

    Williams, Kirstin A; Lamb, Jennifer; Villet, Martin H

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Luciliinae is diverse and geographically widespread. Its four currently recognised genera (Dyscritomyia Grimshaw, 1901, Hemipyrellia Townsend, 1918, Hypopygiopsis Townsend 1916 and Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830) contain species that range from saprophages to obligate parasites, but their pattern of phylogenetic diversification is unclear. The 28S rRNA, COI and Period genes of 14 species of Lucilia and Hemipyrellia were partially sequenced and analysed together with sequences of 11 further species from public databases. The molecular data confirmed molecular paraphyly in three species-pairs in Lucilia that hamper barcode identifications of those six species. Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina were confirmed as mutual sister species. The placements of Dyscritomyia and Hypopygiopsis were ambiguous, since both made Lucilia paraphyletic in some analyses. Recognising Hemipyrellia as a genus consistently left Lucilia s.l. paraphyletic, and the occasionally-recognised (sub)genus Phaenicia was consistently paraphyletic, so these taxa should be synonymised with Lucilia to maintain monophyly. Analysis of a matrix of 14 morphological characters scored for adults of all genera and for most of the species included in the molecular analysis confirmed several of these findings. The different degrees of parasitism were phylogenetically clustered within this genus but did not form a graded series of evolutionary stages, and there was no particular relationship between feeding habits and biogeography. Because of the ubiquity of hybridization, introgression and incomplete lineage sorting in blow flies, we recommend that using a combination of mitochondrial and nuclear markers should be a procedural standard for medico-criminal forensic identifications of insects. PMID:27103874

  20. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  1. Why is the molecular identification of the forensically important blowfly species Lucilia caesar and L. illustris (family Calliphoridae) so problematic?

    PubMed

    Sonet, Gontran; Jordaens, Kurt; Braet, Yves; Desmyter, Stijn

    2012-11-30

    Species of the fly genus Lucilia are commonly used in forensic investigations to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI). Two close-related species Lucilia caesar and L. illustris are difficult to identify. Previous studies showed that the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) marker could be used to identify many Lucilia species. However, mixed results were obtained for L. caesar and L. illustris due to some European specimens showing identical haplotypes. Here, we investigated 58 new European male specimens of L. illustris and L. caesar whose morphological identifications were checked and for which COI fragments were sequenced. In addition, two other mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit II and 16S) and two nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA) markers were obtained for a subset of these samples. For each marker, genetic divergence within each species was in the same range as between species, confirming the close relationship between both species. Moreover, for each of the gene fragments, both species shared at least one haplotype/genotype. Hence, none of the molecular markers tested could be used, alone or in combination, to discriminate between L. illustris and L. caesar. PMID:22964163

  2. Growth and survival of blowfly Lucilia sericata larvae under simulated wound conditions: implications for maggot debridement therapy.

    PubMed

    Čičková, H; Kozánek, M; Takáč, P

    2015-12-01

    Maggot debridement therapy has become a well-established method of wound debridement. Despite its success, little information is available about the optimum duration of the treatment cycle and larval growth in wounds. This study examines the development of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae under two containment conditions (bagged and free range) under simulated wound conditions and assesses the impact of transport and further storage of larvae on their survival and growth. There was no significant difference in size between bagged and free-range larvae over the 72-h experimental period. Larvae grew fastest 8-24 h after inoculation and completed their growth at 40-48 h. Mortality rates were similar (0.12-0.23% per hour) in both containment conditions and did not differ significantly (P = 0.3212). Survival of free-range larvae was on average 16% lower than survival of bagged larvae. Refrigeration of larvae upon simulated delivery for > 1 day reduced their survival to < 50% and caused a reduction in growth of up to 30% at 12 h, but not at 48 h, of incubation. Therefore, it is recommended that free-range larvae are left in the wound for a maximum of 40-48 h, and bagged larvae for 48-72 h. Larvae should be used within 24 h of delivery to avoid high mortality caused by prolonged refrigeration. PMID:26382290

  3. Histone deacetylase enzymes as drug targets for the control of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina.

    PubMed

    Kotze, Andrew C; Hines, Barney M; Bagnall, Neil H; Anstead, Clare A; Gupta, Praveer; Reid, Robert C; Ruffell, Angela P; Fairlie, David P

    2015-12-01

    The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is an ecto-parasite that causes significant economic losses in the sheep industry. Emerging resistance to insecticides used to protect sheep from this parasite is driving the search for new drugs that act via different mechanisms. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes essential for regulating eukaryotic gene transcription, are prospective new insecticides based on their capacity to kill human parasites. The blowfly genome was found here to contain five HDAC genes corresponding to human HDACs 1, 3, 4, 6 and 11. The catalytic domains of blowfly HDACs 1 and 3 have high sequence identity with corresponding human and other Dipteran insect HDACs (Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster). On the other hand, HDACs 4, 6 and 11 from the blowfly and the other Dipteran species showed up to 53% difference in catalytic domain amino acids from corresponding human sequences, suggesting the possibility of developing HDAC inhibitors specific for insects as desired for a commercial insecticide. Differences in transcription patterns for different blowfly HDACs through the life cycle, and between the sexes of adult flies, suggest different functions in regulating gene transcription within this organism and possibly different vulnerabilities. Data that supports HDACs as possible new insecticide targets is the finding that trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid retarded growth of early instar blowfly larvae in vitro, and reduced the pupation rate. Trichostatin A was 8-fold less potent than the commercial insecticide cyromazine in inhibiting larval growth. Our results support further development of inhibitors of blowfly HDACs with selectivity over human and other mammalian HDACs as a new class of prospective insecticides for sheep blowfly. PMID:27120067

  4. Histone deacetylase enzymes as drug targets for the control of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina

    PubMed Central

    Kotze, Andrew C.; Hines, Barney M.; Bagnall, Neil H.; Anstead, Clare A.; Gupta, Praveer; Reid, Robert C.; Ruffell, Angela P.; Fairlie, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, is an ecto-parasite that causes significant economic losses in the sheep industry. Emerging resistance to insecticides used to protect sheep from this parasite is driving the search for new drugs that act via different mechanisms. Inhibitors of histone deacetylases (HDACs), enzymes essential for regulating eukaryotic gene transcription, are prospective new insecticides based on their capacity to kill human parasites. The blowfly genome was found here to contain five HDAC genes corresponding to human HDACs 1, 3, 4, 6 and 11. The catalytic domains of blowfly HDACs 1 and 3 have high sequence identity with corresponding human and other Dipteran insect HDACs (Musca domestica and Drosophila melanogaster). On the other hand, HDACs 4, 6 and 11 from the blowfly and the other Dipteran species showed up to 53% difference in catalytic domain amino acids from corresponding human sequences, suggesting the possibility of developing HDAC inhibitors specific for insects as desired for a commercial insecticide. Differences in transcription patterns for different blowfly HDACs through the life cycle, and between the sexes of adult flies, suggest different functions in regulating gene transcription within this organism and possibly different vulnerabilities. Data that supports HDACs as possible new insecticide targets is the finding that trichostatin A and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid retarded growth of early instar blowfly larvae in vitro, and reduced the pupation rate. Trichostatin A was 8-fold less potent than the commercial insecticide cyromazine in inhibiting larval growth. Our results support further development of inhibitors of blowfly HDACs with selectivity over human and other mammalian HDACs as a new class of prospective insecticides for sheep blowfly. PMID:27120067

  5. Sensitivity of the Contact Chemoreceptors of the Blowfly to Vapors

    PubMed Central

    Dethier, V. G.

    1972-01-01

    Contact chemoreceptors on the mouthparts and legs of the blowfly Phormia regina that normally respond to aqueous solutions of sapid substances also respond to compounds in the gaseous state. Effective vapors include organic and inorganic acids and various unrelated nonpolar compounds. In general, the acids stimulate the salt receptor. Some nonpolar compounds stimulate the salt receptor while others inhibit it. Others stimulate the water, sugar, or “fifth” receptor. Differential action cannot be attributed to pH or solubility. Not all compounds that are irritating to mammalian mucous membranes or amphibian skin stimulate the contact chemoreceptors of the fly. Sensitivity to these vapors is a phenomenon analogous to the common chemical sense of vertebrates. Images PMID:16592005

  6. Patterns of oviposition and development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on burned rabbit carcasses.

    PubMed

    Mahat, N A; Zainol-Abidin, N L; Nordin, N H; Abdul-Wahab, R; Jayaprakash, P T

    2016-03-01

    Considering that crimes against animals such as illegal killing and cruelty have been alarmingly increasing and since burning is one of the common ways for disposing cadavers, ability to estimate minimum postmortem interval (PMI) using entomological data merits consideration. Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies are common necrophagous species recovered from cadavers in many countries including Malaysia. Specific studies focusing on the oviposition and developmental patterns of both species on cadavers manifesting different levels of burn as described by the Crow-Glassman Scale (CGS) remain scarce. In four replicates, rabbit carcasses were burned to CGS levels #1, #2 and #3 by varying the amount of petrol used and duration of burning. Oviposition by C. megacephala and C. rufifacies was delayed by one day in the case of carcasses burned to the CGS level #3 (p<0.05) when compared with that of controls. Such delay in oviposition was not observed in the CGS level #1 and #2 carcasses. No significant differences (p>0.05) in the duration of development were found between control and burned carcasses. These findings deserve consideration while estimating minimum PMI since burning as a mean for disposing animal and human cadavers is gaining popularity. PMID:26779962

  7. Control of the sheep blowfly in Australia and New Zealand--are we there yet?

    PubMed

    Sandeman, R M; Levot, G W; Heath, A C G; James, P J; Greeff, J C; Scott, M J; Batterham, P; Bowles, V M

    2014-10-15

    The last 50 years of research into infections in Australia and New Zealand caused by larvae of the sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, have significantly advanced our understanding of this blowfly and its primary host, the sheep. However, apart from some highly effective drugs it could be argued that no new control methodologies have resulted. This review addresses the major areas of sheep blowfly research over this period describing the significant outcomes and analyses, and what is still required to produce new commercial control technologies. The use of drugs against this fly species has been very successful but resistance has developed to almost all current compounds. Integrated pest management is becoming basic to control, especially in the absence of mulesing, and has clearly benefited from computer-aided technologies. Biological control has more challenges but natural and perhaps transformed biopesticides offer possibilities for the future. Experimental vaccines have been developed but require further analysis of antigens and formulations to boost protection. Genetic technologies may provide potential for long-term control through more rapid indirect selection of sheep less prone to flystrike. Finally in the future, genetic analysis of the fly may allow suppression and perhaps eradication of blowfly populations or identification of new and more viable targets for drug and vaccine intervention. Clearly all these areas of research offer potential new controls but commercial development is perhaps inhibited by the success of current chemical insecticides and certainly requires a significant additional injection of resources. PMID:25240442

  8. Some ultrastructural superficial changes in house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and blow fly (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae induced by eucalyptol oil.

    PubMed

    Sukontason, Kabkaew L; Sukontason, Kom; Boonchu, Noppawan; Piangjai, Somsak

    2004-01-01

    The ultrastructural superficial changes in third instar house fly (Musca domestica) and blow fly (Chrysomya megacephala) induced by eucalyptol oil were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Dipped in 0.902 g/ml eucalyptol for 30 sec, the larvae integument of both species showed significant aberrant appearance of the body surface, particularly swelling integument, bleb formation, partial breach and deformation of spines. PMID:15517029

  9. Spatial difference in pH in Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pericardial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilje, Osu; Lilje, Erna S.

    2007-02-01

    Lucilia cuprina pericardial cells are primarily involved in the filtration of hemolymph. Ratio images using fluorescent pH indicator, DM-Nerf, were collected using a confocal microscope. The results support suggestions that there is zonation of cellular activity that reflect organelle distribution. Statistical analysis of the excitation ratios indicate significant spatial differences in pH of the three major zones- cortex, vacuole zone and endoplasm in pericardial cells. The outer cortex was estimated to have a pH between 5.5 and 6.8, the vacuole zone between 4.5 and 5.5 and the endoplasm between 4.0 and 5.0.

  10. RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA MARKERS FOR DISCRIMINATING COCHLIOMYIA HOMINIVORAX FROM C. MACELLARIA (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Primary screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), is one of the most important pests of livestock in the Western Hemisphere. During early immature stages, it is morphologically similar to the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F.). to develop markers for each species, the random amp...

  11. Calf milk replacers as substitutes for milk in the larval diet of the screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Friese, D D

    1992-10-01

    The effect of calf milk replacers as substitutes for nonfat dry milk in the larval diet of the screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), was determined in the laboratory. Pupal weight and fecundity of females were significantly greater than the control with some of the formulations tested. Larval crawl-off patterns for all diets were similar. Pupal weights were significantly affected only on day 1 of the 4-d crawl-off period. Among the formulations of calf milk replacer, Gold Label brand products showed the most promise as substitutes for the nonfat dry milk presently used in the screwworm production facility. Use of calf milk replacers would lead to a yearly savings of 39.3% in the cost of the dietary milk component. At a production level of 250 million flies weekly, this substitution would save approximately $338,000 dollars yearly. PMID:1401483

  12. A fresh liver agar substrate for rearing small numbers of forensically important blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gruner, Susan V.; Slone, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Forensically important calliphorids can be reared on a mixture of beef liver and agar. Small pieces of meat, especially fresh or frozen beef liver, will desiccate in 2–6 h, but this simple-to-make feeding substrate remains moist for at least 12 h at 25 and 30°C without desiccation, even in small (5 g) amounts. We determined the survivorship of small numbers of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) (first-instar larvae to adult eclosion) raised on 5 g of liver agar and fresh beef liver. We found that all larvae raised on 5 g of liver died due to desiccation, but survivorship on 5 g of liver agar was equivalent to that on larger (50 g) pieces of either liver agar or beef liver.

  13. Histological patterns in healing chronic wounds using Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) larvae and other therapeutic measures.

    PubMed

    de Masiero, Franciéle Souza; Nassu, Mariana Prado; Soares, Mauro Pereira; Thyssen, Patricia Jacqueline

    2015-08-01

    The healing process occurs due to the interaction of cellular, molecular, and biochemical events. Regarding lesions difficult to heal, especially in immunocompromised patients, monitoring and intervention to promote healing is a constant focus of research. Another aggravating factor is the increase in the number of reported cases of microbial resistance, indicating that various dressings and drugs have been increasingly inefficient. Larval therapy (LT) involves the application of sterile fly larvae on chronic and/or infected wounds, and it is an area emerging as an alternative therapy. Before the 1940s, the LT was widely used, but fell into disuse after the appearance of antibiotics. High cost and the development of resistance by certain groups of pathogenic bacteria to these drugs encouraged the resurgence of LT, currently used in approximately 20 countries and more recently in Brazil. However, many mechanisms of action of the larvae in this system remain poorly understood. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate histopathological findings and to evaluate possible mechanisms of action of dipteran larvae during tissue repair. Lesions were induced in 24 male Wistar rats, to evaluate the effect of the type of treatment applied. The animals were divided into four groups: larval therapy (LT), LT associated with foam dressing with silver release (LTSIL), mechanical debridement and silver foam dressing (DEBSIL), and no treatment (CONT). Skin samples were collected for histopathological analysis. In LT, inflammatory response and angiogenesis were abundant; in LTSIL, inflammatory response with neutrophil infiltration was observed; in DEBSIL, scarce inflammatory response, small numbers of macrophages and lymphocytes, and bacterial colonization in depth; and in CONT, there was bacterial colonization in deeper tissues. The observed histological events show that the larvae had an important role in promoting the inflammatory response in the wound bed, drawing the essential immune cells for tissue reconstruction, and contributing to the inhibition of bacterial growth. However, more studies on the larval-host interactions are required for increasing the application of LT in the hospital routine. PMID:25903008

  14. Evaluation of waste artificial larval rearing media as oviposition attractant for New World screwworm (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The waste artificial larval rearing media of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) were evaluated to determine their effectiveness as oviposition attractants. Various concentrations of waste larval media resulting from rearing screwworm larvae in gel and cellulose fiber-based ...

  15. Spread and habitat selection of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Northern Italy: forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Lambiase, Simonetta; Camerini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Habitat selection exploited by Chrysomya albiceps during its initial spread in Northern Italy was analyzed in relation to landscape structure. The results of two short studies and a case report are here discussed. C. albiceps was not found on experimental pig carcasses in the urban area of Pavia. It was missing in the woody mountains surrounding Lecco, but it was found in the same area, at a lower altitude, within the typical "urban sprawl" landscape. It was then recorded in a natural reserve, among a rich carrion-fly population. Indications coming from habitat selection suggest that C. albiceps has not yet saturated its potential ecological niche in newly colonized areas of Northern Italy. Factors like temperature, altitude, and interspecific competition can act as limiting factors, affecting habitat selection and distribution in newly colonized areas; the influence of those factors has to be taken into account for forensic purposes. PMID:22211800

  16. Antennal sensilla of the green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Zhang, M; Li, K

    2013-11-01

    Lucilia sericata (Meigen) is a cosmopolitan synanthropic fly of forensic and medical importance, which can work as a mechanic vector of pathogens or cause myiasis of both human and sheep. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of adult L. sericata were examined with stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and laser scanning confocal microscope. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtirchiae and several bristles are detected, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar buttons, are also found on the antennal pedicel. Seven subtypes of antennal sensilla are observed on antennal funiculus including one subtype of trichoid sensilla, two subtypes of basiconic sensilla, two subtypes of coeloconic sensilla, and two subtypes of sensory pits. Size and density of the former four types of sensilla on antennal funiculus are measured. Three distinctive sensillar characters of L. sericata are detected, which may contribute to greater olfactory sensitivity of this species and their wide distribution throughout the world. Unlike the common poreless pedicellar button with mechanoreceptor function, every pedicellar button in L. sericata is perforated by three pores, which might indicate potential chemoreceptor function of this structure. Besides, another unique feature is greater number of setiferous plaques in genus Lucilia than calliphorids of other genera. Expect for the common sensory pits with basiconic or basiconic-like sensilla in them, sensory pits filled with rarely described coeloconic-like sensilla are founded in L. sericata as well. After comparison with previous equivalent findings, the functions of these specific structures are discussed according to the life history of this calliphorid. PMID:23955594

  17. Body Size, Rather Than Male Eye Allometry, Explains Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Activity in Low Light

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. L.; Palermo, N. A.; Theobald, J. C.; Wells, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Male Chrysomya megacephala (F.) blow fly compound eyes contain an unusual area of enlarged dorsal facets believed to allow for increased light capture. This region is absent in females and has been hypothesized to aid in mate tracking in low light conditions or at greater distances. Many traits used in the attraction and capture of mates are allometric, growing at different rates relative to body size. Previous reports concerning C. megacephala eye properties did not include measurements of body size, making the relationship between the specialized eye region and body size unclear. We examined different morphological features of the eye among individuals of varying sizes. We found total eye size scaled proportionately to body size, but the number of enlarged dorsal facets increased as body size increased. This demonstrated that larger males have an eye that is morphologically different than smaller males. On the basis of external morphology, we hypothesized that since larger males have larger and a greater number of dorsally enlarged facets, and these facets are believed to allow for increased light capture, larger males would be active in lower light levels than smaller males and females of equal size. In a laboratory setting, larger males were observed to become active earlier in the morning than smaller males, although they did not remain active later in the evening. However, females followed the same pattern at similar light levels suggesting that overall body size rather than specialized male eye morphology is responsible for increased activity under low light conditions. PMID:26411786

  18. Volatiles from waste larval rearing media attract gravid screwworm flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to oviposit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gravid screwworm flies, Cochliomyia hominivorax, are attracted to the volatiles from waste larval rearing media to deposit eggs. Studies were conducted to identify chemicals from the waste media volatiles and determine their effectiveness to attract gravid flies to oviposit. Volatiles were collected...

  19. Sterilization of Chrysomya putoria (Insecta: Diptera: Calliphoridae) eggs for use in biotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dallavecchia, Daniele Lourinho; da Silva Filho, Renato Geraldo; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale, quality-controlled laboratory production of fly larvae is needed for biotherapy. The objective of this study was to assess the action of glutaraldehyde on the sterilization of Chrysomya putoria eggs by applying pharmaceutical sterility tests. Egg masses with 0.600 g were divided into three parts of 0.200 g, the eggs were separated using sterile distilled water, and the suspensions obtained were mixed with activated 2% glutaraldehyde solution. After 15-min contact, the suspensions were filtered through Whatman filter paper, and the glutaraldehyde residue obtained in the filtrate was neutralized by rinsing with Tryptone Soy Broth. The treated eggs were placed aseptically on Petri dishes containing gauze moistened with sterile saline solution. About 10% of the sterilized mass was transferred to test tubes containing Tryptone Soy Broth and Fluid Thioglycollate Broth. The tubes were incubated, respectively, at 22.5 and 35.0°C for 14 d to verify egg mass sterility. The plates containing the rest of the eggs (90%) were sealed with plastic film and kept in a climatized chamber at 30°C/d, 28°C per night, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and under a 12-h light period to assess insect viability and survival. Each experiment was carried out in triplicate using a biological class II safety cabinet. No change in color or turgidity was observed with the agent tested, proving the sterility of the product and that there was no trace of contamination. Forty larvae (in three replications) in the periods of 12, 24, and 48 h after sterilization, when transferred to diet, produced larvae, pupae, and total viability similar to the control (larvae without sterilization). However, for the 72-h treatment, larvae and total viability were significantly lower than for the other treatments. There was no significant difference for the pupal stage. The product tested was shown to be efficacious for use as a sterilizer of C. putoria eggs for all the parameters assessed. PMID:25399429

  20. Diet pH, and viscosity affect development and survival of screwworm larvae (Diptera:Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dietary pH and viscosity on larval development of the new world screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel), were studied in the laboratory using standard rearing procedures for screwworms. The effects of pH were studied in two different screwworm diets – a gelled-based and a cellu...

  1. Flies (Diptera: Muscidae, Calliphoridae) are efficient pollinators of Allium ampeloprasum L. (Alliaceae) in field cages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In conjunction with efforts to identify efficient insect pollinators for seed multiplication of cross-pollinated plant species stored and maintained by USDA, ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS), experiments were conducted to assess and compare the efficiency of the house fly (HF)...

  2. A database of expressed genes from the new world screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an expressed sequence tag and 454 pyrosequencing approach to initiate a study of the genome of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel). Two normalized cDNA libraries were constructed from RNA isolated from embryos and 2nd instar larvae from the Panama 95 strain. Approxima...

  3. Existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solution for Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongkun; Li, Bing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we first give a new definition of almost periodic time scales, two new definitions of almost periodic functions on time scales and investigate some basic properties of them. Then, as an application, by using a fixed point theorem in Banach space and the time scale calculus theory, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the existence and exponential stability of positive almost periodic solutions for a class of Nicholson's blowflies models on time scales. Finally, we present an illustrative example to show the effectiveness of obtained results. Our results show that under a simple condition the continuous-time Nicholson's blowflies model and its discrete-time analogue have the same dynamical behaviors. PMID:27468397

  4. Effect of bait decomposition on the attractiveness to species of Diptera of veterinary and forensic importance in a rainforest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego L; Soares, Thiago F; Vasconcelos, Simão D

    2016-01-01

    Insects associated with carrion can have parasitological importance as vectors of several pathogens and causal agents of myiasis to men and to domestic and wild animals. We tested the attractiveness of animal baits (chicken liver) at different stages of decomposition to necrophagous species of Diptera (Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Sarcophagidae) in a rainforest fragment in Brazil. Five types of bait were used: fresh and decomposed at room temperature (26 °C) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. A positive correlation was detected between the time of decomposition and the abundance of Calliphoridae and Muscidae, whilst the abundance of adults of Phoridae decreased with the time of decomposition. Ten species of calliphorids were registered, of which Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala and Chloroprocta idioidea showed a positive significant correlation between abundance and decomposition. Specimens of Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae did not discriminate between fresh and highly decomposed baits. A strong female bias was registered for all species of Calliphoridae irrespective of the type of bait. The results reinforce the feasibility of using animal tissues as attractants to a wide diversity of dipterans of medical, parasitological and forensic importance in short-term surveys, especially using baits at intermediate stages of decomposition. PMID:26547564

  5. The Community of Hymenoptera Parasitizing Necrophagous Diptera in an Urban Biotope

    PubMed Central

    Frederickx, Christine; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François J.; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Most reports published in the field of forensic entomology are focused on Diptera and neglect the Hymenoptera community. However, Hymenoptera are part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. The use of Hymenoptera parasitoids in forensic entomology can be relevant to evaluate the time of death. Hymenoptera parasitoids of the larvae and pupae of flies may play an important role in the estimation of the post-mortem period because their time of attack is often restricted to a small, well-defined window of time in the development of the host insect. However, these parasitoids can interfere with the developmental times of colonizing Diptera, and therefore a better understanding of their ecology is needed. The work reported here monitored the presence of adult Hymenoptera parasitoids on decaying pig carcasses in an urban biotope during the summer season (from May to September). Six families and six species of parasitoids were recorded in the field: Aspilota fuscicornis Haliday (Braconidae), Alysia manducator Panzer, Nasonia vitripennis Walker (Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Encyrtidae), Trichopria sp. (Diapriidae), and Figites sp. (Figitidae). In the laboratory, five species emerged from pupae collected in the field: Trichopria sp., Figites sp., A. manducator, N. vitripennis, and T. zealandicus. These five species colonize a broad spectrum of Diptera hosts, including those species associated with decomposing carcasses, namely those from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Sarcophagidae. PMID:23895458

  6. Development and evaluation of male-only strains of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) is a major pest of sheep in Australia and New Zealand. From the 1960s to the 1980s there was a major effort to develop "field female killing" or FFK strains of L. cuprina that could be used for a cost-effective genetic control program. The FFK strains carried eye color mutations that were lethal to females in the field but not under conditions in the mass rearing facility. Males did not die in the field as normal copies of the eye color genes had been translocated to the Y chromosome and an autosome. Although the FFK strains showed some promise in field tests, a genetic control program in mainland Australia was never implemented for several reasons including instability of the FFK strains during mass rearing. A stable transgenic strain of L. cuprina that carried one or more dominant repressible female lethal genes offered the potential for efficient genetic control of blowfly populations. Here I review our research on tetracycline-repressible female lethal genetic systems, Lucilia germ-line transformation and sex determination genes that ultimately led to the successful development of transgenic "male-only" strains of L. cuprina. The technology developed for L. cuprina should be directly transferable to other blowfly livestock pests including L. sericata and the New World and Old World screwworm. 29 PMID:25472415

  7. Dosage Compensation of X-Linked Muller Element F Genes but Not X-Linked Transgenes in the Australian Sheep Blowfly

    PubMed Central

    Linger, Rebecca J.; Belikoff, Esther J.; Scott, Maxwell J.

    2015-01-01

    In most animals that have X and Y sex chromosomes, chromosome-wide mechanisms are used to balance X-linked gene expression in males and females. In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage compensation mechanism also generally extends to X-linked transgenes. Over 70 transgenic lines of the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina have been made as part of an effort to develop male-only strains for a genetic control program of this major pest of sheep. All lines carry a constitutively expressed fluorescent protein marker gene. In all 12 X-linked lines, female larvae show brighter fluorescence than male larvae, suggesting the marker gene is not dosage compensated. This has been confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for selected lines. To determine if endogenous X-linked genes are dosage compensated, we isolated 8 genes that are orthologs of genes that are on the fourth chromosome in D. melanogaster. Recent evidence suggests that the D. melanogaster fourth chromosome, or Muller element F, is the ancestral X chromosome in Diptera that has reverted to an autosome in Drosophila species. We show by quantitative PCR of male and female DNA that 6 of the 8 linkage group F genes reside on the X chromosome in L. cuprina. The other two Muller element F genes were found to be autosomal in L. cuprina, whereas two Muller element B genes were found on the same region of the X chromosome as the L. cuprina orthologs of the D. melanogaster Ephrin and gawky genes. We find that the L. cuprina X chromosome genes are equally expressed in males and females (i.e., fully dosage compensated). Thus, unlike in Drosophila, it appears that the Lucilia dosage compensation system is specific for genes endogenous to the X chromosome and cannot be co-opted by recently arrived transgenes. PMID:26506426

  8. Dosage Compensation of X-Linked Muller Element F Genes but Not X-Linked Transgenes in the Australian Sheep Blowfly.

    PubMed

    Linger, Rebecca J; Belikoff, Esther J; Scott, Maxwell J

    2015-01-01

    In most animals that have X and Y sex chromosomes, chromosome-wide mechanisms are used to balance X-linked gene expression in males and females. In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage compensation mechanism also generally extends to X-linked transgenes. Over 70 transgenic lines of the Australian sheep blowfly Lucilia cuprina have been made as part of an effort to develop male-only strains for a genetic control program of this major pest of sheep. All lines carry a constitutively expressed fluorescent protein marker gene. In all 12 X-linked lines, female larvae show brighter fluorescence than male larvae, suggesting the marker gene is not dosage compensated. This has been confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for selected lines. To determine if endogenous X-linked genes are dosage compensated, we isolated 8 genes that are orthologs of genes that are on the fourth chromosome in D. melanogaster. Recent evidence suggests that the D. melanogaster fourth chromosome, or Muller element F, is the ancestral X chromosome in Diptera that has reverted to an autosome in Drosophila species. We show by quantitative PCR of male and female DNA that 6 of the 8 linkage group F genes reside on the X chromosome in L. cuprina. The other two Muller element F genes were found to be autosomal in L. cuprina, whereas two Muller element B genes were found on the same region of the X chromosome as the L. cuprina orthologs of the D. melanogaster Ephrin and gawky genes. We find that the L. cuprina X chromosome genes are equally expressed in males and females (i.e., fully dosage compensated). Thus, unlike in Drosophila, it appears that the Lucilia dosage compensation system is specific for genes endogenous to the X chromosome and cannot be co-opted by recently arrived transgenes. PMID:26506426

  9. Sex-biased Patterns of Saprophagous Calyptratae (Diptera) Collected With Different Baits of Animal Origin.

    PubMed

    Mulieri, P R; Patitucci, L D; Olea, M S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the response behavior of males and females of different families of Calyptratae (Diptera) to two different baits (rotten liver and feces) as separate attractants. We describe the sex bias toward these baits for species of Calliphoridae, Muscidae, and Sarcophagidae and compare the general patterns of this sex bias according to the family or trophic guild. In total, 15 species of Sarcophagidae, 10 species of Muscidae, and 9 species of Calliphoridae were analyzed. A female-biased pattern was observed for most calliphorids and for all muscids, whereas a male-biased pattern was more frequent among sarcophagids. The female captures on each kind of bait were assessed as a potential indicator of potential breeding substrates of the species. Three different trophic guilds and their pattern of sex bias were compared. The results obtained allow hypothesizing on the biological traits of saprophagous species, especially on their potential breeding substrates, and assessing proper sampling methods. PMID:26334812

  10. The type specimens of Calyptratae (Diptera) housed in non-traditional institutions in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Domínguez, M Cecilia; Mariluis, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The type material of species of Calyptratae Diptera belonging to Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae, housed in the collections of non-traditional institutions in Argentina were examined. These collections were included in the recently created "Sistema Nacional de Datos Biológicos" (National Biological Data System). We examined four collections: "Administración Nacional de Laboratorios e Institutos de Salud 'Dr. Carlos G. Malbrán'" (ANLIS), "Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Castelar, Buenos Aires" (INTA), "Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de las Zonas Áridas" (IADIZA); and "Fundación Félix de Azara" (CFA). Comparison of the original descriptions of these species with the label information revealed the existence of 24 holotypes, 5 lectotypes, 11 syntypes, and 441 paratypes/paralectotypes. Complete information is given for each type, including reference to the original description, label data, and preservation condition.  PMID:25661231

  11. A review of postfeeding larval dispersal in blowflies: implications for forensic entomology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Leonardo; Godoy, Wesley Augusto Conde; von Zuben, Claudio José

    2006-05-01

    Immature and adult stages of blowflies are one of the primary invertebrate consumers of decomposing animal organic matter. When the food supply is consumed or when the larvae complete their development and migrate prior to the total removal of the larval substrate, they disperse to find adequate places for pupation, a process known as postfeeding larval dispersal. Several important ecological and physiological aspects of this process were studied since the work by Green (Ann Appl Biol 38:475, 1951) 50 years ago. An understanding of postfeeding larval dispersal can be useful for determining the postmortem interval (PMI) of human cadavers in legal medicine, particularly because this interval may be underestimated if older dispersing larvae or those that disperse longer, faster, and deeper are not taken into account. In this article, we review the process of postfeeding larval dispersal and its implications for legal medicine, in particular showing that aspects such as burial behavior and competition among species of blowflies can influence this process and consequently, the estimation of PMI.

  12. Phylogenetic inference of calyptrates, with the first mitogenomes for Gasterophilinae (Diptera: Oestridae) and Paramacronychiinae (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dong; Yan, Liping; Zhang, Ming; Chu, Hongjun; Cao, Jie; Li, Kai; Hu, Defu; Pape, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitogenome of the horse stomach bot fly Gasterophilus pecorum (Fabricius) and a near-complete mitogenome of Wohlfahrt's wound myiasis fly Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner) were sequenced. The mitogenomes contain the typical 37 mitogenes found in metazoans, organized in the same order and orientation as in other cyclorrhaphan Diptera. Phylogenetic analyses of mitogenomes from 38 calyptrate taxa with and without two non-calyptrate outgroups were performed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood. Three sub-analyses were performed on the concatenated data: (1) not partitioned; (2) partitioned by gene; (3) 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes omitted. We estimated the contribution of each of the mitochondrial genes for phylogenetic analysis, as well as the effect of some popular methodologies on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction. In the favoured trees, the Oestroidea are nested within the muscoid grade. Relationships at the family level within Oestroidea are (remaining Calliphoridae (Sarcophagidae (Oestridae, Pollenia + Tachinidae))). Our mito-phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calyptratae presents the most extensive taxon coverage so far, and the risk of long-branch attraction is reduced by an appropriate selection of outgroups. We find that in the Calyptratae the ND2, ND5, ND1, COIII, and COI genes are more phylogenetically informative compared with other mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Our study provides evidence that data partitioning and the inclusion of conserved tRNA genes have little influence on calyptrate phylogeny reconstruction, and that the 3rd codon positions of protein-coding genes are not saturated and therefore should be included. PMID:27019632

  13. Characterization of microsatellite loci in Phormia regina towards expanding molecular applications in forensic entomology.

    PubMed

    Farncombe, K M; Beresford, D; Kyle, C J

    2014-07-01

    Forensic entomology involves the use of insects and arthropods to assist a spectrum of medico-criminal investigations that range from identifying cases of abuse, corpse movements, and most commonly, post mortem interval estimates. Many of these applications focus on the use of blowflies given their predicable life history characteristics in their larval stages. Molecular tools have become increasingly important in the unambiguous identification of larval blowfly species, however, these same tools have the potential to broaden the array of molecular applications in forensic entomology to include individual identifications and population assignments. Herein, we establish a microsatellite profiling system for the blowfly, Phormiaregina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). The goal being to create a system to identify the population genetic structure of this species and subsequently establish if these data are amenable to identifying corpse movements based on the geographic distribution of specific genetic clusters of blowflies. Using next generation sequencing technology, we screened a partial genomic DNA sequence library of P.regina, searching for di-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide microsatellite loci. We identified and developed primers for 84 highly repetitive segments of DNA, of which 14 revealed consistent genotypes and reasonable levels of genetic variation (4-26 alleles/locus; heterozygosity ranged from 0.385 to 0.909). This study provides the first step in assessing the utility of microsatellite markers to track the movements and sources of corpses via blowflies. PMID:24815994

  14. Suppression of the blowfly Lucilia sericata using odour-baited triflumuron-impregnated targets.

    PubMed

    Smith, K E; Wall, R

    1998-10-01

    Field trials were carried out in 1995 and 1996 on farms in the south-west of England to assess the extent to which odour-baited targets could be used to suppress populations of the ectoparasitic blowfly, Lucilia sericata, in sheep pastures. Targets were constructed from 41 x 41 cm squares of aluminium sheet, covered by white cloth which had been dipped in a mixture of sucrose solution (50% w/v) and the chitin synthesis inhibitor triflumuron (10% suspension concentrate). Each target was baited with approximately 300 g of liver and sodium sulphide solution (10%). Three matched sheep farms were used in the trials. In 1995, triflumuron-impregnated targets were placed around the periphery of sheep pastures at one of the farms in late June, at approximately one target per hectare. In 1996, triflumuron-impregnated targets were placed around the periphery of sheep pastures of a second of the farms in early May, at approximately five targets per hectare. Each year, five sticky targets, used to monitor the L. sericata populations, were also placed in fields at the experimental and the other two farms, which acted as controls. In 1995, the results provided some, although inconclusive, evidence that the triflumuron-impregnated targets had reduced the numbers of L. sericata relative to the populations on the two control farms. In 1996, however, the density of L. sericata on the experimental farm was reduced to almost zero and remained significantly lower than on two control farms throughout the period during which the triflumuron-impregnated targets remained in the field. The results are discussed in relation to the use of triflumuron-treated targets as a practical means of controlling L. sericata and sheep blowfly strike. PMID:9824828

  15. Airflow elicits a spider's jump towards airborne prey. I. Airflow around a flying blowfly

    PubMed Central

    Klopsch, Christian; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C.; Barth, Friedrich G.

    2012-01-01

    The hunting spider Cupiennius salei uses airflow generated by flying insects for the guidance of its prey-capture jump. We investigated the velocity field of the airflow generated by a freely flying blowfly close to the flow sensors on the spider's legs. It shows three characteristic phases (I–III). (I) When approaching, the blowfly induces an airflow signal near the spider with only little fluctuation (0.013 ± 0.006 m s−1) and a strength that increases nearly exponentially with time (maximum: 0.164 ± 0.051 m s−1 s.d.). The spider detects this flow while the fly is still 38.4 ± 5.6 mm away. The fluctuation of the airflow above the sensors increases linearly up to 0.037 m s−1 with the fly's altitude. Differences in the time of arrival and intensity of the fly signal at different legs probably inform the spider about the direction to the prey. (II) Phase II abruptly follows phase I with a much higher degree of fluctuation (fluctuation amplitudes: 0.114 ± 0.050 m s−1). It starts when the fly is directly above the sensor and corresponds to the time-dependent flow in the wake below and behind the fly. Its onset indicates to the spider that its prey is now within reach and triggers its jump. The spider derives information on the fly's position from the airflow characteristics, enabling it to properly time its jump. The horizontal velocity of the approaching fly is reflected by the time of arrival differences (ranging from 0.038 to 0.108 s) of the flow at different legs and the exponential velocity growth rate (16–79 s−1) during phase I. (III) The air flow velocity decays again after the fly has passed the spider. PMID:22572032

  16. Airflow elicits a spider's jump towards airborne prey. I. Airflow around a flying blowfly.

    PubMed

    Klopsch, Christian; Kuhlmann, Hendrik C; Barth, Friedrich G

    2012-10-01

    The hunting spider Cupiennius salei uses airflow generated by flying insects for the guidance of its prey-capture jump. We investigated the velocity field of the airflow generated by a freely flying blowfly close to the flow sensors on the spider's legs. It shows three characteristic phases (I-III). (I) When approaching, the blowfly induces an airflow signal near the spider with only little fluctuation (0.013 ± 0.006 m s(-1)) and a strength that increases nearly exponentially with time (maximum: 0.164 ± 0.051 m s(-1) s.d.). The spider detects this flow while the fly is still 38.4 ± 5.6 mm away. The fluctuation of the airflow above the sensors increases linearly up to 0.037 m s(-1) with the fly's altitude. Differences in the time of arrival and intensity of the fly signal at different legs probably inform the spider about the direction to the prey. (II) Phase II abruptly follows phase I with a much higher degree of fluctuation (fluctuation amplitudes: 0.114 ± 0.050 m s(-1)). It starts when the fly is directly above the sensor and corresponds to the time-dependent flow in the wake below and behind the fly. Its onset indicates to the spider that its prey is now within reach and triggers its jump. The spider derives information on the fly's position from the airflow characteristics, enabling it to properly time its jump. The horizontal velocity of the approaching fly is reflected by the time of arrival differences (ranging from 0.038 to 0.108 s) of the flow at different legs and the exponential velocity growth rate (16-79 s(-1)) during phase I. (III) The air flow velocity decays again after the fly has passed the spider. PMID:22572032

  17. Reading Mammal Diversity from Flies: The Persistence Period of Amplifiable Mammal mtDNA in Blowfly Guts (Chrysomya megacephala) and a New DNA Mini-Barcode Target

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Sing, Kong-Wah; Wilson, John-James

    2015-01-01

    Most tropical mammal species are threatened or data-deficient. Data collection is impeded by the traditional monitoring approaches which can be laborious, expensive and struggle to detect cryptic diversity. Monitoring approaches using mammal DNA derived from invertebrates are emerging as cost- and time-effective alternatives. As a step towards development of blowfly-derived DNA as an effective method for mammal monitoring in the biodiversity hotspot of Peninsular Malaysia, our objectives were (i) to determine the persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts through a laboratory feeding experiment (ii) to design and test primers that can selectively amplify mammal COI DNA mini-barcodes in the presence of high concentrations of blowfly DNA. The persistence period of amplifiable mammal mtDNA in blowfly guts was 24 h to 96 h post-feeding indicating the need for collecting flies within 24 h of capture to detect mammal mtDNA of sufficient quantity and quality. We designed a new primer combination for a COI DNA mini-barcode that did not amplify blowfly DNA and showed 89% amplification success for a dataset of mammals from Peninsular Malaysia. The short (205 bp) DNA mini-barcode could distinguish most mammal species (including separating dark taxa) and is of suitable length for high-throughput sequencing. Our new DNA mini-barcode target and a standardized trapping protocol with retrieval of blowflies every 24 h could point the way forward in the development of blowfly-derived DNA as an effective method for mammal monitoring. PMID:25898278

  18. Fauna europaea: Diptera - brachycera.

    PubMed

    Pape, Thomas; Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I; Ozerov, Andrey L; Woźnica, Andrzej J; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C D; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L; Chandler, Peter J; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N; Mathis, Wayne N; Hubenov, Zdravko; de Jong, Yde

    2015-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera-Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera-Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger number of small

  19. Preliminary data on pupal development, lifespan and fertility of Cynomya mortuorum (L., 1761) in Belgium (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Braet, Yves; Vanpoucke, Sofie; Drome, Valérie; Hubrecht, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The calliphorid Cynomya mortuorum (L., 1761) is a species of forensic interest, present mainly in the Palaearctic Region. Nearly nothing is known about its life history. New information We provide here the first data regarding pupal weight evolution during the pupal stage, female fertility and life expectancy of the species. At 22°C under a variable regime of temperatures, the egg-to-adult development time was an average of 18.05 ± 0.72 and 18.47 ± 0.67 days for females and males, respectively, in the control group. The pupal stage represented 56.7% of the total development. The development time from egg to adult and the duration of the pupal stage were significantly longer for males than for females. The measurement of pupal weight at the start of the pupal period revealed that female pupae were significantly lighter than male pupae by nearly 20%. This difference between the sexes was also observed for the dry weight of adults. An average decrease of 8.75% was observed throughout the first 8 days of the pupal stage, after which most adults started to emerge. The tested females produced an average of 176.13 ± 66.62 eggs throughout the egg-laying period. The average lifespan after emergence was 12.10 ± 4.09 days for females and 12.60 ± 2.95 days for males, with a median of 12.50 days for both sexes. PMID:26312051

  20. Meat Feeding Restricts Rapid Cold Hardening Response and Increases Thermal Activity Thresholds of Adult Blow Flies, Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Virtually all temperate insects survive the winter by entering a physiological state of reduced metabolic activity termed diapause. However, there is increasing evidence that climate change is disrupting the diapause response resulting in non-diapause life stages encountering periods of winter cold. This is a significant problem for adult life stages in particular, as they must remain mobile, periodically feed, and potentially initiate reproductive development at a time when resources should be diverted to enhance stress tolerance. Here we present the first evidence of protein/meat feeding restricting rapid cold hardening (RCH) ability and increasing low temperature activity thresholds. No RCH response was noted in adult female blow flies (Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy) fed a sugar, water and liver (SWL) diet, while a strong RCH response was seen in females fed a diet of sugar and water (SW) only. The RCH response in SW flies was induced at temperatures as high as 10°C, but was strongest following 3h at 0°C. The CTmin (loss of coordinated movement) and chill coma (final appendage twitch) temperature of SWL females (-0.3 ± 0.5°C and -4.9 ± 0.5°C, respectively) was significantly higher than for SW females (-3.2 ± 0.8°C and -8.5 ± 0.6°C). We confirmed this was not directly the result of altered extracellular K+, as activity thresholds of alanine-fed adults were not significantly different from SW flies. Instead we suggest the loss of cold tolerance is more likely the result of diverting resource allocation to egg development. Between 2009 and 2013 winter air temperatures in Birmingham, UK, fell below the CTmin of SW and SWL flies on 63 and 195 days, respectively, suggesting differential exposure to chill injury depending on whether adults had access to meat or not. We conclude that disruption of diapause could significantly impact on winter survival through loss of synchrony in the timing of active feeding and reproductive development with favourable temperature conditions. PMID:26196923

  1. DNA barcoding and the differentiation between North American and West European Phormia regina (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Chrysomyinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Braet, Yves; De Meyer, Marc; Backeljau, Thierry; Goovaerts, Frankie; Bourguignon, Luc; Desmyter, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Phormia regina (the black fly) is a common Holarctic blow fly species which serves as a primary indicator taxon to estimate minimal post mortem intervals. It is also a major research model in physiological and neurological studies on insect feeding. Previous studies have shown a sequence divergence of up to 4.3% in the mitochondrial COI gene between W European and N American P. regina populations. Here, we DNA barcoded P. regina specimens from six N American and 17 W European populations and confirmed a mean sequence divergence of ca. 4% between the populations of the two continents, while sequence divergence within each continent was a ten-fold lower. Comparable mean mtDNA sequence divergences were observed for COII (3.7%) and cyt b (5.3%), but mean divergence was lower for 16S (0.4–0.6%). Intercontinental divergence at nuclear DNA was very low (≤ 0.1% for both 28S and ITS2), and we did not detect any morphological differentiation between N American and W European specimens. Therefore, we consider the strong differentiation at COI, COII and cyt b as intraspecific mtDNA sequence divergence that should be taken into account when using P. regina in forensic casework or experimental research. PMID:24453556

  2. DNA barcoding and the differentiation between North American and West European Phormia regina (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Chrysomyinae).

    PubMed

    Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Braet, Yves; De Meyer, Marc; Backeljau, Thierry; Goovaerts, Frankie; Bourguignon, Luc; Desmyter, Stijn

    2013-12-30

    Phormia regina (the black fly) is a common Holarctic blow fly species which serves as a primary indicator taxon to estimate minimal post mortem intervals. It is also a major research model in physiological and neurological studies on insect feeding. Previous studies have shown a sequence divergence of up to 4.3% in the mitochondrial COI gene between W European and N American P. regina populations. Here, we DNA barcoded P. regina specimens from six N American and 17 W European populations and confirmed a mean sequence divergence of ca. 4% between the populations of the two continents, while sequence divergence within each continent was a ten-fold lower. Comparable mean mtDNA sequence divergences were observed for COII (3.7%) and cyt b (5.3%), but mean divergence was lower for 16S (0.4-0.6%). Intercontinental divergence at nuclear DNA was very low (≤ 0.1% for both 28S and ITS2), and we did not detect any morphological differentiation between N American and W European specimens. Therefore, we consider the strong differentiation at COI, COII and cyt b as intraspecific mtDNA sequence divergence that should be taken into account when using P. regina in forensic casework or experimental research. PMID:24453556

  3. The effect of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on the size and weight of mangos (Mangifera indica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Naqqash, Muhammad Nadir; Saeed, Qamar; Ghouri, Fozia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pollination has a great effect on the yield of fruit trees. Blow flies are considered as an effective pollinator compared to hand pollination in fruit orchards. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of different pollination methods in mango orchards. Methodology: The impact of pollination on quantity and quality of mango yield by blow flies was estimated by using three treatments, i.e., open pollinated trees, trees were covered by a net in the presence of blow flies for pollination, and trees were covered with a net but without insects. Results: The maximum number of flowers was recorded in irregular types of inflorescence, i.e., 434.80 flowers/inflorescence. Fruit setting (bud) was higher in open pollinated mango trees (i.e. 37.00/inflorescence) than enclosed pollination by blow flies (i.e. 22.34/inflorescence). The size of the mango fruit was the highest (5.06 mm) in open pollinated tree than those pollinated by blow flies (3.93 mm) and followed by without any pollinator (3.18 mm) at marble stage. We found that the maximum weight of mango fruit (201.19 g) was in open pollinated trees. Discussion: The results demonstrated that blow flies can be used as effective mango pollinators along with other flies and bees. The blow flies have shown a positive impact on the quality and quantity of mango. This study will be helpful in future and also applicable at farm level to use blow flies as pollinators that are cheap and easy to rear. PMID:27441107

  4. The effect of starvation on the larval behavior of two forensically important species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Singh, Devinder; Bala, Madhu

    2009-12-15

    The postfeeding larval stage in blow flies is generally an irreversible condition when the fully grown third instar larvae stop feeding and give no response towards food. The larvae of most species then disperse away from their feeding medium and pupariate. There are several cases reported about the use of postfeeding larvae as forensic evidence. It is a matter of common observation that the postfeeding stage can be reached earlier than the expected time if food becomes unavailable. However, no information is available on whether postfeeding stage induced by scarcity of food is also irreversible. Similarly, the minimum period of development required by the larvae of different blow flies species to enable their survival as postfeeding larvae and pupariation in the absence of food is unknown. It was observed during the present studies that the larvae of two Chrysomya species must feed for at least 35 h at 28 degrees C in order to be capable of reaching the postfeeding stage and subsequent pupariation. Duration of the starvation period required to induce postfeeding behavior decreases with increasing age of larvae. In the case of Chrysomya megacephala, 35, 45, 55 and 65 h old larvae attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 30, 20, 12 and 2 h of starvation, respectively. Similarly, larvae of Chrysomya rufifacies that were 35, 45, 55 and 60 h old attained irreversible postfeeding stage after 25, 16, 6 and 2 h of starvation, respectively. PMID:19892500

  5. Seasonal and spatial distributions of adult screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the Panama Canal area, Republic of Panama.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) was studied in a seasonally moist lowland tropical forest in the Republic of Panama using a combination of field collections and satellite imagery. We found that different forest types could be distinguished and mapped using remotely sensed data. To determine the temporal and spatial distribution of flies, we collected flies coming to rotted liver at 82 sites in ten vegetation types (open areas, edge forest, dry scrub forest, forest successional stage 1, forest successional stage 2, forest successional stage 3, forest successional stage 4, forest successional stage 5, mature forests, palm swamp forest, and forest along streams) over three seasons (dry, transitional, wet). Nine of the vegetation types (excluding dry scrub forest) were identified and mapped using SPOT XS and Landsat 5 TM satellite data. Screwworm flies were most abundant during the transition from wet to dry season. Fly numbers were consistently higher in forest habitats, particularly those with trees 20-30 m in height and a fairly open canopy composed of many deciduous species that shed their leaves during the dry season. Screwworm numbers were also high in palm swamp forest, edge forest, and mature growth forest. Traps sampled in open areas had fewer flies and were unrelated to proximity to cattle. Females accounted for 88% of the total fly counts. This study further substantiates the importance of forests in the ecology and behavior of screwworm flies and demonstrates that remotely sensed data can be used to construct the spatial distribution of these flies in a tropical landscape. We discuss implications of this information to the screwworm eradication program. PMID:14989355

  6. Record of the First Cases of Human Myiasis by Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Wellington Thadeu de Alcantara; Figueiredo, Adriana Leal de; Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira de; Lemos, Gustavo Abrantes; Silva, Pôla Francine Cassiano Morais; Miranda, Taís Auricchio de; Lessa, Cláudia Soares Santos; Aguiar, Valéria Magalhães

    2015-11-01

    Myiasis is a disease caused by an infestation of the tissues of vertebrates by developing fly larvae. We document the first cases of human myiasis by Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann, 1830) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, analyzed the epidemiological and clinical profiles of the patients, and their risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease. Between May 2008 to July 2013, six cases of myiasis caused by larvae of L. cuprina were reported in patients treated in the Federal Hospital of Andaraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The six patients ranged between 13 and 72 yr old, belonged to various ethnic groups, and both sexes were represented. The affected individuals were relatively uneducated, had low income and poor hygiene habits. Infections were more common in the legs. The following factors were found to predispose individuals to myiasis: trauma, pediculosis, erysipelas, skin infections, and wounds resulting from congestive heart failure. Myiasis by L. cuprina occurred predominantly in the summer when there is abundant rainfall. PMID:26336269

  7. Distribution and Abundance of Necrophagous Flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) in Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira de Sousa, José Roberto; Carvalho-Filho, Fernando da Silva; Esposito, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at surveying the local calliphorid and sarcophagid species in Maranhão State (Brazil) to determine their distribution and abundance, as well as the distribution of exotic Chrysomya species. In total, 18,128 calliphorid specimens were collected, distributed in 7 genera and 14 species. The species Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Rondani, 1850) and Paralucilia paraensis (Mello, 1969) were new state records. Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann, 1819) and Cochliomyia macellaria (F., 1775) were the most abundant species, and the exotic species of Chrysomya together contributed more than 50% of total blow fly abundance. The abundance distribution of the calliphorid community conformed to a log series model, characterized by a steep curve that reflects an assemblage with a high degree of dominance. For the Sarcophagidae, a total of 14,810 specimens were collected and distributed in 15 genera, 11 subgenera, and 52 species. Tricharaea (Sarcophagula) occidua (F., 1794) and Peckia (Sarcodexia) lambens (Wiedemann, 1830) were the most abundant species. The abundance distribution of the species followed a log normal model, with a gentler slope, consistent with a more uniform community. The cumulative species curve for the sarcophagids did not reach the asymptote. Forty-three sarcophagid species were new state records and 22 were new records for the Brazilian northeast, which emphasizes the need for a continued survey in this region. PMID:26078304

  8. Estimating the age of Calliphora vicina eggs (Diptera: Calliphoridae): determination of embryonic morphological landmarks and preservation of egg samples.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Hall, Martin J R

    2016-05-01

    Blow fly eggs may sometimes be the only entomological evidence recovered in a forensic case, especially in cooler weather when hatching might take several days: hence, a method for estimating their age is greatly needed. However, developmental data on blow fly eggs are mainly limited to records of the time to larval hatching. The current paper describes the morphological changes occurring during embryogenesis of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and their timing in relation to temperature, in order to determine those characters which can be used for simple egg age estimation using light microscopy. At 7.3 and 25 °C, 15 easily visualised morphological landmarks were determined in C. vicina living embryos, allowing for their age estimation with a resolution of 10-20 % of total egg developmental time. The observed age intervals were compared to the embryonic stages described for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, which are used as reference data in multiple developmental studies. Moreover, current guidelines for preservation of egg samples, which recommend the placement of living eggs directly into 80 % ethanol, were tested against the hot water killing (HWK) method prior to preservation in 80 % ethanol, recommended for larval and pupal specimens. Direct placement of eggs into 80 % ethanol caused marked decomposition of samples, and no morphological landmarks were discernible. On the other hand, HWK fixation prior to preservation in 80 % ethanol enabled visualisation of 11 of the 15 age-specific morphological landmarks that were discernible in living embryos. Therefore, HWK fixation prior to preservation in 80 % ethanol is recommended for egg samples, thus unifying the protocols for collecting entomological evidence. PMID:26753872

  9. Survey of microhymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) parasitizing filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae, Calliphoridae) breeding in refuse and poultry farms in peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, S; Omar, B; Omar, S; Jeffery, J; Ghauth, I; Busparani, V

    1990-09-01

    Nine species of parasitoids were found parasitizing the pupae of filth flies breeding in refuse dumps and poultry farms throughout peninsular Malaysia. Spalangia were most common, consisting of Spalangia endius Walker, S. cameroni Perkins, S. gemina Boucek, S. nigroaenea Curtis, and two undescribed species. Other parasitoids collected were Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae Rondani, Dirhinus himalayanus Westwood, and an unidentified Hymenoptera. The parasitized fly hosts included Musca domestica L., Chrysomya megacephala (F.), Fannia sp., and Ophyra sp. S. endius was the most common parasitoid attacking M. domestica and C. megacephala at refuse dumps and poultry farms D. himalayanus were found to parasitize only M. domestica pupae collected at poultry farms. PMID:2231622

  10. A water-specific aquaporin is expressed in the olfactory organs of the blowfly, Phormia regina.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Yuko; Nagae, Tomone; Azuma, Masaaki

    2012-08-01

    The high sensitivity and selectivity of perireceptor events in insect olfactory organs requires the concerted action of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), odorant receptors (ORs), and odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs). Sensillum lymph in the sensillum cavity is a physiological saline that not only mediates the olfactory signaling pathway described above, but also protects the olfactory neurons against desiccation. The molecular mechanism of how water balance is maintained in the sensillum cavity still remains to be elucidated. Here, we characterize an aquaporin from the blowfly, Phormia regina (PregAQP1). PregAQP1 possesses six predicted transmembrane domains and two asparagine-proline-alanine (NPA) motifs, and belongs to the Drosophila melanogaster integral protein (DRIP) subfamily. Transcript levels were high in the maxillary palp and moderate in the antenna. PregAQP1 accumulated in accessory cells located underneath a long-grooved hair in the maxillary palp and also in a receptor neuron in a thick-walled sensillum in the antenna. Expression of PregAQP1 in Xenopus oocytes showed water permeability in a mercury-sensitive manner. These results suggest that PregAQP1 plays a role in the maintenance of the aqueous environment of olfactory organs. PMID:22767214

  11. Stress and asymmetry during arrested development of the Australian sheep blowfly.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, J A

    1997-01-01

    The dieldrin and diazinon resistance systems of the Australian sheep blowfly (Lucilia cuprina) have been used previously to relate stress, departures from bilateral symmetry, developmental stability and relative fitness. These systems are now used to consider stress and asymmetry in a developmental context. Larval to adult development is shown to be significantly impaired after arrested development at 8 degrees C, however the asymmetry score of adults of a given genotype is similar after arrested or continuous development. Selection against dieldrin-resistant and unmodified diazinon-resistant genotypes occurs during arrested development because greater proportions of these genotypes pupae at 8 degrees C than do susceptible or modified diazinon-resistant genotypes. Pre-pupae of all genotypes complete development equally successfully when transferred from 8 degrees C to 27 degrees C. Adults fail to emerge when pupae formed at 8 degrees C undergo this temperature transition. Temperature-shift experiments show the asymmetry score is determined between pre-pupal and pupal stages of the life cycle. This stage occurs at 27 degrees C in arrested and continuously developing cultures providing an explanation for the independence of stress, selective mortality during developmental arrest and asymmetry score. The results emphasize the need for genetic, environmental and developmental data before an asymmetry phenotype can be directly related to developmental stability and relative fitness. PMID:9447731

  12. Small Bait Traps as Accurate Predictors of Dipteran Early Colonizers in Forensic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, Ana; Dourado, Catarina G.; Centeio, Neiva; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Dias, Deodália; Rebelo, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Insect carrion communities vary among habitats and over time. Concerning the dipteran early colonizers of carrion, the use of small bait traps should be accurate because the odors emitted from meat baits should contain many of the volatile organic compounds emitted from the freshly dead mammals. In addition, this kind of trap is easy to replicate and set in position in a given habitat. In the present study, small bait preferences of early Diptera carrion colonizers were examined in an urban biotope. Specifically, three baits were compared (pork muscle, pork liver, and fish flavored cat food) in respect to the number of specimens and species captured and the presence or absence of oviposition at high and low environmental temperatures. A total of 2371 specimens were trapped, primarily belonging to three insect orders, Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera. Diptera was the predominant order, with blowflies (Calliphoridae) being the most representative family, followed by filth flies (Muscidae). The pork muscle bait was responsible for the highest number of captures and the highest diversity. The community of Diptera collected with the most efficient bait, pork muscle, was compared with the carrion communities reported in the literature from the Iberian Peninsula. Similar taxonomic species composition was found regarding Calliphoridae species. A specimen from all species morphologically identified were also identified at a molecular level using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcode region, and the sequences were submitted to online databases. PMID:25373224

  13. In Vivo Time-Resolved Microtomography Reveals the Mechanics of the Blowfly Flight Motor

    PubMed Central

    Mokso, Rajmund; Wicklein, Martina; Müller, Tonya; Doube, Michael; Stampanoni, Marco; Krapp, Holger G.; Taylor, Graham K.

    2014-01-01

    Dipteran flies are amongst the smallest and most agile of flying animals. Their wings are driven indirectly by large power muscles, which cause cyclical deformations of the thorax that are amplified through the intricate wing hinge. Asymmetric flight manoeuvres are controlled by 13 pairs of steering muscles acting directly on the wing articulations. Collectively the steering muscles account for <3% of total flight muscle mass, raising the question of how they can modulate the vastly greater output of the power muscles during manoeuvres. Here we present the results of a synchrotron-based study performing micrometre-resolution, time-resolved microtomography on the 145 Hz wingbeat of blowflies. These data represent the first four-dimensional visualizations of an organism's internal movements on sub-millisecond and micrometre scales. This technique allows us to visualize and measure the three-dimensional movements of five of the largest steering muscles, and to place these in the context of the deforming thoracic mechanism that the muscles actuate. Our visualizations show that the steering muscles operate through a diverse range of nonlinear mechanisms, revealing several unexpected features that could not have been identified using any other technique. The tendons of some steering muscles buckle on every wingbeat to accommodate high amplitude movements of the wing hinge. Other steering muscles absorb kinetic energy from an oscillating control linkage, which rotates at low wingbeat amplitude but translates at high wingbeat amplitude. Kinetic energy is distributed differently in these two modes of oscillation, which may play a role in asymmetric power management during flight control. Structural flexibility is known to be important to the aerodynamic efficiency of insect wings, and to the function of their indirect power muscles. We show that it is integral also to the operation of the steering muscles, and so to the functional flexibility of the insect flight motor

  14. Texture-defined objects influence responses of blowfly motion-sensitive neurons under natural dynamical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Thomas W.; Kern, Roland; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The responses of visual interneurons of flies involved in the processing of motion information do not only depend on the velocity, but also on other stimulus parameters, such as the contrast and the spatial frequency content of the stimulus pattern. These dependencies have been known for long, but it is still an open question how they affect the neurons’ performance in extracting information about the structure of the environment under the specific dynamical conditions of natural flight. Free-flight of blowflies is characterized by sequences of phases of translational movements lasting for just 30–100 ms interspersed with even shorter and extremely rapid saccade-like rotational shifts in flight and gaze direction. Previous studies already analyzed how nearby objects, leading to relative motion on the retina with respect to a more distant background, influenced the response of a class of fly motion sensitive visual interneurons, the horizontal system (HS) cells. In the present study, we focused on objects that differed from their background by discontinuities either in their brightness contrast or in their spatial frequency content. We found strong object-induced effects on the membrane potential even during the short intersaccadic intervals, if the background contrast was small and the object contrast sufficiently high. The object evoked similar response increments provided that it contained higher spatial frequencies than the background, but not under reversed conditions. This asymmetry in the response behavior is partly a consequence of the depolarization level induced by the background. Thus, our results suggest that, under the specific dynamical conditions of natural flight, i.e., on a very short timescale, the responses of HS cells represent object information depending on the polarity of the difference between object and background contrast and spatial frequency content. PMID:24808836

  15. Callatostatins: neuropeptides from the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria with sequence homology to cockroach allatostatins.

    PubMed Central

    Duve, H; Johnsen, A H; Scott, A G; Yu, C G; Yagi, K J; Tobe, S S; Thorpe, A

    1993-01-01

    Five neuropeptides with C-terminal amino acid sequence homology to cockroach allatostatins have been identified in the blowfly Calliphora vomitoria. Three have the same pentapeptide C-terminal amino acid sequence as allatostatin 1 of the cockroach Diploptera punctata. A hexadecapeptide designated callatostatin 1, isolated from thoracic ganglia, brains, and heads, has the sequence Asp-Pro-Leu-Asn-Glu-Glu-Arg-Arg-Ala-Asn-Arg-Tyr-Gly-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH2. Callatostatins 2 and 3 have been isolated from heads and thoracic ganglia, respectively; they comprise the last 14 and 8 residues of callatostatin 1. Callatostatin 4, isolated from thoracic ganglia, has the sequence Xaa-Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ser-Phe-Gly-Leu-NH2, where Xaa is either Asp or Asn. This peptide, with a serine substitution for glycine at position 5, has a C-terminal pentapeptide sequence identical to that of allatostatins 3 and 4 of D. punctata. Callatostatin 5, with the sequence Gly-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Asp-Phe-Gly-Met-NH2, was identified from whole flies. All five peptides inhibit juvenile hormone production by the corpora allata of D. punctata in vitro. Callatostatin 5 was the most potent allatostatin so far tested in this species, with maximum inhibition occurring at 1 nM. In contrast, none of the callatostatins or the allatostatins showed allatostatic activity in mature female C. vomitoria when tested at concentrations of 100 to 0.1 microM. In accordance with these results, immunoreactivity to an antiserum directed against the common C terminus of callatostatin 1 and allatostatin 1 was observed in the corpora allata of D. punctata but not in the corpus allatum of C. vomitoria, despite its presence in neurons of the brain. Neurons in the thoracic ganglion of C. vomitoria that are immunoreactive against this antiserum project to the hindgut, rectum, rectal papillae, and oviduct, suggestive of a function different from that of a true allatostatin. Images Fig. 5 PMID:8460157

  16. Aversive odorant causing appetite decrease downregulates tyrosine decarboxylase gene expression in the olfactory receptor neuron of the blowfly, Phormia regina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Yuko; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2012-01-01

    In the blowfly Phormia regina, exposure to d-limonene for 5 days during feeding inhibits proboscis extension reflex behavior due to decreasing tyramine (TA) titer in the brain. TA is synthesized by tyrosine decarboxylase (Tdc) and catalyzed into octopamine (OA) by TA ß-hydroxylase (Tbh). To address the mechanisms of TA titer regulation in the blowfly, we cloned Tdc and Tbh cDNAs from P. regina (PregTdc and PregTbh). The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high identity to those of the corresponding proteins from Drosophila melanogaster at the amino acid level. PregTdc was expressed in the antenna, labellum, and tarsus whereas PregTbh was expressed in the head, indicating that TA is mainly synthesized in the sensory organs whereas OA is primarily synthesized in the brain. d-Limonene exposure significantly decreased PregTdc expression in the antenna but not in the labellum and the tarsus, indicating that PregTdc expressed in the antenna is responsible for decreasing TA titer. PregTdc-like immunoreactive material was localized in the thin-walled sensillum. In contrast, the OA/TA receptor (PregOAR/TAR) was localized to the thick-walled sensillum. The results indicated that d-limonene inhibits PregTdc expression in the olfactory receptor neurons in the thin-walled sensilla, likely resulting in reduced TA levels in the receptor neurons in the antenna. TA may be transferred from the receptor neuron to the specific synaptic junction in the antennal lobe of the brain through the projection neurons and play a role in conveying the aversive odorant information to the projection and local neurons.

  17. Seasonal Blowfly Distribution and Abundance in Fragmented Landscapes. Is It Useful in Forensic Inference about Where a Corpse Has Been Decaying?

    PubMed Central

    Zabala, Jabi; Díaz, Beatriz; Saloña-Bordas, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Blowflies are insects of forensic interest as they may indicate characteristics of the environment where a body has been laying prior to the discovery. In order to estimate changes in community related to landscape and to assess if blowfly species can be used as indicators of the landscape where a corpse has been decaying, we studied the blowfly community and how it is affected by landscape in a 7,000 km2 region during a whole year. Using baited traps deployed monthly we collected 28,507 individuals of 10 calliphorid species, 7 of them well represented and distributed in the study area. Multiple Analysis of Variance found changes in abundance between seasons in the 7 analyzed species, and changes related to land use in 4 of them (Calliphora vomitoria, Lucilia ampullacea, L. caesar and L. illustris). Generalised Linear Model analyses of abundance of these species compared with landscape descriptors at different scales found only a clear significant relationship between summer abundance of C. vomitoria and distance to urban areas and degree of urbanisation. This relationship explained more deviance when considering the landscape composition at larger geographical scales (up to 2,500 m around sampling site). For the other species, no clear relationship between land uses and abundance was found, and therefore observed changes in their abundance patterns could be the result of other variables, probably small changes in temperature. Our results suggest that blowfly community composition cannot be used to infer in what kind of landscape a corpse has decayed, at least in highly fragmented habitats, the only exception being the summer abundance of C. vomitoria. PMID:24918607

  18. Do male secondary sexual characters correlate with testis size and sperm length in the small hairy maggot blowfly?

    PubMed

    Jones, Stephanie D; Wallman, James F; Byrne, Phillip G

    2015-12-01

    The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis proposes that secondary sexual characters (SSCs) advertise a male's fertility to prospective mates. However, findings from empirical studies attempting to test this hypothesis are often ambivalent or even contradictory, and few studies have simultaneously evaluated how both morphological and behavioural SSCs relate to ejaculate characteristics. Males of the small hairy maggot blowfly, Chrysomya varipes, possess conspicuous foreleg ornaments and display highly stereotyped courtship behaviour. These traits are favoured by females during pre-copulatory mate choice, but it remains unknown whether they correlate with post-copulatory traits expected to influence male fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate whether male courtship and ornamentation correlate with testis size and sperm length in C. varipes. We found that males investing more in courtship had bigger testes, and males with more extensive foreleg ornamentation released sperm with longer tails. Based on the assumption that larger testes enable males to produce more sperm, and that sperm with longer tails have greater propulsive force, our findings suggest that more vigorous and more ornamented males may be more fertile. These findings lend support to the phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis. However, a complete test of this hypothesis will require evaluating whether testis size and sperm length influence male fertilisation ability, as well as female fecundity and/or fertility. PMID:26297128

  19. Neuronal projections and putative interaction of multimodal inputs in the subesophageal ganglion in the blowfly, Phormia regina.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Toru; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Iwasaki, Masayuki; Nisimura, Tomoyosi; Shimohigashi, Miki; Hojo, Masaru K; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2014-06-01

    In flies, the maxillary palp possesses olfactory sensilla housing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), which project to the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobes (ALs). The labellum possesses gustatory sensilla housing gustatory receptor neurons (GRNs), which project to the primary gustatory center, the subesophageal ganglion (SOG). Using an anterograde staining method, we investigated the axonal projections of sensory receptor neurons from the maxillary palp and labellum to the SOG or other parts of brain in the blowfly, Phormia regina. We show that maxillary mechanoreceptor neurons and some maxillary ORNs project to the SOG where they establish synapses, whereas other maxillary ORNs terminate in the ipsi- and contralateral ALs. The labellar GRNs project to the SOG, and some of these neural projections partially overlap with ORN terminals from the maxillary palp. Based on these anterograde staining data and 3D models of the observed axonal projections, we suggest that interactions occur between GRNs from the labellum and ORNs from the maxillary palp. These observations strongly suggest that olfactory information from the maxillary palp directly interacts with the processing of gustatory information within the SOG of flies. PMID:24718417

  20. Flight-motor-driven respiratory airflow increases tracheal oxygen to nearly atmospheric level in blowflies (Calliphora vicina).

    PubMed

    Wasserthal, Lutz T

    2015-07-01

    It is widely accepted that an efficient oxygen supply and removal of CO2 in small flying insects are sufficiently performed by diffusion with open spiracles. This paper shows that in the tethered flying blowfly, gas exchange occurs by autoventilation and unidirectional airflow. The air is inspired through the mesothoracic spiracles (Sp1) during the downstroke of the wings and is expired through the metathoracic spiracles (Sp2) during the upstroke. This directed airflow through the thoracic tracheal system was documented by pre-atrial pressure measurements at the Sp1 and Sp2, revealing a sub-atmospheric mean pressure at the Sp1 and an over-atmospheric mean pressure at the Sp2. In the mesothoracic air sacs, the mean pressure is sub-atmospheric, conditioned by the only slightly open spiracles. In a split flow-through chamber experiment, the CO2 released through the Sp2 confirmed this unidirectional respiratory gas flow, implicating an inner tracheal valve. In the thoracic tracheal system, the PO2  during flight exceeds the high resting PO2  by 1-2 kPa, reaching nearly atmospheric values. In the abdominal large air sacs, the PO2  drops during flight, probably due to the accumulation of CO2. Periodic heartbeat reversals continue during flight, with a higher period frequency than at rest, supporting the transport of CO2 via the haemolymph towards the metathoracic tracheae and abdominal air sacs. PMID:26202777

  1. Influence of periodic heartbeat reversal and abdominal movements on hemocoelic and tracheal pressure in resting blowflies Calliphora vicina.

    PubMed

    Wasserthal, Lutz Thilo

    2012-01-15

    In Calliphoridae and Drosophilidae, the dorsal vessel (heart and aorta with associated venous channels) is the only connection between the thorax and the abdomen. Hemolymph oscillates between the compartments by periodic heartbeat reversal, but both the mechanism and its influence on hemocoelic and tracheal pressure have remained unclear. The pumping direction of the heart regularly reverses, with a higher pulse rate during backward compared with forward pumping. A sequence of forward and backward pulse periods lasts approximately 34 s. Pulse rate, direction, velocity and the duration of heartbeat periods were determined by thermistor and electrophysiological measurements. For the first time, heartbeat-induced pressure changes were measured in the hemocoel and in the tracheal system of the thorax and the abdomen. The tracheal pressure changed from sub-atmospheric during backward heartbeat to supra-atmospheric during forward heartbeat in the thorax and inversely in the abdomen. The heartbeat reversals were coordinated with slow abdominal movements with a pumping stroke at the beginning of the forward pulse period. The pressure effect of the pumping stroke was visible only in the abdomen. Periodic hemolymph shift and abdominal movements resulted in pressure changes in the hemocoel and tracheal system alternating in the thorax and abdomen, suggesting an effect on respiratory gas exchange. PMID:22189780

  2. A mathematical model applied for assisting the estimation of PMI in a case of forensic importance. First record of Conicera similis (Diptera: Phoridae) in a corpse.

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, A M; Martínez-Sánchez, A; López, R; García de la Vega, J M; Rica, M; González, M; Disney, R H L

    2013-09-10

    We present a forensic case associated with skeletonized human remains found inside a cistern in a coastal town located in the eastern Iberian Peninsula (Valencian Regional Government, Spain). In order to analyse the particular environmental conditions that occurred during oviposition and development of the collected insects, estimated temperatures at the crime scene were calculated by a predictive mathematical model. This model analyses the correlation between the variability of the internal temperature depending on the variability of the external ones. The amplitude of the temperature oscillations inside the tank and the containment of the enclosure is reduced by the presence of water. Such variation occurred within about 2h due to the time required for heat exchange. The differential equations employed to model differences between outdoor and indoor temperatures were an essential tool which let us estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) that was carried out by the study of the insect succession and the development time of the collected Diptera specimens under the adjusted temperatures. The presence of live larvae and pupae of Sarcophagidae and empty pupae of Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Phoridae and Piophilidae and the decomposition stage suggested the possibility that the remains were in the tank at least a year. We highlight the absence of Calliphora and Lucilia spp., and the first occurrence of the phorid Conicera similis in a human cadaver among the entomological evidence. PMID:23845917

  3. Periodic heartbeat reversals cause cardiogenic inspiration and expiration with coupled spiracle leakage in resting blowflies, Calliphora vicina.

    PubMed

    Wasserthal, Lutz T

    2014-05-01

    Respiration in insects is thought to be independent of the circulatory system because insects typically lack respiratory pigments and because oxygen transport occurs in the gaseous phase through a ramified tracheal system by diffusion and convection directly to the tissues. In the blowfly, as in other insects with periodic heartbeat reversal, the haemolymph is periodically shifted between the anterior body and abdomen, exerting alternating pressure changes on the compliant tracheae in the thorax and in the abdomen. Simultaneous pressure and O2 optode measurements show that, during negative pressure periods, the tracheal partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) increases by 0.5 kPa. In the quiescent fly, tracheal PO2 is rather high (17.5-18.9 kPa), although the thoracic spiracles remain constricted. Microscopic video recordings and reflectance measurements revealed that the dorsal soft edges of the valve lips of the second spiracle leave a very small leak, which is passively widened during backward pulses of the heart. Thus, negative pressure, combined with increased leakage of the spiracle Sp2 valve enable inspiration in the thorax. The positive pressure periods are correlated with a new type of convective CO2 micro-bursts as shown in flow-through measurements. The bulk of the CO2 is, however, released after longer interbursts in macro-bursts with actively opening valves reminiscent of the open phase in a cyclic gas exchange. When the valves open, the PO2 in the thoracic air sacs unexpectedly drops by a mean of 2.75±1.09 kPa, suggesting a displacement of O2 by the transient accumulation of CO2 in the tracheal system before its release. PMID:24436373

  4. Effects of Floral Scents and Their Dietary Experiences on the Feeding Preference in the Blowfly, Phormia regina

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Toru; Tamotsu, Miwako; Yamaoka, Ryohei; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER). Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying mechanisms associated with

  5. Effect of preservative solutions on preservation of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) with implications for post-mortem interval estimates.

    PubMed

    Day, Donnah M; Wallman, James F

    2008-07-18

    A major role of forensic entomology is to estimate the post-mortem interval. An entomologist's estimate of post-mortem interval is based on a series of generally valid assumptions, error in any of which can alter the accuracy of an estimate. The initial process of collecting and preserving maggots can itself lead to error, as can the method of killing and preservation. Since circumstances exist where it is not possible to rear maggots, methods of killing and preservation can be vital to preserving the integrity of entomological evidence. In this study, a number of preservation techniques used at crime scenes and in mortuaries were examined, and their effect on feeding third-instar larvae of Calliphora augur and Lucilia cuprina evaluated. The preservatives used were 70, 75, 80, 90 and 100% EtOH, Kahle's solution and 10% formalin. Each treatment was replicated three times. The effect of handling on first- and second-instar, feeding and post-feeding third-instar larvae of C. augur was also examined and compared to unhandled controls. Finally, the effects of preservatives were noted when larvae of C. augur and L. cuprina were placed into preservatives alive. It was found that continued handling is detrimental to specimens because preservative evaporates from both the vial and the specimens. No single preservative type was found to be entirely suitable for both species if DNA retrieval is desired. Specimens placed into most preservatives alive exhibited adverse colour changes, desiccation, sunkeness and agglomeration. It is concluded that the reaction to preservative type might be species specific and that different instars of the same species might also react differently. PMID:18514451

  6. A Case of Extensive Wound Myiasis Caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in a Patient with Maxillary Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma, in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Demirel-Kaya, Filiz; Orkun, Ömer; Çakmak, Ayşe; İnkaya, A Çağkan; Öcal, Murat; Erguven, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    The larvae causing myiasis can lead extensive tissue destruction, invasion into deep tissues and secondary infections. Poor hygiene, low socioeconomic condition and presence of open wounds are the most important predisposing factors. This case report describes destructive wound myiasis in a 58-year-old male patient diagnosed with maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma who lives in a rural area in Ankara, Turkey. Approximately 200 larvae were collected and identified as Lucilia sericata by morphological examination. Myiasis should be considered especially when the patient has open extensive lesions such as malignant wounds. PMID:27308285

  7. Revision of the frog fly genus Caiusa Surcouf, 1920 (Diptera, Calliphoridae), with a note on the identity of Plinthomyia emimelania Rondani, 1875.

    PubMed

    Rognes, Knut

    2015-01-01

    The Oriental, Australasian and Oceanian genus Caiusa Surcouf, 1920 is revised, species concepts being based on male and female genitalia. A key to males for all known species, and a key to females for all except one are given. All relevant types still in existence have been studied, complete synonymies given and the geographical distribution reconsidered. The eight species included in the genus are: Caiusa borneoensis sp. nov. (Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam); Caiusa coomani Séguy, 1948 (China, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam); Caiusa indica Surcouf, 1920 (Australia, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam); Caiusa karrakerae sp. nov. (Malaysia, Thailand); Caiusa kurahashii sp. nov. (Indonesia, Japan, Philippines); Caiusa pooae sp. nov. (Thailand); Caiusa testacea Senior-White, 1923 (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka) and Caiusa violacea Séguy, 1925, stat. rev. (Cambodia, China, Laos, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam). A lectotype is designated for Caiusa indica to fix the interpretation of the name. Caiusa nigronitens Senior-White, 1923, syn. nov. and Caiusa surcoufi Bezzi, 1927, syn. nov. are established as junior synonyms of Caiusa indica. Caiusa violacea is correctly diagnosed and errors in the original description of the female holotype are pointed out. Caiusa dubiosa Villeneuve, 1927 is established as a junior synonym of C. violacea, syn. nov. Seven Caiusa species have been reared from the egg mass of various species of frogs. The reproductive mode of the eighth species, i.e., C. indica, is unknown. Five species, i.e., C. borneoensis, C. coomani, C. karrakerae, C. kurahashii and C. violacea have been reared from one or more of the foam nesting frog species Chiromantis nongkhorensis (Cochran, 1927), Polypedates leucomystax (Gravenhorst, 1927), Polypedates megacephalus Hallowell, 1861, Rhacophorus annamensis Smith, 1924, Rhacophorus dulitensis Boulenger, 1892, Rhacophorus kio Ohler & Delorme, 2005 and Rhacophorus owstoni (Stejneger, 1907) all belonging in the family Rhacophoridae in Anura. These five Caiusa species all have a specialised ovipositor tip, with small spine-like setae on the ST8 and the hypoproct, probably enabling the flies to oviposit on a foam nest with a hardened outer surface. They form a monophyletic group on account of these features of the ovipositor, unique in the Oestroidea. The sixth species, C. testacea, has been reared from a frog egg mass, the frog species being unknown. Its ovipositor structure is also unknown. The seventh species, C. pooae, has been reared once from the jelly-like egg mass of Feihyla hansenae (Cochran, 1927), also in Rhacophoridae. Caiusa pooae females do not have spine-like setae on the ovipositor, a fact correlated with the soft outer surface of the jelly-like egg mass on which a C. pooae female had oviposited. The extreme rarity of C. pooae oviposition on Feihyla hansenae egg masses may indicate that this fly perhaps has another, unknown, regular oviposition substrate. Caiusa pooae and C. indica make up a second monophyletic group within Caiusa. Caiusa indica, the most common and most widespread species of the genus, has an ovipositor structure similar to C. pooae. Its breeding substrate is unknown and it occurs both within and outside the distributional area of Rhacophoridae. Possibly both C. indica and C. pooae share a regular oviposition substrate that has still to be discovered. The holotype female of Plinthomyia emimelania Rondani, 1875 from Sarawak is established as a member of the genus Bengalia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, thus Plinthomyia Rondani, 1875 becomes a junior synonym of Bengalia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830, syn. nov. It is removed from the synonymy of Phumosia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. PMID:25947832

  8. De novo transcriptome analysis and highly sensitive digital gene expression profiling of Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) pupae using MACE (Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends).

    PubMed

    Zajac, B K; Amendt, J; Horres, R; Verhoff, M A; Zehner, R

    2015-03-01

    Determining a post-mortem interval using the weight or length of blow fly larvae to calculate the insect's age is well established. However, to date, there are only a handful studies dealing with age estimation of blow fly pupae, in which weight or length cannot be used as a relevant parameter. The analysis of genetic markers, which indicate a certain developmental stage, can extend the period for a successful post-mortem interval determination. In order to break new ground in the field of age determination of forensic relevant blow flies, we performed a de novo transcriptome analysis of Calliphora vicina pupae at 15 different developmental stages. Obtained data serve as base to establish molecular age determination techniques. We used a new, deeper, and more cost-effective digital gene expression profiling method called MACE (Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends). We generated 15 libraries out of 15 developmental stages, with 3-8 million reads per library. In total, 53,539 distinct transcripts were detected, and 7548 were annotated to known insect genes. The analysis provides high-resolution gene expression profiles of all covered transcripts, which were used to identify differentially expressed genetic markers as candidates for a molecular age estimation of C. vicina pupae. Moreover, the analysis allows insights into gene activity of pupal development and the relationship between different genes interesting for insect development in general. PMID:25468442

  9. Larval distribution and behavior of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) (Diptera:Calliphoridae) relative to other species on Florida black bear(Carnivora:Ursidae) carcasses decompsing in North Central Florida.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval interactions of blow flies were documented daily temporally and spatially on 5 black bear carcasses from June – November, 2002. Cochliomyia macellaria or Chrysomya megacephala larvae were collected first, then Chrysomya rufifacies oviposited in multiple locations on the carcasses uninhabited...

  10. The Effect of Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol(®) ) on the Development of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and its Implications for Forensic Entomology.

    PubMed

    Baia, Tainá Costa; Campos, Alessandra; Wanderley, Bruno Mattos Silva; Gama, Renata Antonaci

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the potential effects of flunitrazepam (known as "date rape drug") on the developmental cycle of Chrysomya megacephala, an important forensic species, and their possible implications for the calculation of the PMI. A 1050 C. megacephala eggs were divided into five groups with seven replications each. The eggs were placed on artificial diet prepared with four drug concentrations of flunitrazepam (4, 8, 16, and 32 ng/g), besides the control group (prepared with water). Were evaluated the potential effects on development time, weight gain, and mortality during the cycles. The drug had no significant effect on development time or mortality although it did affect the weight of the pupae and adults (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The result can be deduced that the determination of the postmortem interval is not affected. PMID:27143233

  11. A Houdini's trick in a fly: Leg unfolding with the aid of transient hinges in an extricating Calliphora vicina (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Frantsevich, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    Legs in a fly pupa are tightly folded in Z-configuration: the femur points forward. The fly emerges from the pupa with all legs stretched backwards. How does the fly turn long femora inside the tight puparium? Flies were captured during emergence at various moments of progress out of the puparium and at once fixed in ethanol, postfixed in Bouin's solution. Specimens were ranged by the grade of progressive extrication and maturation. Legs were excised, their configurations photographed. Legs are anchored to the VIII. abdominal segment of the puparium with the pupal sheath. Some podomers were arched or buckled yet in pharate adults. At the initial moment of extrication, new buckles appeared in femora, they split femora into 2-3 subpodomers. Instead of turning the whole femur, the fly dragged through the puparium a chain of short subpodomers linked together with transient hinges. Hinges emerged in unsclerotized areas of the tubular podomer, close to sclerotized areas (juvenile sclerites). During extrication, legs were stretched passively. This process lasted for 1-3 min, initial phase - few seconds. Residual distortions were left in hind legs of free juvenile adults. Mechanics of buckling and straightening is discussed from the viewpoint of strength of materials. PMID:26795557

  12. Insect satiety: Sulfakinin localization and the effect of drosulfakinin on protein and carbohydrate ingestion in the blow fly, Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfakinins, which are satiety factors in invertebrates, have previously been shown to inhibit feeding in the German cockroach and desert locust. This study examines the occurrence of sulfakinin immunoreactivity and the role of sulfakinin as a feeding satiety factor in the black blow fly, Phormia re...

  13. The bioefficacy of crude extracts of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae) on the survival and development of myiasis-causing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    PubMed

    Singh, Amandeep; Kaur, Jasneet

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is a type of parasitosis originating from the invasion of tissues of live humans and other vertebrates by dipteran larvae. The Old World screwworm fly—Chrysomya bezziana—is known worldwide in the tropical regions for causing myiasis among man and domestic animals, thereby leading to health hazards and severe economic losses to the dairy farmers. Management techniques for controlling populations of the fly are needed to minimize these losses. Plant-derived materials have been increasingly evaluated these days in controlling the insects of medical and veterinary importance. This study evaluated the efficacy of crude extracts of the plant neem, Azadirachta indica, against C. bezziana. The dried leaves of the plant were extracted successively with four different solvents viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol and were evaluated against the third instar larvae of C. bezziana using dipping method and thin film application technique. In the dipping method, larvae were dipped in four different concentrations of plant extracts for 30 s, whereas in the thin film application, they were exposed to a thin film of plant extracts. The results showed that all the extracts had toxic effect on the larvae in both the techniques. In the dipping method, the highest mortalities were recorded in methanol extract followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts with LC50 values 1.07 g/100 ml, 1.7 g/100 ml, 3.39 g/100 ml and 4.9 g/100 ml, respectively. In the thin film application method, methanol extract showed the highest mortalities followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether with LC50 values 0.4 mg/cm2, 0.6 mg/cm2, 2.1 mg/cm2 and 2.5 mg/cm2. It is concluded that the crude extracts of A. indica can be used in controlling the larvae of C. bezziana by using the dipping as well as thin film application technique. PMID:26494546

  14. Fauna Europaea: Diptera – Brachycera

    PubMed Central

    Beuk, Paul; Pont, Adrian Charles; Shatalkin, Anatole I.; Ozerov, Andrey L.; Woźnica, Andrzej J.; Merz, Bernhard; Bystrowski, Cezary; Raper, Chris; Bergström, Christer; Kehlmaier, Christian; Clements, David K.; Greathead, David; Kameneva, Elena Petrovna; Nartshuk, Emilia; Petersen, Frederik T.; Weber, Gisela; Bächli, Gerhard; Geller-Grimm, Fritz; Van de Weyer, Guy; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; de Jong, Herman; van Zuijlen, Jan-Willem; Vaňhara, Jaromír; Roháček, Jindřich; Ziegler, Joachim; Majer, József; Hůrka, Karel; Holston, Kevin; Rognes, Knut; Greve-Jensen, Lita; Munari, Lorenzo; de Meyer, Marc; Pollet, Marc; Speight, Martin C. D.; Ebejer, Martin John; Martinez, Michel; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Földvári, Mihály; Chvála, Milan; Barták, Miroslav; Evenhuis, Neal L.; Chandler, Peter J.; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Meier, Rudolf; Rozkosny, Rudolf; Prescher, Sabine; Gaimari, Stephen D.; Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Zeegers, Theo; Dikow, Torsten; Korneyev, Valery A.; Richter, Vera Andreevna; Michelsen, Verner; Tanasijtshuk, Vitali N.; Mathis, Wayne N.; Hubenov, Zdravko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all extant multicellular European terrestrial and freshwater animals and their geographical distribution at the level of countries and major islands (east of the Urals and excluding the Caucasus region). The Fauna Europaea project comprises about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. Fauna Europaea represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing taxonomic specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many user communities in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. The Diptera–Brachycera is one of the 58 Fauna Europaea major taxonomic groups, and data have been compiled by a network of 55 specialists. Within the two-winged insects (Diptera), the Brachycera constitute a monophyletic group, which is generally given rank of suborder. The Brachycera may be classified into the probably paraphyletic 'lower brachyceran grade' and the monophyletic Eremoneura. The latter contains the Empidoidea, the Apystomyioidea with a single Nearctic species, and the Cyclorrhapha, which in turn is divided into the paraphyletic 'aschizan grade' and the monophyletic Schizophora. The latter is traditionally divided into the paraphyletic 'acalyptrate grade' and the monophyletic Calyptratae. Our knowledge of the European fauna of Diptera–Brachycera varies tremendously among families, from the reasonably well known hoverflies (Syrphidae) to the extremely poorly known scuttle flies (Phoridae). There has been a steady growth in our knowledge of European Diptera for the last two centuries, with no apparent slow down, but there is a shift towards a larger fraction of the new species being found among the families of the nematoceran grade (lower Diptera), which due to a larger

  15. Checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko; Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the superfamilies Oestroidea and Hippoboscoidea recorded from Finland is presented. The checklist covers the following families: Calliphoridae, Rhiniidae, Sarcophagidae, Rhinophoridae, Tachinidae, Oestridae and Hippoboscidae. PMID:25337034

  16. The Typical Flight Performance of Blowflies: Measuring the Normal Performance Envelope of Calliphora vicina Using a Novel Corner-Cube Arena

    PubMed Central

    Bomphrey, Richard J.; Walker, Simon M.; Taylor, Graham K.

    2009-01-01

    Despite a wealth of evidence demonstrating extraordinary maximal performance, little is known about the routine flight performance of insects. We present a set of techniques for benchmarking performance characteristics of insects in free flight, demonstrated using a model species, and comment on the significance of the performance observed. Free-flying blowflies (Calliphora vicina) were filmed inside a novel mirrored arena comprising a large (1.6 m1.6 m1.6 m) corner-cube reflector using a single high-speed digital video camera (250 or 500 fps). This arrangement permitted accurate reconstruction of the flies' 3-dimensional trajectories without the need for synchronisation hardware, by virtue of the multiple reflections of a subject within the arena. Image sequences were analysed using custom-written automated tracking software, and processed using a self-calibrating bundle adjustment procedure to determine the subject's instantaneous 3-dimensional position. We illustrate our method by using these trajectory data to benchmark the routine flight performance envelope of our flies. Flight speeds were most commonly observed between 1.2 ms−1 and 2.3 ms−1, with a maximum of 2.5 ms−1. Our flies tended to dive faster than they climbed, with a maximum descent rate (−2.4 ms−1) almost double the maximum climb rate (1.2 ms−1). Modal turn rate was around 240°s−1, with maximal rates in excess of 1700°s−1. We used the maximal flight performance we observed during normal flight to construct notional physical limits on the blowfly flight envelope, and used the distribution of observations within that notional envelope to postulate behavioural preferences or physiological and anatomical constraints. The flight trajectories we recorded were never steady: rather they were constantly accelerating or decelerating, with maximum tangential accelerations and maximum centripetal accelerations on the order of 3 g. PMID:19924228

  17. Multiple colonization of a cadaver by insects in an indoor environment: first record of Fannia trimaculata (Diptera: Fanniidae) and Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Sarcophagidae) as colonizers of a human corpse.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Simão Dias; Soares, Thiago Ferreira; Costa, Diego Leonel

    2014-01-01

    We describe here a case of multiple colonization of a male cadaver found indoors in the municipality of Jaboatao dos Guararapes, Brazil. The body was colonized by six species of Diptera: Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya putoria (Calliphoridae), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae), Fannia trimaculata (Fanniidae), and Peckia (Peckia) chrysostoma (Sarcophagidae). The most abundant species were C. albiceps (65.0 % of all emerged adults) and C. megacephala (18.6 %). The case illustrates the ability of six insect species to simultaneously colonize a corpse in an indoor environment and represents the first collaboration between the forensic police and entomologists in Northeastern Brazil. We provide here the first record of two species, F. trimaculata and Peckia (P.) chrysostoma colonizing a human cadaver. We also report the first case of cadaver colonization by C. putoria and M. scalaris in Northeastern Brazil. Information on the development time of two species, C. albiceps and C. megacephala, were used to discuss the estimation of the post-mortem interval. Considering that the region harbors the highest rates of homicide in Brazil, implications of these findings for the consolidation of forensic entomology in the region are discussed. PMID:24218014

  18. Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    62nd Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America 16-19 November 2014; Portland, OR Title: Trapping systems for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Nancy D. Epsky, Micah A. Gill, C. Teri Allen, Dong H. Cha, and Peter J. Landolt Nancy D. Epsky USDA-ARS, Subtropical Horticulture...

  19. Evaluation of traps for monitoring higher Diptera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two main members of the higher Diptera for which monitoring traps have been developed (at least in countries where tsetse does not exist) are the house fly, Musca domestica, and the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans. Both flies are major pest species in the US and elsewhere and the development of ...

  20. Checklist of the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Jaschhof, Mathias; Skuhravá, Marcela; Penttinen, Jouni

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A list of the 356 species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented, which comprises 6 Lestremiinae, 156 Micromyinae, 16 Winnertziinae, 69 Porricondylinae, and 109 Cecidomyiinae. The faunistic knowledge of Finnish Winnertziinae, Porricondylinae and Cecidomyiinae is regarded as particularly poor. Based on species numbers known from other countries in Europe, a conservative estimate is 700–800 species of Cecidomyiidae actually occurring in Finland. PMID:25337012

  1. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  2. Numerous Transitions of Sex Chromosomes in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  3. Numerous transitions of sex chromosomes in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Vicoso, Beatriz; Bachtrog, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Many species groups, including mammals and many insects, determine sex using heteromorphic sex chromosomes. Diptera flies, which include the model Drosophila melanogaster, generally have XY sex chromosomes and a conserved karyotype consisting of six chromosomal arms (five large rods and a small dot), but superficially similar karyotypes may conceal the true extent of sex chromosome variation. Here, we use whole-genome analysis in 37 fly species belonging to 22 different families of Diptera and uncover tremendous hidden diversity in sex chromosome karyotypes among flies. We identify over a dozen different sex chromosome configurations, and the small dot chromosome is repeatedly used as the sex chromosome, which presumably reflects the ancestral karyotype of higher Diptera. However, we identify species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes, others in which a different chromosome replaced the dot as a sex chromosome or in which up to three chromosomal elements became incorporated into the sex chromosomes, and others yet with female heterogamety (ZW sex chromosomes). Transcriptome analysis shows that dosage compensation has evolved multiple times in flies, consistently through up-regulation of the single X in males. However, X chromosomes generally show a deficiency of genes with male-biased expression, possibly reflecting sex-specific selective pressures. These species thus provide a rich resource to study sex chromosome biology in a comparative manner and show that similar selective forces have shaped the unique evolution of sex chromosomes in diverse fly taxa. PMID:25879221

  4. Checklist of the Empidoidea of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An updated checklist of the Atelestidae, Brachystomatidae, Dolichopodidae, Empididae and Hybotidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. The genera with uncertain placement within superfamily Empidoidea (= the Iteaphila group) are also included in this paper. PMID:25337016

  5. New records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) from Romania

    PubMed Central

    Dvořák, Libor; Beuk, Paul LT

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Anisopodidae (window gnats or wood gnats) is a small family of nematocerous Diptera. Until now only Sylvicola (Anisopus) punctatus (Fabricius, 1787) and Sylvicola (Sylvicola) fenestralis (Scopoli, 1763)​ were reported from Romania. New information New faunistic records of Sylvicola (Diptera: Anisopodidae) are presented. Sylvicola (Sylvicola) cinctus (Fabricius, 1787) and S. (Anisopus) fuscatus (Fabricius, 1775) are recorded from Romania for the first time. An identification key and illustrations of Romanian Sylvicola species are presented. PMID:26929721

  6. New species of Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera: Muscoidea).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    The study of recently collected Afrotropical Muscidae (Diptera) from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya and South Africa has revealed ten new species which are described herein: Coenosia duomaculata sp. nov., C. nigromaculata sp. nov., C. fragilis sp. nov., Helina harrisorum sp. nov., H. ferfriniorum sp. nov., Hydrotaea tantula sp. nov., Limnophora diminuta sp. nov., L. antennalis sp. nov., Spilogona brunnea sp. nov. and S. bella sp. nov. Coenosia, Helina and Limnophora are speciose muscid genera, found throughout the Afrotropical Region, while Hydrotaea and Spilogona have a more restricted geographic distribution and include some 20 species each.  PMID:25284400

  7. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time. PMID:27395731

  8. Mosquito repellent attracts Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Braverman, Y; Chizov-Ginzburg, A; Mullens, B A

    1999-01-01

    A plant-derived mosquito repellent, based on the oil of Eucalyptus maculata var. citriodora Hook, was evaluated against the biting midge Culicoides imicola Kieffer. Suction black light-traps covered with repellent-impregnated polyester mesh and deployed near horses attracted large numbers of C. imicola, which were seen near the treated net within a few minutes of the start of the experiment. Initial collections in the traps were approximately 3 times as large as those in control traps with untreated mesh. Numbers collected in treated traps were similar to untreated control traps after 4 h. Traps with mesh treated with DEET or another plant-derived (Meliaceae) proprietary product, AG1000, acted as repellents relative to the control. The differential activity of repellents against blood-feeding Diptera is discussed. PMID:10071502

  9. A progression of molecular genetic tools for identifying screwworm myiasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a devastating pest of all warm blooded animals. Successful eradication of the screwworm has been achieved from continental North America. Maintaining a barrier against reinfestation by screwworms requires rapid, accurate ident...

  10. Checklist of the family Syrphidae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Haarto, Antti; Kerppola, Sakari

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Syrphidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland. Three species of Syrphidae, Platycheirus modestus Ide, 1926, Cheilosia barovskii (Stackelberg, 1930) and Mallota tricolor Loew, 1871, are published as new to the Finnish fauna. Platycheirus modestus is also new to the Palaearctic. PMID:25337020

  11. Descriptions of two new species of Afrotropical Psychodidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Ježek, Jan; Oboňa, Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of moth flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Psychodinae) are described and illustrated on the basis of male morphological characters. Neoarisemus nyahururuensis sp. nov. was collected in the vicinity of Thomson's Falls (Nyahururu) in Kenya and Tonnoiriella veronikae sp. nov. in Toamasina province, Madagascar, Analamazaotra 1.4 km SSW Andasibe vill. (Périnet). PMID:27470871

  12. A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) from Vietnam

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Culcua Walker (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), C. lingafelteri Woodley, new species, is described from northern Vietnam. It is diagnosed relative to other species using the recent revision of the genus by Rozkošný and Kozánek (2007). This is the first species of Culcua reported from Viet...

  13. Development of Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera:Tephritidae) in crabapple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens, Curran, 1932 (Diptera: Tephritidae), was reared from naturally-infested Chinese crabapple, Malus spectabilis (Ait.) Borkh. (Rosaceae), in Washington state, U.S.A. Pupae from Chinese crabapple were smaller than those from sweet cherry, Prunus avium (...

  14. Frass semiochemicals important to corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several similarly appearing species of silk fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are extremely destructive pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Currently, silk flies are managed solely with multiple broad spectrum insecticide applications, and there is concern that some species are developing resistance to ...

  15. Ethology of Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox) (Diptera: Asilidae) in Wyoming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In southwest Wyoming, Omniablautus nigronotum (Wilcox), hunted primarily from the surface of the sandy substrate in a greasewood community. Prey, captured in flight, represented four insect orders with Diptera and Hymenoptera predominating. Courtship consisted of the male approaching the female from...

  16. Crowdsourcing for large-scale mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) sampling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sampling a cosmopolitan mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species throughout its range is logistically challenging and extremely resource intensive. Mosquito control programmes and regional networks operate at the local level and often conduct sampling activities across much of North America. A method f...

  17. Susceptibility of cranberries to Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii Mastsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), commonly referred to as the spotted-wing drosophila, is an exotic species that has proven a troublesome pest of fruit production in the U.S. The fly targets small fruit and thus represents a concern for the U.S. cranberry industry. Two studies ...

  18. The impacts of larval density and protease inhibition on feeding in medicinal larvae of the greenbottle fly Lucilia sericata.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M R; Nigam, Y; Jung, W; Knight, J; Pritchard, D I

    2016-03-01

    Larval therapy, the therapeutic use of blowfly larvae to treat chronic wounds, is primarily used in debridement. There are, however, gaps in current knowledge of the optimal clinical application of the therapy and mechanisms of action in the debridement process. Using an artificial assay, two studies were undertaken to investigate these aspects of larval debridement by Lucilia sericata Meigen (Diptera: Calliphoridae); the first studied the effects of the density of larvae on tissue digestion and larval mass, and the second considered the effects on the same parameters of incorporating protease inhibitors into the feeding substrate. The total mass of tissue digested increased with larval density until saturation was observed at 5.0-7.5 larvae/cm(2) . This range was considered optimal as lower doses resulted in the removal of less tissue and higher doses offered no additional tissue removal and appeared to exacerbate competition for feeding. In the second study, increased protease inhibitor concentration led to significant decreases in tissue digestion and larval mass, suggesting that serine proteases, particularly trypsin, may play major roles in larval digestion. Such information is important in elucidating the main constituents that make up larval digestive products and may be significant in the development of new therapies. PMID:26463514

  19. The forgotten flies: the importance of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators

    PubMed Central

    Orford, Katherine A.; Vaughan, Ian P.; Memmott, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Bees, hoverflies and butterflies are taxa frequently studied as pollinators in agricultural and conservation contexts. Although there are many records of non-syrphid Diptera visiting flowers, they are generally not regarded as important pollinators. We use data from 30 pollen-transport networks and 71 pollinator-visitation networks to compare the importance of various flower-visiting taxa as pollen-vectors. We specifically compare non-syrphid Diptera and Syrphidae to determine whether neglect of the former in the literature is justified. We found no significant difference in pollen-loads between the syrphid and non-syrphid Diptera. Moreover, there was no significant difference in the level of specialization between the two groups in the pollen-transport networks, though the Syrphidae had significantly greater visitation evenness. Flower visitation data from 33 farms showed that non-syrphid Diptera made up the majority of the flower-visiting Diptera in the agricultural studies (on average 82% abundance and 73% species richness), and we estimate that non-syrphid Diptera carry 84% of total pollen carried by farmland Diptera. As important pollinators, such as bees, have suffered serious declines, it would be prudent to improve our understanding of the role of non-syrphid Diptera as pollinators. PMID:25808886

  20. Brain plasticity in Diptera and Hymenoptera

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Claudia; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    To mediate different types of behaviour, nervous systems must coordinate the proper operation of their neural circuits as well as short- and long-term alterations that occur within those circuits. The latter ultimately devolve upon specific changes in neuronal structures, membrane properties and synaptic connections that are all examples of plasticity. This reorganization of the adult nervous system is shaped by internal and external influences both during development and adult maturation. In adults, behavioural experience is a major driving force of neuronal plasticity studied particularly in sensory systems. The range of adaptation depends on features that are important to a particular species, so that learning is essential for foraging in honeybees, while regenerative capacities are important in hemimetabolous insects with long appendages. Experience is usually effective during a critical period in early adult life, when neural function becomes tuned to future conditions in an insect's life. Changes occur at all levels, in synaptic circuits, neuropile volumes, and behaviour. There are many examples, and this review incorporates only a select few, mainly those from Diptera and Hymenoptera. PMID:20036946

  1. Comments on the association of immatures of Hemerodromia (Diptera, Empididae) and Simulium (Diptera, Simuliidae), and first record of this association in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Sánchez Molina, Óscar; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique

    2016-11-01

    Larvae of Empididae (Diptera) prey on black fly immatures and its pupae can be collected from pupal cases of Simuliidae (Diptera). The aim of our work was to report the second record of association between immatures of Empididae and Simuliidae in the Neotropical Region and the first for the Atlantic Forest (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). We collected 4982 pupae and exuviae of Simulium Latreille, (Diptera, Simuliidae) and found three with a pupa of Hemerodromia Meigen (Diptera, Empididae) inside. This shows that the use of black flies cocoons by dance flies occurs at extremely low frequencies, which might explain why this association is so rarely recorded. Our results are relevant for a better comprehension of the predator-prey relationship between these families. PMID:27456938

  2. [An entomological case report during the winter months: estimation of the post-mortem interval considering the influence of cold temperatures on the development of the forensically important blowfly Calliphora vomitoria].

    PubMed

    Wetzel, Waltraud; Reibe, Saskia; Madea, Burkhard

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe a case report with entomological estimation of the post-mortem interval in the winter months. In early December 2007, the body of a suicide was discovered not far from a lake near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia four weeks after the man had disappeared from a hospital. The corpse was very well preserved and did not show any signs of advanced putrefaction. The stage of decomposition did not allow a correct estimation of the time since death. Infestation of insect larvae of the species Calliphora vomitoria was detected in the oral cavity as well as in the self-inflicted deep cut to the throat responsible for death. The age of the larvae was determined by considering the specific minimum threshold of the species (minimum temperature necessary for development). To estimate the time until the blowflies detect the body and start to oviposit, the authors ran an experiment with a pig in a comparable environment with similar temperatures. Altogether, these investigations suggested that the man had committed suicide shortly after disappearing from the hospital. Without the entomological evaluation it would have been very difficult to narrow down the post-mortem interval correctly. PMID:19432091

  3. Lekking behavior of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Segura, D.; Petit-Marty, N.; Cladera, J.; Sciurano, R.; Calcagno, G.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Vera, T.; Allinghi, A.

    2007-03-15

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) displays a lek mating system. Males form groups in which they simultaneously display signals (acoustical, visual, or chemical) to attract females with the purpose of mating. Females visit the lek and choose among signaling and courting males to mate. Scarce information is available in A. fraterculus about the main factors involved in female choice and the behavior of displaying males. This information could be important within the context of pest control programs with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component, because departures from normal sexual behavior caused by artificial rearing could affect males' performance in the field. In this study we assessed A. fraterculus male behavior within the leks and analyzed the importance of behavioral and morphological traits on their copulatory success. The existence of preferred places for lek formation was evaluated in field cages with trees inside and analyzed by dividing the trees in sectors according to a 3-dimensional system. Males were individually weighed, marked, and observed every 15 min. Morphometric and behavioral characteristics of successful and unsuccessful males were compared. Most successful males grouped in a region of the tree characterized by the highest light intensity in the first 2 h of the morning. Results showed that pheromone calling activity is positively associated with copulatory success. Copulations were more frequent for males calling inside the lek, indicating that pheromone calling activity and presence in the lek are key factors for copulatory success. A positive association between copulatory success and eye length was found; some characteristics of the face were also associated with copula duration and latency. (author) [Spanish] Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) presenta un sistema de apareamiento tipo lek. Los machos forman grupos y, en forma conjunta, emiten senales (acusticas, visuales, o quimicas) para

  4. Microsporidium Infecting Anopheles supepictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Omrani, Seyed-Mohammad; Moosavi, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Manouchehri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Microsporidia are known to infect a wide variety of animals including mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). In a recent study on the mosquito fauna of Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Province, at the central western part of Iran, a few larvae of Anopheles superpictus were infected with a microsporidium-resembled microorganism. Current investigation deals with the identification of the responsible microorganism at the genus level. Methods: Fresh infected larvae were collected from the field. After determining the species identity they were dissected to extract their infective contents. Wet preparations were checked for general appearance and the size of the pathogenic microorganism. Fixed preparations were stained with Geimsa and Ryan-Blue modified Trichrome techniques to visualize further morphological characters. The obtained light microscopy data were used in the identification process. Results: The infected larvae were bulged by a whitish material filling the involved segments corresponding to a microsporidium infection. Bottle-shaped semioval spores ranged 4.33±0.19×2.67±0.12 and 4.18±0.43×2.45±0.33 micron in wet and fixed preparations, respectively. They were mostly arranged in globular structures comprised of 8 spores. These data was in favor of a species from the genus Parathelohania in the family Ambliosporidae. Conclusion: This is the first report of a microsporidium infection in An. superpictus. The causative agent is diagnosed as a member of the genus Parathelohania. Further identification down to the species level needs to determine its ultrastructural characteristics and the comparative analysis of ss rRNA sequence data. It is also necessary to understand the detail of the components of the transmission cycle. PMID:27308299

  5. [The influence of diptera on the domestic animals].

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, K

    1999-01-01

    The Diptera attacked domestic animals in Poland are: Simuliidae, Culicidae, Tabanidae, Gasterophilidae, Hypoder-matidae and Muscidae. The insect assail the crazing animals, mostly during sunny day dna at close of day. Lack of effective repelents and also difficulties with their usage, makes it impossible to complete extermination of parasitic insects in the environment. It is posible to effectively fight against Hypoderma bovis and Gasterophilus spp. PMID:16886371

  6. Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae), a new parasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera, Tephritidae) from the Azores

    PubMed Central

    van Achterberg, Kees; Teixeira, Tânia; Oliveira, Luísa

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new gregarious larval-pupal endoparasitoid of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is described and illustrated: Aphaereta ceratitivora sp. n. (Braconidae: Alysiinae: Alysiini). PMID:23129984

  7. Fluctuation of diptera larvae in phytotelmata and relation with climate variation in West Sumatra Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Emantis; Dahelmi; Salmah, Siti; Syamsuardi

    2014-07-01

    Research of fluctuations in Diptera's larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh; which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p < 0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p < 0.05). PMID:26035947

  8. New neotropical species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four species of Trupanea (Diptera: Tephritidae) with unusual wing patterns are described from the Neotropical Region: T. dimorphica (Argentina), T. fasciata (Argentina), T. polita (Argentina and Bolivia), and T. trivittata (Argentina). Celidosphenella Hendel, 1914 and Melanotrypana Hering, 1944 are ...

  9. New replacement name for Chrysotus infirmus Wei, Zhang & Zhou, 2014 (Diptera, Dolichopodidae, Diaphorinae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zheng-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chrysotus weii Zhou, nom. n., the new replacement name is proposed for the species Chrysotus infirmus Wei, Zhang & Zhou, 2014 (Diptera: Brachycera: Dolichopodidae: Diaphorinae), which was preoccupied by Chrysotus infirmus Parent, 1933. PMID:27551236

  10. Checklist of the leaf-mining flies (Diptera, Agromyzidae) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the Agromyzidae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. 279 (or 280) species are currently known from the country. Phytomyza linguae Lundqvist, 1947 is recorded as new to Finland. PMID:25337025

  11. Release and establishment of Diachasmimorpha kraussii (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) against Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory tests documented that Diachasmimorpha kraussii Fullaway (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was a potentially effective biological control agent against Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) and Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Diachasmimorpha kraussii was approved for release in Hawa...

  12. Revision of the key characters for the Thricops nigrifrons species-group (Diptera, Muscidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vikhrev, Nikita

    2010-01-01

    Abstract An analysis of key characters for the separation of Thricops nigrifrons and Thricops longipes (Diptera, Muscidae) is given. A revised key for Thricops nigrifrons and related species, including two species recently described from the Caucasus, is proposed. PMID:21594046

  13. Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann), a new immigrant soldier fly in the United States (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microchrysa flaviventris (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Sarginae), a species widespread in the Old World, has been introduced and is apparently established in the eastern United States. Specimens were taken in Alexandria, Virginia in August of 2007....

  14. Muscle attachment site (MAS) patterns for species determination in five species of Sarcophaga (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Niederegger, Senta; Szpila, Krzysztof; Mall, Gita

    2016-01-01

    To further establish species determination using the muscle attachment site (MAS) pattern method, third instar larvae of five forensically important species of Sarcophaga Meigen were investigated: Sarcophaga argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga caerulescens Zetterstedt, Sarcophaga melanura Meigen, Sarcophaga albiceps Meigen and Sarcophaga similis Meade. As in the previously investigated Calliphoridae, patterns were found to be species specific. The main feature of the Sarcophaga patterns is the divided central horizontal row of segment four. A genus pattern was established to be used as base for comparison in further species determination. PMID:26391172

  15. New African species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Couri, Márcia; Pont, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The study of Afrotropical Muscidae deposited in the Natural History Museum (BMNH), London, United Kingdom, revealed four new species of Helina Robineau-Desvoidy, herein described and illustrated. Helina duocolorata sp. nov. is described from Kenya, Helina longicerca sp. nov. and Helina sexnotata sp. nov. from Nigeria, and Helina mediomaculata sp. nov. from Angola. All types are deposited in the collection of the BMNH. Some corrections are made to the entries under Helina in the Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region (Pont 1980). PMID:27394742

  16. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  17. Checklist of the Diptera (Insecta) of Finland: an introduction and a summary of results

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nearly thirty-five years have passed since Hackman published his “Check list of the Finnish Diptera” (1980). The number of true flies (Diptera) known from Finland has increased by more than two thousand species since then. At the same time, hundreds of erroneous records have been recognized and purged from the checklist. ZooKeys issue 441 provides a new checklist of the Diptera species of the Republic of Finland. This introductory paper presents the rationale behind the project, provides technical documentation on the checklist format and sources used, and summarizes the results. The remaining papers in this issue cover one or more Diptera families in detail. Two electronic appendices are provided: supporting data (additional references to first published records and the previous checklist) and a complete list of Finnish Diptera taxa in Darwin Core compliant format for easy computer access and processing. The new checklist records 6920 fly species from Finland, 2932 belonging to the nematoceran or lower flies and 3989 to the suborder Brachycera. The changes since 1980 are most prominent in the Lower Diptera. For example, more than 400 non-biting midges (Chironomidae) have been added since 1980, and the number of moth flies (Psychodidae) known from Finland has more than tripled. Among the larger families, large increases in known Finnish species are also seen in Cecidomyiidae (161% increase), Pipunculidae (98%), and Chironomidae (90%). PMID:25337004

  18. The complete mitochondria genome of Ravinia pernix (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Juanjuan; Xie, Kai; Che, Kexin; Hu, Zhenyu; Guo, Yadong

    2016-05-01

    Ravinia pernix is considered to be a forensically important fly species of the family Sarcophagidae. In this study, we present the complete mitochondrial genome of Ravinia pernix for the first time. There is one encoding region including 37 genes and one non-coding AT-rich region observed in the 15,778 bp circular genome, containing 13 protein-encoding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and 2 ribosomal RNA genes. The arrangement of the genes is the same as that found in the ancestral arthropod. The base compositions of A, T, G and C are 39.57%, 37.60%, 9.36% and 13.47%, respectively. The mitochondrial genome of Ravinia pernix presented will be valuable and useful for enriching the dipteran mitochondrial genomes, resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Sarcophagidae and the order Diptera, and providing a molecular tool for species identifications for forensic purposes. PMID:25418624

  19. Volatile Components Emitted from the Liverwort Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Kazutoshi; Tomiyama, Kenichi; Kawakami, Yukihiko; Ochiai, Nozomi; Yabe, Shigeki; Nakagawa, Tomomi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2016-02-01

    The volatile components from the thalloid liverwort, Marchantia paleacea subsp. diptera were investigated by HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis. The monocyclic monoterpene aldehyde, perillaldehyde was identified for the first time as the major component and its content was about 50% of the volatiles, along with β-pinene, limonene, β-caryophyllene, α-selinene and β-selinene as minor volatiles. Using MD (Multi-dimensional) GC-MS analysis equipped with a chiral column as the second column, the chirality was determined of both perillaldehyde and limonene, which was considered as the precursor of perillaldehyde. Both compounds were (S)-(-)-enantiomers (over 99.0 %) and (R)-enantiomers (less than 0.5 %). This is the first report of the existence of perillaldehyde in liverworts. PMID:27032216

  20. Chironomid midges (Diptera, chironomidae) show extremely small genome sizes.

    PubMed

    Cornette, Richard; Gusev, Oleg; Nakahara, Yuichi; Shimura, Sachiko; Kikawada, Takahiro; Okuda, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    Chironomid midges (Diptera; Chironomidae) are found in various environments from the high Arctic to the Antarctic, including temperate and tropical regions. In many freshwater habitats, members of this family are among the most abundant invertebrates. In the present study, the genome sizes of 25 chironomid species were determined by flow cytometry and the resulting C-values ranged from 0.07 to 0.20 pg DNA (i.e. from about 68 to 195 Mbp). These genome sizes were uniformly very small and included, to our knowledge, the smallest genome sizes recorded to date among insects. Small proportion of transposable elements and short intron sizes were suggested to contribute to the reduction of genome sizes in chironomids. We discuss about the possible developmental and physiological advantages of having a small genome size and about putative implications for the ecological success of the family Chironomidae. PMID:26003979

  1. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of Aedes vigilax (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of two main clades of the medically significant saltmarsh mosquito Aedes vigilax Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) were obtained using combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing. The two 15,877 bp circular genomes share 99.0% nucleotide identity and encode 37 genes with identical gene arrangement similar to previously published Culicidae species with a non-coding A + T rich region between rns and tRNA-Ile. Protein initiation codon is ATN apart from ND5 (GTG) and COX1 (TCG). Eight protein-coding genes encode full TAA stop codon, while five are completed by mRNA polyadenylation. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:26099979

  2. Observations on Hilltopping in Thick-Headed Flies (Diptera: Conopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Maurizio; Gibson, Joel F.; Skevington, Jeffrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Direct observations of hilltopping behaviour in the thick-headed flies (Diptera: Conopidae) have only been mentioned once in the literature. Hilltop collecting, however, may be an effective way to survey these endparasitoids. The first evidence of hilltopping in species belonging to the subfamilies Myopinae and Dalmanniinae is presented and discussed. Field observations were conducted on Colle Vescovo, Italy and Mount Rigaud, Canada, and museum specimens were examined. Observations and records indicate that four species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, and Zodion are hilltoppers on Colle Vescovo, while three species in the genera Myopa and Physocephala are hilltoppers on three hilltops near Ottawa, Canada. Fifteen additional species of conopids have been collected on hilltops and could possibly utilize hilltops in some years as a part of their mating strategy. Detailed phenologies and observations of mating and perching behaviours are given for species in the genera Dalmannia, Myopa, Physocephala, and Zodion. The importance of hilltop habitat preservation is stressed. PMID:20578949

  3. Influence of resources on Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larval development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2013-07-01

    Arthropod development can be used to determine the time of colonization of human remains to infer a minimum postmortem interval. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera. Stratiomyidae) is native to North America and is unique in that its larvae can consume a wide range of decomposing organic material, including carrion. Larvae development was observed on six resources: control poultry feed, liver, manure, kitchen waste, fruits and vegetables, and fish rendering. Larvae fed manure were shorter, weighed less, and took longer to develop. Kitchen waste produced longer and heavier larvae, whereas larvae fed fish had almost 100% mortality. Black soldier flies can colonize human remains, which in many instances can coincide with food and organic wastes. Therefore, it is necessary to understand black soldier fly development on different food resources other than carrion tissue to properly estimate their age when recovered from human remains. PMID:23926790

  4. The chemical ecology of cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hall, David R; Amarawardana, Lakmali; Cross, Jerry V; Francke, Wittko; Boddum, Tina; Hillbur, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    The family of cecidomyiid midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) exhibits diversified patterns of life history, behavior, host range, population dynamics and other ecological traits. Those that feed on plants include many important agricultural pests; most cultivated plants are attacked by at least one midge species. Several features of the reproductive biology of cecidomyiid midges point to an important role for chemical communication, with this topic last reviewed comprehensively 12 years ago. Here, we review progress on identification of sex pheromones, chemicals involved in location of host plants, the neurophysiology of reception of volatile chemicals, and application of semiochemicals to management of pest species of cecidomyiid midges that has occurred during the last decade. We hope this review will stimulate and sustain further research in these fields. PMID:22215563

  5. Invasion Biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Dina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) has recently expanded beyond its native range of Japan and Korea into large parts of North America and Central Europe. Population genetic studies begun immediately after the species was detected in North America revealed genetically distinct introductions that subsequently merged, likely contributing to the successful expansion. Interactions, particularly in the larval stage, with other known disease vectors give this invasive subspecies the potential to influence local disease dynamics. Its successful invasion likely does not involve superior direct competitive abilities, but it is associated with the use of diverse larval habitats and a cold tolerance that allows an expanded seasonal activity range in temperate climates. We predict a continued but slower expansion of Ae. j. japonicus in North America and a continued rapid expansion into other areas as this mosquito will eventually be considered a permanent resident of much of North America, Europe, Asia, and parts of Hawaii. PMID:24397520

  6. Congruence and controversy: toward a higher-level phylogeny of Diptera.

    PubMed

    Yeates, D K; Wiegmann, B M

    1999-01-01

    The order Diptera (true flies) is one of the most species-rich and ecologically diverse clades of insects. The order probably arose in the Permian, and the main lineages of flies were present in the Triassic. A novel recent proposal suggests that Strepsiptera are the sister-order to Diptera. Within Diptera, evidence is convincing for the monophyly of Culicomorpha, Blephariceromorpha, and Tipulomorpha but weak for the monophyly of the other basal infraorders and for the relationships among them. The lower Diptera (Nematocera) is paraphyletic with respect to Brachycera, and morphological evidence suggests the sister-group of Brachycera lies in the Psychodomorpha. Recent analyses suggest Tipulomorpha are closer to the base of Brachycera than to the base of Diptera. Brachycera are undoubtedly monophyletic, but relationships between the basal lineages of this group are poorly understood. The monophyly of Stratiomyomorpha, Xylophagomorpha, Tabanomorpha, and Muscomorpha is well supported. Eremoneura, and its constituent clades Empidoidea and Cyclorrhapha, are monophyletic. The sister-group of Eremoneura is likely to be part or all of Asiloidea. Several viewpoints on the homology of the male genitalia of eremoneuran flies are discussed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that lower Cyclorrhapha (Aschiza) are paraphyletic; however, schizophoran monophyly is well supported. The monophyly of Acalyptratae is not well-founded and the relationships between acalyptrate superfamilies remain obscure. Recent advances document the monophyly of the families of Calyptratae and the relationships among them. Areas critical to future advances in understanding dipteran phylogeny include the relationships among the basal infraorders of Diptera and Brachycera and the relationships between the superfamilies of acalyptrates. Progress in dipteran phylogenetics will accelerate with the exploration of novel data sources and the formulation of hypotheses in an explicitly quantitative framework. PMID

  7. Checklist of the smaller families of Opomyzoidea, Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Aulacigastridae, Clusiidae, Odiniidae, Opomyzidae and Periscelididae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A species checklist is presented for Finland covering seven smaller families of Opomyzoidea: Anthomyzidae, Asteiidae, Aulacigastridae, Clusiidae, Odiniidae, Opomyzidae and Periscelididae (Diptera). PMID:25337024

  8. Gene discovery and differential expression analysis of humoral immune response elements in female Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of pathogens that impact livestock and wildlife in the United States. Little is known about their molecular functioning, including components of their immune system. Because the insect immune response is involved ...

  9. A new Lestodiplosine (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) preying on the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta Perseae (Heteroptera: Tingidae) in southern Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A species new to science, Tingidoletes praelonga Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)was recently discovered preying on the avocado lace bug, Pseudacysta perseae (Heidemann) (Heteroptera: Tingidae), in Florida, USA. A new genus is described to receive the new species....

  10. Checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    A checklist of the 'lower Brachycera' of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  11. Oviposition behavior of the biological control agent Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in environments with multiple pest aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural enemies are constantly faced with oviposition decisions that have potential fitness consequences. We investigated the oviposition behavior of the aphidophagous midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) when faced with multiple prey choices, i.e. plants infested with Myzus persic...

  12. Strongygaster triangulifera (Diptera: Tachinidae) as a parasitoid of adults of the invasive Megacopta cribraria (Heteroptera: Plataspidae) in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strongygaster triangulifera (Loew) (Diptera:Tachinidae) is reported for the first time as a parasitoid of Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius) (Heteroptera: Plataspidae), the kudzu bug, an introduced pest of soybeans and other legume crops in the southeastern U.S....

  13. An emerging example of tritrophic coevolution between flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae) on Myrtaceae host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique obligate mutualism occurs between species of Fergusonina Malloch flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) and nematodes of the genus Fergusobia Currie (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae). These mutualists together form different types of galls on Myrtaceae, mainly in Australia. The galling association appear...

  14. Influence of modified atmosphere packaging on radiation tolerance in the phytosanitary pest melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) producing a low oxygen environment to increase produce shelf life may increase the radiation tolerance of insect pests receiving phytosanitary irradiation treatment on traded agricultural commodities. Melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an i...

  15. Specific detection of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in bulk fly trap catches using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, S; Morgan, J A T; Wlodek, B M; Brown, G W; Urech, R; Green, P E; Lew-Tabor, A E

    2010-09-01

    The Old World screwworm fly (OWS), Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is a myiasis-causing blowfly of major concern for both animals and humans. Surveillance traps are used in several countries for early detection of incursions and to monitor control strategies. Examination of surveillance trap catches is time-consuming and is complicated by the presence of morphologically similar flies that are difficult to differentiate from Ch. bezziana, especially when the condition of specimens is poor. A molecular-based method to confirm or refute the presence of Ch. bezziana in trap catches would greatly simplify monitoring programmes. A species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to target the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (rDNA ITS1) of Ch. bezziana. The assay uses both species-specific primers and an OWS-specific Taqman((R)) MGB probe. Specificity was confirmed against morphologically similar and related Chrysomya and Cochliomyia species. An optimal extraction protocol was developed to process trap catches of up to 1000 flies and the assay is sensitive enough to detect one Ch. bezziana in a sample of 1000 non-target species. Blind testing of 29 trap catches from Australia and Malaysia detected Ch. bezziana with 100% accuracy. The probability of detecting OWS in a trap catch of 50 000 flies when the OWS population prevalence is low (one in 1000 flies) is 63.6% for one extraction. For three extractions (3000 flies), the probability of detection increases to 95.5%. The real-time PCR assay, used in conjunction with morphology, will greatly increase screening capabilities in surveillance areas where OWS prevalence is low. PMID:20497318

  16. Alternative Diets for Chrysomya putoria, an Old World Screwworm Fly

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Adriana C.P.; Dallavecchia, Daniele L.; da Silva, Débora Cardoso; de Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; da Silva Filho, Renato Geraldo; Aguiar-Coelho, Valéria M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the post—embryonic development of Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann 1818) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) reared on a diet of gizzard or gizzard/agar homogenate, with a diet of beef used as the control. Four replicates per treatment were performed (60 mL of each diet). The gizzard (60%), distilled water, and agar homogenate were combined in a blender. Each replicate consisted of 40 newly hatched larvae of C. putoria (5th generation). Each glass beaker containing a diet was inserted into a larger flask containing sawdust, which was covered with a nylon cloth held in place by an elastic band. The larvae were weighed and stored in test tubes sealed with a nylon cloth and an elastic band. The average temperature, measured with a thermohygrograph, was 20.6 °C, and the average relative humidity was 67.7%. The variation in the mean weight of mature larvae and in the duration of the larval, pupal, and total stages (newly hatched larvae to imagoes) were analyzed by Student's t—test (α = 5%), while viability was compared by ANOVA. The sex ratio was evaluated by the chi—squared test. The average duration of the period from the larval to imago stage was 8.868 days on the beef diet, 8.676 on the gizzard diet, and 9.067 on the gizzard/agar homogenate diet. Larval survival rates on these diets were 98, 92, and 73%, respectively, while pupal viabilities were 98, 91, and 71%, respectively, and larva—to—imago viabilities were 93, 83, and 64%, respectively. The duration of the pupal period differed significantly between the blowflies reared on the beef and gizzard/agar homogenate diets. The two diets proved to be good alternatives for rearing C. putoria. PMID:22954388

  17. Pollinating flies (Diptera): A major contribution to plant diversity and agricultural production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diptera are one of the three largest and most diverse animal groups of the world. As an often neglected, but important group of pollinators, they play a significant role in agrobiodiversity and biodiversity of plants everywhere. Flies are present in almost all habitats and biomes and for many food p...

  18. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiation is a postharvest quarantine treatment option for exported commodities such as stone fruits and small fruits to prevent movement of the new invasive pest spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Walker) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal dev...

  19. Tripius gyraloura n. sp. (Aphelenchoidea: Sphaerulariidae) parasitic in the gall midge Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new nematode, Tripius gyraloura sp. n., is described from the arundo gall midge, Lasioptera donacis Coutin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae). This gall midge is being considered as a biological control agent for use in North America against the introduced giant reed, Arundo donax (L.) (Poaceae: Cyperales)....

  20. Long distance movement of batrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidale in Puna, Hawaii: How far can they go?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is considered a major economic threat in many regions world-wide including the island of Hawaii, in the Hawaiian archipelago. The need to control large populations over large areas helped initiate the USDA-ARS (United Stat...

  1. A remarkable new species of Eutrichopoda Townsend, 1908 (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae).

    PubMed

    Dios, Rodrigo De Vilhena Perez; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo

    2016-01-01

    A new Tachinidae species, Eutrichopoda flavipenna sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae: Phasiinae), from Brazil and Paraguay is described and illustrated by photographs and line drawings. The remarkable yellow, feather-like setae on the hind tibia distinguishes the new species from all other species in the tribe Trichopodini. PMID:27395220

  2. Molecular species identification of cryptic apple and snowberry maggots (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Western and Central Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Washington state, identification of the quarantine apple pest Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is complicated by the presence of the cryptic species R. zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae). Distinguishing the two flies is important because there is a zero tolerance policy for R. pomonella in apple p...

  3. Checklist of the family Ephydridae of Finland (Insecta, Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Zatwarnicki, Tadeusz; Kahanpää, Jere

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of 112 species of shore flies (Ephydridae, Diptera) recorded from Finland is presented. Comparing this to the list of Hackman (1980), 52 changes are made: 25 species are added (all but one recorded after 1980), 18 misidentifications are deleted, 5 junior synonyms are replaced and 5 updated generic combinations are given. PMID:25337031

  4. Effect of seasonality and perisulfakinin on engorgement by Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae) in the laboratory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horse fly Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae), a hematophagous insect, is a nuisance pest along the Atlantic Coast. A description of the engorgement pattern throughout the season is lacking in the literature for this species. The percentage of the flies engorging a bloodmeal in...

  5. First North American record of the Palaearctic rhinophorid Stevenia deceptoria (Loew) (Diptera: Rhinophoridae).

    PubMed

    O'hara, James E; Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Dahlem, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    The Rhinophoridae (Diptera) have a cosmopolitan distribution and a known fauna of about 150 species (Cerretti & Pape 2007). So far as known, all species are parasitoids of terrestrial woodlice (sow bugs) of the order Isopoda (Oniscoidea) (Pape 2010). Female rhinophorids lay eggs in the vicinity of potential hosts and the planidial first instars parasitize sow bugs as they pass by (Pape 1998). PMID:26701527

  6. Detection/monitoring of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae): assessing the potential of prospective new lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons is a tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) which has a host list of 59 plant species from 14 plant families, with over 70% of the host plant species coming from the plant families Solanaceae and Cucurbitaceae. Bactrocera latifrons is of primarily Asian distribution, but it...

  7. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas was evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May-20 Oct 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May-18 Nov 2010 (25 wk). A t...

  8. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a Parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R.; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  9. Lespesia melloi sp. nov. (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Brazil, a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Nunez, Enio

    2014-01-01

    A new species of the New World genus Lespesia, Lespesia melloi SP NOV: (Diptera: Tachinidae), is described from southeastern Brazil. The species is reported here as a parasitoid of Xanthopastis timais (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). The caterpillars of this noctuid feed on leaves and bulbs of amaryllis (Amaryllidaceae) in Brazil. PMID:25368065

  10. Effects of Viral Infection on Blood-Feeding Behavior in Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior. Midges were intrathoracically inoc...

  11. New contributions to Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Spain: addition of three new species.

    PubMed

    Gil-Ortiz, Ricardo; Martinez, Michel; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The genus Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) includes the main leafminer pests for monocots. Three new species are described that were captured using Malaise traps in "Tinença de Benifassà", "Font Roja" and "Lagunas de La Mata-Torrevieja" (Spain) Natural Parks: Pseudonapomyza curvata n. sp., P. longitata n. sp., and P. sicicornis n. sp. Systematics. Ecological data are discussed. PMID:21062209

  12. Amazonimyia gigantea gen. n., sp. n., a new Tanypodinae (Diptera: Chironomidae) from the Neotropical Region.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Wiedenbrug, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    A new genus, Amazonimyia, is established for a species of the tribe Pentaneurini (Diptera, Chironomidae, Tanypodinae) from the Amazon Rainforest in northern Brazil. Generic diagnoses for adult male and pupa are provided together with descriptions of a new species, Amazonimyia gigantea. PMID:25947735

  13. Laboratory effects of two organically-certified insecticides on Trichopoda pennipes (Diptera:Tachinidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this laboratory study was to determine the effects of two organically-certified insecticides, azadirachtin and spinosad, on the stink bug parasitoid Trichopoda pennipes (Fab.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) in residual, topical, and oral toxicity tests. The insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin was...

  14. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  15. Kerteszmyia, a new genus of Pachygastrinae from the Neotropical Region (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Kerteszmyia ecuadora gen. nov., sp. nov., (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae) is described from material from Ecuador (type locality), Venezuela, and Costa Rica. A key to the known Neotropical genera of Pachygastrinae with two or more scutellar spines is presented. ...

  16. Annotated world bibliography of host fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) infests many solanaceous plant species, some of which are important horticultural crop species. It has also been found to infest a number of cucurbitaceous plant species as well as a few plant species in other plant families. B. latifrons is of ...

  17. Blood Feeding Behavior of Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Infected Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of Bluetongue virus in North America and a competent vector of Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects blood feeding behavior and how this might affect virus transmission....

  18. Effects of Viral Infection on Blood Feeding Behavior and Fecundity in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is the primary vector of bluetongue virus (BTV) in North America and a competent vector of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Little is known about how viral infection of this midge affects its blood feeding behavior and fecundity. Blood feeding succes...

  19. Effects of Melezitose and Stachyose on Adult Longevity and Virus Persistence in Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide variety of blood feeding Diptera feed on extrafloral sugar sources such as homopteran honeydew. he significance of these sugar sources to insect survival and disease transmission are poorly known. Culicoides sonorensis can survive on plant sugars but might feed on homopteran honeydew. The su...

  20. Toxicity of Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae) and Achyranthes aspera (Amaranthaceae) leaf extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternative control technologies envisioned for the dengue vector Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) include botanical insecticides, which are believed to pose little threat to the environment or to human health and may provide a practical substitute for synthetic insecticides. In this study, we...

  1. Feeding substrates and behaviors of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the abundance of potential foods and the feeding substrates of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in 2005 and 2006 in central Washington. Aphid colonies with honeydew were not seen on randomly selected branches of s...

  2. Transcriptome analyses of blood and sugar digestive processes in female Culicoides sonorensis midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones (Diptera:Ceratopogonidae) midges vector numerous diseases impacting livestock and humans. The molecular physiology of this midge has been under-studied, so our approach was to gain an understanding of basic processes of blood and sucrose digestion using tra...

  3. Picture-winged fly (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp.; Diptera: Ulidiidae) semiochemical investigations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Picture-winged flies (Euxesta, Chaetopsis spp., Diptera: Ulidiidae) are severe primary pests of sweet corn in southern Florida. Females oviposit in silks and larvae consume the silks and kernels, rendering the ear unmarketable. Growers treat their fields with numerous broad spectrum insecticide ap...

  4. Body size and shape analyses of F1 hybrid Rhagoletis pomonella and Rhagoletis zephyria (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimentally generated F1 hybrids of apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), and Rhagoletis zephyria Snow (Diptera: Tephritidae) were classified using morphometric methods. Five of nine mean body size measurements of hybrids from crossing female R. pomonella × male R. zephyria were interm...

  5. Vector competence of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus serotype 7

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is a vector of epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) serotypes 1 and 2 in North America, where these viruses are well-known pathogens of white-tailed deer (WTD) and other wild ruminants. Although historically rare, reports of clinica...

  6. Effectiveness of genes for Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) resistance in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the most important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) in the southeastern United States, and the deployment of genetically resistant wheat is the most effective control. However, the use of resistant w...

  7. Wine and vinegar-based attractants for the African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly (AFF), Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States after first being detected in Florida in 2005. This drosophilid is a primary pest of figs in Brazil, so there were initial concern...

  8. Trapping African fig fly (Diptera: Drosophilidae) with combinations of vinegar and wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African fig fly, Zaprionus indianus Gupta (Diptera: Drosophilidae), is an invasive fruit pest that has spread rapidly through much of the eastern United States. Tests were conducted in southern Florida that recorded the response of Z. indianus to baits that included Merlot wine, rice vinegar, et...

  9. A four-component synthetic attractant for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) isolated from fermented bait headspace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: A mixture of wine and vinegar is highly attractive to spotted wing drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), and ethanol and acetic acid are considered key to SWD attraction to such materials. In addition to ethanol and acetic acid, thirteen other wine an...

  10. Natural Establishment of a Parasitoid Complex on Bactrocera latifons (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Solanaceous fruit fly, Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most recent of four tephritid fruit fly species accidentally introduced into Hawaii. Although parasitoids have been released against other tephritid fruit fly species and have shown partial success in Hawaii, no ...

  11. The oldest accurate record of Scenopinidae in the Lowermost Eocene amber of France (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Garrouste, Romain; Azar, Dany; Nel, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Eocenotrichia magnifica gen. et sp. nov. (Diptera: Scenopinidae: Metatrichini) is described and illustrated from the Lowermost Eocene amber of Oise (France) and represents the oldest definitive window fly fossil. The present discovery in the Earliest Eocene supports the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene age currently proposed for the emergence of Metatrichini. PMID:27394507

  12. The first confirmed record of the leafminer Phytomyza rufipes (Diptera: Agromyzidae) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytomyza rufipes Meigen (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a leafmining pest of Brassicaceae in Europe and other regions of the world. Once reported from Oregon in the United States, this record has since been found to be a misidentification. Here we report P. rufipes for the first time from California. We ...

  13. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of eleven species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Choice and no-choice tests were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Flor...

  14. Checklist of the familes Chaoboridae, Dixidae, Thaumaleidae, Psychodidae and Ptychopteridae (Diptera) of Finland

    PubMed Central

    Salmela, Jukka; Paasivirta, Lauri; Kvifte, Gunnar M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the families Chaoboridae, Dixidae, Thaumaleidae, Psychodidae and Ptychopteridae (Diptera) recorded from Finland is given. Four species, Dixella dyari Garret, 1924 (Dixidae), Threticus tridactilis (Kincaid, 1899), Panimerus albifacies (Tonnoir, 1919) and Panimerus przhiboroi Wagner, 2005 (Psychodidae) are reported for the first time from Finland. PMID:25337006

  15. Effect of surround WP on behavior and mortality of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest in apple production areas located in the northeastern and midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. The development of Surround WP has offered a new approach for controlling apple maggot fly...

  16. The genus Camptochaeta in Nearctic caves, with the description of C. prolixa sp. n. (Diptera, Sciaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Vilkamaa, Pekka; Hippa, Heikki; Taylor, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Camptochaeta prolixa sp. n. (Diptera, Sciaridae) is described from caves in Nevada, and three other congeneric species are recorded from caves in Nevada and Arkansas, United States. The new species shows some indication to a subterranean mode of life, including long antenna and legs, and in some specimens, reduction of the eye bridge. PMID:22259302

  17. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) biting deterrence: structure-activity relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we systematically evaluated for the first time the biting deterrent effects of a series of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids against Aedes aegypti [yellow fever mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae)] using the K & D bioassay system (Klun et al 2005). The saturated fatty acids (C6:0 to C16...

  18. New combinations and changes in the classification of Ceratopogonidae (Diptera, biting midges).

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art

    2015-01-01

    This short article contains some necessary taxonomic changes prior to the publication of a chapter on the Ceratopogonidae by the author for the upcoming Manual of Afrotropical Diptera and spearheaded by Ashley Kirk-Spriggs. Some additional placements of three genera to a recently redefined tribe are also included. PMID:26249516

  19. Effects of tree and herb biodiversity on Diptera, a hyperdiverse insect order.

    PubMed

    Scherber, Christoph; Vockenhuber, Elke A; Stark, Andreas; Meyer, Hans; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-04-01

    Biodiversity experiments have shown that plant diversity has largely positive effects on insect diversity and abundance. However, such relationships have rarely been studied in undisturbed and more complex ecosystems such as forests. Flies (Diptera) are among the most dominant taxa in temperate ecosystems, influencing many ecosystem processes. As it is unknown how Diptera respond to changes in forest biodiversity, we examined how community characteristics of Diptera respond to varying levels of tree and herb diversity and vegetation structure. The study was conducted in the Hainich National Park (Central Germany) on 84 plots along a gradient of tree (from two to nine species) and herb (from two to 28 species) diversity. We found that herb and canopy cover as well as spatial effects were the best predictors of Diptera community composition, consisting of 62 families, including 99 Empidoidea and 78 Phoridae species. Abundance of Empidoidea was positively influenced by herb diversity, indicating bottom-up control. A complex causal pathway influenced Dipteran species richness: species-rich forest stands, with low beech cover, had lower canopy cover, resulting in higher Dipteran species richness. In addition, Diptera benefited from a more dense and diverse herb community. Individual species responded differentially to herb layer diversity, indicating that effects of plant diversity on higher trophic levels depend on species identity. We conclude that tree and herb canopy cover as well as herb diversity predominately shape Dipteran communities in temperate deciduous forests, which is in contrast to expectations from grassland studies exhibiting much closer relationships between plant and insect diversity. PMID:24394862

  20. Sampling strategies for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Europe.

    PubMed

    Alten, B; Ozbel, Y; Ergunay, K; Kasap, O E; Cull, B; Antoniou, M; Velo, E; Prudhomme, J; Molina, R; Bañuls, A-L; Schaffner, F; Hendrickx, G; Van Bortel, W; Medlock, J M

    2015-12-01

    The distribution of phlebotomine sand flies is widely reported to be changing in Europe. This can be attributed to either the discovery of sand flies in areas where they were previously overlooked (generally following an outbreak of leishmaniasis or other sand fly-related disease) or to true expansion of their range as a result of climatic or environmental changes. Routine surveillance for phlebotomines in Europe is localized, and often one of the challenges for entomologists working in non-leishmaniasis endemic countries is the lack of knowledge on how to conduct, plan and execute sampling for phlebotomines, or how to adapt on-going sampling strategies for other haematophagous diptera. This review brings together published and unpublished expert knowledge on sampling strategies for European phlebotomines of public health concern in order to provide practical advice on: how to conduct surveys; the collection and interpretation of field data; suitable techniques for the preservation of specimens obtained by different sampling methods; molecular techniques used for species identification; and the pathogens associated with sand flies and their detection methods. PMID:26271257

  1. Irradiation of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) revisited: optimizing sterility induction.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Diaz-Fleischer, Francisco; Arredondo, Jose

    2007-08-01

    Irradiation doses currently applied to sterilize Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), for release under the sterile insect technique eradication campaign in Mexico, were reviewed in an effort to increase sterile male performance in the field. A dose maximizing sterility induction into wild populations was sought by balancing somatic fitness with genetic sterility. Doses of 40, 60, and 80 Gy induced 95% or more sterility in all males, which in turn induced similar degrees of sterility into a cohort of wild flies in the laboratory. However, a low dose of 40 Gy was sufficient to completely suppress egg production in females. Similarly, a mild carryover of genetic damage might have been transferred to the F1 progeny of males irradiated at 40 Gy crossed with fertile wild females. Our results suggest that the 80-Gy dose currently applied in Mexico can be lowered substantially without jeopardizing program goals. This view could be strengthened by comparing performance of males irradiated at different doses under more natural settings. In general, we discuss the value of determining irradiation doses for pest species where females are more radiosensitive than males, by selecting the dose that causes 100% sterility in females. PMID:17849864

  2. Biogeography of Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in East and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Robert Liu, Fu-Guo; Tsaur, Shun-Chern; Huang, Hsiao-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The causes of high biological diversity in biodiversity hotspots have long been a major subject of study in conservation biology. To investigate this matter, we conducted a phylogeographic study of five Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) species from East and Southeast Asia: Drosophila albomicans Duda, D. formosana Duda, D. immigrans Sturtevant, D. melanogaster Meigen, and D. simulans Sturtevant. We collected 185 samples from 28 localities in eight countries. From each collected individual, we sequenced the autosomal extra sex comb gene (esc) and seven mitochondrial genes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate-reductase dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4), ND4L, tRNA-His, tRNA-Pro, tRNA-Thr, partial ND5, and partial ND6. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum- likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed interesting population structure and identified the existence of two distinct D. formosana lineages (Southeast Asian and Taiwanese populations). Genetic differentiation among groups of D. immigrans suggests the possibility of endemic speciation in Taiwan. In contrast, D. melanogaster remained one extensively large population throughout East and Southeast Asia, including nearby islets. A molecular clock was used to estimate divergence times, which were compared with past geographical events to infer evolutionary scenarios. Our findings suggest that interglacial periods may have caused population isolation, thus enhancing population differentiation more strongly for some of the Drosophila species. The population structure of each Drosophila species in East and Southeast Asia has been influenced by past geographic events. PMID:26078303

  3. Blood Meal Analysis of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Slama, Darine; Haouas, Najoua; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda; Chaker, Emna

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the host preferences of Culicoides species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Central Tunisia, we identified the source of blood meals of field collected specimens by sequencing of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial locus and Prepronociceptine single copy nuclear gene. The study includes the most common and abundant livestock associated species of biting midges in Tunisia: C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. newsteadi, C. paolae, C. cataneii, C. circumscriptus, C. kingi, C. pseudojumineri, C. submaritimus, C. langeroni, C. jumineri var and some unidentified C. species. Analysis of cyt b PCR products from 182 field collected blood-engorged females’ midges revealed that 92% of them fed solely on mammalian species, 1.6% on birds, 2.4% on insects and 0.8% on reptiles. The blast results identified the blood origin of biting midges to the species level with exact or nearly exact matches (≥98%). The results confirm the presence of several Culicoides species, including proven vectors in Central Tunisia. Blood meal analyses show that these species will indeed feed on bigger mammals, thereby highlighting the risk that these viruses will be able to spread in Tunisia. PMID:25793285

  4. Mushroom host influence on Lycoriella mali (Diptera: Sciaridae) life cycle.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, L; Keil, C B

    2005-04-01

    Lycoriella mali Fitch (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Recent observations in mushroom houses indicated a difference in emergence time and size of adult L. mali developing on various strains of commercial mushrooms. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. The number of eggs laid increased as the weight of the female increased. Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on eight strains and species of mushrooms. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali. PMID:15889722

  5. Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) taxonomy: Current challenges and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Harrup, L.E.; Bellis, G.A.; Balenghien, T.; Garros, C.

    2015-01-01

    Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause a significant biting nuisance to humans, livestock and equines, and are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important pathogens of both veterinary and medical importance. Despite their economic significance, the delimitation and identification of species and evolutionary relationships between species within this genus remains at best problematic. To date no phylogenetic study has attempted to validate the subgeneric classification of the genus and the monophyly of many of the subgenera remains doubtful. Many informal species groupings are also known to exist but few are adequately described, further complicating accurate identification. Recent contributions to Culicoides taxonomy at the species level have revealed a high correlation between morphological and molecular analyses although molecular analyses are revealing the existence of cryptic species. This review considers the methods for studying the systematics of Culicoides using both morphological and genetic techniques, with a view to understanding the factors limiting our current understanding of Culicoides biology and hence arbovirus epidemiology. In addition, we examine the global status of Culicoides identification, highlighting areas that are poorly addressed, including the potential implementation of emerging technologies. PMID:25535946

  6. Biology of Anastrepha grandis (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Different Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Bolzan, Anderson; Nava, Dori E; Garcia, Flávio R M; Valgas, Ricardo A; Smaniotto, Giovani

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha grandis (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the main pests of cucurbits in Brazil. Losses occur due to the damage caused to the fruits and the embargo on exports, as A. grandis is considered a quarantine pest in countries that import Brazilian cucurbits. This study aimed to evaluate the development of A. grandis in hosts of the Cucurbitaceae family. The hosts used were stem squash (Cucurbita pepo L.), squash (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne), chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz], mini watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai], Spanish melon (Cucumis melo L.), hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto" (C. moschata×Cucurbita maxima Duchesne), and salad cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). We evaluated the viability and duration of egg-to-pupa period, pupal weight, sex ratio, and average number of pupae per fruit under controlled conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and photophase. The preoviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity, fertility, and longevity of females were determined for adults. Hosts of the genus Cucurbita provided a better development of A. grandis in comparison with other hosts, and presented a greater number of insects on fruit as well as higher infestation rate. Fecundity and longevity were also higher for females that developed in hosts of the genus Cucurbita, although values of these biological parameters varied between stem squash, squash, hybrid squash "Tetsukabuto." PMID:26470226

  7. Evolution and Structural Analyses of Glossina morsitans (Diptera; Glossinidae) Tetraspanins

    PubMed Central

    Murungi, Edwin K.; Kariithi, Henry M.; Adunga, Vincent; Obonyo, Meshack; Christoffels, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Tetraspanins are important conserved integral membrane proteins expressed in many organisms. Although there is limited knowledge about the full repertoire, evolution and structural characteristics of individual members in various organisms, data obtained so far show that tetraspanins play major roles in membrane biology, visual processing, memory, olfactory signal processing, and mechanosensory antennal inputs. Thus, these proteins are potential targets for control of insect pests. Here, we report that the genome of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) encodes at least seventeen tetraspanins (GmTsps), all containing the signature features found in the tetraspanin superfamily members. Whereas six of the GmTsps have been previously reported, eleven could be classified as novel because their amino acid sequences do not map to characterized tetraspanins in the available protein data bases. We present a model of the GmTsps by using GmTsp42Ed, whose presence and expression has been recently detected by transcriptomics and proteomics analyses of G. morsitans. Phylogenetically, the identified GmTsps segregate into three major clusters. Structurally, the GmTsps are largely similar to vertebrate tetraspanins. In view of the exploitation of tetraspanins by organisms for survival, these proteins could be targeted using specific antibodies, recombinant large extracellular loop (LEL) domains, small-molecule mimetics and siRNAs as potential novel and efficacious putative targets to combat African trypanosomiasis by killing the tsetse fly vector. PMID:26462947

  8. Updated list of the mosquitoes of Colombia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mengual, Ximo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background A revised list of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) known to occur in Colombia is presented. A total of 324 species from 28 genera of Culicidae are included. The species names are organized in alphabetical order according to the current generic and subgeneric classification, along with their authorship. The list is compiled in order to support mosquito research in Colombia. New information Our systematic review and literature survey found, by 16 February 2015, 13 records of culicid species previously overlooked by mosquito catalogs for Colombia: Anopheles costai da Fonseca & da Silva Ramos, 1939, An. fluminensis Root, 1927, An. malefactor Dyar & Knab, 1907, An. shannoni Davis, 1931, An. vargasi Galbadón, Cova García & Lopez, 1941, Culex mesodenticulatus Galindo & Mendez, 1961, Haemagogus capricornii Lutz, 1904, Isostomyia espini (Martini, 1914), Johnbelkinia leucopus (Dyar & Knab, 1906), Mansonia indubitans Dyar & Shannon, 1925, Psorophora saeva Dyar & Knab, 1906, Sabethes glaucodaemon (Dyar & Shannon, 1925), and Wyeomyia intonca Dyar & Knab, 1909. Moreover, Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) luteoventralis Theobald, 1901 is recorded for Colombia for the first time. This work provides important insights into mosquito diversity in Colombia, using the current nomenclature and phylogenetic rankings. PMID:25829860

  9. Host plant susceptibility to the swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Hallett, Rebecca H

    2007-08-01

    The relative resistance and susceptibility of various cruciferous plants to swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii (Kieffer) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), damage was investigated to provide growers with planting recommendations and to identify potential sources of resistance to the swede midge. Broccoli cultivars experienced more severe damage than cabbage, cauliflower, and Brussels sprouts. The broccoli 'Paragon', 'Eureka', and 'Packman' are highly susceptible to the swede midge, whereas 'Triathlon' and 'Regal' showed reduced susceptibility to damage and slower development of damage symptoms. No differences were found between normal and red cultivars of cabbage and cauliflower in damage severity and progression of damage symptoms. Four new plant species (Brassica juncea Integlifolia group, Erucastrum gallicum (Willd.) O. E. Shulz., Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br., and Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.) are reported as hosts of the swede midge. The weed species Descurainia sophia (L.) Webb, Camelina microcarpa Andrz. ex Dc., and Erysimum cheiranthoides L. exhibited no damage symptoms, and they seem to be nonhost crucifers for the swede midge. PMID:17849887

  10. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500-550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300-400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell(®) amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400-500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap "UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle" was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  11. Marking Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) With Rubidium or 15N.

    PubMed

    Klick, J; Yang, W Q; Bruck, D J

    2015-06-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) has caused significant economic damage to berry and stone fruit production regions. Markers that are systemic in plants and easily transferred to target organisms are needed to track D. suzukii exploitation of host resources and trophic interactions. High and low concentrations of the trace element, rubidium (Rb), and the stable isotope, 15N, were tested to mark D. suzukii larvae feeding on fruits of enriched strawberry plants grown in containers under greenhouse conditions. Fly marker content and proportion of flies marked 1, 7, and 14 d after emergence from enriched fruits and fly dry mass were analyzed. Nearly 100% of the flies analyzed 14 d after emerging from 15N-enriched plants were marked, whereas only 30-75% and 0-3% were marked 14 d after emerging from high and low Rb concentration plants, respectively. Rapid Rb decay, strong 15N persistence, and the economics of using these markers in the field to elucidate D. suzukii pest ecology are discussed. PMID:26470275

  12. A New Visual Trap for Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Mathis, Samuel; Feichtinger, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the most important pest of sweet cherries in Europe. The aim of our experiments was to develop a new, cost-efficient, lead chromate-free and more eco-friendly trap for monitoring and mass trapping of R. cerasi. Five different-colored yellow panels and three different trap shapes were compared to a standard Rebell® amarillo trap in three experimental orchards in 2012. Trap color F, with a strong increase in reflectance at 500–550 nm and a secondary peak in the UV-region at 300–400 nm, captured significantly more flies than the standard Rebell® amarillo trap. Yellow traps with increased reflectance in the blue region (400–500 nm) were least attractive. Trap shape was of minor importance, as long as the object was three-dimensional and visible from all directions. Based on economic and practical considerations, a cylinder-shaped trap “UFA-Samen Kirschenfliegenfalle” was developed for commercial use and is currently under on-farm evaluation. PMID:26462825

  13. Expectoration of Flaviviruses during sugar feeding by mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Johnson, Petrina H; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Northill, Judy A; Simmons, Russell J; Jansen, Cassie C; Frances, Stephen P; Smith, Greg A; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-09-01

    Biological transmission of arboviruses to a vertebrate host occurs when virions are expelled along with saliva during blood feeding by a hematophagous arthropod. We undertook experiments to determine whether mosquitoes expectorate flaviviruses in their saliva while sugar feeding. Batches of Culex annulirostris Skuse and Culex gelidus Theobald (Diptera: Culicidae) were orally infected with Japanese encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, JEV), Kunjin (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, KUNV; a subtype of West Nile virus), and Murray Valley encephalitis (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, MVEV) viruses. After a 7-d extrinsic incubation, these mosquitoes were offered sucrose meals via cotton pledgets, which were removed daily and processed for viral RNA by using real-time TaqMan reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. JEV, MVEV, and KUNV RNA was detected in all pledgets removed from batches of Cx. gelidus on days 7-14 postexposure. In contrast, detection rates were variable for Cx. annulirostris, with KUNV detected in 0.3 M sucrose pledgets on all days postexposure, and JEV and MVEV detected on 57 and 50% of days postexposure, respectively. Higher concentrations of sucrose in the pledget did not increase virus detection rates. When individual JEV-infected Cx. gelidus were exposed to the sucrose pledget, 73% of mosquitoes expectorated virus with titers that were detectable by TaqMan RT-PCR. These results clearly show that flaviviruses are expectorated by infected mosquitoes during the process of sugar feeding on artificial pledgets. Potential applications of the method for arboviral bioassays and field surveillance are discussed. PMID:17915518

  14. Confirming Hypoderma tarandi (Diptera: Oestridae) human ophthalmomyiasis by larval DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Cholidis, Symira; Johnsen, Arild; Ottesen, Preben

    2014-06-01

    DNA barcoding is a practical tool for species identification, when morphological classification of an organism is difficult. Herein we describe the utilisation of this technique in a case of ophthalmomyiasis interna. A 12-year-old boy was infested during a summer holiday in northern Norway, while visiting an area populated with reindeer. Following medical examination, a Diptera larva was surgically removed from the boy's eye and tentatively identified from its morphological traits as Hypoderma tarandi (L.) (Diptera: Oestridae). Ultimately, DNA barcoding confirmed this impression. The larval cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA sequence was matched with both profiles of five adult H. tarandi from the same region where the boy was infested, and other established profiles of H. tarandi in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) identification engine. PMID:24827102

  15. Tabanidae and other Diptera on Camel’s Hump Vermont: Ecological Observations

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jeffrey V.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A canopy trap and aerial nets led to finding 8 species of Tabanidae. There was an abundance of calyptrate muscoid flies. Camel’s Hump is in the Green Mountains of western New England, USA. Discovering Diptera on Camel’s Hump involved sixteen visits over 40 years. Upwards of 23 other Diptera species are listed. Habitats on the east side and above 762 m (2500 ft) elevation on Camel’s Hump differ from the west slope but the boreal forest on both sides is influenced by cloud and fog precipitation on trees. The cliffs just above the 900 m level along the east side are often overlooked, are not seen from the summit and provide access to morning sun for insects. Recent visits explored the role of polarized skylight in relation to the canopy trap, the boreal forest environment and flies found there. PMID:22371675

  16. Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hengduan; Xing, Dan; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunxiao; Zhao, Tongyan

    2016-07-01

    The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is presented using traditional Sanger sequencing. Its mitogenome are 16,660 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a non-coding A + T rich region. As in other insects, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND5, ND4, ND4L, ND1, two rRNA and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The overall base composition on heavy strand was as follows - A: 40.1%, G: 8.2%, C: 11.9%, T: 39.8% and the A + T content 79.9%. The results of phylogenetic analyzes showed that the Ae. albopictus has closed relationship with the family Culicidae and order Diptera. PMID:26114325

  17. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  18. [Mode of formation of the flight muscles in a nematocerous Diptera].

    PubMed

    Lebart-Pedebas, M C; Auber, J

    1982-01-01

    An electron microscope study was conducted on the origin of the dorsal longitudinal muscles of a Nematocerous Diptera (Chironomus). These imaginal muscles arise from three pairs of slender larval muscles that are characterized by the presence of myoblasts located beneath the basal lamina and adhering to the sarcoplasmic membrane. During the last larval instar the myoblasts increase in number, each of the associated muscle fibers loses its contractile material and splits longitudinally into two to form six columns of sarcoplasm. Differentiation of the fibrillar material begins in each of the six muscle rudiments after the adhering myoblasts have become incorporated. There are several possible origins for these myoblasts: they may be embryonic cells that persist in association with the larval muscle fibers; or --as in the case of Cyclorrhaphous Diptera-- they may migrate from elsewhere to invest these fibers. PMID:7138012

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the flesh fly, Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian; Guo, Yadong; Zhang, Chaoyue; Zhou, Yong; Yan, Jie; Liao, Huidan; Lagabaiyila, Zha

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a forensically important entomology was sequenced for the first time. The 14,929 bp circular genome contains the 37 genes found in a typical Metazoan genome: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 22 transfer RNA genes. It also contains one non-coding A + T-rich region. All the protein initiation codons are ATN, except for cox1 that begins with TCG. Each of the base composition on heavy strand was as follows A: 38.94%, G: 9.69%, C: 14.13%, T: 37.24% and the A + T content 76.18%. The mitochondrial genome of Parasarcophaga portschinskyi presented will be valuable for resolving phylogenetic relationships within the family Sarcophagidae and order Diptera, and could be used to identify favorable genetic markers for species identifications for forensic purposes. PMID:25319282

  20. New Contributions to Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) from Spain: Addition of Three New Species

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Ortiz, Ricardo; Martinez, Michel; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    The genus Pseudonapomyza (Diptera: Agromyzidae) includes the main leafminer pests for monocots. Three new species are described that were captured using Malaise traps in “Tinença de Benifassà”, “Font Roja” and “Lagunas de La Mata-Torrevieja” (Spain) Natural Parks: Pseudonapomyza curvata n. sp., P. longitata n. sp., and P. sicicornis n. sp. Systematics. Ecological data are discussed. PMID:21062209

  1. A new species of Proceroplatus Edwards (Diptera: Keroplatidae) in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Penney, David; Evenhuis, Neal L; Green, David I

    2013-01-01

    Keroplatid fungus gnats (Diptera: Keroplatidae) were hitherto known from the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from a single named species in Miocene amber from the Dominican Republic. Here we describe the new fossil species Proceroplatus preziosii Evenhuis & Penney based on a mature male specimen, which differs markedly from both fossil and extant taxa in the structure of its gonostyli and U-shaped wing pattern. We also document the first record of extant Keroplatidae, Proceroplatus pictipennis (Williston), from Hispaniola. PMID:26473245

  2. The crane flies (Diptera: Tipuloidea) of Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, Matthew J.; Parker, Charles R.; Bernard, Ernest

    2005-01-01

    The list of crane flies (Diptera: Ptychopteridae, Tipuloidea, Trichoceridae) known from Great Smoky Mountains National Park is updated. Sampling in association with the All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Great Smoky Mountains National Park resulted in the addition of 107 new Park records, bringing the current list to 250 species. This species assemblage is much richer than those of surrounding areas, although similar in composition. Total richness is estimated to be between 450 and 500 species for Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

  3. Black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Turkish Thrace, with a new record for Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Çalışkan, Hakan; Şahin, Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper includes 2742 specimens of 18 species of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) collected from 132 lotic sites in Turkish Thrace, the European part of Turkey, in the early summer of 2002 and 2003 and the spring of 2005 and 2006. New information All species are recorded from this region for the first time, and Metacnephia nigra (Rubtsov, 1940) is a new record for Turkey. Distributional and taxonomical remarks are given for each species. PMID:25941452

  4. Four new genera of Neactic-Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) for species previously incorrectly placed.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Raymond J

    2013-01-01

    Four new genera belonging to the tribe Dasineurini (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Lasiopteridi) are described for previously incorrectly placed species. The new genera are: Cembrotia Gagné, type species Janetiella coloradensis Felt; Cupressatia Gagné, type-species Janetiella siskiyou Felt; Strobilotia Gagné, type species Phytophaga carpophaga Tripp; and Rhizocecis Gagné, type species Cecidomyia rhois Coquillett. Resulting new combinations are: Cembrotia coloradensis (Felt), Cupressatia siskiyou (Felt), Cupressatia thujae (Hedlin), Strobilotia carpophaga (Tripp) and Rhizocecis rhois (Coquillett). PMID:26191576

  5. Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae), a big-eyed hoverfly from Peru and Suriname.

    PubMed

    Reemer, Menno; Morales, Mirian N

    2016-01-01

    The hoverfly species Palpada panorama sp. n. (Diptera: Syrphidae) is described based on specimens from Peru and Suriname. It belongs to the scutellaris species group and it is most similar to P. erratica (Curran, 1930), from which it differs most notably by the strongly enlarged ommatidia in the upper half of the eye. Additional differences between these two species and an adjustment for the latest identification key for the species of the scutellaris group are given. PMID:27394456

  6. [Genetic Differentiation of Populations of Baikal Endemic Sergentia baicalensis Tshern. (Diptera, Chironomidae)].

    PubMed

    Kravtsova, L S; Bukin, Yu S; Peretolchina, T E; Shcherbakov, D Yu

    2015-07-01

    The population structure of endemic species Sergentia baicalensis (Diptera, Chironomidae) from Lake Baikal was studied using the first subunit of the cytochrome C oxidase mitochondrial gene (Col). Two populations inhabiting different basins of this lake, the southern-central and northern, were detected. It was confirmed that the divergence time of this species was dated to Late Miocene (9.53 ± 3.9 Mya), during the period when geographically separated basins existed in the Baikal rift zone. PMID:26410937

  7. First crane fly from the Upper Jurassic of Australia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Oberprieler, Stefanie K; Krzemiński, Wiesław; Hinde, Jack; Yeates, David K

    2015-01-01

    The first crane fly (Diptera: Tipuloidea) fossil discovered in the Upper Jurassic Talbragar Fish Bed in Australia is described and illustrated. Eotipula grangeri sp. nov., described from a single specimen, is assigned to the family Limoniidae based primarily on the conformation of wing veins. It is the second and oldest record of Limoniidae from Australia, and the first of Jurassic age from the southern hemisphere. PMID:26624125

  8. Chrysomya bezziana as a Causative Agent of Human Myiasis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Faramarzi, A; Rasekhi, AR; Kalantari, M; Hatam, GR

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis is the invasion of body tissues of humans or animals by the larvae of the Diptera or two-winged flies. The various forms of myiasis may be classified from clinical or entomological point. This study describes the existence of Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) cases as a causative agent of myiasis in 18 and 87 year-old men in two different regions in Fars Province. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of mentioned species in this province. PMID:22808374

  9. The structure of the USP/RXR of Xenos pecki indicates that Strepsiptera are not closely related to Diptera.

    PubMed

    Hayward, D C; Trueman, J W H; Bastiani, M J; Ball, E E

    2005-04-01

    The receptor for the insect molting hormone, ecdysone, is a heterodimer consisting of the Ecdysone Receptor and Ultraspiracle (USP) proteins. The ligand binding domain sequences of arthropod USPs divide into two distinct groups. One group consists of sequences from members of the holometabolous Lepidoptera and Diptera, while the other arthropod sequences group with vertebrate retinoid-X-receptors (RXRs). We therefore wondered whether USP/RXR structure could be used to clarify the contentious phylogenetic position of the order Strepsiptera, which has proposed affinities with either Diptera or Coleoptera. We have cloned and sequenced the USP/RXR from the strepsipteran Xenos pecki. Phylogenetic analyses are not consistent with a close affinity between Strepsiptera and Diptera. PMID:15660250

  10. Intron insertion as a phylogenetic character: the engrailed homeobox of Strepsiptera does not indicate affinity with Diptera.

    PubMed

    Rokas, A; Kathirithamby, J; Holland, P W

    1999-11-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the order Strepsiptera are unclear. Affiliation to Coleoptera has been proposed, however this implies that dipteran halteres and strep-sipteran haltere-like organs evolved convergently. An alternative is a sister group relationship with Diptera. In this case, halteres could be homologous but a radical homeotic mutation may have switched their position to the Strepsipteran mesothorax. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis has been used to support Dipteran affiliation, although this is controversial. Here we investigate the potential of an intron insertion site as a phylogenetic character. We find that the en homeobox gene of the strepsipteran Stichotrema dallatorreanum lacks a derived intron insertion shared by representatives of Diptera and Lepidoptera. We argue against a close affiliation between Strepsiptera and Diptera. PMID:10620047

  11. Effect of adult screwworm male size on mating competence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests in parts of North America and Central America before their eradication by means of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Now, a barrier is maintained to prevent re-entry of screwworms from endemic regions t...

  12. Molecular genetics for identification and population studies of screwworms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of screwworms was achieved by using the sterile insect technique. Here we discussed the development a...

  13. Screwworms eating living flesh – not just another Halloween tale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), were devastating pests to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of screwworms was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. Here we ...

  14. Sequence Characterized Amplified Regions (SCAR) that differentiate New World screwworms from other potential wound inhabiting flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Guarding against the introduction of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), to North America or any other screwworm free area relies on rapid, reliable identification of suspected cases. Identification of first instars suspected to be C. hominivorax can be rapidly v...

  15. The screwworm eradication program: From an unlikely dream to an outstanding reality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), was a devastating pest to all warm blooded animals in the United States and the rest of North America. Successful eradication of the screwworm was achieved by using the unique approach called the sterile insect technique. He...

  16. Screwworm ecology from field observations to satellite imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Screwworm fly, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), in its larval stage is a parasite of warm-blooded animals. Screwworm has been successfully eradicated from the United Sates and Central America using the sterile insect technique. Here we present how the field observations o...

  17. Artificial diets used in mass production of the New World Screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), has been eradicated from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique. This success has been based on mass production of high quality screwworms using artificial diets since 1958. Many diet formulat...

  18. Taxonomic exploration of Neotropical Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) mimicking stingless bees.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Neotropical Microdontinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) are mimics of stingless bees. Most of these species have previously been grouped in Ubristes Walker, 1852, with Carreramyia Doesburg, 1966, Hypselosyrphus Hull, 1937 and Stipomorpha Hull, 1945 treated as synonyms in recent literature. The species of the recently described genus Mermerizon Reemer, 2013 are also treated in the present paper. Recent evidence (Reemer and Ståhls 2013a, b) supports an independent origin for all of these taxa, which is why they are now treated as different genera. The present paper revises all specific taxa previously associated with these genera. A total number of 52 species is treated, 22 of which are described as new. These are divided among the genera as follows: Carreramyia (4 species, 2 new: C. megacera, C. tigrina), Ceratophya (5 species, 1 new: C. argentinensis), Hypselosyrphus (12 species, 6 new: H. helvus, H. marshalli, H. maurus, H. pingo, H. pseudorhoga, H. vexillipennis), Mermerizon (3 species, 2 new: M. mellosus, M. mesmerizus), Stipomorpha (25 species, 9 new: S. crematogastri, S. dichromata, S. elcopala, S. fallax, S. maculipennis, S. mendax, S. panamana, S. spuria, S. zophera), Ubristes (3 species, 2 new: U. ictericus, U. jaguarinus). Microdon scolopus Shannon, 1927, previously classified in Ubristes, was recently transferred to Ceratophya Wiedemann, 1824, which is why this genus is also treated in this paper. Ceratophya longicornis Wiedemann, 1824 is excluded from Ceratophya and treated as a species incertae sedis. Two other species are excluded, because they belong to other groups of Microdontinae not treated in the present paper: Microdon angulatus Hull, 1943 (now in Microdon subgenus Chymophila Macquart, 1834) and Ubristes chrysopygusGiglio-Tos, 1892 (now in Peradon Reemer, 2013). Three new synonyms are proposed: Microdon procteri Curran, 1941 syn. nov. = Microdon procedens Curran, 1941 syn. nov. = Ubristes flavitibia Walker, 1852; Microdon triangularis

  19. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color

  20. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25-26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color gradient

  1. Differential Diptera succession patterns onto partially burned and unburned pig carrion in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira-Costa, J; Lamego, C M D; Couri, M S; Mello-Patiu, C A

    2014-11-01

    In the present contribution we compared the entomological succession pattern of a burned carcass with that of an unburned one. For that, we used domestic pig carcasses and focused on Calliphoridae, Muscidae and Sarcophagidae flies, because they are the ones most commonly used in Postmortem Interval estimates. Adult and immature flies were collected daily. A total of 27 species and 2,498 specimens were collected, 1,295 specimens of 26 species from the partially burned carcass and 1,203 specimens of 22 species from the control carcass (unburned). The species composition in the two samples differed, and the results of the similarity measures were 0.875 by Sorensen and 0.756 by Bray-Curtis index. The results obtained for both carcasses also differ with respect to the decomposition process, indicating that the post mortem interval would be underestimated if the entomological succession pattern observed for a carcass under normal conditions was applied to a carbonized carcass. PMID:25627597

  2. Checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland: Tabanomorpha, Asilomorpha and associated families (Diptera)

    PubMed Central

    Kahanpää, Jere; Winqvist, Kaj; Zeegers, Theo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A checklist of the ‘lower Brachycera’ of Finland is presented. This part of the complete checklist of Finnish Diptera covers the families Acroceridae, Asilidae, Athericidae, Bombyliidae, Mythicomyiidae, Rhagionidae, Scenopinidae, Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Xylomyidae and Xylophagidae. PMID:25337015

  3. Implications of Rhagoletis zephyria, 1894 (Diptera: Tephritidae), captures for apple maggot surveys and fly ecology in Washington state, U.S.A

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), 1867 (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an introduced quarantine pest of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen) (Rosaceae) in Washington state, U.S.A. A morphologically similar native fly, Rhagoletis zephyria Snow, 1894, infests snowberries (Symphoricarpos spp.) ...

  4. Pseudacteon calderensis, a new fly species (Diptera:Phoridae) attacking the fire ant Solenopsis interrupta (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) in northwestern Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Pseudacteon phorid fly Pseudacteon calderis (Diptera: Phoridae) is described from females attacking worker ants of Solenopsis interrupta Santschi in Salta and Jujuy provinces, northwestern Argentina. Pseudacteon calderis differs from almost all other South American Pseudacteon speci...

  5. Effect of fungus gnat Bradysia impatiens (Diptera: Sciaridae) feeding on subsequent Pythium aphanidermatum infection of geranium seedlings (Pelargonium x hortorum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) and root rot pathogens in the genus Pythium (Oomycetes) are important pests of greenhouse floriculture. Observations have pointed to a possible correlation between Pythium root rot disease and fungus gnat infestations; however, inte...

  6. Sucrose mixed with spinosad enhances kill and reduces oviposition of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under low-food conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether sugar mixed with insecticides enhances kill of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), may depend on insecticide rate and food availability. Here, the hypothesis that sucrose mixed with the insecticide spinosad (in the Entrust® SC formulation) enhance...

  7. Three new genera and three new species of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Rubiaceae from Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new genera of Lasiopteridi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Faramitella Gagné, Anapeza Gagné and Pellacara Gagné, each with one new species, are described. The new species are from leaf galls on Rubiaceae collected in Guadeloupe, F.W.I.: Faramitella planicauda Gagné, new species, was reared from Fara...

  8. New records for the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan with remarks on ecology and zoogeography.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Jordan is the richest in the Levant, with 24 known species. During the 20-year project “the ecology and zoogeography of the Lepidoptera of the Near East,” USDA, Agricultural Research Service scientists in Gainesville, FL and Israeli scientists regularly c...

  9. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  10. SAMPLING FOR SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) ON RANCHES WITH HISTORIES OF VESICULAR STOMATITIS DISEASE IN NEW MEXICO AND COLORADO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The possible presence of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) among colonies of white-tailed prairie dogs, Cynomys gunnisoni Baird, was investigated on or near ranches with histories of vesicular stomatitis (VS) in domestic livestock in the mid-Rio Grande River Valley, New Mexico and West-slope region...

  11. Development and oviposition preference of house flies and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in six substrates from Florida equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), common pests on equine facilities, were studied in the laboratory to determine their oviposition preferences and larval development on six substrates commonly found on equine facilities. The substrates...

  12. Phytomyza omlandi spec. nov. – the first species of Agromyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) reared from the family Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of leafmining fly in the genus Phytomyza Fallén (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is described from Gelsemium Juss, representing the first known instance of an agromyzid feeding on Gelsemiaceae (Asteridae). The host plant, G. sempervirens (L.) (the “evening trumpetflower”), and possibly also G. r...

  13. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  14. Captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera:Tephritidae) and non-target insects on red spheres versus yellow spheres and panels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sticky red spheres can be used to capture western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), but whether they capture more flies than yellow spheres and panels is poorly known. The objective of this study was to compare fly captures on red spheres versus yellow traps so...

  15. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae) that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae), digging a mine near...

  16. New records of Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their host plants in western Montana, U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information exists concerning the distribution of Rhagoletis fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the state of Montana in the western U.S.A. In this study, the presence of and host plant use by Rhagoletis species are documented in northwestern Montana. The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagolet...

  17. A new genus and species of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) from leaf blister galls on Ribes (Grosulariaceae)in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ribesia sarae Gagné, new genus, new species(Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is described from simple leaf blister galls on Ribes aureum(Grossulariaceae) from Montana. The female abdomen is superficially similar to that of CystiphoraKieffer and SackenomyiaFelt. The three genera are compared. Because of stro...

  18. An annotated checklist of the horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon with remarks on ecology and zoogeography: Pangoniinae and Chrysopsinae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of the horse fly fauna (Diptera: Tabanidae) of Lebanon is fragmentary while in most neighboring countries it has been fairly well researched. Therefore USDA-CMAVE scientists and Israeli scientists worked cooperatively to survey the species of horse flies in the Lebanon. Chrysops flavipes ...

  19. Attraction and Mortality of Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to SPLAT-MAT- Methyl Eugenol with Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted in Hawaii to quantify attraction and feeding responses resulting in mortality of male oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to SPLAT-MAT-methyl eugenol (ME) with spinosad in comparison with Min-U-Gel-ME with naled (Dibrom). Our approach invol...

  20. Response of Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to an attract-and-kill trap in greenhouse cage tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel attract and kill trap for olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), was constructed with yellow corrugated plastic in a pan shape formed from a disk and collar. The pan trap components were tested under three different greenhouse temperatures and humidities, warm, hot...

  1. A survey of natural and introduced parasitoids of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Israel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive cultivation occupies eight million hectares worldwide, with over ten million tons of olives annually (90% in the Mediterranean Basin). The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a key pest of olive fruit, causing up to 50% in crop loss. Increasing biological control by n...

  2. The geographic distribution of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera:Tephritidae) in the western United States: Introduced species or native population?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella Walsh (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a major pest of commercially grown domesticated apple (Malus domestica) in North America. The shift of the fly from its native host hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple in the eastern U.S. is often cited as an example of inc...

  3. Microsporidiosis (Microspora: Culicosporidae) in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) affects host attraction, blood feeding responses, and the repellency of deet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53% and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduc...

  4. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies (Musca domestica L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, and several strains are commercially available. Three str...

  5. Attraction of nontarget species to fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) male lures and decaying fruit flies in traps in Hawaii.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synthetic male lures are commonly used to monitor and mass-trap pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae). However, there has been much dispute as to the non-target impacts of such lures on beneficial and native insects. To evaluate nontarget attraction effects, traps baited with cue...

  6. Assessment of Navel oranges, Clementine tangerines and Rutaceous fruits as hosts of Bactrocera cucurbitae and Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Export of Citrus spp., widely cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, may require risk mitigation measures if grown in areas with established tephritid fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations capable of infesting the fruits. Two tephritid fruit fly species whose geographic ranges have...

  7. HOST PLANT USE BY APPLE MAGGOT, WESTERN CHERRY FRUIT FLY, AND OTHER RHAGOLETIS SPECIES (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE): IN CENTRAL WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant use by apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in western Washington state and northwestern Oregon were determined by rearing larvae in fruit to adults in 2004 to 2006. Rh...

  8. Influence of methoprene and protein on survival, maturation and sexual performance of male Ceratitis capitata (Diptera:Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata (Wied.), like many other polifagous tephritids (Diptera: Tephritidae), adopts a lek as mating system. The sterile insect technique (SIT) requires the release of sterile males able to survive on the field, to compete with wild males, and attrac...

  9. Activity patterns and parasitism rates of fire ant decapitating flies (Diptera:Phoridae:Pseudacteon spp.) in their native Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: This work describes the annual and daily activity patterns of two parasitoid fly communities of the fire ant S. invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in their native Argentina. Pseudacteon (Diptera: Phoridae) flies were censused monthly for one year at two sites in northwestern Corr...

  10. Demographic and quality control parameters of Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) maintained under artificial rearing

    SciTech Connect

    Vera, T.; Abraham, S.; Oviedo, A.; Willink, E.

    2007-03-15

    The integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) in the management of the South American fruit fly Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a promising alternative to chemically-based control in those areas where it is sympatric with Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) or other tephritid species for which the SIT is being used. Implementation of the SIT requires the development of a cost effective mass-rearing protocol. In this work, we present demographic and quality control parameters for the A. fraterculus strain reared at the Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considering the rearing cage as the reproduction unit, we observed that fecundity is optimal during the first 3 weeks after the onset of oviposition. Fertility was constant during this period. During 2003 and 2004, some improvements were made to the existing rearing protocol, which resulted in increased larval viability, pupal weight, and adult emergence. Current weekly egg production is 1 million per week. These eggs are used to maintain the colony and to assess quality parameters. Finally, research needs leading to improved yields and fly quality are discussed. (author) [Spanish] La integracion de la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE) en el combate integrado de la mosca Sudamericana de la fruta, Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), es una alternativa interesante para reemplazar al control quimico en aquellas zonas donde esta especie es simpatrica con Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) u otros tefritidos para los que ya se utiliza la TIE. La implementacion de la TIE requiere del desarrollo de un protocolo de cria masiva que sea costo-efectivo. En este trabajo presentamos parametros demograficos y de control de calidad de la cepa criada en la Estacion Experimental Agroindustrial Obispo Colombres, Tucuman, Argentina. Considerando a la jaula de cria como unidad reproductiva, se observo

  11. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Yeates, David K

    2014-01-01

    Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchusoceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchuskampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  12. A new species of Anabarhynchus (Diptera: Therevidae) from an ocean beach in south east Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, David K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Anabarhynchus Macquart 1848 is a large genus of the Therevidae (Diptera) that are endemic to Australasia with a couple of described species from Melanesia. We describe and illustrate Anabarhynchus oceanus sp. n., a species found on ocean beaches in eastern Victoria, Australia. The species shares most characters with the monobasic Anabarhynchus kampmeierae species group of Lyneborg (2001), but also shares a unique feature of the male genitalia with the endemic New Zealand genus Megathereva Lyneborg, 1992. This new species brings the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 113. PMID:25349526

  13. Phthiria sharafi sp. nov., a new record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M

    2014-01-01

    This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone.  PMID:25544092

  14. Comparison of emergence traps of different shape and translucency in the trapping of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; Lühken, R; Kroischke, F; Timmermann, E; Kiel, E

    2016-06-15

    Various types of emergence traps are available for investigations of the breeding habitats of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). In order to assess the potential impact of the trap design on the trapping success, we compared the efficiency of opaque and white (more translucent) emergence traps and two trap shapes (cone-shaped and quadratic), to sample Culicoides emerging from cowpats. Significantly higher numbers of Culicoides chiopterus and Culicoides dewulfi were trapped with opaque traps, while there was no obvious effect of the trap shape. There were no distinct differences in the microclimate among different trap types. PMID:27198792

  15. Host plant record for the fruit flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S; Lima, Rita C A; Zucchi, Roberto A

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the "Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce". This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  16. Subfamily Limoniinae Speiser, 1909 (Diptera, Limoniidae) from Baltic Amber (Eocene): The Genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken, 1860

    PubMed Central

    Kania, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the genus Elephantomyia Osten Sacken (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Baltic amber (Eocene) is presented. Four species—E. baltica Alexander, E. brevipalpa Loew, E. longirostris Loew, and E. pulchella Loew—are redescribed and documented with photographs and drawings. In addition, two new species of the genus are described: Elephantomyia bozenae sp. nov., and Elephantomyia irinae sp. nov. All these fossil species are placed within the subgenus Elephantomyia. A key to the extinct species of Elephantomyia is provided, and the genus’ ecological pattern and evolutionary aspects are discussed. PMID:25706127

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Antarctic midge Parochlus steinenii (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Kim, Hanna; Shin, Seung Chul

    2016-09-01

    Parochlus steinenii is a winged midge found in the Antarctic Peninsula and its offshore islands. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of P. steinenii, which is comprised of 16 803 nucleotides and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, and the large (rrnL) and small (rrnS) rRNA genes. Its total A + T content is 72.5%. The PCG arrangement of P. steinenii is identical to that of the ancestral Diptera ground pattern. This is the first report on the mitogenome sequence of an Antarctic midge, and provides insights into the evolution of dipterans in Antarctica. PMID:26642812

  18. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) colonization of pig carrion in south Georgia.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Sheppard, D Craig; Joyce, John A

    2005-01-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), is thought to colonize corpses 20-30 days postmortem. However, recent observations indicate this might not be true for all cases. Therefore, we conducted a study examining colonization by the black soldier fly and other Diptera on pig carrion in a plowed field in southern Georgia from 20 September through 21 February. Our data indicate black soldier flies could colonize a corpse within the first week after death. Knowing this information could prevent a serious mistake in estimating the time at which a corpse is colonized by this species. This study also represents the first record of Chrysomya rufifacies in Georgia. PMID:15831010

  19. Four cases of pediculosis caused by Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) from peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pakeer, O; Jeffery, J; Mohamed, A M; Ahmad, F; Baharudin, O

    2007-12-01

    Four cases of pediculosis, two in adults and two in children, caused by the crab-louse, Pthirus pubis Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Anoplura) is reported from peninsular Malaysia. This is the second report of the problem to be documented from the country. Although P. pubis is closely associated with genital hairs, it is, however, also found to occur on the eyelashes, eyebrows, hairs of the body, head and axilla. The few reported cases of pthiriasis probably do not reflect the true situation. PMID:18209717

  20. Natural enemies of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae): predatory ants and parasitoids.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    Natural enemies of the gall maker Eugeniamyia dispar (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) were studied on the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil from October 1993 to March 1996. Galls and associated arthropods were followed weekly in the field on individual host plants (Eugenia uniflora, Myrtaceae) and also in the laboratory. Three species of ants attacked the galls, the most common being Pseudomyrmex sp. A proportion of galls was parasitised by Rileya sp. (Eurytomidae). The adults of this solitary ectoparasitoid were also attacked by the ants and fell prey to spider webs. PMID:12489400

  1. Preservation of iridescent colours in Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Downes, Stephen; Simonis, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Iridescent blue-green colours are exhibited by various organisms including several taxa in the Tachinidae (Diptera) with notable examples within the Afrotropical members of the genus Phorinia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. The vivid colouration observed in life quickly fades to a dull golden-yellow when a specimen is dried. Although well known, no published explanation has been given for this phenomenon. New information We illustrate the mechanism associated with this colour change. We also test and propose technical alternatives to retain the living colours in dried specimens. PMID:26929707

  2. Host Plant Record for the Fruit Flies, Anastrepha fumipennis and A. nascimentoi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Uramoto, Keiko; Martins, David S.; Lima, Rita C. A.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    2008-01-01

    The first host plant record for Anastrepha fumipennis Lima (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Geissospermum laeve (Vell.) Baill (Apocynaceae) and for A. nascimentoi Zucchi found in Cathedra bahiensis Sleumer (Olacaceae) was determined in a host plant survey of fruit flies undertaken at the “Reserva Natural da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce”. This reserve is located in an Atlantic Rain Forest remnant area, in Linhares county, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The phylogenetic relationships of Anastrepha species and their hosts are discussed. The occurrence of these fruit fly species in relation to the distribution range of their host plants is also discussed. PMID:20302458

  3. The mitochondrial genome of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, You-Zhu; Jin, Gui-Hua; Zhu, Jia-Ying; Wei, Shu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the mitochondrial genome sequence of the garden pea leafminer Chromatomyia horticola (Goureau, 1851) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) (GenBank accession no. KR047789). This is the first species with sequenced mitochondrial genome from the genus Chromatomyia. The current length with partial A  +  T-rich region of this mitochondrial genome is 15,320 bp with an A  +  T content of 77.54%. All the 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes were sequenced, except for the A  +  T-rich region. As in most other sequenced mitochondrial genomes of Diptera, there is no rearrangement compared with the pupative ancestral arrangement of insects. All protein-coding genes start with the ATN start codon except for the gene cox1, which uses abnormal TTG. The A  +  T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a sequenced length of 503 bp. Phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method based on the first and second codon positions of the 13 protein-coding genes recovered the monophyly of Agromyzidae with one species of Chromatomyia and four species of Liriomyza in our study. The superfamily Oestroidea (with Agromyzidae in analysis) is sister to the Opomyzoidea. PMID:26066024

  4. Identification through DNA barcoding of Tabanidae (Diptera) vectors of surra disease in India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Dhriti; Kumar, Vikas; Maity, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Biswatosh; Tyagi, Kaomud; Singha, Devkant; Kundu, Shantanu; Laskar, Boni Amin; Naskar, Atanu; Rath, Shibananda

    2015-10-01

    Horse flies and deer flies are common names applied to members of the family Tabanidae (Diptera). Tabanid flies are pestiferous and of veterinary and medical importance, with about 244 species in India. They are major vectors of Trypanosoma evansi that causes trypanosomiasis (surra disease). Lack of stable morphological characters, and scarcity of taxonomic expertise, is major impediments for accurate species identification of these important pest and disease vectors. Molecular data, especially DNA barcode data, has been widely used in the identification of Diptera of economic importance. We evaluated the utility of DNA barcode data to discriminate the vectors of surra disease (trypanosomiasis) from India. We used barcode gap and reciprocal monophyly (neighbor-joining and Bayesian tree) criteria to analyze barcode data. A total of 46 specimens belonging to 7 species under four genera in two subfamilies were used for this study. DNA barcode data was not available previously for these species. Analysis revealed that all morphologically identifiable species can be discriminated using DNA barcoding data. Further, our study clearly demonstrated the presence of cryptic species in Chrysops dispar. Moreover, we revealed that closely related species without stable taxonomic distinguishing characters in the "Tabanus striatus species complex" can be discriminated using DNA barcode data. PMID:26126785

  5. Autophagy is required for the degeneration of the ovarian follicular epithelium in higher Diptera.

    PubMed

    Nezis, Ioannis P; Stravopodis, Dimitrios J; Margaritis, Lukas H; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2006-01-01

    Autophagy is a major pathway for the degradation of long-lived proteins and cytoplasmic organelles and an essential part of programmed cell death, as well. Our findings indicate that programmed cell death of the ovarian follicle cells in the higher Diptera species Bactrocera oleae and Ceratitis capitata manifests features of autophagic cell death. The follicle cells during the developmental stage 14 contain autophagic vacuoles and they do not exhibit caspase activity in any area of the egg chamber. Their nuclei are characterized by condensed chromatin, accompanied with high-but not low-molecular weight DNA fragmentation events exclusively detected in distinct cells of the anterior pole. The above results are likely associated with the abundant phagocytosis observed at the entry of the lateral oviducts, where numerous cell bodies are massively engulfed by epithelial cells. The similarity of the cell death process among B. oleae, C. capitata and Drosophila melanogaster species strongly suggests that autophagy-mediated cell death is conserved in higher Diptera species. PMID:16921270

  6. Mitochondrial Genome Sequences of Nematocera (Lower Diptera): Evidence of Rearrangement following a Complete Genome Duplication in a Winter Crane Fly

    PubMed Central

    Beckenbach, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of eight representatives of lower Diptera, suborder Nematocera, along with nearly complete sequences from two other species, are presented. These taxa represent eight families not previously represented by complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Most of the sequences retain the ancestral dipteran mitochondrial gene arrangement, while one sequence, that of the midge Arachnocampa flava (family Keroplatidae), has an inversion of the trnE gene. The most unusual result is the extensive rearrangement of the mitochondrial genome of a winter crane fly, Paracladura trichoptera (family Trichocera). The pattern of rearrangement indicates that the mechanism of rearrangement involved a tandem duplication of the entire mitochondrial genome, followed by random and nonrandom loss of one copy of each gene. Another winter crane fly retains the ancestral diperan gene arrangement. A preliminary mitochondrial phylogeny of the Diptera is also presented. PMID:22155689

  7. The skeletomuscular system of the larva of Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophilidae, Diptera): a contribution to the morphology of a model organism.

    PubMed

    Wipfler, Benjamin; Schneeberg, Katharina; Löffler, Andreas; Hünefeld, Frank; Meier, Rudolf; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-01-01

    The morphological features of the third instar larva of the most important insect model, Drosophila melanogaster, are documented for the first time using a broad spectrum of modern morphological techniques. External structures of the body wall, the cephaloskeleton, and the musculature are described and illustrated. Additional information about other internal organs is provided. The systematic implications of the findings are discussed briefly. Internal apomorphic features of Brachycera and Cyclorrhapha are confirmed for Drosophila. Despite the intensive investigations of the phylogeny of the megadiverse Diptera, evolutionary reconstructions are still impeded by the scarcity of anatomical data for brachyceran larvae. The available morphological information for the life stages of three insect model organisms -D. melanogaster (Diptera, Drosophilidae), Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera, Sphingidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) - is addressed briefly. The usefulness of a combination of traditional and innovative techniques for an optimized acquisition of anatomical data for different life stages is highlighted. PMID:23010508

  8. Culicoides hildebrandoi, a new species of the reticulatus species group from the Brazilian Amazon Region (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae)

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Emanuelle de Sousa; Pereira Júnior, Antonio Marques; Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Santarém, Maria Clara Alves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of biting midge (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), Culicoides hildebrandoi sp. n., is described and illustrated based on female and male specimens from the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, Brazil. This new species belongs to the reticulatus species group and differs from the 24 other species of this group by the elongate slightly swollen 3rd palpal segment with scattered capitate sensilla but lacking a sensory pit. PMID:27110160

  9. An illustrated catalogue of the types of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fachin, Diego Aguilar; Couri, Márcia Souto; De Mello-Patiu, Cátia Antunes

    2016-01-01

    A catalogue of the type specimens of Stratiomyidae (Diptera: Brachycera) held in the collection of Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MNRJ) is presented. A total number of 50 type specimens of 18 valid Neotropical species were recognized and are listed in alphabetical order of subfamily, genus and specific epithet. Photos of 12 primary types of the species and bibliographical data of the original descriptions, labels and condition of all type specimens are also provided. PMID:27394269

  10. Taxonomic revision of the Carpathian endemic Pedicia (Crunobia) staryi species–group (Diptera, Pediciidae) based on morphology and molecular data

    PubMed Central

    Dénes, Avar-Lehel; Kolcsár, Levente-Péter; Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of the genus Pedicia, subgenus Crunobia (Diptera: Pediciidae) belonging to the staryi group are described on the basis of a combination of molecular and morphology datasets, and a key to discriminate between species of the subgenus Crunobia is added. Geographic projection of the identified taxa suggests insular-like distribution and shows the importance of the Carpathians as a genetic center which is home to an exceptionally high aquatic diversity in Europe. PMID:27110152

  11. How to inventory tropical flies (Diptera)--One of the megadiverse orders of insects.

    PubMed

    Borkent, Art; Brown, Brian V

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to inventory Diptera species in tropical habitats is described. A 150 x 266 m patch of cloud forest at Zurquí de Moravia, Costa Rica (10.047N, 84.008W) at 1585 meters asl was sampled with two Malaise traps for slightly more than one year (Sept. 12, 2012-Oct. 18, 2013). Further concomitant sampling with a variety of trapping methods for three days every month and collecting during a one-week intensive "Diptera Blitz", with 19 collaborators collecting on-site, provided diverse additional samples used in the inventory. Two other Costa Rican sites at Tapantí National Park (9.720N, 83.774W, 1600 m) and Las Alturas (8.951N, 82.834W, 1540 m), 40 and 180 km southeast from Zurquí de Moravia, respectively, were each sampled with a single Malaise trap to allow for beta-diversity assessments. Tapantí National Park was sampled from Oct. 28, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013 and Las Alturas from Oct. 13, 2012-Oct. 13, 2013. A worldwide group of 54 expert systematists are identifying to species level all 72 dipteran families present in the trap samples. Five local technicians sampled and prepared material to the highest curatorial standards, ensuring that collaborator efforts were focused on species identification. This project, currently in its final, third year of operation (to end Sept. 1, 2015), has already recorded 2,348 species and with many more yet expected. Unlike previous All Taxon Biodiversity Inventories, this project has attainable goals and will provide the first complete estimate of species richness for one of the four megadiverse insect orders in a tropical region. Considering that this is the first complete survey of one of the largest orders of insects within any tropical region of the planet, there is clearly great need for a consistent and feasible protocol for sampling the smaller but markedly more diverse smaller insects in such ecosystems. By weight of their species diversity and remarkable divergence of habit, the Diptera are an excellent model to

  12. Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Microsatellites (SSRs) Suggest a Faster Rate of Genome Evolution in Hymenoptera Than in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution. PMID:23292136

  13. Fourier analysis of wing beat signals: assessing the effects of genetic alterations of flight muscle structure in Diptera.

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, C J; Maughan, D W

    1994-01-01

    A method for determining and analyzing the wing beat frequency in Diptera is presented. This method uses an optical tachometer to measure Diptera wing movement during flight. The resulting signal from the optical measurement is analyzed using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) technique, and the dominant frequency peak in the Fourier spectrum is selected as the wing beat frequency. Also described is a method for determining quantitatively the degree of variability of the wing beat frequency about the dominant frequency. This method is based on determination of a quantity called the Hindex, which is derived using data from the FFT analysis. Calculation of the H index allows computer-based selection of the most suitable segment of recorded data for determination of the representative wing beat frequency. Experimental data suggest that the H index can also prove useful in examining wing beat frequency variability in Diptera whose flight muscle structure has been genetically altered. Examples from Drosophila indirect flight muscle studies as well as examples of artificial data are presented to illustrate the method. This method fulfills a need for a standardized method for determining wing beat frequencies and examining wing beat frequency variability in insects whose flight muscles have been altered by protein engineering methods. PMID:7811927

  14. Analysis of somatic and salivary gland antigens of third stage larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato; Elia, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2010-04-01

    Larvae of Rhinoestrus spp. (Diptera, Oestridae) infect nasal and sinus cavities of horses, causing a nasal myiasis characterized by severe respiratory distress. Presently, the diagnosis of horse nasal botfly relies on the observation of clinical signs, on the post mortem retrieval of larvae or on molecular assays performed using pharyngeal swabs. The present study was carried out to characterize larval somatic proteins and salivary glands of Rhinoestrus spp. in a preliminary assessment towards the immunodiagnosis of equine rhinoestrosis. Out of the 212 necropsied horses 13 were positive for the presence of Rhinoestrus spp. larvae. The analysis of the sera from the infected animals by Western blotting assay showed the presence of a specific host humoral immune response against Rhinoestrus spp. larvae and proved that the salivary glands are the major immunogens in horse nasal botflies. PMID:19948170

  15. Review of Australasian spider flies (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a revision of Panops Lamarck

    PubMed Central

    Winterton, Shaun L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Australasian spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are reviewed, with all eight currently recognized genera diagnosed and figured. The panopine genus Panops Lamarck, 1804 from Australia and Indonesia is revised with four new species described, increasing the total number of species in the genus to nine: Panops aurum sp. n., Panops danielsi sp. n., Panops jade sp. n. and Panops schlingeri sp. n. Five species of Panops are redescribed: Panops austrae Neboiss, 1971, Panops baudini Lamarck, 1804, Panops boharti (Schlinger, 1959), comb. n., Panops conspicuus (Brunetti, 1926) and Panops grossi (Neboiss, 1971), comb. n. The monotypic genera Neopanops Schlinger, 1959 and Panocalda Neboiss, 1971 are synonymized with Panops. Keys to genera of Australasian Acroceridae and species of Panops, Helle Osten Sacken, 1896 and Australasian Pterodontia Gray, 1832 are included. PMID:22448114

  16. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks.

    PubMed

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Dhafer, Hathal M Al

    2015-01-01

    Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyiadiscoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylumcandidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopalinearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopaminos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopalinearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylumcandidum and Bombomyiadiscoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  17. Effects of neem limonoids on the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Nathan, Sengottayan Senthil; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai

    2005-10-01

    The effects of the neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) limonoids azadirachtin, salannin, deacetylgedunin, gedunin, 17-hydroxyazadiradione and deacetylnimbin on Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated. In exploring advantages of pure neem limonoids, we studied the larvicidal, pupicidal, adulticidal and antiovipositional activity of neem limonoids. Azadirachtin, salannin and deacetylgedunin showed high bioactivity at all doses, while the rest of the neem limonoids were less active, and were only biologically active at high doses. Azadirachtin was the most potent in all experiments and produced almost 100% larval mortality at 1 ppm concentration. In general, first to third larval instars were more susceptible to the neem limonoids. Neem products may have benefits in mosquito control programs. PMID:16112073

  18. Unusual Occurrence of Cocoons in Population of Haplodiplosis marginata (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Censier, F.; Chavalle, S.; Knor, S.; De Proft, M.; Bodson, B.; Skuhravá, M.

    2014-01-01

    The saddle gall midge, Haplodiplosis marginata (von Roser) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is a phytophagous species that develops in saddle-shaped galls on stems of wheat Triticum vulgare, barley Hordeum sativum, rye Secale cereale, and some other species of Poaceae. Only one generation develops per year. Full-grown larvae leave galls and drop onto the soil where they remain up to the springtime of the following year. Larvae do not usually spin cocoons. However, formation of cocoons by larvae was observed in populations developing in western Europe: in England in 1954, in the Netherlands in the 1960s, and in Belgium in 2011. On the basis of our analysis, a part of the larval population forms cocoons as protection against unfavorable weather conditions, especially drought. PMID:25525104

  19. Larvicidal effects of some Euro-Asiatic plants against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pavela, Roman

    2009-09-01

    Methanol extracts of the aerial parts from 62 Euro-Asiatic plant species were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. The fourth larval instar was tested. The extracts of the plants Seseli pallasii and Schisandra chinencis displayed the highest larvicidal activities with LD(50) 6 and 15 ppm, respectively, followed by Arthemisia campestris, Verbena officinalis, and Imperatoria osthruthium with LD(50) 23, 38, and 49 ppm, respectively. The appraised value of LD(50) for two species was between 51-100 ppm; eight species had lethal doses from 101 to 500 ppm, 13 species showed lethal doses from 501 to 1,000 ppm, and 34 species did not show lethal doses for low mortality (LD(50) > 1,000 ppm). PMID:19499247

  20. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration

    PubMed Central

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  1. Three new species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae)
    from the Colombian Andes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Carina Mara De; Buenaventura, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Oxysarcodexia Townsend (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) from the Colombian Andes are described based on male specimens collected using decaying animal matter as bait: Oxysarcodexia catica sp. n., O. laclaricola sp. n., and O. liliarum sp. n. The straight and narrow cercal prong with an acute apex, and the juxta enlarged distally and folded backwards of O. catica sp. n. resemble these structures in O. fraterna Lopes, O. peruviana (Lopes) and O. vittata (Walker). The shape of the cercus of O. laclaricola sp. n. is similar to that of O. floricola Lopes, whereas its vesica is similar in shape to that of O. cyaniforceps (Hall). Oxysarcodexia liliarum sp. n. resembles O. favorabilis (Lopes) in the inflorescence-like phallus and enlarged juxta. The postero-distal phallic enlargement of O. catica sp. n. and O. liliarum sp. n. support the inclusion of these species in the so-called "Xarcophaga group" (sensu Lopes). PMID:27394253

  2. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review.

    PubMed

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255

  3. Checklist and pictorial key to fourth-instar larvae of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2011-07-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930

  4. The complete mitochondrial DNA genomes for two lineages of Aedes notoscriptus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Hardy, C M; Court, L N; Morgan, M J; Webb, C E

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes for two deeply divergent lineages of the urban adapted mosquito Aedes notoscriptus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in Australia were sequenced using a combination of next generation Illumina and traditional Sanger sequencing. The 15,846 and 15,851 bp circular genomes share 95.0% nucleotide identity. They both have the full complement of 37 metazoan genes and identical gene arrangements to previously published Culicidae species with the one non-coding A + T rich control region present between rns and tRNA-Ile. All protein initiation codons are ATN apart from COX1 (TCG). Eight protein coding genes encode full TAA stop codons, one uses an incomplete TA and four use T. Typical cloverleaf structures containing DHU and TΨC stem and loops can be inferred for all 22 tRNAs. PMID:25350735

  5. New spider flies from the Neotropical Region (Diptera, Acroceridae) with a key to New World genera

    PubMed Central

    Schlinger, Evert I.; Gillung, Jessica P.; Borkent, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new genera and five new species of spider flies (Diptera: Acroceridae) are described from the Neotropical Region. A new genus of Philopotinae (Neophilopota brevirostris Schlinger gen. et sp. n.) is described from Mexico, while an unusual new species of Sphaerops Philippi, 1865 (Acrocerinae: Sphaerops micella Schlinger sp. n.) is described from Chile. A new Panopinae genus near Lasia Wiedemann, 1824 (Coquena stangei Schlinger gen. et sp. n.), is described from Argentina and two new species of Pialea Erichson, 1840 (Pialea brunea Schlinger sp. n. and Pialea corbiculata Schlinger sp. n.)are described from Venezuela. Each genus is diagnosed and figured, and a key to species provided. The Neotropical fauna presently includes 19 genera, containing approximately 100 species. A key to New World genera is also included. PMID:23730188

  6. The relationship between morphological and behavioral mimicry in hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Penney, Heather D; Hassall, Christopher; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Lamborn, Brent; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2014-02-01

    Palatable (Batesian) mimics of unprofitable models could use behavioral mimicry to compensate for the ease with which they can be visually discriminated or to augment an already close morphological resemblance. We evaluated these contrasting predictions by assaying the behavior of 57 field-caught species of mimetic hover flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and quantifying their morphological similarity to a range of potential hymenopteran models. A purpose-built phylogeny for the hover flies was used to control for potential lack of independence due to shared evolutionary history. Those hover fly species that engage in behavioral mimicry (mock stinging, leg waving, wing wagging) were all large wasp mimics within the genera Spilomyia and Temnostoma. While the behavioral mimics assayed were good morphological mimics, not all good mimics were behavioral mimics. Therefore, while the behaviors may have evolved to augment good morphological mimicry, they do not advantage all good mimics. PMID:24464201

  7. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Hawaiian Craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  8. Glia-related circadian plasticity in the visual system of Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Górska-Andrzejak, Jolanta

    2012-01-01

    The circadian changes in morphology of the first visual neuropil or lamina of Diptera represent an example of the neuronal plasticity controlled by the circadian clock (circadian plasticity). It is observed in terminals of the compound eye photoreceptor cells, the peripheral oscillators expressing the clock genes. However, it has been found also in their postsynaptic partners, the L1 and L2 monopolar cells, in which the activity of the clock genes have not yet been detected. The circadian input that the L1 and L2 receive seems to originate not only from the retina photoreceptors and from the circadian pacemaker neurons located in the brain, but also from the glial cells that express the clock genes and thus contain circadian oscillators. This paper summarizes the morphological and biochemical rhythms in glia of the optic lobe, shows how they contribute to circadian plasticity, and discusses how glial clocks may modulate circadian rhythms in the lamina. PMID:23986707

  9. Thaumaleidae (Diptera) collected by the late Dr. W. Joost in the Caucasus Mountains.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Rüdiger; Bellstedt, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The aquatic insect collection of the late Dr. W. Joost contained two new species of Thaumaleidae (Diptera) from the Caucasus Mountains: Thaumalea monikae sp. n. and Thaumalea biacuminata sp. n. These two new species are herein described, and the most abundant species in Dr. Joost's collection, Thaumalea martinovskyi Joost, 1979, is redescribed based on the type material. Figures of male and female genitalia for all species are provided. All three species show morphological similarities to taxa from the Eastern Mediterranean area. Thaumalea monikae is related to the European T. bezzii-species group, T. biacuminata to the T. serrata-group, and T. martinovskyi to T. kyladica Wagner, 1981 and T. malickyi Theischinger, 1979 from the Eastern Mediterranean area. PMID:26624634

  10. Mitochondrial DNA variation among host races of Eurosta solidaginis Fitch (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Smith, Paul T; Krager, Kimberly; Cronin, James T; Kambhampati, Srini

    2002-11-01

    Eurosta solidaginis Fitch (Diptera: Tephritidae) induces galls on two species of goldenrod, Solidago (Compositae), in the northern regions of the United States. Recent studies have demonstrated that E. solidaginis is comprised of two host races that differ in adult emergence times, mate preference, and host preference. However, it is not known how much genetic variation, if any, exists among E. solidaginis host-associated populations west of Minnesota where the two host races occur in sympatry. Sequencing analysis was used to characterize two mitochondrial gene fragments: (1) NADH1 dehydrogenase (ND1: 539 bp) and (2) cytochrome oxidase II + tRNA(Lys) + tRNA(Asp) (CO2KD: 396 bp) from sympatric, host-associated populations of E. solidaginis in North Dakota. Our results indicated that two genetically distinct lineages exist among E. solidaginis in North Dakota that correspond with host-plant association. PMID:12414317

  11. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Hawaiian craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  12. Five new records of bee flies (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia with zoogeographical remarks

    PubMed Central

    El-Hawagry, Magdi S.; Dhafer, Hathal M. Al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Five bee-fly species (Bombyliidae, Diptera) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of the Kingdom. One of the four identified species, Exoprosopa linearis, has an Afrotropical affinity, and another two, Spogostylum candidum and Bombomyia discoidea, have considerable Afrotropical distributions, and this result agrees to some extent with studies considering these parts of the Arabian Peninsula, including Al-Baha and Asir Provinces, having Afrotropical influences and may be included in the Afrotropical Region rather than in the Palaearctic Region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25878533

  13. Effects of bioirrigation of non-biting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) on lake sediment respiration.

    PubMed

    Baranov, Viktor; Lewandowski, Jörg; Romeijn, Paul; Singer, Gabriel; Krause, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Bioirrigation or the transport of fluids into the sediment matrix due to the activities of organisms such as bloodworms (larvae of Diptera, Chironomidae), has substantial impacts on sediment respiration in lakes. However, previous quantifications of bioirrigation impacts of Chironomidae have been limited by technical challenges such as the difficulty to separate faunal and bacterial respiration. This paper describes a novel method based on the bioreactive tracer resazurin for measuring respiration in-situ in non-sealed systems with constant oxygen supply. Applying this new method in microcosm experiments revealed that bioirrigation enhanced sediment respiration by up to 2.5 times. The new method is yielding lower oxygen consumption than previously reported, as it is only sensitive to aerobic heterotrophous respiration and not to other processes causing oxygen decrease. Hence it decouples the quantification of respiration of animals and inorganic oxygen consumption from microbe respiration in sediment. PMID:27256514

  14. Catalogue of the type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the Instituto Evandro Chagas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Pinheiro, Maria Sueli Barros; de Andrade, Andrey José

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The available type material of Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae) deposited in the “Coleção de Flebotomíneos” of the Instituto Evandro Chagas (ColFleb IEC) is now presented in an annotated catalogue comprising a total of 121 type specimens belonging to 12 species as follow: Nyssomyia richardwardi (2 female paratypes), Nyssomyia shawi (9 male and 25 female paratypes), Nyssomyia umbratilis (female holotype and 1 female paratype), Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli (1 male and 1 female paratypes), Pintomyia gruta (1 male and 2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus lainsoni (2 male syntypes), Psychodopygus leonidasdeanei (male holotype, female “allotype” and 45 female paratypes), Psychodopygus llanosmartinsi (2 female paratypes), Psychodopygus wellcomei (1 male and 4 female “syntypes”), Trichophoromyia readyi (male holotype, female “allotype” and 1 male paratype), Trichophoromyia adelsonsouzai (male holotype, 13 male 5 female paratypes), and Trichophoromyia brachipyga (1 male paratype). PMID:24715786

  15. Sex chromosomes in mitotic and polytene tissues of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Argentina: a review

    PubMed Central

    Giardini, María Cecilia; Milla, Fabián H.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia; Nieves, Mariela; Cladera, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetics, which is considered a fundamental tool to understand basic genetic and genomic issues of species, has greatly contributed to the description of polymorphisms both at inter- and intra-specific level. In fact, cytogenetics was one of the first approaches used to propose Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) as a complex of cryptic species. Different morphological variants of sex chromosomes have been reported among Argentinean populations of Anastrepha fraterculus. However, since this high structural variability in sex chromosomes does not pose a reproductive barrier, their role in speciation is yet to be unveiled. This review provides an update on general aspects of cytogenetics in Argentinean Anastrepha fraterculus populations, focused on the prevalence of X-Y arrangements. PMID:26798255

  16. Selection of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) Specific Recombinant Monoclonal Phage Display Antibodies for Prey Detection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzó, César; Urbaneja, Alberto; Ximénez-Embún, Miguel; García-Fernández, Julia; García, José Luis; Castañera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Several recombinant antibodies against the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), one of the most important pests in agriculture worldwide, were selected for the first time from a commercial phage display library of human scFv antibodies. The specificity and sensitivity of the selected recombinant antibodies were compared with that of a rabbit polyclonal serum raised in parallel using a wide range of arthropod species as controls. The selected recombinant monoclonal antibodies had a similar or greater specificity when compared with classical monoclonal antibodies. The selected recombinant antibodies were successfully used to detect the target antigen in the gut of predators and the scFv antibodies were sequenced and compared. These results demonstrate the potential for recombinant scFv antibodies to be used as an alternative to the classical monoclonal antibodies or even molecular probes in the post-mortem analysis studies of generalist predators. PMID:23272105

  17. An integrative approach to unravel the Ceratitis FAR (Diptera, Tephritidae) cryptic species complex: a review

    PubMed Central

    De Meyer, Marc; Delatte, Hélène; Ekesi, Sunday; Jordaens, Kurt; Kalinová, Blanka; Manrakhan, Aruna; Mwatawala, Maulid; Steck, Gary; Van Cann, Joannes; Vaníčková, Lucie; Břízová, Radka; Virgilio, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper reviews all information gathered from different disciplines and studies to resolve the species status within the Ceratitis FAR (Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis rosa) complex, a group of polyphagous fruit fly pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) from Africa. It includes information on larval and adult morphology, wing morphometrics, cuticular hydrocarbons, pheromones, microsatellites, developmental physiology and geographic distribution. The general consensus is that the FAR complex comprises Ceratitis anonae, two species within Ceratitis rosa (so-called R1 and R2) and two putatitve species under Ceratitis fasciventris. The information regarding the latter is, however, too limited to draw final conclusions on specific status. Evidence for this recognition is discussed with reference to publications providing further details. PMID:26798270

  18. New species and new records of Mydidae from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions (Insecta, Diptera, Asiloidea)

    PubMed Central

    Dikow, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Abstract New Mydidae species are described from the Afrotropical and Oriental regions including the first records of this family from several countries in eastern Africa (Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) and Mauritania in western Africa as well as Nepal and Thailand in Asia. The new species are, Leptomydinae: Leptomydas notos sp. n. (south-western India), Leptomydas rapti sp. n. (south-central Nepal), Leptomydas tigris sp. n. (north-central Thailand); Syllegomydinae: Mydaselpidini: Mydaselpis ngurumani sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya, north-eastern Tanzania), Vespiodes phaios sp. n. (south-eastern Kenya); Syllegomydinae: Syllegomydini: Syllegomydas (Notobates) astrictus sp. n. (Kenya), Syllegomydas (Notobates) heothinos sp. n. (Kenya and Uganda), Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas) elachys sp. n. (northern Zimbabwe). Syllegomydas (Syllegomydas) proximus Séguy, 1928 is recorded from western Mauritania and re-described. Syllegomydas (Notobates) dispar (Loew, 1852), which was previously listed as incertae sedis in the Afrotropical Diptera catalogue, is re-described and illustrated based on examination of the type specimens and several additional specimens from Mozambique. Cephalocera annulata Brunetti, 1912 and Syllegomydas bucciferus Séguy, 1928, described from north-eastern India and previously unplaced in the Oriental Diptera catalogue, are newly combined with Leptomydas Gerstaecker, 1868 and together with Leptomydas indianus Brunetti, 1912, also from north-eastern India, placed in Leptomydinae. Comments on the possible synonymy of the genera of Mydaselpidini are made. Illustrations and photographs are provided to support the descriptions and future identification. A provisional dichotomous key to Mydidae genera occurring in eastern Africa (Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda) and the Oriental Region is provided. Distribution, occurrence in biodiversity hotspots and high-biodiversity wilderness areas, and seasonal incidence are discussed for all species. PMID

  19. Optimizing Trap Design and Trapping Protocols for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Renkema, Justin M; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Hallett, Rebecca H

    2014-12-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a recent invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Europe. Carpophagous larvae render fruit unmarketable and may promote secondary rot-causing organisms. To monitor spread and develop programs to time application of controls, further work is needed to optimize trap design and trapping protocols for adult D. suzukii. We compared commercial traps and developed a new, easy-to-use plastic jar trap that performed well compared with other designs. For some trap types, increasing the entry area led to increased D. suzukii captures and improved selectivity for D. suzukii when populations were low. However, progressive entry area enlargement had diminishing returns, particularly for commercial traps. Unlike previous studies, we found putting holes in trap lids under a close-fitting cover improved captures compared with holes on sides of traps. Also, red and black traps outperformed yellow and clear traps when traps of all colors were positioned 10-15 cm apart above crop foliage. In smaller traps, attractant surface area and entry area, but not other trap features (e.g., headspace volume), appeared to affect D. suzukii captures. In the new, plastic jar trap, tripling attractant volume (360 vs 120 ml) and weekly attractant replacement resulted in the highest D. suzukii captures, but in the larger commercial trap these measures only increased by-catch of large-bodied Diptera. Overall, the plastic jar trap with large entry area is affordable, durable, and can hold high attractant volumes to maximize D. suzukii capture and selectivity. PMID:26470076

  20. The gene transformer-2 of Anastrepha fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) and its evolution in insects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    relationships, probably represent the ancestral state (which still exists in the Tephritidae, Calliphoridae and Muscidae lineages) of the extant cascade found in the Drosophilidae lineage (in which tra is just another component of the sex determination gene cascade regulated by Sex-lethal). In the phylogenetic lineage that gave rise to the drosophilids, evolution co-opted for Sex-lethal, modified it, and converted it into the key gene controlling sex determination. PMID:20465812

  1. A checklist of arthropods associated with pig carrion and human corpses in southeastern brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, L M; Thyssen, P J; Linhares, A X; Palhares, F A

    2000-01-01

    Necrophagous insects, mainly Diptera and Coleoptera, are attracted to specific stages of carcass decomposition, in a process of faunistic succession. They are very important in estimating the postmortem interval, the time interval between the death and the discovery of the body. In studies done with pig carcasses exposed to natural conditions in an urban forest (Santa Genebra Reservation), located in Campinas, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, 4 out of 36 families of insects collected - Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae (Diptera) and Dermestidae (Coleoptera) - were considered of forensic importance, because several species were collected in large numbers both visiting and breeding in pig carcasses. Several species were also observed and collected on human corpses at the Institute of Legal Medicine. The species belonged to 17 different families, 6 being of forensic importance because they were reared from human corpses or pig carcasses: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Piophilidae (Diptera), Dermestidae, Silphidae and Cleridae (Coleoptera). The most important species were: Diptera - Chrysomya albiceps, Chrysomya putoria, Hemilucilia segmentaria, Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Calliphoridae), Pattonella intermutans (Sarcophagidae), Ophyra chalcogaster (Muscidae), Piophila casei (Piophilidae); Coleoptera - Dermestes maculatus (Dermestidae), Oxyletrum disciolle (Silphidae) and Necrobia rufipes (Cleridae). PMID:10656720

  2. A transcriptional and proteomic survey of Arachnocampa luminosa (Diptera: Keroplatidae) lanterns gives insights into the origin of bioluminescence from the Malpighian tubules in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Silva, J R; Amaral, D T; Hastings, J W; Wilson, T; Viviani, V R

    2015-11-01

    Fungus-gnats of the genus Arachnocampa are unique among bioluminescent insects for displaying blue-green bioluminescence, and are responsible for one of the most beautiful bioluminescence spectacles on the roofs of the Waitomo Caves. Despite morphological studies showing that Arachnocampa larval lanterns involve specialization of the Malpighian tubules, the biochemical origin of their bioluminescence remains enigmatic. Using a cDNA library previously constructed from lanterns of the New Zealand glowworm A. luminosa, we carried out the first transcriptional analysis of ~ 500 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to identify putative candidate proteins for light production, and to better understand the molecular physiology of the lanterns and their relationship with Malpighian tubule physiology. The analysis showed an abundance of hexamerin-like proteins, as well as luciferase-like enzymes, indicating a possible critical role for these proteins in bioluminescence. These findings were corroborated by proteomic analysis of lantern extracts, which showed the presence of hexamerins and luciferase-like enzymes. Other gene products typical of Malpighian tubules, such as detoxifying enzymes, were also found. The results support the existence of an evolutionary link between Malpighian tubule detoxification and the origin of bioluminescence in these Diptera. PMID:25676901

  3. Population structure of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) assessed on a global scale using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is a major pest of livestock in the United States and worldwide. To assess the genetic variability in geographically distant stable flies, samples were obtained from four biogeographical regions: Nearctic, Neotropical, Palearctic, and Aus...

  4. A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, a parasitoid of Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Lixophaga Townsend (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Colombia, Lixophaga puscolulo Carrejo & Woodley, sp. nov., is described and illustrated. It is a parasitoid of the tomato fruit borer, Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), an insect pest of Solanum quitoense Lam....

  5. Targeted Cue-lure Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: An area wide IPM approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression was undertaken as part of a Hawaii state-wide program funded by USDA-ARS Area Wide Initiative. Methods: A grid of 1 cuelure trap/ km2 over 40 km2 was established in Kamuela, HI to pinpoint ...

  6. Targeted Trapping, Bait-spray, Sanitation, Sterile-male and Parasitoid Releases in an Area Wide Integrated Melon Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Control Program in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An area wide integrated pest management approach to melon fly Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera:Tephritidae) suppression in Kamuela, Hawaii, was undertaken as part of a larger state-wide program by the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Area Wide Initiative. After a...

  7. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  8. MORTALITY OF RHAGOLETIS POMONELLA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) EXPOSED TO FIELD-AGED SPINETORAM, GF-120, AND AZINPHOS-METHYL IN WASHINGTON STATE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The new semi-synthetic spinosyn insecticide DE-175 (Dow AgroSciences, Indianapolis, Indiana) was tested for the first time against the apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Effects of field-aging DE-175 (formulated as a 100 g/L suspension concentrate) and other inse...

  9. Multi-state survey of picture-winged flies (Diptera:Ulidiidae) attacking sweet corn in the southern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four picture-winged fly (Diptera: Ulidiidae) species in two genera were identified as direct pests of sweet and field corn ears in Florida from surveys conducted during 2007 and 2008. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited mostly in the silk canal to damage silk, kernels and cob rendering infested sweet...

  10. Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mosquitoes transmit pathogens that cause millions of human deaths each year. Dengue virus is transmitted to humans in tropical and subtropical areas by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). The use of synthetic insecticides to control this mosquito is accompanied by high operational costs and adverse...

  11. Parameristomerinx copelandi, a new genus and species of Afrotropical Pachygastrinae and a new generic synonym of Dolichodema Kertész (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus and species, Parameristomerinx copelandi gen. n., sp. n. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Pachygastrinae), from the Afrotropical Region is described from material from Kenya. This genus is similar to the Afrotropical genera Meristomerinx Enderlein and Meristomeringina James. A new generic syno...

  12. Host Plant Use by and New Host Records of Apple Maggot, Western Cherry Fruit Fly, and Other Rhagoletis Species (Diptera: Tephritidae). I. Central Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant use by apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and other Rhagoletis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in five cities or towns and several habitats of difference commercial importance within south central Washington state was de...

  13. Two new species of sympatric Fergusonina flies (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) from bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng. complex) in the Australian Alps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two species of Fergusonina Malloch fly, F. daviesae Nelson sp.n. and F. taylori Nelson sp.n. (Diptera: Fergusoninidae), are described from terminal leaf bud galls on high elevation snow gums (Eucalyptus pauciflora complex) in the Australian Alps. These species occur in sympatry at the six locations...

  14. An overview of tropical pest species of bactrocera fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) and the integration of biopesticides with other biological approaches for their management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies (Diptera:Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication prog...

  15. A new species of Neolasioptera (Diptera: Cecidomyiiidae) from Parkinsonia aculeata (Leguninosae) in Argentina for possible use in biological control in Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neolasioptera parkinsoniae Gagné (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is described as a new species from stem swellings on Parkinsonia aculeata L. (Leguminosae) in NW Argentina. The new species appears to be a good candidate for the biological control of its host in Australia, where the plant was accidentally i...

  16. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  17. A Guide to Basic Taxonomic Literature for the Genera of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) - Adults, Pupae, and Larvae. Bulletin No. 447.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Karl W.

    A generic list of North American Chironomidae (Diptera) is presented to help aquatic biologists quickly locate important taxonomic references for the adults, larvae, and pupae of each genus. The list (in chart format) includes literature published through 1981. When recent literature is available, older references are omitted, since the purpose of…

  18. A comparative assessment of the response of three fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) to a spinosad-based bait: Effect of ammonium acetate, female age, and protein hunger

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia-releasing substances are known to play an important role in fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) attraction to food sources and this information has been exploited for the development of effective synthetic food-based lures and insecticidal baits. In field studies conducted in Hawaii, we examine...

  19. Molecular characterization and comparative virulence of Beauveria bassiana isolates (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) associated with the greenhouse shore fly, Scatella tenuicosta (Diptera: Ephydridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of natural infections of the insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) in greenhouses and laboratory colonies of Scatella tenuicosta Collin (Diptera: Ephydridae), a nuisance pest and vector of plant pathogens, suggest the potential for using B. bass...

  20. Classical biological control of the olive fruit fly, Bactrocera olea (Diptera: Tephritidae), using the exotic parasitoie, Psyttalia lounsburyi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in France.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is an important pest of olives which is worldwide distributed and responsible for economic losses of approximately US$800 million per year. Since the 2000s both economical and environmental concerns have raised interested in clas...

  1. Enhancing mating performance after juvenile hormone treatment in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera:Tephritidae): a differential response in males and females acts as a physiological sexing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methoprene treatment can reduce the time required for sexual maturation in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Wiedemann) males under laboratory conditions, supporting its use as a treatment for sterile males within the context of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Here we evaluated sexu...

  2. Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae) biological control agents of Solenopsis spp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Louisiana: statewide distribution and Kneallhazia solenopsae (Microsporidia: Thelohaniidae) prevalence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phorid flies, Pseudacteon spp. (Diptera: Phoridae), have been released in the United States since 1996 as biological control agents for imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, Solenopsis richteri Forel, and their hybrid (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), management. A statewide survey was conducted in ...

  3. Ammonium acetate enhances the attractiveness of a variety of protein-based baits to female Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia and its derivatives are used largely by female fruit 32 flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) as volatile cues to locate protein-rich food needed to produce their eggs. This need for external protein sources has led to the development of behaviorally-based control strategies such a food-based lures a...

  4. Biology of Thrypticus truncatus and T. sagittatus (Diptera:Dolichopodidae), petiole miners of water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, in Argentina. With morphological descriptions of larvae and pupae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mining flies Thyrpticus truncatus Bickel & Hernandez and T. sagittatus Bickel & Hernandez (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) are being evaluated as biological control agents for the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Soms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The bahavior of adults and larvae of these sp...

  5. Sexual selection on multivariate phenotypes in Anastrepha Fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Sciurano, R.; Rodriguero, M.; Gomez Cendra, P.; Vilardi, J.; Segura, D.; Cladera, J.L.; Allinghi, Armando

    2007-03-15

    Despite the interest in applying environmentally friendly control methods such as sterile insect technique (SIT) against Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), information about its biology, taxonomy, and behavior is still insufficient. To increase this information, the present study aims to evaluate the performance of wild flies under field cage conditions through the study of sexual competitiveness among males (sexual selection). A wild population from Horco Molle, Tucuman, Argentina was sampled. Mature virgin males and females were released into outdoor field cages to compete for mating. Morphometric analyses were applied to determine the relationship between the multivariate phenotype and copulatory success. Successful and unsuccessful males were measured for 8 traits: head width (HW), face width (FW), eye length (EL), thorax length (THL), wing length (WL), wing width (WW), femur length (FL), and tibia length (TIL). Combinations of different multivariate statistical methods and graphical analyses were used to evaluate sexual selection on male phenotype. The results indicated that wing width and thorax length would be the most probable targets of sexual selection. They describe a non-linear association between expected fitness and each of these 2 traits. This non-linear relation suggests that observed selection could maintain the diversity related to body size. (author) [Spanish] A pesar del interes por la aplicacion de metodos de control de bajo impacto ambiental sobre Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae), como la Tecnica del Insecto Esteril (TIE), no existe aun informacion suficiente sobre su biologia, taxonomia y comportamiento. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar el desempeno de moscas en jaulas de campo a traves del estudio de la competitividad sexual entre machos salvajes (seleccion sexual). Para ello, se muestreo una poblacion de Horco Molle, Tucuman (Argentina). En jaulas de campo se liberaron machos y hembras adultos

  6. The first report of Telomerina flavipes (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera, Sphaeroceridae) in a forensic case, with redescription of its pupa.

    PubMed

    Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás; García, Rafael; Carles-Tolrá, Miguel; Presa, Juan-José; García, María-Dolores

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a forensic investigation that took place in the city of Murcia (SE Spain) and shows how the entomological specimens collected at the scene were extremely helpful for estimating the minimum post-mortem interval (PMImin). The occurrence of Telomerina flavipes (Meigen, 1830) (Diptera: Sphaeroceridae) is reported here for the first time in a forensic case. Additionally, the importance of other entomological evidence in this case is discussed. The first known images of the puparium are provided, as well as its redescription and that of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton recovered from the puparium. PMID:25128390

  7. Rift Valley fever virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Phlebovirus). Isolations from Diptera collected during an inter-epizootic period in Kenya.

    PubMed Central

    Linthicum, K. J.; Davies, F. G.; Kairo, A.; Bailey, C. L.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 134 876 Diptera collected in Kenya during a 3-year period were tested in 3383 pools for Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus. Nineteen pools of unengorged mosquitoes were found positive for RVF. All isolations were made from specimens collected at or near the naturally or artificially flooded grassland depressions that serve as the developmental sites for the immature stages of many mosquito species. The isolation of virus from adult male and female A. lineatopennis which had been reared from field-collected larvae and pupae suggests that transovarial transmission of the virus occurs in this species. PMID:2862206

  8. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae).

    PubMed

    Jakovlev, Jevgeni; Salmela, Jukka; Polevoi, Alexei; Penttinen, Jouni; Vartija, Noora-Annukka

    2014-01-01

    New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomyashewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomyathula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemiatrifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosiagracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfeliakrivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophilabiformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilamonstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophilauschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichontapalustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

  9. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Mauritania: First Report on the Presence of the Arbovirus Mosquito Vector in Nouakchott.

    PubMed

    Mint Lekweiry, Khadijetou; Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Ould Brahim, Khyarhoum; Ould Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly; Brengues, Cécile; Faye, Ousmane; Simard, Frédéric; Ould Mohamed Salem Boukhary, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is a major vector of yellow fever, dengue, and chikungunya viruses throughout tropical and subtropical areas of the world. Although the southernmost part of Mauritania along the Senegal river has long been recognized at risk of yellow fever transmission, Aedes spp. mosquitoes had never been reported northwards in Mauritania. Here, we report the first observation of Aedes aegypti aegypti (L.) and Aedes (Ochlerotatus) caspius (Pallas, 1771) in the capital city, Nouakchott. We describe the development sites in which larvae of the two species were found, drawing attention to the risk for emergence of arbovirus transmission in the city. PMID:26335483

  10. Recent noteworthy findings of fungus gnats from Finland and northwestern Russia (Diptera: Ditomyiidae, Keroplatidae, Bolitophilidae and Mycetophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New faunistic data on fungus gnats (Diptera: Sciaroidea excluding Sciaridae) from Finland and NW Russia (Karelia and Murmansk Region) are presented. A total of 64 and 34 species are reported for the first time form Finland and Russian Karelia, respectively. Nine of the species are also new for the European fauna: Mycomya shewelli Väisänen, 1984, Mycomya thula Väisänen, 1984, Acnemia trifida Zaitzev, 1982, Coelosia gracilis Johannsen, 1912, Orfelia krivosheinae Zaitzev, 1994, Mycetophila biformis Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila monstera Maximova, 2002, Mycetophila uschaica Subbotina & Maximova, 2011 and Trichonta palustris Maximova, 2002. PMID:24891825

  11. New species and records of Pseudacteon Coquillett, 1907 (Diptera, Phoridae), parasitoids of the fire ant Solenopsis geminata group (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thalles Platiny Lavinscky; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Bravo, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The genus Pseudacteon Coquillett (Diptera, Phoridae) has a worldwide distribution and comprises parasitic myrmecophilous species that decapitate host ants. Seventy one species are known in the genus, 41 of them occur in the Neotropical Region and are 25 from Brazil. In northeastern Brazil, there are only records for two species, Pseudacteon dentiger Borgmeier and Pseudacteon antiguensis Malloch. In this paper, two new species of the genus are described from female specimens, Pseudacteon pesqueroi new spec. and Pseudacteon plowesi new spec., and also, new records of three Pseudacteon species for the Brazilian Northeast are given. PMID:26624156

  12. First record of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) associated with rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Zuha, Raja Muhammad; See, Huong Wen; Disney, R Henry L; Omar, Baharudin

    2014-12-01

    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology. PMID:25466156

  13. Community dynamics of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and their parasitoids (Hymenoptera) in a natural habitat from Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladares, Graciela; Salvo, Adriana

    2001-12-01

    We examined the temporal community dynamics of leafminers (Agromyzidae: Diptera) and their mainly polyphagous parasitoids in a natural habitat from Central Argentina. Changes in community composition are shown by changes in dominant species and similarity coefficients. Abundance of leafminers was highest in winter, and was not related to their species richness. Abundance and species richness were correlated in the parasitoid community. Temporal variation in parasitoid diversity and abundance were positively correlated with species number and density in the host community. Apparent parasitism was greater when parasitoid species richness was high and parasitoid community dominance was low.

  14. Abiotic environmental factors influencing blowfly colonisation patterns in the field.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-06-10

    The accuracy of minimum post-mortem interval (mPMI) estimates usually hinges upon the ability of forensic entomologists to predict the conditions under which calliphorids will colonise bodies. However, there can be delays between death and colonisation due to poorly understood abiotic and biotic factors, hence the need for a mPMI. To quantify the importance of various meteorological and light-level factors, beef liver baits were placed in the field (Victoria, Australia) on 88 randomly selected days over 3 years in all seasons and observed every 60-90 min for evidence of colonisation. Baits were exposed during daylight, and the following parameters were measured: barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed, ambient temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Collected data were analysed using backward LR logistic regression to produce an equation of colonisation probability. This type of analysis removes factors with the least influence on colonisation in successive steps until all remaining variables significantly increase the accuracy of predicting colonisation presence or absence. Ambient temperature was a positive predictor variable (an increase in temperature increased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Relative humidity was a negative predictor variable (an increase in humidity decreased the probability of calliphorid colonisation). Barometric pressure, light intensity, wind speed and rainfall did not enhance the accuracy of the probability model; however, analysis of species activity patterns suggests that heavy rainfall and strong wind speeds inhibit calliphorid colonisation. PMID:23683914

  15. A Drosophila heat shock response represents an exception rather than a rule amongst Diptera species.

    PubMed

    Zatsepina, O G; Przhiboro, A A; Yushenova, I A; Shilova, V; Zelentsova, E S; Shostak, N G; Evgen'ev, M B; Garbuz, D G

    2016-08-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is the major player that underlies adaptive response to hyperthermia in all organisms studied to date. We investigated patterns of Hsp70 expression in larvae of dipteran species collected from natural populations of species belonging to four families from different evolutionary lineages of the order Diptera: Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae. All investigated species showed a Hsp70 expression pattern that was different from the pattern in Drosophila. In contrast to Drosophila, all of the species in the families studied were characterized by high constitutive levels of Hsp70, which was more stable than that in Drosophila. When Stratiomyidae Hsp70 proteins were expressed in Drosophila cells, they became as short-lived as the endogenous Hsp70. Interestingly, three species of Ceratopogonidae and a cold-water species of Chironomidae exhibited high constitutive levels of Hsp70 mRNA and high basal levels of Hsp70. Furthermore, two species of Tabanidae were characterized by significant constitutive levels of Hsp70 and highly stable Hsp70 mRNA. In most cases, heat-resistant species were characterized by a higher basal level of Hsp70 than more thermosensitive species. These data suggest that different trends were realized during the evolution of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the responses of Hsp70 genes to temperature fluctuations in the studied families. PMID:27089053

  16. [Ecology of Stomoxys flies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon. I. First survey in different ecological areas].

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, J F; Jay-Robert, P; Gilles, J; Atsame, Edda A; Duvallet, G

    2008-03-01

    The stomoxyine flies are hematophagous diptera and potential vectors of various pathogenic agents. Like those of the Afrotropical Region, the stomoxyine flies of Gabon remain nearly unknown. For these reasons, an entomological survey was conducted in a transverse way in eight localities representative of the various ecological zones of Gabon. The survey was based on the use of Vavoua traps. Various environmental factors able to influence the captures were noticed and included into a canonical correspondence analysis. In total, 15,966 Stomoxys spp., belonging to seven species or subspecies, were captured. The apparent densities (DAP) expressed as the number of flies per trap and per day, were highest in Franceville (41), Bakoumba (40), Makokou (25) and Mouila (21). The most abundant species were S. n niger (33.4%), S. transvittatus (33%), then S. calcitrans (17%). The principal factors that could explain the variability of the captures were the degree of anthropisation, the botanical facies (savanna or forest), the presence of wild and domestic fauna and the nature of the vegetal cover of the ground. S. calcitrans, S. niger niger were abundant in the areas where human presence was manifest. S. xanthomelas was present in forest belts. S. transvittatus, S. omega, S. inornatus were ubiquitous species. S. niger bilineatus was found in savannas areas. PMID:18416244

  17. Ecological and epidemiological status of species of the Phlebotomus perniciosus complex (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Asmae; Kahime, Kholoud; Boussaa, Samia; Belqat, Boutaïna

    2016-03-01

    Leishmania infantum (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection is transmitted by an infected female sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) of the subgenus Larroussius: Phlebotomus ariasi, Phlebotomus perniciosus, and Phlebotomus longicuspis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, the vectorial role of P. ariasi was demonstrated, while that of P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus is not elucidated. In addition, Moroccan P. longicuspis and P. perniciosus populations present a higher morphologic and genetic variability. It was classified as P. perniciosus complex, including typical (PN) and atypical (PNA) morphs of P. perniciosus, P. longicuspis sensu stricto (LCss), and a sibling species of P. longicuspis (LCx). With the aim to study the ecological and epidemiological status of P. perniciosus complex species in Morocco, entomological surveys were carried out during three entomological seasons (2012, 2013, and 2014). We collected a total of 6298 specimens from 81 localities of northern, central, and southern Morocco. After describing the geographical distribution of P. perniciosus complex trough Morocco according to many variables (altitude, latitude, and longitude), we discuss the resulting epidemiological implications of its species. Our results highlight the geographical distribution of the two morphs of P. perniciosus through Morocco: PN is limited to the north, while PNA is widespread in northern, central, and southern Morocco. In terms of vectorial role, we hypothesize the potential involvement of PN, LCss, and LCx, at least, with P. ariasi, in the epidemiological cycle of L. infantum in Morocco. PMID:26593735

  18. Alightment of Spotted Wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on Odorless Disks Varying in Color

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, D. M.; McGhee, P. S.; Hermann, S. L.; Gut, L. J.; Miller, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Methods for trapping spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsmura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), have not yet been optimized for detecting this devastating pest of soft-skinned fruits. Here, we report outcomes of choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays quantifying the rates of spotted wing drosophila alightment on 5-cm-diameter sticky disks of various colors, but no fruit odors. Red, purple, and black disks captured the most spotted wing drosophila when presented against a white background. Male and female spotted wing drosophila responded identically in these tests. Significantly more D. suzukii were captured on the red and yellow disks than those presenting the corresponding grayscale for that color, proving that D. suzukii perceives colors and not just the level of target brightness. Fluorescent red is the best candidate for trap color, while clear and white are the least desirable. However, when the background was switched to black, all nonfluorescent colors were equally acceptable to spotted wing drosophila, suggesting that background must be specified when reporting spotted wing drosophila color preference. Additional spotted wing drosophila research is justified on the effects of target color against natural backgrounds. PMID:26475826

  19. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae).

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2015-07-01

    Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla. PMID:25859927

  20. Development sites and early stages of eleven species of Clusiidae (Diptera) occurring in Europe.

    PubMed

    Rotheray, Graham E; Horsfield, David

    2013-01-01

    Two hundred and ninety-six rearing records of 11 clusiid species (Diptera, Clusiidae) were obtained from 8 tree species in England, Finland, France, Norway, Russia and Scotland, mainly during the period 1994 to 2004. Larvae and puparia were found between annual layers of whitewood (sapwood and heartwood) of wet, decay-softened, dead wood. Levels of host tree specificity were low, most species were reared from 2-4 host trees, maximum 6. The clusiid larva is distinguished by: a small, translucent head skeleton with an obliquely-shaped apex to the artium; a pseudocephalon fixed in an inverted position except for an external, flattened section bearing the antennomaxillary organs; a spherical prothorax with a truncate rim embedded with sensilla and, a wedge-shaped anal segment bearing a pair of conspicuous, sclerotised, red-brown hooks on the inner margins of which are the posterior spiracular plates. Many of these features support a distinctive feeding mechanism, spot-sucking of biofilm coating wet, decaying whitewood. Early stage characters support the results of recent supraspecific taxonomic and systematic investigations, such as the synonymy of Paraclusia Czerny under Clusia Haliday and the recognition of species groups in Clusiodes Coquillett. Based on early stages, supraspecific clusiid taxa are easily recognised but at species level, differences are relatively fine-grained and minor. A key is provided to identify puparia of species reared in this study. PMID:26131483

  1. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) to traps in the field.

    PubMed

    Bray, D P; Bandi, K K; Brazil, R P; Oliveira, A G; Hamilton, J G C

    2009-05-01

    Improving vector control remains a key goal in reducing the world's burden of infectious diseases. More cost-effective approaches to vector control are urgently needed, particularly because vaccines are unavailable and treatment is prohibitively expensive. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL), Leishmania chagasi, Cunha and Chagas (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), is transmitted between animal and human hosts by blood-feeding female sand flies attracted to mating aggregations formed on or above host animals by male-produced sex pheromones. Our results show the potential of using synthetic pheromones to control populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae), the sand fly vector of one of the world's most important neglected diseases, AVL. We showed that a synthetic pheromone, (+/-)-9-methylgermacrene-B, produced from a low-cost plant intermediate, attracted females in the laboratory. By formulating dispensers that released this pheromone at a rate similar to that released by aggregating males, we were able to attract flies of both sexes to traps in the field. These dispensers worked equally well when deployed with mechanical light traps and inexpensive sticky traps. If deployed effectively, pheromone-based traps could be used to decrease AVL transmission rates through specific targeting and reduction of L. longipalpis populations. This is the first study to show attraction of a human disease-transmitting insect to a synthetic pheromone in the field, showing the general applicability of this novel approach for developing new tools for use in vector control. PMID:19496409

  2. An Adaptive Kernel Smoothing Method for Classifying Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) Larval Instars

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Guanjun; Zeng, Xianru; Long, Xiuzhen; Wei, Dewei; Gao, Xuyuan; Zeng, Tao

    2015-01-01

    In insects, the frequency distribution of the measurements of sclerotized body parts is generally used to classify larval instars and is characterized by a multimodal overlap between instar stages. Nonparametric methods with fixed bandwidths, such as histograms, have significant limitations when used to fit this type of distribution, making it difficult to identify divisions between instars. Fixed bandwidths have also been chosen somewhat subjectively in the past, which is another problem. In this study, we describe an adaptive kernel smoothing method to differentiate instars based on discontinuities in the growth rates of sclerotized insect body parts. From Brooks’ rule, we derived a new standard for assessing the quality of instar classification and a bandwidth selector that more accurately reflects the distributed character of specific variables. We used this method to classify the larvae of Austrosimulium tillyardianum (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on five different measurements. Based on head capsule width and head capsule length, the larvae were separated into nine instars. Based on head capsule postoccipital width and mandible length, the larvae were separated into 8 instars and 10 instars, respectively. No reasonable solution was found for antennal segment 3 length. Separation of the larvae into nine instars using head capsule width or head capsule length was most robust and agreed with Crosby’s growth rule. By strengthening the distributed character of the separation variable through the use of variable bandwidths, the adaptive kernel smoothing method could identify divisions between instars more effectively and accurately than previous methods. PMID:26546689

  3. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development.

    PubMed

    Moran, Zelda R; Parker, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  4. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  5. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of the forensically important family Piophilidae (Diptera) from different European locations.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Barbara Karolina; Martin-Vega, Daniel; Feddern, Nina; Fremdt, Heike; e Castro, Catharina Prado; Szpila, Krzysztof; Reckel, Frank; Schütt, Svenja; Verhoff, Marcel A; Amendt, Jens; Zehner, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Species identification plays an important role in forensic entomology and is mandatory for an accurate calculation of the minimum post-mortem interval. Many important Diptera and Coleoptera taxa of the cadaver community can already be identified by common barcoding approaches, i.e., by sequencing a 658bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coI) gene. Nevertheless, there is still a lack of reference barcodes for species, in particular, that can be found on cadavers at later decomposition stages. Flies of the family Piophilidae illustrate this gap of knowledge perfectly. Due to the fact that a reliable morphological identification key for the immature stages of this flies is still missing and the immature stages of many piophilids cannot be assigned to a certain species, there is need for additional tools to identify forensically relevant taxa. We collected adult piophilid specimens at 10 locations in five European countries: Spain (n=3 locations), Germany (n=3), Portugal (n=2), Poland (n=1) and Switzerland (n=1). Apart from the coI barcoding region, we additionally analyzed a 398bp long region of the nuclear elongation factor 1 alpha (ef1a) and subsequently established the molecular identifier for nine piophilid species. In addition, we present the molecular phylogeny of the examined taxa. PMID:26760908

  6. Determination of mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bloodmeal sources in Western Australia: implications for arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Johansen, C A; Power, S L; Broom, A K

    2009-09-01

    A double-antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the bloodmeal sources of adult mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in encephalitis vector surveillance mosquito traps in Western Australia between May 1993 and August 2004. In total, 2,606 blood-fed mosquitoes, representing 29 mosquito species, were tested, and 81.7% reacted with one or more of the primary antibodies. Aedes camptorhynchus (Thomson) and Culex annulirostris Skuse were the most common species tested, making up 47.2% (1,234) and 35.6% (930), respectively. These species obtained bloodmeals from a variety of vertebrate hosts but particularly marsupials and cows. In contrast, Culex pullus Theobald (72.7%; 24/33), Culiseta atra (Lee) (70.0%; 7/10), Culex globocoxitus Dobrotworsky (54.5%; 12/22), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (39.3%; 22/56) often obtained bloodmeals from birds. Although Ae. camptorhynchus and Cx. annulirostris are well established vectors of arboviruses, other mosquitoes also may have a role in enzootic and/ or epizootic transmission. PMID:19769051

  7. New records of bat ectoparasites (Diptera, Hemiptera and Siphonaptera) from northern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Autino, Analía G; Claps, Guillermo L; Sánchez, Mariano S; Barquez, Rubén M

    2009-01-01

    New species of bat-ectoparasite insects are added to the fauna of Argentina and distributional limits are extended for others, based on information obtained from 21 species of bats collected. New data is reported for the distribution of 23 species of bat ectoparasites, of which 17 belong to the Order Diptera [14 Streblidae: Anastrebla caudiferae Wenzel, Anatrichobius scorzai Wenzel, Aspidoptera phyllostomatis (Perty), Megistopoda aranea (Coquillett), M. proxima (Sèguy), Metelasmus pseudopterus Coquillett, Noctiliostrebla aitkeni Wenzel, N. dubia (Rudow), Paradyschiria fusca Speiser, Paradyschiria sp., Strebla chrotopteri Wenzel, Strebla diaemi Wenzel, Trichobius parasiticus Gervais y Xenotrichobius noctilionis Wenzel, and three Nycteribiidae: Basilia carteri Scott, B. plaumanni Scott y B.neamericana Schuurmans Stekhoven (Jr)], three belong to the Order Siphonaptera [one Ischnopsyllidae: Myodopsylla isidori (Weyenbergh), one Tungidae: Rhynchopsyllus pulex Haller, and one Stephanocircidae: Craneopsylla m. minerva (Rothschild)] and three belong to Order Hemiptera [two Polyctenidae: Hesperoctenes fumarius (Westwood) and H. vicinus Jordan, and one Cimicidae: Latrocimex spectans Lent]. Some records are new for Argentina, while others are new for the provinces of Corrientes, Chaco, Entre Ríos, Jujuy, Misiones and Salta. Also new host-parasite relationships are reported. PMID:19488504

  8. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae) plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Macêdo, M E; Consoli, R A; Grandi, T S; dos Anjos, A M; de Oliveira, A B; Mendes, N M; Queiróz, R O; Zani, C L

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis--Diptera: Culicidae). The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l). PMID:9361755

  9. Effectiveness of Genes for Hessian Fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) Resistance in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Shukle, Richard H; Cambron, Sue E; Moniem, Hossam Abdel; Schemerhorn, Brandon J; Redding, Julie; David Buntin, G; Flanders, Kathy L; Reisig, Dominic D; Mohammadi, Mohsen

    2016-02-01

    The Hessian fly, Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), is the most important insect pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum) in the southeastern United States, and the deployment of genetically resistant wheat is the most effective control. However, the use of resistant wheat results in the selection of pest genotypes that can overcome formerly resistant wheat. We have evaluated the effectiveness of 16 resistance genes for protection of wheat from Hessian fly infestation in the southeastern United States. Results documented that while 10 of the genes evaluated could provide protection of wheat, the most highly effective genes were H12, H18, H24, H25, H26, and H33. However, H12 and H18 have been reported to be only partially effective in field evaluations, and H24, H25, and H26 may be associated with undesirable effects on agronomic traits when introgressed into elite wheat lines. Thus, the most promising new gene for Hessian fly resistance appears to be H33. These results indicate that identified highly effective resistance in wheat to the Hessian fly is a limited resource and emphasize the need to identify novel sources of resistance. Also, we recommend that the deployment of resistance in gene pyramids and the development of novel strategies for engineered resistance be considered. PMID:26468515

  10. Species Composition and Distribution of Adult Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Panama

    PubMed Central

    LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025

  11. Revision of the New World genus Glyphidops Enderlein (Diptera: Neriidae) .

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Tatiana A; Wolff, Marta I; De Carvalho, Claudio J B

    2014-01-01

    The genus Glyphidops Enderlein, 1922, the most widespread and speciose of the New World genera of Neriidae (Diptera), is revised herein. Glyphidops (Glyphidops) ruselatus, new species, G. (G.) steyskali, new species and G. (G.) coracinus, new species are described. Of the 16 previously described species, which were last treated by Aczél (1961), the following synonyms are proposed: Chaetomeristes peruanus Enderlein is treated as a junior synonym of G. (G.) bullatus (Enderlein); Nerius dispar Cresson, Oncopsia neutra Hennig and Oncopsia dubia Hennig are treated as junior synonyms of G.(O.) durus (Cresson) and Oncopsia seductrix Hennig, is treated as a junior synonym of G. (O.) flavifrons (Bigot). The species Telostylus vittatus Cresson, is removed from synonymy with G. (G.) filosus (Fabricius) and revalidated as senior synonym of G. ochreus Hennig. A new diagnosis for the genus and all species are provided, as is an identification key to species. New locality records are provided for Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Ecuador and Brazil. PMID:24872176

  12. A biosecurity response to Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Holder, Peter; George, Sherly; Disbury, Mark; Singe, Monica; Kean, John M; McFadden, Andrew

    2010-07-01

    A biosecurity response was triggered by the detection of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) at the Port of Auckland, New Zealand. Ae. albopictus does not occur in New Zealand and is the most significant mosquito threat to this country. The possibility that a founding population had established, resulted in a large-scale biosecurity surveillance and control program. The response was initiated in early March 2007 and completed by mid-May 2007. No further exotic mosquitoes were detected. The response surveillance program consisted of larval habitat surveys and high density ovi- and light trapping. It was coordinated with a habitat modification and S-methoprene treatment control program. The response policies were guided by analysis of surveillance and quality assurance data, population modeling, and trace-back activities. Mosquito habitat and activity close to port were both more abundant than expected, particularly in storm water drain sumps. Sumps are difficult to treat, and during the response some modification was required to the surveillance program and the control regime. We were assured of the absence or eradication of any Ae. albopictus population, as a result of nil detection from surveillance, backed up by four overlapping rounds of insecticide treatment of habitat. This work highlights the importance of port surveillance and may serve as a guide for responses for future urban mosquito incursions. PMID:20695275

  13. Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Doud, C W; Taylor, D B; Zurek, L

    2012-03-01

    Species diversity and seasonal abundance of muscoid flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in biosolid cake (dewatered biosolids) stored at a wastewater treatment facility in northeastern Kansas were evaluated. Emergence traps were deployed 19 May through 20 October 2009 (22 wk) and 27 May through 18 November 2010 (25 wk). In total, 11,349 muscoid flies were collected emerging from the biosolid cake. Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)) and house flies (Musca domestica (L.)), represented 80 and 18% of the muscoid flies, respectively. An estimated 550 stable flies and 220 house flies per square-meter of surface area developed in the biosolid cake annually producing 450,000 stable flies and 175,000 house flies. Stable fly emergence was seasonally bimodal with a primary peak in mid-July and a secondary peak in late August. House fly emergence peaked with the first stable fly emergence peak and then declined gradually for the remainder of the year. House flies tended to emerge from the biosolid cake sooner after its deposition than did stable flies. In addition, house fly emergence was concentrated around midsummer whereas stable fly emergence began earlier in the spring and continued later into the fall. Biosolid age and temperature were the most important parameters affecting emergence for house flies and stable flies, whereas precipitation was not important for either species. This study highlights the importance of biosolid cake as a larval developmental habitat for stable flies and house flies. PMID:22493845

  14. Wolbachia Infection and Resource Competition Effects on Immature Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gavotte, Laurent; Mercer, David R.; Vandyke, Rhonda; Mains, James W.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Wolbachia pipientis Hertig and Wolbach (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) are intracellular α-proteobacteria that occur naturally in Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and numerous other invertebrates. These endosymbionts can invade host populations by manipulating host reproduction. Wolbachia infections have been shown to impart both costs and benefits to hosts in terms of development, survival, and fecundity. Here, we monitor intraspecific competition among independent cohorts of infected or uninfected larvae. Levels of competition are manipulated by varying initial larval densities and food levels. Although larval density is observed to have major impacts on immature survivorship, sex ratio of eclosing adults, and developmental rates, the Wolbachia infection status had minimal impact on male immatures and no effect on immature females under these experimental conditions. Female and male immatures were observed to respond differently to competitive pressure, with the functional relationships of females and males consistent with scramble and contest competition, respectively. The results are discussed in relation to the evolution of naturally occurring Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus (i.e., natural population replacement events) and public health strategies that propose the manipulation of Wolbachia infections in Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:19496412

  15. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomine sand fly populations (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the urban area of Marrakech, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Boussaa, S; Guernaoui, S; Pesson, B; Boumezzough, A

    2005-08-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) were collected continuously, using sticky traps, during 1 year from October 2002 to September 2003, in an urban area of Marrakech city (Morocco). A total of 3277 specimens were collected belonging to five species. Phlebotomus (Phlebotomus) papatasi (54.6%) is the predominant species followed by Sergentomyia (Sergentomyia) minuta (20%), S. (S.) fallax (11.3%), P. (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (10.3%) and P. (Larroussius) longicuspis (3.8%). Data analyses showed a mono-modal annual pattern for P. sergenti and a bi-modal one for the other species. P. papatasi, the proven vector of Leishmania major in Morocco, was active throughout the year. This species did not diapause in this region. P. papatasi population peaked in June and November, which relating to the periods of risk in this area. Its preferred temperature ranged between 32 and 36 degrees C but no significant correlation was found between its density and the temperature. Considering the high density and long activity period of P. papatasi, the area of Marrakech should be regarded as a potential focus for L. major. This suggests the need for a continuously surveillance to prevent risk of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. PMID:15985259

  16. Anthropic effects on sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) abundance and diversity in an Amazonian rural settlement, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Walkyria Rodrigues; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia María; Marialva, Eric Fabrício; Desmouliére, Sylvain J M; Luz, Sérgio Luiz Bessa; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2014-11-01

    Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are responsible for the transmission of protozoan parasites that cause leishmaniases. They are found predominantly in forests, but some species exploit environments that have been subject to deforestation and subsequent human colonization. Studies conducted in Brazil over the past 30 years show that some species are adapting to peri-urban and urban settings. We evaluated sand fly diversity and abundance in the rural settlement of Rio Pardo, Presidente Figueiredo Municipality, Amazonas State, Brazil. Settlement households were divided into four categories. These categories were determined by the human population density and the degree of deforestation in the immediate area. We used CDC light traps to sample the area surrounding 24 households (6 households in each category). Samples were taken on six occasions during September-November 2009 and June-August 2010. A total of 3074 sand fly specimens were collected, including 1163 females and 1911 males. These were classified into 13 genera and 52 species. The greatest abundance of sand flies and the greatest richness of species were observed in areas where human population density was highest. Our results show that changes in the human occupancy and vegetation management in rural settlements may affect the population dynamics and distribution of sand fly species, thereby affecting the local transmission of cutaneous leishmaniases. PMID:25009952

  17. [Current status and eco-epidemiology of mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) in Spain].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    In this manuscript we analize the possible emergence and/or re-emergence in Spain of some of the mosquito-borne arboviruses (Diptera: Culicidae) with highest incidence in recent years. The faunistic, bioecological and distributional data of the culicids in our country allow to differentiate between species with ability to maintain the enzootic cycles of arboviruses from others that can act as bridge vectors to the human population. The results show the existence of several common and anthropophilic species as Aedes vexans, Culex modestus, Culex pipiens or Ochlerotatus caspius, with a high capacity to transmit flaviviruses such as West Nile virus or Usutu virus. Moreover the recent introduction, establishment and spread of the Asian Mosquito Tiger, Aedes albopictus, propitiate a new situation for the emergence of possible epidemic outbreaks of arboviruses usually imported to our country by immigrants and tourists such as Dengue or Chikungunya. Finally we discuss the epidemiological interest of other native species as Aedes vittatus or Ochlerotatus geniculatus, due to its capacity to transmit some of these typically tropical arboviruses. PMID:20661525

  18. Molecular and Morphological Inference of Three Cryptic Species within the Merodon aureus Species Group (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Šašić, Ljiljana; Ačanski, Jelena; Vujić, Ante; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenković, Snežana; Milić, Dubravka; Obreht Vidaković, Dragana; Đan, Mihajla

    2016-01-01

    The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae) comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods). PMID:27532618

  19. Seasonal occurrence of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a desert stream receiving trout farm effluent.

    PubMed

    Pachón, R Trudith; Walton, William E

    2011-06-01

    The distribution and abundance of black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) in a small desert stream were influenced by environmental changes caused by recharge of water supply storage basins and an aquaculture operation. Simulium virgatum was the most abundant benthic insect collected in Whitewater Canyon (Riverside County, CA) after April; however, it was never found in trout farm effluent where the ammonium-nitrogen concentration was > 0.25 mg/liter. S. virgatum densities downstream of the input of water from the Colorado River aqueduct were lower than at other sampling sites in the Whitewater River. Simulium tescorum, an especially anthropophilic black fly, was most abundant during February and March, was not collected from late spring through early autumn, and was found only in the highly enriched, less variable flow of trout farm effluent. The mean concentrations of ammonium nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the trout farm effluent nearly 1 km from the fish holding ponds were ten and two times, respectively, the ambient levels in the Whitewater River upstream of the effluent discharge point. A combination of factors probably contributed to the presence of S. tescorum in the trout farm effluent including homogenization of the flow regime, enrichment of larval resources, and the development of riparian vegetation that provided oviposition and attachment sites. PMID:21635657

  20. Larvicidal Effects of Four Citrus Peel Essential Oils Against the Arbovirus Vector Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Campolo, Orlando; Romeo, Flora V; Algeri, Giuseppe M; Laudani, Francesca; Malacrinò, Antonino; Timpanaro, Nicolina; Palmeri, Vincenzo

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal activity of four citrus essential oils (EOs; sweet orange, mandarin, bergamot, and lemon) against the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, we found that in sweet orange, mandarin, and lemon EOs, limonene was the most abundant compound, whereas linalyl acetate was the most abundant in the bergamot EO. All tested EOs showed a marked larvicidal activity, in particular sweet orange, lemon, and bergamot that killed all treated larvae. After 24 h of exposure, the LC50 values of the tested citrus EOs ranged from 145.27 (lemon EO) to 318.07 mg liter(-1) (mandarin EO), while LC(95) ranged from 295.13 to 832.44 mg liter(-1). After 48 h of exposure, the estimated LC(50) values decreased to values ranging from 117.29 to 209.38 mg liter(-1), while LC(95) ranged from 231.85 to 537.36 mg liter(-1). The results obtained from these evaluations, together with the large availability at reasonable costs of citrus EOs, are promising for the potential development of a new botanical mosquitocide. PMID:26357845

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Amorphigenin on the Mitochondrial Complex I of Culex pipiens pallens Coquillett (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Mingshan; Liang, Yaping; Gu, Zumin; Li, Xiuwei

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory found that the extract from seeds of Amorpha fruticosa in the Leguminosae family had lethal effects against mosquito larvae, and an insecticidal compound amorphigenin was isolated. In this study, the inhibitory effects of amorphigenin against the mitochondrial complex I of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae) were investigated and compared with that of rotenone. The results showed that amorphigenin and rotenone can decrease the mitochondrial complex I activity both in vivo and in vitro as the in vivo IC50 values (the inhibitor concentrations leading to 50% of the enzyme activity lost) were determined to be 2.4329 and 2.5232 μmol/L, respectively, while the in vitro IC50 values were 2.8592 and 3.1375 μmol/L, respectively. Both amorphigenin and rotenone were shown to be reversible and mixed-I type inhibitors of the mitochondrial complex I of Cx. pipiens pallens, indicating that amorphigenin and rotenone inhibited the enzyme activity not only by binding with the free enzyme but also with the enzyme-substrate complex, and the values of KI and KIS for amorphigenin were determined to be 20.58 and 87.55 μM, respectively, while the values for rotenone were 14.04 and 69.23 μM, respectively. PMID:26307964

  2. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  3. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    PubMed

    Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga. PMID:27399679

  4. Assessing Insecticide Susceptibility of Laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae)

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, David S.; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Lawyer, Phillip G.; Black, William C.; Bernhardt, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides are effective for controlling Lutzomyia and Phlebotomus sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors of Leishmania parasites. However, repeated use of certain insecticides has led to tolerance and resistance. The objective of this study was to determine lethal concentrations (LCs) and lethal exposure times (LTs) to assess levels of susceptibility of laboratory Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Nieva) and Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) to 10 insecticides using a modified version of the World Health Organization (WHO) exposure kit assay and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) bottle bioassay. Sand flies were exposed to insecticides coated on the interior of 0.5-gallon and 1,000-ml glass bottles. Following exposure, the flies were allowed to recover for 24 h, after which mortality was recorded. From dose–response survival curves for L. longipalpis and P. papatasi generated with the QCal software, LCs causing 50, 90, and 95% mortality were determined for each insecticide. The LCs and LTs from this study will be useful as baseline reference points for future studies using the CDC bottle bioassays to assess insecticide susceptibility of sand fly populations in the field. There is a need for a larger repository of sand fly insecticide susceptibility data from the CDC bottle bioassays, including a range of LCs and LTs for more sand fly species with more insecticides. Such a repository would be a valuable tool for vector management. PMID:26336231

  5. Cold tolerance and disinfestation of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in 'Hass' avocado.

    PubMed

    Ware, A B; Du Toit, C L N; Mohamed, S A; Nderitu, P W; Ekasi, S

    2012-12-01

    Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) has spread rapidly across Africa and currently poses a phytosanitary threat to the fruit industry of South Africa. In reaction a cold mitigating treatment to provide phytosanitary security to importing countries was developed in Nairobi, Kenya. Using laboratory reared fruit flies, the rate of development in 'Hass' avocado (Persea americana Miller) was determined at 28 degrees C. Fruit ripeness or softness was found to be a factor improving larval fruit fly survival. Using this information the egg and larval developmental stages were subjected to 2 degrees C cold treatment and it was found that the third instars were the most cold tolerant life stage and that it was expected that between 16 and 17 d treatment would provide phytosanitary security. There were no survivors in the treatment of an estimated 153,001 individuals in four replicates at an average fruit pulp temperature of 2 degrees C satisfying the Probit 9 level of efficiency at a confidence of >95%. These data provide evidence that a continuous cold treatment of 1.5 degrees C or lower for 18 d would provide phytosanitary security in that any consignment entering an importing country poses no risk of accidental importation of B. invadens. PMID:23356059

  6. Dominant fitness costs of resistance to fipronil in Musca domestica Linnaeus (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Abbas, Naeem; Shah, Rizwan Mustafa; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Azher, Faheem

    2016-08-15

    House fly, Musca domestica L., (Diptera: Muscidae) a common pest of poultry, has developed resistance to the commonly used insecticide fipronil. The life history traits were examined in the fipronil-selected (Fipro-SEL), susceptible counterpart (UNSEL), and their hybrid progeny strains in order to design an effective resistant management strategy. Compared to the UNSEL strain, the Fipro-SEL was 181.94-fold resistant to fipronil. This resistance was unstable after five generations without selection. The Fipro-SEL had a significantly longer larval duration, lower pupal weight, lower fecundity, lower hatchability, lower number of next generation larvae, lower intrinsic rate of population increase and lower biotic potential than the UNSEL strain. Most fitness parameters of the hybrid progeny were similar and significantly lower than that in the UNSEL strain, suggesting autosomal and dominant fitness costs. Compared to the UNSEL strain, relative the fitness of the Fipro-SEL, Hybrid1 and Hybrid2 was 0.13, 0.33 and 0.30, respectively. Fipronil resistance resulted in high fitness costs and these fitness costs were dominant and autosomal in the Fipro-SEL strain of M. domestica. Rotation of fipronil with other insecticides having no cross resistance should be useful for delaying the development of resistance in M. domestica. PMID:27514889

  7. Molecular ecological analysis of planktonic bacterial communities in constructed wetlands invaded by Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Popko, David A; Han, Suk-Kyun; Lanoil, Brian; Walton, William E

    2006-11-01

    The succession of the planktonic bacterial community during the colonization by Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes of 0.1-ha treatment wetlands was studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methodology. Relationships between apparent bacterial diversity and ecological factors (water quality, total bacterial counts, and immature mosquito abundance) were determined during a 1-mo flooding period. Analysis of DGGE banding patterns indicated that days postflooding and temporal changes in water quality were the primary and secondary determinants, respectively, of diversity in bacterial communities. Lower levels of diversity were associated with later postflood stages and increases in ammoniacal nitrogen concentration and total bacterial counts. Diversity was therefore most similar for bacteria present on the same sampling date at wetland locations with similar flooding regimes and water quality, suggesting that wastewater input was the driving force shaping bacterial communities. Comparatively small changes in bacterial diversity were connected to natural processes as water flowed through the wetlands. Greater immature mosquito abundance coincided with less diverse communities composed of greater total numbers of bacteria. Five individual DGGE bands were directly associated with fluctuations in mosquito production, and an additional 16 bands were associated with hydrological aspects of the environment during the rise and fall of mosquito populations. A marked decline in mosquito numbers 21 d after inundation may have masked associations of bacterial communities and mosquito recruitment into the sparsely vegetated wetlands. DGGE was an effective tool for the characterization of bacteria in mosquito habitat in our study, and its potential application in mosquito ecology is discussed. PMID:17162947

  8. TOXICITY OF SEVERAL FUNGICIDES FOR ORANGE WHEAT BLOSSOM MIDGE, SITODIPLOSIS MOSELLANA (GÉHIN) (DIPTERA: CECIDOMYIIDAE).

    PubMed

    Chavalle, S; Jansen, J-P; San Martin y Gomez, G; De Proft, M

    2015-01-01

    The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitadiplosis mosellano (Géhin) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), can cause severe losses in wheat grain yield and quality. This pest is known to be susceptible to many insecticides, but various field observations have suggested that some fungicides could also significantly affect S. mosellana. In order to confirm these field observations, the effect on adult midges of several fungicides commonly applied to wheat crops was investigated in the laboratory and in small plots in the field. In each experiment, the fungicides were compared with a positive (insecticide) and a negative control (water). Four fungicides were assessed in the laboratory, each with five doses based on basis of a tenfold dilution starting at the field-recommended dose. The mortality rate was evaluated after 24 hours and the lethal dose 50% (LD50) was determined for each product. In the field, six fungicides were tested at the recommended dose. The effect of each product was compared on the basis of the number of S. mosellana adults caught alive with an insect vacuum sampler (Vortis®) on the morning after the treatments. Both experiments showed a significant effect of several fungicides tested on S. mosellana adults. Chlorothalonil was not toxic for S. mosellana, but tebuconazole, fluxapyroxad and azoxystrobin all induced significant mortality rates. PMID:27145574

  9. Ability of Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) Larvae to Recycle Food Waste.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trinh T X; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Vanlaerhoven, Sherah

    2015-04-01

    Accumulation of organic wastes, especially in livestock facilities, can be a potential pollution issue. The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), can consume a wide range of organic material and has the potential to be used in waste management. In addition, the prepupae stage of this insect can be harvested and used as a valuable nutritious feed for animal livestock. Five waste types with a wide range of organic source matter were specifically chosen to evaluate the consumption and reduction ability of black soldier fly larvae. H. illucens was able to reduce all waste types examined: 1) control poultry feed, 2) pig liver, 3) pig manure, 4) kitchen waste, 5) fruits and vegetables, and 6) rendered fish. Kitchen waste had the greatest mean rate of reduction (consumption by black soldier fly) per day and produced the longest and heaviest black soldier flies. Larvae reared on liver, manure, fruits and vegetables, and fish were approximately the same length and weight as larvae fed the control feed, although some diets produced larvae with a higher nutritional content. The black soldier fly has the ability to consume and reduce organic waste and be utilized as valuable animal feed. Exploration of the potential use of black soldier flies as an agent for waste management on a large-scale system should continue. PMID:26313195

  10. Substrate effects on pupation and adult emergence of Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Holmes, L A; Vanlaerhoven, S L; Tomberlin, J K

    2013-04-01

    Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), are of particular interest for their applications in waste management. Feeding on decaying organic waste, black soldier flies successfully reduce manure in confined animal feeding operations of poultry, swine, and cattle. To optimize waste conversion in confined animal feeding operations and landfill facilities, it is imperative to optimize black soldier fly development. Unfortunately, black soldier flies only convert waste during their larval feeding stages and therefore it is of interest to optimize the nonfeeding stages of development, specifically, the postfeeding and pupal stages. The time spent in these stages is thought to be determined by the pupation substrate encountered by the postfeeding larvae. The objective of this study was to determine the effect different pupation substrates have on postfeeding development time, pupation time, and adult emergence success. Five pupation substrates were compared: wood shavings, potting soil, topsoil, sand, and nothing. Postfeeding larvae took longer to reach pupation in the absence of a pupation substrate, although reaching pupation in the shortest time in potting soil and wood shavings. The time spent in the pupal stage was shortest in the absence of a pupation substrate. However, fewer adults emerged when a pupation substrate was not provided. PMID:23575028

  11. Diversity of Mosquito Vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Caxiuanã, Pará, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Confalonieri, Ulisses E. C.; Costa Neto, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a study based on ecological parameters represented by diversity and richness indices applied in a community of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), at the National Forest of Caxiuanã, Melgaço municipality, state of Pará, in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 25,433 specimens of culicids were collected in the study, from five field collection periods, over 10 months, between 2005 and 2006. Specimens were collected in four heights of the forest (ground level, 8 m, 16 m, and 30 m-canopy). Diversity indices of Shannon and Berger-Parker were obtained, and indicators of dominance of species were calculated. The species Culex portesi was dominant in this site, representing about 84% of specimens. Measures of richness and similarity (Jaccard) were obtained for the five strata of time and four height levels. According to the richness estimator abundance-based covered estimator (ACE) the greatest value occurred in April (2006), considering the levels of height to 16 m and on the ground. The estimates obtained have shown quantitative parameters of mosquito populations in the region of the Forest of Caxiuanã. PMID:22997514

  12. Ventral polarization vision in tabanids: horseflies and deerflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) are attracted to horizontally polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horváth, Gábor; Majer, József; Horváth, Loránd; Szivák, Ildikó; Kriska, György

    2008-11-01

    Adult tabanid flies (horseflies and deerflies) are terrestrial and lay their eggs onto marsh plants near bodies of fresh water because the larvae develop in water or mud. To know how tabanids locate their host animals, terrestrial rendezvous sites and egg-laying places would be very useful for control measures against them, because the hematophagous females are primary/secondary vectors of some severe animal/human diseases/parasites. Thus, in choice experiments performed in the field we studied the behavior of tabanids governed by linearly polarized light. We present here evidence for positive polarotaxis, i.e., attraction to horizontally polarized light stimulating the ventral eye region, in both males and females of 27 tabanid species. The novelty of our findings is that positive polarotaxis has been described earlier only in connection with the water detection of some aquatic insects ovipositing directly into water. A further particularity of our discovery is that in the order Diptera and among blood-sucking insects the studied tabanids are the first known species possessing ventral polarization vision and definite polarization-sensitive behavior with known functions. The polarotaxis in tabanid flies makes it possible to develop new optically luring traps being more efficient than the existing ones based on the attraction of tabanids by the intensity and/or color of reflected light.

  13. Conochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia: new and redescribed species and vouchering issues.

    PubMed

    Cranston, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    The presence of the Afro-Australian genus Conochironomus Freeman, 1961 (Diptera: Chironomidae) in Asia has been recognised only informally. An unpublished thesis included Conochironomus from Singapore, and the genus has been keyed from Malaysia without named species. Here, the Sumatran Conochironomus tobaterdecimus (Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980) comb. n. is recorded from Singapore and Thailand. The species is transferred from Sumatendipes Kikuchi & Sasa, 1980, rendering the latter a junior synonym (syn. n.) of Conochironomus Freeman. Conochironomus nuengthai sp. n. and Conochironomus sawngthai sp. n. are described as new to science, based on adult males from Chiang Mai, Thailand. All species conform to existing generic diagnoses for all life stages, with features from male and female genitalia, pupal cephalic tubercles and posterolateral 'spurs' of tergite VIII providing evidence for species distinction. Some larvae are linked to C. tobaterdecimus through molecular barcoding. Variation in other larvae, which clearly belong to Conochironomus and are common throughout Thailand, means that they cannot be segregated to species. Larval habitats include pools in river beds, urban storage reservoirs, drains with moderately high nutrient loadings, and peat swamps. Endochironomus effusus Dutta, 1994 from north-eastern India may be a congener but may differ in adult morphology, thereby precluding formal new combination until discrepancies can be reconciled. Many problems with vouchering taxonomic and molecular material are identified that need to be rectified in the future. PMID:27394867

  14. Feeding and breeding aspects of Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart, 1839) (Diptera, Hippoboscidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Arcoverde, Alessandro Roberto; Rodrigues, André Flávio Soares Ferreira; Daemon, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This study was aimed at making the bionomic aspects of Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart 1839) clear and at providing ways for keeping this diptera under laboratory conditions. A hundred and seventy-four flies were collected, of which 30% did not show hematophagy under laboratory conditions. The others were split into two groups with feeding intervals of 24 and 48 h. The individuals fed within a 24-h interval were found to live longer than the ones fed within a 48-h interval and blood meal time was decreased as feeding interval was increased. In the 48-h-feeding-interval group, females were found to live longer than the males, what could not be shown for the 24-h-feeding-interval group. Copulation was not observed in vitro, even after exposure to pigeon feathers and scraped skin. Data from this study suggest that daily feeding makes it possible to keep P. canariensis under laboratory conditions for a period of time longer than the one found for the 48-h feeding interval. PMID:18791736

  15. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  16. Does Autocthonous Primary Production Influence Oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Container Habitats?

    PubMed Central

    LORENZ, AMANDA R.; WALKER, EDWARD D.; KAUFMAN, MICHAEL G.

    2014-01-01

    Aedes (Finlaya) japonicus japonicus (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) is recently invasive in North America and has expanded its range rapidly since 1998. Throughout its native and expanded range, Ae. j. japonicus larvae are commonly observed in many types of natural and artificial water-filled containers that vary in organic matter content and exposure to sunlight. Larvae are most often found in containers with decaying leaf material or algae, and we postulated that the added autocthonous primary production from algae could be both an important food source for larvae and an influential oviposition attractant to adult Ae. j. japonicus. We tested this hypothesis by placing plastic containers with varied levels of shading to manipulate algal density in the field, and then monitored oviposition by natural populations of Ae. j. japonicus. Over 99% of larvae hatching from eggs laid on the walls of our containers were Ae. j. japonicus, indicating that this species is a dominant colonizer of artificial containers in the study areas. Although full shading treatments effectively reduced algal biomass (significant reduction in chlorophyll a levels), at only one of three sites did this appear to affect Ae. j. japonicus oviposition. We conclude that algae in larval habitats are not a major factor in oviposition choices of adult Ae. j. japonicus females except when in situ primary production is high enough to substantially alter overall organic matter content cues. PMID:23427654

  17. Near Infrared Imaging As a Method of Studying Tsetse Fly (Diptera: Glossinidae) Pupal Development

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Zelda R.; Parker, Andrew G.

    2016-01-01

    Near infrared (NIR) photography and video was investigated as a method for observing and recording intrapuparial development in the tsetse fly Glossina palpalis gambiensis and other Muscomorpha (Cyclorrhapha) Diptera. We showed that NIR light passes through the puparium, permitting images of the true pupae and pharate adult to be captured. Various wavelengths of NIR light from 880 to 1060 nm were compared to study the development of tsetse fly pupae from larviposition to emergence, using time-lapse videos and photographs. This study was carried out to advance our understanding of tsetse pupal development, specifically with the goal of improving a sorting technique which could separate male from female tsetse flies several days before emergence. Separation of the sexes at this stage is highly desirable for operational tsetse sterile insect technique control programmes, as it would permit the easy retention of females for the colony while allowing the males to be handled, irradiated and shipped in the pupal stage when they are less sensitive to vibration. In addition, it presents a new methodology for studying the pupal stage of many coarctate insects for many applications. NIR imaging permits observation of living pupae, allowing the entire development process to be observed without disruption. PMID:27402791

  18. Horizontal transmission of Beauveria bassiana in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) under laboratory and field cage conditions.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Jorge; Campos, Sergio E; Flores, Salvador; Liedo, Pablo; Barrera, Juan F; Villaseñior, Antonio; Montoya, Pablo

    2007-04-01

    The virulence of two products of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (LCPP and Bassianil) on adult Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their effect on the mating performance of infected males was evaluated in laboratory and field cage tests. The horizontal transmission capacity of the fungus during copulation or attempted copulation also was quantified using inoculated males as well as the impact of infection on female fecundity and longevity. Both fungal products were found to be highly virulent (LCPP, mortality = 98.7% at 1 x 10(8) conidia per ml, LT50 = 4.20 d, LC50 = 9.35 x 10(5) conidia per ml; Bassianil, mortality = 99.3% at 1 X 10(8) conidia per ml, LT50 = 4.04 d, LC50 = 2.69 x 10(7) conidia per ml). Mating success of inoculated males was not affected compared with the control group during the 3 d postinoculation. Horizontal transmission to females during the first day was 80.6 and 84.3% through mating and 15.4 and 21.6% through attempts to mate and contact during courtship for the LCPP and Bassianil products, respectively. The fertility of infected females was notably reduced, and longevity did not extend beyond 15 d. Our results suggest the possibility of using sterile flies as fungus vectors in sterile insect technique programs, but the potential benefits and shortcomings of this approach require further investigation. PMID:17461049

  19. Runaway evolution of the male-specific exon of the doublesex gene in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.

    2010-01-01

    In Diptera (Insecta), alternatively spliced male-specific and female-specific products of the doublesex (dsx) gene play key role in regulating development of the adult genital structures from the genital disc. Analysis of the pattern of nucleotide substitution of different domains of the dsx gene in 29 dipteran species showed that, over short evolutionary times, purifying selection predominated on the domain common to both sexes, the female-specific exons, and the and male-specific exon. However, over longer the evolutionary time frames represented by between-family comparisons, the male-specific exon accumulated nonsynonymous substitutions at a much more rapid rate than either the common domain or the female-specific exon. Overall, the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions in the male-specific exon occurred at a significantly greater than linear rate relative to the common domain, whereas the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions in the female-specific exon occurred at less than linear rate relative to the common domain. The evolution of the male-specific exon of dsx thus shows a pattern reminiscent of that seen in the “runaway” evolution of male secondary sexual characters at the morphological level, consistent with the hypothesis that female choice is an important factor in the morphological diversification of insect male genitalia. PMID:21059384

  20. Integrating Studies on Chironomid (Diptera) Biological Diversity and Biological Assessment in the Selenge River Watershed, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayford, B.; Gotov, M.

    2005-05-01

    Biological assessment of Chironomidae (Diptera) from eight affluent streams of Lake Hovsgol, Mongolia is combined with diversity survey data from the Hovsgol region. The streams were sampled twice monthly from June through August of 2002 following methods modified from the U.S. EPA Rapid Bioassessment Protocol. All data were combined and analyzed against physical and habitat data by hierarchical cluster analysis. Physical and habitat features of the streams and their watersheds varied little with the exception of substrate and cattle density. Streams in Borsog valley with the lowest density of cattle also had the lowest diversity and abundance of chironomids; whereas Shagnuul gol, which flows through the valley with the highest density of cattle had much higher abundance and diversity and a very unique chironomid assemblage composed of Trichotanypus sp., Derotanypus sibiricus Kruglova and Chernovskij, Potthastia longimani group, and Acricotopus sp. The results of this study are compared to diversity data for the region. This study has resulted in seven new records of chironomids for Mongolia. However, previous qualitative and semi-quantitative sampling of some of the same sites produced markedly different chironomid communities. It is concluded that diversity and ecological sampling are both necessary for biological assessment.

  1. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss. PMID:22066192

  2. Neotropical Copestylum Macquart (Diptera: Syrphidae) Breeding in Fruits and Flowers, Including 7 New Species

    PubMed Central

    Ricarte, Antonio; Marcos-García, M. Ángeles; Hancock, E. Geoffrey; Rotheray, Graham E.

    2015-01-01

    Ten species of Copestylum (Diptera: Syrphidae) were reared from fruits and flowers in Costa Rica, Ecuador and Trinidad. Seven were new and in this paper, we describe them, their development sites and the third stage larva and/or the puparium of all ten species. One new synonym is proposed, Copestylum pinkusi (Curran) [= Copestylum cinctiventre (Curran)]. Similarities and differences between these new and other Copestylum species, suggest they separate into two groups, referred to as the Vagum and Cinctiventre species groups. Features characterising these groups for both adult and early stages are assessed. Each species was also distinguished using adult and early stage characters. Within the Vagum group, adults were more disparate morphologically than the larval stage; this was reversed in the Cinctiventre group. Adult colour patterns are probably cryptic in function and for disguise. Vagum species have disruptive marks, while the Cinctiventre species have reflective colours. Biologically, the groups are almost distinguished by larval development sites. Vagum species use predominantly fruits and have a larval stage that is relatively generalised in form and habit. Cinctiventre species are confined to developing in flowers and the larva is more specialised. A key to both adult and early stages of all ten species is provided. PMID:26580811

  3. Unveiling of a cryptic Dicranomyia (Idiopyga) from northern Finland using integrative approach (Diptera, Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaunisto, Kari M; Vahtera, Varpu

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The subgenus Idiopyga Savchenko, 1987 is a northern hemisphere group of short-palped crane flies (Diptera, Limoniidae). In the current article we describe a new species, Dicranomyia (I.) boreobaltica Salmela sp.n., and redescribe the male and female post-abdomen of a closely related species, D. (I.) intricata Alexander. A standard DNA barcoding fragment of 5′ region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene of the new species is presented, whilst the K2P minimum distances between the new species and 10 other species of the subgenus were found to range from 5.1 to 15.7 % (mean 11.2 %). Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony and maximum likelihood) based on COI sequences support the identity of the new species and its close relationship with D. (I.) intricata and D. (I.) esbeni (Nielsen). The new species is known from the northern Baltic area of Finland. The new species has been mostly collected from Baltic coastal meadows but an additional relict population is known from a calcareous rich fen that was estimated to have been at sea level circa 600-700 years ago. Dicranomyia (I.) intricata (syn. D. suecica Nielsen) is a Holarctic species, occurring in the north boreal and subarctic vegetation zones in Fennoscandia. PMID:25535487

  4. Methyl eugenol aromatherapy enhances the mating competitiveness of male Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Haq, Ihsan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Cacéres, Carlos; Shelly, Todd E; Hendrichs, Jorge

    2014-09-01

    Males of Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae) are strongly attracted to methyl eugenol (ME) (1,2-dimethoxy-4-(2-propenyl)benzene), a natural compound occurring in variety of plant species. ME-feeding is known to enhance male B. carambolae mating competitiveness 3 days after feeding. Enhanced male mating competitiveness due to ME-feeding can increase the effectiveness of sterile insect technique (SIT) manifolds. However, the common methods for emergence and holding fruit flies prior to field releases do not allow the inclusion of any ME feeding treatment after fly emergence. Therefore this study was planned to assess the effects of ME-aromatherapy in comparison with ME feeding on male B. carambolae mating competitiveness as aromatherapy is pragmatic for fruit flies emergence and holding facilities. Effects of ME application by feeding or by aromatherapy for enhanced mating competitiveness were evaluated 3d after treatments in field cages. ME feeding and ME aromatherapy enhanced male mating competitiveness as compared to untreated males. Males treated with ME either by feeding or by aromatherapy showed similar mating success but mating success was significantly higher than that of untreated males. The results are discussed in the context of application of ME by aromatherapy as a pragmatic approach in a mass-rearing facility and its implications for effectiveness of SIT. PMID:24995839

  5. Conditional embryonic lethality to improve the sterile insect technique in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Schetelig, Marc F; Caceres, Carlos; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Franz, Gerald; Wimmer, Ernst A

    2009-01-01

    Background The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly method used in area-wide pest management of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann; Diptera: Tephritidae). Ionizing radiation used to generate reproductive sterility in the mass-reared populations before release leads to reduction of competitiveness. Results Here, we present a first alternative reproductive sterility system for medfly based on transgenic embryonic lethality. This system is dependent on newly isolated medfly promoter/enhancer elements of cellularization-specifically-expressed genes. These elements act differently in expression strength and their ability to drive lethal effector gene activation. Moreover, position effects strongly influence the efficiency of the system. Out of 60 combinations of driver and effector construct integrations, several lines resulted in larval and pupal lethality with one line showing complete embryonic lethality. This line was highly competitive to wildtype medfly in laboratory and field cage tests. Conclusion The high competitiveness of the transgenic lines and the achieved 100% embryonic lethality causing reproductive sterility without the need of irradiation can improve the efficacy of operational medfly SIT programs. PMID:19173707

  6. Molecular and Morphological Inference of Three Cryptic Species within the Merodon aureus Species Group (Diptera: Syrphidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ačanski, Jelena; Vujić, Ante; Ståhls, Gunilla; Radenković, Snežana; Milić, Dubravka; Obreht Vidaković, Dragana; Đan, Mihajla

    2016-01-01

    The Merodon aureus species group (Diptera: Syrphidae: Eristalinae) comprises a number of different sub-groups and species complexes. In this study we focus on resolving the taxonomic status of the entity previously identified as M. cinereus B, here identified as M. atratus species complex. We used an integrative approach based on morphological descriptions, combined with supporting characters that were obtained from molecular analyses of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene as well as from geometric morphometry of wing and surstylus shapes and environmental niche comparisons. All applied data and methods distinguished and supported three morphologically cryptic species: M. atratus stat. nov., M. virgatus sp. nov. and M. balkanicus sp. nov., which constitute the M. atratus species complex. We present an identification key for the sub-groups and species complexes of the M. aureus species group occurring in Europe, describe the taxa and discuss the utility of the applied methods for species delimitation. The estimated divergence times for the species splits of these taxa coincide with the Pleistocene Günz-Mindel interglaciation and the Great interglaciation (between the Ris and Mindel glacial periods). PMID:27532618

  7. Biting rates and developmental substrates for biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Iquitos, Peru.

    PubMed

    Mercer, David R; Spinelli, Gustavo R; Watts, Douglas M; Tesh, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 periurban and rural sites around Iquitos, Peru, between 17 October 1996 and 26 May 1997. Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi), the principal vector of Oropouche virus, was the most commonly collected species (9,086 flies) with Culicoides insinuatus Wirth & Blanton second (7,229 flies). Although both species were collected at all sampling sites (linear (distance surveyed approximately 25 km), C. paraensis dominated at northern collection sites (> 90%), whereas C. insinuatus prevailed at southern collection sites (> 60%). C. paraensis were collected from human sentinels at a constant rate throughout daylight hours, at similar rates during wet and dry months, and regardless of rainfall. Larval developmental substrates for C. paraensis included decaying platano (Musa x paradisiaca L. [Musaceae]) stems, stumps, flowers, fruits, and debris beneath platano trees as well as from soil beneath a fruiting mamay (Syzygium malaccense Merr. & Perry [Myrtaceae] ) tree and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline. C. insinuatus adults likewise emerged from decaying platano and organic-rich mud along a lake shoreline, but also from debris accumulated in the axils of aguaje (Mauritia flexuosa L. [Palmae]) fronds and decaying citrus fruit. Despite high numbers of biting adults near putative substrates, adults of neither species emerged from other decomposing plant material, soil, phytotelmata, or artificial containers. Because both species of biting midges emerged in high numbers from all parts of platano (ubiquitous in Iquitos), it will be challenging to control them through sanitation. PMID:14765657

  8. A taxonomic revision of genus Labrundinia Fittkau, 1962 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Fonseca-Gessner, Alaide Aparecida; Ekrem, Torbjørn

    2014-01-01

    The species of the genus Labrundinia (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae: Pentaneurini) are revised, described and figured. Keys to known adult males, pupae and larvae are provided. Fourteen previously known species are redescribed, and 25 species from Neotropical region are diagnosed and described as new to science. These species treated are L. amandae sp. n., L. amazonica sp. n., L. becki Beck et Beck, L. carolae sp. n., L. costaricae sp. n., L. fera Roback, L. fiorelinii sp. n., L. fittkaui sp. n., L. fosteri Roback, L. hirsuta Roback, L. gregi sp. n., L. jasoni sp. n., L. johannseni Beck et Beck, L. kogilamae sp. n., L. longipalpis Goetghebuer, L. mayaca sp. n., L. meta Roback, L. multidentata sp. n., L. nathani sp. n., L. neopilosella Beck et Beck, L. nicaraguensis sp. n., L. opela Roback, L. panamensis sp. n., L. parabecki Roback, L. parafittkaui sp. n., L. parareniformis sp. n., L. paravirescens sp. n., L. paulae sp. n., L. pilosella Loew, L. reniformis sp. n., L. robacki sp. n., L. semicurvata sp. n., L. setosa sp. n., L. separata Edwards, L. sofiae sp. n., L. tenata Roback, L. trilucida sp. n., L. unicolor sp. n., L. virescens Beck et Beck. A diagnosis of the genus is presented and morphological differences to closely related genera are discussed. PMID:24871279

  9. Phylogeographic Structure in Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) Populations Inferred With mtDNA Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arce, Raul; Owen, Christopher L; Thomas, Donald B; Barr, Norman B; McPheron, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the Mexican fruit fly, is a major pest of citrus and mango. It has a wide distribution in Mexico and Central America, with infestations occurring in Texas, California, and Florida with origins believed to have been centered in northeastern Mexico. This research evaluates the utility of a sequence-based approach for two mitochondrial (COI and ND6) gene regions. We use these markers to examine genetic diversity, estimate population structure, and identify diagnostic information for A. ludens populations. We analyzed 543 individuals from 67 geographic collections and found one predominant haplotype occurring in the majority of specimens. We observed 68 haplotypes in all and see differences among haplotypes belonging to northern and southern collections. Mexico haplotypes differ by few bases possibly as a result of a recent bottleneck event. In contrast to the hypothesis suggesting northeastern Mexico as the origin of this species, we see that specimens from two southern collections show high genetic variability delineating three mitochondrial groups. These data suggest that Central America is the origin for A. ludens. We show that COI and ND6 are useful for phylogeographic studies of A. ludens. PMID:26470261

  10. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809

  11. First overview of the Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) livestock associated species of Reunion Island, Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Desvars, A; Grimaud, Y; Guis, H; Esnault, O; Allène, X; Gardès, L; Balenghien, T; Baldet, T; Delécolle, J C; Garros, C

    2015-02-01

    This study establishes the first faunistic inventory of livestock associated Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species of Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), where bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease are regularly recorded. Single night-catches were performed at 41 sites using light suction traps at altitudes ranging from 0 to 1525 m, from March to April 2005. Five species were recorded: Culicoides imicola, Culicoides bolitinos, Culicoides enderleini, Culicoides grahamii, and Culicoides kibatiensis, among which at least the first three species are known to be involved in virus transmission to ruminants and equids. This is the first record of C. bolitinos, C. kibatiensis, and C. enderleini on the island. C. imicola was the most abundant species along the sea coast. C. bolitinos was more abundant inland and on two sites on the east coast. C. kibatiensis and C. grahamii were less abundant than the other three species and limited to two foci. Spatial distribution analysis of the different species showed that C. bolitinos, C. enderleini and C. imicola were collected at low altitudes, while the other two species were found at higher altitude. A morphological identification key for adult females and males is given, as well as cytochrome oxydase subunit I sequences. Phylogenetic reconstructions showed a clear divergence between C. bolitinos from Reunion Island and mainland Africa. This monograph will help to identify the Culicoides species in the poorly known entomological fauna of the south-western Indian Ocean region. PMID:25447828

  12. Evaluation of Housekeeping Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Caihua; Yang, Fengshan; Zhu, Xun; Du, Erxia; Yang, Yuting; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The soil insect Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) causes substantial damage to Chinese chive. Suitable reference genes in B. odoriphaga (Bradysia odoriphaga) have yet to be identified for normalizing target gene expression among samples by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). This study was focused on identifying the expression stability of 12 candidate housekeeping genes in B. odoriphaga under various experiment conditions. The final stability ranking of 12 housekeeping genes was obtained with RefFinder, and the most suitable number of reference genes was analyzed by GeNorm. The results revealed that the most appropriate sets of internal controls were RPS15, RPL18, and RPS18 across developmental phases; RPS15, RPL28, and GAPDH across temperatures; RPS15 and RPL18 across pesticide treatments; RSP5, RPS18, and SDHA across photoperiods; ACTb, RPS18, and RPS15 across diets; RPS13 and RPL28 across populations; and RPS15, ACTb, and RPS18 across all samples. The use of the most suitable reference genes versus an arbitrarily selected reference gene resulted in significant differences in the analysis of a target gene expression. HSP23 in B. odoriphaga was found to be up-regulated under low temperatures. These results will contribute to the standardization of qRT-PCR and will also be valuable for further research on gene function in B. odoriphaga. PMID:27399679

  13. Rearing the scuttle fly Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) on industrial compounds: implications on size and lifespan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Megaselia scalaris (Loew, 1866) (Diptera, phoridae) is a cosmopolitan fly species used in forensic science, and has been developed as a laboratory model species. They feed on decaying corpses as well as a wide variety of organic matter, and previous studies have even found them feeding on liquid paint or shoe polish, suggesting the possibility that they could breakdown industrial compounds. To test this possibility, we fed M. scalaris on a variety of industrially obtained materials and found that it was unable to complete its life cycle, dying at the larval stage, with the majority of compounds tested. However, when fed on modeling clay, a substrate that contains starch and inedible compounds, it was able to complete its life cycle. On this diet we observed increased larval development time, decreased pupal development time and a shortened adult life span. Additionally, pupae and adult flies were smaller than control flies. Contrary to previous reports, we find no evidence that M. scalaris is able to survive on modern formulations of liquid paint. PMID:26207192

  14. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements. PMID:27392643

  15. Development of quality control procedures for mass produced and released Bactrocera Philippinensis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for sterile insect technique programs

    SciTech Connect

    Resilva, S.; Obra, G.; Zamora, N.; Gaitan, E.

    2007-03-15

    Quality control procedures for Bactrocera philippinensis Drew and Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) used in sterile insect technique (SIT) programs were established in the mass rearing facility at the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute. Basic studies on pupal irradiation, holding/packaging systems, shipping procedures, longevity, sterility studies, and pupal eye color determination in relation to physiological development at different temperature regimes were investigated. These studies will provide baseline data for the development of quality control protocols for an expansion of B. philippinensis field programs with an SIT component in the future. (author) [Spanish] Los procedimientos de control de calidad para Bactrocera philippinensis Drew y Hancock 1994 (Diptera: Tephritidae) usados en programas de la tecnica de insecto esteril (TIE) fueron establecidos en la facilidad de cria en masa del Instituto Filipino de Investigacion Nuclear. Estudios basicos sobre la irradiacion de las pupas, sistemas de almacenaje/empaque, procedimientos del envio, longevidad, estudios de esterilidad y la determinacion del color de ojo de la pupa en relacion con el desarrollo fisiologico en regimenes diferentes de temperatura fueron investigados. Estos estudios proveeran una linea de informacion basica para el desarrollo de protocolos de control de calidad para una expansion de los programas de campo para B. philippinensis con un componente de TIS en el futuro. (author)

  16. Characterization of irritans mariner-like elements in the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae): evolutionary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Lazhar-Ajroud, Wafa; Caruso, Aurore; Mezghani, Maha; Bouallegue, Maryem; Tastard, Emmanuelle; Denis, Françoise; Rouault, Jacques-Deric; Makni, Hanem; Capy, Pierre; Chénais, Benoît; Makni, Mohamed; Casse, Nathalie

    2016-08-01

    Genomic variation among species is commonly driven by transposable element (TE) invasion; thus, the pattern of TEs in a genome allows drawing an evolutionary history of the studied species. This paper reports in vitro and in silico detection and characterization of irritans mariner-like elements (MLEs) in the genome and transcriptome of Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Eleven irritans MLE sequences have been isolated in vitro using terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) as primers, and 215 have been extracted in silico from the sequenced genome of B. oleae. Additionally, the sequenced genomes of Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) and Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) have been explored to identify irritans MLEs. A total of 129 sequences from B. tryoni have been extracted, while the genome of B. cucurbitae appears probably devoid of irritans MLEs. All detected irritans MLEs are defective due to several mutations and are clustered together in a monophyletic group suggesting a common ancestor. The evolutionary history and dynamics of these TEs are discussed in relation with the phylogenetic distribution of their hosts. The knowledge on the structure, distribution, dynamic, and evolution of irritans MLEs in Bactrocera species contributes to the understanding of both their evolutionary history and the invasion history of their hosts. This could also be the basis for genetic control strategies using transposable elements.

  17. Grazing trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and their paleoenvironmental and paleoecological implications for the fossil record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.; Claps, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Recent trails formed by soldier fly larvae (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) were examined in a shallow pond in the floodplain of a braided river in Jujuy Province, northwestern Argentina. Collected specimens were identified as Stratiomys convexa van der Wulp. Simple, irregularly meandering trails were produced across the surface of a muddy-silty substrate. Since soldier fly larvae extend their caudal respiratory tube to the water-air interface, they are restricted to extremely shallow water. The presence of benthic algal remains within the mouthparts of the larvae suggests a feeding habit of algal grazing. If preserved, these trails would be included in the ichnogenus Helminthopsis, a common element in ancient freshwater ichnofaunas. Helminthopsis preserved in pond and lacustrine margin deposits younger than Late Jurassic is regarded as one possible trace fossil analogue of the trails documented herein. Additionally, it is suggested that larvae of many aquatic Diptera with similar ecologic restrictions are potential tracemakers of Helminthopsis and other simple trails in these environments, particularly in post-Paleozoic deposits. Studies of modern shallow aquatic habitats and reexamination of the ichnologic record stress the importance of fly larvae as tracemakers in lake margin and pond ecosystems. Ecologic requirements of soldier fly larvae make them inappropriate analogues of Helminthopsis tracemakers in deeper water, lacustrine settings. ?? 1996 OPA (Overseas Publishers Association) Amsterdam B.V. Published in The Netherlands by Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH.

  18. An annotated catalogue of the New World Therevidae (Insecta: Diptera: Asiloidea).

    PubMed

    Webb, Donald W; Gaimari, Stephen D; Hauser, Martin; Holston, Kevin C; Metz, Mark A; Irwin, Michael E; Kampmeier, Gail E; Algmin, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The genera and species of New World stiletto flies (Diptera: Therevidae) are listed, with annotated references to nomenclature, synonymies and generic combinations, type localities, the primary type depositories, distribution, and citations for the most recent revisions. The genus Cyclotelus Walker, 1850 (along with its synonyms Furcifera Kröber, 1911, and Epomyia Cole, 1923a) is synonymized under Cerocatus Rondani, 1848. Ectinorhynchus fascipennis Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus rondanii Gaimari, and Phycus rufiventris Kröber, 1911 is given the new name Cerocatus raspii Hauser. Phycus analis Kröber, 1911 and Phycus bicolor Kröber, 1911, are placed as new combinations in Cerocatus Rondani, as are the following species that were previously in combination with Cyclotelus: Furcifera achaeta Malloch, 1932, Cyclotelus badicrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Phycus beckeri Kröber, 1911, Epomyia bella Cole, 1923a, Furcifera braziliana Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus colei Irwin and Lyneborg, 1981a, Thereva diversipes Kröber, 1911, Thereva fascipennis Macquart, 1846a, Psilocephala femorata Kröber, 1911, Furcifera flavipes Kröber, 1928b, Furcifera hardyi Cole, 1960a, Furcifera kroeberi Cole, 1960a, Cyclotelus laetus Walker, 1850, Furcifera longicornis Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus nigroflammus Walker, 1850, Psilocephala nigrifrons Kröber, 1914a, Thereva pictipennis Wiedemann, 1821, Furcifera polita Kröber, 1911, Cyclotelus pruinosus Walker, 1850, Thereva ruficornis Macquart, 1841a, Psilocephala rufiventris Loew, 1869, Thereva scutellaris Walker, 1857, Cyclotelus silacrusus Irwin and Webb, 1992, Cyclotelus socius Walker, 1850 and Psilocephala sumichrasti Bellardi, 1861. Dialineura pallidiventris Malloch, 1932, Melanothereva blackmani Oldroyd, 1968, Thereva maculicornis Jaennicke, 1867 and Thereva notabilis Macquart, 1841a are placed as new combinations in Entesia Oldroyd. Henicomyia amazonica Irwin and Webb, 1992 is a new synonym of Henicomyia flava Lyneborg, 1972

  19. Understanding long-term fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) population dynamics: implications for areawide management.

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Ordano, Mariano; Guillén, Larissa; Rull, Juan

    2012-06-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are devastating agricultural pests worldwide but studies on their long-term population dynamics are sparse. Our aim was to determine the mechanisms driving long-term population dynamics as a prerequisite for ecologically based areawide pest management. The population density of three pestiferous Anastrepha species [Anastrepha ludens (Loew), Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart), and Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)] was determined in grapefruit (Citrus x paradisi Macfad.), mango (Mangifera indica L.), and sapodilla [Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen] orchards in central Veracruz, México, on a weekly basis over an 11-yr period. Fly populations exhibited relatively stable dynamics over time. Population dynamics were mainly driven by a direct density-dependent effect and a seasonal feedback process. We discovered direct and delayed influences that were correlated with both local (rainfall and air temperature) and global climatic variation (El Niño Southern Oscillation [ENSO] and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]), and detected differences among species and location of orchards with respect to the magnitude and nature (linear or nonlinear) of the observed effects, suggesting that highly mobile pest outbreaks become uncertain in response to significant climatic events at both global and local levels. That both NAO and ENSO affected Anastrepha population dynamics, coupled with the high mobility of Anastrepha adults and the discovery that when measured as rate of population change, local population fluctuations exhibited stable dynamics over time, suggests potential management scenarios for the species studied lie beyond the local scale and should be approached from an areawide perspective. Localized efforts, from individual growers will probably prove ineffective, and nonsustainable. PMID:22812118

  20. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide. PMID:25276929

  1. Behavioral and Antennal Responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Volatiles From Fruit Extracts.

    PubMed

    Abraham, John; Zhang, Aijun; Angeli, Sergio; Abubeker, Sitra; Michel, Caryn; Feng, Yan; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest of soft-skinned fruit crops since its introduction into North America and Europe in 2008. Current monitoring strategies use baits based on fermentation products; however, to date, no fruit-based volatile blends attractive to this fly have been identified. This is particularly important because females are able to cut into the epicarp of ripening fruit for oviposition. Thus, we conducted studies to: 1) investigate the behavioral responses of adult D. suzukii to volatiles from blueberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry fruit extracts; 2) identify the antennally active compounds from the most attractive among the tested extracts (raspberry) using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and coupled gas chromatography -electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD); and 3) test a synthetic blend containing the EAD-active compounds identified from raspberry extract on adult attraction. In olfactometer studies, both female and male D. suzukii were attracted to all four fruit extracts. The attractiveness of the fruit extracts ranks as: raspberry ≥ strawberry > blueberry ≥ cherry. GC analyses showed that the fruit extracts emit distinct volatile compounds. In GC-EAD experiments, 11 raspberry extract volatiles consistently elicited antennal responses in D. suzukii. In choice test bioassays, a synthetic EAD-active blend attracted more D. suzukii than a blank control, but was not as attractive as the raspberry extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a behaviorally and antennally active blend of host fruit volatiles attractive to D. suzukii, offering promising opportunities for the development of improved monitoring and behaviourally based management tools. PMID:26313190

  2. Examination of the pest status of corn-infesting Ulidiidae (Diptera).

    PubMed

    Goyal, Gaurav; Nuessly, Gregg S; Seal, Dakshina R; Steck, Gary J; Capinera, John L; Meagher, Robert L

    2012-10-01

    Larvae of 11 species of picture-winged flies (Diptera: Ulididae) are known to feed on corn plants (Zea mays L.) in the western hemisphere. Larvae emerge from eggs deposited in leaf axils and corn silk to feed mostly within ears, but the primary versus secondary nature (i.e., pest status) of their infestation is not known for all of these species. Choice and no-choice tests by using a split-plot design were conducted in greenhouse and field trials to determine the pest status on sweet corn of three of these species found in Florida: Chaetopsis massyla (Walker), Euxesta eluta Loew, and E. stigmatias Loew. The main treatments (uninfested ears and ears experimentally infested with either Spodoptera frugiperda [Lepidoptera: Noctuidae] or E. eluta larvae) were applied at first silk. The subtreatments (C. massyla, E. eluta, or E. stigmatias adults caged on ears) were applied 7 d later and maintained for 10 d. All three fly species were reared from uninfested and experimentally infested ears in both choice and no-choice tests in greenhouse and field trials confirming both primary and secondary modes of ear infestation. More flies of all three species emerged from ears that were preinfested with S. frugiperda compared with uninfested ears suggesting either preference for or greater survival within ears previously infested by S. frugiperda. Fewer E. eluta and E. stigmatias emerged from ears preinfested with E. eluta in no-choice field tests, suggesting that previous infestation by this fly may negatively affect oviposition or that older fly larvae affect survival of neonate larvae. All three species studied here should be considered primary pests that can render unprotected sweet corn ears unmarketable. PMID:23068169

  3. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action. PMID:22928313

  4. [Ecology of stomoxyine fulies (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon. II. Blood meals analysis a nd epidemiologic consequences].

    PubMed

    Mavoungou, J F; Simo, G; Gilles, J; De Stordeur, E; Duvallet, G

    2008-12-01

    To determine the origin of stomoxyine fly bloodmeals (Diptera: Muscidae) in Gabon, 1,021 flies belonging to seven different species of Stomoxys were captured and dissected in the area of Makokou. In total, 798 were not blood-fed and 223 bloodmeals could be gathered on filter paper. The identification of the origin of these meals was made by amplification of mitochondrial Cytb gene, then heteroduplex technique by using the Gambian rat (Cricetomys gambianus) as driver. Samples of fauna, collected on the local market, consisted of 24 mammal and two reptile blood and muscle samples, to which it is necessary to add human samples (27 potential hosts). 19 meals could not be amplified for technical reasons, 65 were amplified, but the acquired patterns corresponded to none of the tested potential hosts. On the 139 identified meals, 55% were taken on the black-fronted duiker (Cephalophus nigrifrons) and 19% on pig. Stomoxys transvittatus, the most abundant species in Makokou, is very opportunistic: 68 % of meals were taken on six different hosts, among whom 48% on the black-fronted duiker and 32% were not identified using the panel of tested hosts. S. xanthomelas took 50% of its meals on the moustached monkey (Cercopithecus cephus) and 7% on human beings. S. calcitrans, species of anthropised areas, took 33% of its meals on human beings. These three species can therefore take bloodmeals on wild fauna and human beings. They could potentially play an important role in the emergence of zoonotic diseases. The four other species took their bloodmeals only on wild fauna and pig, the only example of domestic fauna in this study. This preliminary study must be followed up using a larger number of specimens and by increasing the diversity of the tested potential hosts. PMID:19202770

  5. Pheromone gland development and pheromone production in lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Carolina N; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Bretas, Jorge A C; Eiras, Alvaro E; Hooper, Antony M; Peixoto, Alexandre A; Soares, Maurilio J

    2011-05-01

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) is the main vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. Adult males produce a terpenoid sex pheromone that in some cases also acts as male aggregation pheromone. We have analyzed the correlation between male pheromone production levels and pheromone gland cell morphogenesis after adult emergence from pupae. The abdominal tergites of L. longipalpis males were dissected and fixed in glutaraldehyde for transmission electron microscopy, or the pheromone was extracted in analytical grade hexane. Pheromone chemical analysis was carried out at 3- to 6-h intervals during the first 24 h after emergence and continued daily until the seventh day. All extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography. For the morphological analysis, we used insects collected at 0-6, 9-12, 12-14, and 96 h after emergence. Ultrastructural data from 0- to 6-h-old adult males revealed smaller pheromone gland cells with small microvilli at the end apparatus. Lipid droplets and peroxisomes were absent or very rare, but a large number of mitochondria could be seen. Lipid droplets started to appear in the gland cells cytoplasm approximately 9 h after adult emergence, and their number and size increased with age, together with the presence of several peroxisomes, suggesting a role for these organelles in pheromone biosynthesis. At 12-15 h after emergence, the lipid droplets were mainly distributed near the microvilli but were smaller than those in mature older males (4 d old). Pheromone biosynthesis started around 12 h after emergence and increased continuously during the first 3 d, stabilizing thereafter, coinciding with the period when males are more able to attract females. PMID:21661306

  6. Behavioral Response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae to Synthetic and Natural Attractants and Repellents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Paula V; González Audino, Paola A; Masuh, Héctor M

    2015-11-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the key vector of three important arboviral diseases: dengue, yellow fever, and chikungunya. Immature stages of this species inhabit human-made containers placed in residential landscapes. In this study, we evaluated a few compounds in a sensitive behavioral assay with Ae. aegypti larvae. The orientation of larvae to different compounds was surveyed using a performance index (PI). The PI represents the response to each odorant, where a value of +1 is indicative of full attraction and -1 represents complete repulsion. The widely used insect repellent N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide elicited a significantly negative PI, as did acetophenone and indole. A yeast extract, a known food source, elicited a significantly positive PI, as did 2-methylphenol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-methylphenol, and fish food. On the other hand, no response was observed for the essential oil of Eucalyptus grandis x Eucalyptus camaldulensis at the concentration evaluated. Pretreatment of larvae with N-ethylmaleimide and ablation of the antennae resulted in a suppression of behavioral responses. The overall mobility of ablated larvae was indistinguishable from unablated controls, and absence of any visible locomotor dysfunction was observed. This work is a contribution to the study of the chemical ecology of disease vectors with the aim of developing more efficient tools for surveillance and control.Natural and synthetic compounds attractive to Ae. aegypti larvae should be incorporated into integrated pest management programs through the use of baited traps or by improving the efficacy of larvicides commonly used in control campaigns. PMID:26352935

  7. Worthy of their name: how floods drive outbreaks of two major floodwater mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Berec, Ludĕk; Gelbic, Ivan; Sebesta, Oldrich

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how climate variables drive seasonal dynamics of mosquito populations is critical to mitigating negative impacts of potential outbreaks, including both nuisance effects and risk of mosquito-borne infectious disease. Here, we identify climate variables most affecting seasonal dynamics of two major floodwater mosquitoes, Aedes vexans (Meigen, 1830) and Aedes sticticus (Meigen, 1838) (Diptera: Culicidae), along the lower courses of the Dyje River, at the border between the Czech Republic and Austria. Monthly trap counts of both floodwater mosquitoes varied both across sites and years. Despite this variability, both models used to fit the observed data at all sites (and especially that for Ae. sticticus) and site-specific models fitted the observed data quite well. The most important climate variables we identified-temperature and especially flooding-were driving seasonal dynamics of both Aedes species. We suggest that flooding determines seasonal peaks in the monthly mosquito trap counts while temperature modulates seasonality in these counts. Hence, floodwater mosquitoes indeed appear worthy of their name. Moreover, the climate variables we considered for modeling were able reasonably to predict mosquito trap counts in the month ahead. Our study can help in planning flood management; timely notification of people, given that these mosquitoes are a real nuisance in this region; public health policy management to mitigate risk from such mosquito-borne diseases as that caused in humans by the Tahyna virus; and anticipating negative consequences of climate change, which are expected only to worsen unless floods, or the mosquitoes themselves, are satisfactorily managed. PMID:24605456

  8. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal. PMID:22576856

  9. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  10. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.

    PubMed

    Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons. PMID:24612968

  11. Feeding and breeding aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Salem, A.; Franc, M.; Jacquiet, P.; Bouhsira, E.; Liénard, E.

    2012-01-01

    Bionomic aspects of Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) were studied under laboratory conditions. For this reason, laboratory-rearing techniques were optimized at the National Veterinary School of Toulouse. The colony was maintained at 25 ± 2 °C, 50 ± 10% RH under a 12-hour light cycle and observed daily. The size of each adult cage is 30 x 30 x 30 cm and designed to house about 500-1,000 flies. The average cycle from egg to adult was 19.2 ± 1.7 days. The mean longevity of imagos was 9.3 ± 5.8 days and not significantly different between sexes. Stable flies were split into two groups; the first was fed with blood, honey and water, and the second was fed only with honey and water. The mean weight of a blood meal was 11.1 ± 3.8 mg with no significant differences between males and females. The mean longevity of non-blood fed flies was found to be significantly higher (10.4 ± 3.9 days) than those fed with blood. The maximum lifespan was shorter for non-blood fed males (17 days) and females (18 days) than for those fed with blood (females: 24 days, males: 23 days). Under these laboratory conditions, S. calcitrans rearing was successfully established. In the end, the number of expected generations of S. calcitrans and the net reproduction rate were estimated to be 11.8 generations/year and 16.2 living females per female respectively. PMID:23193515

  12. Essential oils and their compounds as Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvicides: review.

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2014-02-01

    This review aims to describe essential oils and their constituent compounds that exhibit bioactivity against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae, the immature stage of the primary vector of dengue. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching on major databases. Our literature review revealed that 361 essential oils from 269 plant species have been tested for their larvicidal activity. More than 60 % of these essential oils were considered active (LC50<100 mg/L), and the majority of these active oils were derived from species belonging to Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae, and Rutaceae. The most active essential oils exhibited effective concentrations comparable with the dosage recommended for the use of temephos in container breeding. Approximately 27 % of the plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were collected in Brazil. Essential oils rich in phenylpropanoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be the most active. When the isolates were tested, phenylpropanoids and monoterpene hydrocarbons were the most active compound classes. We describe the plant parts used and the major constituents of the essential oils. In addition, we discuss factors affecting the activity (such as plant parts, age of the plant, chemotypes, larval source, and methods used), structure-activity relationships, and mechanisms of action of the essential oils and their compounds. Essential oils have been widely investigated and show high larvicidal activity against A. aegypti. This review reveals that the essential oils are effective alternatives for the production of larvicides, which can be used in vector-borne disease control programmes. PMID:24265058

  13. Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapointe, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies.

  14. Development of microsatellites for population genetic analyses of Tabanus nigrovittatus (Diptera: Tabanidae).

    PubMed

    Husseneder, Claudia; Delatte, Jennifer R; Krumholt, Jeremy; Foil, Lane D

    2014-01-01

    The greenhead horse fly, Tabanus nigrovittatus Macquart (Diptera: Tabanidae), is frequently found in coastal marshes of the Eastern United States. The females are autogenous (i.e., able to develop eggs without a bloodmeal),but they become a considerable pest to both humans and animals when they pursue a source of blood protein to produce additional eggs. In this study, we identified microsatellite markers to provide first insight into the population genetic structure of this notorious pest species. Because no prior genomic information was available for T. nigrovittatus, we used direct shotgun pyrosequencing technology to characterize microsatellite loci. Approximately 10% of the 105,634 short sequence reads generated from random genome sampling contained microsatellites with at least four repeats ofdi-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexamers. Primers were designed for 36 different microsatellite loci with di-, tri-, and tetramer repeat units. After optimization, 20 primer pairs yielded consistent PCR products and were validated for population genetic application in six populations in Western Louisiana Ten loci were polymorphic with 2-9 alleles per locus and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.20 across populations. The horse fly populations from different trap sites (distance 50-144 km) or years of collection (2010 vs 2011) were genetically distinct from each other (FST = 0.05-0.39) and genetically diverse (gene diversity: 0.24-0.37) but considerably inbred (FIS: 0.22-0.47), with high mean relatedness among individuals (r = 0.27), suggesting the capture of a high percentage of sisters at the same trap location who were progeny of incest. PMID:24605460

  15. Export of commercial Hass avocados from Argentina poses negligible risk of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) infestation.

    PubMed

    Villagrán, M Elvira; Willink, Eduardo; Vera, M Teresa; Follett, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Argentina has to meet quarantine restrictions because of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to export 'Hass' avocados, Persea americana Miller, to certain countries. Hass avocado at the hard, mature green stage is potentially a conditional nonhost for C. capitata and could open export markets without the need for a quarantine treatment. Trapping data from 1998 to 2006 showed that C. capitata was present in avocado orchards, particularly early in the harvest season. The host status of hard, mature green Hass avocado to C. capitata was evaluated using laboratory and field cage tests under no-choice conditions and by assessing natural levels of infestation in commercially harvested fruit from the main avocado production area. In total, 2,250 hard, mature green avocado fruit were exposed to 11,250 gravid females for 24 or 48 h after harvest in laboratory or field cages, and no infestations were found. During 11 seasons, 5,949 fruit in total were sampled from the trees and 992 fruit were collected from the ground, and in none of them were any live or dead fruit fly larvae found. Inspection of >198,000 commercial fruit at the packinghouse from 1998 to 2011 showed no symptoms of fruit fly infestation. These data exceed the published standards for determination of nonhost status, as well as the Probit 9 standard for development of quarantine treatments. Hass avocado harvested at the hard, mature green stage was not infested by C. capitata and seems to pose a negligible quarantine risk. As a consequence, no postharvest treatment or other quarantine actions should be required by importing countries. PMID:22928296

  16. Insecticide resistance in two Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) strains from Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bisset, J A; Marín, R; Rodríguez, M M; Severson, D W; Ricardo, Y; French, L; Díaz, M; Pérez, O

    2013-03-01

    Dengue (family Flaviridae, genus Flavivirus, DENV) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) are presently important public health problems in Costa Rica. The primary strategy for disease control is based on reducing population densities of the main mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). This is heavily dependent on use of chemical insecticides, thus the development of resistance is a frequent threat to control program effectiveness. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insecticide resistance and the metabolic resistance mechanisms involved in two Ae. aegypti strains collected from two provinces (Puntarenas and Limon) in Costa Rica. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines and resistance in adults was measured through standard bottle assays. The activities of beta-esterases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST), were assayed through synergists and biochemical tests, wherein the threshold criteria for each enzyme was established using the susceptible Rockefeller strain. The results showed higher resistance levels to the organophosphate (OP) temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin in larvae. The efficacy of commercial formulations of temephos in controlling Ae. aegypti populations was 100% mortality up to 11 and 12 d posttreatment with daily water replacements in test containers. Temephos and deltamethrin resistance in larvae were associated with high esterase activity, but not to cytochrome P450 monooxygenase or GST activities. Adult mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin, and susceptible to bendiocarb, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin. Because temephos and deltamethrin resistance are emerging at the studied sites, alternative insecticides should be considered. The insecticides chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin could be good candidates to use as alternatives for Ae. aegypti control. PMID:23540124

  17. Developmental Acclimation of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) and Its Effect on Diapause and Winter Stress Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Anna K; Loeb, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the influence of developmental conditions on adult morphology, reproductive arrest, and winter stress tolerance of the invasive pest of small fruit, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Cooler rearing temperatures (15 °C) resulted in larger, darker "winter morph" (WM) adults than "summer morph" flies reared at optimal temperatures (25 °C). Abdominal pigmentation scores and body size measurements of laboratory-reared WMs were similar to those of D. suzukii females captured in late autumn in Geneva, NY. We evaluated reproductive diapause and cold hardiness in live-captured D. suzukii WMs as well as WMs reared in the laboratory from egg to adult under four developmental conditions: static cool temperatures (SWM; 15 °C, 12:12 h L:D), fluctuating temperatures (FWM; 20 °C L: 10 °C D, 12:12 h L:D), and static cool temperatures (15 °C, 12:12 h L:D) followed by posteclosion chilling (CWM; 10 °C) under short-day (SD; 12:12 h L:D) or long-day photoperiods (LD; 16:8 h L:D). Live-captured D. suzukii WMs and CWMs had longer preoviposition times than newly eclosed summer morph adults, indicating a reproductive diapause that was not observed in SWMs or FWMs. Additionally, recovery after acute freeze stress was not different between CWM-SD females and live captured WM females. More 7-d-old CWMs survived 0, -1, or - 3 °C freeze stress than summer morph adults, and more CWM-SD adults survived -3 °C freeze stress than CWM-LD adults. Survival after -3 °C freeze stress was significantly higher in diapausing, CWMs than nondiapausing SWMs and FWMs. PMID:27412194

  18. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF DROSOPHILA SUZUKII (DIPTERA: DROSOPHILIDAE) IN BELGIUM IN 2013.

    PubMed

    Belien, T; Thys, T; Fassotte, C; Walrant, C; Tomme, M; Bolen, M; Bylemans, D

    2014-01-01

    The vinegar fly Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera Drosophilidae), spotted wing drosophila, is a new invasive fruit pest that recently became established in Europe. Unlike other fruit flies that typically only infest overripe and rotten fruit, D. suzukii females oviposit in ripe fruit leading to considerable economic losses of fruit during production. In 2011 and 2012 D. suzukii was detected at several places in Belgium. In 2013, a large-scale monitoring in frame of the project "FLY ALERT" (FOD) was executed using traps with liquid attractant (apple cider vinegar) at more than 100 locations across Belgium during the whole fruit growing season. At 16 locations we also compared the efficacy of a 'bottle type' trap with a 'cup type' trap. The results show that D. suzukii has expanded its distribution in Belgium. Remarkably, in 2013 as well as in 2012 the first detections were made only in the second part of the growing season (August) and the populations reached their peak only at the very end of the season (November). In the bottle type trap the first flies were caught 2-3 weeks earlier than in the cup type trap. In addition, also the population peaks were on average 1 week earlier when monitored with the bottle trap compared to when monitored with the cup trap. In 2014, after an exceptional mild winter adult D. suzukii flies were continuously detected throughout the winter and early spring. The implications of these findings for the phenology of D. suzukii in the Northwest climate region of Europe are discussed. PMID:26084094

  19. Field evaluation of potential fruit-derived lures for Anastrepha obliqua (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Toledo, Jorge; Malo, Edi A; Cruz-López, Leopoldo; Rojas, Julio C

    2009-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that a nine-component blend (ethyl butyrate, isopropyl butyrate, hexan-1-ol, propyl butyrate, isobutyl butyrate, ethyl hexanoate, isopentyl butyrate, ethyl benzoate, and ethyl octanoate) isolated from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) fruit are attractive to both sexes of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in laboratory and field cage tests. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of traps baited with the nine-component blend in capturing wild A. obliqua in a mango, Mangifera indica L. variety Ataulfo) orchard. In addition, we tested other S. mombin-derived lures to determine whether any of these effectively mimic the nine-component blend in attracting A. obliqua. In all trials, we compared the attractiveness of the S. mombin-derived lures against hydrolyzed protein, the standard bait for monitoring A. obliqua. We found that, in some trials, there was no difference in the number of females caught by traps baited with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. In other trials, traps baited with hydrolyzed protein captured more females than traps baited with the nine-component blend. For males, in general there were no differences in the number of flies caught by traps baited either with the nine-component blend or with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with other S. mombin-derived lures captured fewer A. obliqua than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. Traps baited with S. mombin-derived lures caught fewer species of nontarget tephritid flies and nontarget insects than traps baited with hydrolyzed protein. PMID:20069833

  20. Inheritance of Resistance to Deltamethrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) From Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, María Magdalena; Hurtado, Daymi; Severson, David W; Bisset, Juan A

    2014-11-01

    The development of pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti (L) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a serious concern because major A. aegypti control programs are predominantly based on pyrethroid use during epidemic disease outbreaks. Research about the genetic basis for pyrethroid resistance and how it is transmitted among mosquito populations is needed. The objective of this study was to determine how deltamethrin resistance is inherited in the Cuban A. aegypti-resistant reference strain. Here, a field population of A. aegypti from Santiago de Cuba (SAN-F14), subjected to 14 generations of selection for high deltamethrin resistance level (91.25×), was used to prepare reciprocal F1 and backcross progeny with the insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain. Bioassays with larvae were performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. The activities of metabolic enzymes were assayed through synergist and biochemical tests. The null hypothesis of the parallelism test between the two probit regression lines of the reciprocal F1 (susceptible females × resistant males and vice versa) was not rejected at the 5% significance level (P = 0.42), indicating autosomal inheritance. The LC50 response of both F1 progenies to deltamethrin was elevated but less than the highly resistant SAN-F14 strain. DLC values for the F1 progenies were 0.91 and 0.87, respectively, suggesting that deltamethrin resistance in the SAN-F14 strain is inherited as an autosomal incompletely dominant trait, involving at least two factors, which implies a faster development of deltamethrin resistance in larvae and lost product effectiveness. Metabolic enzymes including esterases and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases but not glutathione-S-transferases were involved in deltamethrin resistance in larvae. PMID:26309309